WorldWideScience

Sample records for high performance medical

  1. Mediaprocessors in medical imaging for high performance and flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managuli, Ravi; Kim, Yongmin

    2002-05-01

    New high performance programmable processors, called mediaprocessors, have been emerging since the early 1990s for various digital media applications, such as digital TV, set-top boxes, desktop video conferencing, and digital camcorders. Modern mediaprocessors, e.g., TI's TMS320C64x and Hitachi/Equator Technologies MAP-CA, can offer high performance utilizing both instruction-level and data-level parallelism. During this decade, with continued performance improvement and cost reduction, we believe that the mediaprocessors will become a preferred choice in designing imaging and video systems due to their flexibility in incorporating new algorithms and applications via programming and faster-time-to-market. In this paper, we will evaluate the suitability of these mediaprocessors in medical imaging. We will review the core routines of several medical imaging modalities, such as ultrasound and DR, and present how these routines can be mapped to mediaprocessors and their resultant performance. We will analyze the architecture of several leading mediaprocessors. By carefully mapping key imaging routines, such as 2D convolution, unsharp masking, and 2D FFT, to the mediaprocessor, we have been able to achieve comparable (if not better) performance to that of traditional hardwired approaches. Thus, we believe that future medical imaging systems will benefit greatly from these advanced mediaprocessors, offering significantly increased flexibility and adaptability, reducing the time-to-market, and improving the cost/performance ratio compared to the existing systems while meeting the high computing requirements.

  2. Longitudinal analysis of high-technology medical services and hospital financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengul, Ferhat D; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Ozaydin, Bunyamin; Patrician, Patricia A; OʼConnor, Stephen J

    U.S. hospitals have been investing in high-technology medical services as a strategy to improve financial performance. Despite the interest in high-tech medical services, there is not much information available about the impact of high-tech services on financial performance. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of high-tech medical services on financial performance of U.S. hospitals by using the resource-based view of the firm as a conceptual framework. Fixed-effects regressions with 2 years lagged independent variables using a longitudinal panel sample of 3,268 hospitals (2005-2010). It was hypothesized that hospitals with rare or large numbers (breadth) of high-tech medical services will experience better financial performance. Fixed effects regression results supported the link between a larger breadth of high-tech services and total margin, but only among not-for-profit hospitals. Both breadth and rareness of high-tech services were associated with high total margin among not-for-profit hospitals. Neither breadth nor rareness of high-tech services was associated with operating margin. Although breadth and rareness of high-tech services resulted in lower expenses per inpatient day among not-for-profit hospitals, these lower costs were offset by lower revenues per inpatient day. Enhancing the breadth of high-tech services may be a legitimate organizational strategy to improve financial performance, especially among not-for-profit hospitals. Hospitals may experience increased productivity and efficiency, and therefore lower inpatient operating costs, as a result of newer technologies. However, the negative impact on operating revenue should caution hospital administrators about revenue reducing features of these technologies, which may be related to the payer mix that these technologies may attract. Therefore, managers should consider both the cost and revenue implications of these technologies.

  3. An empirical assessment of high-performing medical groups: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, Stephen M; Schmittdiel, Julie; Wang, Margaret C; Li, Rui; Gillies, Robin R; Casalino, Lawrence P; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Rundall, Thomas G

    2005-08-01

    The performance of medical groups is receiving increased attention. Relatively little conceptual or empirical work exists that examines the various dimensions of medical group performance. Using a national database of 693 medical groups, this article develops a scorecard approach to assessing group performance and presents a theory-driven framework for differentiating between high-performing versus low-performing medical groups. The clinical quality of care, financial performance, and organizational learning capability of medical groups are assessed in relation to environmental forces, resource acquisition and resource deployment factors, and a quality-centered culture. Findings support the utility of the performance scorecard approach and identification of a number of key factors differentiating high-performing from low-performing groups including, in particular, the importance of a quality-centered culture and the requirement of outside reporting from third party organizations. The findings hold a number of important implications for policy and practice, and the framework presented provides a foundation for future research.

  4. A high performance parallel approach to medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.; Stytz, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Research into medical imaging using general purpose parallel processing architectures is described and a review of the performance of previous medical imaging machines is provided. Results demonstrating that general purpose parallel architectures can achieve performance comparable to other, specialized, medical imaging machine architectures is presented. A new back-to-front hidden-surface removal algorithm is described. Results demonstrating the computational savings obtained by using the modified back-to-front hidden-surface removal algorithm are presented. Performance figures for forming a full-scale medical image on a mesh interconnected multiprocessor are presented

  5. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Sah, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species.

  6. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Sah, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  7. High performance graphics processors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldwasser, S.M.; Reynolds, R.A.; Talton, D.A.; Walsh, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a family of high- performance graphics processors with special hardware for interactive visualization of 3D human anatomy. The basic architecture expands to multiple parallel processors, each processor using pipelined arithmetic and logical units for high-speed rendering of Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. User-selectable display alternatives include multiple 2D axial slices, reformatted images in sagittal or coronal planes and shaded 3D views. Special facilities support applications requiring color-coded display of multiple datasets (such as radiation therapy planning), or dynamic replay of time- varying volumetric data (such as cine-CT or gated MR studies of the beating heart). The current implementation is a single processor system which generates reformatted images in true real time (30 frames per second), and shaded 3D views in a few seconds per frame. It accepts full scale medical datasets in their native formats, so that minimal preprocessing delay exists between data acquisition and display

  8. High performance 3D adaptive filtering for DSP based portable medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenbach, Olivier; Ali, Murtaza; Wainwright, Ian; Nadeski, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Portable medical imaging devices have proven valuable for emergency medical services both in the field and hospital environments and are becoming more prevalent in clinical settings where the use of larger imaging machines is impractical. Despite their constraints on power, size and cost, portable imaging devices must still deliver high quality images. 3D adaptive filtering is one of the most advanced techniques aimed at noise reduction and feature enhancement, but is computationally very demanding and hence often cannot be run with sufficient performance on a portable platform. In recent years, advanced multicore digital signal processors (DSP) have been developed that attain high processing performance while maintaining low levels of power dissipation. These processors enable the implementation of complex algorithms on a portable platform. In this study, the performance of a 3D adaptive filtering algorithm on a DSP is investigated. The performance is assessed by filtering a volume of size 512x256x128 voxels sampled at a pace of 10 MVoxels/sec with an Ultrasound 3D probe. Relative performance and power is addressed between a reference PC (Quad Core CPU) and a TMS320C6678 DSP from Texas Instruments.

  9. Perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students predicts academic performance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Wagner, Josefin; Brüheim, Linda; Voltmer, Edgar

    2017-12-16

    Medical students are exposed to high amounts of stress. Stress and poor academic performance can become part of a vicious circle. In order to counteract this circularity, it seems important to better understand the relationship between stress and performance during medical education. The most widespread stress questionnaire designed for use in Medical School is the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" (PMSS). It addresses a wide range of stressors, including workload, competition, social isolation and financial worries. Our aim was to examine the relation between the perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students and academic performance. We measured Medical School stress using the PMSS at two different time points (at the end of freshman year and at the end of sophomore year) and matched stress scores together with age and gender to the first medical examination (M1) grade of the students (n = 456). PMSS scores from 2 and 14 months before M1 proved to be significant predictors for medical students' M1 grade. Age and gender also predict academic performance, making older female students with high stress scores a potential risk group for entering the vicious circle of stress and poor academic performance. PMSS sum scores 2 and 14 months before the M1 exam seem to have an independent predictive validity for medical students' M1 grade. More research is needed to identify potential confounders.

  10. The Australian Medical Schools Assessment Collaboration: benchmarking the preclinical performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Deborah A; Canny, Ben J; Rothnie, Imogene P; Wilson, Ian G; Barnard, John; Davies, Llewelyn

    2015-02-02

    To report the level of participation of medical schools in the Australian Medical Schools Assessment Collaboration (AMSAC); and to measure differences in student performance related to medical school characteristics and implementation methods. Retrospective analysis of data using the Rasch statistical model to correct for missing data and variability in item difficulty. Linear model analysis of variance was used to assess differences in student performance. 6401 preclinical students from 13 medical schools that participated in AMSAC from 2011 to 2013. Rasch estimates of preclinical basic and clinical science knowledge. Representation of Australian medical schools and students in AMSAC more than doubled between 2009 and 2013. In 2013 it included 12 of 19 medical schools and 68% of medical students. Graduate-entry students scored higher than students entering straight from school. Students at large schools scored higher than students at small schools. Although the significance level was high (P performance. The effect on performance of multiple assessments compared with the test items as part of a single end-of-year examination was negligible. The variables investigated explain only 12% of the total variation in student performance. An increasing number of medical schools are participating in AMSAC to monitor student performance in preclinical sciences against an external benchmark. Medical school characteristics account for only a small part of overall variation in student performance. Student performance was not affected by the different methods of administering test items.

  11. The Effect of Plan Type and Comprehensive Medication Reviews on High-Risk Medication Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodovar, Armando Silva; Axon, David Rhys; Coleman, Ashley M; Warholak, Terri; Nahata, Milap C

    2018-05-01

    In 2007, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) instituted a star rating system using performance outcome measures to assess Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) and Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) providers. To assess the relationship between 2 performance outcome measures for Medicare insurance providers, comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs), and high-risk medication use. This cross-sectional study included Medicare Part C and Part D performance data from the 2014 and 2015 calendar years. Performance data were downloaded per Medicare contract from the CMS. We matched Medicare insurance provider performance data with the enrollment data of each contract. Mann Whitney U and Spearman rho tests and a hierarchical linear regression model assessed the relationship between provider characteristics, high-risk medication use, and CMR completion rate outcome measures. In 2014, an inverse correlation between CMR completion rate and high-risk medication use was identified among MAPD plan providers. This relationship was further strengthened in 2015. No correlation was detected between the CMR completion rate and high-risk medication use among PDP plan providers in either year. A multivariate regression found an inverse association with high-risk medication use among MAPD plan providers in comparison with PDP plan providers in 2014 (beta = -0.358, P plan providers and higher CMR completion rates were associated with lower use of high-risk medications among beneficiaries. No outside funding supported this study. Silva Almodovar reports a fellowship funded by SinfoniaRx, Tucson, Arizona, during the time of this study. The other authors have nothing to disclose.

  12. High-performance floating-point image computing workstation for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Karl S.; Wong, Gilman K.; Kim, Yongmin

    1990-07-01

    The medical imaging field relies increasingly on imaging and graphics techniques in diverse applications with needs similar to (or more stringent than) those of the military, industrial and scientific communities. However, most image processing and graphics systems available for use in medical imaging today are either expensive, specialized, or in most cases both. High performance imaging and graphics workstations which can provide real-time results for a number of applications, while maintaining affordability and flexibility, can facilitate the application of digital image computing techniques in many different areas. This paper describes the hardware and software architecture of a medium-cost floating-point image processing and display subsystem for the NeXT computer, and its applications as a medical imaging workstation. Medical imaging applications of the workstation include use in a Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS), in multimodal image processing and 3-D graphics workstation for a broad range of imaging modalities, and as an electronic alternator utilizing its multiple monitor display capability and large and fast frame buffer. The subsystem provides a 2048 x 2048 x 32-bit frame buffer (16 Mbytes of image storage) and supports both 8-bit gray scale and 32-bit true color images. When used to display 8-bit gray scale images, up to four different 256-color palettes may be used for each of four 2K x 2K x 8-bit image frames. Three of these image frames can be used simultaneously to provide pixel selectable region of interest display. A 1280 x 1024 pixel screen with 1: 1 aspect ratio can be windowed into the frame buffer for display of any portion of the processed image or images. In addition, the system provides hardware support for integer zoom and an 82-color cursor. This subsystem is implemented on an add-in board occupying a single slot in the NeXT computer. Up to three boards may be added to the NeXT for multiple display capability (e

  13. Platform for Automated Real-Time High Performance Analytics on Medical Image Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William J; Gabr, Refaat E; Tefera, Getaneh B; Pednekar, Amol S; Vaughn, Matthew W; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2018-03-01

    Biomedical data are quickly growing in volume and in variety, providing clinicians an opportunity for better clinical decision support. Here, we demonstrate a robust platform that uses software automation and high performance computing (HPC) resources to achieve real-time analytics of clinical data, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. We used the Agave application programming interface to facilitate communication, data transfer, and job control between an MRI scanner and an off-site HPC resource. In this use case, Agave executed the graphical pipeline tool GRAphical Pipeline Environment (GRAPE) to perform automated, real-time, quantitative analysis of MRI scans. Same-session image processing will open the door for adaptive scanning and real-time quality control, potentially accelerating the discovery of pathologies and minimizing patient callbacks. We envision this platform can be adapted to other medical instruments, HPC resources, and analytics tools.

  14. High-performing trauma teams: frequency of behavioral markers of a shared mental model displayed by team leaders and quality of medical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Westli, Heidi Kristina; Espevik, Roar; Wisborg, Torben; Brattebø, Guttorm

    2017-11-10

    High quality team leadership is important for the outcome of medical emergencies. However, the behavioral marker of leadership are not well defined. The present study investigated frequency of behavioral markers of shared mental models (SMM) on quality of medical management. Training video recordings of 27 trauma teams simulating emergencies were analyzed according to team -leader's frequency of shared mental model behavioral markers. The results showed a positive correlation of quality of medical management with leaders sharing information without an explicit demand for the information ("push" of information) and with leaders communicating their situational awareness (SA) and demonstrating implicit supporting behavior. When separating the sample into higher versus lower performing teams, the higher performing teams had leaders who displayed a greater frequency of "push" of information and communication of SA and supportive behavior. No difference was found for the behavioral marker of team initiative, measured as bringing up suggestions to other teammembers. The results of this study emphasize the team leader's role in initiating and updating a team's shared mental model. Team leaders should also set expectations for acceptable interaction patterns (e.g., promoting information exchange) and create a team climate that encourages behaviors, such as mutual performance monitoring, backup behavior, and adaptability to enhance SMM.

  15. Performance Management of High Performance Computing for Medical Image Processing in Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shunxing; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2016-02-27

    Adopting high performance cloud computing for medical image processing is a popular trend given the pressing needs of large studies. Amazon Web Services (AWS) provide reliable, on-demand, and inexpensive cloud computing services. Our research objective is to implement an affordable, scalable and easy-to-use AWS framework for the Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST). JIST is a plugin for Medical-Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization (MIPAV) that provides a graphical pipeline implementation allowing users to quickly test and develop pipelines. JIST is DRMAA-compliant allowing it to run on portable batch system grids. However, as new processing methods are implemented and developed, memory may often be a bottleneck for not only lab computers, but also possibly some local grids. Integrating JIST with the AWS cloud alleviates these possible restrictions and does not require users to have deep knowledge of programming in Java. Workflow definition/management and cloud configurations are two key challenges in this research. Using a simple unified control panel, users have the ability to set the numbers of nodes and select from a variety of pre-configured AWS EC2 nodes with different numbers of processors and memory storage. Intuitively, we configured Amazon S3 storage to be mounted by pay-for-use Amazon EC2 instances. Hence, S3 storage is recognized as a shared cloud resource. The Amazon EC2 instances provide pre-installs of all necessary packages to run JIST. This work presents an implementation that facilitates the integration of JIST with AWS. We describe the theoretical cost/benefit formulae to decide between local serial execution versus cloud computing and apply this analysis to an empirical diffusion tensor imaging pipeline.

  16. Performance management of high performance computing for medical image processing in Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shunxing; Damon, Stephen M.; Landman, Bennett A.; Gokhale, Aniruddha

    2016-03-01

    Adopting high performance cloud computing for medical image processing is a popular trend given the pressing needs of large studies. Amazon Web Services (AWS) provide reliable, on-demand, and inexpensive cloud computing services. Our research objective is to implement an affordable, scalable and easy-to-use AWS framework for the Java Image Science Toolkit (JIST). JIST is a plugin for Medical- Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization (MIPAV) that provides a graphical pipeline implementation allowing users to quickly test and develop pipelines. JIST is DRMAA-compliant allowing it to run on portable batch system grids. However, as new processing methods are implemented and developed, memory may often be a bottleneck for not only lab computers, but also possibly some local grids. Integrating JIST with the AWS cloud alleviates these possible restrictions and does not require users to have deep knowledge of programming in Java. Workflow definition/management and cloud configurations are two key challenges in this research. Using a simple unified control panel, users have the ability to set the numbers of nodes and select from a variety of pre-configured AWS EC2 nodes with different numbers of processors and memory storage. Intuitively, we configured Amazon S3 storage to be mounted by pay-for- use Amazon EC2 instances. Hence, S3 storage is recognized as a shared cloud resource. The Amazon EC2 instances provide pre-installs of all necessary packages to run JIST. This work presents an implementation that facilitates the integration of JIST with AWS. We describe the theoretical cost/benefit formulae to decide between local serial execution versus cloud computing and apply this analysis to an empirical diffusion tensor imaging pipeline.

  17. Bar Code Medication Administration Technology: Characterization of High-Alert Medication Triggers and Clinician Workarounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel F; Fortier, Christopher R; Garrison, Kelli L

    2011-02-01

    Bar code medication administration (BCMA) technology is gaining acceptance for its ability to prevent medication administration errors. However, studies suggest that improper use of BCMA technology can yield unsatisfactory error prevention and introduction of new potential medication errors. To evaluate the incidence of high-alert medication BCMA triggers and alert types and discuss the type of nursing and pharmacy workarounds occurring with the use of BCMA technology and the electronic medication administration record (eMAR). Medication scanning and override reports from January 1, 2008, through November 30, 2008, for all adult medical/surgical units were retrospectively evaluated for high-alert medication system triggers, alert types, and override reason documentation. An observational study of nursing workarounds on an adult medicine step-down unit was performed and an analysis of potential pharmacy workarounds affecting BCMA and the eMAR was also conducted. Seventeen percent of scanned medications triggered an error alert of which 55% were for high-alert medications. Insulin aspart, NPH insulin, hydromorphone, potassium chloride, and morphine were the top 5 high-alert medications that generated alert messages. Clinician override reasons for alerts were documented in only 23% of administrations. Observational studies assessing for nursing workarounds revealed a median of 3 clinician workarounds per administration. Specific nursing workarounds included a failure to scan medications/patient armband and scanning the bar code once the dosage has been removed from the unit-dose packaging. Analysis of pharmacy order entry process workarounds revealed the potential for missed doses, duplicate doses, and doses being scheduled at the wrong time. BCMA has the potential to prevent high-alert medication errors by alerting clinicians through alert messages. Nursing and pharmacy workarounds can limit the recognition of optimal safety outcomes and therefore workflow processes

  18. Are study strategies related to medical licensing exam performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Courtney; Kurz, Terri; Smith, Sherry; Graham, Lori

    2014-11-02

    To examine the relationship between study strategies and performance on a high stakes medical licensing exam entitled the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1. The action research project included seventy nine student participants at the Texas A & M Health Science Center College of Medicine during their pre-clinical education. Data collection included pre-matriculation and matriculation academic performance data, standardized exam data, and the Learning and Study Strategies Instrument. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. For both models, the dependent variable was the Step 1 score, and the independent variables included Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Grade Point Average, Year 1 Average, Year 2 Average, Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average, Comprehensive Basic Science Exam score, and Learning and Study Strategy Instrument sub-scores. Model 2 added Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment average. Concentration (Model 1 - β = .264; Model 2 - β = .254) was the only study strategy correlated with Step 1 performance. The other statistically significant predictors were Customized National Board of Medical Examiners Average (β = .315) and Year 2 Average (β = .280) in Model 1 and Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment Average (β = .338) in Model 2. There does appear to be a relationship between the study strategy concentration and Step 1 licensing exam performance. Teaching students to practice and utilize certain techniques to improve concentration skills when preparing for and taking exams may help improve licensing exam scores.

  19. High Bit-Depth Medical Image Compression With HEVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Saurin S; Ruiz, Damian; Kalva, Hari; Fernandez-Escribano, Gerardo; Adzic, Velibor

    2018-03-01

    Efficient storing and retrieval of medical images has direct impact on reducing costs and improving access in cloud-based health care services. JPEG 2000 is currently the commonly used compression format for medical images shared using the DICOM standard. However, new formats such as high efficiency video coding (HEVC) can provide better compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Furthermore, JPEG 2000 is not suitable for efficiently storing image series and 3-D imagery. Using HEVC, a single format can support all forms of medical images. This paper presents the use of HEVC for diagnostically acceptable medical image compression, focusing on compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Diagnostically acceptable lossy compression and complexity of high bit-depth medical image compression are studied. Based on an established medically acceptable compression range for JPEG 2000, this paper establishes acceptable HEVC compression range for medical imaging applications. Experimental results show that using HEVC can increase the compression performance, compared to JPEG 2000, by over 54%. Along with this, a new method for reducing computational complexity of HEVC encoding for medical images is proposed. Results show that HEVC intra encoding complexity can be reduced by over 55% with negligible increase in file size.

  20. Clinical skills-related learning goals of senior medical students after performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E

    2011-09-01

    Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific

  1. Association of Practice-Level Social and Medical Risk With Performance in the Medicare Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lena M; Epstein, Arnold M; Orav, E John; Filice, Clara E; Samson, Lok Wong; Joynt Maddox, Karen E

    2017-08-01

    Medicare recently launched the Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier (PVBM) Program, a mandatory pay-for-performance program for physician practices. Little is known about performance by practices that serve socially or medically high-risk patients. To compare performance in the PVBM Program by practice characteristics. Cross-sectional observational study using PVBM Program data for payments made in 2015 based on performance of large US physician practices caring for fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in 2013. High social risk (defined as practices in the top quartile of proportion of patients dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid) and high medical risk (defined as practices in the top quartile of mean Hierarchical Condition Category risk score among fee-for-service beneficiaries). Quality and cost z scores based on a composite of individual measures. Higher z scores reflect better performance on quality; lower scores, better performance on costs. Among 899 physician practices with 5 189 880 beneficiaries, 547 practices were categorized as low risk (neither high social nor high medical risk) (mean, 7909 beneficiaries; mean, 320 clinicians), 128 were high medical risk only (mean, 3675 beneficiaries; mean, 370 clinicians), 102 were high social risk only (mean, 1635 beneficiaries; mean, 284 clinicians), and 122 were high medical and social risk (mean, 1858 beneficiaries; mean, 269 clinicians). Practices categorized as low risk performed the best on the composite quality score (z score, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.28]) compared with each of the practices categorized as high risk (high medical risk only: z score, -0.55 [95% CI, -0.77 to -0.32]; high social risk only: z score, -0.86 [95% CI, -1.17 to -0.54]; and high medical and social risk: -0.78 [95% CI, -1.04 to -0.51]) (P risk only performed the best on the composite cost score (z score, -0.52 [95% CI, -0.71 to -0.33]), low risk had the next best cost score (z score, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.25 to -0.10]), then

  2. High performance bio-integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  3. Performance Support Tools for Space Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Vicky E.; Schmidt, Josef; Barshi, Immanuel

    2009-01-01

    The early Constellation space missions are expected to have medical capabilities very similar to those currently on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). For Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) missions to ISS, medical equipment will be located on ISS, and carried into CEV in the event of an emergency. Flight Surgeons (FS) on the ground in Mission Control will be expected to direct the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) during medical situations. If there is a loss of signal and the crew is unable to communicate with the ground, a CMO would be expected to carry out medical procedures without the aid of a FS. In these situations, performance support tools can be used to reduce errors and time to perform emergency medical tasks. Human factors personnel at Johnson Space Center have recently investigated medical performance support tools for CMOs on-orbit, and FSs on the ground. This area of research involved the feasibility of Just-in-time (JIT) training techniques and concepts for real-time medical procedures. In Phase 1, preliminary feasibility data was gathered for two types of prototype display technologies: a hand-held PDA, and a Head Mounted Display (HMD). The PDA and HMD were compared while performing a simulated medical procedure using ISS flight-like medical equipment. Based on the outcome of Phase 1, including data on user preferences, further testing was completed using the PDA only. Phase 2 explored a wrist-mounted PDA, and compared it to a paper cue card. For each phase, time to complete procedures, errors, and user satisfaction were captured. Information needed by the FS during ISS mission support, especially for an emergency situation (e.g. fire onboard ISS), may be located in many different places around the FS s console. A performance support tool prototype is being developed to address this issue by bringing all of the relevant information together in one place. The tool is designed to include procedures and other information needed by a FS

  4. Predictors of High Motivation Score for Performing Research Initiation Fellowship, Master 1, Research Master 2, and PhD Curricula During Medical Studies: A Strobe-Compliant Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigerlova, Eva; Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Antonelli, Arnaud; Hadjadj, Samy; Marechaud, Richard; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Roblot, Pascal; Braun, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Translational research plays a crucial role in bridging the gap between fundamental and clinical research. The importance of integrating research training into medical education has been emphasized. Predictive factors that help to identify the most motivated medical students to perform academic research are unknown. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 315 medical students, residents and attending physicians, using a comprehensive structured questionnaire we assessed motivations and obstacles to perform academic research curricula (ie, research initiation fellowship, Master 1, Research Master 2, and PhD). Independent predictive factors associated with high "motivation score" (top quartile on motivation score ranging from 0 to 10) to enroll in academic research curricula were derived using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Independent predictors of high motivation score for performing Master 1 curriculum were: "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.49-9.59; P = 0.005) and "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 2.01-6.47; P motivation score for performing Research Master 2 curriculum were: "attending physician" (OR, 4.60; 95% CI, 1.86-11.37; P = 0.001); "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.51-11.23; P = 0.006); "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.91-6.46; P = 0.0001); and "male gender" (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02-3.25; P = 0.04). Independent predictors of high motivation score for performing PhD curriculum were: "considering that the integration of translational research in medical curriculum is essential" (OR, 5.94; 95% CI, 2.33-15.19; P = 0.0002) and "knowledge of at least 2 research units within the university" (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.46-4.77; P = 0.001). This is the

  5. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N

    2012-07-01

    Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation in scheduled learning activities, have been found to relate to student performance. Although participation may be a form of SRL, little is known about the relationships among motivational beliefs, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance. This study aimed to test and cross-validate a hypothesised model of relationships among motivational beliefs (value and self-efficacy), learning strategies (deep learning and resource management), participation (lecture attendance, skills training attendance and completion of optional study assignments) and Year 1 performance at medical school. Year 1 medical students in the cohorts of 2008 (n = 303) and 2009 (n = 369) completed a questionnaire on motivational beliefs and learning strategies (sourced from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and participation. Year 1 performance was operationalised as students' average Year 1 course examination grades. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Participation and self-efficacy beliefs were positively associated with Year 1 performance (β = 0.78 and β = 0.19, respectively). Deep learning strategies were negatively associated with Year 1 performance (β =- 0.31), but positively related to resource management strategies (β = 0.77), which, in turn, were positively related to participation (β = 0.79). Value beliefs were positively related to deep learning strategies only (β = 0.71). The overall structural model for the 2008 cohort accounted for 47% of the variance in Year 1 grade point average and was cross-validated in the 2009 cohort. This study suggests that participation mediates the relationships between motivation and learning strategies, and medical school

  6. High-performance method of morphological medical image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabykh M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the implementation of grayscale morphology vHGW algorithm for selection borders in the medical image. Image processing is executed using OpenMP and NVIDIA CUDA technology for images with different resolution and different size of the structuring element.

  7. Assessing the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and academic performance of medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasingam, Uma; Suat-Cheng, Peh; Aung, Thidar; Dipolog-Ubanan, Genevieve; Wei, Wee Kok

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the association between emotional intelligence and its influence on academic performance on medical students to see if emotional intelligence emerges as a significant influencer of academic achievement. The instrument used is the Trait-Meta Mood Scale (TMMS), a 30-item self-report questionnaire designed to measure an individual's perceived emotional intelligence (PEI). Participants are required to rate the extent to which they agree with each item on a 5-point Likert scale. The TMMS consists of three subscales - Attention to Feelings (which measures the extent to which individuals notice and think about their feelings, Clarity (which measures the extent to which an individual is able to discriminate among different moods) and Mood Repair (related to an individual's ability to repair/terminate negative moods or maintain pleasant ones). Of special interest is whether high scores in the Clarity and Repair subscales correlate positively with academic performance, and whether high scores on the Attention subscale, without correspondingly high scores in the Clarity and Mood Repair subscales, correlates negatively with academic performance. Sample population includes all medical students (Years 1-5) of the MD program in UCSI University, Malaysia. Preliminary analysis indicates no significant relationship between overall TMMS scores and academic performance; however, the Attention subscale is significantly correlated to academic performance. Therefore even though PEI has to be ruled out as an influencer on academic performance for this particular sample, the fact that Attention has a significant relationship with academic performance may give some insight into the factors that possibly influence medical students' academic performance.

  8. Sleep disorder among medical students: relationship to their academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Bin-Saad, Norah S; Al-Subaie, Nourah M; Haji, Alhan M A; Alhaqwi, Ali I

    2012-01-01

    Medical students are exposed to a significant level of pressure due to academic demands. Their sleep pattern is characterized by insufficient sleep duration, delayed sleep onset, and occurrence of napping episodes during the day. To examine the prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students and investigate any relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance. This is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study. The participants were medical students of the first, second, and third academic years. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was also included to identify sleep disorder and grade point average was recorded for academic performance. There were 491 responses with a response rate of 55%. The ESS score demonstrated that 36.6% of participants were considered to have abnormal sleep habits, with a statistically significant increase in female students (p = 0.000). Sleeping between 6-10 h per day was associated with normal ESS scores (p = 0.019) as well as the academic grades ≥ 3.75. Abnormal ESS scores were associated with lower academic achievement (p = 0.002). A high prevalence of sleep disorder was found in this group of students, specifically female students. Analysis of the relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance indicates a significant relationship between abnormal ESS scores, total sleeping hours, and academic performance.

  9. The relationship between academic performance and recreation use among first-year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Slade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-care activities, including exercise, may be neglected by medical students in response to increasing academic demands. Low levels of exercise among medical students may have ripple effects on patient care and counseling. This study investigates the reciprocal role of recreation use and academic performance among first-year medical students. Methods: We combined retrospective administrative data from four cohorts of first-year medical students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 2006 to 2010 (n=408. We estimated regression models to clarify the role of changes in recreation use before examinations on changes in academic performance, and vice versa. Results: The use of recreation facilities by first-year medical students was highly skewed. We found that changes in recreation use before an exam were positively associated with changes in exam performance, and vice versa. Students who make large decreases in their recreation use are likely to decrease their exam scores, rather than increase them. Discussion: Students who make decreases in their recreation, on average, are likely to decrease their exam scores. These findings suggest that medical students may be able to boost their achievement through wellness interventions, even if they are struggling with exams. We find no evidence that decreasing wellness activities will help improve exam performance.

  10. An analysis of the awareness and performance of radiation workers' radiation/radioactivity protection in medical institutions : Focused on Busan regional medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol Koo; Hwang, Chul Hwan; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate safety management awareness and behavioral investigation of radiation/radioactivity performance defenses of radiation workers' in medical institutions. Data collection consisted of 267 radiation workers working in medical institutions using structured questionnaires. As a result, it was analyzed that radiation safety management awareness and performance were high in 40s, 50s group and higher education group. The analysis according to the radiation safety management knowledge was analyzed that the 'Know very well' group had higher scores on awareness and performance scores. The analysis according to the degree of safety management effort showed the high awareness scale and the performance scale in the group 'Receiving various education or studying the safety management contents through book'. The correlations between the sub-factors showed the highest positive correlation between perceived practician and personal perspective and perceived by patient and patient's caretaker perspective. Therefore, radiation safety management for workers, patients, and patient's caretaker should be conducted through continuous education of radiation safety management through various routes of radiation workers working at medical institutions

  11. Relationships between academic performance of medical students and their workplace performance as junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra E; Celenza, Antonio; Puddey, Ian B; Lake, Fiona

    2014-07-30

    Little recent published evidence explores the relationship between academic performance in medical school and performance as a junior doctor. Although many forms of assessment are used to demonstrate a medical student's knowledge or competence, these measures may not reliably predict performance in clinical practice following graduation. This descriptive cohort study explores the relationship between academic performance of medical students and workplace performance as junior doctors, including the influence of age, gender, ethnicity, clinical attachment, assessment type and summary score measures (grade point average) on performance in the workplace as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. There were two hundred participants. There were significant correlations between performance as a Junior Doctor (combined overall score) and the grade point average (r = 0.229, P = 0.002), the score from the Year 6 Emergency Medicine attachment (r = 0.361, P gender or ethnicity on the overall combined score of performance of the junior doctor. Performance on integrated assessments from medical school is correlated to performance as a practicing physician as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. These findings support the value of combining undergraduate assessment scores to assess competence and predict future performance.

  12. Focus on performance: the 21 century revolution in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Frank

    2008-01-01

    For centuries medicine was predominantly a tradition-based "trade" until the introduction of science transformed it into an intellectually rigorous discipline. That transformation contributed heavily to the dominance in medical education of the learning of biomedical concepts ("knowing that") over learning how to translate that knowledge into clinical performance ("knowing how"). The recent emergence of performance-oriented educational initiatives suggests, however, that the balance between these two complementary approaches is changing, a change that has been referred to as "the Flexnerian revolution of the 21(st) century." Problem-based learning, learning the practice of evidence-based medicine, and learning to use clinical guidelines are among the important initiatives designed to develop high-level performance in the care of individual patients. Initiatives in which learners acquire skill in changing the performance of care systems are also being widely implemented. These trends have received important formal support through recent changes in residency training accreditation standards. Although it is too early to assess the impact of these initiatives or to know whether they will develop further, medical education is unlikely to reach its full potential unless it successfully comes to grips with the challenges of understanding, teaching, and measuring performance.

  13. Engineering high quality medical software

    CERN Document Server

    Coronato, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on high-confidence medical software in the growing field of e-health, telecare services and health technology. It covers the development of methodologies and engineering tasks together with standards and regulations for medical software.

  14. Manufacturing Advantage: Why High-Performance Work Systems Pay Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Eileen; Bailey, Thomas; Berg, Peter; Kalleberg, Arne L.

    A study examined the relationship between high-performance workplace practices and the performance of plants in the following manufacturing industries: steel, apparel, and medical electronic instruments and imaging. The multilevel research methodology combined the following data collection activities: (1) site visits; (2) collection of plant…

  15. Strategies of high-performing paramedic educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Gregg S; Romero, Gabriel A; Fernandez, Antonio R; Studnek, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    To identify the specific educational strategies used by paramedic educational programs that have attained consistently high success rates on the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) examination. NREMT data from 2003-2007 were analyzed to identify consistently high-performing paramedic educational programs. Representatives from 12 programs that have maintained a 75% first-attempt pass rate for at least four of five years and had more than 20 graduates per year were invited to participate in a focus group. Using the nominal group technique (NGT), participants were asked to answer the following question: "What are specific strategies that lead to a successful paramedic educational program?" All 12 emergency medical services (EMS) educational programs meeting the eligibility requirements participated. After completing the seven-step NGT process, 12 strategies were identified as leading to a successful paramedic educational program: 1) achieve and maintain national accreditation; 2) maintain high-level entry requirements and prerequisites; 3) provide students with a clear idea of expectations for student success; 4) establish a philosophy and foster a culture that values continuous review and improvement; 5) create your own examinations, lesson plans, presentations, and course materials using multiple current references; 6) emphasize emergency medical technician (EMT)-Basic concepts throughout the class; 7) use frequent case-based classroom scenarios; 8) expose students to as many prehospital advanced life support (ALS) patient contacts as possible, preferably where they are in charge; 9) create and administer valid examinations that have been through a review process (such as qualitative analysis); 10) provide students with frequent detailed feedback regarding their performance (such as formal examination reviews); 11) incorporate critical thinking and problem solving into all testing; and 12) deploy predictive testing with analysis prior to

  16. SLEEP PATTERN AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS OF A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Rajendran; Karthika M; Prathibha M. T; Vinod P. B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance of students is well accepted. The studies relating the sleep pattern of medical students and academic performance is limited. This study was conducted to identify sleep pattern of medical students and find out any relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess sociodemographic parameters, sleep/wake timing, sle...

  17. The Effects of Medical Conditions on Driving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This project investigated the effect of selected medical conditions on the exposure and performance of older drivers. A review of recent literature, followed by a panel meeting with driving safety experts, prioritized four medical conditions for furt...

  18. An analysis of the awareness and performance of radiation workers' radiation/radioactivity protection in medical institutions : Focused on Busan regional medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Koo [Dept. of Radiological Science, Graduate School of Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Chul Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hyun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate safety management awareness and behavioral investigation of radiation/radioactivity performance defenses of radiation workers' in medical institutions. Data collection consisted of 267 radiation workers working in medical institutions using structured questionnaires. As a result, it was analyzed that radiation safety management awareness and performance were high in 40s, 50s group and higher education group. The analysis according to the radiation safety management knowledge was analyzed that the 'Know very well' group had higher scores on awareness and performance scores. The analysis according to the degree of safety management effort showed the high awareness scale and the performance scale in the group 'Receiving various education or studying the safety management contents through book'. The correlations between the sub-factors showed the highest positive correlation between perceived practician and personal perspective and perceived by patient and patient's caretaker perspective. Therefore, radiation safety management for workers, patients, and patient's caretaker should be conducted through continuous education of radiation safety management through various routes of radiation workers working at medical institutions.

  19. Self-regulated learning and academic performance in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucieer, Susanna M; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M J P; Themmen, Axel P N

    2016-06-01

    Medical schools aim to graduate medical doctors who are able to self-regulate their learning. It is therefore important to investigate whether medical students' self-regulated learning skills change during medical school. In addition, since these skills are expected to be helpful to learn more effectively, it is of interest to investigate whether these skills are related to academic performance. In a cross-sectional design, the Self-Regulation of Learning Self-Report Scale (SRL-SRS) was used to investigate the change in students' self-regulated learning skills. First and third-year students (N = 949, 81.7%) SRL-SRS scores were compared with ANOVA. The relation with academic performance was investigated with multinomial regression analysis. Only one of the six skills, reflection, significantly, but positively, changed during medical school. In addition, a small, but positive relation of monitoring, reflection, and effort with first-year GPA was found, while only effort was related to third-year GPA. The change in self-regulated learning skills is minor as only the level of reflection differs between the first and third year. In addition, the relation between self-regulated learning skills and academic performance is limited. Medical schools are therefore encouraged to re-examine the curriculum and methods they use to enhance their students' self-regulated learning skills. Future research is required to understand the limited impact on performance.

  20. Association Between Undergraduate Performance Predictors and Academic and Clinical Performance of Osteopathic Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agahi, Farshad; Speicher, Mark R; Cisek, Grace

    2018-02-01

    Medical schools use a variety of preadmission indices to select potential students. These indices generally include undergraduate grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, and preadmission interviews. To investigate whether the admission indices used by Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine are associated with the academic and clinical performance of their students. Associations between the prematriculation variables of undergraduate science GPA, undergraduate total GPA, MCAT component scores, and interview scores and the academic and clinical variables of the first- and second-year medical school GPA, Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation (CE) total and discipline scores, scores in clinical rotations for osteopathic competencies, COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation passage, and match status were evaluated. Two-tailed Pearson product-moment correlations with a Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine these relationships. The traditional predictors of science and total undergraduate GPA as well as total and component MCAT scores had small to moderate associations with first- and second-year GPA, as well as COMLEX-USA Level 1 and Level 2-CE total scores. Of all predictors, only the MCAT biological sciences score had a statistically significant correlation with failure of the COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation examination (P=.009). Average interview scores were associated only with the osteopathic competency of medical knowledge (r=0.233; n=209; P=.001), as assessed by clerkship preceptors. No predictors were associated with scores in objective structured clinical encounters or with failing to match to a residency position. The data indicate that traditional predictors of academic performance (undergraduate GPA, undergraduate science GPA, and MCAT scores) have small to moderate association with medical school grades and

  1. Motivational profiles of medical students: association with study effort, academic performance and exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garré, Francisca; Ten Cate, Olle

    2013-06-19

    Students enter the medical study with internally generated motives like genuine interest (intrinsic motivation) and/or externally generated motives like parental pressure or desire for status or prestige (controlled motivation). According to Self-determination theory (SDT), students could differ in their study effort, academic performance and adjustment to the study depending on the endorsement of intrinsic motivation versus controlled motivation. The objectives of this study were to generate motivational profiles of medical students using combinations of high or low intrinsic and controlled motivation and test whether different motivational profiles are associated with different study outcomes. Participating students (N = 844) from University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands, were classified to different subgroups through K-means cluster analysis using intrinsic and controlled motivation scores. Cluster membership was used as an independent variable to assess differences in study strategies, self-study hours, academic performance and exhaustion from study. Four clusters were obtained: High Intrinsic High Controlled (HIHC), Low Intrinsic High Controlled (LIHC), High Intrinsic Low Controlled (HILC), and Low Intrinsic Low Controlled (LILC). HIHC profile, including the students who are interest + status motivated, constituted 25.2% of the population (N = 213). HILC profile, including interest-motivated students, constituted 26.1% of the population (N = 220). LIHC profile, including status-motivated students, constituted 31.8% of the population (N = 268). LILC profile, including students who have a low-motivation and are neither interest nor status motivated, constituted 16.9% of the population (N = 143). Interest-motivated students (HILC) had significantly more deep study strategy (p motivated (LIHC) and low-motivation (LILC) students. The interest-motivated profile of medical students (HILC) is associated with good study hours, deep

  2. Perception of educational environment: Does it impact academic performance of medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shahid; Tarique, Shandana

    2016-10-01

    To compare environmental perception as measured by the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure of students with high and low academic performance. This cross-sectional analytical study was carried out at the Gujranwala Medical College, Gujranwala, Pakistan, and comprised medical students. Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure questionnaire with 50 items was used to determine students' perception of the institutional environment. Academic performance was based on mean percentage of marks obtained in all professional examinations. High achievers with 70% or more marks were compared with low achievers with academic self-perceptions', 27.76±6.03 for perceptions of atmosphere and 15.97±3.0 for social self-perceptions. The mean dream score was 108.51±17.54 among boys and 118.39±17.90 among girls. The mean score for perception of having successful learning strategies was 1.66±0.9and 2.18±0.9 among low and high achievers (p>0.05) and 1.71±0.98 and 2.18±1.1 for ability to memorise all that was needed (p>0.05). Environmental perception of the institution was more positive than negative and better performance in examinations was associated with better academic self-perception and social self-perception in students.

  3. Implementation of a High-Performance Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Protocol at a Collegiate Emergency Medical Services Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefos, Kathryn A.; Nable, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a significant public health issue. Although OHCA occurs relatively infrequently in the collegiate environment, educational institutions with on-campus emergency medical services (EMS) agencies are uniquely positioned to provide high-quality resuscitation care in an expedient fashion. Georgetown University's…

  4. Application essays and future performance in medical school: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Kay, Allen; Artino, Anthony R; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; DeZee, Kent J; Durning, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on whether application essays are a valid indicator of medical students' future performance. The goal is to score medical school application essays systematically and examine the correlations between these essay scores and several indicators of student performance during medical school and internship. A journalist created a scoring rubric based on the journalism literature and scored 2 required essays of students admitted to our university in 1 year (N = 145). We picked 7 indicators of medical school and internship performance and correlated these measures with overall essay scores: preclinical medical school grade point average (GPA), clinical medical school GPA, cumulative medical school GPA, U.S. Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 scores, and scores on a program director's evaluation measuring intern professionalism and expertise. We then examined the Pearson and Spearman correlations between essay scores and the outcomes. Essay scores did not vary widely. American Medical College Application Service essay scores ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 (M = 4.11, SD = 0.15), and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences essay scores ranged from 2.9 to 4.5 (M = 4.09, SD = 0.17). None of the medical school or internship performance indicators was significantly correlated with the essay scores. These findings raise questions about the utility of matriculation essays, a resource-intensive admission requirement.

  5. [How medical students perform academically by admission types?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Keumho; Hur, Yera; Kim, Ji-Ha

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance of selecting students whom are capable for medical education and to become a good doctor, not enough studies have been done in the category. This study focused on analysing the medical students' academic performance (grade point average, GPA) differences, flunk and dropout rates by admission types. From 2004 to 2010, we gathered 369 Konyang University College of Medicine's students admission data and analyzed the differences between admission method and academic achievement, differences in failure and dropout rates. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), ordinary least square, and logistic regression were used. The rolling students showed higher academic achievement from year 1 to 3 than regular students (p dropout rate by admission types, regular admission type students showed higher drop out rate than the rolling ones which demonstrates admission types gives significant effect on flunk or dropout rates in medical students (p students tend to show lower flunk rate and dropout rates and perform better academically. This implies selecting students primarily by Korean College Scholastic Ability Test does not guarantee their academic success in medical education. Thus we suggest a more in-depth comprehensive method of selecting students that are appropriate to individual medical school's educational goal.

  6. A study of clinicians' views on medical gloves and their effect on manual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylon, Peter; Lewis, Roger; Carré, Matt J; Martin, Nicolas; Brown, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The effect of gloves on practitioners' performance has not been a major factor in their design. To determine the critical elements of performance and design appropriate tests, data from clinicians were needed. Semistructured interviews were carried out with medical practitioners from various disciplines, in which they were asked about their glove use, their views on gloves, medical tasks requiring the highest manual performance or most affected by gloves, and what the main issues with glove use were. Many participants expressed a preference for latex over nitrile, with glove fit being the main reason given. Satisfaction with surgical gloves (generally latex) was high but less so with examination gloves, which were generally nitrile. Tactile sensation, comfort, and donning were also seen as major issues with glove use. A number of tasks were identified for possible development as tests. Performance in medical practice needs to be clearly defined, separating perceived and measured performance, and understanding the effect of glove material, fit, and thickness. Development of new glove performance tests based on the tasks identified is an important part of this. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. RESEARCH OF RUSSIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MARKET: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Станислав Сергеевич Отставнов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data obtained from comprehensive study of russian hi-tech medical equipment market. The size and the structure of Russian medical equipment market in 2005-2011 were investigated and market size forecast for 2012-2015 was given. Priority segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market were identified (products with a high degree of visualization, anesthetic and ventilation equipment, patient monitors  based on the analysis of literature sources and morbidity structure. Key players in key segments of the market were identified and their financial performance such as number of employees, revenue, net profit, researches and development expenses were compared (according to actual annual reports.Research allowed to draw the following conclusion: today in the key segments of Russian high-tech medical equipment market the leadership of foreign companies  (Hitachi, Philips, Siemens, Toshiba, General Electric, Dräger is indisputable, objective preconditions for the fundamental change of the situation are absent. Import substitution requires the consolidation of domestic producers, adequate funding and human resource.The results can be used in practice by medical industry companies and State authorities on purpose to upgrade the medical industry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-31

  8. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  9. Medical student psychological distress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie

    2018-01-21

    The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.

  10. SLEEP PATTERN AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS OF A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Rajendran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance of students is well accepted. The studies relating the sleep pattern of medical students and academic performance is limited. This study was conducted to identify sleep pattern of medical students and find out any relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess sociodemographic parameters, sleep/wake timing, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and academic performance. Academic performance was measured on the basis of the aggregate marks scored for the previous year university exam. RESULTS The study population included 349 students with a mean age of 21.4±1.1years. The student’s average weekday bedtime, rise time and total sleep time was 12:02a.m., 07:03a.m. and 7.23hrs., respectively. The corresponding values for weekends were 12:25a.m., 08:17a.m. and 08:18hrs. Mean sleep duration of night prior to exam was 5.16±1.50.Students with earlier bed/rise time and longer hours of sleep night prior to exam had better academic performance. CONCLUSION Academic performance of medical students showed significant negative correlation with sleep/wake timings and positive correlation with duration of sleepnight before examination.

  11. Comparison of high-performance liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography using evaporative light scattering detection for the determination of plasticizers in medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoeur, Marie; Decaudin, Bertrand; Guillotin, Yoann; Sautou, Valérie; Vaccher, Claude

    2015-10-23

    Recently, interest in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has increased due to its high throughput and the development of new system improving chromatographic performances. However, most papers dealt with fundamental studies and chiral applications and only few works described validation process of SFC method. Likewise, evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) has been widely employed in liquid chromatography but only a few recent works presented its quantitative performances hyphenated with SFC apparatus. The present paper discusses about the quantitative performances of SFC-ELSD compared to HPLC-ELSD, for the determination of plasticizers (ATBC, DEHA, DEHT and TOTM) in PVC tubing used as medical devices. After the development of HPLC-ELSD, both methods were evaluated based on the total error approach using accuracy profile. The results show that HPLC-ELSD was more precise than SFC-ELSD but lower limits of quantitation were obtained by SFC. Hence, HPLC was validated in the ± 10% acceptance limits whereas SFC lacks of accuracy to quantify plasticizers. Finally, both methods were used to determine the composition of plasticized-PVC medical devices. Results demonstrated that SFC and HPLC both hyphenated with ELSD provided similar results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictive validity of pre-admission assessments on medical student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaliz, Al-Awwab; Kaadan, Samy; Dabbagh, M Marwan; Barakat, Abdulaziz; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Al-Tannir, Mohamad; Obeidat, Akef; Mohamed, Ayman

    2017-11-24

    To examine the predictive validity of pre-admission variables on students' performance in a medical school in Saudi Arabia. In this retrospective study, we collected admission and college performance data for 737 students in preclinical and clinical years. Data included high school scores and other standardized test scores, such as those of the National Achievement Test and the General Aptitude Test. Additionally, we included the scores of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) exams. Those datasets were then compared with college performance indicators, namely the cumulative Grade Point Average (cGPA) and progress test, using multivariate linear regression analysis. In preclinical years, both the National Achievement Test (p=0.04, B=0.08) and TOEFL (p=0.017, B=0.01) scores were positive predictors of cGPA, whereas the General Aptitude Test (p=0.048, B=-0.05) negatively predicted cGPA. Moreover, none of the pre-admission variables were predictive of progress test performance in the same group. On the other hand, none of the pre-admission variables were predictive of cGPA in clinical years. Overall, cGPA strongly predict-ed students' progress test performance (p<0.001 and B=19.02). Only the National Achievement Test and TOEFL significantly predicted performance in preclinical years. However, these variables do not predict progress test performance, meaning that they do not predict the functional knowledge reflected in the progress test. We report various strengths and deficiencies in the current medical college admission criteria, and call for employing more sensitive and valid ones that predict student performance and functional knowledge, especially in the clinical years.

  13. Medication Adherence, Work Performance and Self-Esteem among Psychiatric Patients Attending Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services at Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Pavalur, Rajitha; Thanapal, Sivakumar; Parathasarathy, Nirmala B; Desai, Geetha; Bhola, Poornima; Philip, Mariamma; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2014-10-01

    Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals' self-esteem. To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to participate in the research. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 60 subjects using the 'Medication Adherence Rating scale', 'Griffiths work behaviour scale' and the 'Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale'. Analysis was done using spss18 with descriptive statistics, Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. There were 36 males and 24 females who participated in this study. The subjects had good mean medication adherence of 8.4 ± 1.5 with median of 9.00, high mean self-esteem of 17.65 ± 2.97 with median of 18.0 and good mean work performance of 88.62 ± 22.56 with median of 93.0. Although weak and not significant, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.22, P = 0.103) between medication adherence and work performance; positive correlation between (r = 0.25, P = 0.067) medication adherence and self-esteem; positive correlation between (r = 0.136, P = 0.299) work performance and self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis showed no significant predictors for medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among patients with psychiatric illness. Medication monitoring and strengthening of work habit can improve self-esteem thereby, strengthening hope of recovery from illness.

  14. Relation between intelligence, emotional intelligence, and academic performance among medical interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of research on the correlation between emotional quotient (EQ and intelligence quotient (IQ, and specifically among medical students and interns. So, we in our study aim to find out the correlation between these two variants of intelligence, and their relation to academic performance among medical interns as well as the gender differences between EQ, IQ, and academic performance. Methodology: EQ Test Questionnaire developed by Chadha and Singh was used for testing the EQ of the participants (n=50; males=34, females=16; mean age=24.1 years. IQ was tested by an experienced clinical psychologist using Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Test. The academic achievement was determined from the percentage of marks secured in tenth standard, 12th standard, and Final MBBS. GraphPad InStat version 3.05 was used for data entry and analysis. Results: A statistically high significant negative correlation was found between EQ and IQ of our total study sample as well as among the male participants. The mean EQ was higher among females and mean IQ among males. The females were academically better than the males and this difference was statistically highly significant. No significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance was found in the total sample group. Conclusion: EQ and IQ are negatively correlated to each other, and there is no significant correlation of EQ and IQ to academic performance. Based on the current findings, further studies need to be built in larger samples. Limitation of the study is a small sample population.

  15. Allostatic load but not medical burden predicts memory performance in late-life bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Sophie R; Rajji, Tarek K; Gildengers, Ariel G; Waters, Sarah E S; Butters, Meryl A; Menon, Mahesh; Blumberger, Daniel M; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2018-03-01

    Older patients with bipolar disorder (BD) present with variable degrees of cognitive impairment. Over time, stress, mood episodes, and comorbidities increase the body's allostatic load. We assessed the extent to which allostatic load vs more traditional measures of medical burden account for the heterogeneity in cognition in this population. Thirty-five older euthymic patients with BD and 30 age-equated, gender-equated, and education-equated comparison participants were administered a comprehensive assessment including a neuropsychological battery, and 9 physiological measures to determine allostatic load. The relationship among allostatic load, medical burden, and cognition was assessed. Compared with the mentally healthy comparators, patients were impaired globally, and in 4 cognitive domains-information-processing speed / executive functioning, delayed memory, language, and visuomotor ability, and presented with greater medical burden but not a different allostatic load. Allostatic load, but not medical burden, was associated with delayed memory performance both in a correlational analysis and in a multivariate regression analysis. Euthymic older patients with BD are impaired on several cognitive domains and have high medical burden. Their memory performance is more strongly associated with allostatic load than with traditional measures of medical burden. These findings need to be replicated and extended longitudinally. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Stress among Medical Students and Its Association with Substance Use and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leta Melaku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic stress among medical students affects academic performance of students and leads to depression, substance use, and suicide. There is, however, a shortage of such research evidence in Ethiopia. Objective. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and severity of stress and its association with substance use and academic performance among medical students. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 329 medical students at Jimma University. Data were collected using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Medical Students Stress Questionnaire (MSSQ-20, and Drug Abuse Surveillance Test (DAST. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Logistic regression analysis and Student’s t-test were applied. Results. The mean age of the respondents was 23.02 (SD = 2.074 years. The current prevalence of stress was 52.4%. Academic related stressor domain was the main source of stress among 281 (88.6% students. Stress was significantly associated with khat chewing [AOR = 3.03, 95% CI (1.17, 7.85], smoking [AOR = 4.55, 95% CI (1.05, 19.77], and alcohol intake [AOR = 1.93, 95% CI (1.03, 3.60]. The prevalence of stress was high during the initial three years of study. Stress was significantly (p=0.001 but negatively (r=-0.273 correlated with academic achievement. Conclusion. Stress was a significant problem among medical students and had a negative impact on their academic performance. Year of study, income, and substance use were associated with stress. Counseling and awareness creation are recommended.

  17. Performance of technology-driven simulators for medical students--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Michael; Abboudi, Hamid; Ker, Jean; Shamim Khan, Mohammed; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    Simulation-based education has evolved as a key training tool in high-risk industries such as aviation and the military. In parallel with these industries, the benefits of incorporating specialty-oriented simulation training within medical schools are vast. Adoption of simulators into medical school education programs has shown great promise and has the potential to revolutionize modern undergraduate education. An English literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and psychINFO databases to identify all randomized controlled studies pertaining to "technology-driven" simulators used in undergraduate medical education. A validity framework incorporating the "framework for technology enhanced learning" report by the Department of Health, United Kingdom, was used to evaluate the capabilities of each technology-driven simulator. Information was collected regarding the simulator type, characteristics, and brand name. Where possible, we extracted information from the studies on the simulators' performance with respect to validity status, reliability, feasibility, education impact, acceptability, and cost effectiveness. We identified 19 studies, analyzing simulators for medical students across a variety of procedure-based specialities including; cardiovascular (n = 2), endoscopy (n = 3), laparoscopic surgery (n = 8), vascular access (n = 2), ophthalmology (n = 1), obstetrics and gynecology (n = 1), anesthesia (n = 1), and pediatrics (n = 1). Incorporation of simulators has so far been on an institutional level; no national or international trends have yet emerged. Simulators are capable of providing a highly educational and realistic experience for the medical students within a variety of speciality-oriented teaching sessions. Further research is needed to establish how best to incorporate simulators into a more primary stage of medical education; preclinical and clinical undergraduate medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Measuring US Army medical evacuation: Metrics for performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, Samuel M; Mabry, Robert L; Maddry, Joseph; Kharod, Chetan U; Walrath, Benjamin D; Powell, Elizabeth; Shackelford, Stacy

    2018-01-01

    The US Army medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) community has maintained a reputation for high levels of success in transporting casualties from the point of injury to definitive care. This work served as a demonstration project to advance a model of quality assurance surveillance and medical direction for prehospital MEDEVAC providers within the Joint Trauma System. A retrospective interrupted time series analysis using prospectively collected data was performed as a process improvement project. Records were reviewed during two distinct periods: 2009 and 2014 to 2015. MEDEVAC records were matched to outcomes data available in the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. Abstracted deidentified data were reviewed for specific outcomes, procedures, and processes of care. Descriptive statistics were applied as appropriate. A total of 1,008 patients were included in this study. Nine quality assurance metrics were assessed. These metrics were: airway management, management of hypoxemia, compliance with a blood transfusion protocol, interventions for hypotensive patients, quality of battlefield analgesia, temperature measurement and interventions, proportion of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with hypoxemia and/or hypotension, proportion of traumatic brain injury patients with an appropriate assessment, and proportion of missing data. Overall survival in the subset of patients with outcomes data available in the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was 97.5%. The data analyzed for this study suggest overall high compliance with established tactical combat casualty care guidelines. In the present study, nearly 7% of patients had at least one documented oxygen saturation of less than 90%, and 13% of these patients had no documentation of any intervention for hypoxemia, indicating a need for training focus on airway management for hypoxemia. Advances in battlefield analgesia continued to evolve over the period when data for this study was collected. Given the inherent high

  19. Can Medical School Performance Predict Residency Performance? Resident Selection and Predictors of Successful Performance in Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Hindi E.; Hueppchen, Nancy A.; Bienstock, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Background During the evaluation process, Residency Admissions Committees typically gather data on objective and subjective measures of a medical student's performance through the Electronic Residency Application Service, including medical school grades, standardized test scores, research achievements, nonacademic accomplishments, letters of recommendation, the dean's letter, and personal statements. Using these data to identify which medical students are likely to become successful residents in an academic residency program in obstetrics and gynecology is difficult and to date, not well studied. Objective To determine whether objective information in medical students' applications can help predict resident success. Method We performed a retrospective cohort study of all residents who matched into the Johns Hopkins University residency program in obstetrics and gynecology between 1994 and 2004 and entered the program through the National Resident Matching Program as a postgraduate year-1 resident. Residents were independently evaluated by faculty and ranked in 4 groups according to perceived level of success. Applications from residents in the highest and lowest group were abstracted. Groups were compared using the Fisher exact test and the Student t test. Results Seventy-five residents met inclusion criteria and 29 residents were ranked in the highest and lowest quartiles (15 in highest, 14 in lowest). Univariate analysis identified no variables as consistent predictors of resident success. Conclusion In a program designed to train academic obstetrician-gynecologists, objective data from medical students' applications did not correlate with successful resident performance in our obstetrics-gynecology residency program. We need to continue our search for evaluation criteria that can accurately and reliably select the medical students that are best fit for our specialty. PMID:21976076

  20. Construction of a smart medication dispenser with high degree of scalability and remote manageability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, JuGeon; Park, KeeHyun

    2012-01-01

    We propose a smart medication dispenser having a high degree of scalability and remote manageability. We construct the dispenser to have extensible hardware architecture for achieving scalability, and we install an agent program in it for achieving remote manageability. The dispenser operates as follows: when the real-time clock reaches the predetermined medication time and the user presses the dispense button at that time, the predetermined medication is dispensed from the medication dispensing tray (MDT). In the proposed dispenser, the medication for each patient is stored in an MDT. One smart medication dispenser contains mainly one MDT; however, the dispenser can be extended to include more MDTs in order to support multiple users using one dispenser. For remote management, the proposed dispenser transmits the medication status and the system configurations to the monitoring server. In the case of a specific event such as a shortage of medication, memory overload, software error, or non-adherence, the event is transmitted immediately. All these operations are performed automatically without the intervention of patients, through the agent program installed in the dispenser. Results of implementation and verification show that the proposed dispenser operates normally and performs the management operations from the medication monitoring server suitably.

  1. Construction of a Smart Medication Dispenser with High Degree of Scalability and Remote Manageability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuGeon Pak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a smart medication dispenser having a high degree of scalability and remote manageability. We construct the dispenser to have extensible hardware architecture for achieving scalability, and we install an agent program in it for achieving remote manageability. The dispenser operates as follows: when the real-time clock reaches the predetermined medication time and the user presses the dispense button at that time, the predetermined medication is dispensed from the medication dispensing tray (MDT. In the proposed dispenser, the medication for each patient is stored in an MDT. One smart medication dispenser contains mainly one MDT; however, the dispenser can be extended to include more MDTs in order to support multiple users using one dispenser. For remote management, the proposed dispenser transmits the medication status and the system configurations to the monitoring server. In the case of a specific event such as a shortage of medication, memory overload, software error, or non-adherence, the event is transmitted immediately. All these operations are performed automatically without the intervention of patients, through the agent program installed in the dispenser. Results of implementation and verification show that the proposed dispenser operates normally and performs the management operations from the medication monitoring server suitably.

  2. The predictive validity of the BioMedical Admissions Test for pre-clinical examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Joanne L; Bell, John F

    2009-06-01

    Some medical courses in the UK have many more applicants than places and almost all applicants have the highest possible previous and predicted examination grades. The BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT) was designed to assist in the student selection process specifically for a number of 'traditional' medical courses with clear pre-clinical and clinical phases and a strong focus on science teaching in the early years. It is intended to supplement the information provided by examination results, interviews and personal statements. This paper reports on the predictive validity of the BMAT and its predecessor, the Medical and Veterinary Admissions Test. Results from the earliest 4 years of the test (2000-2003) were matched to the pre-clinical examination results of those accepted onto the medical course at the University of Cambridge. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were performed for each cohort. Section 2 of the test ('Scientific Knowledge') correlated more strongly with examination marks than did Section 1 ('Aptitude and Skills'). It also had a stronger relationship with the probability of achieving the highest examination class. The BMAT and its predecessor demonstrate predictive validity for the pre-clinical years of the medical course at the University of Cambridge. The test identifies important differences in skills and knowledge between candidates, not shown by their previous attainment, which predict their examination performance. It is thus a valid source of additional admissions information for medical courses with a strong scientific emphasis when previous attainment is very high.

  3. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jason A; McInnes, Matthew D F; Esmail, Kaisra

    2014-01-01

    Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates' documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  4. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Robins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates’ documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Methods: Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Results: Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Conclusions: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  5. Measuring Medical Housestaff Teamwork Performance Using Multiple Direct Observation Instruments: Comparing Apples and Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Saul N; Yaghi, Omar; Wetherell, Matthew; Sweeney, Megan

    2018-04-10

    To examine the composition and concordance of existing instruments used to assess medical teams' performance. A trained observer joined 20 internal medicine housestaff teams for morning work rounds at Tufts Medical Center, a 415-bed Boston teaching hospital, from October through December 2015. The observer rated each team's performance using 9 teamwork observation instruments that examined domains including team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. Observations recorded on paper forms were stored electronically. Scores were normalized from 1 (low) to 5 (high) to account for different rating scales. Overall mean scores were calculated and graphed; weighted scores adjusted for the number of items in each teamwork domain. Teamwork scores were analyzed using t-tests, pair-wise correlations, and the Kruskal-Wallis statistic, and team performance was compared across instruments by domain. The 9 tools incorporated 5 major domains, with 5-35 items per instrument for a total of 161 items per observation session. In weighted and unweighted analyses, the overall teamwork performance score for a given team on a given day varied by instrument. While all of the tools identified the same low outlier, high performers on some instruments were low performers on others. Inconsistent scores for a given team across instruments persisted in domain-level analyses. There was substantial variation in the rating of individual teams assessed concurrently by a single observer using multiple instruments. Since existing teamwork observation tools do not yield concordant assessments, researchers should create better tools for measuring teamwork performance.

  6. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  7. Factors potentially influencing academic performance among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shawwa L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lana Al Shawwa,1 Ahmad A Abulaban,2 Abdulrhman A Abulaban,3 Anas Merdad,3 Sara Baghlaf,3 Ahmed Algethami,3 Joullanar Abu-shanab,3 Abdulrahman Balkhoyor3 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 2Department of Medicine-Neurology, King Fahad National Guard Hospital, King Abdulziz Medical City, Riyadh, 3Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Studies are needed to examine predictors of success in medical school. The aim of this work is to explore factors that potentially influence excellence of medical students. Methods: The study was conducted in the Medical Faculty of King Abdulaziz University during October 2012. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Medical students with a grade point average (GPA ≥4.5 (out of 5 were included and compared to randomly selected medical students with a GPA <4.5, who were available at the time of the study. Results: A total of 359 undergraduate students participated in the study. 50.4% of the sample was students with a GPA ≥4.5. No statistically significant difference regarding the time spent on outings and social events was found. However, 60.7% of high GPA students spend less than 2 hours on social networking per day as compared to 42.6% of the lower GPA students (P<0.01. In addition, 79% of high GPA students prefer to study alone (P=0.02, 68.0% required silence and no interruptions during studying time (P=0.013, and 47% revise their material at least once before an exam (P=0.02. Conclusion: Excellent medical students have many different characteristics. For example, they do not use social networking for prolonged periods of time, and they have strong motivation and study enjoyment. Further studies are needed to examine whether these differences have a real impact on GPA or not. Keyword: King Abdulaziz University KAU, medical school, study habits, exam habits 

  8. Feasibility and Inter-Rater Reliability of Physical Performance Measures in Acutely Admitted Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Physical performance measures can be used to predict functional decline and increased dependency in older persons. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility or reliability of such measures in hospitalized older patients. Here we assessed the feasibility and inter-rater reliabi......OBJECTIVE: Physical performance measures can be used to predict functional decline and increased dependency in older persons. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility or reliability of such measures in hospitalized older patients. Here we assessed the feasibility and inter......-rater reliability of four simple measures of physical performance in acutely admitted older medical patients. DESIGN: During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, the following were assessed twice by different raters in 52 (≥ 65 years) patients admitted for acute medical illness: isometric hand grip strength, 4......, and 30-s chair stand were 8%, 7%, and 18%, and the SRD95% values were 22%, 17%, and 49%. CONCLUSION: In acutely admitted older medical patients, grip strength, gait speed, and the Cumulated Ambulation Score measurements were feasible and showed high inter-rater reliability when administered by different...

  9. Predicting performance at medical school: can we identify at-risk students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami Shaban, Michelle McLeanDepartment of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive potential of multiple indicators (eg, preadmission scores, unit, module and clerkship grades, course and examination scores on academic performance at medical school, with a view to identifying students at risk.Methods: An analysis was undertaken of medical student grades in a 6-year medical school program at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, over the past 14 years.Results: While high school scores were significantly (P < 0.001 correlated with the final integrated examination, predictability was only 6.8%. Scores for the United Arab Emirates university placement assessment (Common Educational Proficiency Assessment were only slightly more promising as predictors with 14.9% predictability for the final integrated examination. Each unit or module in the first four years was highly correlated with the next unit or module, with 25%–60% predictability. Course examination scores (end of years 2, 4, and 6 were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with the average scores in that 2-year period (59.3%, 64.8%, and 55.8% predictability, respectively. Final integrated examination scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with National Board of Medical Examiners scores (35% predictability. Multivariate linear regression identified key grades with the greatest predictability of the final integrated examination score at three stages in the program.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it may be possible to identify “at-risk” students relatively early in their studies through continuous data archiving and regular analysis. The data analysis techniques used in this study are not unique to this institution.Keywords: at-risk students, grade

  10. Medication adherence, comorbidities, and health risk impacts on workforce absence and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppke, Ronald; Haufle, Vince; Jinnett, Kim; Parry, Thomas; Zhu, Jianping; Hymel, Pamela; Konicki, Doris

    2011-06-01

    To understand impacts of medication adherence, comorbidities, and health risks on workforce absence and job performance. Retrospective observational study using employees' medical/pharmacy claims and self-reported health risk appraisals. Statin medication adherence in individuals with Coronary Artery Disease was significant predictor (P absenteeism. Insulin, oral hypoglycemic, or metformin medication adherence in type 2 diabetics was significant (P performance. Number of comorbidities was found as significant (P absenteeism in five of nine subsamples. Significant links (P performance were found across all nine subsamples. Results suggest integrated health and productivity management strategies should include an emphasis on primary and secondary prevention to reduce health risks in addition to tertiary prevention efforts of disease management and medication management.

  11. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  12. The effect of near-peer tutoring on medical students' performance in anatomical and physiological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Katrina M; Northey, Emily E; Khalil, Mohammed K

    2017-10-01

    Healthcare professional schools across the world are implementing near-peer tutoring (NPT) programs owing to numerous benefits to both tutors and tutees. This study determined whether higher attendance at NPT sessions led to improvements in course grades for high and low performing students. Fourth-year medical students used the USMLE Step 1 question format to tutor first-year medical students during the second half of the Structure and Function (SF) module, i.e., SF2. Attendance was recorded and students were accordingly divided into three groups: high, moderate, and low-no attendance. Students' performances in SF1 and SF2 were compared using Student's t-test. Differences among the three groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffé post hoc test (Ptutors highly. They also agreed that NPT prepared them for course exams and Step 1, but did not reduce anxiety and stress about Step 1. The positive effect of the NPT program resulted in its expansion to include all first-year modules. Clin. Anat. 30:922-928, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of medical research performance--position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists' careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific "impact" rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. With the

  14. Medical Students Circadian Sleep Rhythms and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pérez-Olmos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate, with a preliminarystudy, the distribution of circadian rhythms, sleepschedule patterns and their relationship withacademic performance on medical students.Methodology: in this descriptive study, a 10 itemoriginal questionnaire about sleep rhythms andacademic performance was applied to medicalstudents from different semesters. Week (classtime and weekend schedules, preferences,daytime somnolence and academic performancewere asked. Three chronotypes (morningness,intermediate and eveningness were definedamong waking-sleeping preference, difficulty tosleep early, exam preparation preference hour and real sleep schedule. The sleep hour deficit perweek night was also calculated. Results: Of the318 medical students that answered the questionnaire,62.6% corresponded to intermediatechronotypes, 8.8% to evening-type and 28.7%to morning-type. Significant difference wasfound among the two chronotype tails (p=0.000,Chi-square 31.13. No correlation was foundbetween academic performance and age, sex,chronotype, week sleep deficit and sleep hours inweek and weekends. A 71.1% of the students slept6 or fewer hours during class time and 78% hada sleep deficit (more frequent in the eveningchronotype. Conclusions: No relation was foundbetween sleep chronotype and academic performance.Students tend to morningness. Fewstudies have been made on equatorial zones orwithout seasons.

  15. Gifted students' academic performance in medical school: a study of Olympiad winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the performance of academically talented students (i.e., those who received awards in Olympiads, the international competitions for gifted students in science or mathematics) in medical school. The goal is to investigate whether students exceptionally talented in science and mathematics excel in medical school. A retrospective analysis of 13 cohorts of medical students (N = 475) was conducted to compare learning outcomes of academically talented students (ATS) with their peers in terms of their grade point averages (GPAs) and national licensing exam (KMLE) scores. ATS outperformed their peers in total GPAs (p success in medical school, even among those with exceptional talent. Better understanding of nonacademic factors associated with medical school performance is warranted to improve our selection processes and to better help academically talented students succeed in medical school.

  16. Differences in medical students' academic interest and performance across career choice motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Hwang, Jee Y; Kwon, Bum S

    2016-02-15

    To investigate medical students' career choice motivation and its relationship with their academic interest and performance. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample (n=207) of medical students at a private medical school in Korea, stratified by year of medical course. Data about participant demographics, career choice motivation and academic interest were collected using a self-report questionnaire. The item on career choice motivation enquired about the respondents' main reason for applying for medical school among 8 possible response options, which comprised two components of career choice motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. The participants' levels of academic interest were measured in a Likert-type question. Participants' academic interest and Grade Point Averages (GPAs) were compared across the groups of different career motivations along with analyses of their admission scores for baseline comparisons. A total of 195 students completed the questionnaire (94%response rate). Seventy-four percent, (n=145; the intrinsic group) of the participants chose reasons related to intrinsic motivation, 22% (n=42; the extrinsic group) chose reasons pertaining to extrinsic motivation, and 4% (n = 8) chose other reasons for applying to medical school. The intrinsic group outperformed the extrinsic group in their GPAs, although their prior academic achievements did not differ significantly. The intrinsic group showed significantly higher levels of academic interest and also performed better in the admission interviews. Our study illustrates differences in medical students' academic interest and performance across career choice motivations. Further research is warranted to establish the predictive power of medical students' career choice motivation and academic interest on their academic performance.

  17. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  18. Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, A F; van de Ven, J; Merién, A E R; de Wit-Zuurendonk, L D; Houterman, S; Mol, B W; Oei, S G

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether obstetric team training in a medical simulation centre improves the team performance and utilisation of appropriate medical technical skills of healthcare professionals. Cluster randomised controlled trial. The Netherlands. The obstetric departments of 24 Dutch hospitals. The obstetric departments were randomly assigned to a 1-day session of multiprofessional team training in a medical simulation centre or to no such training. Team training was given with high-fidelity mannequins by an obstetrician and a communication expert. More than 6 months following training, two unannounced simulated scenarios were carried out in the delivery rooms of all 24 obstetric departments. The scenarios, comprising a case of shoulder dystocia and a case of amniotic fluid embolism, were videotaped. The team performance and utilisation of appropriate medical skills were evaluated by two independent experts. Team performance evaluated with the validated Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS) and the employment of two specific obstetric procedures for the two clinical scenarios in the simulation (delivery of the baby with shoulder dystocia in the maternal all-fours position and conducting a perimortem caesarean section within 5 minutes for the scenario of amniotic fluid embolism). Seventy-four obstetric teams from 12 hospitals in the intervention group underwent teamwork training between November 2009 and July 2010. The teamwork performance in the training group was significantly better in comparison to the nontraining group (median CTS score: 7.5 versus 6.0, respectively; P = 0.014). The use of the predefined obstetric procedures for the two clinical scenarios was also significantly more frequent in the training group compared with the nontraining group (83 versus 46%, respectively; P = 0.009). Team performance and medical technical skills may be significantly improved after multiprofessional obstetric team training in a medical simulation centre. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An

  19. Academic performance in Iranian medical students during the pre-clinical stage

    OpenAIRE

    Davoudi, Farnoush; Esmaeeli, Shooka; AhmadzadAsl, Masoud; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Better understanding of factors associated with medical school performance is necessary to improve admission processes and to help students succeed in their career. This study follows a group of Iranian med students during their first 2.5 years of medical education, to evaluate their academic success in accordance with their demographic, cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics. Methods: 143 of 200 matriculants of Iran University of Medical Sciences medical school in 2010, were...

  20. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Royle, G.; Blue, A.; Liang, H. X.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R.

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525x525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25x25 μm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10 5 electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 μm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at ∼0.44 μC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a:Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled to structured CsI:Tl can

  1. Performance Anxiety at English PBL Groups Among Taiwanese Medical Students: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Sheng Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  2. Factors that affect medical students' performance in Anatomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Much attention has been drawn to the area of medical education in contemporary times with the aim of developing effective teaching strategies in our medical schools. Objectives: To identify the problems encountered by students in the study of Anatomy and suggest ways of enhancing their performance in the ...

  3. Analysis of Factors that Predict Clinical Performance in Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Casey B.; Dey, Eric L.; Fantone, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT…

  4. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students' Poor Performance in Prescription Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Tayem, Yasin I; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  5. Performance evaluation of emerging JPEGXR compression standard for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Medical images require loss less compression as a small error due to lossy compression may be considered as a diagnostic error. JPEG XR is the latest image compression standard designed for variety of applications and has a support for lossy and loss less modes. This paper provides in-depth performance evaluation of latest JPEGXR with existing image coding standards for medical images using loss less compression. Various medical images are used for evaluation and ten images of each organ are tested. Performance of JPEGXR is compared with JPEG2000 and JPEGLS using mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, mean absolute error and structural similarity index. JPEGXR shows improvement of 20.73 dB and 5.98 dB over JPEGLS and JPEG2000 respectively for various test images used in experimentation. (author)

  6. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-cost users of medical care

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, Steven A.; Riley, Gerald F.; Iannacchione, Vincent G.

    1988-01-01

    Based on data from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey, the 10 percent of the noninstitutionalized U.S. population that incurred the highest medical care charges was responsible for 75 percent of all incurred charges. Health status was the strongest predictor of high-cost use, followed by economic factors. Persons 65 years of age or over incurred far higher costs than younger persons and had higher out-of-pocket costs, absolutely and as a percentage of income, althoug...

  8. Medical group affiliations: interorganizational relationships and organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Fottler, Myron D; Blair, John D

    2003-01-01

    The hyperturbulent health care environment is causing health care organizations to create interorganizational relationships (IORs). This article reports on a study of 686 medical groups that assessed how 11 types of IORs affected 7 dimensions of organizational performance. Organizational performance was ascertained through self-reported questions about performance relative to local market competitors. Respondents believed that, to varying degrees, all IORs lead to a competitive advantage over local competitors in all seven performance categories. There was no consistent pattern for either loose or tight linkages to be associated with superior performance. Consequently, loose linkages may be preferable to tighter linkages (i.e., membership in a fully integrated delivery system) that require higher levels of resource commitment.

  9. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  10. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%. The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%, treatment duration (69.4%, drug quantity (69.4% and drug formulation (68.2%. Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%. During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%, lack of interest (50.3%, reliance on peers for information (48.4% and optional attendance policies (47.1%. Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  11. Factors affecting the performance of undergraduate medical students: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66% students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor. Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance.

  12. Performance Issues in High Performance Fortran Implementations of Sensor-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. O'hallaron

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications that get their inputs from sensors are an important and often overlooked application domain for High Performance Fortran (HPF. Such sensor-based applications typically perform regular operations on dense arrays, and often have latency and through put requirements that can only be achieved with parallel machines. This article describes a study of sensor-based applications, including the fast Fourier transform, synthetic aperture radar imaging, narrowband tracking radar processing, multibaseline stereo imaging, and medical magnetic resonance imaging. The applications are written in a dialect of HPF developed at Carnegie Mellon, and are compiled by the Fx compiler for the Intel Paragon. The main results of the study are that (1 it is possible to realize good performance for realistic sensor-based applications written in HPF and (2 the performance of the applications is determined by the performance of three core operations: independent loops (i.e., loops with no dependences between iterations, reductions, and index permutations. The article discusses the implications for HPF implementations and introduces some simple tests that implementers and users can use to measure the efficiency of the loops, reductions, and index permutations generated by an HPF compiler.

  13. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF RESEARCH PROJECT ACTIVITIES PERFORMED AT MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES IN BULGARIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Garov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are five Bulgarian medical universities in the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Pleven and Stara Zagora. A major priority of medical universities is to encourage research activities mainly aimed at preparation and implementation of research projects. Projects are managed by the participating organizations called “beneficiaries”. Beneficiaries develop projects, apply for finances and if approved they implement those projects.Aim: The purpose of our study is to examine the organizational structure of research project activities on the macro level and on the micro level in Bulgarian medical universities.Material and methods: In order to define the separate elements of the organizational structure and to analyze the relations and interaction between them we have applied a documentary and sociological approach. Results: During the last six years there was a significant increase in the number and the overall annual financial value of the projects performed at medical universities in Bulgaria. The reasons for such increase are: managers realizing the advantages of and benefits from the implementation of research projects ensuring high quality modernization of research units’ equipment and facilities; access to innovative technologies; development of interdisciplinary relations, etc. Benefits arising from improved results motivate us to consider as appropriate some additional investments aimed at increasing the number of team members and further optimization of the currently existing structures (research centers in charge of research with the purpose of achieving even better results in this particular field. Conclusion: The role of research project activities in medical universities’ research field is of vital importance for the educational institutions’ success. Taking into consideration the changed conditions, European possibilities and the highly competitive environment, realizing this aspect will be essential for the

  14. In search of novel, high performance and intelligent materials for applications in severe and unconditioned environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyeabour Ayensu, A. I.; Normeshie, C. M. K.

    2007-01-01

    For extreme operating conditions in aerospace, nuclear power plants and medical applications, novel materials have become more competitive over traditional materials because of the unique characteristics. Extensive research programmes are being undertaken to develop high performance and knowledge-intensive new materials, since existing materials cannot meet the stringent technological requirements of advanced materials for emerging industries. The technologies of intermetallic compounds, nanostructural materials, advanced composites, and photonics materials are presented. In addition, medical biomaterial implants of high functional performance based on biocompatibility, resistance against corrosion and degradation, and for applications in hostile environment of human body are discussed. The opportunities for African researchers to collaborate in international research programmes to develop local raw materials into high performance materials are also highlighted. (au)

  15. Medical Student Psychiatry Examination Performance at VA and Non-VA Clerkship Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Phebe; von Schlageter, Margo Shultes; Park, EunMi; Rosenberg, Emily; Benjamin, Ashley B.; Nawar, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the effects of medical student assignment to U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center inpatient and outpatient psychiatry clerkship sites versus other university and community sites on the performance outcome measure of National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject examination scores. Methods:…

  16. Self-perceived readiness of medical interns in performing basic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIN Yiga

    frequently performed initial management of open fractures, application of plaster ... dehydration (92.7%) in patients in Paediatrics were the most frequently .... Medical and Dental Professions Board, Health Professions Council of South Africa.

  17. Differential effects of two types of formative assessment in predicting performance of first-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasne, Sally; Wimmers, Paul F; Relan, Anju; Drake, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    Formative assessments are systematically designed instructional interventions to assess and provide feedback on students' strengths and weaknesses in the course of teaching and learning. Despite their known benefits to student attitudes and learning, medical school curricula have been slow to integrate such assessments into the curriculum. This study investigates how performance on two different modes of formative assessment relate to each other and to performance on summative assessments in an integrated, medical-school environment. Two types of formative assessment were administered to 146 first-year medical students each week over 8 weeks: a timed, closed-book component to assess factual recall and image recognition, and an un-timed, open-book component to assess higher order reasoning including the ability to identify and access appropriate resources and to integrate and apply knowledge. Analogous summative assessments were administered in the ninth week. Models relating formative and summative assessment performance were tested using Structural Equation Modeling. Two latent variables underlying achievement on formative and summative assessments could be identified; a "formative-assessment factor" and a "summative-assessment factor," with the former predicting the latter. A latent variable underlying achievement on open-book formative assessments was highly predictive of achievement on both open- and closed-book summative assessments, whereas a latent variable underlying closed-book assessments only predicted performance on the closed-book summative assessment. Formative assessments can be used as effective predictive tools of summative performance in medical school. Open-book, un-timed assessments of higher order processes appeared to be better predictors of overall summative performance than closed-book, timed assessments of factual recall and image recognition.

  18. [Development of performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Huang, Shui-Sheng; Gong, Xin-Guo; Cen, Li-Ping; Zhang, Cong; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Jun-Jing; Chen, Li

    2012-04-01

    To construct a performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment, and analyze and evaluate the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment over the years. By applying the database management technique and C++ programming technique, we inputted the information of the advanced schistosomiasis cases into the system, and comprehensively evaluated the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment through the cost-effect analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. We made a set of software formula about cost-effect analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. This system had many features such as clear building, easy to operate, friendly surface, convenient information input and information search. It could benefit the performance evaluation of the province's advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work. This system can satisfy the current needs of advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work and can be easy to be widely used.

  19. A performance improvement plan to increase nurse adherence to use of medication safety software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriloff, Carrie

    2012-08-01

    Nurses can protect patients receiving intravenous (IV) medication by using medication safety software to program "smart" pumps to administer IV medications. After a patient safety event identified inconsistent use of medication safety software by nurses, a performance improvement team implemented the Deming Cycle performance improvement methodology. The combined use of improved direct care nurse communication, programming strategies, staff education, medication safety champions, adherence monitoring, and technology acquisition resulted in a statistically significant (p < .001) increase in nurse adherence to using medication safety software from 28% to above 85%, exceeding national benchmark adherence rates (Cohen, Cooke, Husch & Woodley, 2007; Carefusion, 2011). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Family-centered rounds and medical student performance on the NBME pediatrics subject (shelf) examination: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Tiffany N; Heh, Victor; Wijesooriya, N Romesh; Ryan, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between family-centered rounds (FCR) and medical student knowledge acquisition as assessed by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) pediatric subject (shelf) exam. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of third-year medical students who graduated from Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine between 2009 and 2014. This timeframe represented the transition from 'traditional' rounds to FCR on the pediatric inpatient unit. Data collected included demographics, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 scores, and NBME subject examinations in pediatrics (PSE), medicine (MSE), and surgery (SSE). Eight hundred and sixteen participants were included in the analysis. Student performance on the PSE could not be statistically differentiated from performance on the MSE for any year except 2011 (z-score=-0.17, p=0.02). Average scores on PSE for years 2009, 2010, 2013, and 2014 were significantly higher than for SSE, but not significantly different for all other years. The PSE was highly correlated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 examinations (correlation range 0.56-0.77) for all years. Our results showed no difference in PSE performance during a time in which our institution transitioned to FCR. These findings should be reassuring for students, attending physicians, and medical educators.

  1. The relation between flexibility of human resources and performance indexes of selected hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Alibakhshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, flexibility has turned to one of important issues in management theories and policies and most current discussions about flexibility patterns focus on management policies, so that these patterns are one of important aspects of human resources strategic management. This study was performed with the aim of assessing the flexibility rate of human resources and performance indexes of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals and determining the possible relation between these variables. The present study is descriptive – analytical which was conducted in cross-sectional form in 2015. The statistical population was selected by stratifies random sampling method as 317 persons from nursing, administrative and financial personnel of 5 hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University. Data collecting toll was hospitals performance indexes form and Wright & Snell flexibility questionnaire of human resources. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software and with the aid of descriptive statistical indexes and linear regression analysis. The results showed that personnel ( human resources had high flexibility = 4.16.\tthere was a significant relation between total flexibility and the index of bed circulation so that by one unit increase in bed circulation space, normally, the average of total flexibility decreased 0.64 units ( p-value<0.05. The results showed that human resources of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals have high flexibility, so authorities and policy makers are suggested to adopt policies of human resources management for creating flexibility in human resources and improving hospitals performance and amending hospitals status.

  2. Characteristics of Orthopedic Publications in High-Impact General Medical Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Lehman, Jason D; Lyman, Stephen; Marx, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Orthopedic studies are occasionally published in high-impact general medical journals; these studies are often given high visibility and have significant potential to impact health care policy and inform clinical decision-making. The purpose of this review was to investigate the characteristics of operative orthopedic studies published in high-impact medical journals. The number of orthopedic studies published in high-impact medical journals is relatively low; however, these studies demonstrate methodological characteristics that may bias toward nonoperative treatment. Careful analysis and interpretation of orthopedic studies published in these journals is warranted. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e405-e412.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. An analysis of radiological research publications in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, You Jin; Yoon, Dae Young; Yun, Eun Joo; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Radiologists published only 0.2% of articles in five general medical journals. ► Most original articles from radiologists were funded and were prospective studies. ► Radiology researchers from only 11 countries published at least one original article. -- Abstract: Objective: To evaluate scientific papers published by radiologists in high impact general medical journals between 1996 and 2010. Methods: A MEDLINE search was performed in five high impact general medical journals (AIM, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and NEJM) for all articles of which a radiologist was the first author between 1996 and 2010. The following information was abstracted from the original articles: radiological subspecialty, imaging technique used, type of research, sample size, study design, statistical analysis, study outcome, declared funding, number of authors, collaboration, and country of the first author. Results: Of 216 (0.19%) articles were published by radiologists in five general medical journals between 1996 and 2010, 83 were original articles. Fifteen (18.1%) original articles were concerned with the field of vascular/interventional radiology, 24 (28.9%) used combined imaging techniques, 76 (91.6%) were clinical research, 63 (75.9%) had a sample size of >50, 65 (78.3%) were prospective, 78 (94.0%) performed statistical analysis, 83 (100%) showed positive study outcomes, 57 (68.7%) were funded, 49 (59.0%) had from four to seven authors, and 79 (95.2%) were collaborative studies. Conclusions: A very small number (0.19%) in five high impact general medical journals was published by radiologists between 1996 and 2010

  4. Engagement Patterns of High and Low Academic Performers on Facebook Anatomy Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood; Eladl, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies have investigated how students use and respond to social networks in the educational context as opposed to social use. In this study, the engagement of medical students on anatomy Facebook pages was evaluated in view of their academic performance. High performers contributed to most of the engagements. They also had a particular preference for higher levels of engagement. Although the students were deeply involved in the educational element of the pages, they continued to appreciate the inherent social element. The profound engagement of the high performers indicated a consistency between Facebook use in the educational context and better student performance. At the same time, the deeper engagement of high performers refutes the opinion that Facebook use is a distractor. Instead, it supports the notion that Facebook could be a suitable platform to engage students in an educational context.

  5. Cognitive Performance Is Highly Stable over a 2-Year-Follow-Up in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in a Dedicated Medical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, Janine; Todica, Olga; Seidel, Ulla K; Volsek, Michaela; Kribben, Andreas; Bruck, Heike; Hermann, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    As kidney and brain functions decline with aging, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and dementia are becoming increasing health burdens worldwide. Among the risk factors for cognitive impairment, CKD is increasingly recognized. The precise impact of CKD on the development of cognitive impairment is poorly understood. In the New Tools for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease (NTCVD) cohort, which was recruited in a dedicated nephrology department, we examined the 2-year course of cognitive performance in 120 patients (73 patients with CKD stages 3-5D, 47 control patients without CKD with similar vascular risk profile) using a comprehensive battery of 10 neuropsychological tests. Kidney function, vascular risk factors and cognitive performance were highly stable both in CKD and control patients. The summary score of cognitive performance in CKD patients was very similar at baseline (z = -0.63±0.76) and follow-up (z = -0.54±0.79, p = 0.113), as was cognitive performance in control patients (z = -0.01±0.59 and 0.01±0.70, p = 0.862, at baseline and follow-up, respectively). Total serum cholesterol (199.6±36.0 and 186.0±32.9, p = 0.005 in controls; 194.4±46.1 and 181.2±41.2, p = 0.008 in CKD) and common carotid intima-media thickness (0.87±0.18 and 0.84±0.17, p = 0.351 in controls; 0.88±0.21 and 0.82±0.16, p = 0.002 in CKD) moderately but significantly decreased during the follow-up. In multivariable regression analyses, high age (β = -0.28, 95%CI = -0.48 to 0.08, p = 0.007) predicted decrease in cognitive performance. In this well-defined cohort receiving state-of-the-art therapy, cognitive performance did not decrease over 2 years. Our data emphasize the aspect of risk factor control, suggesting that dedicated medical care might prevent cognitive decline in CKD patients.

  6. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Yanting; Liu, Shanshan; Lou, Jiquan; Ding, Ye; Liang, Hong; Gu, Jianjun; Jing, Yuan; Fu, Hua; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs) has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China. A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model. We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM). The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance. It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  7. Sleep Quality and Academic Performance Among Medical College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Kadhim Al-Humairi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Sleep plays a very important role in a human health. Poor sleep quality remains as a frequent feature of student life. Quantity and quality of sleep in addition to average sleep time are strongly linked with students’ learning abilities and academic performance. Subjects and method:The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to assess sleep quality among medical college students – University of Babylon using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. This study was done during April 2016. Results:Mean age of students was (20.63 ± 0.65. Majority was female. According to PSQI(60.4% of students were poor sleeper. Significant association between quality of sleep and academic performance was found in our study, (72.9% of those fail in one or more subjects have poor sleep quality. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was regarded as an important problem among medical college students. Majority of students (60.4% was poor sleepers. Our study shows significant relation between sleep quality and academic performance among students of Babylon University –College of Medicine.

  8. Undergraduate medical academic performance is improved by scientific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-09-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and molecular biology, cell biology, physiology, and even English. We classified scientific training into four levels. We found that literature reading could significantly improve students' test scores in general courses. Students who received scientific training carried out experiments more effectively and published articles performed better than their untrained counterparts in biochemistry and molecular biology examinations. The questionnaire survey demonstrated that the trained students were more confident of their course learning, and displayed more interest, motivation and capability in course learning. In summary, undergraduate academic performance is improved by scientific training. Our findings shed light on the novel strategies in the management of undergraduate education in the medical school. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):379-384, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Analysis of scalability of high-performance 3D image processing platform for virtual colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Wu, Yin; Cai, Wenli

    2014-03-19

    One of the key challenges in three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging is to enable the fast turn-around time, which is often required for interactive or real-time response. This inevitably requires not only high computational power but also high memory bandwidth due to the massive amount of data that need to be processed. For this purpose, we previously developed a software platform for high-performance 3D medical image processing, called HPC 3D-MIP platform, which employs increasingly available and affordable commodity computing systems such as the multicore, cluster, and cloud computing systems. To achieve scalable high-performance computing, the platform employed size-adaptive, distributable block volumes as a core data structure for efficient parallelization of a wide range of 3D-MIP algorithms, supported task scheduling for efficient load distribution and balancing, and consisted of a layered parallel software libraries that allow image processing applications to share the common functionalities. We evaluated the performance of the HPC 3D-MIP platform by applying it to computationally intensive processes in virtual colonoscopy. Experimental results showed a 12-fold performance improvement on a workstation with 12-core CPUs over the original sequential implementation of the processes, indicating the efficiency of the platform. Analysis of performance scalability based on the Amdahl's law for symmetric multicore chips showed the potential of a high performance scalability of the HPC 3D-MIP platform when a larger number of cores is available.

  10. Physician medical direction and clinical performance at an established emergency medical services system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Marc-David; White, Shaun D; Perry, Malcolm L; Platt, Thomas E; Hardan, Mohammed S; Stoy, Walt A

    2009-01-01

    Few developed emergency medical services (EMS) systems operate without dedicated medical direction. We describe the experience of Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) EMS, which in 2007 first engaged an EMS medical director to develop and implement medical direction and quality assurance programs. We report subsequent changes to system performance over time. Over one year, changes to the service's clinical infrastructure were made: Policies were revised, paramedic scopes of practice were adjusted, evidence-based clinical protocols were developed, and skills maintenance and education programs were implemented. Credentialing, physician chart auditing, clinical remediation, and online medical command/hospital notification systems were introduced. Following these interventions, we report associated improvements to key indicators: Chart reviews revealed significant improvements in clinical quality. A comparison of pre- and post-intervention audited charts reveals a decrease in cases requiring remediation (11% to 5%, odds ratio [OR] 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.85], p = 0.01). The proportion of charts rated as clinically acceptable rose from 48% to 84% (OR 6 [95% CI 3.9-9.1], p < 0.001). The proportion of misplaced endotracheal tubes fell (3.8% baseline to 0.6%, OR 0.16 [95% CI 0.004-1.06], (exact) p = 0.05), corresponding to improved adherence to an airway placement policy mandating use of airway confirmation devices and securing devices (0.7% compliance to 98%, OR 714 [95% CI 64-29,334], (exact) p < 0.001). Intravenous catheter insertion in unstable cases increased from 67% of cases to 92% (OR 1.31 [95% CI 1.09-1.71], p = 0.004). EMS administration of aspirin to patients with suspected ischemic chest pain improved from 2% to 77% (OR 178 [95% CI 35-1,604], p < 0.001). We suggest that implementation of a physician medical direction is associated with improved clinical indicators and overall quality of care at an established EMS system.

  11. Older medical students' performances at McGill University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, D; Kristian, M; Mitchell, N

    1998-01-01

    To compare admission data and academic performances of medical students younger and older than 25, and to qualify older students' experiences and perceptions in medical school. The authors reviewed 1988-1991 data for applications to the McGill University Faculty of Medicine. Data included GPAs and MCAT scores, as well as ratings for reference letters, autobiographical statements, and interviews. For those same years, the authors measured students' academic performances in the preclinical and clinical years. The authors compared the data by students' age: "younger" students, aged 17 to 24; and "older" students, aged 25 and above. All enrolled students took the Derogatis Stress Profile, and the older students participated in focus groups. The older applicants had lower GPAs and MCAT scores, but higher interview and reference letter ratings. For older accepted students, basic science course scores were lower than those of younger students, but clinical scores did not differ significantly between the groups. The two groups had similar stress levels, although older students tested lower in driven behavior, relaxation potential, attitude posture, and hostility. In focus groups, the older students spoke of learning style differences, loss of social support, and loss of professional identity. Different scores in admission criteria suggest that McGill uses different standards to select older medical students. Older students admitted under different criteria, however, do just as well as do younger students by their clinical years. A broad-based study of admission criteria and outcomes for the older student population is warranted.

  12. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  13. Coccidiosis and performance in broilers with anticoccidial medicated feed starting at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa C.A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of age, litter reutilization, and anticoccidial programs were studied in broilers. The oocyst counts increased with litter reutilization up to third use, and T1 (no anticoccidial drug over the entire 42-day-period and T4 (anticoccidial medication starting from the first day showed the highest counts. The scores for Eimeria acervulina increased up to third use of litter and declined by the fourth use. The scores for E. maxima increased from first to second litter use, and from this to third and fourth use. The scores for E. tenella increased from first and second litter use to third litter use, and declined on fourth use. With high coccidial contamination, as in third use litter, the anticoccidial medication starting from the 1st, 7th (T3 and 14th (T2 day of age presented similar results of lesion scores and average weight gain. When coccidial contamination was low or moderate, as in first, second and fourth use litter, the anticoccidial medication starting at 14 days of age tended to result in a better broiler performance. These data suggest that, with low coccidial challenge, as in broilers raised in first use litter and in farms with single bird age, the delayed anticoccidial medication may provide advantages over the full medication starting from the first day of age.

  14. Engagement Patterns of High and Low Academic Performers on Facebook Anatomy Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Abood Jaffar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have investigated how students use and respond to social networks in the educational context as opposed to social use. In this study, the engagement of medical students on anatomy Facebook pages was evaluated in view of their academic performance. High performers contributed to most of the engagements. They also had a particular preference for higher levels of engagement. Although the students were deeply involved in the educational element of the pages, they continued to appreciate the inherent social element. The profound engagement of the high performers indicated a consistency between Facebook use in the educational context and better student performance. At the same time, the deeper engagement of high performers refutes the opinion that Facebook use is a distractor. Instead, it supports the notion that Facebook could be a suitable platform to engage students in an educational context.

  15. How to create high-performing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    This article is intended to discuss inspirational aspects on how to lead a high-performance team. Cogent topics discussed include how to hire staff through methods of "topgrading" with reference to Geoff Smart and "getting the right people on the bus" referencing Jim Collins' work. In addition, once the staff is hired, this article covers how to separate the "eagles from the ducks" and how to inspire one's staff by creating the right culture with suggestions for further reading by Don Miguel Ruiz (The four agreements) and John Maxwell (21 Irrefutable laws of leadership). In addition, Simon Sinek's concept of "Start with Why" is elaborated to help a leader know what the core element should be with any superior culture. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  16. Using Mind Maps to Improve Medical Student Performance in a Pharmacology Course at Kunming Medical University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guo; Jianping, Xie; Haiyun, Luo; Xia, Li; Jianyu, Yang; Qun, Xuan; Jianyun, Yu

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether students using mind maps would improve their performance in a final examination at the end of lecture-based pharmacology course. Aquasi-experimental study. Kunming Medical University, from September 2014 to January 2015. One hundred and twenty-two (122) third year undergraduate medical students, starting a 48-hour lecturebased pharmacology course, volunteered to use mind maps as one of their study strategies (intervention group), while the remaining 100 students in the class continued to use their usual study strategies (control group) over the duration of the course. The performance of both groups in the final course examination was compared. Students in the intervention group also completed a questionnaire on the usefulness of mind maps during the course and in preparation for the final examination. The students' performance of intervention group was superior to performance of the control group in all parts of a multi-modal final examination. For the multiple choice questions and comprehensive scores, average marks of 45.97 ±7.22 and 68.07 ±12.77, respectively were acquired by the control group, and 51.77 ±4.95 (pcontrol group, and were all significantly higher at 8.00 (4.00) (p=0.024), 10.00 (2.00) (pmind maps helped them to prepare more efficiently for the final exam; 90.91% believed that mind maps helped them to better understand all of pharmacology. Ninety-one percent also thought that mind maps would help them to better understand other disciplines, and 86.36% students would like the lecturers to utilize mind mapping as an alternative to conventional teaching formats, such as the use of Power Point. The addition of mind maps to students' study of pharmacology at Kunming Medical University improved their performance in all aspects of a multi-modal final examination.

  17. Simulation-based rhomboid flap skills training during medical education: comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Saad-Hossne, Rogerio; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    To assess if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of rhomboid flap skills by medical students. Sixty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed Limberg rhomboid flap skills training: didactic materials (control group 1), low-fidelity rubberized line (group 2) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (group 3) bench models; high-fidelity chicken leg skin (group 4) or pig foot skin (group 5) bench models. Pretests and posttests were applied, and Global Rating Scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence were used to evaluate all flap performances. Medical students from groups 2 to 5 showed better flap performances based on the Global Rating Scale (all P 0.05). The magnitude of the effect was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements. There was acquisition of rhomboid flap skills regardless of bench model fidelity.

  18. Enhanced Performance of Community Health Service Centers during Medical Reforms in Pudong New District of Shanghai, China: A Longitudinal Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Sun

    Full Text Available The performance of community health service centers (CHSCs has not been well monitored and analysed since China's latest community health reforms in 2009. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the performing trends of the CHSCs and to analyze the main factors that could affect the performance in Pudong new district of Shanghai, China.A regional performance assessment indicator system was applied to the evaluation of Pudong CHSCs' performance from 2011 to 2013. All of the data were sorted out by a panel, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a generalized estimating equation model.We found that the overall performance increased annually, with a growing number of CHSCs achieving high scores. Significant differences were observed in institutional management, public health services, basic medical services and comprehensive satisfaction during the period of three years. However, we found no differences in the service scores of Chinese traditional medicine (CTM. The investigation also demonstrated that the key factors affecting performance were the location, information system level, family GP program and medical association program rather than the size of the center. However, the medical association participation appeared to have a significant negative effect on performance.It can be concluded from the three-year investigation that the overall performance was improved, but that it could have been further enhanced, especially in institutional management and basic medical service; therefore, it is imperative that CHSCs undertake approaches such as optimizing the resource allocation and utilization, reinforcing the establishment of the information system level, extending the family GP program to more local communities, and promoting the medical association initiative.

  19. Organizing NPD networks for high innovation performance: the case of Dutch medical devices SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullen, A.J.J.; Groen, Arend J.; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; Fisscher, O.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This research examines which combination of network characteristics (the network configuration) leads to high innovation performance for small and medium sized companies (SMEs). Even though research has paid significant attention to the relation between the external network and the innovation

  20. High-performance teams and the physician leader: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majmudar, Aalap; Jain, Anshu K; Chaudry, Joseph; Schwartz, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of health care delivery within the United States continues to escalate in an exponential fashion driven by an explosion of medical technology, an ever-expanding research enterprise, and a growing emphasis on evidence-based practices. The delivery of care occurs on a continuum that spans across multiple disciplines, now requiring complex coordination of care through the use of novel clinical teams. The use of teams permeates the health care industry and has done so for many years, but confusion about the structure and role of teams in many organizations contributes to limited effectiveness and suboptimal outcomes. Teams are an essential component of graduate medical education training programs. The health care industry's relative lack of focus regarding the fundamentals of teamwork theory has contributed to ineffective team leadership at the physician level. As a follow-up to our earlier manuscripts on teamwork, this article clarifies a model of teamwork and discusses its application to high-performance teams in health care organizations. Emphasized in this discussion is the role played by the physician leader in ensuring team effectiveness. By educating health care professionals on the fundamentals of high-performance teamwork, we hope to stimulate the development of future physician leaders who use proven teamwork principles to achieve the goals of trainee education and excellent patient care. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical students' clinical performance of dealing with patients in the context of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyun-Hee; Im, Sunju; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Do-Kyong; Roh, HyeRin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to inquire about the clinical performance and determine the performance pattern of medical students in standardized patient (SP) based examinations of domestic violence (DV). The clinical performance sores in DV station with SP of third-year (n=111, in 2014) and 4th-year (n=143, in 2016) medical students of five universities in the Busan-Gyeongnam Clinical Skills Examination Consortium were subjected in this study. The scenarios and checklists of DV cases were developed by the case development committee of the consortium. The students' performance was compared with other stations encountered in SP. The items of the checklists were categorized to determine the performance pattern of students investigating DV into six domains: disclosure strategy (D), DV related history taking (H), checking the perpetrator's psychosocial state (P), checking the victim's condition (V), negotiating and persuading the interviewee (N), and providing information about DV (I). Medical students showed poorer performance in DV stations than in the other stations with SP in the same examination. Most students did confirm the perpetrator and commented on confidentiality but ignored the perpetrator's state and patient's physical and psychological condition. The students performed well in the domains of D, H, and I but performed poorly in domains P, V, and N. Medical students showed poor clinical performance in the DV station. They performed an 'event oriented interview' rather than 'patient centered' communication. An integrated educational program of DV should be set to improve students' clinical performance.

  2. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years. Relationship with stress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed A; Wali, Siraj O; Merdad, Roah A; Merdad, Leena A

    2016-02-01

    To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320) were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep.

  3. Undergraduate Medical Academic Performance is Improved by Scientific Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Chong; Liu, Zhongming; Cai, Yunfei; Cao, Xingguo; He, Yushan; Liu, Guoxiang; Miao, Hongming

    2017-01-01

    The effect of scientific training on course learning in undergraduates is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the academic performance of undergraduate students with and without scientific training. The results show that scientific training improves students' test scores in general medical courses, such as biochemistry and…

  4. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  5. Resources for comparing the speed and performance of medical autocoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concept indexing is a popular method for characterizing medical text, and is one of the most important early steps in many data mining efforts. Concept indexing differs from simple word or phrase indexing because concepts are typically represented by a nomenclature code that binds a medical concept to all equivalent representations. A concept search on the term renal cell carcinoma would be expected to find occurrences of hypernephroma, and renal carcinoma (concept equivalents. The purpose of this study is to provide freely available resources to compare speed and performance among different autocoders. These tools consist of: 1 a public domain autocoder written in Perl (a free and open source programming language that installs on any operating system; 2 a nomenclature database derived from the unencumbered subset of the publicly available Unified Medical Language System; 3 a large corpus of autocoded output derived from a publicly available medical text. Methods A simple lexical autocoder was written that parses plain-text into a listing of all 1,2,3, and 4-word strings contained in text, assigning a nomenclature code for text strings that match terms in the nomenclature. The nomenclature used is the unencumbered subset of the 2003 Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. The unencumbered subset of UMLS was reduced to exclude homonymous one-word terms and proper names, resulting in a term/code data dictionary containing about a half million medical terms. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM, a 92+ Megabyte publicly available medical opus, was used as sample medical text for the autocoder. Results The autocoding Perl script is remarkably short, consisting of just 38 command lines. The 92+ Megabyte OMIM file was completely autocoded in 869 seconds on a 2.4 GHz processor (less than 10 seconds per Megabyte of text. The autocoded output file (9,540,442 bytes contains 367,963 coded terms from OMIM and is distributed with

  6. Statistical behavior of high doses in medical radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Adriana Elisa

    2014-01-01

    This work has as main purpose statistically estimating occupational exposure in medical diagnostic radiology in cases of high doses recorded in 2011 at national level. For statistical survey of this study, doses of 372 IOE's diagnostic radiology in different Brazilian states were evaluated. Data were extracted from the work of monograph (Research Methodology Of High Doses In Medical Radiodiagnostic) that contains the database's information Sector Management doses of IRD/CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The identification of these states allows the Sanitary Surveillance (VISA) responsible, becomes aware of events and work with programs to reduce these events. (author)

  7. The conceptual design of waste repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Naro

    2002-02-01

    Advisory Committee on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy reported the basic approach to the RI and Institute etc. wastes on March 2002. According to it, radioactive waste form medical, industrial and research facilities should be classified by their radioactivity properties and physical and chemical properties, and should be disposed in the appropriate types of repository with that classification. For the radioactive waste containing comparatively high radioactivity generated from reactors, NSC has established the Concentration limit for disposal. NSC is now discussing about the limit for the radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities containing comparatively high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) preliminary studied about the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities and discussed about the problems for design on H12. This study was started to consider those problems, and to develop the conceptual design of the repository for radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities. Safety assessment for that repository is also performed. The result of this study showed that radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities of high activity should be disposed in the repository that has higher performance of barrier system comparing with the vault type near surface facility. If the conditions of the natural barrier and the engineering barrier are clearer, optimization of the design will be possible. (author)

  8. Orthopedic board certification and physician performance: an analysis of medical malpractice, hospital disciplinary action, and state medical board disciplinary action rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Mininder S; Dichtel, Laura; Kasser, James R; Gebhardt, Mark C; Katz, Jeffery N

    2008-02-01

    Specialty board certification status has become the de facto standard of competency by which the profession and the public recognize physician specialists. However, the relationship between orthopedic board certification and physician performance has not been established. Rates of medical malpractice claims, hospital disciplinary actions, and state medical board disciplinary actions were compared between 1309 board-certified (BC) and 154 non-board-certified (NBC) orthopedic surgeons in 3 states. There was no significant difference between BC and NBC surgeons in medical malpractice claim proportions (BC, 19.1% NBC, 16.9% P = .586) or in hospital disciplinary action proportions (BC, 0.9% NBC, 0.8% P = 1.000). There was a significantly higher proportion of state medical board disciplinary action for NBC surgeons (BC, 7.6% NBC, 13.0% P = .028). An association between board certification status and physician performance is necessary to validate its status as the de facto standard of competency. In this study, BC surgeons had lower rates of state medical board disciplinary action.

  9. Writing, self-reflection, and medical school performance: the Human Context of Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Reamy, Brian V; Anderson, Denise; Olsen, Cara; Hemmer, Paul A; Durning, Steven J; Auster, Simon

    2012-09-01

    Finding ways to improve communication and self-reflection skills is an important element of medical education and continuing professional development. This study examines the relationship between self-reflection and educational outcomes. We correlate performance in a preclinical course that focuses on self-reflection as it relates to contextual elements of patient care (Human Context of Health Care), with educational measures such as overall grade point average, clinical clerkship scores, and Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. Student performance in Human Context of Health Care correlated with MCAT-Verbal scores, MCAT-writing sample scores, clerkship grades, and overall medical school grade point average (R = 0.3; p self-reflection skills are often neglected in undergraduate medical curricula. Our findings suggest that these skills are important and correlate with recognized long-term educational outcomes.

  10. Towards Building a High Performance Spatial Query System for Large Scale Medical Imaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Ablimit; Wang, Fusheng; Saltz, Joel H

    2012-11-06

    Support of high performance queries on large volumes of scientific spatial data is becoming increasingly important in many applications. This growth is driven by not only geospatial problems in numerous fields, but also emerging scientific applications that are increasingly data- and compute-intensive. For example, digital pathology imaging has become an emerging field during the past decade, where examination of high resolution images of human tissue specimens enables more effective diagnosis, prediction and treatment of diseases. Systematic analysis of large-scale pathology images generates tremendous amounts of spatially derived quantifications of micro-anatomic objects, such as nuclei, blood vessels, and tissue regions. Analytical pathology imaging provides high potential to support image based computer aided diagnosis. One major requirement for this is effective querying of such enormous amount of data with fast response, which is faced with two major challenges: the "big data" challenge and the high computation complexity. In this paper, we present our work towards building a high performance spatial query system for querying massive spatial data on MapReduce. Our framework takes an on demand index building approach for processing spatial queries and a partition-merge approach for building parallel spatial query pipelines, which fits nicely with the computing model of MapReduce. We demonstrate our framework on supporting multi-way spatial joins for algorithm evaluation and nearest neighbor queries for microanatomic objects. To reduce query response time, we propose cost based query optimization to mitigate the effect of data skew. Our experiments show that the framework can efficiently support complex analytical spatial queries on MapReduce.

  11. Development of a high resolution voxelised head phantom for medical physics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, V; Guatelli, S; Bazalova-Carter, M; Rosenfeld, A B; Schulte, R W

    2017-01-01

    Computational anthropomorphic phantoms have become an important investigation tool for medical imaging and dosimetry for radiotherapy and radiation protection. The development of computational phantoms with realistic anatomical features contribute significantly to the development of novel methods in medical physics. For many applications, it is desirable that such computational phantoms have a real-world physical counterpart in order to verify the obtained results. In this work, we report the development of a voxelised phantom, the HIGH_RES_HEAD, modelling a paediatric head based on the commercial phantom 715-HN (CIRS). HIGH_RES_HEAD is unique for its anatomical details and high spatial resolution (0.18×0.18mm 2 pixel size). The development of such a phantom was required to investigate the performance of a new proton computed tomography (pCT) system, in terms of detector technology and image reconstruction algorithms. The HIGH_RES_HEAD was used in an ad-hoc Geant4 simulation modelling the pCT system. The simulation application was previously validated with respect to experimental results. When compared to a standard spatial resolution voxelised phantom of the same paediatric head, it was shown that in pCT reconstruction studies, the use of the HIGH_RES_HEAD translates into a reduction from 2% to 0.7% of the average relative stopping power difference between experimental and simulated results thus improving the overall quality of the head phantom simulation. The HIGH_RES_HEAD can also be used for other medical physics applications such as treatment planning studies. A second version of the voxelised phantom was created that contains a prototypic base of skull tumour and surrounding organs at risk. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Ola

    2013-05-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration and microfiltration separation characteristics, but recently, there have been attempts to widen their pool of applications in nanofiltration processes. In this work, a novel method for preparing high performance composite RC membranes was developed. These membranes reveal molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of less than 250 daltons, which possibly put them ahead of all commercial RC membranes and in competition with high performance nanofiltration membranes. The membranes were prepared by acidic hydrolysis of dip-coated trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC) films. TMSC, with a degree of silylation (DS) of 2.8, was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose by reaction with hexamethyldisilazane under the homogeneous conditions of LiCl/DMAC solvent system. Effects of parameters, such as coating solution concentration and drying rates, were investigated. It was concluded that higher TMSC concentrations as well as higher solvent evaporation rates favor better MWCOs, mainly due to increase in the selective layer thickness. Successful cross-linking of prepared membranes with glyoxal solutions, in the presence of boric acid as a catalyst, resulted in MWCOs less than 250 daltons. The suitability of this crosslinking reaction for large scale productions was already proven in the manufacturing of durable-press fabrics. For us, the inexpensive raw materials as well as the low reaction times and temperatures were of interest. Moreover, the non-toxic nature of glyoxal is a key advantage in medical and pharmaceutical applications. The membranes prepared in this work are strong candidates for separation of small organic solutes from organic solvents streams in pharmaceutical industries. Their hydrophilicity, compared to typical nanofiltration membranes, offer

  13. A Domain Specific Language for Performance Evaluation of Medical Imaging Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Freek; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Turau, Volker; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Mangharam, Rahul; Weyer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We propose iDSL, a domain specific language and toolbox for performance evaluation of Medical Imaging Systems. iDSL provides transformations to MoDeST models, which are in turn converted into UPPAAL and discrete-event MODES models. This enables automated performance evaluation by means of model

  14. English language proficiency and academic performance: A study of a medical preparatory year program in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Thalamkandathil, Nazer; Parupalli, Srinivas Rao; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Bu Ali, Waleed Hamad

    2015-01-01

    All medical schools in Saudi Arabia have English as the primary official medium of instruction. Most of the high school education, however, is delivered in Arabic and hence the transition to an English based learning environment tends to be difficult for some students. Our study aims to correlate English language proficiency with academic performance among medical students in their preparatory year. A cross-sectional study design was used. Test scores of 103 preparatory year students (54 female and 49 male) were analyzed after the students completed an English language course and medical introductory course in their preparatory year. The total score obtained in the English course assessment was compared to each component of the medical content assessment. A significantly positive correlation (Spearman's Rho, at 0.01 levels) was seen between the scores of the English exam and the written exam (P English exam score was not obtained for the other components of the medical assessment, namely; student assignments, presentations and portfolios. English language proficiency is an important factor in determining academic proficiency of medical students in our college at the preparatory year level.

  15. Good sleep quality is associated with better academic performance among Sudanese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Mirghani, Hyder Osman; Mohammed, Osama Salih; Almurtadha, Yahia Mohamed; Ahmed, Moneir Siddig

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing awareness about the association of sleep quality and academic achievement among university students. However, the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance has not been examined in Sudan; this study assessed the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance among Sudanese medical students. Methods A case?control study was conducted among 165 male and female medical students at two Sudanese universities. Excellent (A) and pass (C) ...

  16. Task-Based Modeling of a 5k Ultra-High-Resolution Medical Imaging System for Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution, low-noise X-ray detectors based on CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) technology have demonstrated superior imaging performance for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). This paper presents a task-based model for a high-resolution medical imaging system to evaluate its ability to detect simulated microcalcifications and masses as lesions for breast cancer. A 3-D cascaded system analysis for a 50- [Formula: see text] pixel pitch CMOS APS X-ray detector was integrated with an object task function, a medical imaging display model, and the human eye contrast sensitivity function to calculate the detectability index and area under the ROC curve (AUC). It was demonstrated that the display pixel pitch and zoom factor should be optimized to improve the AUC for detecting small microcalcifications. In addition, detector electronic noise of smaller than 300 e - and a high display maximum luminance (>1000 cd/cm 2 ) are desirable to distinguish microcalcifications of [Formula: see text] in size. For low contrast mass detection, a medical imaging display with a minimum of 12-bit gray levels is recommended to realize accurate luminance levels. A wide projection angle range of greater than ±30° in combination with the image gray level magnification could improve the mass detectability especially when the anatomical background noise is high. On the other hand, a narrower projection angle range below ±20° can improve the small, high contrast object detection. Due to the low mass contrast and luminance, the ambient luminance should be controlled below 5 cd/ [Formula: see text]. Task-based modeling provides important firsthand imaging performance of the high-resolution CMOS-based medical imaging system that is still at early stage development for DBT. The modeling results could guide the prototype design and clinical studies in the future.

  17. Performance of International Medical Students In psychosocial medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D; Lauter, J; Roesch Ely, D; Koch, E; Möltner, A; Herzog, W; Resch, F; Herpertz, S C; Nikendei, C

    2017-07-10

    Particularly at the beginning of their studies, international medical students face a number of language-related, social and intercultural challenges. Thus, they perform poorer than their local counterparts in written and oral examinations as well as in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in the fields of internal medicine and surgery. It is still unknown how international students perform in an OSCE in the field of psychosocial medicine compared to their local fellow students. All students (N = 1033) taking the OSCE in the field of psychosocial medicine and an accompanying written examination in their eighth or ninth semester between 2012 and 2015 were included in the analysis. The OSCE consisted of four different stations, in which students had to perform and manage a patient encounter with simulated patients suffering from 1) post-traumatic stress disorder, 2) schizophrenia, 3) borderline personality disorder and 4) either suicidal tendency or dementia. Students were evaluated by trained lecturers using global checklists assessing specific professional domains, namely building a relationship with the patient, conversational skills, anamnesis, as well as psychopathological findings and decision-making. International medical students scored significantly poorer than their local peers (p International students showed poorer results in clinical-practical exams in the field of psychosocial medicine, with conversational skills yielding the poorest scores. However, regarding factual and practical knowledge examined via a multiple-choice test, no differences emerged between international and local students. These findings have decisive implications for relationship building in the doctor-patient relationship.

  18. Engagement Patterns of High and Low Academic Performers on Facebook Anatomy Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffar, Akram Abood; Eladl, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies have investigated how students use and respond to social networks in the educational context as opposed to social use. In this study, the engagement of medical students on anatomy Facebook pages was evaluated in view of their academic performance. High performers contributed to most of the engagements. They also had a particular preference for higher levels of engagement. Although the students were deeply involved in the educational element of the pages, they continued to a...

  19. Performance testing of medical US equipment using US phantom (ATS-539)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hyung; Kwon, Deok Moon

    2014-01-01

    This study is to provide accurate information as medical imaging equipment to check for the presence of body disease US equipment. We investigated the status of medical US equipment performance in Daegu and criteria US phantom (ATS-539) for US equipment performance measurements. The results in this study, 1. US phantom measurement results: The test passed rate were 88.6% and the failed rate were 11.4%. 2. The difference between the group of mean and the pass/failed groups were statistically significant. Focal zone and 4 mm functional resolution in the two items that are not present the passing standard. 3. The difference was statistically significant number of years and used equipment and pass the failed equipment (4.13 vs 7.25 years). We investigated the performance status of US equipment used in the clinical area in Daegu. The basis for the two items are not present this proposed passing standard. Equipment performance was associated with the number of years of using US equipment. It is necessary to maintain the best performance of the equipment phantom measurements for performance testing of US equipment

  20. Performance testing of medical US equipment using US phantom (ATS-539)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyung [Daegu Branch, Korea Association of Health Promotion, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Deok Moon [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study is to provide accurate information as medical imaging equipment to check for the presence of body disease US equipment. We investigated the status of medical US equipment performance in Daegu and criteria US phantom (ATS-539) for US equipment performance measurements. The results in this study, 1. US phantom measurement results: The test passed rate were 88.6% and the failed rate were 11.4%. 2. The difference between the group of mean and the pass/failed groups were statistically significant. Focal zone and 4 mm functional resolution in the two items that are not present the passing standard. 3. The difference was statistically significant number of years and used equipment and pass the failed equipment (4.13 vs 7.25 years). We investigated the performance status of US equipment used in the clinical area in Daegu. The basis for the two items are not present this proposed passing standard. Equipment performance was associated with the number of years of using US equipment. It is necessary to maintain the best performance of the equipment phantom measurements for performance testing of US equipment.

  1. An examination of medical linear accelerator ion-chamber performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolis, C.; Lee, C.; Rinks, A.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The company ( Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services Pty Ltd) provides medical physics services to four radiotherapy centres in NSW with a total of 6 high energy medical linear accelerators manufactured by three different companies. As part of the services, the stability of the accelerator ion chamber system is regularly examined for constancy and periodically for absolute calibration. Each accelerator ion chamber has exhibited undesirable behaviour from time to time, sometimes leading to its replacement. This presentation describes the performance of the ion chambers for some of the linacs over a period of 12-18 months and the steps taken by the manufacturer to address the problems encountered. As part of our commissioning procedure of new linacs, an absolute calibration of the accelerator output (photon and electron beams) is repeated several times over the period following examination of the physical properties of the radiation beams. These calibrations were undertaken in water using the groups calibrated ion chamber/electrometer system and were accompanied by constancy checks using an acrylic phantom and field instruments. Constancy checks were performed daily for a period of 8 weeks during the initial life of the accelerator and thereafter weekly. For one accelerator, the ion chamber was replaced 6 times in the first eighteen months of its life due to severe drifts in output, found to be due to pressure changes in one half of the chamber In another accelerator, erratic swings of 2% were observed for a period of nine months, particularly with the electron beams, before the manufacturer offered to change the chamber with another constructed from different materials. In yet another accelerator the ion chamber has shown consistent erratic behaviour, but this has not been addressed by the manufacturer. In another popular accelerator, the dosimetry was found to be very stable until some changes in the tuning were introduced resulting in small

  2. High school achievement as a predictor for university performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high-school grade point average ( GPA-H and university entrance examination can predict the university achievement and Purpose. To examine the predictive value of GPA-H for GPA-U Methods: In this cross sectional study, the subjects were 240 medical students at basic science phase of their medical education. Data were collected by a questionnaire, consisting of questions measuring factual background variable and 10 Llikert-type questions measuring attitude. The multiple regression analysis was used. Results: The analysis showed that student GPA were a better predictor for educational achievement of medical students than rank on university entrance exam and students with high GPA have not been on probation at all. Also parent's education and occupation influence the students' attitudes toward their medical study. Conclusion: High-school GPA is a predictor for university GPA .This may warrant further investigation into criteria of medical university entrance exam. Keywords: UNIVERSITY ACHIEVEMENT, HIGH-SCHOOL GPA, UNIVERSITY SUCCESS, PREDICTOR

  3. The High Court's lost chance in medical negligence: Tabet v Gett (2010) 240 CLR 537.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; McEwan, Alexandra

    2010-12-01

    In 2010 the High Court of Australia in Tabet v Gett (2010) 240 CLR 537 determined an appeal in a medical negligence case concerning a six-year-old girl who had presented to a major paediatric hospital with symptoms over several weeks of headaches and vomiting after a recent history of chicken pox. The differential diagnosis was varicella, meningitis or encephalitis and two days later, after she deteriorated neurologically, she received a lumbar puncture. Three days later she suffered a seizure and irreversible brain damage. A CT scan performed at that point showed a brain tumour. As Australia does not have a no-fault system providing compensation to cover the long-term care required for such a condition, the girl (through her parents and lawyers) sued her treating physician. She alleged that, because a cerebral CT scan was not performed when clinically indicated after the diagnosis of meningitis or encephalitis and before the lumbar puncture, she had "lost the chance" to have her brain tumour treated before she sustained permanent brain damage. She succeeded at first instance, but lost on appeal. The High Court also rejected her claim, holding unanimously that there were no policy reasons to allow recovery of damages based on possible (less than 50%) "loss of a chance" of a better medical outcome. The court held that the law of torts in Australia required "all or nothing" proof that physical injury was caused or contributed to by a negligent party. The High Court, however, did not exclude loss of chance as forming the substance of a probable (greater than 50%) claim in medical negligence in some future case. In the meantime, patients injured in Australia as a result of possible medical negligence (particularly in the intractable difficult instances of late diagnosis) must face the injustice of the significant day-to-day care needs of victims being carried by family members and the taxpayer-funded public hospital system. The High Court in Tabet v Gett again provides

  4. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years. Relationship with stress and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alsaggaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320 were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Results: Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep.

  5. High performance nano-composite technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D.; Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J.; Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M.; Chea, Y. B.; Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-06-01

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  6. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  7. Medical leadership, a systematic narrative review: do hospitals and healthcare organisations perform better when led by doctors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Williams, Robyn; Ludlow, Kristiana; Testa, Luke; Li, Zhicheng; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2017-09-24

    Despite common assumptions that doctors are well placed to lead hospitals and healthcare organisations, the peer-reviewed literature contains little evidence on the performance of doctors in leadership roles in comparison with that of non-medical managers. To determine whether there is an association between the leader's medical background and management performance in terms of organisational performance or patient outcomes. We searched for peer-reviewed, English language studies using Medline, Embase and Emerald Management between 2005 and 2017. We included quantitative, qualitative and mixed method empirical studies on the performance of senior healthcare managers where participants were described as doctors or leaders and where comparative performance data were provided on non-medical leaders. Studies without full text available, or no organisational, leadership behaviour or patient measures, were excluded. The search, conducted in Medline (n=3395), Embase (n=1913) and Emerald Management (n=454) databases, yielded 3926 entries. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 16 studies remained. Twelve studies found that there were positive differences between medical and non-medical leaders, and eight studies correlated those findings with hospital performance or patient outcomes. Six studies examined the composition of boards of directors; otherwise, there were few common areas of investigation. Five inter-related themes emerged from a narrative analysis: the impact of medical leadership on outcomes; doctors on boards; contribution of qualifications and experience; the medical leader as an individual or part of a team and doctors transitioning into the medical leadership role. A modest body of evidence supports the importance of including doctors on organisational governing boards. Despite many published articles on the topic of whether hospitals and healthcare organisations perform better when led by doctors, there were few empirical studies that

  8. Performance of a core of transversal skills: self-perceptions of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2016-01-15

    There is an increasingly growing trend towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. Communication, research and organisational/learning skills are core competences acquired by scientific research activity. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived performance of a core of transversal skills, related with scientific research, by Portuguese medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 611 Portuguese students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of the medical course, during the same academic year. A validated questionnaire was applied for this purpose. Medical students felt confident regarding the majority of the analyzed transversal skills, particularly regarding team work capacity (72.7% perceived their own capacity as good). On the other hand, the perceived ability to manage information technology, time and to search literature was classified only as sufficient by many of them. The progression over the medical course and participation in research activities were associated with an increasing odds of a good perceived performance of skills such as writing skills (research activity: OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.34-2.97) and English proficiency (research activity: OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.06-2.38/final year medical students: OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 2.42-5.45). In this line, the early exposure to research activities along undergraduate medical education is an added value for students and the implementation of an integrated research program on medical curriculum should be considered.

  9. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katowa-Mukwato, Patricia; Banda, Sekelani

    2016-04-30

    To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objective competence: it was measured by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) by faculty using predetermined rating scales. Rank order correlation test was performed for self-perceived and objectively measured competence. Two thirds 36 (66.7%) of the participants perceived themselves as moderately competent, 15 (27.8%) rated themselves as highly competent while 3 (5.6%) had low self-perception. With objective competence, the majority 52 (92.8%) were barely competent while 4 (7.2%) were absolutely competent. When overall self-perception was compared to objectively measured competence, there was a discordance which was demonstrated by a negative correlation (Spearman rho -.123). Significant numbers of students reported low self-competence in performing procedures such as endotracheal intubation, gastric lavage and cardiopulmonary resuscitation which most never performed during the clinical years of medical education. In addition, the negative correlation between self-perceived and objectively measured competence demonstrated the inability of students to assess and rate themselves objectively due to fear that others may know their weaknesses and realize that they are not as competent as expected at a specific level of training.

  10. Impact of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on School Performance: What are the Effects of Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Raman; Mattison, Richard E; Waxmonsky, James G

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects an estimated 5-7 % of schoolchildren worldwide. School functioning and academic achievement are frequently impaired by ADHD and represent one of the main reasons children start ADHD medication. Multiple potential causal pathways exist between ADHD and impaired school performance. In this review, we decompose school performance into three components and assess the impact of ADHD and its treatments on academic performance (assessed by grade point average [GPA], time on-task, percentage of work completed as well as percent completed correctly), academic skills (as measured by achievement tests and cognitive measures), and academic enablers (such as study skills, motivation, engagement, classroom behavior and interpersonal skills). Most studies examined only the short-term effects of medication on school performance. In these, ADHD medications have been observed to improve some aspects of school performance, with the largest impact on measures of academic performance such as seatwork productivity and on-task performance. In a subset of children, these benefits may translate into detectable improvements in GPA and achievement testing. However, limited data exists to support whether these changes are sustained over years. Optimizing medication effects requires periodic reassessment of school performance, necessitating a collaborative effort involving patients, parents, school staff and prescribers. Even with systematic reassessment, behavioral-based treatments and additional school-based services may be needed to maximize academic performance for the many youth with ADHD and prominent impairments in school performance.

  11. Clinical simulation training improves the clinical performance of Chinese medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-ya Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern medical education promotes medical students’ clinical operating capacity rather than the mastery of theoretical knowledge. To accomplish this objective, clinical skill training using various simulations was introduced into medical education to cultivate creativity and develop the practical ability of students. However, quantitative analysis of the efficiency of clinical skill training with simulations is lacking. Methods: In the present study, we compared the mean scores of medical students (Jinan University who graduated in 2013 and 2014 on 16 stations between traditional training (control and simulative training groups. In addition, in a clinical skill competition, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE scores of participating medical students trained using traditional and simulative training were compared. The data were statistically analyzed and qualitatively described. Results: The results revealed that simulative training could significantly enhance the graduate score of medical students compared with the control. The OSCE scores of participating medical students in the clinical skill competition, trained using simulations, were dramatically higher than those of students trained through traditional methods, and we also observed that the OSCE marks were significantly increased for the same participant after simulative training for the clinical skill competition. Conclusions: Taken together, these data indicate that clinical skill training with a variety of simulations could substantially promote the clinical performance of medical students and optimize the resources used for medical education, although a precise analysis of each specialization is needed in the future.

  12. Emotional intelligence, perceived stress and academic performance of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranasinghe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that higher Emotional Intelligence (EI is associated with better academic and work performance. The present study intended to explore the relationship between EI, perceived stress and academic performance and associated factors among medical undergraduates. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional research study was conducted among 471 medical undergraduates of 2nd, 4th and final years of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Students were rated on self administered Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SEIT. Examination results were used as the dichotomous outcome variable in a logistic regression analysis. Results Females had higher mean EI scores (p = 0.014. A positive correlation was found between the EI score and the number of extracurricular activities (r = 0.121, p = 0.008. Those who were satisfied regarding their choice to study medicine, and who were planning to do postgraduate studies had significantly higher EI scores and lower PSS scores (p <0.001. Among final year undergraduates, those who passed the Clinical Sciences examination in the first attempt had a higher EI score (p <0.001 and a lower PSS score (p <0.05. Results of the binary logistic-regression analysis in the entire study population indicated that female gender (OR:1.98 and being satisfied regarding their choice of the medical undergraduate programme (OR:3.69 were significantly associated with passing the examinations. However, PSS Score and engagement in extracurricular activities were not associated with ‘Examination Results’. Conclusions Higher EI was associated with better academic performance amongst final year medical students. In addition a higher EI was observed in those who had a higher level of self satisfaction. Self-perceived stress was lower in those with a higher EI. Enhancing EI might help to improve academic performance among final year medical

  13. Emotional intelligence, perceived stress and academic performance of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, P; Wathurapatha, W S; Mathangasinghe, Y; Ponnamperuma, G

    2017-02-20

    Previous research has shown that higher Emotional Intelligence (EI) is associated with better academic and work performance. The present study intended to explore the relationship between EI, perceived stress and academic performance and associated factors among medical undergraduates. This descriptive cross-sectional research study was conducted among 471 medical undergraduates of 2nd, 4th and final years of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Students were rated on self administered Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SEIT). Examination results were used as the dichotomous outcome variable in a logistic regression analysis. Females had higher mean EI scores (p = 0.014). A positive correlation was found between the EI score and the number of extracurricular activities (r = 0.121, p = 0.008). Those who were satisfied regarding their choice to study medicine, and who were planning to do postgraduate studies had significantly higher EI scores and lower PSS scores (p <0.001). Among final year undergraduates, those who passed the Clinical Sciences examination in the first attempt had a higher EI score (p <0.001) and a lower PSS score (p <0.05). Results of the binary logistic-regression analysis in the entire study population indicated that female gender (OR:1.98) and being satisfied regarding their choice of the medical undergraduate programme (OR:3.69) were significantly associated with passing the examinations. However, PSS Score and engagement in extracurricular activities were not associated with 'Examination Results'. Higher EI was associated with better academic performance amongst final year medical students. In addition a higher EI was observed in those who had a higher level of self satisfaction. Self-perceived stress was lower in those with a higher EI. Enhancing EI might help to improve academic performance among final year medical student and also help to reduce the stress levels and cultivate

  14. What factors determine academic achievement in high achieving undergraduate medical students? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza M; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed A; Khalil, Mahmood S; Ahmad, Farah; Ponnamperuma, Gominda G; Amin, Zubair

    2014-04-01

    Medical students' academic achievement is affected by many factors such as motivational beliefs and emotions. Although students with high intellectual capacity are selected to study medicine, their academic performance varies widely. The aim of this study is to explore the high achieving students' perceptions of factors contributing to academic achievement. Focus group discussions (FGD) were carried out with 10 male and 9 female high achieving (scores more than 85% in all tests) students, from the second, third, fourth and fifth academic years. During the FGDs, the students were encouraged to reflect on their learning strategies and activities. The discussion was audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed qualitatively. Factors influencing high academic achievement include: attendance to lectures, early revision, prioritization of learning needs, deep learning, learning in small groups, mind mapping, learning in skills lab, learning with patients, learning from mistakes, time management, and family support. Internal motivation and expected examination results are important drivers of high academic performance. Management of non-academic issues like sleep deprivation, homesickness, language barriers, and stress is also important for academic success. Addressing these factors, which might be unique for a given student community, in a systematic manner would be helpful to improve students' performance.

  15. Towards Portable Large-Scale Image Processing with High-Performance Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuankai; Blaber, Justin; Damon, Stephen M; Boyd, Brian D; Bao, Shunxing; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Noguera, Camilo Bermudez; Chaganti, Shikha; Nath, Vishwesh; Greer, Jasmine M; Lyu, Ilwoo; French, William R; Newton, Allen T; Rogers, Baxter P; Landman, Bennett A

    2018-05-03

    High-throughput, large-scale medical image computing demands tight integration of high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure for data storage, job distribution, and image processing. The Vanderbilt University Institute for Imaging Science (VUIIS) Center for Computational Imaging (CCI) has constructed a large-scale image storage and processing infrastructure that is composed of (1) a large-scale image database using the eXtensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT), (2) a content-aware job scheduling platform using the Distributed Automation for XNAT pipeline automation tool (DAX), and (3) a wide variety of encapsulated image processing pipelines called "spiders." The VUIIS CCI medical image data storage and processing infrastructure have housed and processed nearly half-million medical image volumes with Vanderbilt Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education (ACCRE), which is the HPC facility at the Vanderbilt University. The initial deployment was natively deployed (i.e., direct installations on a bare-metal server) within the ACCRE hardware and software environments, which lead to issues of portability and sustainability. First, it could be laborious to deploy the entire VUIIS CCI medical image data storage and processing infrastructure to another HPC center with varying hardware infrastructure, library availability, and software permission policies. Second, the spiders were not developed in an isolated manner, which has led to software dependency issues during system upgrades or remote software installation. To address such issues, herein, we describe recent innovations using containerization techniques with XNAT/DAX which are used to isolate the VUIIS CCI medical image data storage and processing infrastructure from the underlying hardware and software environments. The newly presented XNAT/DAX solution has the following new features: (1) multi-level portability from system level to the application level, (2) flexible and dynamic software

  16. A Longitudinal Study in Learning Preferences and Academic Performance in First Year Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yenya; Gao, Hong; Wofford, Marcia M; Violato, Claudio

    2017-12-18

    This is a longitudinal study of first year medical students that investigates the relationship between the pattern change of the learning preferences and academic performance. Using the visual, auditory, reading-writing, and kinesthetic inventory at the beginning of the first and second year for the same class, it was found that within the first year, 36% of the class remained unimodal (single) modality learners (SS), 14% changed from unimodal to multimodality learners (SM), 27% changed from multimodality to unimodal modality learners (MS) and 21% remained as multimodality learners (MM). Among the academic performance through subsequent didactic blocks from Clinical Anatomy, Cell and Subcellular Processes to Medical Neuroscience during first year, the SM group made more significant improvement compared to the SS group. Semi-structured interview results from the SM group showed that students made this transition between the Clinical Anatomy course and the middle of the Medical Neuroscience course, in an effort to improve their performance. This study suggests that the transition from unimodal to multimodality learning among academically struggling students improved their academic performance in the first year of medical school. Therefore, this may be considered as part of academic advising tools for struggling students to improve their academic performances. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Academic performance of male in comparison with female undergraduate medical students in Pharmacology examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Rizwan; Shinwari, Laiyla; Hussain, Shahzadi Saima

    2017-02-01

    To compare the academic performance of male and female medical students in Pharmacology examinations. The comparative study was conducted at Rehman Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, from March to August 2015. For evaluating the students' academic performance, male and female students of academic sessions 2013-14 and 2014-15 were divided into 4 groups. Group 1: 80% marks. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 200 medical students enrolled, 102(51%) were male and 98(41%) were female. There was no significant difference in the academic performance in terms of gender in multiple choice questions (p=0.811) and short essay questions (p=0.515). The effect of attendance was also insignificant (p=0.130). Significant difference was found between the academic records of urban male and female students compared to rural students (p=0.038). Boarder students' results were insignificantly different from those of day scholars (p=0.887). There was no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female students.

  18. Can you snooze your way to an 'A'? Exploring the complex relationship between sleep, autonomic activity, wellbeing and performance in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvejic, Erin; Huang, Shiny; Vollmer-Conna, Uté

    2018-01-01

    Medical training brings with it multiple stressors, including demanding workloads in highly competitive environments, with well-documented impact on psychiatric morbidity. This study evaluated the impact of sleep-related factors on psychological wellbeing, cognitive task performance and academic standing in medical students. A total of 59 undergraduate medical students took part in this cross-sectional study over two consecutive days. Participants responded to questionnaires about their physical and psychological health, sleep, functioning and academic performance at the initial visit. Participants then wore an ambulatory bioharness overnight (to derive heart rate variability measures), before returning to complete a computerised battery of cognitive tasks. A sleep diary was completed for the next 7 days. Poor sleep quality in the month preceding assessment correlated with psychological distress ( p sleep during the monitoring week ( p sleep timing parameters. A greater increase in heart rate variability during the transition from awake to sleep significantly predicted better spontaneous cognitive performance ( p = 0.021). Better academic standing was predicted by consistently short, less refreshing sleep (all p sleep and psychological distress are prevalent in medical students during university training and were associated with reduced nocturnal parasympathetic autonomic activity. Achieving higher academic grades was associated with high psychological wellbeing despite consistently short, unrefreshing sleep. The long-term repercussions of such sleep behaviours on later professional functioning remain unclear, warranting further research.

  19. Longitudinal effects of medical students' communication skills on future performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey S; Durning, Steven J; Saguil, Aaron; Swygert, Kimberly; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    The Essential Elements of Communication (EEC) were developed from the Kalamazoo consensus statement on physician-patient communication. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) has adopted a longitudinal curriculum to use the EEC both as a learning tool during standardized patient encounters and as an evaluation tool culminating with the end of preclerkship objective-structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Medical educators have recently emphasized the importance of teaching communication skills, as evidenced by the United States Medical Licensing Examination testing both the integrated clinical encounter (ICE) and communication and interpersonal skills (CIS) within the Step 2 Clinical Skills exam (CS). To determine the associations between students' EEC OSCE performance at the end of the preclerkship period with later communication skills assessment and evaluation outcomes in the context of a longitudinal curriculum spanning both undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. Retrospective data from preclerkship (overall OSCE scores and EEC OSCE scores) and clerkship outcomes (internal medicine [IM] clinical points and average clerkship National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] scores) were collected from 167 USU medical students from the class of 2011 and compared to individual scores on the CIS and ICE components of Step 2 CS, as well as to the communication skills component of the program directors' evaluation of trainees during their postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residency. In addition to bivariate Pearson correlation analysis, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis to examine the predictive power of the EEC score beyond the IM clerkship clinical points and the average NBME Subject Exams score on the outcome measures. The EEC score was a significant predictor of the CIS score and the PGY-1 communication skills score. Beyond the average NBME Subject Exams score and the IM clerkship clinical points, the EEC score

  20. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  1. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  2. [Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Quality Sleep, and Low Academic Performance in Medical Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique; Echeverri Chabur, Jorge Enrique; Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affect cognitive ability and performance of medical students. This study attempts to determine the prevalence of EDS, sleep quality, and assess their association with poor academic performance in this population. A descriptive, observational study was conducted on a random sample of 217 medical students from the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, who completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sociodemographic, clinic and academic variables were also measured. Multivariate analyses for poor academic performance were performed. The included students had a mean age of 21.7±3.3 years, of whom 59.4% were men. Almost half (49.8%) had EDS criteria, and 79.3% were poor sleepers (PSQI ≥ 5), while 43.3% had poor academic performance during the last semester. The bivariate analysis showed that having used tobacco or alcohol until intoxicated, fairly bad subjective sleep quality, sleep efficiency < 65%, and being a poor sleeper were associated with increased risk of low performance. Sleep efficiency < 65% was statistically associated with poor academic performance (P=.024; OR = 4.23; 95% CI, 1.12-15.42) in the multivariate analysis. A poor sleep quality determined by low efficiency was related to poor academic achievement at the end of semester in medical students. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of performance measures to handle medical E-commerce shopping cart abandonment in cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedhanayagam Priya

    Full Text Available The E-commerce zone is crowded with many Internet users. Medical E-commerce has had significant growth in part because of a great deal of growth in the Indian E-commerce field. Medical E-commerce sites use cloud computing to guarantee a high quality of service anywhere and anytime in the world. For online access, the customer's expectations are very high. Medical E-commerce retailers are directed towards cloud service providers based on their quality of service. During online shopping, impatient customers may abandon a specific medical E-commerce shopping cart due to slow response. This is quite difficult to endure for a medical E-commerce firm. The research described herein observed the effect of shopping cart abandonment on medical E-commerce websites deployed in cloud computing. The impact of the idle virtual machine on customer impatience during medical E-commerce shopping was also studied. The ultimate aim of this study was to propose a stochastic queueing model and to yield results through probability generating functions. The results of the model may be highly useful for a medical E-commerce firm facing customer impatience, so as to design its service system to offer satisfactory quality of service. Keywords: Cloud computing, Queueing, Virtual machine, E-commerce, Cart abandonment, Quality of Service

  4. Optimal use of acute headache medication: a qualitative examination of behaviors and barriers to their performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Holroyd, Kenneth A

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to qualitatively examine the behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication and the barriers to successful performance of these behaviors. The efficacy of drug treatment is partly determined by medication adherence. The adherence literature has focused almost exclusively on the behaviors required to optimally use medications that are taken on a fixed schedule, as opposed to medications taken on an as needed basis to treat acute episodes of symptoms, such as headaches. Twenty-one people with headache and 15 health care providers participated in qualitative phenomenological interviews that were transcribed and coded by a multidisciplinary research team using phenomenological analysis. Interviews revealed 8 behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication, including cross-episode behaviors that people with headache regularly perform to ensure optimal acute headache medication use, and episode-specific behaviors used to treat an individual headache episode. Interviews further revealed 9 barriers that hinder successful performance of these behaviors. Behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication were numerous, often embedded in a larger chain of behaviors, and were susceptible to disruption by numerous barriers. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  5. The performance of select universities of medical sciences based on the components affecting medical education [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tayebi Arasteh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Every educational institution requires an evaluation system in order to find out about the quality and desirability of its activities, especially if it is a complex and dynamic environment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the educational performance of schools affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences to help improve their performance. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was conducted in six schools affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences in April 2016-October 2016 and October 2016-April 2017. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: self-assessment by service executives across schools, and external assessment in person by the university’s expert staff. The study tools included the components, criteria and desirable standards of educational performance in ten categories. Data were analyzed in SPSS. Results: The results obtained showed that, in April-October 2016, the highest performance evaluation scores pertained to the "secure testing" and "rules and regulations" components and the lowest to the "packages for reform and innovation in education" and "the school action plan" components. In October 2016-April 2017, the highest scores pertained to "workforce empowerment" and "secure testing" and the lowest to "faculty affairs" and "electronic education management system". Conclusions: Offering a balanced portrayal of the actual performance of schools using the right performance indicators in two consecutive periods can help further motivate the superior schools and encourage the weaker schools to strive harder. Competition among schools to get a higher score in the components affecting medical education helps mobilize them to move toward reform and improvement.

  6. Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon How; Zain, Azhar Md; Hassan, Faezah

    2013-03-27

    Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R(2) = 0.43). Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students' academic performance.

  7. Comparative values of medical school assessments in the prediction of internship performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming; Vermillion, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    Multiple undergraduate achievements have been used for graduate admission consideration. Their relative values in the prediction of residency performance are not clear. This study compared the contributions of major undergraduate assessments to the prediction of internship performance. Internship performance ratings of the graduates of a medical school were collected from 2012 to 2015. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine the predictive values of undergraduate measures assessing basic and clinical sciences knowledge and clinical performances, after controlling for differences in the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). Four hundred eighty (75%) graduates' archived data were used in the study. Analyses revealed that clinical competencies, assessed by the USMLE Step 2 CK, NBME medicine exam, and an eight-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), were strong predictors of internship performance. Neither the USMLE Step 1 nor the inpatient internal medicine clerkship evaluation predicted internship performance. The undergraduate assessments as a whole showed a significant collective relationship with internship performance (ΔR 2  = 0.12, p < 0.001). The study supports the use of clinical competency assessments, instead of pre-clinical measures, in graduate admission consideration. It also provides validity evidence for OSCE scores in the prediction of workplace performance.

  8. High-Fidelity Simulation: Preparing Dental Hygiene Students for Managing Medical Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilich, Lisa A; Jackson, Sarah C; Bray, Brenda S; Willson, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office, so being prepared to properly manage the situation can be the difference between life and death. The entire dental team must be properly trained regarding all aspects of emergency management in the dental clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new educational approach using a high-fidelity simulator to prepare dental hygiene students for medical emergencies. This study utilized high-fidelity simulation (HFS) to evaluate the abilities of junior dental hygiene students at Eastern Washington University to handle a medical emergency in the dental hygiene clinic. Students were given a medical emergency scenario requiring them to assess the emergency and implement life-saving protocols in a simulated "real-life" situation using a high-fidelity manikin. Retrospective data were collected for four years from the classes of 2010 through 2013 (N=114). The results indicated that learning with simulation was effective in helping the students identify the medical emergency in a timely manner, implement emergency procedures correctly, locate and correctly utilize contents of the emergency kit, administer appropriate intervention/treatment for a specific patient, and provide the patient with appropriate follow-up instructions. For dental hygiene programs seeking to enhance their curricula in the area of medical emergencies, this study suggests that HFS is an effective tool to prepare students to appropriately handle medical emergencies. Faculty calibration is essential to standardize simulation.

  9. Medical laboratory scientist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Qvist, Camilla Christine; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Previously, biomarker research and development was performed by laboratory technicians working as craftsmen in laboratories under the guidance of medical doctors. This hierarchical structure based on professional boundaries appears to be outdated if we want to keep up with the high performance...... of our healthcare system, and take advantage of the vast potential of future biomarkers and personalized medicine. We ask the question; does our healthcare system benefit from giving the modern medical laboratory scientist (MLS) a stronger academic training in biomarker research, development...

  10. Knowledge, attitude, and performance of medical staff of teaching healthcare settings about hepatitis B and C in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ataei

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Due to excessive contact with patients, a paramedic-educated society is expected to have an optimal level of knowledge, attitude, and performance related to viral hepatitis. Our results from the checklists showed that medical personnel are not appropriately aware of viral hepatitis and their performance, too, is not satisfactory. Further continuous training is required and there needs to be more emphasis on actions regarding behaviors with high risk of infection transmission.

  11. Medical School Anatomy and Pathology Workshops for High School Students Enhance Learning and Provide Inspiration for Careers in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenderson, Bruce A.; Veloski, J. Jon; Livesey, Michael; Wojdon-Smith, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    “Anatomy and Pathology Workshop” is a cadaver-based outreach program that models medical education to large groups of high school students. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of this program on students’ knowledge of anatomy and interest in biomedical science. A total of 144 high school students participated in the workshop in 2015. Preworkshop and postworkshop assessments were administered to assess students’ learning. A postworkshop survey was conducted to solicit students’ reflections and feedback. It was found that student performance in the postworkshop examination (mean 78%) had significantly improved when compared to the performance in the preexamination (mean 54%), indicating that this program enhances learning. Students were also inspired to consider opportunities in medicine and allied health professions—97% indicated that they had a better understanding of medical education; 95% agreed that they had better understanding of the human body; 84% thought anatomy was interesting and exciting; and 62% of the students indicated that they looked forward to studying medicine or another health profession. Students rated the instructors highly—95% agreed that the instructors were professional and served as role models. Medical/graduate student instructors were also highly regarded by the high school students—96% thought it was valuable to have student instructors and 94% thought that student instructors were caring and enthusiastic about teaching. In summary, this study demonstrates that outreach programs provided by medical schools help young adults during their formative years by modeling professionalism, providing role models, enhancing learning, and encouraging many to consider opportunities in the health professions. PMID:28725784

  12. High-performance laboratories and cleanrooms; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Mills, Evan; Xu, Tengfang

    2002-01-01

    The California Energy Commission sponsored this roadmap to guide energy efficiency research and deployment for high performance cleanrooms and laboratories. Industries and institutions utilizing these building types (termed high-tech buildings) have played an important part in the vitality of the California economy. This roadmap's key objective to present a multi-year agenda to prioritize and coordinate research efforts. It also addresses delivery mechanisms to get the research products into the market. Because of the importance to the California economy, it is appropriate and important for California to take the lead in assessing the energy efficiency research needs, opportunities, and priorities for this market. In addition to the importance to California's economy, energy demand for this market segment is large and growing (estimated at 9400 GWH for 1996, Mills et al. 1996). With their 24hr. continuous operation, high tech facilities are a major contributor to the peak electrical demand. Laboratories and cleanrooms constitute the high tech building market, and although each building type has its unique features, they are similar in that they are extremely energy intensive, involve special environmental considerations, have very high ventilation requirements, and are subject to regulations-primarily safety driven-that tend to have adverse energy implications. High-tech buildings have largely been overlooked in past energy efficiency research. Many industries and institutions utilize laboratories and cleanrooms. As illustrated, there are many industries operating cleanrooms in California. These include semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor suppliers, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, disk drive manufacturing, flat panel displays, automotive, aerospace, food, hospitals, medical devices, universities, and federal research facilities

  13. Key performance indicators' assessment to develop best practices in an Emergency Medical Communication Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penverne, Yann; Leclere, Brice; Labady, Julien; Berthier, Frederic; Jenvrin, Joel; Javaudin, Francois; Batard, Eric; Montassier, Emmanuel

    2017-05-17

    Emergency Medical Communication Centre (EMCC) represents a pivotal link in the chain of survival for those requiring rapid response for out-of-hospital medical emergencies. Assessing and grading the performance of EMCCs are warranted as it can affect the health and safety of the served population. The aim of our work was to describe the activity on an EMCC and to explore the associations between different key performance indicators. We carried out our prospective observational study in the EMCC of Nantes, France, from 6 June 2011 to 6 June 2015. The EMCC performance was assessed with the following key performance indicators: answered calls, Quality of Service 20 s (QS20), occupation rate and average call duration. A total of 35 073 h of dispatch activity were analysed. 1 488 998 emergency calls were answered. The emergency call incidence varied slightly from 274 to 284 calls/1000 citizens/year between 2011 and 2015. The median occupation rate was 35% (25-44). QS20 was correlated negatively with the occupation rate (Spearman's ρ: -0.78). The structural equation model confirmed that the occupation rate was highly correlated with the QS20 (standardized coefficient: -0.89). For an occupation rate of 26%, the target value estimated by our polynomial model, the probability of achieving a QS20 superior or equal to 95% varied between 56 and 84%. The occupation rate appeared to be the most important factor contributing towards the QS20. Our data will be useful to develop best practices and guidelines in the field of emergency medicine communication centres.

  14. Impact of technological innovation on a nursing home performance and on the medication-use process safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Chantal; Gascon, Viviane; Brouillette, Christel

    2014-03-01

    Despite the fact that since 1985 the government of Québec increased by 5.75 % on average the amount of money spent on healthcare per year, little improvement was noted. It is obvious that an optimal use of resources is essential to reduce waiting times and provide safer and faster services to patients. The use of new technology can contribute to improve the healthcare system efficiency. Our study aims to assess the impact of a medication distribution technology on 1) the performance of a health and social services center's pharmacy, 2) the performance of one care unit in a nursing home and on 3) the medication-use process safety. To measure performance we were inspired by the Lean approach. The results show that medication distribution technology is considered as an effective way to significantly detect medication errors, to allow nurses to focus more on patients and pharmacy to react more rapidly to changes in patient medications.

  15. Prevalence of GMC performance assessments in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort analysis by country of medical qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, L; Potts, H W W; Sturrock, A; Dacre, J

    2017-04-04

    The demographics of doctors working in the UK are changing. The United Kingdom (UK) has voted to leave the European Union (EU) and there is heightened political discourse around the world about the impact of migration on healthcare services. Previous work suggests that foreign trained doctors perform worse than UK graduates in postgraduate medical examinations. We analysed the prevalence by country of primary medical qualification of doctors who were required to take an assessment by the General Medical Council (GMC) because of performance concerns. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of data routinely collected by the GMC. We compared doctors who had a GMC performance assessment between 1996 and 2013 with the medical register in the same period. The outcome measures were numbers experiencing performance assessments by country or region of medical qualification. The rate of performance assessment varied significantly by place of medical qualification and by year; χ 2 (17) = 188, p Economic Area (EEA), were more likely to have a performance assessment than UK trained doctors, with the exception of South African trained doctors. The rate of performance assessment varies significantly by place of medical qualification. This is the first study to explore the risk of performance assessment by individual places of medical qualification. While concern has largely focused on the competence of non-EEA, International Medical Graduates, we discuss implications for how to ensure European trained doctors are fit to practise before their medical licence in the UK is granted. Further research is needed to investigate whether these country effects hold true when controlling for factors like doctors' sex, age, length of time working in the UK, and English language skills. This will allow evidence-based decisions to be made around the regulatory environment the UK should adopt once it leaves the EU. Patients should be reassured that the vast majority of all doctors

  16. Performance evaluation of medical records departments by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) approach in the selected hospitals in Isfahan : medical records dep. & AHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2012-06-01

    Medical Records Department (MRD) is an important unit for evaluating and planning of care services. The goal of this study is evaluating the performance of the Medical Records Departments (MRDs) of the selected hospitals in Isfahan, Iran by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). This was an analytic of cross-sectional study that was done in spring 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The statistical population consisted of MRDs of Alzahra, Kashani and Khorshid Hospitals in Isfahan. Data were collected by forms and through brainstorm technique. To analyze and perform AHP, Expert Choice software was used by researchers. Results were showed archiving unit has received the largest importance weight with respect to information management. However, on customer aspect admission unit has received the largest weight. Ordering weights of Medical Records Departments' Alzahra, Kashani and Khorshid Hospitals in Isfahan were with 0.394, 0.342 and 0.264 respectively. It is useful for managers to allocate and prioritize resources according to AHP technique for ranking at the Medical Records Departments.

  17. [Medical clearance for missions abroad (EEU): definitions, recommendations for use and performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollaritsch, Herwig; Wenisch, Christoph; Hatz, Christoph; von Laer, Gunther; Bauer, Bernd; Hollenstein, Ursula; Haditsch, Martin; Diridl, Gerhard; Malinowski, Waldemar; Jeschko, Eva; Payer-Neundlinger, Gabriela; Speiser-Remp, Nicole; Pichler, Hannes E T; Rumpold, Helmut; Stemberger, Heinrich; Eder, Gerald; Wiedermann, Gerhard; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    Standards for medical clearance for private or business missions abroad are--at least in the German speaking countries--not clearly defined and mostly derived from the old terminus "Tropentauglichkeit" which means fit for mission in the tropics. The authors now define a new standard, called "Entsendungstauglichkeitsuntersuchung" which means clearance of fitness for all types of missions abroad, independent of distinct climatic zones. To meet the inhomogenous requirements of different institutions and different types of missions the medical examination proposed follows a modular structure to optimize economic and medical use of resources. Moreover, as Austria, Germany and Switzerland have different legal and economic postulates, the medical examination has to be adapted to the different premises. The definition and description of this special type of "medical clearance for missions abroad" is supplemented by recommendations for definitions of clients who should undergo such an investigation and the professionals who should perform this type of investigation. Additionally, results of this type of medical clearance are defined and prophylactic aspects in terms of pre-travel advice are mentioned.

  18. The relationship between school type and academic performance at medical school: a national, multi-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Ben; Cleland, Jennifer A; Walker, Kim; Lee, Amanda J; Greatrix, Rachel

    2017-08-31

    Differential attainment in school examinations is one of the barriers to increasing student diversity in medicine. However, studies on the predictive validity of prior academic achievement and educational performance at medical school are contradictory, possibly due to single-site studies or studies which focus only on early years' performance. To address these gaps, we examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors, including school type and average educational performance throughout medical school across a large number of diverse medical programmes. This retrospective study analysed data from students who graduated from 33 UK medical schools between 2012 and 2013. We included candidates' demographics, pre-entry grades (adjusted Universities and Colleges Admissions Service tariff scores) preadmission test scores (UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and Graduate Medical School Admissions Test (GAMSAT)) and used the UK Foundation Programme's educational performance measure (EPM) decile as an outcome measure. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent relationship between students' background characteristics and EPM ranking. Students from independent schools had significantly higher mean UKCAT scores (2535.1, SD=209.6) than students from state-funded schools (2506.1, SD=224.0, pschools came into medical school with significantly higher mean GAMSAT scores (63.9, SD=6.9) than students from state-funded schools (60.8, SD=7.1, pschools were almost twice as likely (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.73) to finish in the highest rank of the EPM ranking than those who attended independent schools. This is the first large-scale study to examine directly the relationship between school type and overall performance at medical school. Our findings provide modest supportive evidence that, when students from independent and state schools enter with similar pre-entry grades, once in medical school, students from state-funded schools are likely to outperform students

  19. Ranking Practice Variability in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation: So Bad, It's "Good".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen Osborn, Megan; Mattson, James; Yanuck, Justin; Anderson, Craig; Tekian, Ara; Fox, John Christian; Harris, Ilene B

    2016-11-01

    To examine the variability among medical schools in ranking systems used in medical student performance evaluations (MSPEs). The authors reviewed MSPEs from U.S. MD-granting medical schools received by the University of California, Irvine emergency medicine and internal medicine residency programs during 2012-2013 and 2014-2015. They recorded whether the school used a ranking system, the type of ranking system used, the size and description of student categories, the location of the ranking statement and category legend, and whether nonranking schools used language suggestive of rank. Of the 134 medical schools in the study sample, the majority (n = 101; 75%) provided ranks for students in the MSPE. Most of the ranking schools (n = 63; 62%) placed students into named category groups, but the number and size of groups varied. The most common descriptors used for these 63 schools' top, second, third, and lowest groups were "outstanding," "excellent," "very good," and "good," respectively, but each of these terms was used across a broad range of percentile ranks. Student ranks and school category legends were found in various locations. Many of the 33 schools that did not rank students included language suggestive of rank. There is extensive variation in ranking systems used in MSPEs. Program directors may find it difficult to use MSPEs to compare applicants, which may diminish the MSPE's value in the residency application process and negatively affect high-achieving students. A consistent approach to ranking students would benefit program directors, students, and student affairs officers.

  20. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  1. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  2. Medication Adherence Among Elderly Patients with High Blood Pressure in Gweru, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariva, Elizabeth; January, James; Maradzika, Julita

    2014-02-04

    High blood pressure is a global health concern which is mainly managed by taking anti-hypertensive medications. Although medication is available to control high blood pressure, adhering to treatment is a major problem among hypertensive patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors to medication adherence among hypertensive patients in Gweru urban aged 40-70 years. A descriptive cross sectional study was used with a sample size of 110 conveniently sampled hypertensive patients. We used an interviewer administered questionnaire designed using phase 4 of the PRECEDE model. The modal age was 70 years and mean age was 58 years (SD=10.29). There were 61.8% females and 38.2% males. Variables associated with medication adherence were: age (P=0.0059), marital status (P=0.015), average monthly income (P=0.0002), support group (P=0.027) and knowledge (P=0.0058). Providing information to patients with high blood pressure and having a good patient-provider relationship improves medication adherence. There is need to focus on the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors of medication adherence since demographic and socio-economic factors may be more difficult to change.

  3. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2009-07-06

    There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates.

  4. Entropy as a measure of the performance of phosphor materials used in medical imaging radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavouras, D.; Kandarakis, I.; Maris, T.; Panayiotakis, G.S.; Nomicos, C.D.

    2001-01-01

    In information theory, entropy expresses the information gain obtained after detection of a signal concerning the state of a parameter of interest. In this study, entropy has been expressed in terms of physical quantities (emitted optical fluence and MTF) related to the imaging performance of phosphor materials, which are employed in medical imaging radiation detectors. Four phosphor materials, used in the form of laboratory-prepared fluorescent layers (screens), were compared on the basis of their entropy performance. Measurements were performed using 30- and 80-kVp X-ray beams often employed in X-ray imaging. Results showed that phosphor materials with high density and effective atomic number exhibit high entropy performance, especially at the higher X-ray tube voltage of 80 kVp. Entropy values are also affected by the type of activator, which determines the intrinsic X-ray-to-light conversion efficiency, and the spectrum of emitted light. The proximity of the incident X-ray quanta energy to the energy of the K-shell threshold for photoelectric absorption is an additional important factor which increases entropy. This effect was more apparent in the performance of yttrium-based phosphors at the lower voltage of 30 kVp. (orig.)

  5. A multi-site study on medical school selection, performance, motivation and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, A; Croiset, G; Schripsema, N R; Cohen-Schotanus, J; Spaai, G W G; Hulsman, R L; Kusurkar, R A

    2017-05-01

    Medical schools seek ways to improve their admissions strategies, since the available methods prove to be suboptimal for selecting the best and most motivated students. In this multi-site cross-sectional questionnaire study, we examined the value of (different) selection procedures compared to a weighted lottery procedure, which includes direct admission based on top pre-university grade point averages (≥8 out of 10; top-pu-GPA). We also considered whether students had participated in selection, prior to being admitted through weighted lottery. Year-1 (pre-clinical) and Year-4 (clinical) students completed standard validated questionnaires measuring quality of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire), strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student). Performance data comprised GPA and course credits in Year-1 and clerkship performance in Year-4. Regression analyses were performed. The response rate was 35% (387 Year-1 and 273 Year-4 students). Top-pu-GPA students outperformed selected students. Selected Year-1 students reported higher strength of motivation than top-pu-GPA students. Selected students did not outperform or show better quality of motivation and engagement than lottery-admitted students. Participation in selection was associated with higher engagement and better clerkship performance in Year-4. GPA, course credits and strength of motivation in Year-1 differed between students admitted through different selection procedures. Top-pu-GPA students perform best in the medical study. The few and small differences found raise questions about the added value of an extensive selection procedure compared to a weighted lottery procedure. Findings have to be interpreted with caution because of a low response rate and small group sizes.

  6. Strong leadership and teamwork drive culture and performance change: Ohio State University Medical Center 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Fred; Bendapudi, Neeli; Rucci, Anthony; Schlesinger, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    Several characteristics of academic health centers have the potential to create high levels of internal conflict and misalignment that can pose significant leadership challenges. In September 2000, the positions of Ohio State University (OSU) senior vice president for health sciences, dean of the medical school, and the newly created position of chief executive officer of the OSU Medical Center (OSUMC) were combined under a single leader to oversee the OSUMC. This mandate from the president and trustees was modeled after top institutions with similar structures. The leader who assumed the role was tasked with improving OSUMC's academic, clinical, and financial performance. To achieve this goal, the senior vice president and his team employed the service value chain model of improving performance, based on the premise that leadership behavior/culture drives employee engagement/satisfaction, leading to customer satisfaction and improved organizational performance. Implementing this approach was a seven-step process: (1) selecting the right leadership team, (2) assessing the challenges and opportunities, (3) setting expectations for performance and leadership behavior, (4) aligning structures and functions, (5) engaging constituents, (6) developing leadership skills, and (7) defining strategies and tracking goals. The OSUMC setting during this period provides an observational case study to examine how these stepwise changes, instituted by strong leadership and teamwork, were able to make and implement sound decisions that drove substantial and measurable improvements in the engagement and satisfaction of faculty and staff; the satisfaction of students and patients; and academic, clinical, and financial performance.

  7. Assessing air medical crew real-time readiness to perform critical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Darren; Goldsmith, Timothy; Weiss, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Air medical transport has had problems with its safety record, attributed in part to human error. Flight crew members (FCMs) must be able to focus on critical safety tasks in the context of a stressful environment. Flight crew members' cognitive readiness (CR) to perform their jobs may be affected by sleep deprivation, personal problems, high workload, and use of alcohol and drugs. The current study investigated the feasibility of using a computer-based cognitive task to assess FCMs' readiness to perform their job. The FCMs completed a short questionnaire to evaluate their physiologic and psychological state at the beginning and end of each shift. The FCMs then performed 3 minutes of a computer-based cognitive task called synthetic work environment (SYNWIN test battery). Task performance was compared with the questionnaire variables using correlation and regression analysis. Differences between the beginning and end of each shift were matched and compared using a paired Students t test. SYNWIN performance was significantly worse at the end of a shift compared with the beginning of the shift (p = 0.028) primarily because of decrement in the memory component. The SYNWIN composite scores were negatively correlated to degree of irritability felt by the participant, both before (r = -0.25) and after (r = -0.34) a shift and were significantly correlated with amount of sleep (0.22), rest (0.30), and life satisfaction (0.30). Performance by FCMs on a simple, rapid, computer-based psychological test correlates well with self-reported sleep, rest, life satisfaction, and irritability. Although further studies are warranted, these findings suggest that assessment of the performance of FCMs on a simple, rapid, computer-based, multitasking battery is feasible as an approach to determine their readiness to perform critical safety tasks through the SYNWIN task battery.

  8. Influence of Continuing Medical Education on Rheumatologists' Performance on National Quality Measures for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Tamar; Rusie, Erica; Greene, Laurence; Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark L; Ruderman, Eric M; Carter, Jeffrey D; Patel, Barry; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    In recent years researchers have reported deficits in the quality of care provided to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including low rates of performance on quality measures. We sought to determine the influence of a quality improvement (QI) continuing education program on rheumatologists' performance on national quality measures for RA, along with other measures aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities. Performance was assessed through baseline and post-education chart audits. Twenty community-based rheumatologists across the United States were recruited to participate in the QI education program and chart audits. Charts were retrospectively audited before (n = 160 charts) and after (n = 160 charts) the rheumatologists participated in a series of accredited QI-focused educational activities that included private audit feedback, small-group webinars, and online- and mobile-accessible print and video activities. The charts were audited for patient demographics and the rheumatologists' documented performance on the 6 quality measures for RA included in the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). In addition, charts were abstracted for documentation of patient counseling about medication benefits/risks and adherence, lifestyle modifications, and quality of life; assessment of RA medication side effects; and assessment of RA medication adherence. Mean rates of documented performance on 4 of the 6 PQRS measures for RA were significantly higher in the post-education versus baseline charts (absolute increases ranged from 9 to 24% of patient charts). In addition, after the intervention, significantly higher mean rates were observed for patient counseling about medications and quality of life, and for assessments of medication side effects and adherence (absolute increases ranged from 9 to 40% of patient charts). This pragmatic study provides preliminary evidence for the positive influence of QI-focused education in helping rheumatologists improve

  9. High-resolution, low-delay, and error-resilient medical ultrasound video communication using H.264/AVC over mobile WiMAX networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayides, Andreas; Antoniou, Zinonas C; Mylonas, Yiannos; Pattichis, Marios S; Pitsillides, Andreas; Pattichis, Constantinos S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we describe an effective video communication framework for the wireless transmission of H.264/AVC medical ultrasound video over mobile WiMAX networks. Medical ultrasound video is encoded using diagnostically-driven, error resilient encoding, where quantization levels are varied as a function of the diagnostic significance of each image region. We demonstrate how our proposed system allows for the transmission of high-resolution clinical video that is encoded at the clinical acquisition resolution and can then be decoded with low-delay. To validate performance, we perform OPNET simulations of mobile WiMAX Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical (PHY) layers characteristics that include service prioritization classes, different modulation and coding schemes, fading channels conditions, and mobility. We encode the medical ultrasound videos at the 4CIF (704 × 576) resolution that can accommodate clinical acquisition that is typically performed at lower resolutions. Video quality assessment is based on both clinical (subjective) and objective evaluations.

  10. Effect of Repeated/Spaced Formative Assessments on Medical School Final Exam Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Chang

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Performance on weekly formative assessments was predictive of final exam scores. Struggling medical students will benefit from extra cumulative practice exams while students who are excelling do not need extra practice.

  11. Gender performativity, medicalization and health in transsexual women in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo Granados Cosme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization and the American Psychological Association consider transsexuality a pathology and suggest sex-gender reassignment for the biopsychic adjustment of trans people. Through the discursive analysis of experience, this study describes the processes of medicalization and gender performativity in relation to the health of a group of trans women from Mexico City. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted in which 10 semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2015. As part of medicalization, the pathologization of transsexuality generated psychic suffering; on the other hand, sex-gender reassignment also entailed additional risks. It is possible to conclude that in trans women, violence and exclusion constitute the primary experiences explaining their foremost health problems. Therefore, it is suggested that it is necessary for discrimination be reduced and for advancements to be made in safer medical interventions.

  12. [Gender performativity, medicalization and health in transsexual women in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, José Arturo Granados; Ramírez, Pedro Alberto Hernández; Muñoz, Omar Alejandro Olvera

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization and the American Psychological Association consider transsexuality a pathology and suggest sex-gender reassignment for the biopsychic adjustment of trans people. Through the discursive analysis of experience, this study describes the processes of medicalization and gender performativity in relation to the health of a group of trans women from Mexico City. For this purpose, a qualitative study was conducted in which 10 semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2015. As part of medicalization, the pathologization of transsexuality generated psychic suffering; on the other hand, sex-gender reassignment also entailed additional risks. It is possible to conclude that in trans women, violence and exclusion constitute the primary experiences explaining their foremost health problems. Therefore, it is suggested that it is necessary for discrimination be reduced and for advancements to be made in safer medical interventions.

  13. What is happening under the surface? Power, conflict and the performance of medical teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janss, Rozemarijn; Rispens, Sonja; Segers, Mien; Jehn, Karen A

    2012-09-01

    The effect of teamwork on team performance is broadly recognised in the medical field. This recognition is manifested in educational programmes in which attention to interpersonal behaviours during teamwork is growing. Conflict and power differences influence interpersonal behaviours and are marked topics in studies of group functioning in the social and organisational psychology literature. Insights from the domain of social sciences put the ongoing improvement of teamwork into broader perspective. This paper shows how knowledge from the domain of social and organisational psychology contributes to the understanding of teamwork in the medical environment. More specifically, this paper suggests that unfolding the underlying issues of power and conflict within medical teams can be of extra help in the development of educational interventions aimed at improving team performance. We review the key social psychology and organisational behaviour literature concerning power and conflict, and relate the insights derived from this to the team process of ad hoc medical action teams. We present a theoretical framework in which insights into power and conflict are used to explain and predict team dynamics in ad hoc medical action teams. Power and conflict strongly influence interpersonal behaviour. Characteristics of medical action teams give rise to all kinds of issues of disagreement and are accompanied by complex issues of intra-team power distribution. We argue that how team members coordinate, cooperate and communicate is steered by members' personal motivations, which, in turn, strongly depend on their perceptions of power and conflict. Given the importance of the performance of these teams, we suggest future directions for the development of training interventions building on knowledge and theories derived from social and organisational psychology. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  14. Assessing implicit gender bias in Medical Student Performance Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Rick D; Solow, Catherine M; Ferguson, Kristi J; Cohen, Michael B

    2010-09-01

    For medical schools, the increasing presence of women makes it especially important that potential sources of gender bias be identified and removed from student evaluation methods. Our study looked for patterns of gender bias in adjective data used to inform our Medical Student Performance Evaluations (MSPEs). Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to model the latent structure of the adjectives attributed to students (n = 657) and to test for systematic scoring errors by gender. Gender bias was evident in two areas: (a) women were more likely than comparable men to be described as ''compassionate,'' ''sensitive,'' and ''enthusiastic'' and (b) men were more likely than comparable women to be seen as ''quick learners.'' The gender gap in ''quick learner'' attribution grows with increasing student proficiency; men's rate of increase is over twice that of women's. Technical and nontechnical approaches for ameliorating the impact of gender bias on student recommendations are suggested.

  15. A novel strategy to access high resolution DICOM medical images based on JPEG2000 interactive protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Cai, Weihua; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2008-03-01

    The demand for sharing medical information has kept rising. However, the transmission and displaying of high resolution medical images are limited if the network has a low transmission speed or the terminal devices have limited resources. In this paper, we present an approach based on JPEG2000 Interactive Protocol (JPIP) to browse high resolution medical images in an efficient way. We designed and implemented an interactive image communication system with client/server architecture and integrated it with Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). In our interactive image communication system, the JPIP server works as the middleware between clients and PACS servers. Both desktop clients and wireless mobile clients can browse high resolution images stored in PACS servers via accessing the JPIP server. The client can only make simple requests which identify the resolution, quality and region of interest and download selected portions of the JPEG2000 code-stream instead of downloading and decoding the entire code-stream. After receiving a request from a client, the JPIP server downloads the requested image from the PACS server and then responds the client by sending the appropriate code-stream. We also tested the performance of the JPIP server. The JPIP server runs stably and reliably under heavy load.

  16. The relationship between sleep and wake habits and academic performance in medical students: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    BaHammam Ahmed S; Alaseem Abdulrahman M; Alzakri Abdulmajeed A; Almeneessier Aljohara S; Sharif Munir M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between the sleep/wake habits and the academic performance of medical students is insufficiently addressed in the literature. This study aimed to assess the relationship between sleep habits and sleep duration with academic performance in medical students. Methods This study was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, and included a systematic random sample of healthy medical students in the first ...

  17. Designing sparse sensing matrix for compressive sensing to reconstruct high resolution medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha Tiwari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing theory enables faithful reconstruction of signals, sparse in domain $ \\Psi $, at sampling rate lesser than Nyquist criterion, while using sampling or sensing matrix $ \\Phi $ which satisfies restricted isometric property. The role played by sensing matrix $ \\Phi $ and sparsity matrix $ \\Psi $ is vital in faithful reconstruction. If the sensing matrix is dense then it takes large storage space and leads to high computational cost. In this paper, effort is made to design sparse sensing matrix with least incurred computational cost while maintaining quality of reconstructed image. The design approach followed is based on sparse block circulant matrix (SBCM with few modifications. The other used sparse sensing matrix consists of 15 ones in each column. The medical images used are acquired from US, MRI and CT modalities. The image quality measurement parameters are used to compare the performance of reconstructed medical images using various sensing matrices. It is observed that, since Gram matrix of dictionary matrix ($ \\Phi \\Psi \\mathrm{} $ is closed to identity matrix in case of proposed modified SBCM, therefore, it helps to reconstruct the medical images of very good quality.

  18. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates. PMID:19580661

  19. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racine Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin, is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates.

  20. The Analysis of the Chest Tube Thoracostomies Performed in a Newly Established Hospital of a Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timucin Alar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We have analyzed the chest tube thoracostomies (CTT performed in our Thoracic Surgery clinics of our newly established medical school hospital. Material and Method: The medical records of 130 patients to whom CTT were performed by the Thoracic Surgery Clinics of the Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University from December 2009 to July 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 102 patients (78% out of 130 were male and 28 (22% were women. Mean age of the patients were 58.9±20.4. 19% (n:25 of these patients were diagnosed at our clinics and the remaining 81% (n:105 were consultated from other clinics The most common indication of CTT was pleural effusion (35%, n:45. The mean fluid drainage of the patients with pleural effusions for various reasons (63%, n:84 were 1462.80±1054.46. The mean air drainage time for the patients with pneumothorax for various reasons (37%, n:46 were 5.8±3.1 days. There was only one complication (0,8% in these 130 patients which was the intraparanchymal drain placement. Discussion: As a procedure that is usually performed under emergency conditions CTT has a high potential for development of serious complications and thus increasing the importance of resident doctor training in Thoracic Surgery clinics. CTT has a low rate of complications when performed with the right indication, at the appropriate location and in devotion to the surgical principles; can increase the importance of the Thoracic Surgeons in the medical centers that they are working at and can also increase the relationship of the Thoracic Surgery clinics with the other clinics.

  1. The relationship between the social management of emotional intelligence and academic performance among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Md Zain, Azhar; Hassan, Faezah

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p social intelligence and academic success in undergraduate medical students. A different collection of social skills and SM EI could be constructive towards academic achievement in medical schools.

  2. Gender differences in learning styles and academic performance of medical students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhat, Ayesha; Salem, Raneem Osama; Al Hamdan, Nasser; Ashour, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Teachers at medical school are often faced with challenges of improving student satisfaction with the learning environment. On the other hand, education in the medical field is very competitive and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Students adapt specific learning styles to keep pace with the information delivered to them in their institutions. The aim of this study is to know the differences in learning styles between male and female students, and the effect it has on academic performance. The VARK Questionnaire version 7.0 (Visual, Aural, Read/Write and Kinesthetic) was administered to the fourth year and fifth year medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine at King Fahad Medical City, Saudi Arabia for determining the preferred learning methods of students participating in this study. The learning styles were then compared to cumulative grade point average (GPA) obtained by the students. The dominant learning style preference of students was multimodal. Among students who preferred unimodal preference, aural and kinesthetic preference was predominant for males and females. Moreover, Females had more diverse preferences than male students. Multimodal learners have higher cumulative GPAs when compared with the unimodal learners. This study revealed variation in learning style preferences among genders, and its implications on academic performance of medical students.

  3. The strategic impact of a changing curriculum and learning environment on medical students' academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela C; Epps, Anna Cherrie; McCammon, Sametria

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the administration of Meharry Medical College, School of Medicine (SOM), Nashville, Tennessee, recognized the need to modify the curriculum to help improve student academic performance especially on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) steps 1 and 2. Thus, a number of changes occurred with respect to the traditional curriculum in the SOM, resulting in an integrated organ system-based curriculum design. The change in the learning environment was studied to determine the impact on performance after the introduction of the integrated organ system-based curriculum as compared to that of the traditional curriculum. With the utilization of a cadre of variables, it was believed that the strategic impact anticipated would provide a predictive validity profile to assist in the identification of students "at risk" of failure so that proactive intervention methodology could be made available to facilitate the students' successful progression during matriculation in the SOM. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether students trained with the integrated organ systems curriculum perform better than students trained with the traditional medical school curriculum on the medical education preclinical subject board examinations, and the NBME USMLE steps 1 and 2 examinations. From the 584 students studied in the control group (graduation classes for years 2005, 2006, and 2007) and the intervention group (graduation classes for years 2008, 2009, and 2010), significant improvement in performance on the NBME USMLE steps 1 and 2 examinations was noted following the introduction of the integrated organ system-based curriculum particularly among "at-risk" students. Data access availability from the School of Medicine of Meharry Medical College automatically gave reason for a preferential comparative relationship and study of the resulting strategic impact on cohorts graduating in years 2005-2010. Thus, this

  4. Does emotional intelligence change during medical school gross anatomy course? Correlations with students' performance and team cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Michelle A; Porter, Samuel G; Pawlina, Wojciech; Juskewitch, Justin E; Lachman, Nirusha

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with increased academic achievement, but its impact on medical education is relatively unexplored. This study sought to evaluate change in EI, performance outcomes, and team cohesion within a team-based medical school anatomy course. Forty-two medical students completed a pre-course and post-course Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). Individual EI scores were then compared with composite course performance grade and team cohesion survey results. Mean pre-course EI score was 140.3 out of a possible 160. During the course, mean individual EI scores did not change significantly (P = 0.17) and no correlation between EI scores and academic performance was noted (P = 0.31). In addition, EI did not correlate with team cohesion (P = 0.16). While business has found significant utility for EI in increasing performance and productivity, its role in medical education is still uncertain. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. The tendency of medical electrical equipment - IEC 60601-2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of x-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Young Hoon; Kim, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirement for basic safety and essential performance of MFDS was revised as 3th edition and Medical electrical equipment Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment will be expected to be announced as notification. Therefore this technical report was written to introduce provision of the particular requirements, replacement, addition, amendment. The purpose of this particular requirements is to secure requirements for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy. X-ray high voltage generator, mechanical protective device, protection against radiation is included in this particular requirements. Medical electrical equipment - Part 1, Part 1-2, Part 1-3 is applied to this particular requirements. If the requirements is announced as notification, It is expected to widen understanding for basic safety and essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy and play a part to internationalize of medical equipment

  6. The relationship between sleep and wake habits and academic performance in medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Alaseem, Abdulrahman M; Alzakri, Abdulmajeed A; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Sharif, Munir M

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between the sleep/wake habits and the academic performance of medical students is insufficiently addressed in the literature. This study aimed to assess the relationship between sleep habits and sleep duration with academic performance in medical students. This study was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, and included a systematic random sample of healthy medical students in the first (L1), second (L2) and third (L3) academic levels. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess demographics, sleep/wake schedule, sleep habits, and sleep duration. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). School performance was stratified as "excellent" (GPA ≥ 3.75/5) or "average" (GPA students (males: 67%). One hundred fifteen students (28%) had "excellent" performance, and 295 students (72%) had "average" performance. The "average" group had a higher ESS score and a higher percentage of students who felt sleepy during class. In contrast, the "excellent" group had an earlier bedtime and increased TST during weekdays. Subjective feeling of obtaining sufficient sleep and non-smoking were the only independent predictors of "excellent" performance. Decreased nocturnal sleep time, late bedtimes during weekdays and weekends and increased daytime sleepiness are negatively associated with academic performance in medical students.

  7. Higher clinical performance during a surgical clerkship is independently associated with matriculation of medical students into general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Shaun C; Deal, Rebecca A; Rinewalt, Daniel E; Francescatti, Amanda B; Luu, Minh B; Millikan, Keith W; Anderson, Mary C; Myers, Jonathan A

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the predictive impact of individual academic measures for the matriculation of senior medical students into a general surgery residency. Academic records were evaluated for third-year medical students (n = 781) at a single institution between 2004 and 2011. Cohorts were defined by student matriculation into either a general surgery residency program (n = 58) or a non-general surgery residency program (n = 723). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate independently significant academic measures. Clinical evaluation raw scores were predictive of general surgery matriculation (P = .014). In addition, multivariate modeling showed lower United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores to be independently associated with matriculation into general surgery (P = .007). Superior clinical aptitude is independently associated with general surgical matriculation. This is in contrast to the negative correlation United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores have on general surgery matriculation. Recognizing this, surgical clerkship directors can offer opportunities for continued surgical education to students showing high clinical aptitude, increasing their likelihood of surgical matriculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The patient experience of high technology medical imaging: A systematic review of the qualitative evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, Zachary; Jordan, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Background: When presenting to an imaging department, the person who is to be imaged is often in a vulnerable state, and can experience the scan in a number of ways. It is the role of the radiographer to produce a high quality image and facilitate patient care throughout the imaging process. A qualitative systematic review was performed to synthesise the existent evidence on the patient experience of high technology medical imaging. Only papers relating to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) were identified. Inclusion criteria: Studies that were of a qualitative design that explored the phenomenon of interest, the patient experience of high technology medical imaging. Participants included anyone who had undergone one of these procedures. Methods: A systematic search of medical and allied health databases was conducted. Articles identified during the search process that met the inclusion criteria were then critically appraised for methodological quality independently by two reviewers. Results: During the search and inclusion process, 15 studies were found that were deemed of suitable quality to be included in the review. From the 15 studies, 127 findings were extracted from the included studies. These were analysed in more detail to observe common themes, and then grouped into 33 categories. From these 33 categories, 11 synthesised findings were produced. The 11 synthesised findings highlight the diverse, unique and challenging ways in which people experience imaging with MRI and CT scanners. Conclusion: The results of the review demonstrate the diverse ways in which people experience medical imaging. All health professionals involved in imaging need to be aware of the different ways each patient may experience imaging.

  9. A survey of clinical performance skills requirements in medical radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowntree, P.A.; Veitch, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines the reasons behind carry out a study of clinical performance skills requirements and the method being used to gather data. It describes the changes which have occurred in radiographer education in Queensland, the broader impact brought about by changes in professional body requirements and the development of a Competency based Standards Document for the profession. The paper provides examples of the survey design and layout being developed for distribution to third year students in the Medical Imaging Technology major of the Bachelor of Applied Science (Medical Radiation Technology) Queensland University of Technology, graduates and clinical departments in Queensland. 1 tab., 1 fig

  10. A structural model of stress, motivation, and academic performance in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jangho; Chung, Seockhoon; An, Hoyoung; Park, Seungjin; Lee, Chul; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jae-Dam; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to identify factors that may influence academic stress in medical students and 2) to investigate the causal relationships among these variables with path analysis. One hundred sixty medical students participated in the present study. Psychological parameters were assessed with the Medical Stress Scale, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Academic Motivation Scale. Linear regression and path analysis were used to examine the relationships among variables. Significant correlations were noted between several factors and Medical Stress scores. Specifically, Hamilton Depression Scale scores (β=0.26, p=0.03) and amotivation (β=0.20, p=0.01) and extrinsically identified regulation (β=0.27, pAcademic Motivation Scale had independent and significant influences on Medical Stress Scale scores. A path analysis model indicated that stress, motivation, and academic performance formed a triangular feedback loop. Moreover, depression was associated with both stress and motivation, and personality was associated with motivation. The triangular feedback-loop structure in the present study indicated that actions that promote motivation benefit from interventions against stress and depression. Moreover, stress management increases motivation in students. Therefore, strategies designed to reduce academic pressures in medical students should consider these factors. Additional studies should focus on the relationship between motivation and depression.

  11. Intelligent distributed medical image management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Yun, David Y.

    1995-05-01

    The rapid advancements in high performance global communication have accelerated cooperative image-based medical services to a new frontier. Traditional image-based medical services such as radiology and diagnostic consultation can now fully utilize multimedia technologies in order to provide novel services, including remote cooperative medical triage, distributed virtual simulation of operations, as well as cross-country collaborative medical research and training. Fast (efficient) and easy (flexible) retrieval of relevant images remains a critical requirement for the provision of remote medical services. This paper describes the database system requirements, identifies technological building blocks for meeting the requirements, and presents a system architecture for our target image database system, MISSION-DBS, which has been designed to fulfill the goals of Project MISSION (medical imaging support via satellite integrated optical network) -- an experimental high performance gigabit satellite communication network with access to remote supercomputing power, medical image databases, and 3D visualization capabilities in addition to medical expertise anywhere and anytime around the country. The MISSION-DBS design employs a synergistic fusion of techniques in distributed databases (DDB) and artificial intelligence (AI) for storing, migrating, accessing, and exploring images. The efficient storage and retrieval of voluminous image information is achieved by integrating DDB modeling and AI techniques for image processing while the flexible retrieval mechanisms are accomplished by combining attribute- based and content-based retrievals.

  12. Relationship between academic performance and affective changes during the first year at medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Machado, Vanessa Foresto; Madisson, Mariani Mendes; Resende, Tamara Lovatto; Valério, Fernando Passador; Troncon, Luiz Ernesto De Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Entering medical school may be associated with changes in the students' life, which can affect academic motivation and impair academic performance. This work aimed at measuring longitudinally academic motivation, anxiety, depression and social adjustment in first-year medical students and determining the relationships between these variables and academic performance, as measured mainly by grades on regular exams. Eighty-five first-year medical students (age: 17-25 years) were included after giving informed consent. Beck's Anxiety (BAI) and Beck's Depression (BDI) Inventories, the self-reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR) and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) were applied two months after admission and at the end of the academic year. BAI scores increased throughout the year (7.3 ± 6.6 versus 28.8 ± 6.7; p 0.10). SAS-SR subscales scores remained stable, except for a decreasing pattern for leisure/social life (1.8 ± 0.4 versus 2.1 ± 0.4; p motivation to know (22.2 ± 4.5 versus 19.7 ± 5.5; p academic performance and the global scores for any of the scales except for the SAS-SR subscale for academic life (r = -0.48, p academic year, first-year medical students showed increased anxiety, decreased academic motivation and a maladjusted leisure/social life, which however does not seem to affect academic achievement.

  13. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D; Resch, F; Duelli, R; Möltner, A; Huber, J; Karimian Jazi, K; Amr, A; Eckart, W; Herzog, W; Nikendei, C

    2014-01-01

    Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations.

  14. Self-confidence of medical students in performing clinical skills acquired during their surgical rotation. Assessing clinical skills education in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Jumanah A; Marwan, Yousef A; Dawas, Ahmed M; Akhtar, Saeed

    2012-12-01

    To assess the self-confidence of clinical years` medical students in performing clinical skills/procedures. A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait. A questionnaire was used to collect data from students who had completed their surgical rotation of their first clinical year. The students reported their level of self-confidence in performing specific skills/procedures related to that rotation. Data were presented using frequencies and percentages. A total score of confidence was calculated for each student. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess the association between the students` sociodemographic characteristics and confidence score. Of the 122 students invited to participate in the study, only 15 (12.3%) declined to comply. Most students reported high confidence level (more than 75%) in performing 7 of the 13 history taking/physical examination skills, and 2 of the 39 diagnostic/treatment procedure skills. The highest confidence level was in performing abdominal examination, while the lowest level was in care of Jackson-Pratt drain site and emptying the drain bulb. The total confidence score was significantly higher among males (p=0.021), and students with higher monthly income (p=0.002). Medical students appeared to have poor self-confidence in performing clinical skills/procedures. Curriculum planners should explore potential reasons, and methods for the improvement of confidence level among medical students in performing skills/procedures they were expected to learn during their surgical rotation.

  15. Demonstrating the use of high-volume electronic medical claims data to monitor local and regional influenza activity in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Viboud

    Full Text Available Fine-grained influenza surveillance data are lacking in the US, hampering our ability to monitor disease spread at a local scale. Here we evaluate the performances of high-volume electronic medical claims data to assess local and regional influenza activity.We used electronic medical claims data compiled by IMS Health in 480 US locations to create weekly regional influenza-like-illness (ILI time series during 2003-2010. IMS Health captured 62% of US outpatient visits in 2009. We studied the performances of IMS-ILI indicators against reference influenza surveillance datasets, including CDC-ILI outpatient and laboratory-confirmed influenza data. We estimated correlation in weekly incidences, peak timing and seasonal intensity across datasets, stratified by 10 regions and four age groups (<5, 5-29, 30-59, and 60+ years. To test IMS-Health performances at the city level, we compared IMS-ILI indicators to syndromic surveillance data for New York City. We also used control data on laboratory-confirmed Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV activity to test the specificity of IMS-ILI for influenza surveillance.Regional IMS-ILI indicators were highly synchronous with CDC's reference influenza surveillance data (Pearson correlation coefficients rho≥0.89; range across regions, 0.80-0.97, P<0.001. Seasonal intensity estimates were weakly correlated across datasets in all age data (rho≤0.52, moderately correlated among adults (rho≥0.64 and uncorrelated among school-age children. IMS-ILI indicators were more correlated with reference influenza data than control RSV indicators (rho = 0.93 with influenza v. rho = 0.33 with RSV, P<0.05. City-level IMS-ILI indicators were highly consistent with reference syndromic data (rho≥0.86.Medical claims-based ILI indicators accurately capture weekly fluctuations in influenza activity in all US regions during inter-pandemic and pandemic seasons, and can be broken down by age groups and fine geographical areas

  16. Evaluation of doctors' performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012–2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. Results: The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Conclusion: Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning. Keywords: lecture, effectiveness, evaluation, undergraduate medical

  17. Factors influencing medical students' self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.

  18. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedefaw, Abel; Tilahun, Birkneh; Asefa, Anteneh

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA) using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47) and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71) years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7%) of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2%) had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3%) had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and academic performance was explained by the studied variables. Hence, efficacious mechanisms should be designed to combat the intervenable determinants of self-reported academic performance, like substance use and a low medical school entrance examination result. Further studies should also be undertaken to gain a better understanding of other unstudied determinants, like personality, learning style, cognitive ability, and the system used for academic evaluation.

  19. Sleep timing is more important than sleep length or quality for medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, L.K.E.; Ahrberg, K.; Roselli, C.; Niedermaier, S.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Roenneberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Medical students are often deprived of sufficient sleep due to large amounts of clinical duties and university load, we therefore investigated how study and sleep habits influence university performance. We performed a

  20. Examination of Job Satisfaction of the Medical Vocational High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Güney, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the job satisfaction level of Medical Vocational High School teachers and whether it differs according to different variables. The research was organized in accordance with the screening model. The population of the research was composed of vocational course teachers who worked in Medical Vocational High…

  1. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  2. Managing High Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacist to help you come up with a coding system for your medications that makes them easier to take. Some pharmacists will prepare blister packs for daily or weekly medications. Make an instruction sheet for yourself by taping a sample of each ...

  3. Effect of skill laboratory training on academic performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Alamgir; Shabbir, Faizania; Qamar, Khadija; Rajput, Tausif Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    To observe the effect of skill lab training on academic performance of final year medical students in terms of marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva. The cross-sectional comparative study was conducted at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi from February to April 2015. Two batches of final year MBBS were recruited for the study. Batch 1 received conventional training, and Batch 2 received skill lab training. The performance of students was assessed by comparing the marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva. Data was analysed using SPSS 23. Of the 335 subjects, 168(50.1%) were male and 167(49.9%) were female students with a mean age of 21.79±1.02 years. Batch 1 had 151(45%) students and Batch 2 had 184(55%). Batch 2 got significantly higher marks in long case, short case and objective structured clinical examination (p0.05). Acquisition of clinical skills significantly improved when medial students were trained in skill laboratories.

  4. Evaluation of Board Performance in Iran’s Universities of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniye Sajadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The critical role that the board plays in governance of universities clarifies the necessity of evaluating its performance. This study was aimed to evaluate the performance of the boards of medical universities and provide solutions to enhance its performance. Methods The first phase of present study was a qualitative research in which data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed by thematic approach. The second phase was a mixed qualitative and quantitative study, with quantitative part in cross-sectional format and qualitative part in content analysis format. In the quantitative part, data were collected through Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME. In the qualitative part, the content of 2,148 resolutions that were selected by using stratified sampling method were analyzed. Results Participants believed that the boards had no acceptable performance for a long time. Results also indicated the increasing number of meetings and resolutions of the boards in these 21 years. The boards’ resolutions were mostly operational in domain and administrative in nature. The share of specific resolutions was more than the general ones. Conclusion Given the current pace of change and development and the need to timely respond them, it is recommended to accelerate the slow pace of improvement process of the boards. It appears that more delegation and strengthening the position of the boards are the effective strategies to speed up this process.

  5. The correlation between achievement goals, learning strategies, and motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Hur, Yera; Park, Joo Hyun

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the pursuit of achievement goals in medical students and to assess the relationship between achievement goals, learning strategy, and motivation. Two hundred seventy freshman and sophomore premedical students and sophomore medical school students participated in this study, which used the Achievement Goals Scale and the Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Questionnaire. The achievement goals of medical students were oriented toward moderate performance approach levels, slightly high performance avoidance levels, and high mastery goals. About 40% of the students were high or low in all three achievement goals. The most successful adaptive learners in the areas of learning strategies, motivation, and school achievement were students from group 6, who scored high in both performance approach and mastery goals but low in performance avoidance goals. And goal achievement are related to the academic self-efficacy, learning strategies, and motivation in medical students. In the context of academic achievement, mastery goals and performance approach goals are adaptive goals.

  6. A Structural Model of Stress, Motivation, and Academic Performance in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jangho; An, Hoyoung; Park, Seungjin; Lee, Chul; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jae-Dam; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was 1) to identify factors that may influence academic stress in medical students and 2) to investigate the causal relationships among these variables with path analysis. Methods One hundred sixty medical students participated in the present study. Psychological parameters were assessed with the Medical Stress Scale, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Academic Motivation Scale. Linear regression and path analysis were used to examine the relationships among variables. Results Significant correlations were noted between several factors and Medical Stress scores. Specifically, Hamilton Depression Scale scores (β=0.26, p=0.03) and amotivation (β=0.20, p=0.01) and extrinsically identified regulation (β=0.27, p<0.01) response categories on the Academic Motivation Scale had independent and significant influences on Medical Stress Scale scores. A path analysis model indicated that stress, motivation, and academic performance formed a triangular feedback loop. Moreover, depression was associated with both stress and motivation, and personality was associated with motivation. Conclusion The triangular feedback-loop structure in the present study indicated that actions that promote motivation benefit from interventions against stress and depression. Moreover, stress management increases motivation in students. Therefore, strategies designed to reduce academic pressures in medical students should consider these factors. Additional studies should focus on the relationship between motivation and depression. PMID:22707964

  7. Can outcome-based continuing medical education improve performance of immigrant physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Orit Cohen; Ezra, Vered; Alperin, Mordechai; Nave, Rachel; Porat, Tamar; Golan, Avivit Cohen; Vinker, Shlomo; Karkabi, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant physicians are a valued resource for physician workforces in many countries. Few studies have explored the education and training needs of immigrant physicians and ways to facilitate their integration into the health care system in which they work. Using an educational program developed for immigrant civilian physicians working in military primary care clinics at the Israel Defence Force, we illustrate how an outcome-based CME program can address practicing physicians' needs for military-specific primary care education and improve patient care. Following an extensive needs assessment, a 3-year curriculum was developed. The curriculum was delivered by a multidisciplinary educational team. Pre/post multiple-choice examinations, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE), and end-of-program evaluations were administered for curriculum evaluation. To evaluate change in learners' performance, data from the 2003 (before-program) and 2006 (after-program) work-based assessments were retrieved retrospectively. Change in the performance of program participants was compared with that of immigrant physicians who did not participate in the program. Out of 28 learners, 23 (82%) completed the program. Learners did significantly better in the annual post-tests compared with the pretests (p educators, facing the challenge of integrating immigrant physicians to fit their health care system, may consider adapting our approach. Copyright © 2011 The Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  8. Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, A.F.; Ven, van de J.; Merién, A.E.R.; Wit-Zuurendonk, de L.D.; Houterman, S.; Mol, B.W.J.; Oei, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether obstetric team training in a medical simulation centre improves the team performance and utilisation of appropriate medical technical skills of healthcare professionals. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting The Netherlands. Sample The obstetric

  9. Comparison of 3MP medical-grade to 1MP office grade LCD monitors in mammographic diagnostic and perceptual performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Aaron; Tan, Shu.; Gledhill, Samuel; Hennessy, Oliver; Lui, Belinda; Lee, Alan; Lemish, Wayne; Styles, Colin; Pun, Emma; Padmanabhan, Meenakshi; Pitman, Alexander G.; Tauro, Paul; Waugh, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Picture archiving and communication systems images designed to be viewed on high-resolution medical-grade monitors are routinely viewed on office-grade monitors on the wards or at home. This study aimed to determine whether a statistically significant difference in diagnostic (cancer detection) and perceptual (microcalcification detection) performance exists between 3MP grade and 1MP office-grade monitors. 3MP Dome medical-grade liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors (Planar, Beaverton, OR, USA) were compared to 1MP Dell office-grade LCD monitors (Dell Inc, Round Rock, TX, USA). Eight radiologists (reader experi ence 8-30 years) read the same set of 100 mammograms (23/100 with proven cancers and 52/100 with microcalcifications) presented in random order on three occasions separated by two time intervals of 12 weeks. Reads 1 and 3 utilised 3MP monitors and formed the baseline read. Read 2 utilised 1MP monitors and constituted the experimental read. Reading conditions were standardised. Readers were aware of which monitors they were using. Mul tivariate logistic regression analysis (to account for reader variability and monitor impact) was performed to assess for statistical significance. At a = 5%, confidence intervals analysis comparing the measured parameters between 1MP to 3MP monitors demonstrated no statistically significant difference in diagnostic and perceptual performance for the reader group. In cancer detection (the diagnostic task), reader accuracy remained high irrespective of monitor type. Regression analysis comparing performance with 1MP against 3MP monitors found P values of 0.693 and 0.324 for diagnostic and perceptual performance, respectively. There were no statistically and clinically significant differences between 3MP and 1MP monitors in mammographic diagnostic and perceptual performance. Comparable performance may be due to compensatory behav iour by readers.

  10. A longitudinal study of the characteristics and performances of medical students and graduates from the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekian, Ara; Boulet, John

    2015-11-05

    While international physician migration has been studied extensively, more focused and regional explorations are not commonplace. In many Arab countries, medical education is conducted in English and students/graduates seek postgraduate opportunities in other countries such as the United States (US). Eligibility for residency training in the US requires certification by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG). This study investigates ECFMG application trends, examination performance, and US physician practice data to quantify the abilities and examine the career pathways of Arab-trained physicians. Medical students and graduates from 15 Arab countries where English is the language of medical school instruction were studied. The performances (1(st) attempt pass rates) of individuals on the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1, Step 2CK (clinical knowledge), and and a combination of Step 2CS (clinical skills) and ECFMG CSA (clinical skills assessment) were tallied and contrasted by country. Based on physician practice data, the contribution of Arab-trained physicians to the US healthcare workforce was explored. Descriptive statistics (means, frequencies) were used to summarize the collected data. Between 1998 and 2012, there has been an increase in the number of Arab trained students/graduates seeking ECFMG certification. Examination performance varied considerably across countries, suggesting differences in the quality of medical education programs in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Based on current US practice data, physicians from some Arab countries who seek postgraduate opportunities in the US are less likely to stay in the US following specialty training. Countries, or regions, with concerns about physician migration, physican performance, or the pedagogical quality of their training programs should conduct longitudinal research studies to help inform medical education policies.

  11. Medical and genetic differences in the adverse impact of sleep loss on performance: ethical considerations for the medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently concluded that-on average-medical residents make more serious medical errors and have more motor vehicle crashes when they are deprived of sleep. In the interest of public safety, society has required limitations on work hours in many other safety sensitive occupations, including transportation and nuclear power generation. Those who argue in favor of traditional extended duration resident work hours often suggest that there are inter- individual differences in response to acute sleep loss or chronic sleep deprivation, implying that physicians may be more resistant than the average person to the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on performance, although there is no evidence that physicians are particularly resistant to such effects. Indeed, recent investigations have identified genetic polymorphisms that may convey a relative resistance to the effects of prolonged wakefulness on a subset of the healthy population, although there is no evidence that physicians are over-represented in this cohort. Conversely, there are also genetic polymorphisms, sleep disorders and other inter-individual differences that appear to convey an increased vulnerability to the performance-impairing effects of 24 hours of wakefulness. Given the magnitude of inter-individual differences in the effect of sleep loss on cognitive performance, and the sizeable proportion of the population affected by sleep disorders, hospitals face a number of ethical dilemmas. How should the work hours of physicians be limited to protect patient safety optimally? For example, some have argued that, in contrast to other professions, work schedules that repeatedly induce acute and chronic sleep loss are uniquely essential to the training of physicians. If evidence were to prove this premise to be correct, how should such training be ethically accomplished in the quartile of physicians and surgeons who are most vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss on performance

  12. High altitude medicine education in China: exploring a new medical education reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Luo, Rong; Li, Weiming; Huang, Jianjun; Zhou, Qiquan; Gao, Yuqi

    2012-03-01

    China has the largest plateau in the world, which includes the whole of Tibet, part of Qinghai, Xinjiang, Yunnan, and Sichuan. The plateau area is about 257.2×10(4) km(2), which accounts for about 26.8% of the total area of China. According to data collected in 2006, approximately twelve million people were living at high altitudes, between 2200 to 5200 m high, on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, there is a need for medical workers who are trained to treat individuals living at high altitudes. To train undergraduates in high altitude medicine, the College of High Altitude Military Medicine was set up at the Third Military Medical University (TMMU) in Chongqing in 1999. This is the only school to teach high altitude medicine in China. Students at TMMU study natural and social sciences, basic medical sciences, clinical medical sciences, and high altitude medicine. In their 5(th) year, students work as interns at the General Hospital of Tibet Military Command in Lhasa for 3 months, where they receive on-site teaching. The method of on-site teaching is an innovative approach for training in high altitude medicine for undergraduates. Three improvements were implemented during the on-site teaching component of the training program: (1) standardization of the learning progress; (2) integration of formal knowledge with clinical experience; and (3) coaching students to develop habits of inquiry and to engage in ongoing self-improvement to set the stage for lifelong learning. Since the establishment of the innovative training methods in 2001, six classes of high altitude medicine undergraduates, who received on-site teaching, have graduated and achieved encouraging results. This evidence shows that on-site teaching needs to be used more widely in high altitude medicine education.

  13. Exploration Medical System Technical Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J.; Rubin, D.; Mindock, J.; Middour, C.; McGuire, K.; Hanson, A.; Reilly, J.; Burba, T.; Urbina, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element Systems Engineering (SE) goals include defining the technical system needed to support medical capabilities for a Mars exploration mission. A draft medical system architecture was developed based on stakeholder needs, system goals, and system behaviors, as captured in an ExMC concept of operations document and a system model. This talk will discuss a high-level view of the medical system, as part of a larger crew health and performance system, both of which will support crew during Deep Space Transport missions. Other mission components, such as the flight system, ground system, caregiver, and patient, will be discussed as aspects of the context because the medical system will have important interactions with each. Additionally, important interactions with other aspects of the crew health and performance system are anticipated, such as health & wellness, mission task performance support, and environmental protection. This talk will highlight areas in which we are working with other disciplines to understand these interactions.

  14. RavenDB high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  15. Medical and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids among High School Seniors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids among high school seniors in the United States, and to assess substance use behaviors based on medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Design Nationally representative samples of high school seniors (modal age 18) were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires. Setting Data were collected in public and private high schools. Participants The sample consisted of 7,374 students from three independent cohorts (2007-09). Main Outcome Measures Self-reports of medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids and other substance use. Results An estimated 17.6% of high school seniors reported lifetime medical use of prescription opioids, while 12.9% reported nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Gender differences in the medical and nonmedical use were minimal, while racial/ethnic differences were extensive. Over 37% of nonmedical users reported intranasal administration of prescription opioids. An estimated 80% of nonmedical users with an earlier history of medical use had obtained prescription opioids from a prescription they had previously. The odds of substance use behaviors were greater among individuals who reported any history of nonmedical use of prescription opioids relative to those who reported medical use only. Conclusions Nearly one in every four high school seniors in the United States has ever had some exposure to prescription opioids either medically or nonmedically. The quantity of prescription opioids and number of refills prescribed to adolescents should be carefully considered and closely monitored to reduce subsequent nonmedical use of leftover medication. PMID:22566521

  16. The relationship between sleep and wake habits and academic performance in medical students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between the sleep/wake habits and the academic performance of medical students is insufficiently addressed in the literature. This study aimed to assess the relationship between sleep habits and sleep duration with academic performance in medical students. Methods This study was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, and included a systematic random sample of healthy medical students in the first (L1, second (L2 and third (L3 academic levels. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess demographics, sleep/wake schedule, sleep habits, and sleep duration. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. School performance was stratified as “excellent” (GPA ≥3.75/5 or “average” (GPA Results The final analysis included 410 students (males: 67%. One hundred fifteen students (28% had “excellent” performance, and 295 students (72% had “average” performance. The “average” group had a higher ESS score and a higher percentage of students who felt sleepy during class. In contrast, the “excellent” group had an earlier bedtime and increased TST during weekdays. Subjective feeling of obtaining sufficient sleep and non-smoking were the only independent predictors of “excellent” performance. Conclusion Decreased nocturnal sleep time, late bedtimes during weekdays and weekends and increased daytime sleepiness are negatively associated with academic performance in medical students.

  17. Motivational Profiles of Medical Students of Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Lochana; Pant, Shambhu Nath

    2018-01-01

    Students enter the medical study with different types of motives. Given the importance of academic motivation for good academic achievement of the students, the present study was designed to reveal the possible relationship between academic motivation and achievement in medical students. In this cross-sectional study medical students (N=364) of Nepalese Army institute of Health Sciences were participated and classified to different subgroups using intrinsic and controlled motivation scores. Cluster membership was used as an independent variable to assess differences in study strategies and academic performance. Four clusters were obtained: High Intrinsic High Controlled, Low Intrinsic High Controlled, High Intrinsic Low Controlled, and Low Intrinsic Low Controlled. High Intrinsic High Controlled and High Intrinsic Low Controlled profile students constituted 36.1%, 22.6% of the population, respectively. No significant differences were observed as regards to deep strategy and surface strategy between high interest status motivated and high interest-motivated students. However, both of the clusters had significantly deeper, surface strategy and better academic performance than status-motivated and low-motivation clusters (p motivated and interest-motivated medical students were associated with good deep and surface study strategy and good academic performance. Low-motivation and status-motivated students were associated with the least academic performance with less interest learning behaviors. This reflected that motivation is important required component for good learning outcomes for medical students Keywords: Academic performance; controlled motivation; clusters; intrinsic motivation; motivation.

  18. Emergency medical services key performance measurement in Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Tanaka, Hideharu; Shin, Sang Do; Ng, Yih Yng; Piyasuwankul, Thammapad; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis. The data was collected from the Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcome Study (PAROS) data among few Asian cities, namely, Tokyo, Osaka, Singapore, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Taipei, and Seoul. The parameters of inclusions were broadly divided into structure, process, and outcome measurements. The data was collected by the site investigators from each city and keyed into the electronic web-based data form which is secured strictly by username and passwords. Generally, there seems to be a more uniformity for EMS performance parameters among the more developed EMS systems. The major problem with the EMS agencies in the cities of developing countries like Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur is inadequate or unavailable data pertaining to EMS performance. There is non-uniformity in the EMS performance measurement across the Asian cities. This creates difficulty for EMS performance index comparison and benchmarking. Hopefully, in the future, collaborative efforts such as the PAROS networking group will further enhance the standardization in EMS performance reporting across the region.

  19. Investigating the Financial Performance of Universities of Medical Science and Health Services in Iran, Using Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Toloie-Ashlaghy, Abbas; Ta-Bibi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem

    2014-01-01

    Universities of Medical Science and Health Services (UMSHSs) are among the main organizations in Iran's health-care section. Improving their efficiency in financial resource management through creating an appropri-ate coordination between consumption and resources is strategically vital. Investigating the financial performance as well as ranking the Iranian UMSHSs is the research objective. The study is of descriptive and applied type. The study population includes the UMSHSs of Iran (n=42) among which 24 UMSHSs are selected. DEA is used with the aim to model and assess the financial performance in-cluding 4 inputs and 3 outputs. Also, linear regression is applied to determine the effectiveness of the applied indices as well as the level of the financial performance. Data are obtained from the Budgeting Center in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, during 2010 mainly through forms designed based on the available balance sheets. The average score of financial performance assessment for UMSHSs based on the DEA of input-oriented data is 0.74, assuming a constant scale of DEA-CRS. Thus, approximately 25% of the studied UMSHSs have maxi-mum relative performance and totally, there is about a 30% capacity to increase the financial performance in these UMSHSs. Most Iranian UMSHSs do not have high financial performance. This can be due to problems in financial resource management especially in asset combining. Therefore, compilation and execution of a comprehensive pro-gram for organizational change and agility with the aim to create a kind of optimized combination of resources and assets is strongly recommended.

  20. Association of prescription abandonment with cost share for high-cost specialty pharmacy medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Patrick P; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Sarran, H Scott

    2009-10-01

    In 2008, specialty medications accounted for 15.1% of total pharmacy benefit medication spending, and per member expenditures have increased by 11.1% annually from 2004 to 2008 within a commercially insured population of 8 million members. Insurers face increasing pressure to control specialty medication expenditures and to rely on increasing member cost share through creation of a fourth copayment tier within the incentive-based formulary pharmacy benefit system. Data are needed on the influence that member out-of-pocket (OOP) expense may have on prescription abandonment (defined as the patient never actually taking possession of the medication despite evidence of a written prescription generated by a prescriber). To explore the relationship between prescription abandonment and OOP expense among individuals newly initiating high-cost medication therapy with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocker or multiple sclerosis (MS) biologic agent. This observational cross-sectional study queried a midwestern and southern U.S. database of 13,172,480 commercially insured individuals to find members with a pharmacy benefit-adjudicated claim for a TNF blocker or MS specialty medication during the period from July 2006 through June 2008. Prescription abandonment was assessed among continuously enrolled members newly initiating TNF blocker or MS therapy. Prescription abandonment was defined as reversal of the adjudicated claim with no evidence of a subsequent additional adjudicated paid claim in the ensuing 90 days. Separate analyses for MS and TNF blocker therapy were performed to assess the association between member OOP expense and abandonment rate using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariate logistic regression. Members were placed into 1 of the 7 following OOP expense groups per claim: $0-$100, $101-$150, $151-$200, $201-$250, $251-$350, $351-$500, or more than $500. The association of MS or TNF blocker abandonment rate with OOP expense was tested with logistic

  1. What is a medical physicist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The modern radiotherapy requires a medical physicist who optimizes treatment plans, assures delivered dose equal to prescription, and performs QA (quality assurance) of radiotherapy equipments. However, medical physicist has not been established as a medical profession in Japan mainly because importance of radiotherapy was not sufficiently recognized until recently. Between 2000 and 2004, several accidents of radiotherapy including hundreds of patients were found and these accidents were mainly caused by lack of QA. The necessity and importance of medical physicist were recognized by these accidents as well as by the advent of high-precision radiotherapy such as IMRT (intensity modulation radiation therapy). JRS (Japan Radiological Society) that certified medical physicists with the help of JSMP (Japan Society of Medical Physics), decided to extend eligibility in order to increase certified medical physicists rapidly in 2003. After the decision certified medical physicists were rapidly increased in number. The government supports this tendency to enact that certified medical physicists is necessary to reimbursement for high-precision therapy. It also started to supply grants for medical physics training in physical and health science graduate schools. In this program several universities have started medical physics course in their graduate schools. If these movements continue, medical physicist will be established as a medical profession in the near future. (author)

  2. Medical Team Training Improves Team Performance: AOA Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James E; Bagian, James P; Snider, Rebecca G; Jeray, Kyle J

    2017-09-20

    Effective teamwork and communication can decrease medical errors in environments where the culture of safety is enhanced. Health care can benefit from programs that are based on teamwork, as in other high-stress industries (e.g., aviation), with crew resource management programs, simulator use, and utilization of checklists. Medical team training (MTT) with a strong leadership commitment was used at our institution to focus specifically on creating open, yet structured, communication in operating rooms. Training included the 3 phases of the World Health Organization protocol to organize communication and briefings: preoperative verification, preincision briefing, and debriefing at or near the end of the surgical case. This training program led to measured improvements in job satisfaction and compliance with checklist tasks, and identified opportunities to improve training sessions. MTT provides the potential for sustainable change and a positive impact on the environment of the operating room.

  3. Budgetary participation and performance: The mediating effects of medical managers' job engagement and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Bozzi, Stefano; Rizzo, Marco Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Professional hybrids in healthcare have attracted a great deal of policy, managerial, and research interest. However, the current literature offers little guidance on (i) how hybrid roles can be supported by the hospital organization they work for as well as (ii) the cognitive and behavioral driving forces underpinning medical managers' managerial work that determine how they inhabit their roles and consequently meet the standards of performance that contribute to organizational effectiveness. Building on engagement theory and social cognitive theory and using data collected from clinical managers working in a large Italian public hospital, the current study focuses on the mediating role of psychological variables associated with the managerial role of medical managers, namely managerial job engagement and managerial self-efficacy, in the budgetary participation-job performance link. The results suggest that the information gained by participating in budgeting impact medical managers' thoughts and feelings about their managerial role and these, in turn, motivate different aspects of their performance. The findings are discussed in relation to theory and their managerial and policy implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of performances of consultant surgeons, NCHDs and medical students in a modified HPAT examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, A

    2010-06-01

    Following the implementation of the Fottrell report, entry to medical school in Ireland has undergone significant change. Medical school studentship is now awarded based on a combination of points obtained from the final examination of Irish secondary schools (the leaving certificate) combined with HPAT scores (Health Professions Admissions Test). The HPAT is designed to test a candidate\\'s knowledge in several different fields including problem solving skills, logical and non verbal reasoning. A sample HPAT was administered to a test group composed of consultant surgeons, non consultant hospital doctors, and medical students. Statistical analysis was performed and no significant difference was found between the performances of the groups. This is surprising as it was expected that groups with greater experience at medical problem solving would have translated to higher scores. This exposes a flaw within the HPAT system and a potential weakness in the process of doctor selection.

  5. The medical science DMZ: a network design pattern for data-intensive medical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisert, Sean; Dart, Eli; Barnett, William; Balas, Edward; Cuff, James; Grossman, Robert L; Berman, Ari; Shankar, Anurag; Tierney, Brian

    2017-10-06

    We describe a detailed solution for maintaining high-capacity, data-intensive network flows (eg, 10, 40, 100 Gbps+) in a scientific, medical context while still adhering to security and privacy laws and regulations. High-end networking, packet-filter firewalls, network intrusion-detection systems. We describe a "Medical Science DMZ" concept as an option for secure, high-volume transport of large, sensitive datasets between research institutions over national research networks, and give 3 detailed descriptions of implemented Medical Science DMZs. The exponentially increasing amounts of "omics" data, high-quality imaging, and other rapidly growing clinical datasets have resulted in the rise of biomedical research "Big Data." The storage, analysis, and network resources required to process these data and integrate them into patient diagnoses and treatments have grown to scales that strain the capabilities of academic health centers. Some data are not generated locally and cannot be sustained locally, and shared data repositories such as those provided by the National Library of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, and international partners such as the European Bioinformatics Institute are rapidly growing. The ability to store and compute using these data must therefore be addressed by a combination of local, national, and industry resources that exchange large datasets. Maintaining data-intensive flows that comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and other regulations presents a new challenge for biomedical research. We describe a strategy that marries performance and security by borrowing from and redefining the concept of a Science DMZ, a framework that is used in physical sciences and engineering research to manage high-capacity data flows. By implementing a Medical Science DMZ architecture, biomedical researchers can leverage the scale provided by high-performance computer and cloud storage facilities and national high

  6. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-02-15

    Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level.

  7. Graduates of different UK medical schools show substantial differences in performance on MRCP(UK Part 1, Part 2 and PACES examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollon Jennifer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK General Medical Council has emphasized the lack of evidence on whether graduates from different UK medical schools perform differently in their clinical careers. Here we assess the performance of UK graduates who have taken MRCP(UK Part 1 and Part 2, which are multiple-choice assessments, and PACES, an assessment using real and simulated patients of clinical examination skills and communication skills, and we explore the reasons for the differences between medical schools. Method We perform a retrospective analysis of the performance of 5827 doctors graduating in UK medical schools taking the Part 1, Part 2 or PACES for the first time between 2003/2 and 2005/3, and 22453 candidates taking Part 1 from 1989/1 to 2005/3. Results Graduates of UK medical schools performed differently in the MRCP(UK examination between 2003/2 and 2005/3. Part 1 and 2 performance of Oxford, Cambridge and Newcastle-upon-Tyne graduates was significantly better than average, and the performance of Liverpool, Dundee, Belfast and Aberdeen graduates was significantly worse than average. In the PACES (clinical examination, Oxford graduates performed significantly above average, and Dundee, Liverpool and London graduates significantly below average. About 60% of medical school variance was explained by differences in pre-admission qualifications, although the remaining variance was still significant, with graduates from Leicester, Oxford, Birmingham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and London overperforming at Part 1, and graduates from Southampton, Dundee, Aberdeen, Liverpool and Belfast underperforming relative to pre-admission qualifications. The ranking of schools at Part 1 in 2003/2 to 2005/3 correlated 0.723, 0.654, 0.618 and 0.493 with performance in 1999–2001, 1996–1998, 1993–1995 and 1989–1992, respectively. Conclusion Candidates from different UK medical schools perform differently in all three parts of the MRCP(UK examination, with the

  8. Medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem among psychiatric patients attending psychosocial rehabilitation services at Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sailaxmi Gandhi; Rajitha Pavalur; Sivakumar Thanapal; Nirmala B Parathasarathy; Geetha Desai; Poornima Bhola; Mariamma Philip; Santosh K Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Context: Work benefits mental health in innumerable ways. Vocational rehabilitation can enhance self-esteem. Medication adherence can improve work performance and thereby the individuals’ self-esteem. Aim: To test the hypothesis that there would be a significant correlation between medication adherence, work performance and self-esteem. Setting and Design: A quantitative, descriptive correlational research design was adopted to invite patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation services to ...

  9. Motivation and academic performance of medical students from ethnic minorities and majority: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ulviye; Wouters, Anouk; Ter Wee, Marieke M; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-11-28

    Medical students from ethnic minorities underperform in knowledge and skills assessments both in pre-clinical and clinical education compared to the ethnic majority group. Motivation, which influences learning and academic performance of medical students, might play an important role in explaining these differences, but is under-investigated. This study aimed to compare two types of motivation (autonomous and controlled) of ethnic minority (Western and non-Western) and majority (Dutch) students, and their association with academic performance. In a cross-sectional study, all students of a Dutch medical school were invited to complete a survey including the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire, measuring autonomous and controlled motivation, in the academic year 2015-2016. Motivation was compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and performance was compared using One-Way ANOVA. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between motivation and performance (grade point average; GPA). The response rate was 38.6% (n = 947). Autonomous motivation (AM) of non-Western students was higher than that of Dutch students in pre-clinical and clinical education (p motivation was higher in Western students than in Dutch students (pre-clinical education; p motivation between the ethnic majority and minority groups. The association of motivation with performance also differs between ethnic groups. We found that AM has a positive influence on GPA. Further research is needed to uncover the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S Barry; McGaghie, William C; Petrusa, Emil R; Lee Gordon, David; Scalese, Ross J

    2005-01-01

    1969 to 2003, 34 years. Simulations are now in widespread use in medical education and medical personnel evaluation. Outcomes research on the use and effectiveness of simulation technology in medical education is scattered, inconsistent and varies widely in methodological rigor and substantive focus. Review and synthesize existing evidence in educational science that addresses the question, 'What are the features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to most effective learning?'. The search covered five literature databases (ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Timelit) and employed 91 single search terms and concepts and their Boolean combinations. Hand searching, Internet searches and attention to the 'grey literature' were also used. The aim was to perform the most thorough literature search possible of peer-reviewed publications and reports in the unpublished literature that have been judged for academic quality. Four screening criteria were used to reduce the initial pool of 670 journal articles to a focused set of 109 studies: (a) elimination of review articles in favor of empirical studies; (b) use of a simulator as an educational assessment or intervention with learner outcomes measured quantitatively; (c) comparative research, either experimental or quasi-experimental; and (d) research that involves simulation as an educational intervention. Data were extracted systematically from the 109 eligible journal articles by independent coders. Each coder used a standardized data extraction protocol. Qualitative data synthesis and tabular presentation of research methods and outcomes were used. Heterogeneity of research designs, educational interventions, outcome measures and timeframe precluded data synthesis using meta-analysis. Coding accuracy for features of the journal articles is high. The extant quality of the published research is generally weak. The weight of the best available evidence suggests that high-fidelity medical

  11. Predictors of self-reported academic performance among undergraduate medical students of Hawassa University, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedefaw A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abel Gedefaw,1 Birkneh Tilahun,2 Anteneh Asefa3 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, 3School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: This study was conducted to identify predictors of self-reported academic performance in undergraduate medical students at Hawassa University. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study involving 592 undergraduate medical students was conducted in November 2012. The academic performance of the study subjects was measured by self-reported cumulative grade point average (GPA using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. Pearson's bivariate correlations, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic regression were used to identify predictors of academic performance. Results: The self-reported academic performance of students had been decreasing as the academic years progressed, with the highest and lowest performance being in the premedicine (mean GPA 3.47 and clinical I (mean GPA 2.71 years, respectively. One hundred and fifty-eight (26.7% of the participants had ever been delayed, 37 (6.2% had ever re-sat for examination, and two (0.3% had ever been warned due to academic failure. The overall variation in self-reported academic performance of the students was 32.8%. Participant age alone explained 21.9% of the variation. On the other hand, university entrance examination results, substance use at university, and medicine as first choice by students were identified as predictors of variation in self-reported academic performance, accounting for 6.9%, 2.7%, and <1% of the variation, respectively. Students who had never used tobacco, alcohol, or khat after starting university were twice as likely to score a self-reported cumulative GPA above 3.0 (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, 95

  12. Quality of prescription of high-alert medication and patient safety in pediatric emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vieira de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the importance of compliance by prescribed doses of high-alert medications in unit of pediatric emergency in patient safety. Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a unit of pediatric emergency, for March to April of 2012. This study included all prescriptions that contained at least one high-alert medication, excluding all of others. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel® version 2007, and the study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Results: This study included prescriptions for 100 patients with a mean age of 5.2 ± 4.2 years. Were identified 983 (40.1% high-alert medications (21 different, with predominance of injectable solutions (834, 84,8%, and of these 727 (73.95% were electrolytes. The analysis of the dose was possible for 641 electrolytes and 104 non-electrolytes, being the dose inadequacies observed for some medications. Was observed concentration absent to 189 (18.9% prescribed medications, these with liquid pharmaceutical form or aerosol. Was observed also the absence of maximum dose for 8 (36.3% prescribed drugs “if necessary”. Conclusión: The inadequacies of doses of high-alert medications identified in this study may compromise patient safety, demonstrating the importance of knowledge of multidisciplinary health care team by this subject, in this context, it is noteworthy that the acting of a clinical pharmacist together with the health multidisciplined team can contributes with the review of drug prescriptions, reducing potential errors and collaborating with patient safety.

  13. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term – A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D.; Resch, F.; Duelli, R.; Möltner, A.; Huber, J.; Karimian Jazi, K.; Amr, A.; Eckart, W.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. Method: A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). Results: German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations. PMID:25228931

  14. [High frequency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a Peruvian public university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C; Quezada-Osoria, C Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students.

  15. High-performance computing using FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Benkrid, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This book is concerned with the emerging field of High Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC), which aims to harness the high performance and relative low power of reconfigurable hardware–in the form Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)–in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. It presents the latest developments in this field from applications, architecture, and tools and methodologies points of view. We hope that this work will form a reference for existing researchers in the field, and entice new researchers and developers to join the HPRC community.  The book includes:  Thirteen application chapters which present the most important application areas tackled by high performance reconfigurable computers, namely: financial computing, bioinformatics and computational biology, data search and processing, stencil computation e.g. computational fluid dynamics and seismic modeling, cryptanalysis, astronomical N-body simulation, and circuit simulation.     Seven architecture chapters which...

  16. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy for enhancing production and application of medical isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Smith, S. V.; Muench, L.; Nino, M.; Greene, J. P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Zhu, S.; Chillery, T.; Chowdhury, P.; Harding, R.; Lister, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear medicine is a field which requires precise decay data for use in planning radionuclide production and in imaging and therapeutic applications. To address deficiencies in decay data, sources of medical isotopes were produced and purified at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory where high-precision, gamma-ray measurements were performed using Gammasphere. New decay schemes for a number of PET isotopes and the impact on dose calculations will be presented. To investigate the production of next-generation theranostic or radiotherapeutic isotopes, cross section measurements with high energy protons have also been explored at BLIP. The 100-200 MeV proton energy regime is relatively unexplored for isotope production, thus offering high discovery potential but at the same time a challenging analysis due to the large number of open channels at these energies. Results of cross sections deduced from Compton-suppressed, coincidence gamma-ray spectroscopy performed at Lowell will be presented, focusing on the production of platinum isotopes by irradiating natural platinum foils with 100 to 200 MeV protons. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. Holistic rubric vs. analytic rubric for measuring clinical performance levels in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yune, So Jung; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Im, Sun Ju; Kam, Bee Sung; Baek, Sun Yong

    2018-06-05

    Task-specific checklists, holistic rubrics, and analytic rubrics are often used for performance assessments. We examined what factors evaluators consider important in holistic scoring of clinical performance assessment, and compared the usefulness of applying holistic and analytic rubrics respectively, and analytic rubrics in addition to task-specific checklists based on traditional standards. We compared the usefulness of a holistic rubric versus an analytic rubric in effectively measuring the clinical skill performances of 126 third-year medical students who participated in a clinical performance assessment conducted by Pusan National University School of Medicine. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 37 evaluators who used all three evaluation methods-holistic rubric, analytic rubric, and task-specific checklist-for each student. The relationship between the scores on the three evaluation methods was analyzed using Pearson's correlation. Inter-rater agreement was analyzed by Kappa index. The effect of holistic and analytic rubric scores on the task-specific checklist score was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Evaluators perceived accuracy and proficiency to be major factors in objective structured clinical examinations evaluation, and history taking and physical examination to be major factors in clinical performance examinations evaluation. Holistic rubric scores were highly related to the scores of the task-specific checklist and analytic rubric. Relatively low agreement was found in clinical performance examinations compared to objective structured clinical examinations. Meanwhile, the holistic and analytic rubric scores explained 59.1% of the task-specific checklist score in objective structured clinical examinations and 51.6% in clinical performance examinations. The results show the usefulness of holistic and analytic rubrics in clinical performance assessment, which can be used in conjunction with task-specific checklists for more efficient

  18. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation

  19. Evaluation of doctors' performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salwani; Salam, Abdus; Alattraqchi, Ahmed G; Annamalai, Lakshmi; Chockalingam, Annamalai; Elena, Wan Putri; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Haque, Mainul

    2015-01-01

    Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school. This was a cross-sectional study conducted of the medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin. The study population was 468 preclinical medical students from years 1 and 2 of academic year 2012-2013. Data were collected using a validated instrument. There were six different sections of questions using a 5-point Likert scale. The data were then compiled and analyzed, using SPSS version 20. The response rate was 73%. Among 341 respondents, 30% were male and 70% were female. Eighty-five percent of respondents agree or strongly agree that the lectures had met the criteria with regard to organization of lecture materials. Similarly, 97% of students agree or strongly agree that lecturers maintained adequate voices and gestures. Medical students are quite satisfied with the lecture classes and the lectures. However, further research is required to identify student-centered teaching and learning methods to promote active learning.

  20. The medical science DMZ: a network design pattern for data-intensive medical science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peisert, Sean [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of computer Science; Corporation for Education Network Initiatives in California (CENIC), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet; Barnett, William [Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Inst., Regenstrief Inst.; Balas, Edward [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Global Research Network Operations Center; Cuff, James [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Research Computing; Grossman, Robert L. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Center for Data Intensive Science; Berman, Ari [BioTeam, Middleton, MA (United States); Shankar, Anurag [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Pervasive Technology Inst.; Tierney, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). ESnet

    2017-10-06

    We describe a detailed solution for maintaining high-capacity, data-intensive network flows (eg, 10, 40, 100 Gbps+) in a scientific, medical context while still adhering to security and privacy laws and regulations.High-end networking, packet-filter firewalls, network intrusion-detection systems.We describe a "Medical Science DMZ" concept as an option for secure, high-volume transport of large, sensitive datasets between research institutions over national research networks, and give 3 detailed descriptions of implemented Medical Science DMZs.The exponentially increasing amounts of "omics" data, high-quality imaging, and other rapidly growing clinical datasets have resulted in the rise of biomedical research "Big Data." The storage, analysis, and network resources required to process these data and integrate them into patient diagnoses and treatments have grown to scales that strain the capabilities of academic health centers. Some data are not generated locally and cannot be sustained locally, and shared data repositories such as those provided by the National Library of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, and international partners such as the European Bioinformatics Institute are rapidly growing. The ability to store and compute using these data must therefore be addressed by a combination of local, national, and industry resources that exchange large datasets. Maintaining data-intensive flows that comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and other regulations presents a new challenge for biomedical research. We describe a strategy that marries performance and security by borrowing from and redefining the concept of a Science DMZ, a framework that is used in physical sciences and engineering research to manage high-capacity data flows.By implementing a Medical Science DMZ architecture, biomedical researchers can leverage the scale provided by high-performance computer and cloud storage facilities and national high

  1. Documenting clinical performance problems among medical students: feedback for learner remediation and curriculum enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E. Mavis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We operationalized the taxonomy developed by Hauer and colleagues describing common clinical performance problems. Faculty raters pilot tested the resulting worksheet by observing recordings of problematic simulated clinical encounters involving third-year medical students. This approach provided a framework for structured feedback to guide learner improvement and curricular enhancement. Methods: Eighty-two problematic clinical encounters from M3 students who failed their clinical competency examination were independently rated by paired clinical faculty members to identify common problems related to the medical interview, physical examination, and professionalism. Results: Eleven out of 26 target performance problems were present in 25% or more encounters. Overall, 37% had unsatisfactory medical interviews, with ‘inadequate history to rule out other diagnoses’ most prevalent (60%. Seventy percent failed because of physical examination deficiencies, with missing elements (69% and inadequate data gathering (69% most common. One-third of the students did not introduce themselves to their patients. Among students failing based on standardized patient (SP ratings, 93% also failed to demonstrate competency based on the faculty ratings. Conclusions: Our review form allowed clinical faculty to validate pass/fail decisions based on standardized patient ratings. Detailed information about performance problems contributes to learner feedback and curricular enhancement to guide remediation planning and faculty development.

  2. AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline 8.a.: Linear accelerator performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Koren; Balter, Peter; Duhon, John; White, Gerald A; Vassy, David L; Miller, Robin A; Serago, Christopher F; Fairobent, Lynne A

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide a list of critical performance tests in order to assist the Qualified Medical Physicist (QMP) in establishing and maintaining a safe and effective quality assurance (QA) program. The performance tests on a linear accelerator (linac) should be selected to fit the clinical patterns of use of the accelerator and care should be given to perform tests which are relevant to detecting errors related to the specific use of the accelerator. A risk assessment was performed on tests from current task group reports on linac QA to highlight those tests that are most effective at maintaining safety and quality for the patient. Recommendations are made on the acquisition of reference or baseline data, the establishment of machine isocenter on a routine basis, basing performance tests on clinical use of the linac, working with vendors to establish QA tests and performing tests after maintenance. The recommended tests proposed in this guideline were chosen based on the results from the risk analysis and the consensus of the guideline's committee. The tests are grouped together by class of test (e.g., dosimetry, mechanical, etc.) and clinical parameter tested. Implementation notes are included for each test so that the QMP can understand the overall goal of each test. This guideline will assist the QMP in developing a comprehensive QA program for linacs in the external beam radiation therapy setting. The committee sought to prioritize tests by their implication on quality and patient safety. The QMP is ultimately responsible for implementing appropriate tests. In the spirit of the report from American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 100, individual institutions are encouraged to analyze the risks involved in their own clinical practice and determine which performance tests are relevant in their own radiotherapy clinics. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  3. Assessing Advanced Airway Management Performance in a National Cohort of Emergency Medical Services Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E; Donnelly, John P; Barton, Dustin; Jarvis, Jeffrey L

    2018-05-01

    Although often the focus of quality improvement efforts, emergency medical services (EMS) advanced airway management performance has few national comparisons, nor are there many assessments with benchmarks accounting for differences in agency volume or patient mix. We seek to assess variations in advanced airway management and conventional intubation performance in a national cohort of EMS agencies. We used EMS data from ESO Solutions, a national EMS electronic health record system. We identified EMS emergency responses with attempted advanced airway management (conventional intubation, rapid sequence intubation, sedation-assisted intubation, supraglottic airway insertion, and cricothyroidotomy). We also separately examined cases with initial conventional intubation. We determined EMS agency risk-standardized advanced airway management and initial conventional intubation success rates by using mixed-effects regression models, fitting agency as a random intercept, adjusting for patient age, sex, race, cardiac arrest, or trauma status, and use of rapid sequence or sedation-assisted intubation, and accounting for reliability variations from EMS agency airway volume. We assessed changes in agency advanced airway management and initial conventional intubation performance rank after risk and reliability adjustment. We also identified high and low performers (reliability-adjusted and risk-standardized success confidence intervals falling outside the mean). During 2011 to 2015, 550 EMS agencies performed 57,209 advanced airway management procedures. Among 401 EMS agencies with greater than or equal to 10 advanced airway management procedures, there were a total of 56,636 procedures. Median reliability-adjusted and risk-standardized EMS agency advanced airway management success was 92.9% (interquartile range 90.1% to 94.8%; minimum 58.2%; maximum 99.0%). There were 56 advanced airway management low-performing and 38 high-performing EMS agencies. Among 342 agencies with

  4. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  5. Detection of Patients at High Risk of Medication Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva Aggerholm; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Medication errors (MEs) are preventable and can result in patient harm and increased expenses in the healthcare system in terms of hospitalization, prolonged hospitalizations and even death. We aimed to develop a screening tool to detect acutely admitted patients at low or high risk of MEs...

  6. Do personality traits assessed on medical school admission predict exit performance? A UK-wide longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R K; Dowell, J; Ayansina, D; Cleland, J A

    2017-05-01

    Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk/ ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools. Analysis included: candidate demographics, UKCAT non-cognitive scores, medical school performance data-the Educational Performance Measure (EPM) and national exit situational judgement test (SJT) outcomes. We examined the relationships between these variables and SJT and EPM scores. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationships adjusting for confounders. The 3343 students who had taken the UKCAT non-cognitive tests and had both EPM and SJT data were entered into the analysis. There were four types of non-cognitive test: (1) libertariancommunitarian, (2) NACE-narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) MEARS-self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness (END) and faking, (4) an abridged version of 1 and 2 combined. Multilevel regression showed that, after correcting for demographic factors, END predicted SJT and EPM decile. Aloofness and empathy in NACE were predictive of SJT score. This is the first large-scale study examining the relationship between performance on non-cognitive selection tests and medical school exit assessments. The predictive validity of these tests was limited, and the relationships revealed do not fit neatly with theoretical expectations. This study does not support their use in selection.

  7. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  8. HPTA: High-Performance Text Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Vandierendonck, Hans; Murphy, Karen; Arif, Mahwish; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main targets of data analytics is unstructured data, which primarily involves textual data. High-performance processing of textual data is non-trivial. We present the HPTA library for high-performance text analytics. The library helps programmers to map textual data to a dense numeric representation, which can be handled more efficiently. HPTA encapsulates three performance optimizations: (i) efficient memory management for textual data, (ii) parallel computation on associative dat...

  9. The relationship between emotional intelligence with administrators’ performance at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Tooraj; Saeidi, Masumeh; Moghaddam, Habibolah Taghizade; Ghodsi, Mohammad Jafari; Hoseini, Rasoul

    2018-01-01

    Background The leadership of an organization requires specific features to adapt to changes and to survive and grow in new environments, and emotional intelligence is one of the most important attributes that can help leaders and managers respond to these changes. Objective This study aimed to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence with administrators’ performance at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 basic and middle managers of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran who were selected by census method in 2016. The instrument of data collecting was the “Inventory Shrinkage”, and the “Organizational performance evaluation forms”. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Results The results showed there was a significant negative correlation between emotional intelligence and organizational performance in administrators (r=−0.214, p=0.032). The findings also showed that among the components of emotional intelligence and administrators’ performance, only components of empathy, was there a significant negative correlation (r=−0.199, p=0.047). Also, there was no statistically significant relationship between emotional intelligence and demographic variables such as work experience, age, marital status and education level (p>0.05). There was no significant relationship between organizational performance and demographic variables, either (p>0.05). But between the components of emotional intelligence, only for social skills and work place of administrators, a significant positive correlation was confirmed (r=0.203, p=0.043). Conclusions The results of this study showed that there was a negative and significant correlation between the components of emotional intelligence and administrators’ performance of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences administrators, only in the empathy component. PMID

  10. Pressurized planar electrochromatography, high-performance thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography--comparison of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płocharz, Paweł; Klimek-Turek, Anna; Dzido, Tadeusz H

    2010-07-16

    Kinetic performance, measured by plate height, of High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Pressurized Planar Electrochromatography (PPEC) was compared for the systems with adsorbent of the HPTLC RP18W plate from Merck as the stationary phase and the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and buffer solution. The HPLC column was packed with the adsorbent, which was scrapped from the chromatographic plate mentioned. An additional HPLC column was also packed with adsorbent of 5 microm particle diameter, C18 type silica based (LiChrosorb RP-18 from Merck). The dependence of plate height of both HPLC and PPEC separating systems on flow velocity of the mobile phase and on migration distance of the mobile phase in TLC system was presented applying test solute (prednisolone succinate). The highest performance, amongst systems investigated, was obtained for the PPEC system. The separation efficiency of the systems investigated in the paper was additionally confirmed by the separation of test component mixture composed of six hormones. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Functions of standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshan, Meng; Lin, Zhao; Wenqing, Liu; Chunlei, Lu; Yongqiang, Liu; Naiyi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a sudden emergency procedure that requires a rapid and efficient response, and personnel training in lifesaving procedures. Regular practice and training are necessary to improve resuscitation skills and reduce anxiety among the staff. As one of the most important skills mastered by medical volunteers serving for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, we randomly selected some of them to evaluate the quality of CPR operation and compared the result with that of the untrained doctors and nurses. In order to evaluate the functions of repeating standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt. Taishan International Mounting Festival, their performance qualities of CPR were compared with those of the untrained medical workers working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian. The CPR performance qualities of 52 medical volunteers (Standard Training Group), who had continually taken part in standard CPR technical training for six months, were tested at random and were compared with those of 68 medical workers (Compared Group) working in emergency departments of hospitals in Taian who hadn't attended CPR training within a year. The QCPR 3535 monitor (provided by Philips Company) was used to measure the standard degree of single simulated CPR performance, including the chest compression depth, frequency, released pressure between compressions and performance time of compression and ventilation, the results of which were recorded in the table and the number of practical compression per minute was calculated. The data were analyzed by x2 Test and t Test. The factors which would influence CPR performance, including gender, age, placement, hand skill, posture of compression and frequency of training, were classified and given parameters, and were put to Logistic repression analysis. The CPR performance qualities of volunteers were much higher than those of the compared group. The overall pass rates

  12. Brachytherapy. High dose rate brachytherapy - Radiation protection: medical sheet ED 4287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celier, D.; Aubert, B.; Vidal, J.P.; Biau, A.; Lahaye, T.; Gauron, C.; Barret, C.; Boisserie, G.; Branchet, E.; Gambini, D.; Gondran, C.; Le Guen, B.; Guerin, C.; Nguyen, S.; Pierrat, N.; Sarrazin, T.; Donnarieix, D.

    2010-02-01

    After having indicated the required authorization to implement brachytherapy techniques, this document presents the various aspects and measures related to radiation protection when performing high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments. It presents the concerned personnel, describes the operational process, indicates the associated hazards and the risk related to ionizing radiation, and describes how the risk is to be assessed and how exposure levels are to be determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and monitored areas, personnel classification, and choice of the dose monitoring method). It describes the various components of a risk management strategy (risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation and the personnel, training and information, prevention and medical monitoring). It briefly presents how risk management is to be assessed, and mentions other related risks (biological risk, handling and posture, handling of heavy loads, mental workload, chemical risk)

  13. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Koorosh; Sedaghat, Mohammad; Safdarian, Mahdi; Hashemian, Amir-Masoud; Nezamdoust, Zahra; Vaseie, Mohammad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-01-01

    Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients'outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre- and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our findings showed that interns'ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P less than 0.001, P equal to 0.016 and P equal to 0.01 respectively). ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns.

  14. Resitting a high-stakes postgraduate medical examination on multiple occasions: nonlinear multilevel modelling of performance in the MRCP(UK examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus IC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Failure rates in postgraduate examinations are often high and many candidates therefore retake examinations on several or even many times. Little, however, is known about how candidates perform across those multiple attempts. A key theoretical question to be resolved is whether candidates pass at a resit because they have got better, having acquired more knowledge or skills, or whether they have got lucky, chance helping them to get over the pass mark. In the UK, the issue of resits has become of particular interest since the General Medical Council issued a consultation and is considering limiting the number of attempts candidates may make at examinations. Methods Since 1999 the examination for Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK has imposed no limit on the number of attempts candidates can make at its Part 1, Part2 or PACES (Clinical examination. The present study examined the performance of candidates on the examinations from 2002/2003 to 2010, during which time the examination structure has been stable. Data were available for 70,856 attempts at Part 1 by 39,335 candidates, 37,654 attempts at Part 2 by 23,637 candidates and 40,303 attempts at PACES by 21,270 candidates, with the maximum number of attempts being 26, 21 and 14, respectively. The results were analyzed using multilevel modelling, fitting negative exponential growth curves to individual candidate performance. Results The number of candidates taking the assessment falls exponentially at each attempt. Performance improves across attempts, with evidence in the Part 1 examination that candidates are still improving up to the tenth attempt, with a similar improvement up to the fourth attempt in Part 2 and the sixth attempt at PACES. Random effects modelling shows that candidates begin at a starting level, with performance increasing by a smaller amount at each attempt, with evidence of a maximum, asymptotic level for

  15. Resitting a high-stakes postgraduate medical examination on multiple occasions: nonlinear multilevel modelling of performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Ludka, Katarzyna

    2012-06-14

    Failure rates in postgraduate examinations are often high and many candidates therefore retake examinations on several or even many times. Little, however, is known about how candidates perform across those multiple attempts. A key theoretical question to be resolved is whether candidates pass at a resit because they have got better, having acquired more knowledge or skills, or whether they have got lucky, chance helping them to get over the pass mark. In the UK, the issue of resits has become of particular interest since the General Medical Council issued a consultation and is considering limiting the number of attempts candidates may make at examinations. Since 1999 the examination for Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)) has imposed no limit on the number of attempts candidates can make at its Part 1, Part 2 or PACES (Clinical) examination. The present study examined the performance of candidates on the examinations from 2002/2003 to 2010, during which time the examination structure has been stable. Data were available for 70,856 attempts at Part 1 by 39,335 candidates, 37,654 attempts at Part 2 by 23,637 candidates and 40,303 attempts at PACES by 21,270 candidates, with the maximum number of attempts being 26, 21 and 14, respectively. The results were analyzed using multilevel modelling, fitting negative exponential growth curves to individual candidate performance. The number of candidates taking the assessment falls exponentially at each attempt. Performance improves across attempts, with evidence in the Part 1 examination that candidates are still improving up to the tenth attempt, with a similar improvement up to the fourth attempt in Part 2 and the sixth attempt at PACES. Random effects modelling shows that candidates begin at a starting level, with performance increasing by a smaller amount at each attempt, with evidence of a maximum, asymptotic level for candidates, and candidates showing variation in starting

  16. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Chee Leong; Mohseni Hooman

    2018-01-01

    Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs) have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as...

  17. The ability of 'non-cognitive' traits to predict undergraduate performance in medical schools: a national linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Gabrielle M; Mwandigha, Lazaro; Paton, Lewis W; Tiffin, Paul A

    2018-05-03

    In addition to the evaluation of educational attainment and intellectual ability there has been interest in the potential to select medical school applicants on non-academic qualities. Consequently, a battery of self-report measures concerned with assessing 'non-cognitive' traits was piloted as part of the UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) administration to evaluate their potential to be used in selection. The four non-cognitive instruments piloted were: 1) the Libertarian-communitarian scale, (2) The NACE (narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) the MEARS (Managing emotions and resilience scale; self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness and faking, and (4) an abridged version of instruments (1) and (2) combined. Non-cognitive scores and sociodemographic characteristics were available for 14,387 applicants. A series of univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted in order to assess the ability of the non-cognitive scores to predict knowledge and skills-based performance, as well as the odds of passing each academic year at first attempt. Non-cognitive scores and medical performance were standardised within cohorts. The scores on the non-cognitive scales showed only very small (magnitude of standardised betas< 0.2), though sometimes statistically significant (p < 0.01) univariable associations with subsequent performance on knowledge or skills-based assessments. The only statistically significant association between the non-cognitive scores and the probability of passing an academic year at first attempt was the narcissism score from one the abridged tests (OR 0.84,95% confidence intervals 0.71 to 0.97, p = 0.02). Our findings are consistent with previously published research. The tests had a very limited ability to predict undergraduate academic performance, though further research on identifying narcissism in medical students may be warranted. However, the validity of such self-report tools in high

  18. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Multiplexed Microbiology Devices: Their clinical application and public health/clinical needs; inclusion of...] Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public... Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in the Federal Register of August 8...

  19. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '15 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2015. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  20. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '17 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael; HLRS 2017

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2017. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance.The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  1. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  2. Test anxiety in medical school is unrelated to academic performance but correlates with an effort/reward imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Henry; Kropp, Peter; Kirschstein, Timo; Rücker, Gernot; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    During their early years at medical school, students repeatedly criticize their workload, time constraints and test associated stress. At the same time, depressiveness and anxiety among first and second year medical students are on the rise. We therefore hypothesized that test anxiety may be related to depressiveness and considered cognitive and academic performances as confounders for the former and psychosocial distress for the latter. A whole class of 200 second year students was invited to participate in the study. Anxiety as a trait, depressiveness, crystallized intelligence, verbal fluency and psychosocial distress were assessed using validated tests and questionnaires. Acute state anxiety and sympathetic stress parameters were measured in real life situations immediately before an oral and a written exam and paired tests were used to compare the individual anxieties at the various time points. Previous academic performances were self-reported, the results of the impending exams were monitored. Finally, correlations were performed to test for interrelatedness between academic performances and the various personal, cognitive and psychosocial factors. Acute test anxiety did not correlate with depressiveness nor did it correlate with previous nor impending academic performances nor any of the expected confounders on academic performance. However both, depressiveness and test anxiety strongly correlated with the perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received. Moreover, anxiety as a trait not only correlated with acute state anxiety before an exam but was also significantly correlated to the feeling of over-commitment. Depressiveness during the early years of medical school seems unrelated to test anxiety and academic performance. Instead, it strongly correlated with the psychosocial distress emanating from attending medical school and points at a perceived imbalance between efforts spent and rewards received.

  3. Medical teleconferencing with high-definition video presentation on the 'usual' Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Toshiro; Shima, Hiroji; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2013-06-01

    Although medical teleconferences on advanced academic networks have been common (Telemed J E Health 15:112-117, 1; Asian J Endosc Surg 3:185-188, 2; Surg Today 41:1579-1581, 3; Telemedicine development center of Asia. http://www.aqua.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp/eg/index.html . Accessed 6 March 2013, 4), reports regarding 'usual' Internet teleconferences or tele-lectures employing a telecommunication system for business use are very rare. Medical teleconferences and tele-lectures on the Internet were held three times between our institutions and other institutions, using the 'HD Com' made by Panasonic (HD Com. http://panasonic.biz/com/visual/ . Accessed 6 March 2013, 5), which is a high-definition telecommunication system for business tele-meeting. All of our medical telecommunications were successfully completed without any troubles. This system allows for all kinds of presentations using personal computers to be made from each station, so that discussions with high-definition surgical video presentation, which has recently been developed, could be effortlessly established despite the distance between institutions. Unlike telecommunication using advanced academic networks, this system can run without any need for specific engineering support, on the usual Internet. Medical telecommunication employing this system is likely to become common among ordinary hospitals in the near future.

  4. Changing Medical School IT to Support Medical Education Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickard, Anderson; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Lomis, Kimberly; Johnson, Kevin; Miller, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    low quiz grades or missed learning goals. Graphical and narrative displays of a student's competency performance across courses and clinical experiences informed high-stake decisions made about student progress by the promotions committee. Similarly, graphical display of aggregate student outcomes provided education leaders with information needed to adjust and improve the curriculum. With the alignment of people, processes, and technology, educational IT can facilitate transformational steps in the training of medical students.

  5. Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to In-flight Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen,Erik

    2017-01-01

    The drive to undertake long-duration space exploration missions at greater distances from Earth gives rise to many challenges concerning human performance under extreme conditions. At NASA, the Human Research Program (HRP) has been established to investigate the specific risks to astronaut health and performance presented by space exploration, in addition to developing necessary countermeasures and technology to reduce risk and facilitate safer, more productive missions in space (NASA Human Research Program 2009). The HRP is divided into five subsections, covering behavioral health, space radiation, habitability, and other areas of interest. Within this structure is the ExMC Element, whose research contributes to the overall development of new technologies to overcome the challenges of expanding human exploration and habitation of space. The risk statement provided by the HRP to the ExMC Element states: "Given that medical conditions/events will occur during human spaceflight missions, there is a possibility of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance in mission and for long term health" (NASA Human Research Program 2016). Within this risk context, the Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element is specifically concerned with establishing evidenced-based methods of monitoring and maintaining astronaut health. Essential to completing this task is the advancement in techniques that identify, prevent, and treat any health threats that may occur during space missions. The ultimate goal of the ExMC Element is to develop and demonstrate a pathway for medical system integration into vehicle and mission design to mitigate the risk of medical issues. Integral to this effort is inclusion of an evidence-based medical and data handling system appropriate for long-duration, exploration-class missions. This requires a clear Concept of Operations, quantitative risk metrics or other tools to address changing risk throughout a mission, and system scoping and system

  6. Self-regulated learning and academic performance in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucieer, Susanna M.; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    Content: Medical schools aim to graduate medical doctors who are able to self-regulate their learning. It is therefore important to investigate whether medical students' self-regulated learning skills change during medical school. In addition, since these skills are expected to be helpful to learn

  7. Performance test of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, K.; Sawada, J.; Sakata, T.; Uno, K.; Okanishi, K.; Harada, H.; Itano, A.; Higashi, A.; Akagi, T.; Yamada, S.; Noda, K.; Torikoshi, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2000-02-01

    Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were manufactured for the accelerator facility at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. H2+, He2+, and C4+ were chosen as the accelerating ions because they have the highest charge to mass ratio among ion states which satisfy the required intensity and quality. The sources have the same structure as the 10 GHz ECR source at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba except for a few improvements in the magnetic structure. Their performance was investigated at the Sumitomo Heavy Industries factory before shipment. The maximum intensity was 1500 μA for H2+, 1320 μA for He2+, and 580 μA for C4+ at the end of the ion source beam transport line. These are several times higher than required. Sufficient performance was also observed in the flatness and long-term stability of the pulsed beams. These test results satisfy the requirements for medical use.

  8. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-09-30

     Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual's personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students.  This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants' most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression.  A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P academic performance.  There was a significant association between academic performance and ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression levels in our

  9. Methodologic Guide for Evaluating Clinical Performance and Effect of Artificial Intelligence Technology for Medical Diagnosis and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Ho; Han, Kyunghwa

    2018-03-01

    The use of artificial intelligence in medicine is currently an issue of great interest, especially with regard to the diagnostic or predictive analysis of medical images. Adoption of an artificial intelligence tool in clinical practice requires careful confirmation of its clinical utility. Herein, the authors explain key methodology points involved in a clinical evaluation of artificial intelligence technology for use in medicine, especially high-dimensional or overparameterized diagnostic or predictive models in which artificial deep neural networks are used, mainly from the standpoints of clinical epidemiology and biostatistics. First, statistical methods for assessing the discrimination and calibration performances of a diagnostic or predictive model are summarized. Next, the effects of disease manifestation spectrum and disease prevalence on the performance results are explained, followed by a discussion of the difference between evaluating the performance with use of internal and external datasets, the importance of using an adequate external dataset obtained from a well-defined clinical cohort to avoid overestimating the clinical performance as a result of overfitting in high-dimensional or overparameterized classification model and spectrum bias, and the essentials for achieving a more robust clinical evaluation. Finally, the authors review the role of clinical trials and observational outcome studies for ultimate clinical verification of diagnostic or predictive artificial intelligence tools through patient outcomes, beyond performance metrics, and how to design such studies. © RSNA, 2018.

  10. High performance fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koon, Yang Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    {omicron} Development of High Plasticity and Annular Pellet - Development of strong candidates of ultra high burn-up fuel pellets for a PCI remedy - Development of fabrication technology of annular fuel pellet {omicron} Development of High Performance Cladding Materials - Irradiation test of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor and the evaluation of the in-pile performance - Development of the final candidates for the next generation cladding materials. - Development of the manufacturing technology for the dual-cooled fuel cladding tubes. {omicron} Irradiated Fuel Performance Evaluation Technology Development - Development of performance analysis code system for the dual-cooled fuel - Development of fuel performance-proving technology {omicron} Feasibility Studies on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel Core - Analysis on the property of a reactor core with dual-cooled fuel - Feasibility evaluation on the dual-cooled fuel core {omicron} Development of Design Technology for Dual-Cooled Fuel Structure - Definition of technical issues and invention of concept for dual-cooled fuel structure - Basic design and development of main structure components for dual- cooled fuel - Basic design of a dual-cooled fuel rod.

  11. Strategic options towards an affordable high-performance infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Achyut K.; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of infrared (IR) imaging attaining low-cost akin to CMOS sensors success has been hampered by the inability to achieve cost advantages that are necessary for crossover from military and industrial applications into the consumer and mass-scale commercial realm despite well documented advantages. Banpil Photonics is developing affordable IR cameras by adopting new strategies to speed-up the decline of the IR camera cost curve. We present a new short-wave IR (SWIR) camera; 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled system that is high sensitivity low noise ( 500 frames per second (FPS)) at full resolution, and low power consumption (market adoption by not only demonstrating high-performance IR imaging capability value add demanded by military and industrial application, but also illuminates a path towards justifiable price points essential for consumer facing application industries such as automotive, medical, and security imaging adoption. Among the strategic options presented include new sensor manufacturing technologies that scale favorably towards automation, multi-focal plane array compatible readout electronics, and dense or ultra-small pixel pitch devices.

  12. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  13. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  14. Performance management of nuclear medical apparatuses in Osaka University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Katsuhiro; Kusumi, Yoshimi; Hayashi, Makoto; Miharu, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Kazutaka

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear medical out side-body measuring equipments in Osaka University Hospital consist of scinticamera, scintiscanner and movement-measuring equipment as measuring equipments, and central processing equipment, CRT attached with Polaroid camera, data typewriter, X-Y recorder, and high speed tape reader as data processing equipments. Daily and monthly management items are set up to maintain the best function of these equipments. The data processing room is air-conditioned to keep temperature at 25 0 C and humidity at 60% constantly, and they are confirmed with a temperature and humidity self-recorder. Computer system is used for the homogeneity control and the correction to counting failure of the scinticamera. As the repair of nuclear medical apparatuses needs long period and because of the special circumstances of radioactive drugs, very close cooperation among technicians, doctors and equipment makers is required. (Kobatake, H.)

  15. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  16. High performance conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.

    2000-01-01

    Inexpensive but high performance systems have emerged progressively for basic and applied measurements in physical and analytical chemistry on one hand, and for on-line monitoring and leak detection in plants and facilities on the other. Salient features of the developments will be presented with specific examples

  17. Differential determination of perceived stress in medical students and high-school graduates due to private and training-related stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erschens, Rebecca; Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Loda, Teresa; Bugaj, Till Johannes; Nikendei, Christoph; Lammerding-Köppel, Maria; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies from diverse contexts have confirmed high stress levels and stress-associated health impairment in medical students. This study aimed to explore the differential association of perceived stress with private and training-related stressors in medical students according to their stage of medical education. Participants were high-school graduates who plan to study medicine and students in their first, third, sixth, or ninth semester of medical school or in practical medical training. The self-administered questionnaire included items addressing demographic information, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and items addressing potential private and training-related stressors. Results confirmed a substantial burden of perceived stress in students at different stages of their medical education. In particular, 10-28% of students in their third or ninth semesters of medical school showed the highest values for perceived stress. Training-related stressors were most strongly associated with perceived stress, although specific stressors that determined perceived stress varied across different stages of students' medical education. High-school graduates highly interested in pursuing medical education showed specific stressors similar to those of medical students in their third, sixth, or ninth semesters of medical school, as well as stress structures with heights of general stress rates similar to those of medical students at the beginning of practical medical training. High-school graduates offer new, interesting information about students' fears and needs before they begin medical school. Medical students and high-school graduates need open, comprehensive information about possible stressors at the outset of and during medical education. Programmes geared toward improving resilience behaviour and teaching new, functional coping strategies are recommended.

  18. Different paths to high-quality care: three archetypes of top-performing practice sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Chris; Nemeth, Lynne; Nietert, Paul J; Wessell, Andrea M; Jenkins, Ruth G; Roylance, Loraine; Ornstein, Steven M

    2007-01-01

    Primary care practices use different approaches in their quest for high-quality care. Previous work in the Practice Partner Research Network (PPRNet) found that improved outcomes are associated with strategies to prioritize performance, involve staff, redesign elements of the delivery system, make patients active partners in guideline adherence, and use tools embedded in the electronic medical record. The aim of this study was to examine variations in the adoption of improvements among sites achieving the best outcomes. This study used an observational case study design. A practice-level measure of adherence to clinical guidelines was used to identify the highest performing practices in a network of internal and family medicine practices participating in a national demonstration project. We analyzed qualitative and quantitative information derived from project documents, field notes, and evaluation questionnaires to develop and compare case studies. Nine cases are described. All use many of the same improvement strategies. Differences in the way improvements are organized define 3 distinct archetypes: the Technophiles, the Motivated Team, and the Care Enterprise. There is no single approach that explains the superior performance of high-performing practices, though each has adopted variations of PPRNet's improvement model. Practices will vary in their path to high-quality care. The archetypes could prove to be a useful guide to other practices selecting an overall quality improvement approach.

  19. The Medical Science DMZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisert, Sean; Barnett, William; Dart, Eli; Cuff, James; Grossman, Robert L; Balas, Edward; Berman, Ari; Shankar, Anurag; Tierney, Brian

    2016-11-01

    We describe use cases and an institutional reference architecture for maintaining high-capacity, data-intensive network flows (e.g., 10, 40, 100 Gbps+) in a scientific, medical context while still adhering to security and privacy laws and regulations. High-end networking, packet filter firewalls, network intrusion detection systems. We describe a "Medical Science DMZ" concept as an option for secure, high-volume transport of large, sensitive data sets between research institutions over national research networks. The exponentially increasing amounts of "omics" data, the rapid increase of high-quality imaging, and other rapidly growing clinical data sets have resulted in the rise of biomedical research "big data." The storage, analysis, and network resources required to process these data and integrate them into patient diagnoses and treatments have grown to scales that strain the capabilities of academic health centers. Some data are not generated locally and cannot be sustained locally, and shared data repositories such as those provided by the National Library of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, and international partners such as the European Bioinformatics Institute are rapidly growing. The ability to store and compute using these data must therefore be addressed by a combination of local, national, and industry resources that exchange large data sets. Maintaining data-intensive flows that comply with HIPAA and other regulations presents a new challenge for biomedical research. Recognizing this, we describe a strategy that marries performance and security by borrowing from and redefining the concept of a "Science DMZ"-a framework that is used in physical sciences and engineering research to manage high-capacity data flows. By implementing a Medical Science DMZ architecture, biomedical researchers can leverage the scale provided by high-performance computer and cloud storage facilities and national high-speed research networks while preserving privacy and

  20. An evaluation of the performance in the UK Royal College of Anaesthetists primary examination by UK medical school and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowhay, Andrew R; Watmough, Simon D

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been comparatively little consideration of the impact that the changes to undergraduate curricula might have on postgraduate academic performance. This study compares the performance of graduates by UK medical school and gender in the Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) section of the first part of the Fellowship of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (FRCA) examination. Methods Data from each sitting of the MCQ section of the primary FRCA examination from June 1999 to May 2008 were analysed for performance by medical school and gender. Results There were 4983 attempts at the MCQ part of the examination by 3303 graduates from the 19 United Kingdom medical schools. Using the standardised overall mark minus the pass mark graduates from five medical schools performed significantly better than the mean for the group and five schools performed significantly worse than the mean for the group. Males performed significantly better than females in all aspects of the MCQ – physiology, mean difference = 3.0% (95% CI 2.3, 3.7), p < 0.001; pharmacology, mean difference = 1.7% (95% CI 1.0, 2.3), p < 0.001; physics with clinical measurement, mean difference = 3.5% (95% CI 2.8, 4.1), p < 0.001; overall mark, mean difference = 2.7% (95% CI 2.1, 3.3), p < 0.001; and standardised overall mark minus the pass mark, mean difference = 2.5% (95% CI 1.9, 3.1), p < 0.001. Graduates from three medical schools that have undergone the change from Traditional to Problem Based Learning curricula did not show any change in performance in any aspects of the MCQ pre and post curriculum change. Conclusion Graduates from each of the medical schools in the UK do show differences in performance in the MCQ section of the primary FRCA, but significant curriculum change does not lead to deterioration in post graduate examination performance. Whilst females now outnumber males taking the MCQ, they are not performing as well as the males. PMID:19563655

  1. Thinking about thinking: changes in first-year medical students’ metacognition and its relation to performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han Hong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown the importance of metacognition in medical education. Metacognitive skills consist of two dimensions: knowledge of metacognition and regulation of metacognition. Aim: This study hypothesizes that the knowledge and regulation of metacognition is significantly different at the beginning and end of the academic year, and a correlation exists between the two dimensions of metacognitive skills with academic performance. Methods: The Metacognitive Skills Inventory comprising 52 Likert-scale items was administered to 159 first-year medical students at the University of Malaya. Students’ year-end results were used to measure their academic performance. Results: A paired sample t-test indicated no significant difference for knowledge of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A paired sample t-test revealed significant difference for regulation of metacognition at the beginning and end of the academic year. A very strong correlation was found between the two dimensions of metacognition. The correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with students’ academic result was moderate. Conclusions: The improvement in students’ metacognitive regulation and the moderate correlation between knowledge and regulation of metacognition with academic performance at the end of the academic year indicate the probable positive influence of the teaching and learning activities in the medical program.

  2. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  3. High luminance monochrome vs. color displays: impact on performance and search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Roehrig, Hans; Matsui, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    To determine if diagnostic accuracy and visual search efficiency with a high luminance medical-grade color display are equivalent to a high luminance medical-grade monochrome display. Six radiologists viewed DR chest images, half with a solitary pulmonary nodule and half without. Observers reported whether or not a nodule was present and their confidence in that decision. Total viewing time per image was recorded. On a subset of 15 cases eye-position was recorded. Confidence data were analyzed using MRMC ROC techniques. There was no statistically significant difference (F = 0.0136, p = 0.9078) between color (mean Az = 0.8981, se = 0.0065) and monochrome (mean Az = 0.8945, se = 0.0148) diagnostic performance. Total viewing time per image did not differ significantly (F = 0.392, p = 0.5315) as a function of color (mean = 27.36 sec, sd = 12.95) vs monochrome (mean = 28.04, sd = 14.36) display. There were no significant differences in decision dwell times (true and false, positive and negative) overall for color vs monochrome displays (F = 0.133, p = 0.7154). The true positive (TP) and false positive (FP) decisions were associated with the longest dwell times, the false negatives (FN) with slightly shorter dwell times, and the true negative decisions (TN) with the shortest (F = 50.552, p radiology.

  4. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  5. High performance fuel technology development : Development of high performance cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongyong; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The superior in-pile performance of the HANA claddings have been verified by the successful irradiation test and in the Halden research reactor up to the high burn-up of 67GWD/MTU. The in-pile corrosion and creep resistances of HANA claddings were improved by 40% and 50%, respectively, over Zircaloy-4. HANA claddings have been also irradiated in the commercial reactor up to 2 reactor cycles, showing the corrosion resistance 40% better than that of ZIRLO in the same fuel assembly. Long-term out-of-pile performance tests for the candidates of the next generation cladding materials have produced the highly reliable test results. The final candidate alloys were selected and they showed the corrosion resistance 50% better than the foreign advanced claddings, which is beyond the original target. The LOCA-related properties were also improved by 20% over the foreign advanced claddings. In order to establish the optimal manufacturing process for the inner and outer claddings of the dual-cooled fuel, 18 different kinds of specimens were fabricated with various cold working and annealing conditions. Based on the performance tests and various out-of-pile test results obtained from the specimens, the optimal manufacturing process was established for the inner and outer cladding tubes of the dual-cooled fuel

  6. Proposed Performance Measures and Strategies for Implementation of the Fatigue Risk Management Guidelines for Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Background: Performance measures are a key component of implementation, dissemination, and evaluation of evidence-based guidelines (EBGs). We developed performance measures for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) stakeholders to enable the implementatio...

  7. Communication Strategies Are Highly Important to Avoid Nocebo Effect When Performing Non-Medical Switch from Originator Product to Biosimilar Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Skougaard, Marie; Asmussen, Hans Christian

    2017-01-01

    . To explore impact of performing a non-medical switch from etanercept originator to a biosimilar in Danish patients with a chronic arthritis, and to explore the economic impact. Methods: The Parker model, a 3-step qualitative research approach, was used to study the impact of switching from etanercept...... participatory design (PD) sessions. Finally, these two methods were complemented by stakeholder evaluations (SE) based on semi-structured group and solo-interviews with a series of disease-management stakeholders. Results: The study included 10 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 5 spondyloarthritis patients...... sufficient time for providing all involved with an opportunity to discuss relevant educational materials. Health economic analyses estimated that the annual savings are between approx. DKK 8,900 and DKK 64,600 per patient depending on type of administration. Conclusion: Patient participation in the 3-step...

  8. Learning and study strategies correlate with medical students' performance in anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Williams, Shanna E; Gregory Hawkins, H

    2018-05-06

    Much of the content delivered during medical students' preclinical years is assessed nationally by such testing as the United States Medical Licensing Examination ® (USMLE ® ) Step 1 and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination ® (COMPLEX-USA ® ) Step 1. Improvement of student study/learning strategies skills is associated with academic success in internal and external (USMLE Step 1) examinations. This research explores the strength of association between the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) scores and student performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. The LASSI inventory assesses learning and study strategies based on ten subscale measures. These subscales include three components of strategic learning: skill (Information processing, Selecting main ideas, and Test strategies), will (Anxiety, Attitude, and Motivation) and self-regulation (Concentration, Time management, Self-testing, and Study aid). During second year (M2) orientation, 180 students (Classes of 2016, 2017, and 2018) were administered the LASSI survey instrument. Pearson Product-Moment correlation analyses identified significant associations between five of the ten LASSI subscales (Anxiety, Information processing, Motivation, Selecting main idea, and Test strategies) and students' performance in the anatomical sciences and USMLE Step 1 examinations. Identification of students lacking these skills within the anatomical sciences curriculum allows targeted interventions, which not only maximize academic achievement in an aspect of an institution's internal examinations, but in the external measure of success represented by USMLE Step 1 scores. Anat Sci Educ 11: 236-242. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Liming Dai

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their high energy density and power density, supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for advanced technologies. Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. This article summarizes the recent progresses on the development of high-performance supercapacitors bas...

  10. Reporting quality of randomised controlled trial abstracts among high-impact general medical journals: a review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Meredith; Andrews, Mary; Wilson, Ramey; Callender, David; O'Malley, Patrick G; Douglas, Kevin

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to assess adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts by five high-impact general medical journals and to assess whether the quality of reporting was homogeneous across these journals. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts in five high-impact general medical journals. We used up to 100 RCT abstracts published between 2011 and 2014 from each of the following journals: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Annals of Internal Medicine (Annals IM), The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (The BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). The primary outcome was per cent overall adherence to the 19-item CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. Secondary outcomes included per cent adherence in checklist subcategories and assessing homogeneity of reporting quality across the individual journals. Search results yielded 466 abstracts, 3 of which were later excluded as they were not RCTs. Analysis was performed on 463 abstracts (97 from NEJM, 66 from Annals IM, 100 from The Lancet, 100 from The BMJ, 100 from JAMA). Analysis of all scored items showed an overall adherence of 67% (95% CI 66% to 68%) to the CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. The Lancet had the highest overall adherence rate (78%; 95% CI 76% to 80%), whereas NEJM had the lowest (55%; 95% CI 53% to 57%). Adherence rates to 8 of the checklist items differed by >25% between journals. Among the five highest impact general medical journals, there is variable and incomplete adherence to the CONSORT for Abstracts reporting checklist of randomised trials, with substantial differences between individual journals. Lack of adherence to the CONSORT for Abstracts reporting checklist by high-impact medical journals impedes critical appraisal of important studies. We recommend diligent assessment of adherence to reporting guidelines by authors, reviewers and editors to promote transparency

  11. Differential determination of perceived stress in medical students and high-school graduates due to private and training-related stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann–Werner, Anne; Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Loda, Teresa; Bugaj, Till Johannes; Nikendei, Christoph; Lammerding–Köppel, Maria; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian

    2018-01-01

    Objective Numerous studies from diverse contexts have confirmed high stress levels and stress-associated health impairment in medical students. This study aimed to explore the differential association of perceived stress with private and training-related stressors in medical students according to their stage of medical education. Methods Participants were high-school graduates who plan to study medicine and students in their first, third, sixth, or ninth semester of medical school or in practical medical training. The self-administered questionnaire included items addressing demographic information, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and items addressing potential private and training-related stressors. Results Results confirmed a substantial burden of perceived stress in students at different stages of their medical education. In particular, 10–28% of students in their third or ninth semesters of medical school showed the highest values for perceived stress. Training-related stressors were most strongly associated with perceived stress, although specific stressors that determined perceived stress varied across different stages of students’ medical education. High-school graduates highly interested in pursuing medical education showed specific stressors similar to those of medical students in their third, sixth, or ninth semesters of medical school, as well as stress structures with heights of general stress rates similar to those of medical students at the beginning of practical medical training. Conclusions High-school graduates offer new, interesting information about students’ fears and needs before they begin medical school. Medical students and high-school graduates need open, comprehensive information about possible stressors at the outset of and during medical education. Programmes geared toward improving resilience behaviour and teaching new, functional coping strategies are recommended. PMID:29385180

  12. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  13. Consumption of medicines in high-risk pregnancy: evaluation of determinants related to the use of prescription drugs and self-medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Dayse Araújo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of drugs during pregnancy still represents a challenge for medicine, since the majority of drugs cross the placental barrier with a potential to cause several congenital problems to the fetus, and most of them have not been clinically tested in pregnant patients. At the same time, the medicalization phenomenon, self-medication, and lack of patient information about the misuse of medicines are additional problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of medicine consumption in high-risk pregnancies and the determinants related to this consumption pattern. In order to do so, a cross-sectional descriptive study was performed with puerperal women who had a history of high-risk pregnancy. Statistically significant associations were found between self-medication and fewer prenatal visits, and cigarette use during pregnancy and a higher number of children. According to these data, the vulnerability of this population to the risks of drug use is evident, demonstrating a gap that requires urgent interventions in health-care education.

  14. X-ray performance of a wafer-scale CMOS flat panel imager for applications in medical imaging and nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Bo Kyung; Jeon, Seongchae; Seo, Chang-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a wafer-scale complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based X-ray flat panel detector for medical imaging and nondestructive testing applications. In this study, our proposed X-ray CMOS flat panel imager has been fabricated by using a 0.35 µm 1-poly/4-metal CMOS process. The pixel size is 100 µm×100 µm and the pixel array format is 1200×1200 pixels, which provide a field-of-view (FOV) of 120mm×120 mm. The 14.3-bit extended counting analog-to digital converter (ADC) with built-in binning mode was used to reduce the area and simultaneously improve the image resolution. The different screens such as thallium-doped CsI (CsI:Tl) and terbium gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd_2O_2S:Tb) scintillators were used as conversion materials for X-rays to visible light photons. The X-ray imaging performance such as X-ray sensitivity as a function of X-ray exposure dose, spatial resolution, image lag and X-ray images of various objects were measured under practical medical and industrial application conditions. This paper results demonstrate that our prototype CMOS-based X-ray flat panel imager has the significant potential for medical imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications with high-resolution and high speed rate.

  15. X-ray performance of a wafer-scale CMOS flat panel imager for applications in medical imaging and nondestructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Bo Kyung, E-mail: goldrain99@kaist.ac.kr [Advanced Medical Device Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seongchae [Advanced Medical Device Research Center, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Chang-Woo [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-21

    This paper presents a wafer-scale complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based X-ray flat panel detector for medical imaging and nondestructive testing applications. In this study, our proposed X-ray CMOS flat panel imager has been fabricated by using a 0.35 µm 1-poly/4-metal CMOS process. The pixel size is 100 µm×100 µm and the pixel array format is 1200×1200 pixels, which provide a field-of-view (FOV) of 120mm×120 mm. The 14.3-bit extended counting analog-to digital converter (ADC) with built-in binning mode was used to reduce the area and simultaneously improve the image resolution. The different screens such as thallium-doped CsI (CsI:Tl) and terbium gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb) scintillators were used as conversion materials for X-rays to visible light photons. The X-ray imaging performance such as X-ray sensitivity as a function of X-ray exposure dose, spatial resolution, image lag and X-ray images of various objects were measured under practical medical and industrial application conditions. This paper results demonstrate that our prototype CMOS-based X-ray flat panel imager has the significant potential for medical imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications with high-resolution and high speed rate.

  16. High utilizers of medical care: a crucial subgroup among somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Wolfgang; Fichter, Manfred M

    2004-04-01

    Patients with somatoform disorders (SFD) are likely to overutilize healthcare services. This study investigates (a) whether extraordinarily high medical costs can be predicted from patient characteristics or psychopathology, and (b) whether high-utilizing patients respond differently to cognitive-behavioral treatment. We compared 42 SFD high utilizers with 53 SFD average utilizers and 29 patients suffering from other than SFD mental disorders. High utilization was defined by healthcare expenditures of > or = 2500 euros during the past 2 years. Costs were computed from medical and billing records of health insurance companies. Somatization distress, hypochondriasis, depression, dysfunctional cognitions related to bodily symptoms, general psychopathology, personality profiles, and psychosocial disabilities were assessed before treatment. High utilizers had higher levels of self- and observer-rated illness behavior, self-perceived bodily weakness, and psychosocial disabilities. Although they did not report more somatization symptoms, their subjective symptom distress was higher. There were no differences between high and average utilizers concerning general psychopathology, DSM-IV comorbidity, and personality profiles. Treatment improvements were similar. High- and average-utilizing somatizers represent distinguishable subgroups. The results emphasize the importance of mechanisms specifically related to SFD and may enhance the early detection of patients who are likely to develop overutilization. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  18. High volume medical web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, B; Elliott, G

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, 22 million individuals reported surfing the web for medical information, and this number will increase to over 30 million by 2000. Fifteen of the highest volume medical web sites are described in this paper. Sponsorship and/or ownership of the fifteen sites varied. The government sponsors one, and some are the products of well-known educational institutions. One site is supported by a consumer health organization, and the American Medical Association was in the top 15. However, the most common owners are commercial, for-profit businesses. Attributes of the ideal site were categorized, and include a robust privacy and disclosure statement with an emphasis on education and an appropriate role for advertising. The covering of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) should be in a balanced and unbiased manner. There has to be an emphasis on knowledge based evidence as opposed to testimonials, and sources should be timely and reviewed. Bibliographies of authors need to be available. Hyperlinking to other web resources is valuable, as even the largest of sites cannot come close to covering all of medicine.

  19. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, b...

  20. High Performance Macromolecular Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forest, M

    2002-01-01

    .... In essence, most commercial high-performance polymers are processed through fiber spinning, following Nature and spider silk, which is still pound-for-pound the toughest liquid crystalline polymer...

  1. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schardt, J.F. [GE Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  2. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  3. What is the impact of commercial test preparation courses on medical examination performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Downing, Steven M; Kubilius, Ramune

    2004-01-01

    Commercial test preparation courses are part of the fabric of U.S. medical education. They are also big business with 2,000 sales for 1 firm listed at nearly $250 million. This article systematically reviews and evaluates research published in peer-reviewed journals and in the "grey literature" that addresses the impact of commercial test preparation courses on standardized, undergraduate medical examinations. Thirteen computerized English language databases were searched using 29 search terms and search concepts from their onset to October 1, 2002. Also manually searched was medical education conference proceedings and publications after the end date; and medical education journal editors were contacted about articles accepted for publication, but not yet in print, that were deemed pertinent to this review. Studies that met three criteria were selected: (a) a commercial test preparation course or service was an educational intervention, (b) the outcome variable was one of several standardized medical examinations, and (c) results are published in a peer-reviewed journal or another outlet that insures scholarly scrutiny. The criteria were applied and data extracted by consensus of 2 reviewers. The search identified 11 empirical studies, of which 10 (8 journal articles, 2 unpublished reports) are included in this review. Qualitative data synthesis and tabular presentation of research methods and outcomes are used. The articles and unpublished reports reveal that current research lacks control and rigor; the incremental validity of the commercial courses on medical examination performance, if any, is extremely small; and evidence in support of the courses is weak or nonexistent; almost no details are given about the form and conduct of the commercial test preparation courses; studies are confined to courses in preparation for the Medical College Admission Test, the former National Board of Medical Examiners Part 1, and the United States Medical Licensing Examination

  4. High-performance-vehicle technology. [fighter aircraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Propulsion needs of high performance military aircraft are discussed. Inlet performance, nozzle performance and cooling, and afterburner performance are covered. It is concluded that nonaxisymmetric nozzles provide cleaner external lines and enhanced maneuverability, but the internal flows are more complex. Swirl afterburners show promise for enhanced performance in the high altitude, low Mach number region.

  5. Effect of ambulatory medicine tutorial on clinical performance of 5th year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Pandejpong, Denla

    2013-02-01

    The present study provided a group learning activity called "Ambulatory Medicine Tutorial-AMT" for 5th year medical students in order to facilitate learning experience at ambulatory setting and to improve medical students' clinical performance. This research aimed specifically to study the effect of AMT. Two groups of twenty 5th-year medical students were enrolled during their ambulatory medicine blocks. Each medical student was assigned to have 8 ambulatory sessions. AMT was assigned to one group while the other group only used conventional learning activity. At the end of the present study, total internal medicine scores, patient satisfaction surveys, and data on average time spent on each clinical encounter were collected and compared. The AMT group received a higher total internal medicine score as compared to the conventional group (76.2 +/- 3.6 vs. 72.9 +/- 2.8, p = 0.003). The AMT group could reduce average time spent on each clinical encounter within their first-6 ambulatory sessions while the conventional group could acquire the same skill later in their last 2 ambulatory sessions. There was no significant difference found on comparing patient satisfaction scores between the 2 groups. AMT helped improving medical students' outcomes as shown from higher total internal medicine score as well as quicker improvement during real-life clinical encounters, AMT could be a good alternative learning activity for medical students at ambulatory setting.

  6. The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Dewberry, Chris; Nicholson, Sandra; Dowell, Jonathan S

    2013-11-14

    , particularly in mature applicants to medical school. UKCAT offers small but significant incremental validity which is operationally valuable where medical schools are making selection decisions based on incomplete measures of educational attainment. The study confirms the validity of using all the existing measures of educational attainment in full at the time of selection decision-making. Contextual measures provide little additional predictive value, except that students from high attaining secondary schools perform less well, an effect previously shown for UK universities in general.

  7. Academic performance in high school as factor associated to academic performance in college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileidy Salcedo Barragán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to find the relationship between academic performance in High School and College, focusing on Natural Sciences and Mathematics. It is a descriptive correlational study, and the variables were academic performance in High School, performance indicators and educational history. The correlations between variables were established with Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results suggest that there is a positive relationship between academic performance in High School and Educational History, and a very weak relationship between performance in Science and Mathematics in High School and performance in College.

  8. Medical School Performance of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged and Underrepresented Minority Students Matriculating after a Multiple Mini-Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Henderson, Mark C; Griffin, Erin; Talamantes, Efrain; Fancher, Tonya; Sousa, Francis; Franks, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Multiple Mini-Interviews (MMIs) are increasingly used in medical school admissions. We previously reported that while under-represented minority (URM) status was not associated with MMI scores, self-designated disadvantaged applicants had lower MMI scores, possibly affecting their matriculation prospects. No studies have examined how URM status or socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) are associated with academic performance following admission through an MMI. We examined the adjusted associations of MMI scores, SED, and URM status with U.S. Medical Licensing Examination Steps 1 and 2 performance and third-year clerkship Honors, measures affecting residency matching. While URM status was not associated with the measures, students with greater SED had lower Step 1 scores and fewer Honors. Students with higher MMI scores had more Step 1 failures, but more Honors. The findings identify areas to address in medical school admissions, student support, and evaluation processes, which is important given the need for a more representative physician workforce.

  9. High prevalence of self-medication practices among medical and pharmacy students: a study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, Mohammad J; Alefan, Qais; Alqudah, Mohammad A Y

    2016-05-01

    To assess self-medication practices and to evaluate the impact of obtaining medical knowledge on self-medication among medical and pharmacy students at Jordan University of Science and Technology. This was a cross-sectional study. A well-validated questionnaire that included 3 sections about self-medication was administered to the subjects after introducing the term "self-medication" verbally. 1,317 students had participated in the study and were subgrouped according to their academic level into seniors and juniors. Compared to the general population rate of 42.5%, self-medication practice was reported by (1,034, 78.5%) of the students and most common amongst pharmacy students (n = 369, 82.9%) compared to Pharm.D. (n = 357, 77.9%) and medical students (n = 308, 74.4%) (p = 0.009). There was no significant difference between juniors and seniors (557, 79.1% vs. 477, 77.8%, p = 0.59, respectively). Headache (71.2%) and common cold (56.5%) were frequent ailments that provoked self-medication. Analgesics (79.9%) and antibiotics (59.8%) were frequently used to self-treat these aliments. Reasons for self-medication included previous disease experience (55.7%); minor aliments (55.3%); and having enough medical knowledge (32.1%). Medicines were used according to instructions obtained mainly from the leaflet (28.8%); pharmacist (20.7%); and university courses (19.7%). Senior students were more aware of the risk of self-medication than junior students. The majority of students frequently advise other people about self-medication (83.6%). Self-medication was common among students irrespective to their level of medical knowledge. Obtaining medical knowledge increased the students' awareness of the risk of self-medication which may result in practicing responsible self-medication. However, medical teaching institutions need to educate students about the proper use of medicines as a therapeutic tool.

  10. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  11. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  12. An Ultra-High Element Density pMUT Array with Low Crosstalk for 3-D Medical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Ling Ren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A ~1 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT array with ultra-high element density and low crosstalk is proposed for the first time. This novel pMUT array is based on a nano-layer spin-coating lead zirconium titanium film technique and can be fabricated with high element density using a relatively simple process. Accordingly, key fabrication processes such as thick piezoelectric film deposition, low-stress Si-SOI bonding and bulk silicon removal have been successfully developed. The novel fine-pitch 6 × 6 pMUT arrays can all work at the desired frequency (~1 MHz with good uniformity, high performance and potential IC integration compatibility. The minimum interspace is ~20 μm, the smallest that has ever been achieved to the best of our knowledge. These arrays can be potentially used to steer ultrasound beams and implement high quality 3-D medical imaging applications.

  13. Self-medication: frequent practice in adolescence? Study on a sample of high school students in Sorocaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Crespo Gutierres Pardo

    2013-06-01

    bjectives: self-medication is a practice that has been widely discussed around the world, becoming the target of several studies, including Brazil. Self-medication can cause harm. Children and adolescents are the group most inclined to irrational use of medications. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of high school students about self-medication. Methods: a cross-sectional sample of 79 high school teenagers, aged 14 - 18 years old of both genders. The questionnaire included the following variables: age, gender, grade, frequency of use of medications, who guided the consumption and self-medication, which were evaluated using dichotomous questions, specifying the(s drug(s used and their purpose. Results: the self-medication occurred in 96.2% of the sample, with no difference between genders (p = 0.19 or age (p = 0.61. Among those who self-medicated on their own, 55.88% based on old prescriptions. The most consumed pharmacological groups were analgesics, followed by medicines for colds or flu. Almost half (48.1% participants reported using nonprescription medicines. There was association between adolescents' self-medication and maternal self-medication (p = 0.02. Conclusion: it is extremely worrying the large percentage of adolescents who engage in self-medication, in view of the potential health risks. The consumption of drugs without medical advice by mothers proved to be an influencing factor in adolescents' self-medication.

  14. Simulation training improves medical students' learning experiences when performing real vaginal deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Ashlesha K; Fisher, Nelli; Magrane, Diane; Goffman, Dena; Bernstein, Peter S; Katz, Nadine T

    2009-01-01

    To determine the relationship between simulation training for vaginal delivery maneuvers and subsequent participation in live deliveries during the clinical rotation and to assess medical students' performance and confidence in vaginal delivery maneuvers with and without simulation training. Medical students were randomized to receive or not to receive simulation training for vaginal delivery maneuvers on a mannequin simulator at the start of a 6-week clerkship. Both groups received traditional didactic and clinical teaching. One researcher, blinded to randomization, scored student competence of delivery maneuvers and overall delivery performance on simulator. Delivery performance was scored (1-5, with 5 being the highest) at weeks 1 and 5 of the clerkship. Students were surveyed to assess self-confidence in the ability to perform delivery maneuvers at weeks 1 and 5, and participation in live deliveries was evaluated using student obstetric patient logs. Thirty-three students were randomized, 18 to simulation training [simulation group (SIM)] and 15 to no simulation training [control group (CON)]. Clerkship logs demonstrated that SIM students participated in more deliveries than CON students (9.8 +/- 3.7 versus 6.2 +/- 2.8, P < 0.005). SIM reported increased confidence in ability to perform a vaginal delivery, when compared with CON at the end of the clerkship (3.81 +/- 0.83 versus 3.00 +/- 1.0, respectively, P < 0.05). The overall delivery performance score was significantly higher in SIM, when compared with CON at week 1 (3.94 +/- 0.94 versus 2.07 +/- 1.22, respectively, P < 0.001) and week 5 (4.88 +/- 0.33 versus 4.31 +/- 0.63, P < 0.001) in the simulated environment. Students who receive simulation training participate more actively in the clinical environment during the course of the clerkship. Student simulation training is beneficial to learn obstetric skills in a minimal risk environment, demonstrate competency with maneuvers, and translate this competence

  15. Characteristics of mentoring relationships formed by medical students and faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; von der Borch, Philip; Störmann, Sylvère; Meinel, Felix G.; Moder, Stefan; Reincke, Martin; Fischer, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the characteristics of mentoring relationships formed between faculty and medical students. Individual mentoring relationships of clinical medical students at Munich Medical School were characterized quantitatively and qualitatively. Methods All students signing up for the mentoring program responded to a questionnaire on their expectations (n = 534). Mentees were asked to give feedback after each of their one-on-one meetings (n = 203). A detailed analysis of the overall mentoring process and its characteristics was performed. For qualitative text analysis, free-text items were analyzed and categorized by two investigators. Quantitative analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon-test to assess differences in grades between students with and without mentors. Results High-performing students were significantly more likely to participate in the mentoring program (pmentors as counselors (88.9%), providers of ideas (85.0%), and role models (73.3%). Mentees emphasized the positive impact of the mentoring relationship on career planning (77.2%) and research (75.0%). Conclusions Medical students with strong academic performance as defined by their grades are more likely to participate in formal mentoring programs. Mentoring relationships between faculty and medical students are perceived as a mutually satisfying and effective instrument for key issues in medical students’ professional development. Practical implications Mentoring relationships are a highly effective means of enhancing the bidirectional flow of information between faculty and medical students. A mentoring program can thus establish a feedback loop enabling the educational institution to swiftly identify and address issues of medical students. PMID:22989620

  16. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years. Relationship with stress and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed A. Alsaggaf; Siraj O. Wali; Roah A. Merdad; Leena A. Merdad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320) were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Qual...

  17. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  18. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  19. Performance evaluation of Al-Zahra academic medical center based on Iran balanced scorecard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhsh, Roghayeh Mohammadi; Gangi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Growth and development in any country's national health system, without an efficient evaluation system, lacks the basic concepts and tools necessary for fulfilling the system's goals. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a technique widely used to measure the performance of an organization. The basic core of the BSC is guided by the organization's vision and strategies, which are the bases for the formation of four perspectives of BSC. The goal of this research is the performance evaluation of Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, based on Iran BSC model. This is a combination (quantitative-qualitative) research which was done at Al-Zahra Academic Medical Center in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The research populations were hospital managers at different levels. Sampling method was purposive sampling in which the key informed personnel participated in determining the performance indicators of hospital as the BSC team members in focused discussion groups. After determining the conceptual elements in focused discussion groups, the performance objectives (targets) and indicators of hospital were determined and sorted in perspectives by the group discussion participants. Following that, the performance indicators were calculated by the experts according to the predetermined objectives; then, the score of each indicator and the mean score of each perspective were calculated. Research findings included development of the organizational mission, vision, values, objectives, and strategies. The strategies agreed upon by the participants in the focus discussion group included five strategies, which were customer satisfaction, continuous quality improvement, development of human resources, supporting innovation, expansion of services and improving the productivity. Research participants also agreed upon four perspectives for the Al-Zahra hospital BSC. In the patients and community perspective (customer), two objectives and

  20. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  1. Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Almasdy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonprescription medicine, minor illnesses,minor ailment, university population and communitypharmacy. Electronic databases searched were Science Direct,Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Inside Web, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. Theseelectronic databases were searched for full text paperspublished in English.Results: Eleven studies were identified. In general, the reviewhas shown that self-medication practice with nonprescriptionmedication highly prevalence among university students. Thereasons for self-medication are vary among this populationand the main symptoms leading to self-medication areheadache or minor pain; fever, flu, cough, or cold; anddiarrhoea.The common medication is analgesic, antipyreticproducts, cough and cold remedies, anti allergy andvitamins or minerals. The sources of the medicines arepharmacy, home medicine cabinet, supermarket/shopand other person such as family, friend, neighbours andclassmates. The sources of drug information are familymember, previous experience, pharmacy salesman,doctor or nurse, advertisement and others. The reviewalso has shown that the self-medication practice couldhave many problems.Conclusions: The review provides insights about theself-medication practices among the university students.These practices were highly prevalence among universitystudents. The symptoms leading to self-medication arevary, thus the medication used and the medicationsources. It needs an adequate drug information

  2. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  3. High-performance ceramics. Fabrication, structure, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzow, G.; Tobolski, J.; Telle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' pursued the objective to understand the chaining of cause and effect in the development of high-performance ceramics. This chain of problems begins with the chemical reactions for the production of powders, comprises the characterization, processing, shaping and compacting of powders, structural optimization, heat treatment, production and finishing, and leads to issues of materials testing and of a design appropriate to the material. The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' has resulted in contributions to the understanding of fundamental interrelationships in terms of materials science, which are summarized in the present volume - broken down into eight special aspects. (orig./RHM)

  4. Diabetes Screening and Prevention in a High-Risk, Medically Isolated Border Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Millard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA project in a Texas border community setting, Prevention Organized against Diabetes and Dialysis with Education and Resources (POD2ER, offered diabetes prevention information, screening, and medical referrals. The setting was a large, longstanding flea market that functions as a shopping mall for low-income people. The priority population included medically underserved urban and rural Mexican Americans. Components of the program addressed those with diabetes, prediabetes, and accompanying relatives and friends.BackgroundPeople living in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV face challenges of high rates of type 2 diabetes, lack of knowledge about prevention, and inadequate access to medical care. Recent statistics from actual community-wide screenings indicate a high diabetes prevalence, 30.7% among adults in the LRGV compared with 12.3% nationwide.MethodsA diverse team composed of public health faculty, students, a physician, a community health worker, and community volunteers conceived and developed the project with a focus on cultural and economic congruence and a user-friendly atmosphere. The program provided screening for prediabetes and diabetes with a hemoglobin A1c test. Screening was offered to those who were at least 25 years of age and not pregnant. When results indicated diabetes, a test for kidney damage was offered (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A medical appointment at a community clinic within a week was provided to those who tested positive for diabetes and lacked a medical home. Health education modules addressed all family members.DiscussionThe project was successful in recruiting 2,332 high-risk people in 26 months in a community setting, providing clinic referrals to those without a doctor, introducing them to treatment, and providing diabetes prevention information to all project participants. Implications for research and practice are highlighted.ConclusionThis study shows that a regular access point in

  5. Sodium Hypochlorite Treatment and Nitinol Performance for Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. D.; Gutierrez, E. J.; Nagaraja, S.; Stafford, P. R.; Sivan, S.; Di Prima, M.

    2017-09-01

    Processing of nitinol medical devices has evolved over the years as manufacturers have identified methods of reducing surface defects such as inclusions. One recent method proposes to soak nitinol medical devices in a 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution as a means of identifying surface inclusions. Devices with surface inclusions could in theory then be removed from production because inclusions would interact with NaClO to form a visible black material on the nitinol surface. To understand the effects of an NaClO soak on performance, we compared as-received and NaClO-soaked nitinol wires with two different surface finishes (black oxide and electropolished). Pitting corrosion susceptibility was equivalent between the as-received and NaClO-soaked groups for both surface finishes. Nickel ion release increased in the NaClO-soaked group for black oxide nitinol, but was equivalent for electropolished nitinol. Fatigue testing revealed a lower fatigue life for NaClO-soaked black oxide nitinol at all alternating strains. With the exception of 0.83% alternating strain, NaClO-soaked and as-received electropolished nitinol had similar average fatigue life, but the NaClO-soaked group showed higher variability. NaClO-soaked electropolished nitinol had specimens with the lowest number of cycles to fracture for all alternating strains tested with the exception of the highest alternating strain 1.2%. The NaClO treatment identified only one specimen with surface inclusions and caused readily identifiable surface damage to the black oxide nitinol. Damage from the NaClO soak to electropolished nitinol surface also appears to have occurred and is likely the cause of the increased variability of the fatigue results. Overall, the NaClO soak appears to not lead to an improvement in nitinol performance and seems to be damaging to the nitinol surface in ways that may not be detectable with a simple visual inspection for black material on the nitinol surface.

  6. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  7. Medical Professionalism: the Effects of Sociodemographic Diversity and Curricular Organization on the Attitudinal Performance of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the educational environment and the development of professional attitudes enhance the quality of health care delivery. Despite the importance of diversity for equity and accessibility to health care, its repercussions for students’ attitudinal learning have not been adequately evaluated. Purpose: Evaluate the influence of academic sociodemographic diversity and curricular organization in the development of professional attitudes in different phases of the undergraduate medical curriculum. Method: In 2012, the attitudinal performance of 310 socioeconomically diverse medical students was evaluated by the administration of a five-point professional attitudes scale. The participants were at different points in their education at a Brazilian public school of medicine in Brasília, Federal District. The scale comprised 6 factors: communication, ethics, professional excellence, self-assessment, beliefs, social determinants; and a general factor called medical professionalism and was validated for the purpose of this research. The reliability coefficients (aCronbach ranged from 0.65 to 0.87, according to different scale dimensions. Student diversity was analyzed according to differences in gender, age, religious affiliation, system of student selection and socioeconomic background. Results: The authors observed a decline in the mean attitude scores during the clinical phase compared to the preclinical phase of the curriculum. Female students displayed more positive attitudes than male students, and the students who declared a religious affiliation recorded higher attitude scores compared to those who declared themselves atheist, agnostic or non-religious. There was no correlation between family income or the system of student selection and the students’ attitude scores. The students who had attended public schools expressed a greater interest in working in the public health system

  8. Inspiring Careers in STEM and Healthcare Fields through Medical Simulation Embedded in High School Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…

  9. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  10. [New possibilities in emergency medical transportation and emergency services of Polish Medical Air Rescue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałazkowski, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, two types of medical services are accomplished by the Medical Air Rescue (MAR) operating all over the country: emergency transport from the incident scene to hospital and inter-hospital transport. Helicopters or planes are used for this purpose. In 2009, helicopters performed 4359 flights to incidents and 1537 inter-hospital transports whereas planes performed 589 inter-hospital ambulance and 196 rescue flights. MAR operates from 17 bases of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and one airbase. Helicopters are mainly used when medical transport is emergent, within the operational region of a given base whereas planes when the distance between the present and target airports exceeds 250 km. In 2008, new modern aircraft were introduced to HEMS-helicopters EC 135. They fulfil all requirements of air transport regulations and are adjusted to visual (VFR) and instrumental (IFR) flights rules, at day and night. The medical cabin of EC 135 is ergonomic and functional considering the majority of rescue activities under life-saving circumstances. It is equipped with ventilator, defibrillator, infusion pumps etc. Defibrillators have 12-lead ECG, E(T)CO2, SpO2, NIBP, and IBP modules. Transport ventilators can work in a variety of ventilation modes including CMV, SIMV, SVV, BILEVEL, PCV, ASB, PPV and CPAP. The purchase of helicopters with modern avionic and medical configuration ensures high quality services of MAR for many years to come.

  11. High performance parallel I/O

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Gain Critical Insight into the Parallel I/O EcosystemParallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing (HPC), especially in storing and processing very large datasets to facilitate scientific discovery. Revealing the state of the art in this field, High Performance Parallel I/O draws on insights from leading practitioners, researchers, software architects, developers, and scientists who shed light on the parallel I/O ecosystem.The first part of the book explains how large-scale HPC facilities scope, configure, and operate systems, with an emphasis on choices of I/O har

  12. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Katowa-Mukwato, Patricia; Banda, Sekelani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. Methods The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objec...

  13. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  14. Automation of a high risk medication regime algorithm in a home health care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine H; Dierich, Mary; Westra, Bonnie L

    2014-10-01

    Create an automated algorithm for predicting elderly patients' medication-related risks for readmission and validate it by comparing results with a manual analysis of the same patient population. Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) and medication data were reused from a previous, manual study of 911 patients from 15 Medicare-certified home health care agencies. The medication data was converted into standardized drug codes using APIs managed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), and then integrated in an automated algorithm that calculates patients' high risk medication regime scores (HRMRs). A comparison of the results between algorithm and manual process was conducted to determine how frequently the HRMR scores were derived which are predictive of readmission. HRMR scores are composed of polypharmacy (number of drugs), Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIM) (drugs risky to the elderly), and Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) (complex dose forms, instructions or administration). The algorithm produced polypharmacy, PIM, and MRCI scores that matched with 99%, 87% and 99% of the scores, respectively, from the manual analysis. Imperfect match rates resulted from discrepancies in how drugs were classified and coded by the manual analysis vs. the automated algorithm. HRMR rules lack clarity, resulting in clinical judgments for manual coding that were difficult to replicate in the automated analysis. The high comparison rates for the three measures suggest that an automated clinical tool could use patients' medication records to predict their risks of avoidable readmissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consistency in performance evaluation reports and medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingshan; Ma, Ching-to Albert

    2002-12-01

    In the health care market managed care has become the latest innovation for the delivery of services. For efficient implementation, the managed care organization relies on accurate information. So clinicians are often asked to report on patients before referrals are approved, treatments authorized, or insurance claims processed. What are clinicians responses to solicitation for information by managed care organizations? The existing health literature has already pointed out the importance of provider gaming, sincere reporting, nudging, and dodging the rules. We assess the consistency of clinicians reports on clients across administrative data and clinical records. For about 1,000 alcohol abuse treatment episodes, we compare clinicians reports across two data sets. The first one, the Maine Addiction Treatment System (MATS), was an administrative data set; the state government used it for program performance monitoring and evaluation. The second was a set of medical record abstracts, taken directly from the clinical records of treatment episodes. A clinician s reporting practice exhibits an inconsistency if the information reported in MATS differs from the information reported in the medical record in a statistically significant way. We look for evidence of inconsistencies in five categories: admission alcohol use frequency, discharge alcohol use frequency, termination status, admission employment status, and discharge employment status. Chi-square tests, Kappa statistics, and sensitivity and specificity tests are used for hypothesis testing. Multiple imputation methods are employed to address the problem of missing values in the record abstract data set. For admission and discharge alcohol use frequency measures, we find, respectively, strong and supporting evidence for inconsistencies. We find equally strong evidence for consistency in reports of admission and discharge employment status, and mixed evidence on report consistency on termination status. Patterns of

  16. Associations of Pass-Fail Outcomes with Psychological Health of First-Year Medical Students in a Malaysian Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad S. B. Yusoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of first-year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. The depression anxiety stress scale 21-item assessment (DASS-21 was administered to them right after the final paper of the first-year final examination. Their final examination outcomes (i.e. pass or fail were traced by using their student identity code (ID through the Universiti Sains Malaysia academic office. Results: A total of 194 (98.0% of medical students responded to the DASS-21. An independent t-test showed that students who passed had significantly lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms than those who failed the first-year final examination (P <0.05. Those who experienced moderate to high stress were at 2.43 times higher risk for failing the examination than those who experienced normal to mild stress. Conclusion: Medical students whofailed in the final examination had higher psychological distress than those who passed the examination. Those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to fail than those who did not. Reducing the psychological distress of medical students prior to examination may help them to perform better in the examination.

  17. DOE research in utilization of high-performance computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzbee, B.L.; Worlton, W.J.; Michael, G.; Rodrigue, G.

    1980-12-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) and other Government research laboratories depend on high-performance computer systems to accomplish their programatic goals. As the most powerful computer systems become available, they are acquired by these laboratories so that advances can be made in their disciplines. These advances are often the result of added sophistication to numerical models whose execution is made possible by high-performance computer systems. However, high-performance computer systems have become increasingly complex; consequently, it has become increasingly difficult to realize their potential performance. The result is a need for research on issues related to the utilization of these systems. This report gives a brief description of high-performance computers, and then addresses the use of and future needs for high-performance computers within DOE, the growing complexity of applications within DOE, and areas of high-performance computer systems warranting research. 1 figure

  18. "Flipping" the introductory clerkship in radiology: impact on medical student performance and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Lily M; Bartolotta, Roger J; Giambrone, Ashley E; Davi, Caryn; Min, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    Among methods of "blended learning" (ie, combining online modules with in-class instruction), the "flipped classroom" involves student preclass review of material while reserving class time for interactive knowledge application. We integrated blended learning methodology in a "flipped" introductory clerkship in radiology, and assessed the impact of this approach on the student educational experience (performance and perception). In preparation for the "flipped clerkship," radiology faculty and residents created e-learning modules that were uploaded to an open-source website. The clerkship's 101 rising third-year medical students were exposed to different teaching methods during the course, such as blended learning, traditional lecture learning, and independent learning. Students completed precourse and postcourse knowledge assessments and surveys. Student knowledge improved overall as a result of taking the course. Blended learning achieved greater pretest to post-test improvement of high statistical significance (P value, .0060) compared to lecture learning alone. Blended learning also achieved greater pretest to post-test improvement of borderline statistical significance (P value, .0855) in comparison to independent learning alone. The difference in effectiveness of independent learning versus lecture learning was not statistically significant (P value, .2730). Student perceptions of the online modules used in blended learning portions of the course were very positive. They specifically enjoyed the self-paced interactivity and the ability to return to the modules in the future. Blended learning can be successfully applied to the introductory clerkship in radiology. This teaching method offers educators an innovative and efficient approach to medical student education in radiology. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Survey of Cultural Infrastructure and Performance in Medical Sciences Universities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Feizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives: Recently, the role of universities in developing and education of culture is considered increasingly but Iranian universities have great distance in achieving the desired objectives in this context. So, this study aimed to survey the cultural infrastructure and performance in medical sciences universities of Iran. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was done using researcher-made checklist which its face and content validity were approved by the cultural experts' opinion via statistical indicators. The study was conducted in census method by responses of 25 managers of cultural affairs in medical sciences universities of Iran. The obtained data were analyzed descriptively and results were reported as frequency (percentages for qualitative and mean (standard deviation for quantitative variable. Results: The study results were presented in four areas: “the general status of universities in cultural affairs”, “cultural facilities of the universities”, “the activity of cultural organizations and publications in universities” and “performance of cultural deputies”. The results showed that although there are considerable strengths, the significant weaknesses are evident in all areas. The results of the present study were focused solely on the quantity of functions, and quality evaluation of each activity requires special attention and further investigations and interventions. Conclusion: Researchers hope that the authorities and planners use the results of this study and similar studies especially in quality of cultural practices of universities and move towards improving the status of culture in medical sciences universities in developing Iranian-Islamic culture.

  20. Good sleep quality is associated with better academic performance among Sudanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani, Hyder Osman; Mohammed, Osama Salih; Almurtadha, Yahia Mohamed; Ahmed, Moneir Siddig

    2015-11-23

    There is increasing awareness about the association of sleep quality and academic achievement among university students. However, the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance has not been examined in Sudan; this study assessed the relationship between sleep quality and academic performance among Sudanese medical students. A case-control study was conducted among 165 male and female medical students at two Sudanese universities. Excellent (A) and pass (C) academic groups were invited to respond to a self-administered questionnaire, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Students also completed a diary detailing their sleep habits for 2 weeks prior to filling out the questionnaire. Various parameters of sleep quality were then compared between the two groups. A significant difference (p sleep quality, subjective sleep rating, bedtime later than midnight, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction (during driving, preparing a meal, etc.). No differences were found between groups for the use of sleep medications. The mean sleeping hours was (7 ± 1.9) and (6.3 ± 1.9) for the excellent and pass groups respectively (p < 0.05). A significant difference (p < 0.001) between the excellent and average groups was found for weekday and weekend bedtime, weekend wake-up time, and weekend wake-up delay. No differences were found between groups for the weekday's wake- up time, and bedtime delay during weekends. Besides, snoring was present in 9.2 % of the excellent group versus 28 % in pass group (p < 0.005).

  1. To what extent is clinical and laboratory information used to perform medication reviews in the nursing home setting? the CLEAR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestres Gonzalvo C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carlota Mestres Gonzalvo,1 Kim PGM Hurkens,2 Hugo AJM de Wit,3 Brigit PC van Oijen,1 Rob Janknegt,1 Jos MGA Schols,4 Wubbo J Mulder,5 Frans R Verhey,6 Bjorn Winkens,7 Paul-Hugo M van der Kuy1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Orbis Medical Centre, Sittard, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatric Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Atrium Medical Centre, Heerlen, 4Department of Family Medicine and Department of Health Services Research, School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 6Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Alzheimer Centre Limburg/School for Mental Health and Neurosciences, 7Department of Methodology and Statistics, School for Public Health and Primary Care, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent laboratory data, actual medication, medical history, and/or drug indication influence the quality of medication reviews for nursing home patients. Methods: Forty-six health care professionals from different fields were requested to perform medication reviews for three different cases. Per case, the amount of information provided varied in three subsequent stages: stage 1, medication list only; stage 2, adding laboratory data and reason for hospital admission; and stage 3, adding medical history/drug indication. Following a slightly modified Delphi method, a multidisciplinary team performed the medication review for each case and stage. The results of these medication reviews were used as reference reviews (gold standard. The remarks from the participants were scored, according to their potential clinical impact, from relevant to harmful on a scale of 3 to -1. A total score per case and stage was calculated and expressed as a percentage of the total score from the expert

  2. Psycho-social factors determining success in high-performance triathlon: compared perception in the coach-athlete pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tendero, Germán; Salinero Martín, Juan José

    2012-12-01

    High-level sport can be analyzed using the complex system model, in which performance is constrained by many factors. Coaches' and athletes' perceptions of important positive and negative factors affecting performance were compared. Participants were 48 high-level international triathletes (n = 34) and their coaches (n = 14). They were personally interviewed via a questionnaire designed by four accredited experts, who selected groups of both positive and negative factors affecting performance. A list of factors was developed, in order of greater to lesser importance in the opinion of athletes and coaches, for subsequent analysis. Two ranked lists (positive and negative factors) indicated that athletes appear to rate personal environment factors (family, teammates, lack of support from relatives) higher, while the coaches tended to give more importance to technical and institutional aspects (institutional support, coach, medical support). There was complete agreement between coaches and triathletes about the top five positive factors. Negative factor agreement was somewhat lower (agreement on 3/5 factors). The most important positive factor for coaches and athletes was "dedication/engagement," while the most important factor adversely affecting performance was "injuries".

  3. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive

  4. Ground Glass Pozzolan in Conventional, High, and Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Tagnit-Hamou Arezki; Zidol Ablam; Soliman Nancy; Deschamps Joris; Omran Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Ground-glass pozzolan (G) obtained by grinding the mixed-waste glass to same fineness of cement can act as a supplementary-cementitious material (SCM), given that it is an amorphous and a pozzolanic material. The G showed promising performances in different concrete types such as conventional concrete (CC), high-performance concrete (HPC), and ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). The current paper reports on the characteristics and performance of G in these concrete types. The use of G pro...

  5. Assessment of academic/non-academic factors and extracurricular activities influencing performance of medical students of faculty of medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainul Haque

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical and mental comfort is known to have a crucial influence on health and performance amongst medical students. Very often, medical students suffer from poor quality of life (QOL related to the work-life balance due to the lack of sleep, nutritional and dietary disorders and low physical activity, resulting in a negative impact on their academic performance. This study aims to determine the potential academic/non-academic factors and extra-curricular activities influencing the performance of medical students in Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, UniSZA, Terengganu, Malaysia. A sample size of 300 respondents were recruited from Year I to V medical students. The questionnaire was adopted, modified and validated from a similar study in Saudi Arabia. Results: Majority of the students enjoy medical education are self-motivated, have a good command of English, non-smokers and have a sufficient sleep. Conclusion: University medical students possess good QOL within the optimum educational environment.

  6. Feasibility and Diagnostic Accuracy of Point-of-Care Abdominal Sonography by Pocket-Sized Imaging Devices, Performed by Medical Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjesbu, Ingunn E; Laursen, Christian B; Graven, Torbjørn; Holden, Hans Martin; Rømo, Bjørnar; Newton Andersen, Garrett; Mjølstad, Ole Christian; Lassen, Annmarie; Dalen, Håvard

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to study the feasibility and diagnostic performance of bedside ultrasound by examination of the liver, gallbladder, kidneys, and abdominal aorta performed by medical residents with limited experience in ultrasound, on emergency admissions using pocket-sized imaging devices (PSIDs). A total of 199 patients admitted acutely to the medical department at the non-university Levanger Hospital, Norway, during the period from April 4 to June 23, 2011, were consecutively included. Six medical residents, selected by drawing, examined these patients with a PSID at admission. Reference imaging was performed and/or judged at the Department of Radiology. Each resident performed a median of 28 examinations (interquartile range 24-46). Imaging of the kidneys and liver were feasible in 85 and 82% of the cases, and the corresponding values for the gallbladder and abdominal aorta were 79 and 50%, respectively. The sensitivity of medical residents to detect organ pathology with the aid of PSID, ranged between 54% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29-77%) and 74% (95% CI: 51-88%). Assessment of the aortic dimension showed moderate correlation, with r = 0.38. Examination by PSID by inexperienced residents may allow for early detection of abdominal pathology, but do not appear to be accurate enough to rule out pathology in the abdominal organs. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Medical Assistant-based care management for high risk patients in small primary care practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freund, Tobias; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with multiple chronic conditions are at high risk of potentially avoidable hospital admissions, which may be reduced by care coordination and self-management support. Medical assistants are an increasingly available resource for patient care in primary care practices. Objective......: To determine whether protocol-based care management delivered by medical assistants improves patient care in patients at high risk of future hospitalization in primary care. Design: Two-year cluster randomized clinical trial. Setting: 115 primary care practices in Germany. Patients: 2,076 patients with type 2......, and monitoring delivered by medical assistants with usual care. Measurements: All-cause hospitalizations at 12 months (primary outcome) and quality of life scores (Short Form 12 Health Questionnaire [SF-12] and the Euroqol instrument [EQ-5D]). Results: Included patients had, on average, four co-occurring chronic...

  8. The relation between executing of thesis policies and medical student's theses quality in type medical faculties of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolahi A.A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students' thesis is equal to six units, which is mandatory for graduation. The purpose of preparing thesis is to familiarize students with research process, methodology, and scientific report writing skill. Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine the relation between executing of thesis policies and medical students' theses quality in type I medical faculties of Iran Methods: To perform this study first, we randomly chose 36 (Total sample=396 medical students' theses in each 11 medical faculties, which completed in 1998-99 academic year. The original theses were evaluated by using a questionnaire. Second, for evaluation of operationalization of thesis policies we use four criteria including, the presence of performance regulations, the proposals approving process, final approving course and presence of a defence session to evaluate thesis in the same medical faculty. Results: In medical faculties that thesis policies were completed, the score of theses was high. In contrast medical faculties with weak policies had low students’ theses scores. Conclusion: Thesis policies are considered as one of the ways to improve the quality of thesis. it is advise at the same time as we should be plan to provide the effective factors for improvement quality of thesis consider strongly the regulations related thesis should be considerate. Keywords: MEDICAL STUDENTS, THESES, REGULATION, and SCORES

  9. Medication reconciliation in pediatric cardiology performed by a pharmacy technician: a prospective cohort comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carol; Woo, Renée; Seto, Winnie; Pong, Sandra; Gilhooly, Tessie; Russell, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Medication reconciliation reduces potential medication discrepancies and adverse drug events. The role of pharmacy technicians in obtaining best possible medication histories (BPMHs) and performing reconciliation at the admission and transfer interfaces of care for pediatric patients has not been described. To compare the completeness and accuracy of BPMHs and reconciliation conducted by a pharmacy technician (pilot study) and by nurses and/or pharmacists (baseline). The severity of identified unintentional discrepancies was rated to determine their clinical importance. This prospective cohort comparison study involved patients up to 18 years of age admitted to and/or transferred between the Cardiology ward and the Cardiac Critical Care Unit of a pediatric tertiary care teaching hospital. A pharmacy resident conducted two 3-week audits: the first to assess the completeness and accuracy of BPMHs and reconciliation performed by nurses and/or pharmacists and the second to assess the completeness and accuracy of BPMHs and reconciliation performed by a pharmacy technician. The total number of patients was 38 in the baseline phase and 46 in the pilot period. There were no statistically significant differences between the baseline and pilot audits in terms of completion of BPMH (82% [28/34] versus 78% [21/27], p = 0.75) or completion of reconciliation (70% [23/33] versus 75% [15/20], p = 0.76) within 24 h of admission. Completeness of transfer reconciliation was significantly higher during the pilot study than at baseline (91% [31/34] versus 61% [11/18], p = 0.022). No significant differences between the baseline and pilot audits were found in the proportions of patients with at least one BPMH discrepancy (38% [13/34] versus 22% [6/27], p = 0.27), at least one unintentional discrepancy upon admission (21% [7/33] versus 10% [2/20], p = 0.46), or at least one unintentional discrepancy at the transfer interface (6% [1/18] versus 3% [1/34], p = 0.58). None of the 16

  10. Predictive validity of the comprehensive basic science examination mean score for assessment of medical students' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouz Behboudi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Medical education curriculum improvements can be achieved bye valuating students performance. Medical students have to pass two undergraduate comprehensive examinations, basic science and preinternship, in Iran. Purpose To measure validity of the students' mean score in comprehensive basic science exam (CBSE for predicting their performance in later curriculum phases. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 95 (38 women and 55 men Guilan medical university students. Their admission to the university was 81% by regional quota and 12% by shaheed and other organizations' share. They first enrolled in 1994 and were able to pass CBS£ at first try. Data on gender, regional quota, and average grades of CBS£, PC, and CPIE were collected by a questionnaire. The calculations were done by SPSS package. Results The correlation coefficient between CBS£ and CPIE mean scores (0.65 was higher than correlation coefficient between CBS£ and PC mean scores (0.49. The predictive validity of CBS£ average grade was significant for students' performance in CPIE; however, the predictive validity of CBSE mean scores for students I pe1jormance in PC was lower. Conclusion he students' mean score in CBSE can be a good denominator for their further admission. We recommend further research to assess the predictive validity for each one of the basic courses. Keywords predictive validity, comprehensive basic exam

  11. Organic transistors with high thermal stability for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribara, Kazunori; Wang, He; Uchiyama, Naoya; Fukuda, Kenjiro; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zschieschang, Ute; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel; Klauk, Hagen; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Takimiya, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Someya, Takao

    2012-03-06

    The excellent mechanical flexibility of organic electronic devices is expected to open up a range of new application opportunities in electronics, such as flexible displays, robotic sensors, and biological and medical electronic applications. However, one of the major remaining issues for organic devices is their instability, especially their thermal instability, because low melting temperatures and large thermal expansion coefficients of organic materials cause thermal degradation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of flexible thin-film transistors with excellent thermal stability and their viability for biomedical sterilization processes. The organic thin-film transistors comprise a high-mobility organic semiconductor, dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene, and thin gate dielectrics comprising a 2-nm-thick self-assembled monolayer and a 4-nm-thick aluminium oxide layer. The transistors exhibit a mobility of 1.2 cm(2) V(-1)s(-1) within a 2 V operation and are stable even after exposure to conditions typically used for medical sterilization.

  12. Academic performance of fnal year medical students at kerbala medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Al Alak

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion The present study aimed at a correct in depth analysis of the evaluation process and an examination of Kerbala Medical College graduates in two successive years. The results found were very helpful in pointing out the main shortcomings and strength in the examination stations.

  13. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  14. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  15. Advanced high performance solid wall blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Nishio, S.; Raffray, R.; Sagara, A.

    2002-01-01

    First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  16. Self-medication and related health complaints among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Khan, Nelofer; Sreedharan, Jayadevan; Issa, Khaled Jamal; Arifulla, Mohamed

    Background Self-medication, often without adult guidance, has been reported to be a common practice during adolescence. Similar to other preventable health-risk behaviors initiated in early adolescence, it has become a cause for concern universally. Objective This study examines the prevalence of self-medication with both prescribed and non-prescribed (OTC) medications, related health complaints, sources of drugs, and sources of drug recommendation, and gender differences related to self-medication among expatriate high school students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 324 expatriate students through a validated, self-administered questionnaire and data was analyzed using SPSS 19 version. Means and proportions were calculated and Pearson Chi-square test of significance was used to analyze association among variables. Results Majority of the participating students, almost equally distributed by gender, was aged 16 to 17 years. The period prevalence rate of self-medication with prescribed and OTC medications were 89.2%, which did not vary with age, gender, ethnicity or parents’ educational level. The most common sources of drug and drug recommendation were community pharmacies and parents respectively. Headache and fever were the common self-medicated conditions and consequently, analgesics and antipyretics were most commonly used both in the previous two weeks and the previous year prior to the survey. A high prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics (53%) and sedative/hypnotics (27%) was also observed. A female excess emerged for certain health complaints and use of medicines except for the use of anti-allergic and herbal/homeopathic drugs. Conclusions This is the first study to explore self-medication practices among high school students in UAE and provides baseline data critical in creating awareness about the risks and benefits of self-medication. Health care providers, educators and parents should be

  17. An open architecture for medical image workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun

    2005-04-01

    Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.

  18. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  19. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  20. Performance enhancement using a balanced scorecard in a Patient-centered Medical Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Scott A; Cohen, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Oregon Health & Science University Family Medicine implemented a balanced scorecard within our clinics that embraces the inherent tensions between care quality, financial productivity, and operational efficiency. This data-driven performance improvement process involved: (1) consensus-building around specific indicators to be measured, (2) developing and refining the balanced scorecard, and (3) using the balanced scorecard in the quality improvement process. Developing and implementing the balanced scorecard stimulated an important culture shift among clinics; practice members now actively use data to recognize successes, understand emerging problems, and make changes in response to these problems. Our experience shows how Patient-centered Medical Homes can be enhanced through use of information technology and evidence-based tools that support improved decision making and performance and help practices develop into learning organizations.

  1. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melius, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

  2. A Study of NetCDF as an Approach for High Performance Medical Image Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnus, Marcone; Prado, Thiago Coelho; Von Wangenhein, Aldo; De Macedo, Douglas D J; Dantas, M A R

    2012-01-01

    The spread of telemedicine systems increases every day. The systems and PACS based on DICOM images has become common. This rise reflects the need to develop new storage systems, more efficient and with lower computational costs. With this in mind, this article discusses a study for application in NetCDF data format as the basic platform for storage of DICOM images. The study case comparison adopts an ordinary database, the HDF5 and the NetCDF to storage the medical images. Empirical results, using a real set of images, indicate that the time to retrieve images from the NetCDF for large scale images has a higher latency compared to the other two methods. In addition, the latency is proportional to the file size, which represents a drawback to a telemedicine system that is characterized by a large amount of large image files.

  3. Self-regulation theory: applications to medical education: AMEE Guide No. 58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Cleary, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulation theory, as applied to medical education, describes the cyclical control of academic and clinical performance through several key processes that include goal-directed behaviour, use of specific strategies to attain goals, and the adaptation and modification to behaviours or strategies to optimise learning and performance. Extensive research across a variety of non-medical disciplines has highlighted differences in key self-regulation processes between high- and low-achieving learners and performers. Structured identification of key self-regulation processes can be used to develop specific remediation approaches that can improve performance in academic and complex psycho-motor skills. General teaching approaches that are guided by a self-regulation perspective can also enhance academic performance. Self-regulation theory offers an exciting potential for improving academic and clinical performance in medical education.

  4. High performance in software development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Haapio, Petri; Liukkonen, Juha-Matti

    2015-01-01

    What are the ingredients of high-performing software? Software development, especially for large high-performance systems, is one the most complex tasks mankind has ever tried. Technological change leads to huge opportunities but challenges our old ways of working. Processing large data sets, possibly in real time or with other tight computational constraints, requires an efficient solution architecture. Efficiency requirements span from the distributed storage and large-scale organization of computation and data onto the lowest level of processor and data bus behavior. Integrating performance behavior over these levels is especially important when the computation is resource-bounded, as it is in numerics: physical simulation, machine learning, estimation of statistical models, etc. For example, memory locality and utilization of vector processing are essential for harnessing the computing power of modern processor architectures due to the deep memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers. As a r...

  5. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '16 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2016. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  6. High-performance computing — an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksteiner, Peter

    1996-08-01

    An overview of high-performance computing (HPC) is given. Different types of computer architectures used in HPC are discussed: vector supercomputers, high-performance RISC processors, various parallel computers like symmetric multiprocessors, workstation clusters, massively parallel processors. Software tools and programming techniques used in HPC are reviewed: vectorizing compilers, optimization and vector tuning, optimization for RISC processors; parallel programming techniques like shared-memory parallelism, message passing and data parallelism; and numerical libraries.

  7. Team Development for High Performance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines a team development approach to management that creates shared commitments to performance improvement by focusing the attention of managers on individual workers and their task accomplishments. It uses the "high-performance equation" to help managers confront shared beliefs and concerns about performance and develop realistic…

  8. Narrative descriptions should replace grades and numerical ratings for clinical performance in medical education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Lynn Hanson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In medical education, evaluation of clinical performance is based almost universally on rating scales for defined aspects of performance and scores on examinations and checklists. Unfortunately, scores and grades do not capture progress and competence among learners in the complex tasks and roles required to practice medicine. While the literature suggests serious problems with the validity and reliability of ratings of clinical performance based on numerical scores, the critical issue is not that judgments about what is observed vary from rater to rater but that these judgments are lost when translated into numbers on a scale. As the Next Accreditation System of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME takes effect, medical educators have an opportunity to create new processes of evaluation to document and facilitate progress of medical learners in the required areas of competence.Proposal and initial experience: Narrative descriptions of learner performance in the clinical environment, gathered using a framework for observation that builds a shared understanding of competence among the faculty, promise to provide meaningful qualitative data closely linked to the work of physicians. With descriptions grouped in categories and matched to milestones, core faculty can place each learner along the milestones’ continua of progress. This provides the foundation for meaningful feedback to facilitate the progress of each learner as well as documentation of progress toward competence.Implications: This narrative evaluation system addresses educational needs as well as the goals of the Next Accreditation System for explicitly documented progress. Educators at other levels of education and in other professions experience similar needs for authentic assessment and, with meaningful frameworks that describe roles and tasks, may also find useful a system built on descriptions of learner performance in actual work settings

  9. Performing arts medicine: A research model for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karendra Devroop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Performing Arts Medicine has developed into a highly specialised field over the past three decades. The Performing Arts Medical Association (PAMA has been the leading proponent of this unique and innovative field with ground-breaking research studies, symposia, conferences and journals dedicated specifically to the medical problems of performing artists. Similar to sports medicine, performing arts medicine caters specifically for the medical problems of performing artists including musicians and dancers. In South Africa there is a tremendous lack of knowledge of the field and unlike our international counterparts, we do not have specialised clinical settings that cater for the medical problems of performing artists. There is also a tremendous lack of research on performance-related medical problems of performing artists in South Africa. Accordingly the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the field of performing arts medicine, highlight some of the significant findings from recent research studies and present a model for conducting research into the field of performing arts medicine. It is hoped that this research model will lead to increased research on the medical problems of performing artists in South Africa.

  10. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA Protocol for WBAN Medical Scenario through DTMC Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Gupta, Bharat

    2016-12-01

    The newly drafted IEEE 802.15.6 standard for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) has been concentrating on a numerous medical and non-medical applications. Such short range wireless communication standard offers ultra-low power consumption with variable data rates from few Kbps to Mbps in, on or around the proximity of the human body. In this paper, the performance analysis of carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme based on IEEE 802.15.6 standard in terms of throughput, reliability, clear channel assessment (CCA) failure probability, packet drop probability, and end-to-end delay has been presented. We have developed a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC) to significantly evaluate the performances of IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA under non-ideal channel condition having saturated traffic condition including node wait time and service time. We also visualize that, as soon as the payload length increases the CCA failure probability increases, which results in lower node's reliability. Also, we have calculated the end-to-end delay in order to prioritize the node wait time cause by backoff and retransmission. The user priority (UP) wise DTMC analysis has been performed to show the importance of the standard especially for medical scenario.

  11. Medical Students' Use of Different Coping Strategies and Relationship With Academic Performance in Preclinical and Clinical Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Jocelyn H; Stansfield, R Brent; Belmonte, David C; Purkiss, Joel A; Reddy, Rishindra M; House, Joseph B; Santen, Sally A

    2018-01-01

    Phenomenon: Medical students' coping abilities are important for academic success and emotional health. The authors explored differences in students' use of active, problem-solving strategies and emotional, inwardly directed approaches; the change in coping strategies used during medical school; and coping strategy impact on performance. One hundred eighty-three students completed the Ways of Coping Scale at matriculation and end of the 2nd and 3rd years. Frequency of each of 8 ways of coping, changes in coping strategy use over time, and relationship of coping method with preclinical and clinical scores were calculated. Students varied widely in use of coping mechanisms. Over time, students shifted to using emotional strategies more frequently while decreasing their use of active strategies. Coping strategies were unrelated to preclinical academic performance (R 2 = .09, adjusted R 2 = .04, ns) but were related to clinical performance (R 2 = .23, adjusted R 2 = .18, p performance and emotional methods associated with lower performance. Insights: Students decreased use of active coping strategies and increased use of emotional coping strategies over time, but emotional strategies were associated with poorer clinical academic performance. These shifts in coping methods may be detrimental to student performance and learning. Improving students' ability to cope should be an educational priority.

  12. Faculty verbal evaluations reveal strategies used to promote medical student performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Tong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preceptors rarely follow medical students’ developing clinical performance over time and across disciplines. This study analyzes preceptors’ descriptions of longitudinal integrated clerkship (LIC students’ clinical development and their identification of strategies to guide students’ progress. Methods: We used a common evaluation framework, reporter-interpreter-manager-educator, to guide multidisciplinary LIC preceptors’ discussions of students’ progress. We conducted thematic analysis of transcripts from preceptors’ (seven longitudinal ambulatory preceptors per student quarterly group discussions of 15 students’ performance over one year. Results: All students’ clinical development progressed, although most experienced obstacles. Lack of structure in the history and physical exam commonly obstructed progression. Preceptors used templates for data gathering, and modeling or experiences in the inpatient setting to provide time and solidify structure. To advance students’ knowledge acquisition, many preceptors identified focused learning topics with their students; to promote application of knowledge, preceptors used reasoning strategies to teach the steps involved in synthesizing clinical data. Preceptors shared accountability for helping students advance as the LIC allowed them to follow students’ response to teaching strategies. Discussion: These results depict preceptors’ perceptions of LIC students’ developmental continuum and illustrate how multidisciplinary preceptors can use a common evaluation framework to identify strategies to improve performance and follow students’ performance longitudinally.

  13. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, Alea [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of high performance wall systems. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, cost information, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into the 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project utilized information collected in the California project.

  14. Flexible nanoscale high-performance FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-10-28

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), flexible high-performance nanoscale electronics are more desired. At the moment, FinFET is the most advanced transistor architecture used in the state-of-the-art microprocessors. Therefore, we show a soft-etch based substrate thinning process to transform silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based nanoscale FinFET into flexible FinFET and then conduct comprehensive electrical characterization under various bending conditions to understand its electrical performance. Our study shows that back-etch based substrate thinning process is gentler than traditional abrasive back-grinding process; it can attain ultraflexibility and the electrical characteristics of the flexible nanoscale FinFET show no performance degradation compared to its rigid bulk counterpart indicating its readiness to be used for flexible high-performance electronics.

  15. Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency: Establishing Common Osteopathic Performance Standards in the Transition From Medical School to Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basehore, Pamela M; Mortensen, Luke H; Katsaros, Emmanuel; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; McClain, Elizabeth K; Sexton, Patricia S; Wadsworth, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) are measurable units of observable professional practice that can be entrusted to an unsupervised trainee. They were first introduced as a method of operationalizing competency-based medical education in graduate medical education. The American Association of Medical Colleges subsequently used EPAs to establish the core skills that medical students must be able to perform before they enter residency training. A recently published guide provides descriptions, guidelines, and rationale for implementing and assessing the core EPAs from an osteopathic approach. These osteopathically informed EPAs can allow schools to more appropriately assess a learner's whole-person approach to a patient, in alignment with the philosophy of the profession. As the single accreditation system for graduate medical education moves forward, it will be critical to integrate EPAs into osteopathic medical education to demonstrate entrustment of medical school graduates. The authors describe the collaborative process used to establish the osteopathic considerations added to EPAs and explores the challenges and opportunities for undergraduate osteopathic medical education.

  16. Investigation of radiation protection of medical staff performing medical diagnostic examinations by using PET/CT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrzesień, Małgorzata; Napolska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is now one of the most important methods in the diagnosis of cancer diseases. Due to the rapid growth of PET/CT centres in Poland in less than a decade, radiation protection and, consequently, the assessment of worker exposure to ionising radiation, emitted mainly by the isotope 18 F, have become essential issues. The main aim of the study was to analyse the doses received by workers employed in the Medical Diagnostic Centre. The analysis comprises a physicist, three nurses, three physicians, three technicians, as well as two administrative staff employees. High-sensitivity thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were used to measure the doses for medical staff. The personnel was classified into categories, among them employees having direct contact with the ‘source of radiation’— 18 FDG. The TLDs were placed on the fingertips of both hands and they were also attached at the level of eye lenses, thyroid and gonads depending on the assigned category. The highest dose of radiation was observed during the administration of the 18 FDG to the patients. In the case of the physicist, the highest dose was recorded during preparation of the radiopharmaceutical— 18 FDG. The body parts most exposed to ionizing radiation are the fingertips of the thumb, index and middle finger. (paper)

  17. Investigation of radiation protection of medical staff performing medical diagnostic examinations by using PET/CT technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesień, Małgorzata; Napolska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is now one of the most important methods in the diagnosis of cancer diseases. Due to the rapid growth of PET/CT centres in Poland in less than a decade, radiation protection and, consequently, the assessment of worker exposure to ionising radiation, emitted mainly by the isotope (18)F, have become essential issues. The main aim of the study was to analyse the doses received by workers employed in the Medical Diagnostic Centre. The analysis comprises a physicist, three nurses, three physicians, three technicians, as well as two administrative staff employees. High-sensitivity thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were used to measure the doses for medical staff. The personnel was classified into categories, among them employees having direct contact with the 'source of radiation'-(18)FDG. The TLDs were placed on the fingertips of both hands and they were also attached at the level of eye lenses, thyroid and gonads depending on the assigned category. The highest dose of radiation was observed during the administration of the (18)FDG to the patients. In the case of the physicist, the highest dose was recorded during preparation of the radiopharmaceutical-(18)FDG. The body parts most exposed to ionizing radiation are the fingertips of the thumb, index and middle finger.

  18. A comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors (SKIPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Tim; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper describes a new and comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: SKIPE (skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors). This builds on a previous paper describing a unifying theory of clinical practice, the RDM-p model, which captures the primary skill sets required for effective medical performance (relationship, diagnostics and management), and the professionalism that needs to underpin them. The SKIPE model is currently being used, in conjunction with the RDM-p model, for the in-depth assessment and management of doctors whose performance is a cause for concern.

  19. Medical and welfare device session. Toward medical treatment and welfare of tomorrow; Iryo fukushi kiki session. Ashita no iryo fukushi ni mukete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This paper is the material distributed in the medical and welfare device session held under the auspices of NEDO in September 2000. Diversification of needs in the medical and welfare areas and handling of age advancement are the growing issue. NEDO is putting efforts toward enhancement of quality of life (QOL) and realization of the nation with great life by providing high-quality and high-efficiency medical and welfare services. The NEDO's efforts cover the areas of treating adult diseases such as cancers and cardiac diseases whose seriousness is growing, early diagnoses of diseases, medical treatment with low invasion, elderly people helping, reduction of helpers' burden, reduction of handicaps to elderly people and mentally and physically handicapped persons, and assistance to participation in the society. To achieve these goals, NEDO is implementing the following four projects: research and development of medical and welfare device technologies, researches of medical science and engineering collaboration type, and promotion of developing welfare techno-systems and practical application of welfare appliances. Developments are being made toward practical application of medical and welfare devices with excellent safety and convenience, of low cost and high performance. The session gave the keynote addresses related to medical treatment and prevention of brain diseases; brain, the universe and MRI (the world of mind as seen in images), and high-tech medical treatments to protect brain (challenge to brain that starts now). (NEDO)

  20. The Role of Performance Management in Creating and Maintaining a High-Performance Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. de Waal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is still a good deal of confusion in the literature about how the use of a performance management system affects overall organizational performance. Some researchers find that performance management enhances both the financial and non-financial results of an organization, while others do not find any positive effects or, at most, ambiguous effects. An important step toward getting more clarity in this relationship is to investigate the role performance management plays in creating and maintaining a high-performance organization (HPO. The purpose of this study is to integrate performance management analysis (PMA and high-performance organization (HPO. A questionnaire combining questions on PMA dimensions and HPO factors was administered to two European-based multinational firms. Based on 468 valid questionnaires, a correlation analysis was performed on the PMA dimensions and the HPO factors in order to test the impact of performance management on the factors of high organizational performance. The results show strong and significant correlations between all the PMA dimensions and all the HPO factors, indicating that a performance management system that fosters performance-driven behavior in the organization is of critical importance to strengthen overall financial and non-financial performance.

  1. Motivation in medical students: a PhD thesis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate the factors influencing, outcomes and applications of medical students' motivation. This thesis consists of three literature reviews, four research papers and two application papers. Two research studies investigated the relationships of student motivation with study strategy, effort and academic performance through structural equation modelling and cluster analysis. The relationships of age, maturity, gender and educational background with motivation were investigated through multiple regression analysis. The results of this thesis were 1. Developments in medical education appear to have undervalued student motivation. 2. Motivation is an independent variable in medical education; intrinsic motivation is significantly associated with deep study strategy, high study effort and good academic performance. 3. Motivation is a dependent variable in medical education and is significantly affected by age, maturity, gender, educational background; intrinsic motivation is enhanced by providing students with autonomy, feedback and emotional support. 4. Strength of motivation for medical school can be reliably measured by Strength of Motivation for Medical School questionnaire. The conclusion of this thesis was that it is important to give consideration to motivation in medical education because intrinsic motivation leads to better learning and performance and it can be enhanced through giving students autonomy in learning, feedback about competence and emotional support.

  2. Development of new high-performance stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo

    2002-01-01

    This paper focused on high-performance stainless steels and their development status. Effect of nitrogen addition on super-stainless steel was discussed. Research activities at Yonsei University, on austenitic and martensitic high-performance stainless, steels, and the next-generation duplex stainless steels were introduced

  3. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  4. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  5. "Joint Workshop on High Confidence Medical Devices, Software, and Systems (HCMDSS) and Medical Device Plug-and-Play (MD PnP) Interoperability"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Julian M

    2008-01-01

    Partial support was requested from TATRC, with joint funding from NSF, for a joint workshop to bring together the synergistic efforts and communities of the High Confidence Medical Devices, Software, and Systems (HCMDSS...

  6. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  7. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...... concretes, workability, ductility, and confinement problems....

  8. Factors associated with self-medication among expatriate high school students: a cross-sectional survey in United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ilyas Shehnaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess factors associated with self-medication (SM among expatriate high school students of United Arab Emirates using a validated questionnaire. Most common reasons for self-medication in 324 participating students were: presence of mild illness and previous experiences. High risk practices like altering the dose, discontinuation of medication and self-medication without adult guidance were observed. The likelihood of SM was 4.9 times (95%C.I.: 2.0-12.2 in students not utilizing private healthcare services than those who were utilizing these services. Increased efforts are needed to prevent the risks of self-medication in adolescents through healthcare education for both parents and adolescents.

  9. Mobile Phone Apps to Improve Medication Adherence: A Systematic Stepwise Process to Identify High-Quality Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Karla; Richtering, Sarah S; Chalmers, John; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-12-02

    There are a growing number of mobile phone apps available to support people in taking their medications and to improve medication adherence. However, little is known about how these apps differ in terms of features, quality, and effectiveness. We aimed to systematically review the medication reminder apps available in the Australian iTunes store and Google Play to assess their features and their quality in order to identify high-quality apps. This review was conducted in a similar manner to a systematic review by using a stepwise approach that included (1) a search strategy; (2) eligibility assessment; (3) app selection process through an initial screening of all retrieved apps and full app review of the included apps; (4) data extraction using a predefined set of features considered important or desirable in medication reminder apps; (5) analysis by classifying the apps as basic and advanced medication reminder apps and scoring and ranking them; and (6) a quality assessment by using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), a reliable tool to assess mobile health apps. We identified 272 medication reminder apps, of which 152 were found only in Google Play, 87 only in iTunes, and 33 in both app stores. Apps found in Google Play had more customer reviews, higher star ratings, and lower cost compared with apps in iTunes. Only 109 apps were available for free and 124 were recently updated in 2015 or 2016. Overall, the median number of features per app was 3.0 (interquartile range 4.0) and only 18 apps had ≥9 of the 17 desirable features. The most common features were flexible scheduling that was present in 56.3% (153/272) of the included apps, medication tracking history in 54.8% (149/272), snooze option in 34.9% (95/272), and visual aids in 32.4% (88/272). We classified 54.8% (149/272) of the included apps as advanced medication reminder apps and 45.2% (123/272) as basic medication reminder apps. The advanced apps had a higher number of features per app compared with the

  10. [Intensive care medicine on medical undergraduation: student's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alessandro de Moura; Albuquerque, Ligia Carvalho; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Rolim, Carlos Eduardo Cerqueira; Godinho, Tiana Mascarenhas; Liberato, Maurício Valverde; Oliveira Filho, Fernando Cezar Cabral; Azevedo, Ana Bárbara Galvão de; Neves, Ana Paula Soares da Silva; Martins, Marcelo de Jesus; Silva, João Paulo Maciel; Jesuíno, Paulo André; Souza Filho, Sydney Agareno de

    2007-12-01

    There are deficiencies on Intensive Medicine (IM) teaching in most of medical undergraduate schools. Those deficiencies may imply damages on their clinical competence. The objective of this study was to analyze current status of IM teaching and the medical undergraduate student interest in this speciality. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005. We applied a self-reported questionnaire to enrolled students between the sixth and the last semesters of two medical schools from Salvador-Bahia. The questionnaire contained questions about students' interest and knowledge on IM, and opinion on IM teaching in their schools. We studied 570 students. Most of them (57.5%) had never realized a clerkship in intensive care unit (ICU) despite classifying its usefulness as high (mean of 4.14 ± 1.05, in a scale from 1 to 5). IM interest was high or very high in 53.7% of sample. Almost all students (97%) thought that IM topics should be more explored at their curriculum. Only 42.1% reported to be able to assess a critical care patient and this assurance was higher among students with previous clerkship in ICU (p < 0.001). Shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and sepsis were the most interesting topics in ICU for students' opinion. This study revealed a high interest in IM among medical undergraduate students. However, most had never practice a clerkship in ICU, demonstrating to be an important factor on undergraduate student performance faced to a critical care patient.

  11. Visible light photon counters (VLPCs) for high rate tracking medical imaging and particle astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper is on the operation principles of the Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPCs), application to high luminosity-high multiplicity tracking for High Energy Charged Particle Physics, and application to Medical Imaging and Particle Astrophysics. The VLPCs as Solid State Photomultipliers (SSPMS) with high quantum efficiency can detect down to single photons very efficiently with excellent time resolution and high avalanche gains

  12. Promising high monetary rewards for future task performance increases intermediate task performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Zedelius

    Full Text Available In everyday life contexts and work settings, monetary rewards are often contingent on future performance. Based on research showing that the anticipation of rewards causes improved task performance through enhanced task preparation, the present study tested the hypothesis that the promise of monetary rewards for future performance would not only increase future performance, but also performance on an unrewarded intermediate task. Participants performed an auditory Simon task in which they responded to two consecutive tones. While participants could earn high vs. low monetary rewards for fast responses to every second tone, their responses to the first tone were not rewarded. Moreover, we compared performance under conditions in which reward information could prompt strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented for a relatively long duration to conditions preventing strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented very briefly. Results showed that high (vs. low rewards sped up both rewarded and intermediate, unrewarded responses, and the effect was independent of the duration of reward presentation. Moreover, long presentation led to a speed-accuracy trade-off for both rewarded and unrewarded tones, whereas short presentation sped up responses to rewarded and unrewarded tones without this trade-off. These results suggest that high rewards for future performance boost intermediate performance due to enhanced task preparation, and they do so regardless whether people respond to rewards in a strategic or non-strategic manner.

  13. Promising high monetary rewards for future task performance increases intermediate task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedelius, Claire M; Veling, Harm; Bijleveld, Erik; Aarts, Henk

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life contexts and work settings, monetary rewards are often contingent on future performance. Based on research showing that the anticipation of rewards causes improved task performance through enhanced task preparation, the present study tested the hypothesis that the promise of monetary rewards for future performance would not only increase future performance, but also performance on an unrewarded intermediate task. Participants performed an auditory Simon task in which they responded to two consecutive tones. While participants could earn high vs. low monetary rewards for fast responses to every second tone, their responses to the first tone were not rewarded. Moreover, we compared performance under conditions in which reward information could prompt strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented for a relatively long duration) to conditions preventing strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented very briefly). Results showed that high (vs. low) rewards sped up both rewarded and intermediate, unrewarded responses, and the effect was independent of the duration of reward presentation. Moreover, long presentation led to a speed-accuracy trade-off for both rewarded and unrewarded tones, whereas short presentation sped up responses to rewarded and unrewarded tones without this trade-off. These results suggest that high rewards for future performance boost intermediate performance due to enhanced task preparation, and they do so regardless whether people respond to rewards in a strategic or non-strategic manner.

  14. Comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Stephanie; O'Brien, Stacey; Szewczak, Angelica; Tremeau-Cayel, Lauriane; Rowe, Walter F; McCord, Bruce; Lurie, Ira S

    2017-09-01

    A comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones has been conducted. Nine different mixtures of bath salts were analyzed in this study. The three different chromatographic techniques were examined using a general set of controlled synthetic cathinones as well as a variety of other synthetic cathinones that exist as positional isomers. Overall 35 different synthetic cathinones were analyzed. A variety of column types and chromatographic modes were examined for developing each separation. For the ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography separations, analyses were performed using a series of Torus and Trefoil columns with either ammonium formate or ammonium hydroxide as additives, and methanol, ethanol or isopropanol organic solvents as modifiers. Ultra high performance liquid chromatographic separations were performed in both reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic modes using SPP C18 and SPP HILIC columns. Gas chromatography separations were performed using an Elite-5MS capillary column. The orthogonality of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was examined using principal component analysis. For the best overall separation of synthetic cathinones, the use of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography in combination with gas chromatography is recommended. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  16. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '02 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, Willi

    2003-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in modeling and simulation on supercomputers. Leading German research groups present their results achieved on high-end systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2002. Reports cover all fields of supercomputing simulation ranging from computational fluid dynamics to computer science. Special emphasis is given to industrially relevant applications. Moreover, by presenting results for both vector sytems and micro-processor based systems the book allows to compare performance levels and usability of a variety of supercomputer architectures. It therefore becomes an indispensable guidebook to assess the impact of the Japanese Earth Simulator project on supercomputing in the years to come.

  17. Critical Factors Explaining the Leadership Performance of High-Performing Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Disraeli M.

    2018-01-01

    The study explored critical factors that explain leadership performance of high-performing principals and examined the relationship between these factors based on the ratings of school constituents in the public school system. The principal component analysis with the use of Varimax Rotation revealed that four components explain 51.1% of the…

  18. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Springer, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dakin, Bill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  19. Exploring Factors Affecting Emergency Medical Services Staffs' Decision about Transporting Medical Patients to Medical Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimian, Abbasali; Seyedin, Hesam; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz; Masoumi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Transfer of patients in medical emergency situations is one of the most important missions of emergency medical service (EMS) staffs. So this study was performed to explore affecting factors in EMS staffs’ decision during transporting of patients in medical situations to medical facilities. The participants in this qualitative study consisted of 18 EMS staffs working in prehospital care facilities in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed u...

  20. Serious games and blended learning; effects on performance and motivation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Mary

    2017-02-01

    More efficient, flexible training models are needed in medical education. Information technology offers the tools to design and develop effective and more efficient training. The aims of this thesis were: 1) Compare the effectiveness of blended versus classroom training for the acquisition of knowledge; 2) Investigate the effectiveness and critical design features of serious games for performance improvement and motivation. Five empirical studies were conducted to answer the research questions and a descriptive study on an evaluation framework to assess serious games was performed. The results of the research studies indicated that: 1) For knowledge acquisition, blended learning is equally effective and attractive for learners as classroom learning; 2) A serious game with realistic, interactive cases improved complex cognitive skills for residents, with limited self-study time. Although the same game was motivating for inexperienced medical students and stimulated them to study longer, it did not improve their cognitive skills, compared with what they learned from an instructional e‑module. This indicates an 'expertise reversal effect', where a rich learning environment is effective for experts, but may be contra-productive for novices (interaction of prior knowledge and complexity of format). A blended design is equally effective and attractive as classroom training. Blended learning facilitates adaptation to the learners' knowledge level, flexibility in time and scalability of learning. Games may support skills learning, provided task complexity matches the learner's competency level. More design-based research is needed on the effects of task complexity and other design features on performance improvement, for both novices and experts.

  1. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  2. High-performance liquid chromatography of oligoguanylates at high pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribling, R.; Deamer, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Because of the stable self-structures formed by oligomers of guanosine, standard high-performance liquid chromatography techniques for oligonucleotide fractionation are not applicable. Previously, oligoguanylate separations have been carried out at pH 12 using RPC-5 as the packing material. While RPC-5 provides excellent separations, there are several limitations, including the lack of a commercially available source. This report describes a new anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography method using HEMA-IEC BIO Q, which successfully separates different forms of the guanosine monomer as well as longer oligoguanylates. The reproducibility and stability at high pH suggests a versatile role for this material.

  3. Associations of pass-fail outcomes with psychological health of first-year medical students in a malaysian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Muhamad S B

    2013-02-01

    The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms). A cross-sectional study was conducted on a cohort of first-year medical students in a Malaysian medical school. The depression anxiety stress scale 21-item assessment (DASS-21) was administered to them right after the final paper of the first-year final examination. Their final examination outcomes (i.e. pass or fail) were traced by using their student identity code (ID) through the Universiti Sains Malaysia academic office. A total of 194 (98.0%) of medical students responded to the DASS-21. An independent t-test showed that students who passed had significantly lower stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms than those who failed the first-year final examination (P passed the examination. Those who experienced high stress levels were more likely to fail than those who did not. Reducing the psychological distress of medical students prior to examination may help them to perform better in the examination.

  4. No speed limits in medical imaging and high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rita Giuffredi & Tom Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Speed, or high time resolution, is becoming increasingly important, if not crucial, in the high-energy physics domain, both for particle acceleration and detection systems. Medical-imaging technology also vitally depends on high time resolution detection techniques, often the offspring of today’s large particle physics experiments. The four-year FP7 Marie Curie Training Project “PicoSEC-MCNet”, which draws to a close at the end of November, was designed to develop ultra-fast photon detectors for applications in both domains. The project has achieved important results that promise to trigger further developments in the years to come.   The PicoSEC-MCNet project participants. “New requirements in high-energy physics force us to push the limits of photon detection speed, as future high-luminosity accelerators will force us to cope with the unprecedentedly short bunch crossing intervals needed to produce sufficient luminosity,” explains Tom M...

  5. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  6. Effects of Information Access Cost and Accountability on Medical Residents' Information Retrieval Strategy and Performance During Prehandover Preparation: Evidence From Interview and Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Jessie; Wickens, Christopher D; Park, Taezoon; Fong, Liesel; Siah, Kewin T H

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to examine the effects of information access cost and accountability on medical residents' information retrieval strategy and performance during prehandover preparation. Prior studies observing doctors' prehandover practices witnessed the use of memory-intensive strategies when retrieving patient information. These strategies impose potential threats to patient safety as human memory is prone to errors. Of interest in this work are the underlying determinants of information retrieval strategy and the potential impacts on medical residents' information preparation performance. A two-step research approach was adopted, consisting of semistructured interviews with 21 medical residents and a simulation-based experiment with 32 medical residents. The semistructured interviews revealed that a substantial portion of medical residents (38%) relied largely on memory for preparing handover information. The simulation-based experiment showed that higher information access cost reduced information access attempts and access duration on patient documents and harmed information preparation performance. Higher accountability led to marginally longer access to patient documents. It is important to understand the underlying determinants of medical residents' information retrieval strategy and performance during prehandover preparation. We noted the criticality of easy access to patient documents in prehandover preparation. In addition, accountability marginally influenced medical residents' information retrieval strategy. Findings from this research suggested that the cost of accessing information sources should be minimized in developing handover preparation tools. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. High-quality laser-accelerated ion beams for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Zoltan; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Salamin, Yousef I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Cancer radiation therapy requires accelerated ion beams of high energy sharpness and a narrow spatial profile. As shown recently, linearly and radially polarized, tightly focused and thus extremely strong laser beams should permit the direct acceleration of light atomic nuclei up to energies that may offer the potentiality for medical applications. Radially polarized beams have better emittance than their linearly polarized counterparts. We put forward the direct laser acceleration of ions, once the refocusing of ion beams by external fields is solved or radially polarized laser pulses of sufficient power can be generated.

  8. Development of high-performance concrete having high resistance to chloride penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Byung Hwan; Cha, Soo Won; Jang, Bong Seok; Jang, Seung Yup

    2002-01-01

    The resistance to chloride penetration is one of the simplest measures to determine the durability of concrete, e.g. resistance to freezing and thawing, corrosion of steel in concrete and other chemical attacks. Thus, high-performance concrete may be defined as the concrete having high resistance to chloride penetration as well as high strength. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the resistance to chloride penetration of different types of concrete and to develop high-performance concrete that has very high resistance to chloride penetration, and thus, can guarantee high durability. A large number of concrete specimens have been tested by the rapid chloride permeability test method as designated in AASHTO T 277 and ASTM C 1202. The major test variables include water-to-binder ratios, type of cement, type and amount of mineral admixtures (silica fume, fly ash and blast-furnace slag), maximum size of aggregates and air-entrainment. Test results show that concrete containing optimal amount of silica fume shows very high resistance to chloride penetration, and high-performance concrete developed in this study can be efficiently employed to enhance the durability of concrete structures in severe environments such as nuclear power plants, water-retaining structures and other offshore structures

  9. Evaluation of the performance of open-source RDBMS and triplestores for storing medical data over a web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilintzis, Vassilis; Beredimas, Nikolaos; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of a system that manages medical data is the persistent storage engine. For almost twenty five years Relational Database Management Systems(RDBMS) were considered the obvious decision, yet today new technologies have emerged that require our attention as possible alternatives. Triplestores store information in terms of RDF triples without necessarily binding to a specific predefined structural model. In this paper we present an attempt to compare the performance of Apache JENA-Fuseki and the Virtuoso Universal Server 6 triplestores with that of MySQL 5.6 RDBMS for storing and retrieving medical information that it is communicated as RDF/XML ontology instances over a RESTful web service. The results show that the performance, calculated as average time of storing and retrieving instances, is significantly better using Virtuoso Server while MySQL performed better than Fuseki.

  10. Expert Involvement and Adherence to Medical Evidence in Medical Mobile Phone Apps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Bube, Sarah Hjartbro; Rolskov Bojsen, Signe

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both clinicians and patients use medical mobile phone apps. Anyone can publish medical apps, which leads to contents with variable quality that may have a serious impact on human lives. We herein provide an overview of the prevalence of expert involvement in app development and whether...... or not app contents adhere to current medical evidence. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. METHODS: We systematically searched 3 databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE......), and included studies evaluating expert involvement or adherence of app content to medical evidence in medical mobile phone apps. Two authors performed data extraction independently. Qualitative analysis of the included studies was performed. RESULTS: Based on inclusion criteria, 52 studies were included...

  11. A multimodal high-value curriculum affects drivers of utilization and performance on the high-value care component of the internal medicine in-training exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tom; Loertscher, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Background : Teaching the practice of high-value care (HVC) is an increasingly important function of graduate medical education but best practices and long-term outcomes remain unknown. Objective : Whether a multimodal curriculum designed to address specific drivers of low-value care would affect resident attitudes, skills, and performance of HVC as tested by the Internal Medicine In-Training Exam (ITE). Methods : In 2012, we performed a baseline needs assessment among internal medicine residents at a community program regarding drivers of healthcare utilization. We then created a multimodal curriculum with online interactive worksheets, lectures, and faculty buy-in to target specific skills, knowledge, and culture deficiencies. Perceived drivers of care and performance on the Internal Medicine ITE were assessed yearly through 2016. Results : Fourteen of 27 (52%) residents completed the initial needs assessment while the curriculum was eventually seen by at least 24 of 27 (89%). The ITE was taken by every resident every year. Long-term, 3-year follow-up demonstrated persistent improvement in many drivers of utilization (patient requests, reliance on subspecialists, defensive medicine, and academic curiosity) and improvement with sustained high performance on the high-value component of the ITE. Conclusion : A multimodal curriculum targeting specific drivers of low-value care can change culture and lead to sustained improvement in the practice of HVC.

  12. INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT – A STRATEGY FOR PERFORMING MEDICAL SERVICES IN THE INFORMATIONAL ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina BĂLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented incertitude existing in the health system in Romaniaimplies menaces for the system managers. The improvement of theperformance of the medical system has never been more adequate, so thatthe health system needs specific managerial strategies. Romania needs acomplete solution which could assure a performant management of themedical information in the system, and in their plans, the managers of thehealthcare organizations must include investments for the application of theinformational technologies, like the administration of medical information, ofthe health electronic file, the medical information exchange, so that themedical service be continuous and permanent from the birth until the death ofany individual. But the piece of information is only valuable to the one whoknows how to use it, where to search for it, how to choose it and finally howto use it, so that we can say the main instrument to which the manager fromthe health system may resort rapidly in order to find new solutions isinformation.

  13. Examination of image diagnosis system at high level emergency medical service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masaharu; Endo, Toshio; Aoki, Tomio

    1983-01-01

    This is a report of the basic idea on imaging system focussing on a necessary X-ray system for high-level emergencies which was worked out due to the establishment of the independent emergency medical institute specialized in the tertiary lifesaving and emergency, and of examinations on satisfactory results we gained for about three years of usage. (author)

  14. The impact of assessing simulated bad news consultations on medical students' stress response and communication performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulmen, S. van; Tromp, F.; Grosfeld, F.; Cate, O. ten; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy second-year medical students volunteered to participate in a study with the aim of evaluating the impact of the assessment of simulated bad news consultations on their physiological and psychological stress and communication performance. Measurements were taken of salivary cortisol, systolic

  15. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  16. Medical First-Trimester Termination of Pregnancy with Massive Fibroid Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Saad-Naguib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available First-trimester termination of pregnancy by medical or surgical route is highly effective with a low complication rate. Uterine abnormalities can complicate a procedure due to distortion of normal anatomy. In this case presentation, medical termination of pregnancy is performed using fetal intracardiac potassium chloride injection and intramuscular methotrexate.

  17. Will hypertension performance measures used for pay-for-performance programs penalize those who care for medically complex patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Laura A; Woodard, Lechauncy D; Henderson, Louise M; Urech, Tracy H; Pietz, Kenneth

    2009-06-16

    There is concern that performance measures, patient ratings of their care, and pay-for-performance programs may penalize healthcare providers of patients with multiple chronic coexisting conditions. We examined the impact of coexisting conditions on the quality of care for hypertension and patient perception of overall quality of their health care. We classified 141 609 veterans with hypertension into 4 condition groups: those with hypertension-concordant (diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia) and/or -discordant (arthritis, depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) conditions or neither. We measured blood pressure control at the index visit, overall good quality of care for hypertension, including a follow-up interval, and patient ratings of satisfaction with their care. Associations between condition type and number of coexisting conditions on receipt of overall good quality of care were assessed with logistic regression. The relationship between patient assessment and objective measures of quality was assessed. Of the cohort, 49.5% had concordant-only comorbidities, 8.7% had discordant-only comorbidities, 25.9% had both, and 16.0% had none. Odds of receiving overall good quality after adjustment for age were higher for those with concordant comorbidities (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.70 to 1.87), discordant comorbidities (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.41), or both (odds ratio, 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 2.13 to 2.38) compared with neither. Findings did not change after adjustment for illness severity and/or number of primary care and specialty care visits. Patient assessment of quality did not vary by the presence of coexisting conditions and was not related to objective ratings of quality of care. Contrary to expectations, patients with greater complexity had higher odds of receiving high-quality care for hypertension. Subjective ratings of care did not vary with the presence or absence of

  18. Comparing Auditory Noise Treatment with Stimulant Medication on Cognitive Task Performance in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Göran B W; Björk, Christer; Gustafsson, Peik

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that acoustic white noise (80 dB) can improve task performance in people with attention deficits and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This is attributed to the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in which a certain amount of noise can improve performance in a brain that is not working at its optimum. We compare here the effect of noise exposure with the effect of stimulant medication on cognitive task performance in ADHD. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of auditory noise exposure with stimulant medication for ADHD children on a cognitive test battery. A group of typically developed children (TDC) took the same tests as a comparison. Twenty children with ADHD of combined or inattentive subtypes and twenty TDC matched for age and gender performed three different tests (word recall, spanboard and n-back task) during exposure to white noise (80 dB) and in a silent condition. The ADHD children were tested with and without central stimulant medication. In the spanboard- and the word recall tasks, but not in the 2-back task, white noise exposure led to significant improvements for both non-medicated and medicated ADHD children. No significant effects of medication were found on any of the three tasks. This pilot study shows that exposure to white noise resulted in a task improvement that was larger than the one with stimulant medication thus opening up the possibility of using auditory noise as an alternative, non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive ADHD symptoms.

  19. Comparing Auditory Noise Treatment with Stimulant Medication on Cognitive Task Performance in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran B W Söderlund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has shown that acoustic white noise (80 dB can improve task performance in people with attention deficits and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. This is attributed to the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in which a certain amount of noise can improve performance in a brain that is not working at its optimum. We compare here the effect of noise exposure with the effect of stimulant medication on cognitive task performance in ADHD. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of auditory noise exposure with stimulant medication for ADHD children on a cognitive test battery. A group of typically developed children (TDC took the same tests as a comparison.Methods: Twenty children with ADHD of combined or inattentive subtypes and twenty typically developed children matched for age and gender performed three different tests (word recall, spanboard and n-back task during exposure to white noise (80 dB and in a silent condition. The ADHD children were tested with and without central stimulant medication.Results: In the spanboard- and the word recall tasks, but not in the 2-back task, white noise exposure led to significant improvements for both non-medicated and medicated ADHD children. No significant effects of medication were found on any of the three tasks.Conclusion: This pilot study shows that exposure to white noise resulted in a task improvement that was larger than the one with stimulant medication thus opening up the possibility of using auditory noise as an alternative, non-pharmacological treatment of cognitive ADHD symptoms.

  20. Integrated plasma control for high performance tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Deranian, R.D.; Ferron, J.R.; Johnson, R.D.; LaHaye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sustaining high performance in a tokamak requires controlling many equilibrium shape and profile characteristics simultaneously with high accuracy and reliability, while suppressing a variety of MHD instabilities. Integrated plasma control, the process of designing high-performance tokamak controllers based on validated system response models and confirming their performance in detailed simulations, provides a systematic method for achieving and ensuring good control performance. For present-day devices, this approach can greatly reduce the need for machine time traditionally dedicated to control optimization, and can allow determination of high-reliability controllers prior to ever producing the target equilibrium experimentally. A full set of tools needed for this approach has recently been completed and applied to present-day devices including DIII-D, NSTX and MAST. This approach has proven essential in the design of several next-generation devices including KSTAR, EAST, JT-60SC, and ITER. We describe the method, results of design and simulation tool development, and recent research producing novel approaches to equilibrium and MHD control in DIII-D. (author)

  1. Highlighting High Performance: Blackstone Valley Regional Vocational Technical High School; Upton, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-10-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Blackstone Valley High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, and water conservation. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  2. High-value, cost-conscious health care: concepts for clinicians to evaluate the benefits, harms, and costs of medical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Douglas K; Qaseem, Amir; Chou, Roger; Shekelle, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Health care costs in the United States are increasing unsustainably, and further efforts to control costs are inevitable and essential. Efforts to control expenditures should focus on the value, in addition to the costs, of health care interventions. Whether an intervention provides high value depends on assessing whether its health benefits justify its costs. High-cost interventions may provide good value because they are highly beneficial; conversely, low-cost interventions may have little or no value if they provide little benefit. Thus, the challenge becomes determining how to slow the rate of increase in costs while preserving high-value, high-quality care. A first step is to decrease or eliminate care that provides no benefit and may even be harmful. A second step is to provide medical interventions that provide good value: medical benefits that are commensurate with their costs. This article discusses 3 key concepts for understanding how to assess the value of health care interventions. First, assessing the benefits, harms, and costs of an intervention is essential to understand whether it provides good value. Second, assessing the cost of an intervention should include not only the cost of the intervention itself but also any downstream costs that occur because the intervention was performed. Third, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates the additional cost required to obtain additional health benefits and provides a key measure of the value of a health care intervention.

  3. Ground Glass Pozzolan in Conventional, High, and Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagnit-Hamou Arezki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-glass pozzolan (G obtained by grinding the mixed-waste glass to same fineness of cement can act as a supplementary-cementitious material (SCM, given that it is an amorphous and a pozzolanic material. The G showed promising performances in different concrete types such as conventional concrete (CC, high-performance concrete (HPC, and ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC. The current paper reports on the characteristics and performance of G in these concrete types. The use of G provides several advantages (technological, economical, and environmental. It reduces the production cost of concrete and decrease the carbon footprint of a traditional concrete structures. The rheology of fresh concrete can be improved due to the replacement of cement by non-absorptive glass particles. Strength and rigidity improvements in the concrete containing G are due to the fact that glass particles act as inclusions having a very high strength and elastic modulus that have a strengthening effect on the overall hardened matrix.

  4. Risk of bias assessment of randomised controlled trials in high-impact ophthalmology journals and general medical journals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Lazar; Koucheki, Robert; Popovic, Marko; Ahmed, Yusuf; Schlenker, Matthew B; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-10-01

    Evidence-based treatments in ophthalmology are often based on the results of randomised controlled trials. Biased conclusions from randomised controlled trials may lead to inappropriate management recommendations. This systematic review investigates the prevalence of bias risk in randomised controlled trials published in high-impact ophthalmology journals and ophthalmology trials from general medical journals. Using Ovid MEDLINE, randomised controlled trials in the top 10 high-impact ophthalmology journals in 2015 were systematically identified and critically appraised for the prevalence of bias risk. Included randomised controlled trials were assessed in all domains of bias as defined by the Cochrane Collaboration. In addition, the prevalence of conflict of interest and industry sponsorship was investigated. A comparison with ophthalmology articles from high-impact general medical journals was performed. Of the 259 records that were screened from ophthalmology-specific journals, 119 trials met all inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. In total, 29.4% of domains had an unclear risk, 13.8% had a high risk and 56.8% had a low risk of bias. In comparison, ophthalmology articles from general medical journals had a lower prevalence of unclear risk (17.1%), higher prevalence of high risk (21.9%) and a higher prevalence of low risk domains (61.9%). Furthermore, 64.7% of critically appraised trials from ophthalmology-specific journals did not report any conflicts of interest, while 70.6% did not report an industry sponsor of their trial. In closing, it is essential that authors, peer reviewers and readers closely follow published risk of bias guidelines. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Mood states and motor performance: a study with high performance voleybol athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p62 The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between the sporting performance and mood states of high performance volleyball athletes. Twenty-three adult athletes of both sexes were assessed. The measurement instrument adopted was the POMS questionnaire. Data collection was carried out individually during the state championships. Dada were analyzed using descriptive statistics; the Friedman test for analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney test for differences between means. The results demonstrated that both teams exhibited the mood state profi le corresponding to the “iceberg” profile. In the male team, vigor remained constant throughout all phases of the competition, while in the female team this element was unstable. The male team’s fatigue began low, during the training phase, with rates that rose as the competition progressed, with statistically significant differences between the fi rst and last matches the team played. In the female team, the confusion factor, which was at a high level during training, reduced progressively throughout the competition, with a difference that was signifi cant to p ≤ 0.05. With relation to performance and mood profi le, the female team exhibited statistically significant differences between the mean vigor and fatigue factors of high and low performance athletes. It is therefore concluded that the mood state profi le is a factor that impacts on the motor performance of these high performance teams.

  6. High performance leadership in unusually challenging educational circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hargreaves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on findings from the results of a study of leadership in high performing organizations in three sectors. Organizations were sampled and included on the basis of high performance in relation to no performance, past performance, performance among similar peers and performance in the face of limited resources or challenging circumstances. The paper concentrates on leadership in four schools that met the sample criteria.  It draws connections to explanations of the high performance ofEstoniaon the OECD PISA tests of educational achievement. The article argues that leadership in these four schools that performed above expectations comprised more than a set of competencies. Instead, leadership took the form of a narrative or quest that pursued an inspiring dream with relentless determination; took improvement pathways that were more innovative than comparable peers; built collaboration and community including with competing schools; and connected short-term success to long-term sustainability.

  7. High-performance computing in seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The scientific, technical, and economic importance of the issues discussed here presents a clear agenda for future research in computational seismology. In this way these problems will drive advances in high-performance computing in the field of seismology. There is a broad community that will benefit from this work, including the petroleum industry, research geophysicists, engineers concerned with seismic hazard mitigation, and governments charged with enforcing a comprehensive test ban treaty. These advances may also lead to new applications for seismological research. The recent application of high-resolution seismic imaging of the shallow subsurface for the environmental remediation industry is an example of this activity. This report makes the following recommendations: (1) focused efforts to develop validated documented software for seismological computations should be supported, with special emphasis on scalable algorithms for parallel processors; (2) the education of seismologists in high-performance computing technologies and methodologies should be improved; (3) collaborations between seismologists and computational scientists and engineers should be increased; (4) the infrastructure for archiving, disseminating, and processing large volumes of seismological data should be improved.

  8. High performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the first ever CMOS compatible soft etch back based high performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs. The move from planar to non-planar FinFETs has enabled continued scaling down to the 14 nm technology node. This has been possible due to the reduction in off-state leakage and reduced short channel effects on account of the superior electrostatic charge control of multiple gates. At the same time, flexible electronics is an exciting expansion opportunity for next generation electronics. However, a fully integrated low-cost system will need to maintain ultra-large-scale-integration density, high performance and reliability - same as today\\'s traditional electronics. Up until recently, this field has been mainly dominated by very weak performance organic electronics enabled by low temperature processes, conducive to low melting point plastics. Now however, we show the world\\'s highest performing flexible version of 3D FinFET CMOS using a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible fabrication technique for high performance ultra-mobile consumer applications with stylish design. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. Medical managers' managerial self-efficacy and role clarity: How do they bridge the budgetary participation-performance link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Cantaluppi, Gabriele; Rizzo, Marco Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    This study explains the process ''how'' organizational accounting practices, such as budgetary participation, influence medical doctors' perceptions and beliefs associated with their hybrid role and what the consequences are on their performance. Building on social cognitive theory, we hypothesize a structural model in which managerial self-efficacy and role clarity mediate the effects of budgetary participation on performance. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The research hypotheses were tested employing a path model. The results suggest that role clarity and managerial self-efficacy fully mediate the link between budgetary participation and performance. From a managerial viewpoint results suggest that organizations that invest in budgetary participation will also affect individual beliefs about the perceived benefits of participation itself, since an information-rich internal environment allows employees to experience a clearer sense of direction through organizational goals. According to our results, organizations that seek self-directed employees should pay attention to the experience the medical managers acquire through budgetary participation. In fact, this event influences the employees' mental states-and specifically provides them with information needed to perform in the role and enhance their judgment of their own capabilities to organize and execute the required course of actions-which take on internal psychological motivation to reach performance levels.

  10. Architecting Web Sites for High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Iyengar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Web site applications are some of the most challenging high-performance applications currently being developed and deployed. The challenges emerge from the specific combination of high variability in workload characteristics and of high performance demands regarding the service level, scalability, availability, and costs. In recent years, a large body of research has addressed the Web site application domain, and a host of innovative software and hardware solutions have been proposed and deployed. This paper is an overview of recent solutions concerning the architectures and the software infrastructures used in building Web site applications. The presentation emphasizes three of the main functions in a complex Web site: the processing of client requests, the control of service levels, and the interaction with remote network caches.

  11. Prevalence of GMC performance assessments in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort analysis by country of medical qualification

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdizadeh, L.; Potts, H. W. W.; Sturrock, A.; Dacre, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The demographics of doctors working in the UK are changing. The United Kingdom (UK) has voted to leave the European Union (EU) and there is heightened political discourse around the world about the impact of migration on healthcare services. Previous work suggests that foreign trained doctors perform worse than UK graduates in postgraduate medical examinations. We analysed the prevalence by country of primary medical qualification of doctors who were required to take an assessment ...

  12. High performance of a unique mesoporous polystyrene-based adsorbent for blood purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Han, Wenyan; Chen, Jie; Zong, Wenhui; Wang, Weichao; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Guanghui; Li, Chunran; Ou, Lailiang; Yu, Yaoting

    2017-02-01

    A multi-functional polystyrene based adsorbent (NKU-9) with a unique mesoporous and a high surface area was prepared by suspension polymerization for removal of therapeutic toxins in blood purification. The adsorbent produced had an almost equal amount of mesopore distribution in the range from 2 to 50 nm. The adsorption of serum toxins with different molecular weights were examined by in vitro adsorption assays and compared with some clinical currently used adsorbents such as HA-330, Cytosorb and BL-300 which are produced by China, America and Japan, respectively. Test results indicated that the adsorption rate for pentobarbital by NKU-9 was 81.24% which is nearly as high as HA-330 (81.44%). The latter adsorbent is currently used for acute detoxification treatment in China. To reach adsorption equilibrium, NKU-9 was faster than HA-330, which implies short treatment time. For the removal of middle molecular toxins such as β2-microglobulin (98.88%), NKU-9 performed better adsorptive selectivity than Cytosorb (92.80%). In addition, NKU-9 showed high performance for the removal of albumin-bound toxins (e.g., bilirubin), and its adsorption rate for total bilirubin (80.79%) in plasma was 8.4% higher than that of anion exchange resin BL-300 which is currently used to eliminate bilirubin in clinic. Therefore, our results indicate that the newly developed adsorbent with a wide distribution and almost equal amount of mesopores is a multifunctional adsorbent for high efficient removal of serum toxins with different molecular weights which might be an excellent blood purification adsorbent especially to treat diseases that conventional medical methods are low or not efficient.

  13. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous ... Purpose: To develop and validate a new low-cost high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for ..... Several papers have reported the use of ...

  14. Toward a theory of high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Julia

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to be a high-performance company? The process of measuring relative performance across industries and eras, declaring top performers, and finding the common drivers of their success is such a difficult one that it might seem a fool's errand to attempt. In fact, no one did for the first thousand or so years of business history. The question didn't even occur to many scholars until Tom Peters and Bob Waterman released In Search of Excellence in 1982. Twenty-three years later, we've witnessed several more attempts--and, just maybe, we're getting closer to answers. In this reported piece, HBR senior editor Julia Kirby explores why it's so difficult to study high performance and how various research efforts--including those from John Kotter and Jim Heskett; Jim Collins and Jerry Porras; Bill Joyce, Nitin Nohria, and Bruce Roberson; and several others outlined in a summary chart-have attacked the problem. The challenge starts with deciding which companies to study closely. Are the stars the ones with the highest market caps, the ones with the greatest sales growth, or simply the ones that remain standing at the end of the game? (And when's the end of the game?) Each major study differs in how it defines success, which companies it therefore declares to be worthy of emulation, and the patterns of activity and attitude it finds in common among them. Yet, Kirby concludes, as each study's method incrementally solves problems others have faced, we are progressing toward a consensus theory of high performance.

  15. Development of high performance cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.

    2010-04-01

    The irradiation test for HANA claddings conducted and a series of evaluation for next-HANA claddings as well as their in-pile and out-of pile performances tests were also carried out at Halden research reactor. The 6th irradiation test have been completed successfully in Halden research reactor. As a result, HANA claddings showed high performance, such as corrosion resistance increased by 40% compared to Zircaloy-4. The high performance of HANA claddings in Halden test has enabled lead test rod program as the first step of the commercialization of HANA claddings. DB has been established for thermal and LOCA-related properties. It was confirmed from the thermal shock test that the integrity of HANA claddings was maintained in more expanded region than the criteria regulated by NRC. The manufacturing process of strips was established in order to apply HANA alloys, which were originally developed for the claddings, to the spacer grids. 250 kinds of model alloys for the next-generation claddings were designed and manufactured over 4 times and used to select the preliminary candidate alloys for the next-generation claddings. The selected candidate alloys showed 50% better corrosion resistance and 20% improved high temperature oxidation resistance compared to the foreign advanced claddings. We established the manufacturing condition controlling the performance of the dual-cooled claddings by changing the reduction rate in the cold working steps

  16. Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, A. F.; van de Ven, J.; Merién, A. E. R.; de Wit-Zuurendonk, L. D.; Houterman, S.; Mol, B. W.; Oei, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Fransen A, van de Ven J, Merien A, de Wit-Zuurendonk L, Houterman S, Mol B, Oei S. Effect of obstetric team training on team performance and medical technical skills: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG 2012;119:13871393. Objective To determine whether obstetric team

  17. Medical Ultrasound Video Coding with H.265/HEVC Based on ROI Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueying; Liu, Pengyu; Gao, Yuan; Jia, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency video compression technology is of primary importance to the storage and transmission of digital medical video in modern medical communication systems. To further improve the compression performance of medical ultrasound video, two innovative technologies based on diagnostic region-of-interest (ROI) extraction using the high efficiency video coding (H.265/HEVC) standard are