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Sample records for high partition efficiency

  1. Efficient Partitioning of Large Databases without Query Statistics

    Shahidul Islam KHAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient way of improving the performance of a database management system is distributed processing. Distribution of data involves fragmentation or partitioning, replication, and allocation process. Previous research works provided partitioning based on empirical data about the type and frequency of the queries. These solutions are not suitable at the initial stage of a distributed database as query statistics are not available then. In this paper, I have presented a fragmentation technique, Matrix based Fragmentation (MMF, which can be applied at the initial stage as well as at later stages of distributed databases. Instead of using empirical data, I have developed a matrix, Modified Create, Read, Update and Delete (MCRUD, to partition a large database properly. Allocation of fragments is done simultaneously in my proposed technique. So using MMF, no additional complexity is added for allocating the fragments to the sites of a distributed database as fragmentation is synchronized with allocation. The performance of a DDBMS can be improved significantly by avoiding frequent remote access and high data transfer among the sites. Results show that proposed technique can solve the initial partitioning problem of large distributed databases.

  2. Partitioning of Minor Actinides from High Active Raffinates using Bis-Diglycol-amides (BisDGA) as new efficient Extractants

    Modolo, G.; Vijgen, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Espartero, A.G. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Prados, P. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid - UAM, carretera de Colmenar Viejo km 15.3, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Mendoza, J. de [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid - UAM, carretera de Colmenar Viejo km 15.3, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Institut Catala d' Investigacio Quimica (ICIQ) Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007-Tarragona (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Two new polyamide extractants has been selected, namely UAM-069 and UAM-081, both synthesized at the University of Madrid (UAM), to develop a new separation process. These two ligands are bis-diglycol-amides, consisting of two diglycol-amides moieties grafted on an aromatic platform (UAM-069) or on an aliphatic linker (UAM-081), respectively. The extraction of actinides and fission products was studied from synthetic PUREX raffinate. Actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) are highly extracted from acidities > 1 mol/L HNO{sub 3}. The extraction of Zr, Mo and Pd could be suppressed with complexing agents such as oxalic acid and HEDTA. In the present paper the results of the batch extraction results are presented which serve for the development of a new continuous counter current process to be tested in centrifugal contactors. (authors)

  3. Cost efficient CFD simulations: Proper selection of domain partitioning strategies

    Haddadi, Bahram; Jordan, Christian; Harasek, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is one of the most powerful simulation methods, which is used for temporally and spatially resolved solutions of fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, etc. One of the challenges of Computational Fluid Dynamics is the extreme hardware demand. Nowadays super-computers (e.g. High Performance Computing, HPC) featuring multiple CPU cores are applied for solving-the simulation domain is split into partitions for each core. Some of the different methods for partitioning are investigated in this paper. As a practical example, a new open source based solver was utilized for simulating packed bed adsorption, a common separation method within the field of thermal process engineering. Adsorption can for example be applied for removal of trace gases from a gas stream or pure gases production like Hydrogen. For comparing the performance of the partitioning methods, a 60 million cell mesh for a packed bed of spherical adsorbents was created; one second of the adsorption process was simulated. Different partitioning methods available in OpenFOAM® (Scotch, Simple, and Hierarchical) have been used with different numbers of sub-domains. The effect of the different methods and number of processor cores on the simulation speedup and also energy consumption were investigated for two different hardware infrastructures (Vienna Scientific Clusters VSC 2 and VSC 3). As a general recommendation an optimum number of cells per processor core was calculated. Optimized simulation speed, lower energy consumption and consequently the cost effects are reported here.

  4. Partition Efficiency of High-Pitch Locular Multilayer Coil for Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation of Proteins Using Small-Scale Cross-Axis Coil Planet Centrifuge and Application to Purification of Various Collagenases with Aqueous-Aqueous Polymer Phase Systems

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Inokuchi, Norio; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Ito, Yoichiro

    2010-01-01

    Partition efficiency of the high-pitch locular multilayer coil was evaluated in countercurrent chromatographic (CCC) separation of proteins with an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (X-axis CPC) fabricated in our laboratory. The separation column was specially made by high-pitch (ca 5 cm) winding of 1.0 mm I.D., 2.0 mm O.D. locular tubing compressed at 2 cm intervals with a total capacity of 29.5 mL. The protein separation was performed using a set of stable proteins including cytochrome C, myoglobin, and lysozyme with the 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate system (pH 9.2) under 1000 rpm of column revolution. This high-pitch locular tubing yielded substantially increased stationary phase retention than the normal locular tubing for both lower and upper mobile phases. In order to demonstrate the capability of the high-pitch locular tubing, the purification of collagenase from the crude commercial sample was carried out using an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system. Using the 16.0% (w/w) PEG 1000 – 6.3% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate – 6.3% (w/w) monobasic potassium phosphate system (pH 6.6), collagenase I, II, V and X derived from Clostridium hystolyticum were separated from other proteins and colored small molecular weight compounds present in the crude commercial sample, while collagenase N-2 and S-1 from Streptomyces parvulus subsp. citrinus were eluted with impurities at the solvent front with the upper phase. The collagenase from C. hystolyticum retained its enzymatic activity in the purified fractions. The overall results demonstrated that the high-pitch locular multilayer coil is effectively used for the CCC purification of bioactive compounds without loss of their enzymatic activities. PMID:21869859

  5. Partition Efficiency of High-Pitch Locular Multilayer Coil for Countercurrent Chromatographic Separation of Proteins Using Small-Scale Cross-Axis Coil Planet Centrifuge and Application to Purification of Various Collagenases with Aqueous-Aqueous Polymer Phase Systems.

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Inokuchi, Norio; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Partition efficiency of the high-pitch locular multilayer coil was evaluated in countercurrent chromatographic (CCC) separation of proteins with an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (X-axis CPC) fabricated in our laboratory. The separation column was specially made by high-pitch (ca 5 cm) winding of 1.0 mm I.D., 2.0 mm O.D. locular tubing compressed at 2 cm intervals with a total capacity of 29.5 mL. The protein separation was performed using a set of stable proteins including cytochrome C, myoglobin, and lysozyme with the 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate system (pH 9.2) under 1000 rpm of column revolution. This high-pitch locular tubing yielded substantially increased stationary phase retention than the normal locular tubing for both lower and upper mobile phases. In order to demonstrate the capability of the high-pitch locular tubing, the purification of collagenase from the crude commercial sample was carried out using an aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system. Using the 16.0% (w/w) PEG 1000 - 6.3% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate - 6.3% (w/w) monobasic potassium phosphate system (pH 6.6), collagenase I, II, V and X derived from Clostridium hystolyticum were separated from other proteins and colored small molecular weight compounds present in the crude commercial sample, while collagenase N-2 and S-1 from Streptomyces parvulus subsp. citrinus were eluted with impurities at the solvent front with the upper phase. The collagenase from C. hystolyticum retained its enzymatic activity in the purified fractions. The overall results demonstrated that the high-pitch locular multilayer coil is effectively used for the CCC purification of bioactive compounds without loss of their enzymatic activities.

  6. Partition efficiencies of newly fabricated universal high-speed counter-current chromatograph for separation of two different types of sugar derivatives with organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Sato, Kazuki; Yoshida, Kazunori; Tokura, Koji; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Yanagidaira, Kazuhiro; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Universal high-speed counter-current chromatograph (HSCCC) was newly designed and fabricated in our laboratory. It holds a set of four column holders symmetrically around the rotary frame at a distance of 11.2 cm from the central axis. By engaging the stationary gear on the central axis of the centrifuge to the planetary gears on the column holder shaft through a set of idle gears, two pairs of diagonally located column holders simultaneously rotate about their own axes in the opposite directions: one forward (type-J planetary motion) and the other backward (type-I planetary motion) each synchronously with the revolution. Using the eccentric coil assembly, partition efficiencies produced by these two planetary motions were compared on the separation of two different types of sugar derivatives (4-methylumbelliferyl and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl sugar derivatives) using organic-aqueous two-phase solvent systems composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/1-butanol/methanol/water and aqueous 0.1 M sodium tetraborate, respectively. With lower phase mobile, better peak resolution was obtained by the type-J forward rotation for both samples probably due to higher retention of the stationary phase. With upper phase mobile, however, similar peak resolutions were obtained between these two planetary motions for both sugar derivatives. The overall results indicate that the present universal HSCCC is useful for counter-current chromatographic separation since each planetary motion has its specific applications: e.g., vortex CCC by the type-I planetary motion and HSCCC by the type-J planetary motion both for separation of various natural and synthetic products. PMID:24267319

  7. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  8. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  9. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  10. Impact of water use efficiency on eddy covariance flux partitioning using correlation structure analysis

    Anderson, Ray; Skaggs, Todd; Alfieri, Joseph; Kustas, William; Wang, Dong; Ayars, James

    2016-04-01

    Partitioned land surfaces fluxes (e.g. evaporation, transpiration, photosynthesis, and ecosystem respiration) are needed as input, calibration, and validation data for numerous hydrological and land surface models. However, one of the most commonly used techniques for measuring land surface fluxes, Eddy Covariance (EC), can directly measure net, combined water and carbon fluxes (evapotranspiration and net ecosystem exchange/productivity). Analysis of the correlation structure of high frequency EC time series (hereafter flux partitioning or FP) has been proposed to directly partition net EC fluxes into their constituent components using leaf-level water use efficiency (WUE) data to separate stomatal and non-stomatal transport processes. FP has significant logistical and spatial representativeness advantages over other partitioning approaches (e.g. isotopic fluxes, sap flow, microlysimeters), but the performance of the FP algorithm is reliant on the accuracy of the intercellular CO2 (ci) concentration used to parameterize WUE for each flux averaging interval. In this study, we tested several parameterizations for ci as a function of atmospheric CO2 (ca), including (1) a constant ci/ca ratio for C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathway plants, (2) species-specific ci/ca-Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) relationships (quadratic and linear), and (3) generalized C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathway ci/ca-VPD relationships. We tested these ci parameterizations at three agricultural EC towers from 2011-present in C4 and C3 crops (sugarcane - Saccharum officinarum L. and peach - Prunus persica), and validated again sap-flow sensors installed at the peach site. The peach results show that the species-specific parameterizations driven FP algorithm came to convergence significantly more frequently (~20% more frequently) than the constant ci/ca ratio or generic C3-VPD relationship. The FP algorithm parameterizations with a generic VPD relationship also had slightly higher transpiration (5 Wm-2

  11. An Efficient Algorithm for Partitioning and Authenticating Problem-Solutions of eLeaming Contents

    Dewan, Jahangir; Chowdhury, Morshed; Batten, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Content authenticity and correctness is one of the important challenges in eLearning as there can be many solutions to one specific problem in cyber space. Therefore, the authors feel it is necessary to map problems to solutions using graph partition and weighted bipartite matching. This article proposes an efficient algorithm to partition…

  12. An efficient CU partition algorithm for HEVC based on improved Sobel operator

    Sun, Xuebin; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yong; Sun, Gang; Yang, Yunsheng

    2018-04-01

    As the latest video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) achieves over 50% bit rate reduction with similar video quality compared with previous standards H.264/AVC. However, the higher compression efficiency is attained at the cost of significantly increasing computational load. In order to reduce the complexity, this paper proposes a fast coding unit (CU) partition technique to speed up the process. To detect the edge features of each CU, a more accurate improved Sobel filtering is developed and performed By analyzing the textural features of CU, an early CU splitting termination is proposed to decide whether a CU should be decomposed into four lower-dimensions CUs or not. Compared with the reference software HM16.7, experimental results indicate the proposed algorithm can lessen the encoding time up to 44.09% on average, with a negligible bit rate increase of 0.24%, and quality losses lower 0.03 dB, respectively. In addition, the proposed algorithm gets a better trade-off between complexity and rate-distortion among the other proposed works.

  13. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  14. Highly Reducing Partitioning Experiments Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). With this limited amount of material, we must perform experiments to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity. Experiments are being conducted at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were selected for the final run products to contain metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity is controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, using the Si-SiO2 oxygen buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the Fe-FeO oxygen buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt compositional is diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. Elements detected on Mercury

  15. Development of a test system for high level liquid waste partitioning

    Duan Wu H.; Chen Jing; Wang Jian C.; Wang Shu W.; Wang Xing H.

    2015-01-01

    The partitioning and transmutation strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of high level liquid waste, in which the partitioning of high level liquid waste is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a tri-alkylphosphine oxide process for the removal of actinides, a crown ether strontium extraction process for the removal of strontium, and a calixcrown ether cesium extra...

  16. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  17. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  18. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  19. Actinides and fission products partitioning from high level liquid waste

    Yamaura, Mitiko

    1999-01-01

    The presence of small amount of mixed actinides and long-lived heat generators fission products as 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the major problems for safety handling and disposal of high level nuclear wastes. In this work, actinides and fission products partitioning process, as an alternative process for waste treatment is proposed. First of all, ammonium phosphotungstate (PWA), a selective inorganic exchanger for cesium separation was chosen and a new procedure for synthesizing PWA into the organic resin was developed. An strong anionic resin loaded with tungstate or phosphotungstate anion enables the precipitation of PWA directly in the resinous structure by adding the ammonium nitrate in acid medium (R-PWA). Parameters as W/P ratio, pH, reactants, temperature and aging were studied. The R-PWA obtained by using phosphotungstate solution prepared with W/P=9.6, 9 hours digestion time at 94-106 deg C and 4 to 5 months aging time showed the best capacity for cesium retention. On the other hand, Sr separation was performed by technique of extraction chromatography, using DH18C6 impregnated on XAD7 resin as stationary phase. Sr is selectively extracted from acid solution and >99% was recovered from loaded column using distilled water as eluent. Concerning to actinides separations, two extraction chromatographic columns were used. In the first one, TBP(XAD7) column, U and Pu were extracted and its separations were carried-out using HNO 3 and hydroxylamine nitrate + HNO 3 as eluent. In the second one, CMP0-TBP(XAD7) column, the actinides were retained on the column and the separations were done by using (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , DTPA, HNO 3 and HCl as eluent. The behavior of some fission products were also verified in both columns. Based on the obtained data, actinides and fission products Cs and Sr partitioning process, using TBP(XAD7) and CMP0-TBP(XAD7) columns for actinides separation, R-PWA column for cesium retention and DH18C6(XAD7) column for Sr isolation was performed

  20. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Zolotukhin, Sergey; Kukina, Olga; Abramenko, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state), and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced), made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  1. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Zolotukhin Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state, and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced, made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  2. Genetic background in partitioning of metabolizable energy efficiency in dairy cows.

    Mehtiö, T; Negussie, E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A; Lidauer, M H

    2018-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic differences in metabolizable energy efficiency and efficiency in partitioning metabolizable energy in different pathways: maintenance, milk production, and growth in primiparous dairy cows. Repeatability models for residual energy intake (REI) and metabolizable energy intake (MEI) were compared and the genetic and permanent environmental variations in MEI were partitioned into its energy sinks using random regression models. We proposed 2 new feed efficiency traits: metabolizable energy efficiency (MEE), which is formed by modeling MEI fitting regressions on energy sinks [metabolic body weight (BW 0.75 ), energy-corrected milk, body weight gain, and body weight loss] directly; and partial MEE (pMEE), where the model for MEE is extended with regressions on energy sinks nested within additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. The data used were collected from Luke's experimental farms Rehtijärvi and Minkiö between 1998 and 2014. There were altogether 12,350 weekly MEI records on 495 primiparous Nordic Red dairy cows from wk 2 to 40 of lactation. Heritability estimates for REI and MEE were moderate, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The estimate of the residual variance was smaller for MEE than for REI, indicating that analyzing weekly MEI observations simultaneously with energy sinks is preferable. Model validation based on Akaike's information criterion showed that pMEE models fitted the data even better and also resulted in smaller residual variance estimates. However, models that included random regression on BW 0.75 converged slowly. The resulting genetic standard deviation estimate from the pMEE coefficient for milk production was 0.75 MJ of MEI/kg of energy-corrected milk. The derived partial heritabilities for energy efficiency in maintenance, milk production, and growth were 0.02, 0.06, and 0.04, respectively, indicating that some genetic variation may exist in the efficiency of using

  3. Carrier effect on separation efficiency of the column in reversed-phase partition chromatography

    Pszonicka, M.; Siekierski, S.

    1972-01-01

    Chromatographic columns were filled with carriers of diatomaceous earth type (Hyflo Super Cell, and Celite 545) of large pores, and two microporous silica gels respectively. These columns were used for the separation of europium and gadolinium by reversed-phase partition chromatography in the system: stationary phase-diethylhexylphosphoric acid (HDEHP) mobile phase-0.4 N nitric acid. In each case the separation of the above mentioned elements was achieved. The plate height that characterizes separation efficiency of the column, decreases with the decrease of particle diameter of the carrier. Best columns were obtained from carriers of large pores (Hyflo Super Cell and Celite 545) for which plate hights below 0.1 mm could be achieved. Columns filled with microporous silica gels showed plate heights of 0.2-0.3 mm. (author)

  4. A model partitioning method based on dynamic decoupling for the efficient simulation of multibody systems

    Papadopoulos, Alessandro Vittorio, E-mail: alessandro.papadopoulos@control.lth.se [Lund University, Department of Automatic Control (Sweden); Leva, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.leva@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    The presence of different time scales in a dynamic model significantly hampers the efficiency of its simulation. In multibody systems the fact is particularly relevant, as the mentioned time scales may be very different, due, for example, to the coexistence of mechanical components controled by electronic drive units, and may also appear in conjunction with significant nonlinearities. This paper proposes a systematic technique, based on the principles of dynamic decoupling, to partition a model based on the time scales that are relevant for the particular simulation studies to be performed and as transparently as possible for the user. In accordance with said purpose, peculiar to the technique is its neat separation into two parts: a structural analysis of the model, which is general with respect to any possible simulation scenario, and a subsequent decoupled integration, which can conversely be (easily) tailored to the study at hand. Also, since the technique does not aim at reducing but rather at partitioning the model, the state space and the physical interpretation of the dynamic variables are inherently preserved. Moreover, the proposed analysis allows us to define some novel indices relative to the separability of the system, thereby extending the idea of “stiffness” in a way that is particularly keen to its use for the improvement of simulation efficiency, be the envisaged integration scheme monolithic, parallel, or even based on cosimulation. Finally, thanks to the way the analysis phase is conceived, the technique is naturally applicable to both linear and nonlinear models. The paper contains a methodological presentation of the proposed technique, which is related to alternatives available in the literature so as to evidence the peculiarities just sketched, and some application examples illustrating the achieved advantages and motivating the major design choice from an operational viewpoint.

  5. High-efficiency CARM

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  6. Strong ion exchange in centrifugal partition extraction (SIX-CPE): effect of partition cell design and dimensions on purification process efficiency.

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Hubert, Jane; Reynaud, Romain; Marchal, Luc; Foucault, Alain; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2012-07-20

    The aim of this article was to evaluate the influence of the column design of a hydrostatic support-free liquid-liquid chromatography device on the process efficiency when the strong ion-exchange (SIX) development mode is used. The purification of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin) from a crude aqueous extract of white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba L.) was achieved on two types of devices: a centrifugal partition chromatograph (CPC) and a centrifugal partition extractor (CPE). They differ in the number, volume and geometry of their partition cells. The SIX-CPE process was evaluated in terms of productivity and sinalbin purification capability as compared to previously optimized SIX-CPC protocols that were carried out on columns of 200 mL and 5700 mL inner volume, respectively. The objective was to determine whether the decrease in partition cell number, the increase in their volume and the use of a "twin cell" design would induce a significant increase in productivity by applying higher mobile phase flow rate while maintaining a constant separation quality. 4.6g of sinalbin (92% recovery) were isolated from 25 g of a crude white mustard seed extract, in only 32 min and with a purity of 94.7%, thus corresponding to a productivity of 28 g per hour and per liter of column volume (g/h/LV(c)). Therefore, the SIX-CPE process demonstrates promising industrial technology transfer perspectives for the large-scale isolation of ionized natural products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  8. High efficiency positron moderation

    Taqqu, D.

    1990-01-01

    A new positron moderation scheme is proposed. It makes use of electric and magnetic fields to confine the β + emitted by a radioactive source forcing them to slow down within a thin foil. A specific arrangement is described where an intermediary slowed-down beam of energy below 10 keV is produced. By directing it towards a standard moderator optimal conversion into slow positrons is achieved. This scheme is best applied to short lived β + emitters for which a 25% moderation efficiency can be reached. Within the state of the art technology a slow positron source intensity exceeding 2 x 10 10 e + /sec is achievable. (orig.)

  9. An Efficient Technique for Hardware/Software Partitioning Process in Codesign

    Imene Mhadhbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Codesign methodology deals with the problem of designing complex embedded systems, where automatic hardware/software partitioning is one key issue. The research efforts in this issue are focused on exploring new automatic partitioning methods which consider only binary or extended partitioning problems. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a hybrid FCMPSO partitioning technique, based on Fuzzy C-Means (FCM and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithms suitable for mapping embedded applications for both binary and multicores target architecture. Our FCMPSO optimization technique has been compared using different graphical models with a large number of instances. Performance analysis reveals that FCMPSO outperforms PSO algorithm as well as the Genetic Algorithm (GA, Simulated Annealing (SA, Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, and FCM standard metaheuristic based techniques and also hybrid solutions including PSO then GA, GA then SA, GA then ACO, ACO then SA, FCM then GA, FCM then SA, and finally ACO followed by FCM.

  10. Extending the robustness and efficiency of artificial compressibility for partitioned fluid-structure interactions

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the idea of combining artificial compressibility (AC) with quasi-Newton (QN) methods to solve strongly coupled, fully/quasi-enclosed fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Partitioned, incompressible, FSI based...

  11. Development of a test system for high level liquid waste partitioning

    Duan Wu H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning and transmutation strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of high level liquid waste, in which the partitioning of high level liquid waste is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a tri-alkylphosphine oxide process for the removal of actinides, a crown ether strontium extraction process for the removal of strontium, and a calixcrown ether cesium extraction process for the removal of cesium, has been developed to treat Chinese high level liquid waste. A test system containing 72-stage 10-mm-diam annular centrifugal contactors, a remote sampling system, a rotor speed acquisition-monitoring system, a feeding system, and a video camera-surveillance system was successfully developed to carry out the hot test for verifying the improved total partitioning process. The test system has been successfully used in a 160 hour hot test using genuine high level liquid waste. During the hot test, the test system was stable, which demonstrated it was reliable for the hot test of the high level liquid waste partitioning.

  12. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen -Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Smith, Brian; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2015-07-14

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaOPS-scale computing, at decreased cost, power and footprint, and that allows for a maximum packaging density of processing nodes from an interconnect point of view. The Supercomputer exploits technological advances in VLSI that enables a computing model where many processors can be integrated into a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Each ASIC computing node comprises a system-on-chip ASIC utilizing four or more processors integrated into one die, with each having full access to all system resources and enabling adaptive partitioning of the processors to functions such as compute or messaging I/O on an application by application basis, and preferably, enable adaptive partitioning of functions in accordance with various algorithmic phases within an application, or if I/O or other processors are underutilized, then can participate in computation or communication nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network with DMA that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency.

  13. Energy Partitioning and Thyroid Hormone Levels During Salmonella enteritidis Infections in Pullets with High or Low Residual Feed Intake

    Eerden, van E.; Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate whether feed efficiency, as measured by residual feed intake as a phenotypic trait, affects energy partitioning in pullets that have received Salmonella inoculation as an immune challenge. In each of 8 trials, energy partitioning was measured during 5 wk

  14. Measurements of Bauschinger effect and transient behavior of a quenched and partitioned advanced high strength steel

    Zang, Shun-lai; Sun, Li; Niu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, the needs for new advanced high strength steels (AHSS) with high ductility and strength have rapidly increased to achieve the targets of more fuel-efficient and safer vehicles in automotive industry. However, several undesirable phenomena are experimentally observed during the forming of such materials, particularly with complex loading and large plastic deformation. Springback is one of the most important problems that should be compensated in sheet metal forming process. In this paper, we investigated the hardening behavior of a Q and P (quench and partitioning) steel designated by QP980CR, which is a new third generation advance high strength steel, from the Baosteel Group Corp. in Shanghai, China. The uni-axial tensile and cyclic simple shear tests were conducted. The uni-axial tensile tests were performed on the specimens at 0°, 45° and 90° to rolling direction (RD). The flow stress and transverse strain evolution were obtained in view of the digital image correlation (DIC) measurement. The plastic anisotropy was optimized from the uni-axial tensile tests and thereafter incorporated into the simulations of cyclic simple shear tests. The cyclic simple shear tests were conducted with three prestrains to measure the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and permanent softening, and to determine the material parameters of the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model

  15. Measurements of Bauschinger effect and transient behavior of a quenched and partitioned advanced high strength steel

    Zang, Shun-lai, E-mail: shawn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Sun, Li [Manufacturing Process Research, General Motors China Science Lab, No. 56, Jinwan Road, Shanghai (China); Niu, Chao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, the needs for new advanced high strength steels (AHSS) with high ductility and strength have rapidly increased to achieve the targets of more fuel-efficient and safer vehicles in automotive industry. However, several undesirable phenomena are experimentally observed during the forming of such materials, particularly with complex loading and large plastic deformation. Springback is one of the most important problems that should be compensated in sheet metal forming process. In this paper, we investigated the hardening behavior of a Q and P (quench and partitioning) steel designated by QP980CR, which is a new third generation advance high strength steel, from the Baosteel Group Corp. in Shanghai, China. The uni-axial tensile and cyclic simple shear tests were conducted. The uni-axial tensile tests were performed on the specimens at 0°, 45° and 90° to rolling direction (RD). The flow stress and transverse strain evolution were obtained in view of the digital image correlation (DIC) measurement. The plastic anisotropy was optimized from the uni-axial tensile tests and thereafter incorporated into the simulations of cyclic simple shear tests. The cyclic simple shear tests were conducted with three prestrains to measure the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and permanent softening, and to determine the material parameters of the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model.

  16. New highly efficient piezoceramic materials

    Dantsiger, A.Ya.; Razumovskaya, O.N.; Reznichenko, L.A.; Grineva, L.D.; Devlikanova, R.U.; Dudkina, S.I.; Gavrilyachenko, S.V.; Dergunova, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    New high efficient piezoceramic materials with various combination of parameters inclusing high Curie point for high-temperature transducers using in atomic power engineering are worked. They can be used in systems for heated matters nondestructive testing, controllers for varied industrial power plants and other high-temperature equipment

  17. A New Ensemble Method with Feature Space Partitioning for High-Dimensional Data Classification

    Yongjun Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble data mining methods, also known as classifier combination, are often used to improve the performance of classification. Various classifier combination methods such as bagging, boosting, and random forest have been devised and have received considerable attention in the past. However, data dimensionality increases rapidly day by day. Such a trend poses various challenges as these methods are not suitable to directly apply to high-dimensional datasets. In this paper, we propose an ensemble method for classification of high-dimensional data, with each classifier constructed from a different set of features determined by partitioning of redundant features. In our method, the redundancy of features is considered to divide the original feature space. Then, each generated feature subset is trained by a support vector machine, and the results of each classifier are combined by majority voting. The efficiency and effectiveness of our method are demonstrated through comparisons with other ensemble techniques, and the results show that our method outperforms other methods.

  18. Partitioning high-level waste from alkaline solution: A literature survey

    Marsh, S.F.

    1993-05-01

    Most chemical partitioning procedures are designed for acidic feed solutions. However, the high-level waste solutions in the underground storage tanks at US Department of Energy defense production sites are alkaline. Effective partitioning procedures for alkaline solutions could decrease the need to acidify these solutions and to dissolve the solids in acid, which would simplify subsequent processing and decrease the generation of secondary waste. The author compiles candidate technologies from his review of the chemical literature, experience, and personal contacts. Several of these are recommended for evaluation

  19. Efficient implementation of an explicit partitioned shear and longitudinal wave propagation algorithm

    Kolman, Radek; Cho, S.S.; Park, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 7 (2016), s. 543-579 ISSN 0029-5981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0288; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : stress wave propagation * finite element method * explicit time integrator * dispersion * minimal spurious oscillations * partitioned analysis Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0207

  20. Efficient Algorithms for Searching the Minimum Information Partition in Integrated Information Theory

    Kitazono, Jun; Kanai, Ryota; Oizumi, Masafumi

    2018-03-01

    The ability to integrate information in the brain is considered to be an essential property for cognition and consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) hypothesizes that the amount of integrated information ($\\Phi$) in the brain is related to the level of consciousness. IIT proposes that to quantify information integration in a system as a whole, integrated information should be measured across the partition of the system at which information loss caused by partitioning is minimized, called the Minimum Information Partition (MIP). The computational cost for exhaustively searching for the MIP grows exponentially with system size, making it difficult to apply IIT to real neural data. It has been previously shown that if a measure of $\\Phi$ satisfies a mathematical property, submodularity, the MIP can be found in a polynomial order by an optimization algorithm. However, although the first version of $\\Phi$ is submodular, the later versions are not. In this study, we empirically explore to what extent the algorithm can be applied to the non-submodular measures of $\\Phi$ by evaluating the accuracy of the algorithm in simulated data and real neural data. We find that the algorithm identifies the MIP in a nearly perfect manner even for the non-submodular measures. Our results show that the algorithm allows us to measure $\\Phi$ in large systems within a practical amount of time.

  1. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  2. The Mechanism of High Ductility for Novel High-Carbon Quenching-Partitioning-Tempering Martensitic Steel

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Wang, Ying; Chen, Nailu; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua

    2015-09-01

    In this article, a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process was applied to treat Fe-0.6C-1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.6Cr-0.05Nb hot-rolled high-carbon steel and the microstructures including retained austenite fraction and the average dislocation densities in both martensite and retained austenite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The Q-P-T steel exhibits high strength (1950 MPa) and elongation (12.4 pct). Comparing with the steel treated by traditional quenching and tempering (Q&T) process, the mechanism of high ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T steel is revealed as follows. Much more retained austenite existing in Q-P-T steel than in Q&T one remarkably enhances the ductility by the following two effects: the dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect and the transformation-induced plasticity effect. Besides, lower dislocation density in martensite matrix produced by Q-P-T process plays an important role in the improvement of ductility. However, some thin plates of twin-type martensite embedded in dislocation-type martensite matrix in high-carbon Q-P-T steel affect the further improvement of ductility.

  3. Partitioning of high level liquid waste: experiences in plant level adoption

    Manohar, Smitha; Kaushik, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Wastes are presently vitrified in borosilicate matrices in all our back end facilities in our country. This is in accordance with internationally endorsed methodology for the safe management of high level radioactive wastes. Recent advancements in the field of partitioning technology in our group, has presented us with an opportunity to have a fresh perspective on management of high level liquid radioactive wastes streams, that emanate from reprocessing operations. This paper will highlight our experiences with respect to both partitioning studies and vitrification practices, with a focus on waste volume reduction for final disposal. Incorporation of this technique has led to the implementation of the concept of recovering wealth from waste, a marked decrease on the load of disposal in deep geological repositories and serve as a step towards the vision of transmutation of long lived radionuclides

  4. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra-r...

  5. Development of a partitioning method for the management of high-level liquid waste

    Kubota, M.; Dojiri, S.; Yamaguchi, I.; Morita, Y.; Yamagishi, I.; Kobayashi, T.; Tani, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fundamental studies especially focused on the separation of neptunium and technetium have been carried out to construct the advanced partitioning process of fractioning elements in a high-level liquid waste into four groups: transuranium elements, technetium-noble metals, strontium-cesium, and other elements. For the separation of neptunium by solvent extraction, DIDPA proved excellent for extracting Np(V), and its extraction rate was accelerated by hydrogen peroxide. Np(V) was found to be also separated quantitatively as precipitate with oxalic acid. For the separation of technetium, the denitration with formic acid was effective in precipitating it along with noble metals, and the adsorption with activated carbon was also effective for quantitative separation. Through these fundamental studies, the advanced partitioning process is presented as the candidate to be examined with an actual high-level liquid waste

  6. The flex track: flexible partitioning between low- and high-acuity areas of an emergency department.

    Laker, Lauren F; Froehle, Craig M; Lindsell, Christopher J; Ward, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) with both low- and high-acuity treatment areas often have fixed allocation of resources, regardless of demand. We demonstrate the utility of discrete-event simulation to evaluate flexible partitioning between low- and high-acuity ED areas to identify the best operational strategy for subsequent implementation. A discrete-event simulation was used to model patient flow through a 50-bed, urban, teaching ED that handles 85,000 patient visits annually. The ED has historically allocated 10 beds to a fast track for low-acuity patients. We estimated the effect of a flex track policy, which involved switching up to 5 of these fast track beds to serving both low- and high-acuity patients, on patient waiting times. When the high-acuity beds were not at capacity, low-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Otherwise, high-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Wait times were estimated for patients by disposition and Emergency Severity Index score. A flex track policy using 3 flexible beds produced the lowest mean patient waiting time of 30.9 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.6 to 31.2 minutes). The typical fast track approach of rigidly separating high- and low-acuity beds produced a mean patient wait time of 40.6 minutes (95% CI 40.2 to 50.0 minutes), 31% higher than that of the 3-bed flex track. A completely flexible ED, in which all beds can accommodate any patient, produced mean wait times of 35.1 minutes (95% CI 34.8 to 35.4 minutes). The results from the 3-bed flex track scenario were robust, performing well across a range of scenarios involving higher and lower patient volumes and care durations. Using discrete-event simulation, we have shown that adding some flexibility into bed allocation between low and high acuity can provide substantial reductions in overall patient waiting and a more efficient ED. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. Overview of Ecological Agriculture with High Efficiency

    Huang, Guo-qin; Zhao, Qi-guo; Gong, Shao-lin; Shi, Qing-hua

    2012-01-01

    From the presentation, connotation, characteristics, principles, pattern, and technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency, we conduct comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of the theoretical and practical progress of ecological agriculture with high efficiency. (i) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency was first advanced in China in 1991. (ii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency highlights "high efficiency", "ecology", and "combination". (iii) Ecol...

  8. High-power, high-efficiency FELs

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-04-01

    High power, high efficiency FELs require tapering, as the particles loose energy, so as to maintain resonance between the electromagnetic wave and the particles. They also require focusing of the particles (usually done with curved pole faces) and focusing of the electromagnetic wave (i.e. optical guiding). In addition, one must avoid transverse beam instabilities (primarily resistive wall) and longitudinal instabilities (i.e sidebands). 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Study on the efficiency of the two phase partitioning stirred tank bioreactor on the toluene filtration from the airstream by Pseudomonas putida via

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are different methods for controlling gaseous pollutants formed from air pollution sources that one of the most economical and efficient of them, is bio-filtration. The purpose of this study is Toluene removal from airstream by using the pure Pseudomonas putida bacteria as a fluidized bed in a two phase partitioning stirred tank bioreactor.Toluene ( Metyle benzene is one of the aromatic compounds which uses as a chemical solvent.low to moderate concentration of Toluene causes fatigue, dizziness, weakness,unbalance behaviour, memory loss, insomnia, loss of appetite, loss of vision and hearing. .Material and Method: In this experimental study at first, pure Pseudomonas putida in an aqueous phase containing nutrients and trace elements solution was duplicated and accustomed with Toluene. then solution contained microorganisms with 10% silicon oil was entered to bioreactor. The amount of CO2 and pollutant concentrations in the entrance and exhaust of bioreactor containing Pseudomonas putida was studied during 17 days for each variable. .Result: Experimental findings showed that in the 0.06 m3/h and 0.12 m3/h flow rate, the efficiency of bioreactor containing Pseudomonas putida in the concentration ranges of 283 Mg/m3 to 4710 Mg/m3 was at least 97% and 25% respectively. Statistical analysis (ANOVA showed that in two flow rates of 0.06 m3/h and 0.12 m3/h removal efficiency and mineralization percentage had significant differences .(Pvalue =0.01. .Conclusion: Achieving high efficiencies in pollutants removal was because of the prepared optimum conditions for Pseudomonas putida in the two phase partitioning stirred tank bioreactor with 10% organic phase.

  10. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  11. Partitioning of evapotranspiration using a stable isotope technique in an arid and high temperature agricultural production system

    Lu, Xuefei

    2016-08-22

    Agricultural production in the hot and arid low desert systems of southern California relies heavily on irrigation. A better understanding of how much and to what extent irrigated water is transpired by crops relative to being lost through evaporation would improve the management of increasingly limited water resources. In this study, we examined the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) over a field of forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which was under evaluation as a potential biofuel feedstock, based on isotope measurements of three irrigation cycles at the vegetative stage. This study employed customized transparent chambers coupled with a laser-based isotope analyzer to continuously measure near-surface variations in the stable isotopic composition of evaporation (E, δ), transpiration (T, δ) and ET (δ) to partition the total water flux. Due to the extreme heat and aridity, δ and δ were very similar, which makes this system highly unusual. Contrary to an expectation that the isotopic signatures of T, E, and ET would become increasingly enriched as soils became drier, our results showed an interesting pattern that δ, δ, and δ increased initially as soil water was depleted following irrigation, but decreased with further soil drying in mid to late irrigation cycle. These changes are likely caused by root water transport from deeper to shallower soil layers. Results indicate that about 46% of the irrigated water delivered to the crop was used as transpiration, with 54% lost as direct evaporation. This implies that 28 − 39% of the total source water was used by the crop, considering the typical 60 − 85% efficiency of flood irrigation. The stable isotope technique provided an effective means of determining surface partitioning of irrigation water in this unusually harsh production environment. The results suggest the potential to further minimize unproductive water losses in these production systems.

  12. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  13. A procedure to create isoconcentration surfaces in low-chemical-partitioning, high-solute alloys

    Hornbuckle, B.C.; Kapoor, M.; Thompson, G.B.

    2015-01-01

    A proximity histogram or proxigram is the prevailing technique of calculating 3D composition profiles of a second phase in atom probe tomography. The second phase in the reconstruction is delineated by creating an isoconcentration surface, i.e. the precipitate–matrix interface. The 3D composition profile is then calculated with respect to this user-defined isoconcentration surface. Hence, the selection of the correct isoconcentration surface is critical. In general, the preliminary selection of an isoconcentration value is guided by the visual observation of a chemically partitioned second phase. However, in low-chemical -partitioning systems, such a visual guide is absent. The lack of a priori composition information of the precipitate phase may further confound the issue. This paper presents a methodology of selecting an appropriate elemental species and subsequently obtaining an isoconcentration value to create an accurate isoconcentration surface that will act as the precipitate–matrix interface. We use the H-phase precipitate in the Ni–Ti–Hf shape memory alloy as our case study to illustrate the procedure. - Highlights: • A procedure for creating accurate isoconcentration surface for low-chemical-partitioning, high-solute alloys. • Determine the appropriate element to create the isosconcentration surface. • Subsequently identify the accurate isoconcentration value to create an isoconcentration surface.

  14. Efficient binning for bitmap indices on high-cardinality attributes

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2004-11-17

    Bitmap indexing is a common technique for indexing high-dimensional data in data warehouses and scientific applications. Though efficient for low-cardinality attributes, query processing can be rather costly for high-cardinality attributes due to the large storage requirements for the bitmap indices. Binning is a common technique for reducing storage costs of bitmap indices. This technique partitions the attribute values into a number of ranges, called bins, and uses bitmap vectors to represent bins (attribute ranges) rather than distinct values. Although binning may reduce storage costs, it may increase the access costs of queries that do not fall on exact bin boundaries (edge bins). For this kind of queries the original data values associated with edge bins must be accessed, in order to check them against the query constraints.In this paper we study the problem of finding optimal locations for the bin boundaries in order to minimize these access costs subject to storage constraints. We propose a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitioning of attribute values into bins that takes into account query access patterns as well as data distribution statistics. Mathematical analysis and experiments on real life data sets show that the optimal partitioning achieved by this algorithm can lead to a significant improvement in the access costs of bitmap indexing systems for high-cardinality attributes.

  15. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Choudhary, Sonal, E-mail: S.Choudhary@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Management School, University of Sheffield, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom); Blaud, Aimeric [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Osborn, A. Mark [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Press, Malcolm C. [School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15 6BH (United Kingdom); Phoenix, Gareth K. [Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem {sup 15}N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m{sup −2} yr{sup −1}, applied as {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup 15}NO{sub 3} in Svalbard (79{sup °}N), during the summer. Separate applications of {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total {sup 15}N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of {sup 15}N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events

  16. Nitrogen accumulation and partitioning in a High Arctic tundra ecosystem from extreme atmospheric N deposition events

    Choudhary, Sonal; Blaud, Aimeric; Osborn, A. Mark; Press, Malcolm C.; Phoenix, Gareth K.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are threatened by pollution from recently detected extreme atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition events in which up to 90% of the annual N deposition can occur in just a few days. We undertook the first assessment of the fate of N from extreme deposition in High Arctic tundra and are presenting the results from the whole ecosystem "1"5N labelling experiment. In 2010, we simulated N depositions at rates of 0, 0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 g N m"−"2 yr"−"1, applied as "1"5NH_4"1"5NO_3 in Svalbard (79"°N), during the summer. Separate applications of "1"5NO_3"− and "1"5NH_4"+ were also made to determine the importance of N form in their retention. More than 95% of the total "1"5N applied was recovered after one growing season (~ 90% after two), demonstrating a considerable capacity of Arctic tundra to retain N from these deposition events. Important sinks for the deposited N, regardless of its application rate or form, were non-vascular plants > vascular plants > organic soil > litter > mineral soil, suggesting that non-vascular plants could be the primary component of this ecosystem to undergo measurable changes due to N enrichment from extreme deposition events. Substantial retention of N by soil microbial biomass (70% and 39% of "1"5N in organic and mineral horizon, respectively) during the initial partitioning demonstrated their capacity to act as effective buffers for N leaching. Between the two N forms, vascular plants (Salix polaris) in particular showed difference in their N recovery, incorporating four times greater "1"5NO_3"− than "1"5NH_4"+, suggesting deposition rich in nitrate will impact them more. Overall, these findings show that despite the deposition rates being extreme in statistical terms, biologically they do not exceed the capacity of tundra to sequester pollutant N during the growing season. Therefore, current and future extreme events may represent a major source of eutrophication. - Highlights: • High Arctic tundra demonstrated a

  17. High-efficient electron linacs

    Glavatskikh, K.V.; Zverev, B.V.; Kalyuzhnyj, V.E.; Morozov, V.L.; Nikolaev, S.V.; Plotnikov, S.N.; Sobenin, N.P.; Vovna, V.A.; Gryzlov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison analysis of ELA on running and still waves designed for 10 MeV energy and with high efficiency is carried out. It is shown, that from the point of view of dimensions ELA with a still wave or that of a combined type is more preferable. From the point of view of impedance characteristics in any variant with application of magnetron as HF-generator it is necessary to implement special requirements to the accelerating structure if no ferrite isolation is provided in HF-channel. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. High-efficiency photovoltaic cells

    Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

    1982-06-21

    High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

  19. Anharmonic Rovibrational Partition Functions for Fluxional Species at High Temperatures via Monte Carlo Phase Space Integrals

    Jasper, Ahren W. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Gruey, Zackery B. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Harding, Lawrence B. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Georgievskii, Yuri [Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Klippenstein, Stephen J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering; Wagner, Albert F. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering

    2018-02-03

    Monte Carlo phase space integration (MCPSI) is used to compute full dimensional and fully anharmonic, but classical, rovibrational partition functions for 22 small- and medium-sized molecules and radicals. Several of the species considered here feature multiple minima and low-frequency nonlocal motions, and efficiently sampling these systems is facilitated using curvilinear (stretch, bend, and torsion) coordinates. The curvilinear coordinate MCPSI method is demonstrated to be applicable to the treatment of fluxional species with complex rovibrational structures and as many as 21 fully coupled rovibrational degrees of freedom. Trends in the computed anharmonicity corrections are discussed. For many systems, rovibrational anharmonicities at elevated temperatures are shown to vary consistently with the number of degrees of freedom and with temperature once rovibrational coupling and torsional anharmonicity are accounted for. Larger corrections are found for systems with complex vibrational structures, such as systems with multiple large-amplitude modes and/or multiple minima.

  20. Modeling water partition in composite gels of BSA with gelatin following high pressure treatment.

    Semasaka, Carine; Mhaske, Pranita; Buckow, Roman; Kasapis, Stefan

    2018-11-01

    Changes in the structural properties of hydrogels made with gelatin and bovine serum albumin mixtures were recorded following exposure to high pressure at 300 MPa for 15 min at 10 and 80 °C. Dynamic oscillation, SEM, FTIR and blending law modelling were utilised to rationalise results. Pressurization at the low temperature end yielded continuous gelatin networks supporting discontinuous BSA inclusions, whereas an inverted dispersion was formed at the high temperature end with the continuous BSA network suspending the discontinuous gelatin inclusions. Lewis and Nielsen equations followed the mechanical properties of the composites thus arguing that solvent partition between the two phases was always in favour of the polymer forming the continuous network. As far as we are aware, this is the first attempt to elucidate the solvent partition in pressurised hydrogel composites using blending law theory. Outcomes were contrasted with earlier work where binary mixtures were subjected only to thermal treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Development of a high-order finite volume method with multiblock partition techniques

    E. M. Lemos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a new numerical methodology to solve the Navier-Stokes equations based on a finite volume method applied to structured meshes with co-located grids. High-order schemes used to approximate advective, diffusive and non-linear terms, connected with multiblock partition techniques, are the main contributions of this paper. Combination of these two techniques resulted in a computer code that involves high accuracy due the high-order schemes and great flexibility to generate locally refined meshes based on the multiblock approach. This computer code has been able to obtain results with higher or equal accuracy in comparison with results obtained using classical procedures, with considerably less computational effort.

  2. A demonstration test of 4-group partitioning process with real high-level liquid waste

    Morita, Y.; Yamaguchi, I.; Fujiwara, T.; Koizumi, H.; Tachimori, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki-Ken (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The demonstration test of 4-Group Partitioning Process with concentrated real high-level liquid waste (HLLW) was carried out in the Partitioning Test Facility installed in a hot cell. More than 99.998% of Am and Cm were extracted from the HLLW with the organic solvent containing 0.5 M DIDPA - 0.1 M TBP, and more than 99.98% of Am and Cm were back-extracted with 4 M nitric acid. Np and Pu were extracted simultaneously, and more than 99.93% of Np and more than 99.98% of Pu were back-extracted with oxalic acid. In the denitration step for the separation of Tc and platinum group metals, more than 90% of Rh and more than 97% of Pd were precipitated. About half of Ru were remained in the de-nitrated solution, but the remaining Ru were quantitatively precipitated by neutralization of the de-nitrated solution to pH 6.7. In the adsorption step, both Sr and Cs were separated effectively. Decontamination factors for Cs and Sr were more than 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 4} respectively in all effluent samples. (authors)

  3. An Efficient Data Partitioning to Improve Classification Performance While Keeping Parameters Interpretable.

    Kristjan Korjus

    Full Text Available Supervised machine learning methods typically require splitting data into multiple chunks for training, validating, and finally testing classifiers. For finding the best parameters of a classifier, training and validation are usually carried out with cross-validation. This is followed by application of the classifier with optimized parameters to a separate test set for estimating the classifier's generalization performance. With limited data, this separation of test data creates a difficult trade-off between having more statistical power in estimating generalization performance versus choosing better parameters and fitting a better model. We propose a novel approach that we term "Cross-validation and cross-testing" improving this trade-off by re-using test data without biasing classifier performance. The novel approach is validated using simulated data and electrophysiological recordings in humans and rodents. The results demonstrate that the approach has a higher probability of discovering significant results than the standard approach of cross-validation and testing, while maintaining the nominal alpha level. In contrast to nested cross-validation, which is maximally efficient in re-using data, the proposed approach additionally maintains the interpretability of individual parameters. Taken together, we suggest an addition to currently used machine learning approaches which may be particularly useful in cases where model weights do not require interpretation, but parameters do.

  4. Data Partitioning Technique for Improved Video Prioritization

    Ismail Amin Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.

  5. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L.; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust intratumor

  6. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-08-01

    To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). We propose a robust intratumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high

  7. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Rubin, Daniel L. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics Research), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Napel, Sandy [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Li, Ruijiang, E-mail: rli2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust

  8. Towards highly efficient water photoelectrolysis

    Elavambedu Prakasam, Haripriya

    ethylene glycol resulted in remarkable growth characteristics of titania nanotube arrays, hexagonal closed packed up to 1 mm in length, with tube aspect ratios of approximately 10,000. For the first time, complete anodization of the starting titanium foil has been demonstrated resulting in back to back nanotube array membranes ranging from 360 mum--1 mm in length. The nanotubes exhibited growth rates of up to 15 mum/hr. A detailed study on the factors affecting the growth rate and nanotube dimensions is presented. It is suggested that faster high field ionic conduction through a thinner barrier layer is responsible for the higher growth rates observed in electrolytes containing ethylene glycol. Methods to fabricate free standing, titania nanotube array membranes ranging in thickness from 50 microm--1000 mum has also been an outcome of this dissertation. In an effort to combine the charge transport properties of titania with the light absorption properties of iron (III) oxide, films comprised of vertically oriented Ti-Fe-O nanotube arrays on FTO coated glass substrates have been successfully synthesized in ethylene glycol electrolytes. Depending upon the Fe content the bandgap of the resulting films varied from about 3.26 to 2.17 eV. The Ti-Fe oxide nanotube array films demonstrated a photocurrent of 2 mA/cm2 under global AM 1.5 illumination with a 1.2% (two-electrode) photoconversion efficiency, demonstrating a sustained, time-energy normalized hydrogen evolution rate by water splitting of 7.1 mL/W·hr in a 1 M KOH solution with a platinum counter electrode under an applied bias of 0.7 V. The Ti-Fe-O material architecture demonstrates properties useful for hydrogen generation by water photoelectrolysis and, more importantly, this dissertation demonstrates that the general nanotube-array synthesis technique can be extended to other ternary oxide compositions of interest for water photoelectrolysis.

  9. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  10. A highly scalable particle tracking algorithm using partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming for extreme-scale turbulence simulations

    Buaria, D.; Yeung, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    A new parallel algorithm utilizing a partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming model to achieve high scalability is reported for particle tracking in direct numerical simulations of turbulent fluid flow. The work is motivated by the desire to obtain Lagrangian information necessary for the study of turbulent dispersion at the largest problem sizes feasible on current and next-generation multi-petaflop supercomputers. A large population of fluid particles is distributed among parallel processes dynamically, based on instantaneous particle positions such that all of the interpolation information needed for each particle is available either locally on its host process or neighboring processes holding adjacent sub-domains of the velocity field. With cubic splines as the preferred interpolation method, the new algorithm is designed to minimize the need for communication, by transferring between adjacent processes only those spline coefficients determined to be necessary for specific particles. This transfer is implemented very efficiently as a one-sided communication, using Co-Array Fortran (CAF) features which facilitate small data movements between different local partitions of a large global array. The cost of monitoring transfer of particle properties between adjacent processes for particles migrating across sub-domain boundaries is found to be small. Detailed benchmarks are obtained on the Cray petascale supercomputer Blue Waters at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. For operations on the particles in a 81923 simulation (0.55 trillion grid points) on 262,144 Cray XE6 cores, the new algorithm is found to be orders of magnitude faster relative to a prior algorithm in which each particle is tracked by the same parallel process at all times. This large speedup reduces the additional cost of tracking of order 300 million particles to just over 50% of the cost of computing the Eulerian velocity field at this scale. Improving support of PGAS models on

  11. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  12. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  13. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  14. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on the high level waste management

    Gonzalez-Romero, Enrique-Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The contribution is structured as follows: (i) Background on partitioning and transmutation; (ii) FP6 projects: RED-IMPACT; (iii) Advanced fuel cycle scenarios; (iv) Partitioning and transmutation expected performance; (v) Impact on the HLW thermal load; (vi) Impact on the deep geological disposal; and (vii) Impact on the performance assessment of deep geological disposal. (P.A.)

  15. High efficiency motor selection handbook

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  16. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1997

    Enarsson, Aa; Landgren, A; Liljenzin, J O; Skaalberg, M; Spjuth, L [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. Refs, figs, tabs.

  17. Energy partitioning and thyroid hormone levels during Salmonella enteritidis infections in pullets with high or low residual feed intake.

    Van Eerden, E; Van Den Brand, H; Heetkamp, M J W; Decuypere, E; Kemp, B

    2006-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate whether feed efficiency, as measured by residual feed intake as a phenotypic trait, affects energy partitioning in pullets that have received Salmonella inoculation as an immune challenge. In each of 8 trials, energy partitioning was measured during 5 wk in 15-wk-old efficient (R-) and nonefficient (R+) pullets, which were housed per efficiency group in 2 identical climate respiration chambers. After 1 wk of adaptation, the pullets in 4 trials were orally inoculated with 10(8) cfu of Salmonella enteritidis; pullets in the remaining trials were not inoculated and served as controls. Heat production was calculated from continuous recordings of O(2) consumption and CO(2) production. Energy and N partitioning were recorded on a weekly basis. Blood samples for analyses on thyroid hormones were taken at 16, 17, and 19 wk of age. There were no interactions between efficiency type and Salmonella treatment or Salmonella treatment effects in energy partitioning, except for a short-term increase in heat production in inoculated pullets. Nonefficient pullets had higher gross energy and ME intake, higher estimated ME for maintenance, lower ME:gross energy ratio, and higher total heat production and nonactivity-related heat production compared with R- pullets. Triiodothyronine levels in R+ pullets were higher at 16 and 17 wk but were lower at 19 wk of age compared with R- pullets. Thyroxine levels were higher in R- at 16 wk and showed interactions between efficiency type and Salmonella treatment at 17 and 19 wk of age. Body weights and spleen weights did not differ between efficiency groups. Nonefficient pullets had higher heart, liver, and ovary weights and more large yellow follicles than R- pullets. There were no Salmonella effects on body and organ weights. We conclude that R+ pullets have a faster running energy metabolism and that they put more resources into organ development than R- pullets. Inoculation with Salmonella has a

  18. Resource partitioning within major bottom fish species in a highly productive upwelling ecosystem

    Abdellaoui, Souad; El Halouani, Hassan; Tai, Imane; Masski, Hicham

    2017-09-01

    The Saharan Bank (21-26°N) is a wide subtropical continental shelf and a highly productive upwelling ecosystem. The bottom communities are dominated by octopus and sparid fish, which are the main targets of bottom-trawl fishing fleets. To investigate resource partitioning within the bottom fish community, adult fish from 14 of the most abundant species were investigated for stomach content analysis. Samples were collected during two periods: October 2003 and May 2007. The diet of the analysed species showed more variation between periods than between size classes, suggesting that temporal or spatial variability in prey availability appears to play a significant role in their diet. Multivariate analysis and subsequent clustering led to a grouping of the species within five trophic guilds. Two species were fish feeders, and the others mainly fed on benthic invertebrates, where epibenthic crustaceans, lamellibranchs and fish were the most important groups in defining trophic guilds. We found that the studied species had a high rate of overlapping spatial distributions and overlapping trophic niches. In this highly productive upwelling ecosystem, where food resources may not be a limiting factor, inter-specific competition did not appear to be an important factor in structuring bottom fish communities. For the species that showed differences in the proportions of prey categories in comparison with other ecosystems, the rise of the proportion of epibenthic crustaceans in their diet was a common feature; a possible consequence of the benthic productivity of this highly productive upwelling ecosystem.

  19. Ab Initio Predictions of K, He and Ar Partitioning Between Silicate Melt and Liquid Iron Under High Pressure

    Xiong, Z.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2017-12-01

    Element partitioning is an important property in recording geochemical processes during the core-mantle differentiation. However, experimental measurements of element partitioning coefficients under extreme temperature and pressure condition are still challenging. Theoretical modeling is also not easy, because it requires estimation of high temperature Gibbs free energy, which is not directly accessible by the standard molecular dynamics method. We recently developed an original technique to simulate Gibbs free energy based on the thermodynamics integration method[1]. We apply it to element partitioning of geochemical intriguing trace elements between molten silicate and liquid iron such as potassium, helium and argon as starting examples. Radiogenic potassium in the core can provide energy for Earth's magnetic field, convection in the mantle and outer core[2]. However, its partitioning behavior between silicate and iron remains unclear under high pressure[3,4]. Our calculations suggest that a clear positive temperature dependence of the partitioning coefficient but an insignificant pressure effect. Unlike sulfur and silicon, oxygen dissolved in the metals considerably enhances potassium solubility. Calculated electronic structures reveal alkali-metallic feature of potassium in liquid iron, favoring oxygen with strong electron affinity. Our results suggest that 40K could serve as a potential radiogenic heat source in the outer core if oxygen is the major light element therein.­­ We now further extend our technique to partitioning behaviors of other elements, helium and argon, to get insides into the `helium paradox' and `missing argon' problems. References [1] T. Taniuchi, and T. Tsuchiya, Phys.Rev.B. In press [2] B.A. Buffett, H.E. Huppert, J.R. Lister, and A.W. Woods, Geophys.Res.Lett. 29 (1996) 7989-8006. [3] V.R. Murthy, W. Westrenen, and Y. Fei, Nature. 426 (2003) 163-165. [4] A. Corgne, S.Keshav, Y. Fei, and W.F. McDonough, Earth.Planet.Sci.Lett. 256 (2007

  20. Coding Partitions

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  1. Light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass allocation in invasive Prunus serotina and native Quercus petraea in relation to light environment, competition and allelopathy.

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Sendall, Kerrie

    2018-05-01

    This study addressed whether competition under different light environments was reflected by changes in leaf absorbed light energy partitioning, photosynthetic efficiency, relative growth rate and biomass allocation in invasive and native competitors. Additionally, a potential allelopathic effect of mulching with invasive Prunus serotina leaves on native Quercus petraea growth and photosynthesis was tested. The effect of light environment on leaf absorbed light energy partitioning and photosynthetic characteristics was more pronounced than the effects of interspecific competition and allelopathy. The quantum yield of PSII of invasive P. serotina increased in the presence of a competitor, indicating a higher plasticity in energy partitioning for the invasive over the native Q. petraea, giving it a competitive advantage. The most striking difference between the two study species was the higher crown-level net CO 2 assimilation rates (A crown ) of P. serotina compared with Q. petraea. At the juvenile life stage, higher relative growth rate and higher biomass allocation to foliage allowed P. serotina to absorb and use light energy for photosynthesis more efficiently than Q. petraea. Species-specific strategies of growth, biomass allocation, light energy partitioning and photosynthetic efficiency varied with the light environment and gave an advantage to the invader over its native competitor in competition for light. However, higher biomass allocation to roots in Q. petraea allows for greater belowground competition for water and nutrients as compared to P. serotina. This niche differentiation may compensate for the lower aboveground competitiveness of the native species and explain its ability to co-occur with the invasive competitor in natural forest settings.

  2. Demonstration of innovative partitioning processes for minor actinide recycling from high active waste solutions

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Malmbeck, R.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of the minor actinides (MA) using the Partitioning and Transmutation strategy (P and T) could contribute significantly to reducing the volume of high level waste in a geological repository and to decreasing the waste's longterm hazards originating from the long half-life of the actinides. Several extraction processes have been developed worldwide for the separation and recovery of MA from highly active raffinates (HAR, e.g. the PUREX raffinate). A multi-cycle separation strategy has been developed within the framework of European collaborative projects. The multi-cycle processes, on the one hand, make use of different extractants for every single process. Within the recent FP7 European research project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation), the development of new innovative separation processes with a reduced number of cycles was envisaged. In the so-called 'innovative SANEX' concept, the trivalent actinides and lanthanides are co-extracted from the PUREX raffinate by a DIAMEX like process (e.g. TODGA). Then, the loaded solvent is subjected to several stripping steps. The first one concerns selectively stripping the actinides(III) with selective water-soluble ligands (SO3-Ph-BTB), followed by the subsequent stripping of trivalent lanthanides. A more challenging route studied also within our laboratories is the direct actinide(III) separation from a PUREX-type raffinate using a mixture of CyMe 4 BTBP and TODGA as extractants, the so-called One cycle SANEX process. A new approach, which was also studied within the ACSEPT project, is the GANEX (Grouped ActiNide EXtraction) concept addressing the simultaneous partitioning of all transuranium (TRU) elements for their homogeneous recycling in advanced generation IV reactor systems. Bulk uranium is removed in the GANEX 1st cycle, e.g. using a monoamide extractant and the GANEX 2nd cycle then separates the TRU. A solvent composed of TODGA + DMDOHEMA in kerosene has been shown to

  3. Analysis of load balance in hybrid partitioning | Talib | Botswana ...

    In information retrieval systems, there are three types of index partitioning schemes - term partitioning, document partitioning, and hybrid partitioning. The hybrid-partitioning scheme combines both term and document partitioning schemes. Term partitioning provides high concurrency, which means that queries can be ...

  4. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  5. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total α activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Summary report on partitioning cesium from the Chinese high level liquid waste(HLLW) by calixcrown

    Wang Jianchen; Chen Jing

    2011-01-01

    The partitioning of Cesium from the HLLW with a higher-salts liquid from PUREX is a better choice for its further treatment or disposal. In this work, the progress of partitioning Cesium from the Chinese HLLW by 25,27-bis(2-propyloxy) calix[4]-26,28-crown-6(iPr-C[4]C-6) were introduced, including the synthesis method of calixcrown, selection of diluents, extraction properties, the radiolytic stability, cold test and hot test of cascade extraction for removing cesium from HLLW. (author)

  7. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  8. Analysis of Heat Partitioning During Sliding Contact at High Speed and Pressure

    2014-03-27

    the numerical results developed are compared in Chapter 7. Malinowski , Lenard and Davies (35) used the mechanical models of the hot/warm forging...R.F.Harder. “Transient heat partition factor for a sliding railcar wheel,” Wear, 261: 932-936 (2006). 35. Malinowski , Z., J.G.Lenard, and M.E.Davies

  9. Critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    Johnstone, lain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experim...

  10. Partitioning of photoassimilates by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) as influenced by irradiance. II. Partitioning patterns by four clones grown under high and low irradiance

    Gawronska, H.; Dwelle, R.B.; Pavek, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is the second in a three-part series describing the influence of varied irradiance on growth and photoassimilate partitioning by potato plants. Four clones (Russet Burbank, Lemhi Russet, A66107-51, and A6948-4) were grown under two light regimes: a) high light levels (HL) of 500 to 1200 μE m -2 s -1 , varying with changes in natural sunlight and time of day, and b) low light levels (LL) at approximately one quarter of high light (21 to 28%). Three weeks after tuber initiation, the most recently-matured leaf was labelled with 14 CO 2 , and plants were harvested: 1) one day after labelling, and 2) two weeks after labelling. Plants of all clones responded to the low light levels in a similar way by: 1) changing some morphological characteristics, 2) decreasing biomass accumulation and tuber yield, and 3) changing the sink-source relationship by promoting growth of leaves and stems at the expense of tubers. However, there were evident clonal differences in reactions to growth under low light; e.g., Lemhi Russet appeared to be most sensitive to light stress, while clones A66107-51 and A6848-4 were much less sensitive. No matter what the prior light history (HL or LL), clone A6948-4 was able to maintain higher rates of photosynthesis than the other clones at all light levels between 200 and 1200 μE m -2 s -1 . This study showed that the potential exists to breed for cuttivars that can maintain higher rates of photosynthesis and higher tuber yield under low light levels. (author)

  11. Immiscible silicate liquids at high pressure: the influence of melt structure on elemental partitioning

    Vicenzi, E [Princeton Materials Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, T H [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Sie, S H [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    Micro-PIXE analyses have been applied to study partitioning of trace elements between immiscible silicate melts stabilised at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa over a temperature range of 1160-1240 deg C in the system SiO{sub 2}-FeO-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-K{sub 2}0 (+P{sub 2}0{sub 5}). The system was doped with a suite of trace elements of geochemical interest: Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, La, Ce, Sm, Ho, Y, Lu, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta at approximately 200 ppm level for all elements except for the REE`s, Ba and Ta (600-1200 ppm). Trace element partitioning was found to be a complex function of cation field strength (charge/radius{sup 2}). Although field strength is important in determining the nature and degree of partitioning, the authors emphasised that it is only one component of the underlying mechanism for the way in which elements distribute themselves between two silicate liquids. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Immiscible silicate liquids at high pressure: the influence of melt structure on elemental partitioning

    Vicenzi, E. [Princeton Materials Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Sie, S.H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    Micro-PIXE analyses have been applied to study partitioning of trace elements between immiscible silicate melts stabilised at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa over a temperature range of 1160-1240 deg C in the system SiO{sub 2}-FeO-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-K{sub 2}0 (+P{sub 2}0{sub 5}). The system was doped with a suite of trace elements of geochemical interest: Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, La, Ce, Sm, Ho, Y, Lu, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta at approximately 200 ppm level for all elements except for the REE`s, Ba and Ta (600-1200 ppm). Trace element partitioning was found to be a complex function of cation field strength (charge/radius{sup 2}). Although field strength is important in determining the nature and degree of partitioning, the authors emphasised that it is only one component of the underlying mechanism for the way in which elements distribute themselves between two silicate liquids. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Automated high performance liquid chromatography and liquid scintillation counting determination of pesticide mixture octanol/water partition rates

    Moody, R.P.; Carroll, J.M.; Kresta, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Two novel methods are reported for measuring octanol/water partition rates of pesticides. A liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method was developed for automated monitoring of 14 C-labeled pesticides partitioning in biphasic water/octanol cocktail systems with limited success. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for automated partition rate monitoring of several constituents in a pesticide mixture, simultaneously. The mean log Kow +/- SD determined from triplicate experimental runs were for: 2,4-D-DMA (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine), 0.65 +/- .17; Deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), 2.02 +/- .01; Guthion (O,O-dimethyl-S-(4-oxo-1,2,3-benzotriazin-3(4H)-ylmethyl) phosphorodithioate), 2.43 +/- .03; Methyl-Parathion (O,O-dimethyl-O-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate), 2.68 +/- .05; and Fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitro-m-tolyl) phosphorothioate), 3.16 +/- .03. A strong positive linear correlation (r = .9979) was obtained between log Kow and log k' (log Kow = 2.35 (log k') + 0.63). The advantages that this automated procedure has in comparison with the standard manual shake-flask procedure are discussed

  14. Progress of OLED devices with high efficiency at high luminance

    Nguyen, Carmen; Ingram, Grayson; Lu, Zhenghong

    2014-03-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressed significantly over the last two decades. For years, OLEDs have been promoted as the next generation technology for flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to their potential for high energy efficiency and dynamic range of colors. Although high efficiency can readily be obtained at low brightness levels, a significant decline at high brightness is commonly observed. In this report, we will review various strategies for achieving highly efficient phosphorescent OLED devices at high luminance. Specifically, we will provide details regarding the performance and general working principles behind each strategy. We will conclude by looking at how some of these strategies can be combined to produce high efficiency white OLEDs at high brightness.

  15. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  16. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  17. Experiments on high efficiency aerosol filtration

    Mazzini, M.; Cuccuru, A.; Kunz, P.

    1977-01-01

    Research on high efficiency aerosol filtration by the Nuclear Engineering Institute of Pisa University and by CAMEN in collaboration with CNEN is outlined. HEPA filter efficiency was studied as a function of the type and size of the test aerosol, and as a function of flowrate (+-50% of the nominal value), air temperature (up to 70 0 C), relative humidity (up to 100%), and durability in a corrosive atmosphere (up to 140 hours in NaCl mist). In the selected experimental conditions these influences were appreciable but are not sufficient to be significant in industrial HEPA filter applications. Planned future research is outlined: measurement of the efficiency of two HEPA filters in series using a fixed particle size; dependence of the efficiency on air, temperatures up to 300-500 0 C; performance when subject to smoke from burning organic materials (natural rubber, neoprene, miscellaneous plastics). Such studies are relevant to possible accidental fires in a plutonium laboratory

  18. High efficiency, variable geometry, centrifugal cryogenic pump

    Forsha, M.D.; Nichols, K.E.; Beale, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been developed which has a basic design that is rugged and reliable with variable speed and variable geometry features that achieve high pump efficiency over a wide range of head-flow conditions. The pump uses a sealless design and rolling element bearings to achieve high reliability and the ruggedness to withstand liquid-vapor slugging. The pump can meet a wide range of variable head, off-design flow requirements and maintain design point efficiency by adjusting the pump speed. The pump also has features that allow the impeller and diffuser blade heights to be adjusted. The adjustable height blades were intended to enhance the pump efficiency when it is operating at constant head, off-design flow rates. For small pumps, the adjustable height blades are not recommended. For larger pumps, they could provide off-design efficiency improvements. This pump was developed for supercritical helium service, but the design is well suited to any cryogenic application where high efficiency is required over a wide range of head-flow conditions

  19. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on high-level waste disposal for the fast breeder reactor fuel cycle

    Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and/or transmutation (PT) technology on high-level waste management was investigated for the equilibrium state of several potential fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel cycles. Three different fuel cycle scenarios involving PT technology were analyzed: 1) partitioning process only (separation of some fission products), 2) transmutation process only (separation and transmutation of minor actinides), and 3) both partitioning and transmutation processes. The conventional light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle without PT technology, on which the current repository design is based, was also included for comparison. We focused on the thermal constraints in a geological repository and determined the necessary predisposal storage quantities and time periods (by defining a storage capacity index) for several predefined emplacement configurations through transient thermal analysis. The relation between this storage capacity index and the required repository emplacement area was obtained. We found that the introduction of the FBR fuel cycle without PT can yield a 35% smaller repository per unit electricity generation than the LWR fuel cycle, although the predisposal storage period is prolonged from 50 years for the LWR fuel cycle to 65 years for the FBR fuel cycle without PT. The introduction of the partitioning-only process does not result in a significant reduction of the repository emplacement area from that for the FBR fuel cycle without PT, but the introduction of the transmutation-only process can reduce the emplacement area by a factor of 5 when the storage period is extended from 65 to 95 years. When a coupled partitioning and transmutation system is introduced, the repository emplacement area can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude by assuming a predisposal storage of 60 years for glass waste and 295 years for calcined waste containing the Sr and Cs fraction. The storage period of 295 years for the calcined waste does not require a large

  20. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans.

    Heine, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  1. The partitioning of barium and lead between silicate melts and aqueous fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    Bureau, Helene; Menez, Benedicte; Khodja, Hicham; Daudin, Laurent; Gallien, Jean-Paul; Massare, Dominique; Shaw, Cliff; Metrich, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    The origin of subduction-related magmas is still a matter of debate in the Earth Sciences. These magmas are characterised by their distinctive trace element compositions compared to magmas from other tectonic settings, e.g. mid-ocean ridges or rifts. The distinct trace element composition of these magmas is generally attributed to alteration of the source region by a contaminating agent: either a silicate melt or a hydrous fluid, possibly chlorine-enriched. In this study, we have used μPIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) to analyse synthetic samples obtained from a micro-experimental petrology study that aims to determine the partitioning behaviour of two key elements, Ba and Pb, between silicate melt and both pure water and saline fluids. Our experiments were performed at high-pressure (>0.34-1.53 GPa) and high-temperature (697-1082 deg. C) in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell, that was used as a transparent rapid quench autoclave. We observed that at high pressure and temperature, in the presence of pure water, Ba and Pb are not strongly fractionated into one phase or the other. The partition coefficient of Pb is ranging from 0.46 to 1.28. Results from one experiment performed at 0.83 GPa and 847 deg. C, in the presence of a saline fluid indicate that the presence of Cl induces strong fractionation of Pb and moderate fractionation of Ba both into the silicate melt. In addition, our data indicate that Cl is strongly partitioned into the fluid phase

  2. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    Pittini, Riccardo

    as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main...... converter components. Wide bandgap power semiconductors are introduced due to their superior performance in comparison to traditional silicon power devices. The analysis presents a study based on switching loss measurements performed on Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs, SiC MOSFETs and their respective gate drivers...

  3. Adaptive Subframe Partitioning and Efficient Packet Scheduling in OFDMA Cellular System with Fixed Decode-and-Forward Relays

    Wang, Liping; Ji, Yusheng; Liu, Fuqiang

    The integration of multihop relays with orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) cellular infrastructures can meet the growing demands for better coverage and higher throughput. Resource allocation in the OFDMA two-hop relay system is more complex than that in the conventional single-hop OFDMA system. With time division between transmissions from the base station (BS) and those from relay stations (RSs), fixed partitioning of the BS subframe and RS subframes can not adapt to various traffic demands. Moreover, single-hop scheduling algorithms can not be used directly in the two-hop system. Therefore, we propose a semi-distributed algorithm called ASP to adjust the length of every subframe adaptively, and suggest two ways to extend single-hop scheduling algorithms into multihop scenarios: link-based and end-to-end approaches. Simulation results indicate that the ASP algorithm increases system utilization and fairness. The max carrier-to-interference ratio (Max C/I) and proportional fairness (PF) scheduling algorithms extended using the end-to-end approach obtain higher throughput than those using the link-based approach, but at the expense of more overhead for information exchange between the BS and RSs. The resource allocation scheme using ASP and end-to-end PF scheduling achieves a tradeoff between system throughput maximization and fairness.

  4. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  5. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A centrifugal compressor research effort conducted by United Technologies Research Center under NASA Research Announcement NNC08CB03C is documented. The objectives were to identify key technical barriers to advancing the aerodynamic performance of high-efficiency, high work factor, compact centrifugal compressor aft-stages for turboshaft engines; to acquire measurements needed to overcome the technical barriers and inform future designs; to design, fabricate, and test a new research compressor in which to acquire the requisite flow field data. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage -- splittered impeller, splittered diffuser, 90 degree bend, and exit guide vanes -- with aerodynamically aggressive performance and configuration (compactness) goals were designed, fabricated, and subquently tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  6. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  7. High efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes

    Fu, Congyi; Wang, Bohan; Zhao, Tianfei; Chen, C. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Energy transmission efficiency and working bandwidth are the two major factors limiting the application of current acoustic diodes (ADs). This letter presents a design of high efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes composed of a nonlinear frequency converter and a linear wave filter. The converter consists of two masses connected by a bilinear spring with asymmetric tension and compression stiffness. The wave filter is a linear mass-spring lattice (sonic crystal). Both numerical simulation and experiment show that the energy transmission efficiency of the acoustic diode can be improved by as much as two orders of magnitude, reaching about 61%. Moreover, the primary working band width of the AD is about two times of the cut-off frequency of the sonic crystal filter. The cut-off frequency dependent working band of the AD implies that the developed AD can be scaled up or down from macro-scale to micro- and nano-scale.

  8. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  9. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  10. High efficiency carbon nanotube thread antennas

    Amram Bengio, E.; Senic, Damir; Taylor, Lauren W.; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Chen, Peiyu; Holloway, Christopher L.; Babakhani, Aydin; Long, Christian J.; Novotny, David R.; Booth, James C.; Orloff, Nathan D.; Pasquali, Matteo

    2017-10-01

    Although previous research has explored the underlying theory of high-frequency behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNT bundles for antennas, there is a gap in the literature for direct experimental measurements of radiation efficiency. These measurements are crucial for any practical application of CNT materials in wireless communication. In this letter, we report a measurement technique to accurately characterize the radiation efficiency of λ/4 monopole antennas made from the CNT thread. We measure the highest absolute values of radiation efficiency for CNT antennas of any type, matching that of copper wire. To capture the weight savings, we propose a specific radiation efficiency metric and show that these CNT antennas exceed copper's performance by over an order of magnitude at 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. We also report direct experimental observation that, contrary to metals, the radiation efficiency of the CNT thread improves significantly at higher frequencies. These results pave the way for practical applications of CNT thread antennas, particularly in the aerospace and wearable electronics industries where weight saving is a priority.

  11. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  12. Treatment of low strains and long hold times in high temperature metal fatigue by strainrange partitioning

    Manson, S.S.; Zab, R.

    1977-08-01

    A simple procedure for treating creep-fatigue for low strainranges and long hold times is outlined. A semi-experimental approach, wherein several cycles of the imposed loading is actually applied to a specimen in order to determine the stable hysteresis loop, can be very useful in the analysis. Since such tests require only a small fraction of the total failure time, they are not inherently prohibitive if experimental equipment is available. It is, in fact, a simple method of by-passing the need for accurate constitutive equations since the material itself acts to translate the imposed loading into the responsive hysteresis loops. When Strainrange Partitioning has been applied in such cases very good results have been obtained

  13. High efficiency lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1982-08-01

    The polarization characteristics and the specific cathode capacity of Teflon bonded carbon electrodes in the Li/SOCl2 system have been evaluated. Doping of electrocatalysts such as cobalt and iron phthalocyanine complexes improved both cell voltage and cell rate capability. High efficiency Li/SOCl2 cells were thus achieved with catalyzed cathodes. The electrochemical reduction of SOCl2 seems to undergo modification at catalyzed cathode. For example, the reduction of SOCl2 at FePc catalyzed cathode involves 2-1/2 e-/mole of SOCl2. Furthermore, the reduction mechanism is simplified and unwanted chemical species are eliminated by the catalyst. Thus a potentially safer high efficiency Li/SOCl2 can be anticipated.

  14. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  15. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K. [Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  16. High efficiency inverter and ballast circuits

    Nilssen, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency push-pull inverter circuit employing a pair of relatively high power switching transistors is described. The switching on and off of the transistors is precisely controlled to minimize power losses due to common-mode conduction or due to transient conditions that occur in the process of turning a transistor on or off. Two current feed-back transformers are employed in the transistor base drives; one being saturable for providing a positive feedback, and the other being non-saturable for providing a subtractive feedback

  17. Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-10-01

    The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing X-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.

  18. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  19. Game-Theoretic Rate-Distortion-Complexity Optimization of High Efficiency Video Coding

    Ukhanova, Ann; Milani, Simone; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    profiles in order to tailor the computational load to the different hardware and power-supply resources of devices. In this work, we focus on optimizing the quantization parameter and partition depth in HEVC via a game-theoretic approach. The proposed rate control strategy alone provides 0.2 dB improvement......This paper presents an algorithm for rate-distortioncomplexity optimization for the emerging High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, whose high computational requirements urge the need for low-complexity optimization algorithms. Optimization approaches need to specify different complexity...

  20. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of

  1. Highly Efficient Estimators of Multivariate Location with High Breakdown Point

    Lopuhaa, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    We propose an affine equivariant estimator of multivariate location that combines a high breakdown point and a bounded influence function with high asymptotic efficiency. This proposal is basically a location $M$-estimator based on the observations obtained after scaling with an affine equivariant

  2. Parametric survey for benefit of partitioning and transmutation technology in terms of high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Kenji; Morita, Yasuji; Yokoo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takao; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Benefit of implementing Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) technology was parametrically surveyed in terms of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal by discussing possible reduction of the geological repository area. First, the amount and characteristics of HLWs caused from UO 2 and MOX spent fuels of light-water reactors (LWR) were evaluated for various reprocessing schemes and cooling periods. The emplacement area in the repository site required for the disposal of these HLWs was then estimated with considering the temperature constrain in the repository. The results showed that, by recycling minor actinides (MA), the emplacement area could be reduced by 17-29% in the case of UO 2 -LWR and by 63-85% in the case of MOX-LWR in comparison with the conventional PUREX reprocessing. This significant impact in MOX fuel was caused by the recycle of 241 Am which was a long-term heat source. Further 70-80% reduction of the emplacement area in comparison with the MA-recovery case could be expected by partitioning the fission products (FP) into several groups for both fuel types. To achieve this benefit of P and T, however, it is necessary to confirm the engineering feasibility of these unconventional disposal concepts. (author)

  3. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed.

  4. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L.

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed

  5. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  6. High-efficiency organic glass scintillators

    Feng, Patrick L.; Carlson, Joseph S.

    2017-12-19

    A new family of neutron/gamma discriminating scintillators is disclosed that comprises stable organic glasses that may be melt-cast into transparent monoliths. These materials have been shown to provide light yields greater than solution-grown trans-stilbene crystals and efficient PSD capabilities when combined with 0.01 to 0.05% by weight of the total composition of a wavelength-shifting fluorophore. Photoluminescence measurements reveal fluorescence quantum yields that are 2 to 5 times greater than conventional plastic or liquid scintillator matrices, which accounts for the superior light yield of these glasses. The unique combination of high scintillation light-yields, efficient neutron/gamma PSD, and straightforward scale-up via melt-casting distinguishes the developed organic glasses from existing scintillators.

  7. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  8. In-coupled syringe assisted octanol-water partition microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in honey.

    Vichapong, Jitlada; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2015-07-01

    A simple and fast method namely in-coupled syringe assisted octanol-water partition microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues (e.g. imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, and nitenpyram) in honey. The experimental parameters affected the extraction efficiency, including kind and concentration of salt, kind of disperser solvent and its volume, kind of extraction solvent and its volume, shooting times and extraction time were investigated. The extraction process was carried out by rapid shooting of two syringes. Therefore, rapid dispersion and mass transfer processes was created between phases, and thus affects the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The optimum extraction conditions were 10.00 mL of aqueous sample, 10% (w/v) Na2SO4, 1-octanol (100µL) as an extraction solvent, shooting 4 times and extraction time 2min. No disperser solvent and centrifugation step was necessary. Linearity was obtained within the range of 0.1-3000 ngmL(-1), with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The high enrichment factor of the target analytes was 100 fold and low limit of detection (0.25-0.50 ngmL(-1)) could be obtained. This proposed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of neonicotinoid residues in honey, and good recoveries in the range of 96.93-107.70% were obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  11. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  12. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  13. Nanooptics for high efficient photon managment

    Wyrowski, Frank; Schimmel, Hagen

    2005-09-01

    Optical systems for photon management, that is the generation of tailored electromagnetic fields, constitute one of the keys for innovation through photonics. An important subfield of photon management deals with the transformation of an incident light field into a field of specified intensity distribution. In this paper we consider some basic aspects of the nature of systems for those light transformations. It turns out, that the transversal redistribution of energy (TRE) is of central concern to achieve systems with high transformation efficiency. Besides established techniques nanostructured optical elements (NOE) are demanded to implement transversal energy redistribution. That builds a bridge between the needs of photon management, optical engineering, and nanooptics.

  14. Probabilistic Decision Based Block Partitioning for Future Video Coding

    Wang, Zhao

    2017-11-29

    In the latest Joint Video Exploration Team development, the quadtree plus binary tree (QTBT) block partitioning structure has been proposed for future video coding. Compared to the traditional quadtree structure of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, QTBT provides more flexible patterns for splitting the blocks, which results in dramatically increased combinations of block partitions and high computational complexity. In view of this, a confidence interval based early termination (CIET) scheme is proposed for QTBT to identify the unnecessary partition modes in the sense of rate-distortion (RD) optimization. In particular, a RD model is established to predict the RD cost of each partition pattern without the full encoding process. Subsequently, the mode decision problem is casted into a probabilistic framework to select the final partition based on the confidence interval decision strategy. Experimental results show that the proposed CIET algorithm can speed up QTBT block partitioning structure by reducing 54.7% encoding time with only 1.12% increase in terms of bit rate. Moreover, the proposed scheme performs consistently well for the high resolution sequences, of which the video coding efficiency is crucial in real applications.

  15. Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG.

    Shaw, Laxmi; Rahman, Daleef; Routray, Aurobinda

    2018-05-01

    The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov predictor, linear predictor, context-based error modeling, multivariate autoregression (MVAR), and a low complexity bivariate model have been examined and their performances have been compared. Furthermore, a high compression algorithm named general MVAR and a modified context-based error modeling for multichannel EEG have been proposed. The resulting compression algorithm produces a higher relative compression ratio of 70.64% on average compared with the existing methods, and in some cases, it goes up to 83.06%. The proposed methods are designed to compress a large amount of multichannel EEG data efficiently so that the data storage and transmission bandwidth can be effectively used. These methods have been validated using several experimental multichannel EEG recordings of different subjects and publicly available standard databases. The satisfactory parametric measures of these methods, namely percent-root-mean square distortion, peak signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and cross correlation, show their superiority over the state-of-the-art compression methods.

  16. Development of a pyro-partitioning process for long-lived radioactive nuclides. Process test for pretreatment of simulated high-level waste containing uranium

    Kurata, Masateru; Hijikata, Takatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Inoue, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    A pyro-partitioning process developed at CRIEPI requires a pre-treatment process to convert high-level liquid waste to chloride. A combination process of denitration and chlorination has been developed for this purpose. Continuous process tests using simulated high-level waste were performed to certify the applicability of the process. Test results indicated a successful material balance sufficient for satisfying pyro-partitioning process criteria. In the present study, process tests using simulated high-level waste containing uranium were also carried out to prove that the pre-treatment process is feasible for uranium. The results indicated that uranium can be converted to chloride appropriate for the pyro-partitioning process. The material balance obtained from the tests is to be used to revise the process flow diagram. (author)

  17. High efficiency double sided solar cells

    Seddik, M.M.

    1990-06-01

    Silicon technology state of the art for single crystalline was given to be limited to less than 20% efficiency. A proposed new form of photovoltaic solar cell of high current high efficiency with double sided structures has been given. The new forms could be n ++ pn ++ or p ++ np ++ double side junctions. The idea of double sided devices could be understood as two solar cells connected back-to-back in parallel electrical connection, in which the current is doubled if the cell is illuminated from both sides by a V-shaped reflector. The cell is mounted to the reflector such that each face is inclined at an angle of 45 deg. C to each side of the reflector. The advantages of the new structure are: a) High power devices. b) Easy to fabricate. c) The cells are used vertically instead of horizontal use of regular solar cell which require large area to install. This is very important in power stations and especially for satellite installation. If the proposal is made real and proved to be experimentally feasible, it would be a new era for photovoltaic solar cells since the proposal has already been extended to even higher currents. The suggested structures could be stated as: n ++ pn ++ Vp ++ np ++ ;n ++ pn ++ Vn ++ pn ++ ORp ++ np ++ Vp ++ np ++ . These types of structures are formed in wedged shape to employ indirect illumination by either parabolic; conic or V-shaped reflectors. The advantages of these new forms are low cost; high power; less in size and space; self concentrating; ... etc. These proposals if it happens to find their ways to be achieved experimentally, I think they will offer a short path to commercial market and would have an incredible impact on solar cell technology and applications. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  18. Simple Motor Control Concept Results High Efficiency at High Velocities

    Starin, Scott; Engel, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The need for high velocity motors in space applications for reaction wheels and detectors has stressed the limits of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors (BPMM). Due to inherent hysteresis core losses, conventional BPMMs try to balance the need for torque verses hysteresis losses. Cong-less motors have significantly less hysteresis losses but suffer from lower efficiencies. Additionally, the inherent low inductance in cog-less motors result in high ripple currents or high switching frequencies, which lowers overall efficiency and increases performance demands on the control electronics.However, using a somewhat forgotten but fully qualified technology of Isotropic Magnet Motors (IMM), extremely high velocities may be achieved at low power input using conventional drive electronics. This paper will discuss the trade study efforts and empirical test data on a 34,000 RPM IMM.

  19. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown

  20. Multiscale approaches to high efficiency photovoltaics

    Connolly James Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While renewable energies are achieving parity around the globe, efforts to reach higher solar cell efficiencies becomes ever more difficult as they approach the limiting efficiency. The so-called third generation concepts attempt to break this limit through a combination of novel physical processes and new materials and concepts in organic and inorganic systems. Some examples of semi-empirical modelling in the field are reviewed, in particular for multispectral solar cells on silicon (French ANR project MultiSolSi. Their achievements are outlined, and the limits of these approaches shown. This introduces the main topic of this contribution, which is the use of multiscale experimental and theoretical techniques to go beyond the semi-empirical understanding of these systems. This approach has already led to great advances at modelling which have led to modelling software, which is widely known. Yet, a survey of the topic reveals a fragmentation of efforts across disciplines, firstly, such as organic and inorganic fields, but also between the high efficiency concepts such as hot carrier cells and intermediate band concepts. We show how this obstacle to the resolution of practical research obstacles may be lifted by inter-disciplinary cooperation across length scales, and across experimental and theoretical fields, and finally across materials systems. We present a European COST Action “MultiscaleSolar” kicking off in early 2015, which brings together experimental and theoretical partners in order to develop multiscale research in organic and inorganic materials. The goal of this defragmentation and interdisciplinary collaboration is to develop understanding across length scales, which will enable the full potential of third generation concepts to be evaluated in practise, for societal and industrial applications.

  1. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  2. Design of High Efficient MPPT Solar Inverter

    Sunitha K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to design a High Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Solar Inverter. A boost converter is designed in the system to boost the power from the photovoltaic panel. By this experimental setup a room consisting of 500 Watts load (eight fluorescent tubes is completely controlled. It is aimed to decrease the maintenance cost. A microcontroller is introduced for tracking the P&O (Perturb and Observe algorithm used for tracking the maximum power point. The duty cycle for the operation of the boost convertor is optimally adjusted by using MPPT controller. There is a MPPT charge controller to charge the battery as well as fed to inverter which runs the load. Both the P&O scheme with the fixed variation for the reference current and the intelligent MPPT algorithm were able to identify the global Maximum power point, however the performance of the MPPT algorithm was better.

  3. High Efficiency Ka-Band Spatial Combiner

    D. Passi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Ka-Band, High Efficiency, Small Size Spatial Combiner (SPC is proposed in this paper, which uses an innovatively matched quadruple Fin Lines to microstrip (FLuS transitions. At the date of this paper and at the Author's best knowledge no such FLuS innovative transitions have been reported in literature before. These transitions are inserted into a WR28 waveguide T-junction, in order to allow the integration of 16 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPA's. A computational electromagnetic model using the finite elements method has been implemented. A mean insertion loss of 2 dB is achieved with a return loss better the 10 dB in the 31-37 GHz bandwidth.

  4. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen-Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2018-05-15

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaflop-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency. The network implements collective network and a global asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. Integrated in the node design include a list-based prefetcher. The memory system implements transaction memory, thread level speculation, and multiversioning cache that improves soft error rate at the same time and supports DMA functionality allowing for parallel processing message-passing.

  5. The CRRES high efficiency solar panel

    Trumble, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the High Efficiency Solar Panel (HESP) experiments which is to provide both engineering and scientific information concerning the effects of space radiation on advanced gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. The HESP experiment consists of an ambient panel, and annealing panel and a programmable load. This experiment, in conjunction with the radiation measurement experiments abroad the CREES, provides the first opportunity to simultaneously measure the trapped radiation belts and the results of radiation damage to solar cells. The engineering information will result in a design guide for selecting the optimum solar array characteristics for different orbits and different lifetimes. The scientific information will provide both correlation of laboratory damage effects to space damage effects and a better model for predicting effective solar cell panel lifetimes

  6. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  7. Highly efficient red electrophosphorescent devices at high current densities

    Wu Youzhi; Zhu Wenqing; Zheng Xinyou; Sun, Runguang; Jiang Xueyin; Zhang Zhilin; Xu Shaohong

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency decrease at high current densities in red electrophosphorescent devices is drastically restrained compared with that from conventional electrophosphorescent devices by using bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolate aluminum (BAlq) as a hole and exciton blocker. Ir complex, bis(2-(2'-benzo[4,5-α]thienyl) pyridinato-N,C 3' ) iridium (acetyl-acetonate) is used as an emitter, maximum external quantum efficiency (QE) of 7.0% and luminance of 10000cd/m 2 are obtained. The QE is still as high as 4.1% at higher current density J=100mA/cm 2 . CIE-1931 co-ordinates are 0.672, 0.321. A carrier trapping mechanism is revealed to dominate in the process of electroluminescence

  8. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W e using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated

  9. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  10. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  11. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  12. High bandgap III-V alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics

    Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Wanlass, Mark

    2017-01-10

    High bandgap alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics are disclosed. An exemplary optoelectronic device may include a substrate, at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer, and a step-grade buffer between the substrate and at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer. The buffer may begin with a layer that is substantially lattice matched to GaAs, and may then incrementally increase the lattice constant in each sequential layer until a predetermined lattice constant of Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP is reached.

  13. Performance of a high efficiency high power UHF klystron

    Konrad, G.T.

    1977-03-01

    A 500 kW c-w klystron was designed for the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The tube operates at 353.2 MHz, 62 kV, a microperveance of 0.75, and a gain of approximately 50 dB. Stable operation is required for a VSWR as high as 2 : 1 at any phase angle. The design efficiency is 70%. To obtain this value of efficiency, a second harmonic cavity is used in order to produce a very tightly bunched beam in the output gap. At the present time it is planned to install 12 such klystrons in PEP. A tube with a reduced size collector was operated at 4% duty at 500 kW. An efficiency of 63% was observed. The same tube was operated up to 200 kW c-w for PEP accelerator cavity tests. A full-scale c-w tube reached 500 kW at 65 kV with an efficiency of 55%. In addition to power and phase measurements into a matched load, some data at various load mismatches are presented

  14. Efficient Extraction of High Centrality Vertices in Distributed Graphs

    Kumbhare, Alok [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Raghavendra, Cauligi S. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Betweenness centrality (BC) is an important measure for identifying high value or critical vertices in graphs, in variety of domains such as communication networks, road networks, and social graphs. However, calculating betweenness values is prohibitively expensive and, more often, domain experts are interested only in the vertices with the highest centrality values. In this paper, we first propose a partition-centric algorithm (MS-BC) to calculate BC for a large distributed graph that optimizes resource utilization and improves overall performance. Further, we extend the notion of approximate BC by pruning the graph and removing a subset of edges and vertices that contribute the least to the betweenness values of other vertices (MSL-BC), which further improves the runtime performance. We evaluate the proposed algorithms using a mix of real-world and synthetic graphs on an HPC cluster and analyze its strengths and weaknesses. The experimental results show an improvement in performance of upto 12x for large sparse graphs as compared to the state-of-the-art, and at the same time highlights the need for better partitioning methods to enable a balanced workload across partitions for unbalanced graphs such as small-world or power-law graphs.

  15. Trace element partitioning between ilmenite, armalcolite and anhydrous silicate melt: Implications for the formation of lunar high-Ti mare basalts

    Kan Parker, M. van; Mason, P.R.D.; Westrenen, W. van

    2011-01-01

    We performed a series of experiments at high pressures and temperatures to determine the partitioning of a wide range of trace elements between ilmenite (Ilm), armalcolite (Arm) and anhydrous lunar silicate melt, to constrain geochemical models of the formation of titanium-rich melts in the Moon.

  16. Series-Tuned High Efficiency RF-Power Amplifiers

    Vidkjær, Jens

    2008-01-01

    An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits.......An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits....

  17. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Highly efficient silicon light emitting diode

    Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, Hans

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a

  19. A novel high efficiency solar photovoltalic pump

    Diepens, J.F.L.; Smulders, P.T.; Vries, de D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The daily average overall efficiency of a solar pump system is not only influenced by the maximum efficiency of the components of the system, but just as much by the correct matching of the components to the local irradiation pattern. Normally centrifugal pumps are used in solar pump systems. The

  20. High efficiency targets for high gain inertial confinement fusion

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at the short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, pellets using 1/4 micron laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150 to 200) may produce energy gains as high as 200 to 250

  1. High power klystrons for efficient reliable high power amplifiers

    Levin, M.

    1980-11-01

    This report covers the design of reliable high efficiency, high power klystrons which may be used in both existing and proposed troposcatter radio systems. High Power (10 kW) klystron designs were generated in C-band (4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz), S-band (2.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz), and L-band or UHF frequencies (755 MHz to 985 MHz). The tubes were designed for power supply compatibility and use with a vapor/liquid phase heat exchanger. Four (4) S-band tubes were developed in the course of this program along with two (2) matching focusing solenoids and two (2) heat exchangers. These tubes use five (5) tuners with counters which are attached to the focusing solenoids. A reliability mathematical model of the tube and heat exchanger system was also generated.

  2. Martensitic transformation and stress partitioning in a high-carbon steel

    Villa, Matteo; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg; Pantleon, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Martensitic transformation in a high-carbon steel was investigated with (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction at sub-zero Celsius temperature. In situ angular X-ray diffraction was applied to: (i) quantitatively determine the fractions of retained austenite and martensite; and (ii) measure the evolutio...

  3. Partitioning and recovery of neptunium from high level waste streams of PUREX origin using 30% TBP

    Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Balarama Krishna, M.V.; Iyer, R.H.; Chitnis, R.R.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    237 Np is one of the longest-lived nuclides among the actinides present in the high level waste solutions of reprocessing origin. Its separation, recovery and transmutation can reduce the problem of long term storage of the vitrified waste to a great extent. With this objective, the present work was initiated to study the extraction of neptunium into TBP under the conditions relevant to high level waste, along with uranium and plutonium by oxidising it to hexavalent state using potassium dichromate and subsequently recovering it by selective stripping. Three types of simulated HLW solutions namely sulphate bearing (SB), with an acidity of ∼ 0.3 M and non-sulphate wastes originating from the reprocessing of fuels from pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) with acidities of 3.0 M HNO 3 were employed in these studies. The extraction of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) was very high for PHWR- and FBR-HLW solutions, whereas for the SB-HLW solution, these values were less but reasonably high. Quantitative recovery of neptunium and plutonium was achieved using a stripping solution containing 0.1 M H 2 O 2 and 0.01 M ascorbic acid at an acidity of 2.0 M. Since, cerium present in the waste solutions is expected to undergo oxidation in presence of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , its extraction behaviour was also studied under similar conditions. Based on the results, a scheme was formulated for the recovery of neptunium along with plutonium and was successfully applied to actual high level waste solution originating from the reprocessing of research reactor fuels. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  4. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  5. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  6. High Efficiency Refrigeration Process, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It has been proposed by NASA JSC studies, that the most mass efficient (non-nuclear) method of Lunar habitat cooling is via photovoltaic (PV) direct vapor...

  7. Growth of sugarcane under high input conditions in tropical Australia. 1. Radiation use, biomass accumulation and partitioning

    Robertson, M.J.; Wood, A.W.; Muchow, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    There is little detailed information on yield accumulation in sugarcane under high-input conditions, which can be used to quantify the key physiological parameters contributing to yield variation. Sugarcane is grown under plant and ratoon crop conditions. This study analysed canopy development, radiation interception and biomass accumulation of two contrasting cultivars of sugarcane under irrigation during the same season under plant and ratoon crop conditions. Over the 15 month season, 11 crop samplings were conducted. Biomass partitioning to stalk was also measured to determine to what extent differences in partitioning between cultivars under ratoon and plant crop conditions contribute to differential productivity. The key findings were: (1) The ratoon crop accumulated biomass more quickly than the plant crop during the first 100 days of growth due to higher stalk number, faster canopy development and greater radiation interception. For similar reasons, cultivar Q138 had higher early biomass production than cultivar Q117 in the plant crop, (2) Early differences in biomass accumulation due to crop class became negligible at about 220 days because maximum RUE of the plant crop (1.72 +/- 0.01 g MJ -1 ) was 8% higher than in the first ratoon crop (1.59 +/- 0.08 g MJ -1 ). The higher maximum RUE in the plant crop was consistent with a higher crop growth rate (35.1 +/- 2.3 versus 31.0 +/- 3.4 g m -2 d -1 ) during the Linear phase of biomass accumulation. (3) Biomass accumulation, which ceased about 300 days after planting/ratooning and 140 days before final harvest, attained similar levels of 53-58 t ha -1 in all four crops. (4) The plateau in biomass was associated with loss of live millable stalks, and not a cessation in the growth rate of individual stalks. The crops continued to intercept radiation while on the biomass plateau, so that average RUEs at final harvest were much lower than the maximum values. (5) There was no effect of crop class or cultivar on the

  8. High-throughput sequencing offers insight into mechanisms of resource partitioning in cryptic bat species

    Razgour, Orly; Clare, Elizabeth L.; Zeale, Matt R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Sympatric cryptic species, characterized by low morphological differentiation, pose a challenge to understanding the role of interspecific competition in structuring ecological communities. We used traditional (morphological) and novel molecular methods of diet analysis to study the diet of two...... of the cryptic bats, 60% of which were assigned to a likely species or genus. The findings from the molecular study supported the results of microscopic analyses in showing that the diets of both species were dominated by lepidopterans. However, HTS provided a sufficiently high resolution of prey identification...

  9. Actinide partitioning from high level liquid waste using the Diamex process

    Madic, C.; Blanc, P.; Condamines, N.; Baron, P.; Berthon, L.; Nicol, C.; Pozo, C.; Lecomte, M.; Philippe, M.; Masson, M.; Hequet, C.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of long-lived radionuclides, which belong to the so-called minor actinides elements, neptunium, americium and curium, from the high level nuclear wastes separated during the reprocessing of the irradiated nuclear fuels in order to transmute them into short-lived nuclides, can substantially decrease the potential hazards associated with the management of these nuclear wastes. In order to separate minor actinides from high-level liquid wastes (HLLW), a liquid-liquid extraction process was considered, based on the use of diamide molecules, which display the property of being totally burnable, thus they do not generate secondary solid wastes. The main extracting properties of dimethyldibutyltetradecylmalonamide (DMDBTDMA), the diamide selected for the development of the DIAMEX process, are briefly described in this paper. Hot tests of the DIAMEX process (using DMDBTDMA) related to the treatment of an mixed oxide fuels (MOX) type HLLW, were successfully performed. The minor actinide decontamination factors of the HLLW obtained were encouraging. The main results of these tests are presented and discussed in this paper. (authors). 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  10. High Power High Efficiency Diode Laser Stack for Processing

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hui; Fu, Yueming; Cui, Yan

    2018-03-01

    High-power diode lasers based on GaAs semiconductor bars are well established as reliable and highly efficient laser sources. As diode laser is simple in structure, small size, longer life expectancy with the advantages of low prices, it is widely used in the industry processing, such as heat treating, welding, hardening, cladding and so on. Respectively, diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. At this power level, it can have many important applications, such as surgery, welding of polymers, soldering, coatings and surface treatment of metals. But there are some applications, which require much higher power and brightness, e.g. hardening, key hole welding, cutting and metal welding. In addition, High power diode lasers in the military field also have important applications. So all developed countries have attached great importance to high-power diode laser system and its applications. This is mainly due their low performance. In this paper we will introduce the structure and the principle of the high power diode stack.

  11. Carbon partitioning in the food web of a high mountain lake: from bacteria to zooplankton

    Alessandra PUGNETTI

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The organisms of the microbial loop in Lake Paione Superiore (LPS, a high mountain lake in the Italian Alpine region, were studied together with phytoplankton and zooplankton for three successive years. The biomass of bacteria, HNF (heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates and phytoplankton, as mean carbon concentration in the three years, was 30 and 37 μg C l-1 near the surface (SUR and the bottom (BOT respectively. Under the ice-cover the mean biomass carbon decreased especially at the BOT, whereas at SUR the decrease was less evident due to the maintenance of higher phytoplankton biomass (mixotrophic flagellates. In LPS ~50% of the carbon was confined in bacteria, 20% in protozoa and 30% in phytoplankton. The ratio Autotrophs/Heterotrophs was lower than 1 (mean: 0,97 at SUR and 0,58 at BOT thus indicating a system with a predominance of the heterotrophs. This might be the result of light inhibition of algal growth coupled to a production of dissolved carbon, utilized by bacteria. During late summer the peak of Daphnia longispina, the main component of the zooplankton of LPS, increased the carbon content in the lake to a total of 158 and 300 μg C l-1 in 1997 and 1998 respectively. At the late summer peaks, zooplankton represented from 78 to 89% of the total carbon of the pelagic communities. Furthermore, the presence of Daphnia could be responsible for a decrease in the biomass carbon of a variety of organisms (algae, protozoa and bacteria. It may be possible that this is an instance of zooplankton grazing on algae, protozoa and also bacteria, as Daphnia has very broad niches and may eat pico-, nanoplankton and small ciliates. In the oligotrophic LPS, a diet which also includes protozoa could give Daphnia a further chance of survival, as ciliates are an important source of fatty acids and sterols.

  12. Constant Flux of Spatial Niche Partitioning through High-Resolution Sampling of Magnetotactic Bacteria.

    He, Kuang; Gilder, Stuart A; Orsi, William D; Zhao, Xiangyu; Petersen, Nikolai

    2017-10-15

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) swim along magnetic field lines in water. They are found in aquatic habitats throughout the world, yet knowledge of their spatial and temporal distribution remains limited. To help remedy this, we took MTB-bearing sediment from a natural pond, mixed the thoroughly homogenized sediment into two replicate aquaria, and then counted three dominant MTB morphotypes (coccus, spirillum, and rod-shaped MTB cells) at a high spatiotemporal sampling resolution: 36 discrete points in replicate aquaria were sampled every ∼30 days over 198 days. Population centers of the MTB coccus and MTB spirillum morphotypes moved in continual flux, yet they consistently inhabited separate locations, displaying significant anticorrelation. Rod-shaped MTB were initially concentrated toward the northern end of the aquaria, but at the end of the experiment, they were most densely populated toward the south. The finding that the total number of MTB cells increased over time during the experiment argues that population reorganization arose from relative changes in cell division and death and not from migration. The maximum net growth rates were 10, 3, and 1 doublings day -1 and average net growth rates were 0.24, 0.11, and 0.02 doublings day -1 for MTB cocci, MTB spirilla, and rod-shaped MTB, respectively; minimum growth rates for all three morphotypes were -0.03 doublings day -1 Our results suggest that MTB cocci and MTB spirilla occupy distinctly different niches: their horizontal positioning in sediment is anticorrelated and under constant flux. IMPORTANCE Little is known about the horizontal distribution of magnetotactic bacteria in sediment or how the distribution changes over time. We therefore measured three dominant magnetotactic bacterium morphotypes at 36 places in two replicate aquaria each month for 7 months. We found that the spatial positioning of population centers changed over time and that the two most abundant morphotypes (MTB cocci and MTB spirilla

  13. Partitional clustering algorithms

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  14. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Some major challenges in the development of L2L products is the lack of efficient converter electronics, modelling tools for dimensioning and furthermore, characterization facilities to support the successful development of the products. We report the development of 2 Three-Port-Converters respec...

  15. Present status of partitioning developments

    Nakamura, Haruto; Kubota, Masumitsu; Tachimori, Shoichi

    1978-09-01

    Evolution and development of the concept of partitioning of high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) in nuclear fuel reprocessing are reviewed historically from the early phase of separating useful radioisotopes from HLLW to the recent phase of eliminating hazardous nuclides such as transuranium elements for safe waste disposal. Since the criteria in determining the nuclides for elimination and the respective decontamination factors are important in the strategy of partitioning, current views on the criteria are summarized. As elimination of the transuranium is most significant in the partitioning, various methods available of separating them from fission products are evaluated. (auth.)

  16. High pressure study of water-salt systems, phase equilibria, partitioning, thermodynic properties and implication for large icy worlds hydrospheres.

    Journaux, B.; Brown, J. M.; Abramson, E.; Petitgirard, S.; Pakhomova, A.; Boffa Ballaran, T.; Collings, I.

    2017-12-01

    Water salt systems are predicted to be present in deep hydrosphere inside water-rich planetary bodies, following water/rock chemical interaction during early differentiation stages or later hydrothermal activity. Unfortunately the current knowledge of the thermodynamic and physical properties of aqueous salt mixtures at high pressure and high temperature is still insufficient to allow realistic modeling of the chemical or dynamic of thick planetary hydrospheres. Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability fields, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions. Effects currently being investigated by our research group also covers ice melting curve depressions that depend on the salt species and incorporation of solutes inside the crystallographic lattice of high pressure ices. Both of these could have very important implication at the planetary scale, enabling thicker/deeper liquid oceans, and allowing chemical transportation through the high pressure ice layer in large icy worlds. We will present the latest results obtained in-situ using diamond anvil cell, coupled with Synchrotron X-Ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and optical observations, allowing to probe the crystallographic structure, equations of state, partitioning and phase boundary of high pressure ice VI and VII in equilibrium with Na-Mg-SO4-Cl ionic species at high pressures (1-10 GPa). The difference in melting behavior depending on the dissolved salt species was characterized, suggesting differences in ionic speciation at liquidus conditions. The solidus P-T conditions were also measured as well as an increase of lattice volumes interpreted as an outcome of ionic incorporation in HP ice during incongruent crystallization. The measured phase diagrams, lattice volumes and important salt incorporations suggest a more complex picture of the

  17. Characterization of Phase Chemistry and Partitioning in a Family of High-Strength Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Lapington, M. T.; Crudden, D. J.; Reed, R. C.; Moody, M. P.; Bagot, P. A. J.

    2018-06-01

    A family of novel polycrystalline Ni-based superalloys with varying Ti:Nb ratios has been created using computational alloy design techniques, and subsequently characterized using atom probe tomography and electron microscopy. Phase chemistry, elemental partitioning, and γ' character have been analyzed and compared with thermodynamic predictions created using Thermo-Calc. Phase compositions and γ' volume fraction were found to compare favorably with the thermodynamically predicted values, while predicted partitioning behavior for Ti, Nb, Cr, and Co tended to overestimate γ' preference over the γ matrix, often with opposing trends vs Nb concentration.

  18. Unique Path Partitions

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  19. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  20. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    Teo, Peili; Wickens, Zachary K.; Dong, Guangbin; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Why partition nuclear waste

    Cohen, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A cursory review of literature dealing with various separatory processes involved in the handling of high-level liquid nuclear waste discloses that, for the most part, discussion centers on separation procedures and methodology for handling the resulting fractions, particularly the actinide wastes. There appears to be relatively little discussion on the incentives or motivations for performing these separations in the first place. Discussion is often limited to the assumption that we must separate out ''long-term'' from our ''short-term'' management problems. This paper deals with that assumption and devotes primary attention to the question of ''why partition waste'' rather than the question of ''how to partition waste'' or ''what to do with the segregated waste.''

  3. High efficiency nebulization for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; McCormick, Ryan; Levine, Jonathan A.; Liu Huiying; Nam, S.-H.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatically-driven, high efficiency nebulizer is explored for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The aerosol characteristics and analyte transport efficiencies of the high efficiency nebulizer for nebulization with helium are measured and compared to the results obtained with argon. Analytical performance indices of the helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are evaluated in terms of detection limits and precision. The helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection limits obtained with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min are higher than those achieved with the ultrasonic nebulizer consuming 2 mL/min solution, however, precision is generally better with high efficiency nebulizer (1-4% vs. 3-8% with ultrasonic nebulizer). Detection limits with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min solution uptake rate approach those using ultrasonic nebulizer upon efficient desolvation with a heated spray chamber followed by a Peltier-cooled multipass condenser

  4. Recent Advances in High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Yoshio; Ohshita; Hidetoshi; Suzuki; Kenichi; Nishimura; Masafumi; Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity is limited around 25%,when we use single junction solar cells. In the single junction cells,the major energy losses arise from the spectrum mismatching. When the photons excite carriers with energy well in excess of the bandgap,these excess energies were converted to heat by the rapid thermalization. On the other hand,the light with lower energy than that of the bandgap cannot be absorbed by the semiconductor,resulting in the losses. One way...

  5. High efficiency cyclotron trap assisted positron moderator

    Gerchow, L.; Cooke, D. A.; Braccini, S.; Döbeli, M.; Kirch, K.; Köster, U.; Müller, A.; Van Der Meulen, N. P.; Vermeulen, C.; Rubbia, A.; Crivelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    We report the realisation of a cyclotron trap assisted positron tungsten moderator for the conversion of positrons with a broad keV- few MeV energy spectrum to a mono-energetic eV beam with an efficiency of 1.8(2)% defined as the ratio of the slow positrons divided by the $\\beta^+$ activity of the radioactive source. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude compared to the state of the art of tungsten moderators. The simulation validated with this measurement suggests that usi...

  6. A high-efficiency electromechanical battery

    Post, Richard F.; Fowler, T. K.; Post, Stephen F.

    1993-03-01

    In our society there is a growing need for efficient cost-effective means for storing electrical energy. The electric auto is a prime example. Storage systems for the electric utilities, and for wind or solar power, are other examples. While electrochemical cells could in principle supply these needs, the existing E-C batteries have well-known limitations. This article addresses an alternative, the electromechanical battery (EMB). An EMB is a modular unit consisting of an evacuated housing containing a fiber-composite rotor. The rotor is supported by magnetic bearings and contains an integrally mounted permanent magnet array. This article addresses design issues for EMBs with rotors made up of nested cylinders. Issues addressed include rotational stability, stress distributions, generator/motor power and efficiency, power conversion, and cost. It is concluded that the use of EMBs in electric autos could result in a fivefold reduction (relative to the IC engine) in the primary energy input required for urban driving, with a concomitant major positive impact on our economy and on air pollution.

  7. High-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria for ternary systems composed by {(E)-2-hexenal or hexanal + carbon dioxide + water}: Partition coefficient measurement

    Bejarano, Arturo; López, Pablo I.; Valle, José M. del; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new apparatus based on a static–analytic method was assembled in this work. • This work reports high-pressure VLE data of (E)-2-hexenal or hexanal + CO 2 + water. • Data includes (CO 2 + water) partition coefficients of (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal. • High separation factors from water (∼10 4 ) were found especially for (E)-2-hexenal. • The data were obtained at T = (313, 323, and 333) K and pressures from (8 to 19) MPa. - Abstract: A new apparatus based on a static–analytic method assembled in this work was utilised to perform high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements of aqueous ternary systems. This work includes values of isothermal partition coefficients between CO 2 and water of two apple aroma constituents, (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal. Additionally, this work reports new experimental (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements for the ternary systems (CO 2 + (E)-2-hexenal + water) and (CO 2 + hexanal + water), at fixed liquid phase composition (600 mg · kg −1 ), at temperatures of (313, 323 and 333) K and at pressures from (8 to 19) MPa. Vapour liquid interphase was checked and monitored visually for all the systems studied in this work. No liquid immiscibility was observed at the composition, temperatures and pressures studied. In order to suggest reasonable operation conditions for fractionation of aromas with dense carbon dioxide, partition coefficients of the aroma compounds between CO 2 and water along with their separation factors from water were calculated. Partition coefficients of (E)-2-hexenal between CO 2 and water were in the range of (6 to 91) and where found to be near six times higher than those of hexanal (9 to 17). Very high separation factors from water were observed (∼10 4 ) especially for (E)-2-hexenal. The highest separation factor, for both compounds, was found at a temperature of 313 K and pressures from (12 to 14) MPa

  8. Development of high efficiency neutron detectors

    Pickrell, M.M.; Menlove, H.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have designed a novel neutron detector system using conventional 3 He detector tubes and composites of polyethylene and graphite. At this time the design consists entirely of MCNP simulations of different detector configurations and materials. These detectors are applicable to low-level passive and active neutron assay systems such as the passive add-a-source and the 252 Cf shuffler. Monte Carlo simulations of these neutron detector designs achieved efficiencies of over 35% for assay chambers that can accommodate 55-gal. drums. Only slight increases in the number of detector tubes and helium pressure are required. The detectors also have reduced die-away times. Potential applications are coincident and multiplicity neutron counting for waste disposal and safeguards. The authors will present the general design philosophy, underlying physics, calculation mechanics, and results

  9. High efficient white organic light emitting diodes

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the last years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where general lighting presents a most interesting application target. We demonstrate, how the color coordinates of the emission spectrum can be adjusted using a combinatorial evaporation tool to lie on the desired black body curve representing cold and warm white, respectively. The evaluation includes phosphorescent and fluorescent dye approaches to optimize lifetime and efficiency, simultaneously. Detailed results are presented with respect to variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of each layer within the OLED stack. The most promising approach contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one as blue phosphorescent dopants are not yet stable enough to achieve long lifetimes.

  10. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  11. A high-efficiency superconductor distributed amplifier

    Herr, Q P, E-mail: quentin.herr@ngc.co [Northrop Grumman Corporation, 7323 Aviation Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21240 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A superconductor output amplifier that converts single-flux-quantum signals to a non-return-to-zero pattern is reported using a twelve-stage distributed amplifier configuration. The output amplitude is measured to be 1.75 mV over a wide bias current range of {+-} 12%. The bit error rate is measured using a Delta-Sigma data pattern to be less than 1 x 10{sup -9} at 10 Gb s{sup -1} per channel. Analysis of the eye diagram suggests that the actual bit error rate may be much lower. The amplifier has power efficiency of 12% neglecting the termination resistor, which may be eliminated from the circuit with a small modification. (rapid communication)

  12. High Efficiency Regenerative Helium Compressor, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Helium plays several critical rolls in spacecraft propulsion. High pressure helium is commonly used to pressurize propellant fuel tanks. Helium cryocoolers can be...

  13. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  14. A hardware-oriented concurrent TZ search algorithm for High-Efficiency Video Coding

    Doan, Nghia; Kim, Tae Sung; Rhee, Chae Eun; Lee, Hyuk-Jae

    2017-12-01

    High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is the latest video coding standard, in which the compression performance is double that of its predecessor, the H.264/AVC standard, while the video quality remains unchanged. In HEVC, the test zone (TZ) search algorithm is widely used for integer motion estimation because it effectively searches the good-quality motion vector with a relatively small amount of computation. However, the complex computation structure of the TZ search algorithm makes it difficult to implement it in the hardware. This paper proposes a new integer motion estimation algorithm which is designed for hardware execution by modifying the conventional TZ search to allow parallel motion estimations of all prediction unit (PU) partitions. The algorithm consists of the three phases of zonal, raster, and refinement searches. At the beginning of each phase, the algorithm obtains the search points required by the original TZ search for all PU partitions in a coding unit (CU). Then, all redundant search points are removed prior to the estimation of the motion costs, and the best search points are then selected for all PUs. Compared to the conventional TZ search algorithm, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly decreases the Bjøntegaard Delta bitrate (BD-BR) by 0.84%, and it also reduces the computational complexity by 54.54%.

  15. Partitioning of actinides from high active waste solution of Purex origin counter-current extraction studies using TBP and CMPO

    Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalkrishnan, V.; Wattal, P.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Murali, M.S.; Mathur, J.N.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2000-10-01

    A solvent extraction scheme has been formulated for the partitioning of actinides from Purex high level waste (HLW). The scheme is based on the results of earlier studies carried out with simulated waste solutions. In the present studies, the scheme was tested with high active waste (HAW) solution generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel from research reactors using laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The proposed process involved two-step extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamolylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO). In the first step, uranium, neptunium and plutonium were removed from the waste using TBP as extractant. The minor actinides left in the raffinate were extracted using a mixture of CMPO and TBP in the second step. The results showed complete extraction of actinides from the waste solution. Plutonium and neptunium extracted in TBP, were stripped together using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid in 2 M nitric acid medium, leaving uranium in the organic phase. Uranium can later be stripped using dilute nitric acid. Actinides extracted in CMPO-TBP phase were stripped using a mixture of formic acid, hydrazine, hydrate and citric acid. The stripping was quantitative in both the stripping runs. An additional extraction step for the preferential recovery of uranium, neptunium and plutonium from the waste solution using TBP is a modification over the conventional Truex process. Selective stripping of neptunium and plutonium from large quantities of uranium. The extraction of uranium using TBP eliminates the possibility of third phase and undesired loading of CMPO-TBP in the following step. Use of citrate-containing strippant allows the recovery of actinides from loaded CMPO-TBP mixture without causing any reflux of the actinides during stripping. The process has been developed with due consideration to minimising the generation of secondary wastes. The proposed strippants are effective even in presence of

  16. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    ZHOU Yimei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  17. Enhancing mechanism of intestinal absorption of highly lipophilic compounds using microemulsion – Quantitative analysis of the partitioning to the mesenteric lymph in intestinal cells

    Kazunori Iwanaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of the fatty acid alkyl-chain length of a polyethylene glycol (PEG glyceryl ester, which was used as a microemulsion oil component, on the partitioning of highly lipophilic compounds to the mesenteric lymph after oral administration. Oil blue N, a highly lipophilic anthraquinone derivative, was orally administered to lymph duct-cannulated and untreated rats in two kinds of different microemulsions. Gelucire® 50/13 and Gelucire® 44/14 were used as the oil component with long chain and medium chain fatty acid portions, respectively, of PEG glyceryl esters in microemulsions. The cumulative amount of oil blue N in lymph fluid was almost the same between the two microemulsions, although the transferred amount of oil component (triglyceride in the lymph after administration of the Gelucire® 50/13 microemulsion was significantly higher than that of the Gelucire® 44/14 microemulsion. On the other hand, the solubility of oil blue N in Gelucire® 44/14 was much higher than that in Gelucire® 50/13. No significant differences were observed between microemulsions in the bioavailability of oil blue N. From these data, the partitioning of oil blue N to the lymph was calculated using a mathematical model, showing that the partitioning ratios of oil blue N to the lymph fluid were almost the same for both microemulsions. The solubility of oil blue N to the oil component of the microemulsions and the transfer of triglycerides to the lymph after administration of the microemulsions counteract each other, leading to similar partitioning ratios of oil blue N to the lymph.

  18. Comparative partitioning and availability of endogenous and exogenous 226Ra in farm soils from a Brazilian high natural radioactive region

    Lima, V.T.; Penna Franca, E.; Fizsman, M.

    1988-01-01

    A sequential selective extraction was performed to determine and compare the partitioning of endogenous and exogenous Ra-226 in farm soils. The methodology allowed a good discrimination between the natural and anthropogenic origins of radium, and the exogenous form was three times more available than the endogenous one. After, a brown-bean crop, it was observed a remobilization of Ra-226 in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and reducible fractions, and a increment of this element in the soluble phase. (author)

  19. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  20. Model-based clustering of DNA methylation array data: a recursive-partitioning algorithm for high-dimensional data arising as a mixture of beta distributions

    Wiemels Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in DNA sequence. One of the most commonly studied epigenetic alterations is cytosine methylation, which is a well recognized mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing and often occurs at tumor suppressor gene loci in human cancer. Arrays are now being used to study DNA methylation at a large number of loci; for example, the Illumina GoldenGate platform assesses DNA methylation at 1505 loci associated with over 800 cancer-related genes. Model-based cluster analysis is often used to identify DNA methylation subgroups in data, but it is unclear how to cluster DNA methylation data from arrays in a scalable and reliable manner. Results We propose a novel model-based recursive-partitioning algorithm to navigate clusters in a beta mixture model. We present simulations that show that the method is more reliable than competing nonparametric clustering approaches, and is at least as reliable as conventional mixture model methods. We also show that our proposed method is more computationally efficient than conventional mixture model approaches. We demonstrate our method on the normal tissue samples and show that the clusters are associated with tissue type as well as age. Conclusion Our proposed recursively-partitioned mixture model is an effective and computationally efficient method for clustering DNA methylation data.

  1. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the following...

  2. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Anirban Mukherjee; Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv of less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} has been developed and the products have been characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} have been prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Phase separation did not occur when the solid solutions were heat treated at 700 C. A flow reactor system constructed of quartz and teflon has been constructed, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) suitable for measuring sub-ppmv levels of H{sub 2}S has been purchased with LSU matching funds. Preliminary desulfurization tests using commercial CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} in highly reducing gas compositions has confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} is more effective than CeO{sub 2} in removing H{sub 2}S. At 700 C the product H{sub 2}S concentration using CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbent was near the 0.1 ppmv PFPD detection limit during the prebreakthrough period.

  3. Highly efficient induction of chirality in intramolecular

    Cossio; Arrieta; Lecea; Alajarin; Vidal; Tovar

    2000-06-16

    Highly stereocontrolled, intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloadditions between ketenimines and imines leading to 1,2-dihydroazeto[2, 1-b]quinazolines have been achieved. The source of stereocontrol is a chiral carbon atom adjacent either to the iminic carbon or nitrogen atom. In the first case, the stereocontrol stems from the preference for the axial conformer in the first transition structure. In the second case, the origin of the stereocontrol lies on the two-electron stabilizing interaction between the C-C bond being formed and the sigma orbital corresponding to the polar C-X bond, X being an electronegative atom. These models can be extended to other related systems for predicting the stereochemical outcome in this intramolecular reaction.

  4. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  5. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  6. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Anirban Mukherjee; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-03-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing ceria and zirconia have been studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents with the objective of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S in the product gas. The research was justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and was postulated to have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that were exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S were constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time was determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations from approximately 0.1 to 10 ppmv, and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, were obtained

  7. All passive architecture for high efficiency cascaded Raman conversion

    Balaswamy, V.; Arun, S.; Chayran, G.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    Cascaded Raman fiber lasers have offered a convenient method to obtain scalable, high-power sources at various wavelength regions inaccessible with rare-earth doped fiber lasers. A limitation previously was the reduced efficiency of these lasers. Recently, new architectures have been proposed to enhance efficiency, but this came at the cost of enhanced complexity, requiring an additional low-power, cascaded Raman laser. In this work, we overcome this with a new, all-passive architecture for high-efficiency cascaded Raman conversion. We demonstrate our architecture with a fifth-order cascaded Raman converter from 1117nm to 1480nm with output power of ~64W and efficiency of 60%.

  8. Determination of octanol-water partition coefficients of polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (N-PAC) by high performance liquid chromatography

    Helweg, C.; Nielsen, T.; Hansen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    Prediction of 1-octanol water partition coefficients for a range of polar N-PAC from HPLC capacity coefficients has been investigated. Two commercially available columns, an ODS column and a Diol column were tested with water-methanol eluents. The best prediction of log K-ow for N-PAC was achieve...... with size and log K-ow for N-PAC was 1.1-1.3 lower than log K-ow for the equivalent PAH. Shielding of the nitrogen atom in the N-PAC compounds caused an increase in log K-ow. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  9. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment

  10. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    Chang, Yong-Nong; Cheng, Hung-Liang; Kuo, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against de...

  11. Uranium, thorium and REE partitioning into sulfide liquids at high pressure and high temperature: Implications for reduced, S-rich planetary bodies

    Wohlers, A.; Wood, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Based on models of the young solar nebula it is likely that the inner planets went through an early reduced phase of accretion with high metal/silicate ratio and low volatile element contents. Mercury is an existing example of a large planetary embryo with these characteristics but also with a very high S content. In order to investigate the geochemical evolution of Mercury-like bodies we experimentally determined the partitioning of lithophile elements (U, Th, Eu, Sm, Nd, Zr, La, Ce, Yb) between sulfide liquid, low-S metals and silicate melt at 1.5 GPa and 1400-2100˚C. Our results, when combined with those of Wohlers and Wood (2015) show that under highly reducing conditions (FeOsilicatemetal and FeO contents of the silicate may be understood in terms of exchange reactions: UO2 + 2FeS = 2FeO + US2silicate sulfide silicate sulfideHigh concentrations of FeSmetal and low FeO contents of the silicate melts drive the reaction to the right, yielding high US2 in the sulfide and high DU. A second effect which raises DU (and other lithophile D's) is the S content of the silicate melt. The latter increases rapidly at low FeO contents and reaches 11wt %. This greatly reduces the activity coefficient of FeO, displacing the reaction further to the right. At 1.5GPa and 1400˚C we obtain sulfide-silicate partitioning with DNd/DSm 1.4 and DTh 0.1DU. As temperature increases to 2100˚C, DNd/DSm declines to 1.0 and DTh/DU increases to 0.3. We estimated the effects of accreting a reduced sulfur-rich component (with FeS core) added to early Earth. The results at 1400˚C imply the possibility of a significant ( 11ppm) 142Nd anomaly in silicate Earth and the addition of >8 ppb U to the core, but require an unreasonably high Th/U of silicate Earth (4.54). Results at 2100˚C lead to a 142Nd anomaly of 0 but addition of such a reduced sulfur-rich body could add up to 10 ppb of U to the core, together with 21 ppb Th. This combination would generate 3 TW of the energy required for the

  12. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  13. High-throughput determination of octanol/water partition coefficients using a shake-flask method and novel two-phase solvent system.

    Morikawa, Go; Suzuka, Chihiro; Shoji, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Yoichi; Yanagida, Akio

    2016-01-05

    A high-throughput method for determining the octanol/water partition coefficient (P(o/w)) of a large variety of compounds exhibiting a wide range in hydrophobicity was established. The method combines a simple shake-flask method with a novel two-phase solvent system comprising an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4)-1-octanol (25:25:4, v/v/v; AN system). The AN system partition coefficients (K(AN)) of 51 standard compounds for which log P(o/w) (at pH 7.4; log D) values had been reported were determined by single two-phase partitioning in test tubes, followed by measurement of the solute concentration in both phases using an automatic flow injection-ultraviolet detection system. The log K(AN) values were closely related to reported log D values, and the relationship could be expressed by the following linear regression equation: log D=2.8630 log K(AN) -0.1497(n=51). The relationship reveals that log D values (+8 to -8) for a large variety of highly hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic compounds can be estimated indirectly from the narrow range of log K(AN) values (+3 to -3) determined using the present method. Furthermore, log K(AN) values for highly polar compounds for which no log D values have been reported, such as amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleosides, and nucleotides, can be estimated using the present method. The wide-ranging log D values (+5.9 to -7.5) of these molecules were estimated for the first time from their log K(AN) values and the above regression equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  15. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  16. Efficiency of poly-generating high temperature fuel cells

    Margalef, Pere; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott [National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC), University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3550 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    High temperature fuel cells can be designed and operated to poly-generate electricity, heat, and useful chemicals (e.g., hydrogen) in a variety of configurations. The highly integrated and synergistic nature of poly-generating high temperature fuel cells, however, precludes a simple definition of efficiency for analysis and comparison of performance to traditional methods. There is a need to develop and define a methodology to calculate each of the co-product efficiencies that is useful for comparative analyses. Methodologies for calculating poly-generation efficiencies are defined and discussed. The methodologies are applied to analysis of a Hydrogen Energy Station (H{sub 2}ES) showing that high conversion efficiency can be achieved for poly-generation of electricity and hydrogen. (author)

  17. An Improved, Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Bisphenols

    L. S. Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of bisphenols is described by condensation of substituted phenols with corresponding cyclic ketones in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a catalyst in extremely high purity and yields.

  18. High Efficiency S-Band 20 Watt Amplifier

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project includes the design and build of a prototype 20 W, high efficiency, S-Band amplifier.   The design will incorporate the latest semiconductor technology,...

  19. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  20. Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil

    Liang, Xuezheng; Gao, Shan; He, Mingyuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang, Jianguo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Energy Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The highly efficient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methanol. The KF/MgO has been selected as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions with the yield of 99.3%. Operational simplicity, without need of the purification of raw vegetable oil, low cost of the catalyst used, high activities, no saponification and reusability are the key features of this methodology. (author)

  1. The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source

    Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....

  2. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  3. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  4. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  5. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Blum, R [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1999-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  6. Charge transport in highly efficient iridium cored electrophosphorescent dendrimers

    Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.; Weiter, Martin; Bässler, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Electrophosphorescent dendrimers are promising materials for highly efficient light-emitting diodes. They consist of a phosphorescent core onto which dendritic groups are attached. Here, we present an investigation into the optical and electronic properties of highly efficient phosphorescent dendrimers. The effect of dendrimer structure on charge transport and optical properties is studied using temperature-dependent charge-generation-layer time-of-flight measurements and current voltage (I-V) analysis. A model is used to explain trends seen in the I-V characteristics. We demonstrate that fine tuning the mobility by chemical structure is possible in these dendrimers and show that this can lead to highly efficient bilayer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with neat emissive layers. Power efficiencies of 20 lm/W were measured for devices containing a second-generation (G2) Ir(ppy)3 dendrimer with a 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene electron transport layer.

  7. Very-High Efficiency, High Power Laser Diodes, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AdTech Photonics, in collaboration with the Center for Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR) at UMBC, is pleased to submit this proposal entitled ?Very-High...

  8. [Characteristics of phosphorus uptake and use efficiency of rice with high yield and high phosphorus use efficiency].

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Li, Tinx-Xuan; Yu, Hai-Ying; Ji, Lin; Chen, Guang-Deng

    2014-07-01

    A total of twenty seven middle maturing rice varieties as parent materials were divided into four types based on P use efficiency for grain yield in 2011 by field experiment with normal phosphorus (P) application. The rice variety with high yield and high P efficiency was identified by pot experiment with normal and low P applications, and the contribution rates of various P efficiencies to yield were investigated in 2012. There were significant genotype differences in yield and P efficiency of the test materials. GRLu17/AiTTP//Lu17_2 (QR20) was identified as a variety with high yield and high P efficiency, and its yields at the low and normal rates of P application were 1.96 and 1.92 times of that of Yuxiang B, respectively. The contribution rate of P accumulation to yield was greater than that of P grain production efficiency and P harvest index across field and pot experiments. The contribution rates of P accumulation and P grain production efficiency to yield were not significantly different under the normal P condition, whereas obvious differences were observed under the low P condition (66.5% and 26.6%). The minimal contribution to yield was P harvest index (11.8%). Under the normal P condition, the contribution rates of P accumulation to yield and P harvest index were the highest at the jointing-heading stage, which were 93.4% and 85.7%, respectively. In addition, the contribution rate of P accumulation to grain production efficiency was 41.8%. Under the low P condition, the maximal contribution rates of P accumulation to yield and grain production efficiency were observed at the tillering-jointing stage, which were 56.9% and 20.1% respectively. Furthermore, the contribution rate of P accumulation to P harvest index was 16.0%. The yield, P accumulation, and P harvest index of QR20 significantly increased under the normal P condition by 20.6%, 18.1% and 18.2% respectively compared with that in the low P condition. The rank of the contribution rates of P

  9. High Efficiency of Two Efficient QSDC with Authentication Is at the Cost of Their Security

    Su-Juan, Qin; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Luo-Ming, Meng; Fu-Chen, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Two efficient protocols of quantum secure direct communication with authentication [Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 (2008) 2354] were recently proposed by Liu et al. to improve the efficiency of two protocols presented in [Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 026301] by four Pauli operations. We show that the high efficiency of the two protocols is at the expense of their security. The authenticator Trent can reach half the secret by a particular attack strategy in the first protocol. In the second protocol, not only Trent but also an eavesdropper outside can elicit half-information about the secret from the public declaration

  10. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    In most of Milton Babbitt's (1916–2011) works written since the early 1960s, both the pitch and rhythmic content is organized according to a highly constrained structure known as the all-partition array. The all-partition array provides a framework that ensures that as many different forms...

  11. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais

    2013-01-01

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  12. Matrix-vector multiplication using digital partitioning for more accurate optical computing

    Gary, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    Digital partitioning offers a flexible means of increasing the accuracy of an optical matrix-vector processor. This algorithm can be implemented with the same architecture required for a purely analog processor, which gives optical matrix-vector processors the ability to perform high-accuracy calculations at speeds comparable with or greater than electronic computers as well as the ability to perform analog operations at a much greater speed. Digital partitioning is compared with digital multiplication by analog convolution, residue number systems, and redundant number representation in terms of the size and the speed required for an equivalent throughput as well as in terms of the hardware requirements. Digital partitioning and digital multiplication by analog convolution are found to be the most efficient alogrithms if coding time and hardware are considered, and the architecture for digital partitioning permits the use of analog computations to provide the greatest throughput for a single processor.

  13. High quality, high efficiency welding technology for nuclear power plants

    Aoki, Shigeyuki; Nagura, Yasumi

    1996-01-01

    For nuclear power plants, it is required to ensure the safety under the high reliability and to attain the high rate of operation. In the manufacture and installation of the machinery and equipment, the welding techniques which become the basis exert large influence to them. For the purpose of improving joint performance and excluding human errors, welding heat input and the number of passes have been reduced, the automation of welding has been advanced, and at present, narrow gap arc welding and high energy density welding such as electron beam welding and laser welding have been put to practical use. Also in the welding of pipings, automatic gas metal arc welding is employed. As for the welding of main machinery and equipment, there are the welding of the joints that constitute pressure boundaries, the build-up welding on the internal surfaces of pressure vessels for separating primary water from them, and the sealing welding of heating tubes and tube plates in steam generators. These weldings are explained. The welding of pipings and the state of development and application of new welding methods are reported. (K.I.)

  14. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  15. Development of high-efficiency solar cells on silicon web

    Meier, D. L.; Greggi, J.; Okeeffe, T. W.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1986-01-01

    Work was performed to improve web base material with a goal of obtaining solar cell efficiencies in excess of 18% (AM1). Efforts in this program are directed toward identifying carrier loss mechanisms in web silicon, eliminating or reducing these mechanisms, designing a high efficiency cell structure with the aid of numerical models, and fabricating high efficiency web solar cells. Fabrication techniques must preserve or enhance carrier lifetime in the bulk of the cell and minimize recombination of carriers at the external surfaces. Three completed cells were viewed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to investigate further the relation between structural defects and electrical performance of web cells. Consistent with past TEM examinations, the cell with the highest efficiency (15.0%) had no dislocations but did have 11 twin planes.

  16. Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2016-04-19

    We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.

  17. Efficient estimation for ergodic diffusions sampled at high frequency

    Sørensen, Michael

    A general theory of efficient estimation for ergodic diffusions sampled at high fre- quency is presented. High frequency sampling is now possible in many applications, in particular in finance. The theory is formulated in term of approximate martingale estimating functions and covers a large class...

  18. High-Efficiency Klystron Design for the CLIC Project

    Mollard, Antoine; Peauger, Franck; Plouin, Juliette; Beunas, Armel; Marchesin, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    The CLIC project requests new type of RF sources for the high power conditioning of the accelerating cavities. We are working on the development of a new kind of high-efficiency klystron to fulfill this need. This work is performed under the EuCARD-2 European program and involves theoretical and experimental study of a brand new klystron concept.

  19. Efficient estimation for high similarities using odd sketches

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang

    2014-01-01

    . This means that Odd Sketches provide a highly space-efficient estimator for sets of high similarity, which is relevant in applications such as web duplicate detection, collaborative filtering, and association rule learning. The method extends to weighted Jaccard similarity, relevant e.g. for TF-IDF vector...... and web duplicate detection tasks....

  20. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against device difference. Finally, a prototype circuit for driving 112 W LEDs in total was built and tested to verify the theoretical analysis.

  1. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  2. Partitioning of actinides from high level waste of PUREX origin using octylphenyl-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO)-based supported liquid membrane

    Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Dudwadkar, N.L.; Chitnis, R.R.; Mathur, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies deal with the application of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) technique for partitioning of actinides from high level waste of PUREX origin. The process uses a solution of octylphenyl-N,N'-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) in n-dodecane as a carrier with a polytetrafluoroethylene support and a mixture of citric acid, formic acid, and hydrazine hydrate as the receiving phase. The studies involve the investigation of such parameters as carrier concentration in SLM, acidity of the feed, and the feed composition. The studies indicated good transport of actinides like neptunium, americium, and plutonium across the membrane from nitric acid medium. A high concentration of uranium in the feed retards the transport of americium, suggesting the need for prior removal of uranium from the waste. The separation of actinides from uranium-lean simulated samples as well as actual high level waste has been found to be feasible using the above technique

  3. The W-W02 Oxygen Fugacity Buffer at High Pressures and Temperatures: Implications for f02 Buffering and Metal-silicate Partitioning

    Shofner, G. A.; Campbell, A. J.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) controls multivalent phase equilibria and partitioning of redox-sensitive elements, and it is important to understand this thermodynamic parameter in experimental and natural systems. The coexistence of a metal and its oxide at equilibrium constitutes an oxygen buffer which can be used to control or calculate fO2 in high pressure experiments. Application of 1-bar buffers to high pressure conditions can lead to inaccuracies in fO2 calculations because of unconstrained pressure dependencies. Extending fO2 buffers to pressures and temperatures corresponding to the Earth's deep interior requires precise determinations of the difference in volume (Delta) V) between the buffer phases. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction data were obtained using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and a multi anvil press (MAP) to measure unit cell volumes of W and WO2 at pressures and temperatures up to 70 GPa and 2300 K. These data were fitted to Birch-Murnaghan 3rd-order thermal equations of state using a thermal pressure approach; parameters for W are KT = 306 GPa, KT' = 4.06, and aKT = 0.00417 GPa K-1. Two structural phase transitions were observed for WO2 at 4 and 32 GPa with structures in P21/c, Pnma and C2/c space groups. Equations of state were fitted for these phases over their respective pressure ranges yielding the parameters KT = 190, 213, 300 GPa, KT' = 4.24, 5.17, 4 (fixed), and aKT = 0.00506, 0.00419, 0.00467 GPa K-1 for the P21/c, Pnma and C2/c phases, respectively. The W-WO2 buffer (WWO) was extended to high pressure by inverting the W and WO2 equations of state to obtain phase volumes at discrete pressures (1-bar to 100 GPa, 1 GPa increments) along isotherms (300 to 3000K, 100 K increments). The slope of the absolute fO2 of the WWO buffer is positive with increasing temperature up to approximately 70 GPa and is negative above this pressure. The slope is positive along isotherms from 1000 to 3000K with increasing pressure up to at least 100 GPa. The WWO buffer is at

  4. High efficiency heat transport and power conversion system for cascade

    Maya, I.; Bourque, R.F.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Cascade ICF reactor features a flowing blanket of solid BeO and LiAlO 2 granules with very high temperature capability (up to approx. 2300 K). The authors present here the design of a high temperature granule transport and heat exchange system, and two options for high efficiency power conversion. The centrifugal-throw transport system uses the peripheral speed imparted to the granules by the rotating chamber to effect granule transport and requires no additional equipment. The heat exchanger design is a vacuum heat transfer concept utilizing gravity-induced flow of the granules over ceramic heat exchange surfaces. A reference Brayton power cycle is presented which achieves 55% net efficiency with 1300 K peak helium temperature. A modified Field steam cycle (a hybrid Rankine/Brayton cycle) is presented as an alternate which achieves 56% net efficiency

  5. Highly Efficient Coherent Optical Memory Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Hsiao, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Pin-Ju; Chen, Hung-Shiue; Lin, Sheng-Xiang; Hung, Chih-Chiao; Lee, Chih-Hsi; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yong-Fan; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%. Both are the best record to date in all kinds of schemes for the realization of optical memory. Our work significantly advances the pursuit of a high-performance optical memory and should have important applications in quantum information science.

  6. High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules

    Hatwar, Tukaram K.; Spindler, Jeffrey P.; Ricks, M. L.; Young, Ralph H.; Hamada, Yuuhiko; Saito, N.; Mameno, Kazunobu; Nishikawa, Ryuji; Takahashi, Hisakazu; Rajeswaran, G.

    2004-02-01

    Eastman Kodak Company and SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. recently demonstrated a 15" full-color, organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) using a high-efficiency white emitter combined with a color-filter array. Although useful for display applications, white emission from organic structures is also under consideration for other applications, such as solid-state lighting, where high efficiency and good color rendition are important. By incorporating adjacent blue and orange emitting layers in a multi-layer structure, highly efficient, stable white emission has been attained. With suitable host and dopant combinations, a luminance yield of 20 cd/A and efficiency of 8 lm/W have been achieved at a drive voltage of less than 8 volts and luminance level of 1000 cd/m2. The estimated external efficiency of this device is 6.3% and a high level of operational stability is observed. To our knowledge, this is the highest performance reported so far for white organic electroluminescent devices. We will review white OLED technology and discuss the fabrication and operating characteristics of these devices.

  7. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  8. SU-D-207B-05: Robust Intra-Tumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions for Prognosis in Lung Cancer

    Wu, J; Gensheimer, M; Dong, X; Rubin, D; Napel, S; Diehn, M; Loo, B; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an intra-tumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and CT imaging, and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pre-treatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. A novel, intra-tumor partitioning method was developed based on a two-stage clustering process: first at patient-level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor, which were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI = 0.66–0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n = 32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI = 0.75 (HR = 3.93, logrank p = 0.002) for predicting OS, and a CI = 0.76 (HR = 4.84, logrank p = 0.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers including tumor volume, SUVmax and MTV50 were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: We propose a robust intra-tumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high-risk subregions in lung cancer. We envision that this approach will be applicable to identifying useful

  9. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  10. Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Efficiency Evaluation with High-Efficiency Steam Injector System

    Shoji, Goto; Shuichi, Ohmori; Michitsugu, Mori

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to establish simplified system with reduced space and total equipment weight using high-efficiency Steam Injectors (SI) instead of low-pressure feedwater heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from condensers and extracted steam from turbines. It can get higher pressure than supplied steam pressure. The maintenance and reliability are still higher than the feedwater ones because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance, plant efficiency and the operation of this Innovative-Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency and operation are compared with the electric power of 1100 MWe-class BWR system and the Innovative-Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show that plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to original BWR ones. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

  11. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    Xin Duan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  12. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    Duan, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Lin

    2016-12-01

    A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS) for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  13. Salt partitioning between water and high-pressure ices. Implication for the dynamics and habitability of icy moons and water-rich planetary bodies

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Cardon, Hervé; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Water-rich planetary bodies including large icy moons and ocean exoplanets may host a deep liquid water ocean underlying a high-pressure icy mantle. The latter is often considered as a limitation to the habitability of the uppermost ocean because it would limit the availability of nutrients resulting from the hydrothermal alteration of the silicate mantle located beneath the deep ice layer. To assess the effects of salts on the physical properties of high-pressure ices and therefore the possible chemical exchanges and habitability inside H2O-rich planetary bodies, we measured partitioning coefficients and densities in the H2O-RbI system up to 450 K and 4 GPa; RbI standing as an experimentally amenable analog of NaCl in the H2O-salt solutions. We measured the partitioning coefficient of RbI between the aqueous fluid and ices VI and VII, using in-situ Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). With in-situ X-ray diffraction, we measured the unit-cell parameters and the densities of the high-pressure ice phases in equilibrium with the aqueous fluid, at pressures and temperatures relevant to the interior of planetary bodies. We conclude that RbI is strongly incompatible towards ice VI with a partitioning coefficient Kd(VI-L) = 5.0 (± 2.1) ṡ10-3 and moderately incompatible towards ice VII, Kd(VII-L) = 0.12 (± 0.05). RbI significantly increases the unit-cell volume of ice VI and VII by ca. 1%. This implies that RbI-poor ice VI is buoyant compared to H2O ice VI while RbI-enriched ice VII is denser than H2O ice VII. These new experimental results might profoundly impact the internal dynamics of water-rich planetary bodies. For instance, an icy mantle at moderate conditions of pressure and temperature will consist of buoyant ice VI with low concentration of salt, and would likely induce an upwelling current of solutes towards the above liquid ocean. In contrast, a deep and/or thick icy mantle of ice VII will be enriched in salt and hence would form a stable chemical boundary

  14. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  15. A Low VSWR and High Efficiency Waveguide Feed Antenna Array

    Zhao Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low VSWR and high efficiency antenna array operating in the Ku band for satellite communications is presented in this paper. To achieve high radiation efficiency and broad enough bandwidth, all-metal radiation elements and full-corporate waveguide feeding network are employed. As the general milling method is used in the multilayer antenna array fabrication, the E-plane waveguide feeding network is adopted here to suppress the wave leakage caused by the imperfect connectivity between adjacent layers. A 4 × 8 elements array prototype was fabricated and tested for verification. The measured results of proposed antenna array show bandwidth of 6.9% (13.9–14.8 GHz for VSWR < 1.5. Furthermore, antenna gain and efficiency of higher than 22.2 dBi and 80% are also exhibited, respectively.

  16. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  17. The thermodynamic characteristics of high efficiency, internal-combustion engines

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermodynamics of an automotive engine are determined using a cycle simulation. ► The net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. ► High compression ratio, lean mixtures and high EGR were the important features. ► Efficiency increased due to lower heat losses, and increased work conversion. ► The nitric oxides were essentially zero due to the low combustion temperatures. - Abstract: Recent advancements have demonstrated new combustion modes for internal combustion engines that exhibit low nitric oxide emissions and high thermal efficiencies. These new combustion modes involve various combinations of stratification, lean mixtures, high levels of EGR, multiple injections, variable valve timings, two fuels, and other such features. Although the exact combination of these features that provides the best design is not yet clear, the results (low emissions with high efficiencies) are of major interest. The current work is directed at determining some of the fundamental thermodynamic reasons for the relatively high efficiencies and to quantify these factors. Both the first and second laws are used in this assessment. An automotive engine (5.7 l) which included some of the features mentioned above (e.g., high compression ratios, lean mixtures, and high EGR) was evaluated using a thermodynamic cycle simulation. These features were examined for a moderate load (bmep = 900 kPa), moderate speed (2000 rpm) condition. By the use of lean operation, high EGR levels, high compression ratio and other features, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. These increases are explained in a step-by-step fashion. The major reasons for these improvements include the higher compression ratio and the dilute charge (lean mixture, high EGR). The dilute charge resulted in lower temperatures which in turn resulted in lower heat loss. In addition, the lower temperatures resulted in higher ratios of the specific heats which

  18. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    Wang Jianmin; Qian Yinge

    1988-08-01

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  19. Efficiency criteria for high reliability measured system structures

    Sal'nikov, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of structural redundancy are usually used to develop high reliability measured systems. To estimate efficiency of such structures the criteria to compare different systems has been developed. So it is possible to develop more exact system by inspection of redundant system data unit stochastic characteristics in accordance with the developed criteria [ru

  20. Optimization of high-efficiency components; Optimieren auf hohem Niveau

    Neumann, Eva

    2009-07-01

    High efficiency is a common feature of modern current inverters and is not a unique selling proposition. Other factors that influence the buyer's decision are cost reduction, reliability and service, optimum grid integration, and the challenges of the competitive thin film technology. (orig.)

  1. Orion, a high efficiency 4π neutron detector

    Crema, E.; Piasecki, E.; Wang, X.M.; Doubre, H.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Pouthas, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1990-01-01

    In intermediate energy heavy ion collisions the multiplicity of emitted neutrons is strongly connected to energy dissipation and to impact parameter. We present the 4π detector ORION, a high efficiency liquid scintillator detector which permits to get information on the multiplicity of neutrons measured event-wise and on the spatial distribution of these neutrons [fr

  2. High efficiency hydrodynamic DNA fragmentation in a bubbling system

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling

  3. High efficiency confinement mode by electron cyclotron heating

    Funahashi, Akimasa

    1987-01-01

    In the medium size nuclear fusion experiment facility JFT-2M in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the research on the high efficiency plasma confinement mode has been advanced, and in the experiment in June, 1987, the formation of a high efficiency confinement mode was successfully controlled by electron cyclotron heating, for the first time in the world. This result further advanced the control of the formation of a high efficiency plasma confinement mode and the elucidation of the physical mechanism of that mode, and promoted the research and development of the plasma heating by electron cyclotron heating. In this paper, the recent results of the research on a high efficiency confinement mode at the JFT-2M are reported, and the role of the JFT-2M and the experiment on the improvement of core plasma performance are outlined. Now the plasma temperature exceeding 100 million deg C has been attained in large tokamaks, and in medium size facilities, the various measures for improving confinement performance are to be brought forth and their scientific basis is elucidated to assist large facilities. The JFT-2M started the operation in April, 1983, and has accumulated the results smoothly since then. (Kako, I.)

  4. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  5. High-efficient solar cells with porous silicon

    Migunova, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that the porous silicon is multifunctional high-efficient coating on silicon solar cells, modifies its surface and combines in it self antireflection and passivation properties., The different optoelectronic effects in solar cells with porous silicon were considered. The comparative parameters of uncovered photodetectors also solar cells with porous silicon and other coatings were resulted. (author)

  6. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  7. Commuting quantum circuits and complexity of Ising partition functions

    Fujii, Keisuke; Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Instantaneous quantum polynomial-time (IQP) computation is a class of quantum computation consisting only of commuting two-qubit gates and is not universal. Nevertheless, it has been shown that if there is a classical algorithm that can simulate IQP efficiently, the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the third level, which is highly implausible. However, the origin of the classical intractability is still less understood. Here we establish a relationship between IQP and computational complexity of calculating the imaginary-valued partition functions of Ising models. We apply the established relationship in two opposite directions. One direction is to find subclasses of IQP that are classically efficiently simulatable by using exact solvability of certain types of Ising models. Another direction is applying quantum computational complexity of IQP to investigate (im)possibility of efficient classical approximations of Ising partition functions with imaginary coupling constants. Specifically, we show that a multiplicative approximation of Ising partition functions is #P-hard for almost all imaginary coupling constants even on planar lattices of a bounded degree. (paper)

  8. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  9. How high are option values in energy-efficiency investments?

    Sanstad, A.H.; Blumstein, C.; Stoft, S.E.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA,

    1995-01-01

    High implicit discount rates in consumers' energy-efficiency investments have long been a source of controversy. In several recent papers, Hassett and Metcalf argue that the uncertainty and irreversibility attendant to such investments, and the resulting option value, account for this anomalously high implicit discounting. Using their model and data, we show that, to the contrary, their analysis falls well short of providing an explanation of this pattern. (author)

  10. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  11. Residual feed intake in young chickens : effects on energy partitioning and immunity

    Eerden, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: chicken, residual feed intake, resource allocation, immune response, Salmonella Enteritidis, energy partitioning.The continuous selection in farm animals for efficient production and high production levels may have led to animals that are "programmed" to put a lot of

  12. Spatially Partitioned Embedded Runge--Kutta Methods

    Ketcheson, David I.; MacDonald, Colin B.; Ruuth, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    We study spatially partitioned embedded Runge--Kutta (SPERK) schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs), in which each of the component schemes is applied over a different part of the spatial domain. Such methods may be convenient for problems in which the smoothness of the solution or the magnitudes of the PDE coefficients vary strongly in space. We focus on embedded partitioned methods as they offer greater efficiency and avoid the order reduction that may occur in nonembedded schemes. We demonstrate that the lack of conservation in partitioned schemes can lead to nonphysical effects and propose conservative additive schemes based on partitioning the fluxes rather than the ordinary differential equations. A variety of SPERK schemes are presented, including an embedded pair suitable for the time evolution of fifth-order weighted nonoscillatory spatial discretizations. Numerical experiments are provided to support the theory.

  13. Spatially Partitioned Embedded Runge--Kutta Methods

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-10-30

    We study spatially partitioned embedded Runge--Kutta (SPERK) schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs), in which each of the component schemes is applied over a different part of the spatial domain. Such methods may be convenient for problems in which the smoothness of the solution or the magnitudes of the PDE coefficients vary strongly in space. We focus on embedded partitioned methods as they offer greater efficiency and avoid the order reduction that may occur in nonembedded schemes. We demonstrate that the lack of conservation in partitioned schemes can lead to nonphysical effects and propose conservative additive schemes based on partitioning the fluxes rather than the ordinary differential equations. A variety of SPERK schemes are presented, including an embedded pair suitable for the time evolution of fifth-order weighted nonoscillatory spatial discretizations. Numerical experiments are provided to support the theory.

  14. Efficiency and Loading Evaluation of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) - 12003

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are filters primarily used to remove moisture and/or liquid aerosols from an air stream. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol and particulate load on primary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of approximately 99.5% for aerosols down to sub-micron size particulates. The investigation presented here evaluates the loading capacity of the element in the absence of a water spray cleaning system. The theory is that without the cleaning system, the HEME element will suffer rapid buildup of solid aerosols, greatly reducing the particle loading capacity. Evaluation consists of challenging the element with a waste surrogate dry aerosol and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) at varying intervals of differential pressure to examine the filtering efficiency of three different element designs at three different media velocities. Also, the elements are challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. These tests allow the loading capacity of the unit to be determined and the effectiveness of washing down the interior of the elements to be evaluated. (authors)

  15. Heat pumps; Synergy of high efficiency and low carbon electricity

    Koike, Akio

    2010-09-15

    Heat pump is attracting wide attention for its high efficiency to utilize inexhaustible and renewable ambient heat in the environment. With its rapid innovation and efficiency improvement, this technology has a huge potential to reduce CO2 emissions by replacing currently widespread fossil fuel combustion systems to meet various heat demands from the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Barriers to deployment such as low public awareness and a relatively long pay-back period do exist, so it is strongly recommended that each country implement policies to promote heat pumps as a renewable energy option and an effective method to combat global warming.

  16. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  17. Iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate

    Hohla, K; Witte, K J

    1976-07-01

    The scaling laws of an iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate are reported. The laser is pumped with a new kind of low pressure Hg-UV-lamps which convert 32% of the electrical input in UV-light in the absorption band of the iodine laser and which can be fired up to 100 Hz. Details of a 10 kJ/1 nsec system as dimensions, energy density, repetition rate, flow velocity, gas composition and gas pressure and the overall efficiency are given which is expected to be about 2%.

  18. The problems of high efficient extraction from the isochronous cyclotron

    Schwabe, J.

    1994-06-01

    The problem of high efficient extraction (η ≥ 50%) from isochronous cyclotrons (with the exception of the stripping method) is not completely solved up to this day. This problem is specifically important, because these cyclotrons are being also applied in the production of medical radioisotopes, labeled pharmaceuticals as well as in neutron therapy (oncology), machine industry, agriculture (plant mutagenesis), etc. The aim of the proposed topic is to solve this problem on the AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron in the INP (Institute of Nuclear Physics). Lately, a beam of 20 MeV deuterons with an efficiency of ca. 15% was extracted from this cyclotron. (author). 25 refs, 14 figs

  19. Highly Flexible and Efficient Solar Steam Generation Device.

    Chen, Chaoji; Li, Yiju; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Zhi; Kuang, Yudi; Hitz, Emily; Jia, Chao; Gong, Amy; Jiang, Feng; Zhu, J Y; Yang, Bao; Xie, Jia; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-01

    Solar steam generation with subsequent steam recondensation has been regarded as one of the most promising techniques to utilize the abundant solar energy and sea water or other unpurified water through water purification, desalination, and distillation. Although tremendous efforts have been dedicated to developing high-efficiency solar steam generation devices, challenges remain in terms of the relatively low efficiency, complicated fabrications, high cost, and inability to scale up. Here, inspired by the water transpiration behavior of trees, the use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified flexible wood membrane (F-Wood/CNTs) is demonstrated as a flexible, portable, recyclable, and efficient solar steam generation device for low-cost and scalable solar steam generation applications. Benefitting from the unique structural merits of the F-Wood/CNTs membrane-a black CNT-coated hair-like surface with excellent light absorbability, wood matrix with low thermal conductivity, hierarchical micro- and nanochannels for water pumping and escaping, solar steam generation device based on the F-Wood/CNTs membrane demonstrates a high efficiency of 81% at 10 kW cm -2 , representing one of the highest values ever-reported. The nature-inspired design concept in this study is straightforward and easily scalable, representing one of the most promising solutions for renewable and portable solar energy generation and other related phase-change applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High-Temperature Cast Aluminum for Efficient Engines

    Bobel, Andrew C.

    Accurate thermodynamic databases are the foundation of predictive microstructure and property models. An initial assessment of the commercially available Thermo-Calc TCAL2 database and the proprietary aluminum database of QuesTek demonstrated a large degree of deviation with respect to equilibrium precipitate phase prediction in the compositional region of interest when compared to 3-D atom probe tomography (3DAPT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experimental results. New compositional measurements of the Q-phase (Al-Cu-Mg-Si phase) led to a remodeling of the Q-phase thermodynamic description in the CALPHAD databases which has produced significant improvements in the phase prediction capabilities of the thermodynamic model. Due to the unique morphologies of strengthening precipitate phases commonly utilized in high-strength cast aluminum alloys, the development of new microstructural evolution models to describe both rod and plate particle growth was critical for accurate mechanistic strength models which rely heavily on precipitate size and shape. Particle size measurements through both 3DAPT and TEM experiments were used in conjunction with literature results of many alloy compositions to develop a physical growth model for the independent prediction of rod radii and rod length evolution. In addition a machine learning (ML) model was developed for the independent prediction of plate thickness and plate diameter evolution as a function of alloy composition, aging temperature, and aging time. The developed models are then compared with physical growth laws developed for spheres and modified for ellipsoidal morphology effects. Analysis of the effect of particle morphology on strength enhancement has been undertaken by modification of the Orowan-Ashby equation for 〈110〉 alpha-Al oriented finite rods in addition to an appropriate version for similarly oriented plates. A mechanistic strengthening model was developed for cast aluminum alloys containing

  1. Simple processing of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Hamammu, I.M.; Ibrahim, K.

    2006-01-01

    Cost effective photovoltaic devices have been an area research since the development of the first solar cells, as cost is the major factor in their usage. Silicon solar cells have the biggest share in the photovoltaic market, though silicon os not the optimal material for solar cells. This work introduces a simplified approach for high efficiency silicon solar cell processing, by minimizing the processing steps and thereby reducing cost. The suggested procedure might also allow for the usage of lower quality materials compared to the one used today. The main features of the present work fall into: simplifying the diffusion process, edge shunt isolation and using acidic texturing instead of the standard alkaline processing. Solar cells of 17% efficiency have been produced using this procedure. Investigations on the possibility of improving the efficiency and using less quality material are still underway

  2. High efficiency graphene coated copper based thermocells connected in series

    Sindhuja, Mani; Indubala, Emayavaramban; Sudha, Venkatachalam; Harinipriya, Seshadri

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60ºC of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  3. High Efficiency Graphene Coated Copper Based Thermocells Connected in Series

    Mani Sindhuja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2 W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60°C of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  4. Rigid-beam model of a high-efficiency magnicon

    Rees, D.E.; Tallerico, P.J.; Humphries, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The magnicon is a new type of high-efficiency deflection-modulated amplifier developed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. The prototype pulsed magnicon achieved an output power of 2.4 MW and an efficiency of 73% at 915 MHz. This paper presents the results of a rigid-beam model for a 700-MHz, 2.5-MW 82%-efficient magnicon. The rigid-beam model allows for characterization of the beam dynamics by tracking only a single electron. The magnicon design presented consists of a drive cavity; passive cavities; a pi-mode, coupled-deflection cavity; and an output cavity. It represents an optimized design. The model is fully self-consistent, and this paper presents the details of the model and calculated performance of a 2.5-MW magnicon

  5. HIGH JET EFFICIENCY AND SIMULATIONS OF BLACK HOLE MAGNETOSPHERES

    Punsly, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports on a growing body of observational evidence that many powerful lobe-dominated (FR II) radio sources likely have jets with high efficiency. This study extends the maximum efficiency line (jet power ∼25 times the thermal luminosity) defined in Fernandes et al. so as to span four decades of jet power. The fact that this line extends over the full span of FR II radio power is a strong indication that this is a fundamental property of jet production that is independent of accretion power. This is a valuable constraint for theorists. For example, the currently popular 'no-net-flux' numerical models of black hole accretion produce jets that are two to three orders of magnitude too weak to be consistent with sources near maximum efficiency.

  6. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream

  7. 3rd symposium on high-efficiency boiler technology: potential, performance, shortcomings of natural gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers

    1993-01-01

    The brochure contains abstracts of the papers presented at the symposium. The potential, performance and marketing problems of natural gas high-efficiency boiler systems are outlined, and new ideas are presented for gas utilities, producers of appliances, fitters, and chimneysweeps. 13 papers are available as separate regards in this database. (HW) [de

  8. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  9. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  10. Efficient Smoothed Concomitant Lasso Estimation for High Dimensional Regression

    Ndiaye, Eugene; Fercoq, Olivier; Gramfort, Alexandre; Leclère, Vincent; Salmon, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    In high dimensional settings, sparse structures are crucial for efficiency, both in term of memory, computation and performance. It is customary to consider ℓ 1 penalty to enforce sparsity in such scenarios. Sparsity enforcing methods, the Lasso being a canonical example, are popular candidates to address high dimension. For efficiency, they rely on tuning a parameter trading data fitting versus sparsity. For the Lasso theory to hold this tuning parameter should be proportional to the noise level, yet the latter is often unknown in practice. A possible remedy is to jointly optimize over the regression parameter as well as over the noise level. This has been considered under several names in the literature: Scaled-Lasso, Square-root Lasso, Concomitant Lasso estimation for instance, and could be of interest for uncertainty quantification. In this work, after illustrating numerical difficulties for the Concomitant Lasso formulation, we propose a modification we coined Smoothed Concomitant Lasso, aimed at increasing numerical stability. We propose an efficient and accurate solver leading to a computational cost no more expensive than the one for the Lasso. We leverage on standard ingredients behind the success of fast Lasso solvers: a coordinate descent algorithm, combined with safe screening rules to achieve speed efficiency, by eliminating early irrelevant features.

  11. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency heat...

  12. Combustion phasing for maximum efficiency for conventional and high efficiency engines

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion phasing for max efficiency is a function of engine parameters. • Combustion phasing is most affected by heat transfer, compression ratio, burn duration. • Combustion phasing is less affected by speed, load, equivalence ratio and EGR. • Combustion phasing for a high efficiency engine was more advanced. • Exergy destruction during combustion as functions of combustion phasing is reported. - Abstract: The importance of the phasing of the combustion event for internal-combustion engines is well appreciated, but quantitative details are sparse. The objective of the current work was to examine the optimum combustion phasing (based on maximum bmep) as functions of engine design and operating variables. A thermodynamic, engine cycle simulation was used to complete this assessment. As metrics for the combustion phasing, both the crank angle for 50% fuel mass burned (CA 50 ) and the crank angle for peak pressure (CA pp ) are reported as functions of the engine variables. In contrast to common statements in the literature, the optimum CA 50 and CA pp vary depending on the design and operating variables. Optimum, as used in this paper, refers to the combustion timing that provides the maximum bmep and brake thermal efficiency (MBT timing). For this work, the variables with the greatest influence on the optimum CA 50 and CA pp were the heat transfer level, the burn duration and the compression ratio. Other variables such as equivalence ratio, EGR level, engine speed and engine load had a much smaller impact on the optimum CA 50 and CA pp . For the conventional engine, for the conditions examined, the optimum CA 50 varied between about 5 and 11°aTDC, and the optimum CA pp varied between about 9 and 16°aTDC. For a high efficiency engine (high dilution, high compression ratio), the optimum CA 50 was 2.5°aTDC, and the optimum CA pp was 7.8°aTDC. These more advanced values for the optimum CA 50 and CA pp for the high efficiency engine were

  13. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  14. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs

  15. High efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    Bergman, W.; Conner, J.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Turner, C.; Vahla, G.; Violet, C.; Williams, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiently particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing steel filters, they first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, prototype filters were then built for venting compressed gases and evaluated in their automated filter tester

  16. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  17. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  18. Fusion blanket for high-efficiency power cycles

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Taussig, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperature (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by Ar) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approx. 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum Ar temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  19. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 deg C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project 'two-zone' blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 deg C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case. (author)

  20. Irradiation effects on high efficiency Si solar cells

    Nguyen Duy, T.; Amingual, D.; Colardelle, P.; Bernard, J.

    1974-01-01

    By optimizing the diffusion parameters, high efficiency cells are obtained with 2ohmsxcm (13.5% AMO) and 10ohmsxcm (12.5% AMO) silicon material. These new cells have been submitted to radiation tests under 1MeV, 2MeV electrons and 2.5MeV protons. Their behavior under irradiation is found to be dependent only on the bulk material. By using the same resistivity silicon, the rate of degradation is exactly the same than those of conventional cells. The power increase, due to a better superficial response of the cell, is maintained after irradiation. These results show that new high efficiency cells offer an E.O.L. power higher than conventional cells [fr

  1. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@nano.cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Karimi, Ebrahim [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  2. Holography as a highly efficient RG flow I: Rephrasing gravity

    Behr, Nicolas; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalisation of Wilsonian RG flow in a strongly interacting large $N$ quantum field theory. We firstly define a \\textit{highly efficient RG flow} as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale -- to achieve this it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective sin...

  3. Sm , Bi phosphors with high efficiency white-light-emittin

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... Therefore, researches on high efficiency red phos- phors are very important. So far ..... ing concentration and reached a maximum at y = 8 mol%. A .... [10] Xue L P, Wang Y J, Lv P W, Chen D G, Lin Z, Liang J K et al. 2009 Crystal ... [28] Liu J, Xu B, Song C, Luo H, Zou X, Han L et al 2012 Cryst-. EngComm.

  4. High-efficiency pumps drastically reduce energy consumption

    Anon

    2002-05-01

    Wilo's Stratos pumps for air conditioning and other domestic heating applications combine the advantages of wet runner technology with an innovative electronic commutator motor. The energy consumption of these high-efficiency pumps is halved compared with similar wet runner designs. With vast numbers of pumps used in buildings across Europe alone, the adoption of this technology potentially offers significant energy sayings. (Author)

  5. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-04-05

    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device architecture is capable of high performance operation compared to conventional FinFETs with comparatively higher area efficiency and lower chip latency as well as lower power consumption.

  6. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Carlo Gazzadi, Gian; Karimi, Ebrahim; Mafakheri, Erfan; Boyd, Robert W.; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science

  7. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    In most of Milton Babbitt's (1916–2011) works written since the early 1960s, both the pitch and rhythmic content is organized according to a highly constrained structure known as the all-partition array. The all-partition array provides a framework that ensures that as many different forms of a tone row as possible (generated by any combination of transposition, inversion or reversal) are expressed 'horizontally' and that each integer partition of 12 whose cardinality is no greater than the n...

  8. High voltage generator circuit with low power and high efficiency applied in EEPROM

    Liu Yan; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low power and high efficiency high voltage generator circuit embedded in electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). The low power is minimized by a capacitance divider circuit and a regulator circuit using the controlling clock switch technique. The high efficiency is dependent on the zero threshold voltage (V th ) MOSFET and the charge transfer switch (CTS) charge pump. The proposed high voltage generator circuit has been implemented in a 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS process. Measured results show that the proposed high voltage generator circuit has a low power consumption of about 150.48 μW and a higher pumping efficiency (83.3%) than previously reported circuits. This high voltage generator circuit can also be widely used in low-power flash devices due to its high efficiency and low power dissipation. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Weber, F.; Wilson, P.; Lopez, R.; Valha, G.; Conner, J.; Garr, J.; Williams, K.; Biermann, A.; Wilson, K.; Moore, P.; Gellner, C.; Rapchun, D.; Simon, K.; Turley, J.; Frye, L.; Monroe, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 6l0 x 6l0 x 292 mm aluminum frame and has 13.5 m 2 of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. We conducted an optimization study for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. We evaluated the prototype filter for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter has a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa at 1,700 m 3 /hr. Since we were not able to achieve a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa, the steel filter does not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster is used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generates a cloud of UO 2 aerosols. We used a 1,700 m 3 /hr slip stream from the 10,200 m 3 /hr exhaust system

  10. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  11. High precision efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J.C.; Iacob, V.E.; Helmer, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Many experiments involving measurements of γ rays require a very precise efficiency calibration. Since γ-ray detection and identification also requires good energy resolution, the most commonly used detectors are of the coaxial HPGe type. We have calibrated our 70% HPGe to ∼ 0.2% precision, motivated by the measurement of precise branching ratios (BR) in superallowed 0 + → 0 + β decays. These BRs are essential ingredients in extracting ft-values needed to test the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, a test that it currently fails by more than two standard deviations. To achieve the required high precision in our efficiency calibration, we measured 17 radioactive sources at a source-detector distance of 15 cm. Some of these were commercial 'standard' sources but we achieved the highest relative precision with 'home-made' sources selected because they have simple decay schemes with negligible side feeding, thus providing exactly matched γ-ray intensities. These latter sources were produced by us at Texas A and M by n-activation or by nuclear reactions. Another critical source among the 17 was a 60 Co source produced by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany: its absolute activity was quoted to better than 0.06%. We used it to establish our absolute efficiency, while all the other sources were used to determine relative efficiencies, extending our calibration over a large energy range (40-3500 keV). Efficiencies were also determined with Monte Carlo calculations performed with the CYLTRAN code. The physical parameters of the Ge crystal were independently determined and only two (unmeasurable) dead-layers were adjusted, within physically reasonable limits, to achieve precise absolute agreement with our measured efficiencies. The combination of measured efficiencies at more than 60 individual energies and Monte Carlo calculations to interpolate between them allows us to quote the efficiency of our

  12. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  13. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  14. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Ikeda, Kazuo, E-mail: kazuo3_ikeda@ndc.mhi.co.jp

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  15. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Ikeda, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  16. Metamaterial Receivers for High Efficiency Concentrated Solar Energy Conversion

    Yellowhair, Julius E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kwon, Hoyeong [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Alu, Andrea [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Jarecki, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Shinde, Subhash L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Operation of concentrated solar power receivers at higher temperatures (>700°C) would enable supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles for improved power cycle efficiencies (>50%) and cost-effective solar thermal power. Unfortunately, radiative losses at higher temperatures in conventional receivers can negatively impact the system efficiency gains. One approach to improve receiver thermal efficiency is to utilize selective coatings that enhance absorption across the visible solar spectrum while minimizing emission in the infrared to reduce radiative losses. Existing coatings, however, tend to degrade rapidly at elevated temperatures. In this report, we report on the initial designs and fabrication of spectrally selective metamaterial-based absorbers for high-temperature, high-thermal flux environments important for solarized sCO2 power cycles. Metamaterials are structured media whose optical properties are determined by sub-wavelength structural features instead of bulk material properties, providing unique solutions by decoupling the optical absorption spectrum from thermal stability requirements. The key enabling innovative concept proposed is the use of structured surfaces with spectral responses that can be tailored to optimize the absorption and retention of solar energy for a given temperature range. In this initial study through the Academic Alliance partnership with University of Texas at Austin, we use Tungsten for its stability in expected harsh environments, compatibility with microfabrication techniques, and required optical performance. Our goal is to tailor the optical properties for high (near unity) absorptivity across the majority of the solar spectrum and over a broad range of incidence angles, and at the same time achieve negligible absorptivity in the near infrared to optimize the energy absorbed and retained. To this goal, we apply the recently developed concept of plasmonic Brewster angle to suitably designed

  17. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    Yassine, Omar

    2016-06-23

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  18. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Erqiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  19. High Efficiency Heat Exchanger for High Temperature and High Pressure Applications

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    CompRex, LLC (CompRex) specializes in the design and manufacture of compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for high temperature and high pressure applications. CompRex’s proprietary compact technology not only increases heat exchange efficiency by at least 25 % but also reduces footprint by at least a factor of ten compared to traditional shell-and-tube solutions of the same capacity and by 15 to 20 % compared to other currently available Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) solutions. As a result, CompRex’s solution is especially suitable for Brayton cycle supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) systems given its high efficiency and significantly lower capital and operating expenses. CompRex has already successfully demonstrated its technology and ability to deliver with a pilot-scale compact heat exchanger that was under contract by the Naval Nuclear Laboratory for sCO2 power cycle development. The performance tested unit met or exceeded the thermal and hydraulic specifications with measured heat transfer between 95 to 98 % of maximum heat transfer and temperature and pressure drop values all consistent with the modeled values. CompRex’s vision is to commercialize its compact technology and become the leading provider for compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for various applications including Brayton cycle sCO2 systems. One of the limitations of the sCO2 Brayton power cycle is the design and manufacturing of efficient heat exchangers at extreme operating conditions. Current diffusion-bonded heat exchangers have limitations on the channel size through which the fluid travels, resulting in excessive solid material per heat exchanger volume. CompRex’s design allows for more open area and shorter fluid proximity for increased heat transfer efficiency while sustaining the structural integrity needed for the application. CompRex is developing a novel improvement to its current heat exchanger design where fluids are directed to alternating

  20. A high efficiency hybrid stirling-pulse tube cryocooler

    Xiaotao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presented a hybrid cryocooler which combines the room temperature displacers and the pulse tube in one system. Compared with a traditional pulse tube cryocooler, the system uses the rod-less ambient displacer to recover the expansion work from the pulse tube cold end to improve the efficiency while still keeps the advantage of the pulse tube cryocooler with no moving parts at the cold region. In the meantime, dual-opposed configurations for both the compression pistons and displacers reduce the cooler vibration to a very low level. In the experiments, a lowest no-load temperature of 38.5 K has been obtained and the cooling power at 80K was 26.4 W with an input electric power of 290 W. This leads to an efficiency of 24.2% of Carnot, marginally higher than that of an ordinary pulse tube cryocooler. The hybrid configuration herein provides a very competitive option when a high efficiency, high-reliability and robust cryocooler is desired.

  1. High-efficiency ballistic electrostatic generator using microdroplets

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Vreede, Lennart J.; de Boer, Hans L.; van der Meulen, Mark-Jan; Versluis, Michel; Sprenkels, Ad J.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2014-04-01

    The strong demand for renewable energy promotes research on novel methods and technologies for energy conversion. Microfluidic systems for energy conversion by streaming current are less known to the public, and the relatively low efficiencies previously obtained seemed to limit the further applications of such systems. Here we report a microdroplet-based electrostatic generator operating by an acceleration-deceleration cycle (‘ballistic’ conversion), and show that this principle enables both high efficiency and compact simple design. Water is accelerated by pumping it through a micropore to form a microjet breaking up into fast-moving charged droplets. Droplet kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy when the charged droplets decelerate in the electrical field that forms between membrane and target. We demonstrate conversion efficiencies of up to 48%, a power density of 160 kW m-2 and both high- (20 kV) and low- (500 V) voltage operation. Besides offering striking new insights, the device potentially opens up new perspectives for low-cost and robust renewable energy conversion.

  2. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  3. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Warmann, Emily Cathryn

    While concentrator photovoltaic cells have shown significant improvements in efficiency in the past ten years, once these cells are integrated into concentrating optics, connected to a power conditioning system and deployed in the field, the overall module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. This efficiency is impressive compared to conventional flat plate modules, but it is far short of the theoretical limits for solar energy conversion. Designing a system capable of achieving ultra high efficiency of 50% or greater cannot be achieved by refinement and iteration of current design approaches. This thesis takes a systems approach to designing a photovoltaic system capable of 50% efficient performance using conventional diode-based solar cells. The effort began with an exploration of the limiting efficiency of spectrum splitting ensembles with 2 to 20 sub cells in different electrical configurations. Incorporating realistic non-ideal performance with the computationally simple detailed balance approach resulted in practical limits that are useful to identify specific cell performance requirements. This effort quantified the relative benefit of additional cells and concentration for system efficiency, which will help in designing practical optical systems. Efforts to improve the quality of the solar cells themselves focused on the development of tunable lattice constant epitaxial templates. Initially intended to enable lattice matched multijunction solar cells, these templates would enable increased flexibility in band gap selection for spectrum splitting ensembles and enhanced radiative quality relative to metamorphic growth. The III-V material family is commonly used for multijunction solar cells both for its high radiative quality and for the ease of integrating multiple band gaps into one monolithic growth. The band gap flexibility is limited by the lattice constant of available growth templates. The virtual substrate consists of a thin III-V film with the desired

  5. Efficient Four-Parametric with-and-without-Memory Iterative Methods Possessing High Efficiency Indices

    Alicia Cordero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a family of derivative-free optimal iterative methods without memory to approximate a simple zero of a nonlinear function. Error analysis demonstrates that the without-memory class has eighth-order convergence and is extendable to with-memory class. The extension of new family to the with-memory one is also presented which attains the convergence order 15.5156 and a very high efficiency index 15.51561/4≈1.9847. Some particular schemes of the with-memory family are also described. Numerical examples and some dynamical aspects of the new schemes are given to support theoretical results.

  6. Aqueous biphasic systems containing PEG-based deep eutectic solvents for high-performance partitioning of RNA.

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yuzhi; Zhou, Yigang; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian; Yang, Qin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, 16 kinds of novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and quaternary ammonium salts, were coupled with Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABSs) to extract RNA. The phase forming ability of ABSs were comprehensively evaluated, involving the effects of various proportions of DESs' components, carbon chain length and anions species of quaternary ammonium salts, average molecular weights of PEG and inorganic salts nature. Then the systems were applied in RNA extraction, and the results revealed that the extraction efficiency values were distinctly enhanced by relatively lower PEG content in DESs, smaller PEG molecular weights, longer carbon chain of quaternary ammonium salts and more hydrophobic inorganic salts. Then the systems composed of [TBAB][PEG600] and Na 2 SO 4 were utilized in the influence factor experiments, proving that the electrostatic interaction was the dominant force for RNA extraction. Therefore, back-extraction efficiency values ranging between 85.19% and 90.78% were obtained by adjusting the ionic strength. Besides, the selective separation of RNA and tryptophane (Trp) was successfully accomplished. It was found that 86.19% RNA was distributed in the bottom phase, while 72.02% Trp was enriched in the top phase in the novel ABSs. Finally, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to further investigate the extraction mechanism. The proposed method reveals the outstanding feasibility of the newly developed ABSs formed by PEG-based DESs and inorganic salts for the green extraction of RNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial electrolytic disinfection process for highly efficient Escherichia coli inactivation

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Xiaohu

    2018-01-01

    extensively studied for recalcitrant organics removal, its application potential towards water disinfection (e.g., inactivation of pathogens) is still unknown. This study investigated the inactivation of Escherichia coli in a microbial electrolysis cell based bio-electro-Fenton system (renamed as microbial......Water quality deterioration caused by a wide variety of recalcitrant organics and pathogenic microorganisms has become a serious concern worldwide. Bio-electro-Fenton systems have been considered as cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment platform technology. While it has been......]OH was identified as one potential mechanism for disinfection. This study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of bio-electro-Fenton process for pathogens inactivation, which offers insight for the future development of sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective biological water treatment technology....

  8. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  9. Study on a Novel High-Efficiency Bridgeless PFC Converter

    Cao Taiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement a high-efficiency bridgeless power factor correction converter, a new topology and operation principles of continuous conduction mode (CCM and DC steady-state character of the converter are analyzed, which show that the converter not only has bipolar-gain characteristic but also has the same characteristic as the traditional Boost converter, while the voltage transfer ratio is not related with the resonant branch parameters and switching frequency. Based on the above topology, a novel bridgeless Bipolar-Gain Pseudo-Boost PFC converter is proposed. With this converter, the diode rectifier bridge of traditional AC-DC converter is eliminated, and zero-current switching of fast recovery diode is achieved. Thus, the efficiency is improved. Next, we also propose the one-cycle control policy of this converter. Finally, experiments are provided to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed converter.

  10. Highly Efficient and Reliable Transparent Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Film.

    Jia, Li-Chuan; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Rujun; Wu, Hong-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2018-04-11

    Electromagnetic protection in optoelectronic instruments such as optical windows and electronic displays is challenging because of the essential requirements of a high optical transmittance and an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE). Herein, we demonstrate the creation of an efficient transparent EMI shielding film that is composed of calcium alginate (CA), silver nanowires (AgNWs), and polyurethane (PU), via a facile and low-cost Mayer-rod coating method. The CA/AgNW/PU film with a high optical transmittance of 92% achieves an EMI SE of 20.7 dB, which meets the requirements for commercial shielding applications. A superior EMI SE of 31.3 dB could be achieved, whereas the transparent film still maintains a transmittance of 81%. The integrated efficient EMI SE and high transmittance are superior to those of most previously reported transparent EMI shielding materials. Moreover, our transparent films exhibit a highly reliable shielding ability in a complex service environment, with 98 and 96% EMI SE retentions even after 30 min of ultrasound treatment and 5000 bending cycles (1.5 mm radius), respectively. The comprehensive performance that is associated with the facile fabrication strategy imparts the CA/AgNW/PU film with great potential as an optimized EMI shielding material in emerging optoelectronic devices, such as flexible solar cells, displays, and touch panels.

  11. Incentives for partitioning, revisited

    Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    The incentives for separating and eliminating various elements from radioactive waste prior to final geologic disposal were investigated. Exposure pathways to humans were defined, and potential radiation doses to an individual living within the region of influence of the underground storage site were calculated. The assumed radionuclide source was 1/5 of the accumulated high-level waste from the US nuclear power economy through the year 2000. The repository containing the waste was assumed to be located in a reference salt site geology. The study required numerous assumptions concerning the transport of radioactivity from the geologic storage site to man. The assumptions used maximized the estimated potential radiation doses, particularly in the case of the intrusion water well scenario, where hydrologic flow field dispersion effects were ignored. Thus, incentives for removing elements from the waste tended to be maximized. Incentives were also maximized by assuming that elements removed from the waste could be eliminated from the earth without risk. The results of the study indicate that for reasonable disposal conditions, incentives for partitioning any elements from the waste in order to minimize the risk to humans are marginal at best

  12. Research & Implementation of AC - DC Converter with High Power Factor & High Efficiency

    Hsiou-Hsian Nien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we design and develop a high power factor, high efficiency two-stage AC - DC power converter. This paper proposes a two-stage AC - DC power converter. The first stage is boost active power factor correction circuit. The latter stage is near constant frequency LLC resonant converter. In addition to traditional LLC high efficiency advantages, light-load conversion efficiency of this power converter can be improved. And it possesses high power factor and near constant frequency operating characteristics, can significantly reduce the electromagnetic interference. This paper first discusses the main structure and control manner of power factor correction circuit. And then by the LLC resonant converter equivalent model proceed to circuit analysis to determine the important parameters of the converter circuit elements. Then design a variable frequency resonant tank. The resonant frequency can change automatically on the basis of the load to reach near constant frequency operation and a purpose of high efficiency. Finally, actually design and produce an AC – DC power converter with output of 190W to verify the characteristics and feasibility of this converter. The experimental results show that in a very light load (9.5 W the efficiency is as high as 81%, the highest efficiency of 88% (90 W. Full load efficiency is 87%. At 19 W ~ 190 W power changes, the operating frequency change is only 0.4 kHz (AC 110 V and 0.3 kHz (AC 220 V.

  13. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  14. Sea urchins in a high-CO2 world: partitioned effects of body size, ocean warming and acidification on metabolic rate.

    Carey, Nicholas; Harianto, Januar; Byrne, Maria

    2016-04-15

    Body size and temperature are the major factors explaining metabolic rate, and the additional factor of pH is a major driver at the biochemical level. These three factors have frequently been found to interact, complicating the formulation of broad models predicting metabolic rates and hence ecological functioning. In this first study of the effects of warming and ocean acidification, and their potential interaction, on metabolic rate across a broad range in body size (two to three orders of magnitude difference in body mass), we addressed the impact of climate change on the sea urchin ITALIC! Heliocidaris erythrogrammain context with climate projections for southeast Australia, an ocean warming hotspot. Urchins were gradually introduced to two temperatures (18 and 23°C) and two pH levels (7.5 and 8.0), at which they were maintained for 2 months. Identical experimental trials separated by several weeks validated the fact that a new physiological steady state had been reached, otherwise known as acclimation. The relationship between body size, temperature and acidification on the metabolic rate of ITALIC! H. erythrogrammawas strikingly stable. Both stressors caused increases in metabolic rate: 20% for temperature and 19% for pH. Combined effects were additive: a 44% increase in metabolism. Body size had a highly stable relationship with metabolic rate regardless of temperature or pH. None of these diverse drivers of metabolism interacted or modulated the effects of the others, highlighting the partitioned nature of how each influences metabolic rate, and the importance of achieving a full acclimation state. Despite these increases in energetic demand there was very limited capacity for compensatory modulating of feeding rate; food consumption increased only in the very smallest specimens, and only in response to temperature, and not pH. Our data show that warming, acidification and body size all substantially affect metabolism and are highly consistent and

  15. Impacts of new developments in partitioning and transmutation on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository

    Ramspott, L.D.; Jor-Shan Choi; Halsey, W.; Pasternak, A.; Cotton, T.; Burns, J.; McCabe, A.; Colglazier, W.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-03-01

    During the 1970s, the United States and other countries thoroughly evaluated the options for the safe and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The worldwide scientific community concluded that deep geologic disposal was clearly the most technically feasible alternative. They also ranked the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of radionuclides among the least favored options. A 1982 report by the International Atomic Energy Agency summarized the key reasons for that ranking: ''Since the long-term hazards are already low, there is little incentive to reduce them further by P-T. Indeed the incremental costs of introducing P-T appear to be unduly high in relation to the prospective benefits.'' Recently, the delays encountered by the US geologic disposal program for HLW, along with advanced in the development of P-T concepts, have led some to propose P-T as a means of reducing the long-term risks from the radioactive wastes that require disposal and thus making it easier to site, license, and build a geologic repository. This study examines and evaluates the effects that introducing P-T would have on the US geologic disposal program

  16. High-temperature partition functions, specific heats and spectral radiative properties of diatomic molecules with an improved calculation of energy levels

    Qin, Z.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.

    2018-05-01

    The level energies of diatomic molecules calculated by the frequently used Dunham expansion will become less accurate for high-lying vibrational and rotational levels. In this paper, the potential curves for the lower-lying electronic states with accurate spectroscopic constants are reconstructed using the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) method, which are extrapolated to the dissociation limits by fitting of the theoretical potentials, and the rest of the potential curves are obtained from the ab-initio results in the literature. Solving the rotational dependence of the radial Schrödinger equation over the obtained potential curves, we determine the rovibrational level energies, which are then used to calculate the equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of N2, N2+, NO, O2, CN, C2, CO and CO+. The partition functions and the specific heats are systematically validated by available data in the literature. Finally, we calculate the radiative source strengths of diatomic molecules in thermodynamic equilibrium, which agree well with the available values in the literature. The spectral radiative intensities for some diatomic molecules in thermodynamic non-equilibrium are calculated and validated by available experimental data.

  17. Determination of the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of weakly ionizable basic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with neutral model compounds.

    Liang, Chao; Han, Shu-ying; Qiao, Jun-qin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin

    2014-11-01

    A strategy to utilize neutral model compounds for lipophilicity measurement of ionizable basic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography is proposed in this paper. The applicability of the novel protocol was justified by theoretical derivation. Meanwhile, the linear relationships between logarithm of apparent n-octanol/water partition coefficients (logKow '') and logarithm of retention factors corresponding to the 100% aqueous fraction of mobile phase (logkw ) were established for a basic training set, a neutral training set and a mixed training set of these two. As proved in theory, the good linearity and external validation results indicated that the logKow ''-logkw relationships obtained from a neutral model training set were always reliable regardless of mobile phase pH. Afterwards, the above relationships were adopted to determine the logKow of harmaline, a weakly dissociable alkaloid. As far as we know, this is the first report on experimental logKow data for harmaline (logKow = 2.28 ± 0.08). Introducing neutral compounds into a basic model training set or using neutral model compounds alone is recommended to measure the lipophilicity of weakly ionizable basic compounds especially those with high hydrophobicity for the advantages of more suitable model compound choices and convenient mobile phase pH control. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. On-line hyphenation of centrifugal partition chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography for the fractionation of flavonoids from Hippophaë rhamnoides L. berries.

    Michel, Thomas; Destandau, Emilie; Elfakir, Claire

    2011-09-09

    Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC), a liquid-liquid preparative chromatography using two immiscible solvent systems, benefits from numerous advantages for the separation or purification of synthetic or natural products. This study presents the on-line hyphenation of CPC-Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (CPC-ELSD) with High Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV) for the fractionation of flavonols from a solvent-free microwave extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) berries. An Arizona G system was used for the fractionation of flavonoids by CPC and a fused core Halo C18 column allowed the on-line analyses of collected fractions by HPLC. The on-line CPC/HPLC procedure allowed the simultaneous fractionation step at preparative scale combined with the HPLC analyses which provide direct fingerprint of collected fractions. Thus the crude extract was simplified and immediate information on the composition of fractions could be obtained. Furthermore, this methodology reduced the time of post-fractionation steps and facilitated identification of main molecules by Mass Spectrometry (MS). Rutin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-rhamnoside, quercetin and isorhamnetin were identified. CPC-ELSD/HPLC-UV could be considered as a high-throughput technique for the guided fractionation of bioactive natural products from complex crude extracts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High efficiency electrophosphorescence from bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Li Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; Oswald, Iain; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemeistry, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-09-14

    An electron mobility of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} was measured for the phosphorescent emitter bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II)(Pt(ptp)2), which prompted its evaluation as both the emissive layer and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure. Power and external quantum efficiencies of 54.0 {+-} 0.2 lm W{sup -1} and 15.9% were obtained, which as far as we could ascertain are amongst the highest reported values for bilayer devices. We ascribe the high device efficiency to the combination of the high electron mobility, short excited-state lifetime (117 ns) and high luminescence quantum yield (60%) of the bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II). The colour temperature of the devices was 2855 K at 5 V, which places the emission in the 'warm' light spectral region.

  20. Detecting Android Malwares with High-Efficient Hybrid Analyzing Methods

    Yu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle the security issues caused by malwares of Android OS, we proposed a high-efficient hybrid-detecting scheme for Android malwares. Our scheme employed different analyzing methods (static and dynamic methods to construct a flexible detecting scheme. In this paper, we proposed some detecting techniques such as Com+ feature based on traditional Permission and API call features to improve the performance of static detection. The collapsing issue of traditional function call graph-based malware detection was also avoided, as we adopted feature selection and clustering method to unify function call graph features of various dimensions into same dimension. In order to verify the performance of our scheme, we built an open-access malware dataset in our experiments. The experimental results showed that the suggested scheme achieved high malware-detecting accuracy, and the scheme could be used to establish Android malware-detecting cloud services, which can automatically adopt high-efficiency analyzing methods according to the properties of the Android applications.

  1. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  2. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  3. Analysis of polyethoxylated surfactants in microemulsion-oil-water systems III. Fractionation and partitioning of polyethoxylated alcohol surfactants

    Marquez, N.; Bravo, B.; Ysambertt, F.; Chavez, G.; Subero, N.; Salager, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Oligomer distribution of polyethoxylated alcohol and polyethoxylated nonylphenol surfactants is studied by normal and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A RP8 column is able to efficiently separate these surfactants according to their alkyl chain (lipophilic) group, while silica and amino columns separate them according to their polyether chain length (hydrophilic group). Polyethoxylated alcohol and polyethoxylated nonylphenol oligomers selectively partition between the microemulsion-oil-water phases of a Winsor III system. Partitioning of these oligomers was analyzed by HPLC with RI detection. The logarithm of the partition coefficient between the water and oil linearly increases with the number of ethylene oxide groups per molecule of oligomer. For a same ethoxylation degree, the partition coefficient of a polyethoxylated tridecanol is found to be higher than the one of the corresponding nonylphenol specie. On the other hand, a polyethoxylated nonylphenol exhibits a higher solubilization than the matching polyethoxylated alcohol

  4. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Ashraf, Raja; Abdelsamie, Maged; Pont, Sebastian; Little, Mark; Moser, Maximilian; Hamid, Zeinab; Neophytou, Marios; Zhang, Weimin; Amassian, Aram; Durrant, James R.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  5. Highly efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

    2011-12-19

    The recent progress in solar-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and Cr:Nd:YAG ceramic medium has revitalized solar laser researches, revealing a promising future for renewable reduction of magnesium from magnesium oxide. Here we show a big advance in solar laser collection efficiency by utilizing an economical Fresnel lens and a most widely used Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The incoming solar radiation from the sun is focused by a 0.9 m diameter Fresnel lens. A dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary concentrator is employed to couple the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone to a 4 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a conical pumping cavity. 12.3 W cw laser power is produced, corresponding to 19.3 W/m(2) collection efficiency, which is 2.9 times larger than the previous results with Nd:YAG single-crystal medium. Record-high slope efficiency of 3.9% is also registered. Laser beam quality is considerably improved by pumping a 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod.

  6. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    Nolan, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of {approx} 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  7. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency thin-film processes combined with novel cantilever structures tuned to multiple resonant frequencies as broadband arrays. The macro-scale harvesters are used to power the collector nodes that have higher power specifications. These bulk harvesters can be integrated with efficient adaptive power management circuits that match transducer impedance and maximize power harvested from multiple scavenging sources with very low intrinsic power consumption. Texas MicroPower, Inc. is developing process based on a composition that has the highest reported energy density as compared to other commercially available bulk PZT-based sensor/actuator ceramic materials and extending it to thin-film materials and miniature conversion transducer structures. The multiform factor harvesters can be deployed for several military and commercial applications such as underground unattended sensors, sensors in oil rigs, structural health monitoring, supply chain management, and battlefield applications such as sensors on soldier apparel, equipment, and wearable electronics.

  8. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  9. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  10. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of ∼ 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  11. Cascade: a high-efficiency ICF power reactor

    Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade attains a net power-plant efficiency of 49% and its cost is competitive with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, pressurized-water reactor, and coal-fired power plants. The Cascade reactor and blanket are made of ceramic materials and activation is 6 times less than that of the MARS Tandem Mirror Reactor operating at comparable power. Hands-on maintenance of the heat exchangers is possible one day after shutdown. Essentially all tritium is recovered in the vacuum system, with the remainder recovered from the helium power conversion loop. Tritium leakage external to the vacuum system and power conversion loop is only 0.03 Ci/d

  12. High-efficiency ventilated metamaterial absorber at low frequency

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Au-Yeung, Ka Yan; Li, Xin; Roberts, Robert Christopher; Tian, Jingxuan; Hu, Chuandeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Wang, Shuxia; Yang, Zhiyu; Wen, Weijia

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate a ventilated metamaterial absorber operating at low frequency (90%) has been achieved in both simulations and experiments. This high-efficiency absorption under the ventilation condition originates from the weak coupling of two identical split tube resonators constituting the absorber, which leads to the hybridization of the degenerate eigenmodes and breaks the absorption upper limit of 50% for conventional transmissive symmetric acoustic absorbers. The absorber can also be extended to an array and work in free space. The absorber should have potential applications in acoustic engineering where both noise reduction and ventilation are required.

  13. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  14. Impact of liver fat on the differential partitioning of hepatic triacylglycerol into VLDL subclasses on high and low sugar diets.

    Umpleby, A Margot; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Fielding, Barbara; Li, Xuefei; Marino, Andrea; Alsini, Najlaa; Isherwood, Cheryl; Jackson, Nicola; Ahmad, Aryati; Stolinski, Michael; Lovegrove, Julie A; Johnsen, Sigurd; Jeewaka R Mendis, A S; Wright, John; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Hovorka, Roman; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S; Griffin, Bruce A

    2017-11-01

    Dietary sugars are linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidaemia, but it is unknown if NAFLD itself influences the effects of sugars on plasma lipoproteins. To study this further, men with NAFLD ( n = 11) and low liver fat 'controls' ( n = 14) were fed two iso-energetic diets, high or low in sugars (26% or 6% total energy) for 12 weeks, in a randomised, cross-over design. Fasting plasma lipid and lipoprotein kinetics were measured after each diet by stable isotope trace-labelling.There were significant differences in the production and catabolic rates of VLDL subclasses between men with NAFLD and controls, in response to the high and low sugar diets. Men with NAFLD had higher plasma concentrations of VLDL 1 -triacylglycerol (TAG) after the high ( P sugar ( P diets, a lower VLDL 1 -TAG fractional catabolic rate after the high sugar diet ( P sugar diet ( P sugar diet, was to channel hepatic TAG into a higher production of VLDL 1 -TAG ( P sugars. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  16. Next generation of high-efficient waste incinerators. Final report

    Jappe Frandsen, F.

    2010-11-15

    Modern society produces increasing amounts of combustible waste which may be utilized for heat and power production, at a lower emission of CO{sub 2}, e.g. by substituting a certain fraction of energy from fossil fuel-fired power stations. In 2007, 20.4 % of the district heating and 4.5 % of the power produced in Denmark came from thermal conversion of waste, and waste is a very important part of a future sustainable, and independent, Danish energy supply [Frandsen et al., 2009; Groen Energi, 2010]. In Denmark, approx 3.3 Mtons of waste was produced in 2005, an amount predicted to increase to 4.4 Mtons by the year 2030. According to Affald Danmark, 25 % of the current WtE plant capacity in Denmark is older than 20 years, which is usually considered as the technical and economical lifetime of WtE plants. Thus, there is a need for installation of a significant fraction of new waste incineration capacity, preferentially with an increased electrical efficiency, within the next few years. Compared to fossil fuels, waste is difficult to handle in terms of pre-treatment, combustion, and generation of reusable solid residues. In particular, the content of inorganic species (S, Cl, K, Na, etc.) is problematic, due to enhanced deposition and corrosion - especially at higher temperatures. This puts severe constraints on the electrical efficiency of grate-fired units utilizing waste, which seldom exceeds 26-27%, campared to 46-48 % for coal combustion in suspension. The key parameters when targeting higher electrical efficiency are the pressure and temperature in the steam cycle, which are limited by high-temperature corrosion, boiler- and combustion-technology. This report reviews some of the means that can be applied in order to increase the electrical efficiency in plants firing waste on a grate. (Author)

  17. Advances in a high efficiency commercial pulse tube cooler

    Zhang, Yibing; Li, Haibing; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Yang, Zhaohui; Luo, Ercang

    2017-12-01

    The pulse tube cryocooler has the advantage of no moving part at the cold end and offers a high reliability. To further extend its use in commercial applications, efforts are still needed to improve efficiency, reliability and cost effectiveness. This paper generalizes several key innovations in our newest cooler. The cooler consists of a moving magnet compressor with dual-opposed pistons, and a co-axial cold finger. Ambient displacers are employed to recover the expansion work to increase cooling efficiency. Inside the cold finger, the conventional flow straightener screens are replaced by a tapered throat between the cold heat exchanger and the pulse tube to strengthen its immunity to the working gas contamination as well as to simplify the manufacturing processes. The cold heat exchanger is made by copper forging process which further reduces the cost. Inside the compressor, a new gas bearing design has brought in assembling simplicity and running reliability. Besides the cooler itself, electronic controller is also important for actual application. A dual channel and dual driving mode control mechanism has been selected, which reduces the vibration to a minimum, meanwhile the cool-down speed becomes faster and run-time efficiency is higher. With these innovations, the cooler TC4189 reached a no-load temperature of 44 K and provided 15 W cooling power at 80K, with an input electric power of 244 W and a cooling water temperature of 23 ℃. The efficiency reached 16.9% of Carnot at 80 K. The whole system has a total mass of 4.3 kg.

  18. Hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors with high detection efficiencies

    Maity, A.; Grenadier, S. J.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron detectors fabricated from 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h-10BN or h-BN) epilayers have demonstrated the highest thermal neutron detection efficiency among solid-state neutron detectors to date at about 53%. In this work, photoconductive-like vertical detectors with a detection area of 1 × 1 mm2 were fabricated from 50 μm thick free-standing h-BN epilayers using Ni/Au and Ti/Al bilayers as ohmic contacts. Leakage currents, mobility-lifetime (μτ) products under UV photoexcitation, and neutron detection efficiencies have been measured for a total of 16 different device configurations. The results have unambiguously identified that detectors incorporating the Ni/Au bilayer on both surfaces as ohmic contacts and using the negatively biased top surface for neutron irradiation are the most desired device configurations. It was noted that high growth temperatures of h-10BN epilayers on sapphire substrates tend to yield a higher concentration of oxygen impurities near the bottom surface, leading to a better device performance by the chosen top surface for irradiation than by the bottom. Preferential scattering of oxygen donors tends to reduce the mobility of holes more than that of electrons, making the biasing scheme with the ability of rapidly extracting holes at the irradiated surface while leaving the electrons to travel a large average distance inside the detector at a preferred choice. When measured against a calibrated 6LiF filled micro-structured semiconductor neutron detector, it was shown that the optimized configuration has pushed the detection efficiency of h-BN neutron detectors to 58%. These detailed studies also provided a better understanding of growth-mediated impurities in h-BN epilayers and their effects on the charge collection and neutron detection efficiencies.

  19. High efficiency, multiterawatt x-ray free electron lasers

    C. Emma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present undulator magnet tapering methods for obtaining high efficiency and multiterawatt peak powers in x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, a key requirement for enabling 3D atomic resolution single molecule imaging and nonlinear x-ray science. The peak power and efficiency of tapered XFELs is sensitive to time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. To analyze this dependence in detail we perform a comparative numerical optimization for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile including and intentionally disabling these effects. We show that the solution for the magnetic field taper profile obtained from time independent optimization does not yield the highest extraction efficiency when time dependent effects are included. Our comparative optimization is performed for a novel undulator designed specifically to obtain TW power x-ray pulses in the shortest distance: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. We determine that after a fully time dependent optimization of a 100 m long Linac coherent light source-like XFEL we can obtain a maximum efficiency of 7%, corresponding to 3.7 TW peak radiation power. Possible methods to suppress the synchrotron sidebands, and further enhance the FEL peak power, up to about 6 TW by increasing the seed power and reducing the electron beam energy spread, are also discussed.

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  1. The analysis of energy efficiency in water electrolysis under high temperature and high pressure

    Hourng, L. W.; Tsai, T. T.; Lin, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to analyze the energy efficiency of water electrolysis under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on four different kinds of reaction mechanisms, namely, reversible voltage, activation polarization, ohmic polarization, and concentration polarization, are investigated in details. Results show that the ohmic and concentration over-potentials are increased as temperature is increased, however, the reversible and activation over-potentials are decreased as temperature is increased. Therefore, the net efficiency is enhanced as temperature is increased. The efficiency of water electrolysis at 350°C/100 bars is increased about 17%, compared with that at 80°C/1bar.

  2. Study on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of high-level waste. Status of R and D. Final report

    Merk, Bruno; Glivici-Cotruta, Varvara

    2014-01-01

    are characterized and a strategy as well as a roadmap for closing these gaps has been developed. In addition the major contributions of HZDR to the main project are described. The major parts are the description of the potential and the limits of P and T, the requirements and challenges for transmutation systems and the related efficiency, as well as the safety features of accelerator driven subcritical systems including the transient behavior and the safety characteristics.

  3. High-Order Dielectric Metasurfaces for High-Efficiency Polarization Beam Splitters and Optical Vortex Generators

    Guo, Zhongyi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Kai; Shen, Fei; Yin, Zhiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a high-order dielectric metasurface based on silicon nanobrick array is proposed and investigated. By controlling the length and width of the nanobricks, the metasurfaces could supply two different incremental transmission phases for the X-linear-polarized (XLP) and Y-linear-polarized (YLP) light with extremely high efficiency over 88%. Based on the designed metasurface, two polarization beam splitters working in high-order diffraction modes have been designed successfully, which demonstrated a high transmitted efficiency. In addition, we have also designed two vortex-beam generators working in high-order diffraction modes to create vortex beams with the topological charges of 2 and 3. The employment of dielectric metasurfaces operating in high-order diffraction modes could pave the way for a variety of new ultra-efficient optical devices.

  4. PARTITION EFFICIENCY OF NEWLY DESIGNED LOCULAR MULTILAYER COIL FOR COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF PROTEINS USING SMALL-SCALE CROSS-AXIS COIL PLANET CENTRIFUGE WITH AQUEOUS-AQUEOUS POLYMER PHASE SYSTEMS.

    Shinomiya, Kazufusa; Ito, Yoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Countercurrent chromatographic performance of the locular multilayer coil separation column newly designed in our laboratory was evaluated in terms of theoretical plate number, peak resolution and retention of the stationary phase in protein separation with an aqueous polymer phase system using the small-scale cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (X-axis CPC) fabricated in our laboratory. The locular column was made from 1.0 mm I.D., 2.0 mm O.D. or 1.5 mm I.D., 2.5 mm O.D. PTFE tubing compressed with a pair of hemostat at 2 or 4 cm intervals. The protein separation was performed using a set of stable proteins including cytochrome C, myoglobin and lysozyme with the 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol 1000 and 12.5% (w/w) dibasic potassium phosphate system under 1000 rpm of column revolution. The 1.5 mm I.D., 2.5 mm O.D. locular tubing compressed at 2 cm intervals yielded better partition efficiencies than the non-clamped tubing using both lower and upper mobile phases with satisfactory retention of the stationary phase. The overall results suggest that the newly designed locular multilayer coil is useful to the preparative separation of proteins with aqueous-aqueous polymer phase system using our small-scale X-axis CPC.

  5. A critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    Johnstone, Iain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experimental and theoretical means applied to two widely used materials, M50 bearing steel and IN718 nickel based superalloy. It has been shown that this grinding method using a stiff grinding centre such as the Edgetek 5-axis machine is a viable process. Using a number of experimental designs, produced results which were analysed using a variety of methods including visual assessment, sub-surface microscopy and surface analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), residual stress measurement using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, Barkhausen Noise Amplitude (BNA) measurements, surface roughness and Vickers micro-hardness appraisal. It has been shown that the fundamentals of the HEDG process have been understood through experimental as well as theoretical means and that through the various thermal models used, grinding temperatures can be predicted to give more control over this dynamic process. The main contributions to knowledge are made up of a number of elements within the grinding environment, the most important being the demonstration of the HEDG effect, explanation of the phenomenon and the ability to model the process. It has also been shown that grinding is a dynamic process and factors such as wheel wear will result in a continuous change in the optimum grinding conditions for a given material and wheel combination. With the significance of these factors recognised, they can be accounted for within an industrial adaptive control scenario with the process engineer confident of a

  6. MXene molecular sieving membranes for highly efficient gas separation.

    Ding, Li; Wei, Yanying; Li, Libo; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Haihui; Xue, Jian; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Caro, Jürgen; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-01-11

    Molecular sieving membranes with sufficient and uniform nanochannels that break the permeability-selectivity trade-off are desirable for energy-efficient gas separation, and the arising two-dimensional (2D) materials provide new routes for membrane development. However, for 2D lamellar membranes, disordered interlayer nanochannels for mass transport are usually formed between randomly stacked neighboring nanosheets, which is obstructive for highly efficient separation. Therefore, manufacturing lamellar membranes with highly ordered nanochannel structures for fast and precise molecular sieving is still challenging. Here, we report on lamellar stacked MXene membranes with aligned and regular subnanometer channels, taking advantage of the abundant surface-terminating groups on the MXene nanosheets, which exhibit excellent gas separation performance with H 2 permeability >2200 Barrer and H 2 /CO 2 selectivity >160, superior to the state-of-the-art membranes. The results of molecular dynamics simulations quantitatively support the experiments, confirming the subnanometer interlayer spacing between the neighboring MXene nanosheets as molecular sieving channels for gas separation.

  7. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  8. Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels

    Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

    2012-09-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

  9. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for

  10. Plane partition vesicles

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J

    2006-01-01

    We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models

  11. Matrix string partition function

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  12. Hashing for Statistics over K-Partitions

    Dahlgaard, Soren; Knudsen, Mathias Baek Tejs; Rotenberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a hash function for k-partitioning a set into bins, obtaining strong concentration bounds for standard algorithms combining statistics from each bin. This generic method was originally introduced by Flajolet and Martin [FOCS'83] in order to save a factor Ω(k) of time per...... concentration bounds on the most popular applications of k-partitioning similar to those we would get using a truly random hash function. The analysis is very involved and implies several new results of independent interest for both simple and double tabulation, e.g. A simple and efficient construction...

  13. Development and characterization of high-efficiency, high-specific impulse xenon Hall thrusters

    Hofer, Richard Robert

    This dissertation presents research aimed at extending the efficient operation of 1600 s specific impulse Hall thruster technology to the 2000--3000 s range. While recent studies of commercially developed Hall thrusters demonstrated greater than 4000 s specific impulse, maximum efficiency occurred at less than 3000 s. It was hypothesized that the efficiency maximum resulted as a consequence of modern magnetic field designs, optimized for 1600 s, which were unsuitable at high-specific impulse. Motivated by the industry efforts and mission studies, the aim of this research was to develop and characterize xenon Hall thrusters capable of both high-specific impulse and high-efficiency operation. The research divided into development and characterization phases. During the development phase, the laboratory-model NASA-173M Hall thrusters were designed with plasma lens magnetic field topographies and their performance and plasma characteristics were evaluated. Experiments with the NASA-173M version 1 (v1) validated the plasma lens design by showing how changing the magnetic field topography at high-specific impulse improved efficiency. Experiments with the NASA-173M version 2 (v2) showed there was a minimum current density and optimum magnetic field topography at which efficiency monotonically increased with voltage. Between 300--1000 V, total specific impulse and total efficiency of the NASA-173Mv2 operating at 10 mg/s ranged from 1600--3400 s and 51--61%, respectively. Comparison of the thrusters showed that efficiency can be optimized for specific impulse by varying the plasma lens design. During the characterization phase, additional plasma properties of the NASA-173Mv2 were measured and a performance model was derived accounting for a multiply-charged, partially-ionized plasma. Results from the model based on experimental data showed how efficient operation at high-specific impulse was enabled through regulation of the electron current with the magnetic field. The

  14. Highly Efficient TADF Polymer Electroluminescence with Reduced Efficiency Roll-off via Interfacial Exciplex Host Strategy.

    Lin, Xingdong; Zhu, Yunhui; Zhang, Baohua; Zhao, Xiaofei; Yao, Bing; Cheng, Yanxiang; Li, Zhanguo; Qu, Yi; Xie, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-10

    Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (s-OLED) consisting of TAPC/TmPyPB interfacial exciplex host and polymer PAPTC TADF emitter are prepared, simultaneously displaying ultralow voltages (2.50/2.91/3.51/4.91 V at luminance of 1/100/1000/1000 cd m -2 ), high efficiencies (14.9%, 50.1 lm W -1 ), and extremely low roll-off rates (J 50 of 63.16 mA cm -2 , L 50 of ca. 15000 cd m -2 ). Such performance is distinctly higher than that of pure-PAPTC s-OLED. Compared to pure-PAPTC, the advanced emissive layer structure of TAPC:PAPTC/TmPyPB is unique in much higher PL quantum yield (79.5 vs 36.3%) and nearly 4-fold enhancement in k RISC of the PAPTC emitter to 1.48 × 10 7 s -1 .

  15. Partitioning of actinide from simulated high level wastes arising from reprocessing of PHWR fuels: counter current extraction studies using CMPO

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Chitnis, R.R.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Nair, M.K.T.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Rao, M.K.; Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Iyer, R.H.; Badheka, L.P.; Banerji, A.

    1994-01-01

    High level wastes (HLW) arising from reprocessing of pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuels contain actinides like neptunium, americium and cerium which are not extracted in the Purex process. They also contain small quantities of uranium and plutonium in addition to fission products. Removal of these actinides prior to vitrification of HLW can effectively reduce the active surveillance period of final waste form. Counter current studies using indigenously synthesised octyl (phenyl)-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) were taken up as a follow-up of successful runs with simulated sulphate bearing low acid HLW solutions. The simulated HLW arising from reprocessing of PHWR fuel was prepared based on presumed burnup of 6500 MWd/Te of uranium, 3 years cooling period and 800 litres of waste generation per tonne of fuel reprocessed. The alpha activity of the HLW raffinate after extraction with the CMPO-TBP mixture could be brought down to near background level. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  16. Partitioning of actinide from simulated high level wastes arising from reprocessing of PHWR fuels: counter current extraction studies using CMPO

    Deshingkar, D S; Chitnis, R R; Wattal, P K; Theyyunni, T K; Nair, M K.T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Process Engineering and Systems Development Div.; Ramanujam, A; Dhami, P S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Rao, M K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Fuel Reprocessing Group; Mathur, J N; Murali, M S; Iyer, R H [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Badheka, L P; Banerji, A [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Bio-organic Div.

    1994-12-31

    High level wastes (HLW) arising from reprocessing of pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuels contain actinides like neptunium, americium and cerium which are not extracted in the Purex process. They also contain small quantities of uranium and plutonium in addition to fission products. Removal of these actinides prior to vitrification of HLW can effectively reduce the active surveillance period of final waste form. Counter current studies using indigenously synthesised octyl (phenyl)-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) were taken up as a follow-up of successful runs with simulated sulphate bearing low acid HLW solutions. The simulated HLW arising from reprocessing of PHWR fuel was prepared based on presumed burnup of 6500 MWd/Te of uranium, 3 years cooling period and 800 litres of waste generation per tonne of fuel reprocessed. The alpha activity of the HLW raffinate after extraction with the CMPO-TBP mixture could be brought down to near background level. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. A New Model for Optimal Mechanical and Thermal Performance of Cement-Based Partition Wall.

    Huang, Shiping; Hu, Mengyu; Huang, Yonghui; Cui, Nannan; Wang, Weifeng

    2018-04-17

    The prefabricated cement-based partition wall has been widely used in assembled buildings because of its high manufacturing efficiency, high-quality surface, and simple and convenient construction process. In this paper, a general porous partition wall that is made from cement-based materials was proposed to meet the optimal mechanical and thermal performance during transportation, construction and its service life. The porosity of the proposed partition wall is formed by elliptic-cylinder-type cavities. The finite element method was used to investigate the mechanical and thermal behaviour, which shows that the proposed model has distinct advantages over the current partition wall that is used in the building industry. It is found that, by controlling the eccentricity of the elliptic-cylinder cavities, the proposed wall stiffness can be adjusted to respond to the imposed loads and to improve the thermal performance, which can be used for the optimum design. Finally, design guidance is provided to obtain the optimal mechanical and thermal performance. The proposed model could be used as a promising candidate for partition wall in the building industry.

  18. A New Model for Optimal Mechanical and Thermal Performance of Cement-Based Partition Wall

    Shiping Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The prefabricated cement-based partition wall has been widely used in assembled buildings because of its high manufacturing efficiency, high-quality surface, and simple and convenient construction process. In this paper, a general porous partition wall that is made from cement-based materials was proposed to meet the optimal mechanical and thermal performance during transportation, construction and its service life. The porosity of the proposed partition wall is formed by elliptic-cylinder-type cavities. The finite element method was used to investigate the mechanical and thermal behaviour, which shows that the proposed model has distinct advantages over the current partition wall that is used in the building industry. It is found that, by controlling the eccentricity of the elliptic-cylinder cavities, the proposed wall stiffness can be adjusted to respond to the imposed loads and to improve the thermal performance, which can be used for the optimum design. Finally, design guidance is provided to obtain the optimal mechanical and thermal performance. The proposed model could be used as a promising candidate for partition wall in the building industry.

  19. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  20. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  1. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  2. A new approach to a high efficiency inductive store

    Zowarka, R.C. Jr.; Kajs, J.P.; Price, J.H.; Weldon, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    In the Spring of 1989, Parker Kinetic Design, Inc. (PKD) and the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) conducted a study to examine the basic technologies to be used in the construction and operation of a feasible and reliable electromagnetic (EM) gun system. This work was performed for Brown and Root Vickers, Ltd. (BRV) in response to a feasibility analysis requirement of the Royal Armament and Development Establishment (RARDE), Ministry of Defence (MD) of the United Kingdom. This paper summarizes that this study focused on the analysis and evaluation of the suitability and applicability of various pulsed power supply options for the performance goals of the RARDE EM gun program. The existing technologies considered included batteries, compulsators, capacitors, and homopolar generators (HPGs). Primary performance specifications for the electrical energy radius system were that it be capable of providing 12 MJ of muzzle energy; velocities between 2.0 and 3.5 km/s; and a repetitive shot rate of up to 10 shots per day, with no more than a 30-min interval between shots. In addition, the recommended system needed to be reliable, easily maintainable, and capable of routinely firing large numbers of shots. Strict adherence to the goal of designing a system based only on demonstrated technology results in power supplies that are prohibitively expensive and large. As a consequence, candidate system designs represent a modest extrapolation from demonstrated technology well within an acceptable design envelope. A new topology has been developed for a highly efficient inductive store suitable for pulsed-power applications. The new design features high L/R ratios without having to cryogenically cool the conductors. This allows for high efficiency charging of the inductor from low impedance dc sources such as batteries of HPGs

  3. Energy-Efficient Office Buildings at High Latitudes

    Lerum, V.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis describes a method for energy efficient office building design at high latitudes and cold climates. The method combines daylighting, passive solar heating, solar protection, and ventilative cooling. The thesis focuses on optimal design of an equatorial-facing fenestration system. A spreadsheet framework linking existing simplified methods is used. The daylight analysis uses location specific data on frequency distribution of diffuse daylight on vertical surfaces to estimate energy savings from optimal window and room configurations in combination with a daylight-responsive electric lighting system. The passive solar heating analysis is a generalization of a solar load ratio method adapted to cold climates by combining it with the Norwegian standard NS3031 for winter months when the solar savings fraction is negative. The emphasis is on very high computational efficiency to permit rapid and comprehensive examination of a large number of options early in design. The procedure is illustrated for a location in Trondheim, Norway, testing the relative significance of various design improvement options relative to a base case. The method is also tested for two other locations in Norway, at latitudes 58 and 70 degrees North. The band of latitudes between these limits covers cities in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Finland, Russia, and Northern Japan. A comprehensive study of the ``whole building approach`` shows the impact of integrated daylighting and low-energy design strategies. In general, consumption of lighting electricity may be reduced by 50-80%, even at extremely high latitudes. The reduced internal heat from electric lights is replaced by passive solar heating. 113 refs., 85 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    Tao, Yufei; Yi, Ke; Sheng, Cheng; Kalnis, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  5. High Current Planar Transformer for Very High Efficiency Isolated Boost DC-DC Converters

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac-resistance a......This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac......-resistance and transformer leakage inductance. Design and optimization procedures are validated based on an experimental prototype of a 6 kW dcdc isolated full bridge boost converter developed on fully planar magnetics. The prototype is rated at 30-80 V 0-80 A on the low voltage side and 700-800 V on the high voltage side...... with a peak efficiency of 97.8% at 80 V 3.5 kW. Results highlights that thick copper windings can provide good performance at low switching frequencies due to the high transformer filling factor. PCB windings can also provide very high efficiency if stacked in parallel utilizing the transformer winding window...

  6. Combinatorics and complexity of partition functions

    Barvinok, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Partition functions arise in combinatorics and related problems of statistical physics as they encode in a succinct way the combinatorial structure of complicated systems. The main focus of the book is on efficient ways to compute (approximate) various partition functions, such as permanents, hafnians and their higher-dimensional versions, graph and hypergraph matching polynomials, the independence polynomial of a graph and partition functions enumerating 0-1 and integer points in polyhedra, which allows one to make algorithmic advances in otherwise intractable problems. The book unifies various, often quite recent, results scattered in the literature, concentrating on the three main approaches: scaling, interpolation and correlation decay. The prerequisites include moderate amounts of real and complex analysis and linear algebra, making the book accessible to advanced math and physics undergraduates. .

  7. In-situ high efficiency filter testing at AEE Winfrith

    Fraser, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses experience in the testing of high efficiency filters in a variety of reactor and plant installations at AEE Winfrith. There is rarely any concern about the effectiveness of the filter as supplied by any reputable manufacturer. Experience has shown there is a need to check for defects in the installation of filters which could lead to by-passing of aerosols and it is desirable to perform periodical re-tests to ensure that no subsequent deterioration occurs. It is important to use simple, portable apparatus for such tests; methods based on the use of sodium chloride aerosols, although suitable for the testing of filters prior to installation, involve apparatus which is too bulky for in-situ testing. At Winfrith a double automatic Pollak counter has been developed and used routinely since 1970. The aerosol involved has a particle size far smaller than the size most likely to penetrate intact filters, but this is irrelevant when one is primarily interested in particles which by-pass the filter. Comparisons with other methods of testing filters will be described. There is remarkably good agreement between the efficiency of the filter installation as measured by a Pollak counter compared with techniques involving aerosols of sodium chloride and Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP), presumably because the leakage around the filter is independent of particle size

  8. Prospects for development of powerful, highly efficient, relativistic gyrodevices

    Nusinovich, G.S.; Granatstein, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    For various applications the required parameters of sources of powerful microwave radiation lie far beyond the capabilities of existing tubes. This provokes an interest in reconsidering basic principles of relevant microwave sources in order to search for alternative concepts in their development. One of the most promising devices in the short-wavelength region of microwaves is the cyclotron resonance maser (CRM). During the last decade, two important varieties of CRMs have been distinguished, namely, gyrotrons, which operate at frequencies close to cut-off, and cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), which operate at frequencies far from cut-off. When the axial phase velocity of the wave in properly adjusted to the beam voltage and electron pitch-ratio, the efficiency of relativistic CRMs may be high (≥50%). The method of optimizing efficiency based on a partial compensation of the shift in the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency by the change in the Doppler term can be, in principle, accompanied by a corresponding profiling of the external magnetic field and/or the wave phase velocity in a slightly irregular waveguide. These methods can be used in such relativistic CRMs as relativistic gyrotrons, gyroklystrons, gyro-traveling-wave-tubes and gyrotwistrons. The most important point is their sensitivity to a spread in electron parameters. As the beam voltage grows, the operation becomes more sensitive. However, at relatively low voltages such devices are quite tolerant to electron velocity spread

  9. Novel Intermode Prediction Algorithm for High Efficiency Video Coding Encoder

    Chan-seob Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called high efficiency video coding (HEVC. In the HEVC, there are three units in block structure: coding unit (CU, prediction unit (PU, and transform unit (TU. The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock (MB. Each CU performs recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the tree block. In this paper, we propose a fast CU depth decision algorithm for HEVC technology to reduce its computational complexity. In 2N×2N PU, the proposed method compares the rate-distortion (RD cost and determines the depth using the compared information. Moreover, in order to speed up the encoding time, the efficient merge SKIP detection method is developed additionally based on the contextual mode information of neighboring CUs. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the average time-saving factor of 44.84% in the random access (RA at Main profile configuration with the HEVC test model (HM 10.0 reference software. Compared to HM 10.0 encoder, a small BD-bitrate loss of 0.17% is also observed without significant loss of image quality.

  10. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires

    Upadhyay, Anand

    2012-10-31

    New generation of standalone LED driver platforms developed, which are more efficient These LED Drivers are more efficient (≥90%), smaller in size ( 0.15 in3/watt), lower in cost ( 12 cents/watt in high volumes in millions of units). And these products are very reliable having an operating life of over 50,000 hours. This technology will enable growth of LED light sources in the use. This will also help in energy saving and reducing total life cycle cost of LED units. Two topologies selected for next generation of LED drivers: 1) Value engineered single stage Flyback topology. This is suitable for low powered LED drivers up to 50W power. 2) Two stage boost power factor correction (PFC) plus LLC half bridge platform for higher powers. This topology is suitable for 40W to 300W LED drivers. Three new product platforms were developed to cover a wide range of LED drivers: 1) 120V 40W LED driver, 2) Intellivolt 75W LED driver, & 3) Intellivolt 150W LED driver. These are standalone LED drivers for rugged outdoor lighting applications. Based on these platforms number of products are developed and successfully introduced in the market place meeting key performance, size and cost goals.

  11. Characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers

    Otte, Adam Nepomuk, E-mail: otte@gatech.edu; Garcia, Distefano; Nguyen, Thanh; Purushotham, Dhruv

    2017-02-21

    We report about the optical and electrical characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive Silicon photomultipliers from FBK, Hamamatsu, and SensL. Key features of the tested devices when operated at 90% breakdown probability are peak photon detection efficiencies between 40% and 55%, temperature dependencies of gain and PDE that are less than 1%/°C, dark rates of ∼50 kHz/mm{sup 2} at room temperature, afterpulsing of about 2%, and direct optical crosstalk between 6% and 20%. The characteristics of all three devices impressively demonstrate how the Silicon-photomultiplier technology has improved over the past ten years. It is further demonstrated how the voltage and temperature characteristics of a number of quantities can be parameterized on the basis of physical models. The models provide a deeper understanding of the device characteristics over a wide bias and temperature range. They also serve as examples how producers could provide the characteristics of their SiPMs to users. A standardized parameterization of SiPMs would enable users to find the optimal SiPM for their application and the operating point of SiPMs without having to perform measurements thus significantly reducing design and development cycles.

  12. Gamma-ray spectrometer system with high efficiency and high resolution

    Moss, C.E.; Bernard, W.; Dowdy, E.J.; Garcia, C.; Lucas, M.C.; Pratt, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Our gamma-ray spectrometer system, designed for field use, offers high efficiency and high resolution for safeguards applications. The system consists of three 40% high-purity germanium detectors and a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system that calculates a composite spectrum for the three detectors. The LeCroy 3500 mainframe can be operated remotely from the detector array with control exercised through modems and the telephone system. System performance with a mixed source of 125 Sb, 154 Eu, and 155 Eu confirms the expected efficiency of 120% with the overall resolution showing little degradation over that of the worst detector

  13. pH-sensitive degradable nanoparticles for highly efficient intracellular delivery of exogenous protein

    Xu D

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dan Xu,1 Fei Wu,1 Yinghui Chen,2,* Liangming Wei,3,* Weien Yuan1,* 1School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 2Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Encapsulating exogenous proteins into a nanosized particulate system for delivery into cells is a great challenge. To address this issue, we developed a novel nanoparticle delivery method that differs from the nanoparticles reported to date because its core was composed of cross-linked dextran glassy nanoparticles which had pH in endosome-responsive environment and the protein was loaded in the core of cross-linked dextran glassy nanoparticles.Methods: In this study, dextran in a poly(ethylene glycol aqueous two-phase system created a different chemical environment in which proteins were encapsulated very efficiently (84.3% and 89.6% for enhanced green fluorescent protein and bovine serum albumin, respectively by thermodynamically favored partition. The structures of the nanoparticles were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.Results: The nanoparticles had a normal size distribution and a mean diameter of 186 nm. MTT assays showed that the nanoparticles were nontoxic up to a concentration of 2000 µg/mL in human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721, HeLa, and BRL-3A cells. Of note, confocal laser scanning microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin were efficiently delivered and released proteins into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. Flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays showed that nanoparticles with a functional protein (apoptin efficiently induced

  14. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology

  15. The improvement of thermal characteristics of autoclave aerated concrete for energy efficient high-rise buildings application

    Khavanov, Pavel; Fomina, Ekaterina; Kozhukhova, Natalia

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the problem of energy saving is very relevant. One of the ways to reduction energy consumption in construction materials production and construction of civil and industrial high-rise buildings is the application of claddings with heat-insulating performance. The concept of energy efficiency of high-rise buildings is closely related to environmental aspect and sustainability of applied construction materials; reducing service costs; energy saving and microclimate comfortability. A complexity of architectural and structural design as well as aesthetic characteristics of construction materials are also should be considered. The high interest focused on materials with combined properties. This work is oriented on the study of energy efficiency of buildings by improving heat-insulation and strength performance of autoclave aerated concrete. The applied method of sulfate activation of lime allows monitoring phase and structure formation in aerated concrete. The optimal mix design of aerated concrete with the compressive strength up to 8.5 MPa and decreased density up to 760 kg/m3 was proposed. Analysis of structure at macro-and microscale was performed as well as the criteria of an optimal porosity formation was considered a number, size, shape of pore and density of interior partition. SEM analysis and BET method were performed in this research work. The research results demonstrated the correlation between structure and vapor permeability resistance, also it was found that the increase of strength can lead to reduction of thermal conductivity.

  16. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient High Throughput Computing

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and they continue increasing the size of their datasets and the total volume of data. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of Scientific Data Centres has shifted from coping efficiently with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful s...

  18. Additive Manufacturing for Highly Efficient Window Inserts CRADA Report

    Roschli, Alex C. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL

    2018-04-01

    ORNL partnered with the Mackinac Technology Company to demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to create highly energy efficient window inserts for retrofit in pre-existing buildings. Many early iterations of the window inserts were fabricated using carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics and polycarbonate films as a stand in for the low-e coated films produced by the Mackinac Technology Company. After demonstration of the proof of concept, i.e. custom window inserts with tensioned film, the materials used for the manufacture of the frames was more closely examined. Hollow particle-filled syntactic foam and low-density polymer composites formed by expandable microspheres were explored as the materials used to additively manufacture the frames of the inserts. It was concluded that low-cost retrofit window inserts in custom sizes could be easily fabricated using large scale additive manufacturing. Furthermore, the syntactic and expanded foams developed and tested satisfy the mechanical performance requirements for the application.

  19. High Efficiency EBCOT with Parallel Coding Architecture for JPEG2000

    Chiang Jen-Shiun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a parallel context-modeling coding architecture and a matching arithmetic coder (MQ-coder for the embedded block coding (EBCOT unit of the JPEG2000 encoder. Tier-1 of the EBCOT consumes most of the computation time in a JPEG2000 encoding system. The proposed parallel architecture can increase the throughput rate of the context modeling. To match the high throughput rate of the parallel context-modeling architecture, an efficient pipelined architecture for context-based adaptive arithmetic encoder is proposed. This encoder of JPEG2000 can work at 180 MHz to encode one symbol each cycle. Compared with the previous context-modeling architectures, our parallel architectures can improve the throughput rate up to 25%.

  20. Disposal of aqueous condensate from high efficiency gas boilers

    Hardwick, G J; Pattison, J R

    1984-01-01

    If highly efficient gas-fired condensing heating appliances are installed in Britain, the aqueous condensate produced can be conveniently run into existing sewage drains. The part of the drainage system that is most vulnerable to corrosion from the mildly acid condensate is that portion adjacent to the domestic premises. The tests described indicate that this is not at risk and the only precaution that might be considered necessary is to avoid running the condensate over galvanized drain covers in order to prevent unsightly staining. Water authorities in Britain and detailed studies in the US and Holland confirm that the condensate - after dilution by domestic waste, sewage, and rainwater - would be harmless to municipal sewage systems and would not, either in volume or chemical composition, affect the working of existing sewage treatment plants.

  1. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly Efficient Catalytic Cyclic Carbonate Formation by Pyridyl Salicylimines.

    Subramanian, Saravanan; Park, Joonho; Byun, Jeehye; Jung, Yousung; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2018-03-21

    Cyclic carbonates as industrial commodities offer a viable nonredox carbon dioxide fixation, and suitable heterogeneous catalysts are vital for their widespread implementation. Here, we report a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 addition to epoxides based on a newly identified active catalytic pocket consisting of pyridine, imine, and phenol moieties. The polymeric, metal-free catalyst derived from this active site converts less-reactive styrene oxide under atmospheric pressure in quantitative yield and selectivity to the corresponding carbonate. The catalyst does not need additives, solvents, metals, or co-catalysts, can be reused at least 10 cycles without the loss of activity, and scaled up easily to a kilogram scale. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the nucleophilicity of pyridine base gets stronger due to the conjugated imines and H-bonding from phenol accelerates the reaction forward by stabilizing the intermediate.

  3. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  4. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  5. PuLP/XtraPuLP : Partitioning Tools for Extreme-Scale Graphs

    2017-09-21

    PuLP/XtraPulp is software for partitioning graphs from several real-world problems. Graphs occur in several places in real world from road networks, social networks and scientific simulations. For efficient parallel processing these graphs have to be partitioned (split) with respect to metrics such as computation and communication costs. Our software allows such partitioning for massive graphs.

  6. Efficient high-performance ultrasound beamforming using oversampling

    Freeman, Steven R.; Quick, Marshall K.; Morin, Marc A.; Anderson, R. C.; Desilets, Charles S.; Linnenbrink, Thomas E.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    1998-05-01

    High-performance and efficient beamforming circuitry is very important in large channel count clinical ultrasound systems. Current state-of-the-art digital systems using multi-bit analog to digital converters (A/Ds) have matured to provide exquisite image quality with moderate levels of integration. A simplified oversampling beamforming architecture has been proposed that may a low integration of delta-sigma A/Ds onto the same chip as digital delay and processing circuitry to form a monolithic ultrasound beamformer. Such a beamformer may enable low-power handheld scanners for high-end systems with very large channel count arrays. This paper presents an oversampling beamformer architecture that generates high-quality images using very simple; digitization, delay, and summing circuits. Additional performance may be obtained with this oversampled system for narrow bandwidth excitations by mixing the RF signal down in frequency to a range where the electronic signal to nose ratio of the delta-sigma A/D is optimized. An oversampled transmit beamformer uses the same delay circuits as receive and eliminates the need for separate transmit function generators.

  7. Highly Efficient Fiber Lasers for Wireless Power Transmission, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ytterbium (Yb) fiber lasers with an electrical-to-optical efficiency of nominally 64% by directly coupling 80%-efficient diode lasers with Yb...

  8. Experimental Partitioning of Chalcophile Elements between Mantle Silicate Minerals and Basaltic Melt at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Sulfur Geochemistry of Mantle and Crust

    Dasgupta, R.; Jego, S.; Ding, S.; Li, Y.; Lee, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of chalcophile elements during mantle melting, melt extraction, and basalt differentiation is critical for formation of ore deposits and geochemical model and evolution of crust-mantle system. While chalcophile elements are strongly partitioned into sulfides, their behavior with different extent of melting, in particular, in the absence of sulfides, can only be modeled with complete knowledge of the partitioning behavior of these elements between dominant mantle minerals and basaltic melt with or without dissolved sulfide (S2-). However, experimental data on mineral-melt partitioning are lacking for many chalcophile elements. Crystallization experiments were conducted at 3 GPa and 1450-1600 °C using a piston cylinder and synthetic silicate melt compositions similar to low-degree partial melt of peridotite. Starting silicate mixes doped with 100-300 ppm of each of various chalcophile elements were loaded into Pt/graphite double capsules. To test the effect of dissolved sulfur in silicate melt on mineral-melt partitioning of chalcophile elements, experiments were conducted on both sulfur-free and sulfur-bearing (1100-1400 ppm S in melt) systems. Experimental phases were analyzed by EPMA (for major elements and S) and LA-ICP-MS (for trace elements). All experiments produced an assemblage of cpx + melt ± garnet ± olivine ± spinel and yielded new partition coefficients (D) for Sn, Zn, Mo, Sb, Bi, Pb, and Se for cpx/melt, olivine/melt, and garnet/melt pairs. Derived Ds (mineral/basalt) reveal little effect of S2- in the melt on mineral-melt partition coefficients of the measured chalcophile elements, with Ds for Zn, Mo, Bi, Pb decreasing by less than a factor of 2 from S-free to S-bearing melt systems or remaining similar, within error, between S-free and S-bearing melt systems. By combining our data with existing partitioning data between sulfide phases and silicate melt we model the fractionation of these elements during mantle melting and basalt

  9. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  10. High efficiency, monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for high energy femtosecond pulse generation.

    Peng, Xiang; Kim, Kyungbum; Mielke, Michael; Jennings, Stephen; Masor, Gordon; Stohl, Dave; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Nguyen, Dan T; Rhonehouse, Dan; Zong, Jie; Churin, Dmitriy; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-10-21

    A novel monolithic fiber-optic chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system for high energy, femtosecond pulse generation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By employing a high gain amplifier comprising merely 20 cm of high efficiency media (HEM) gain fiber, an optimal balance of output pulse energy, optical efficiency, and B-integral is achieved. The HEM amplifier is fabricated from erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber and yields gain of 1.443 dB/cm with slope efficiency >45%. We experimentally demonstrate near diffraction-limited beam quality and near transform-limited femtosecond pulse quality at 1.55 µm wavelength. With pulse energy >100 µJ and pulse duration of 636 fs (FWHM), the peak power is estimated to be ~160 MW. NAVAIR Public Release Distribution Statement A-"Approved for Public release; distribution is unlimited".

  11. High-efficiency cavity-dumped micro-chip Yb:YAG laser

    Nishio, M.; Maruko, A.; Inoue, M.; Takama, M.; Matsubara, S.; Okunishi, H.; Kato, K.; Kyomoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Shimabayashi, K.; Morioka, M.; Inayoshi, S.; Yamagata, S.; Kawato, S.

    2014-09-01

    High-efficiency cavity-dumped ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser was developed. Although the high quantum efficiency of ytterbium-doped laser materials is appropriate for high-efficiency laser oscillation, the efficiency is decreased by their quasi-three/four laser natures. High gain operation by high intensity pumping is suitable for high efficiency oscillation on the quasi-three/four lasers without extremely low temperature cooling. In our group, highest efficiency oscillations for continuous wave, nanosecond to picosecond pulse lasers were achieved at room temperature by the high gain operation in which pump intensities were beyond 100 kW/cm2.

  12. Perovskite Solar Cells for High-Efficiency Tandems

    McGehee, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The first monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem was made with a diffused silicon p-n junction, a tunnel junction made of n++ hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a titania electron transport layer, a methylammonium lead iodide absorber, and a Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer (HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) was only 13.7% due to excessive parasitic absorption of light in the HTL, limiting the matched current density to 11.5 mA/cm2. Werner et al.15 raised the PCE to a record 21.2% by switching to a silicon heterojunction bottom cell and carefully tuning layer thicknesses to achieve lower optical loss and a higher current density of 15.9 mA/cm2. It is clear from these reports that minimizing parasitic absorption in the window layers is crucial to achieving higher current densities and efficiencies in monolithic tandems. To this end, the window layers through which light first passes before entering the perovskite and silicon absorber materials must be highly transparent. The front electrode must also be conductive to carry current laterally across the top of the device. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely utilized as a transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices such as flat-panel displays, smart windows, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells due to its high conductivity and broadband transparency. ITO is typically deposited through magnetron sputtering; however, the high kinetic energy of sputtered particles can damage underlying layers. In perovskite solar cells, a sputter buffer layer is required to protect the perovskite and organic carrier extraction layers from damage during sputter deposition. The ideal buffer layer should also be energetically well aligned so as to act as a carrier-selective contact, have a wide bandgap to enable high optical transmission, and have no reaction with the halides in the perovskite. Additionally, this buffer layer should act as a diffusion barrier layer to prevent both

  13. Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures

    Hutchinson, Maxwell; Heinecke, Alexander; Pabst, Hans; Henry, Greg; Parsani, Matteo; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    High order methods for the solution of PDEs expose a tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy on a per degree of freedom basis. In many cases, the cost increases due to higher arithmetic intensity while affecting data movement minimally. As architectures tend towards wider vector instructions and expect higher arithmetic intensities, the best order for a particular simulation may change. This study highlights preferred orders by identifying the high order efficiency frontier of the spectral element method implemented in Nek5000 and NekBox: the set of orders and meshes that minimize computational cost at fixed accuracy. First, we extract Nek’s order-dependent computational kernels and demonstrate exceptional hardware utilization by hardware-aware implementations. Then, we perform productionscale calculations of the nonlinear single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability on BlueGene/Q and Cray XC40-based supercomputers to highlight the influence of the architecture. Accuracy is defined with respect to physical observables, and computational costs are measured by the corehour charge of the entire application. The total number of grid points needed to achieve a given accuracy is reduced by increasing the polynomial order. On the XC40 and BlueGene/Q, polynomial orders as high as 31 and 15 come at no marginal cost per timestep, respectively. Taken together, these observations lead to a strong preference for high order discretizations that use fewer degrees of freedom. From a performance point of view, we demonstrate up to 60% full application bandwidth utilization at scale and achieve ≈1PFlop/s of compute performance in Nek’s most flop-intense methods.

  14. Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures

    Hutchinson, Maxwell

    2016-06-14

    High order methods for the solution of PDEs expose a tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy on a per degree of freedom basis. In many cases, the cost increases due to higher arithmetic intensity while affecting data movement minimally. As architectures tend towards wider vector instructions and expect higher arithmetic intensities, the best order for a particular simulation may change. This study highlights preferred orders by identifying the high order efficiency frontier of the spectral element method implemented in Nek5000 and NekBox: the set of orders and meshes that minimize computational cost at fixed accuracy. First, we extract Nek’s order-dependent computational kernels and demonstrate exceptional hardware utilization by hardware-aware implementations. Then, we perform productionscale calculations of the nonlinear single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability on BlueGene/Q and Cray XC40-based supercomputers to highlight the influence of the architecture. Accuracy is defined with respect to physical observables, and computational costs are measured by the corehour charge of the entire application. The total number of grid points needed to achieve a given accuracy is reduced by increasing the polynomial order. On the XC40 and BlueGene/Q, polynomial orders as high as 31 and 15 come at no marginal cost per timestep, respectively. Taken together, these observations lead to a strong preference for high order discretizations that use fewer degrees of freedom. From a performance point of view, we demonstrate up to 60% full application bandwidth utilization at scale and achieve ≈1PFlop/s of compute performance in Nek’s most flop-intense methods.

  15. [Tobacco--a highly efficient producer of vaccines].

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Along with the depreciation of tobacco as a source of nicotine-containing commercial products, the increase of its appreciation as a potential producer of recombinant therapeutical proteins can be observed. Two species of tobacco--Nicotiana tabacum L. and N. benthamiana are easily grown by well established methods of field or green-house cultivation or cell culture, yield high biomass and soluble protein content, can be easily transformed by several methods and are not food for humans or feed for animals. Expression of foreign proteins, including vaccines, can be achieved in those plants either through stable transformation of nuclear or plastid (chloroplast) genomes or by transient transformation using infection with plant virus or bacteria--Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration). The most advanced mode of agrofiltration termed magnifection, which combines benefits of virus and Agrobacterium and depends on using Agrobacterium with viral pro-vectors, enables high-yield and rapid expression of therapeutical proteins, even in a few days, and can be employed on an industrial scale. Expression of many antigenic proteins, which may serve as antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoan and anticancer vaccines, and additionally a few autoantigens designed for the treatment of autoimunogenic diseases, like diabetes, have been achieved in tobacco. To date, a vaccine against Newcastle virus disease in poultry produced by tobacco cell culture has been approved for commercial application and several other vaccines are in advanced stage of development. The possibility of a high-level production of vaccines in tobacco against pandemic influenza or anthrax and plague due to a bioterroristic attack, as well as of individualised anticancer vaccines against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a much shorter period of time than by traditional methods became realistic and hence caused increased interest in tobacco as a high-efficient producer of vaccines not only of specialistic

  16. Using high-throughput barcode sequencing to efficiently map connectomes.

    Peikon, Ian D; Kebschull, Justus M; Vagin, Vasily V; Ravens, Diana I; Sun, Yu-Chi; Brouzes, Eric; Corrêa, Ivan R; Bressan, Dario; Zador, Anthony M

    2017-07-07

    The function of a neural circuit is determined by the details of its synaptic connections. At present, the only available method for determining a neural wiring diagram with single synapse precision-a 'connectome'-is based on imaging methods that are slow, labor-intensive and expensive. Here, we present SYNseq, a method for converting the connectome into a form that can exploit the speed and low cost of modern high-throughput DNA sequencing. In SYNseq, each neuron is labeled with a unique random nucleotide sequence-an RNA 'barcode'-which is targeted to the synapse using engineered proteins. Barcodes in pre- and postsynaptic neurons are then associated through protein-protein crosslinking across the synapse, extracted from the tissue, and joined into a form suitable for sequencing. Although our failure to develop an efficient barcode joining scheme precludes the widespread application of this approach, we expect that with further development SYNseq will enable tracing of complex circuits at high speed and low cost. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) algorithms and architectures

    Budagavi, Madhukar; Sullivan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This book provides developers, engineers, researchers and students with detailed knowledge about the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. HEVC is the successor to the widely successful H.264/AVC video compression standard, and it provides around twice as much compression as H.264/AVC for the same level of quality. The applications for HEVC will not only cover the space of the well-known current uses and capabilities of digital video – they will also include the deployment of new services and the delivery of enhanced video quality, such as ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) and video with higher dynamic range, wider range of representable color, and greater representation precision than what is typically found today. HEVC is the next major generation of video coding design – a flexible, reliable and robust solution that will support the next decade of video applications and ease the burden of video on world-wide network traffic. This book provides a detailed explanation of the various parts ...

  18. Hot nuclei studied with high efficiency neutron detectors

    Galin, J.

    1990-01-01

    We have shown the invaluable benefit that a high efficiency 4π neutron detector can bring to the study of reaction mechanisms following collisions of heavy nuclei at intermediate energy. Analysis requires Monte-Carlo simulations for comparison between experimental data and any emission model. In systematic measurements with projectiles of velocity corresponding to energies between 27 and 77 MeV/u, where both the influence of beam velocity and mass have been investigated separately, it has been shown that the projectile-target mass asymmetry, much more than velocity, has a decisive influence on energy dissipation. The closer the projectile mass to the target mass, the more energy is dissipated per unit mass of the considered projectile plus target system. The latter presents all the characteristics of a thermalized system, evaporating a copious number of light particles: up to about 40 neutrons (after efficiency correction) and 11 light charged particles in the most dissipative collisions between Kr+Au, and 90 neutrons for Pb+U with a yet unknown number of l.c.p. In the Kr experiment, these particles are isotropically emitted in the frame of a fused system, excited with 1.2 GeV. Moreover, l.c.p. exhibit Maxwellian energy distributions as in any standard evaporation process. We are now eager to better characterize the properties of the Pb+Au (U) systems for which about 1/3 of the neutrons are freed in a rather large fraction of all collisions. The thermalized energy should then approach very closely the total binding energy of the two interacting nuclei

  19. Progress of High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor Simulations Using TURBO

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Beach, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional, time-accurate, and phase-lagged computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor (HECC) stage were generated using the TURBO solver. Changes to the TURBO Parallel Version 4 source code were made in order to properly model the no-slip boundary condition along the spinning hub region for centrifugal impellers. A startup procedure was developed to generate a converged flow field in TURBO. This procedure initialized computations on a coarsened mesh generated by the Turbomachinery Gridding System (TGS) and relied on a method of systematically increasing wheel speed and backpressure. Baseline design-speed TURBO results generally overpredicted total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency, and the choking flow rate of the HECC stage as compared with the design-intent CFD results of Code Leo. Including diffuser fillet geometry in the TURBO computation resulted in a 0.6 percent reduction in the choking flow rate and led to a better match with design-intent CFD. Diffuser fillets reduced annulus cross-sectional area but also reduced corner separation, and thus blockage, in the diffuser passage. It was found that the TURBO computations are somewhat insensitive to inlet total pressure changing from the TURBO default inlet pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (101.35 kilopascals) down to 11.0 pounds per square inch (75.83 kilopascals), the inlet pressure of the component test. Off-design tip clearance was modeled in TURBO in two computations: one in which the blade tip geometry was trimmed by 12 mils (0.3048 millimeters), and another in which the hub flow path was moved to reflect a 12-mil axial shift in the impeller hub, creating a step at the hub. The one-dimensional results of these two computations indicate non-negligible differences between the two modeling approaches.

  20. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    Blank, B., E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G.F.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France)

    2015-03-11

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  1. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  2. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  3. A partition enhanced mining algorithm for distributed association rule mining systems

    A.O. Ogunde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of patterns and rules from large distributed databases through existing Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM systems is still faced with enormous challenges such as high response times, high communication costs and inability to adapt to the constantly changing databases. In this work, a Partition Enhanced Mining Algorithm (PEMA is presented to address these problems. In PEMA, the Association Rule Mining Coordinating Agent receives a request and decides the appropriate data sites, partitioning strategy and mining agents to use. The mining process is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the data agents horizontally segment the databases with small average transaction length into relatively smaller partitions based on the number of available sites and the available memory. On the other hand, databases with relatively large average transaction length were vertically partitioned. After this, Mobile Agent-Based Association Rule Mining-Agents, which are the mining agents, carry out the discovery of the local frequent itemsets. At the second stage, the local frequent itemsets were incrementally integrated by the from one data site to another to get the global frequent itemsets. This reduced the response time and communication cost in the system. Results from experiments conducted on real datasets showed that the average response time of PEMA showed an improvement over existing algorithms. Similarly, PEMA incurred lower communication costs with average size of messages exchanged lower when compared with benchmark DARM systems. This result showed that PEMA could be efficiently deployed for efficient discovery of valuable knowledge in distributed databases.

  4. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

    1997-01-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO x control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO x control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO x control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO x control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO x levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO x control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO x control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each technology sampling included: CO, SO 2 , N 2 O, total

  6. Towards a Highly Efficient Meshfree Simulation of Non-Newtonian Free Surface Ice Flow: Application to the Haut Glacier d'Arolla

    Shcherbakov, V.; Ahlkrona, J.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we develop a highly efficient meshfree approach to ice sheet modeling. Traditionally mesh based methods such as finite element methods are employed to simulate glacier and ice sheet dynamics. These methods are mature and well developed. However, despite of numerous advantages these methods suffer from some drawbacks such as necessity to remesh the computational domain every time it changes its shape, which significantly complicates the implementation on moving domains, or a costly assembly procedure for nonlinear problems. We introduce a novel meshfree approach that frees us from all these issues. The approach is built upon a radial basis function (RBF) method that, thanks to its meshfree nature, allows for an efficient handling of moving margins and free ice surface. RBF methods are also accurate and easy to implement. Since the formulation is stated in strong form it allows for a substantial reduction of the computational cost associated with the linear system assembly inside the nonlinear solver. We implement a global RBF method that defines an approximation on the entire computational domain. This method exhibits high accuracy properties. However, it suffers from a disadvantage that the coefficient matrix is dense, and therefore the computational efficiency decreases. In order to overcome this issue we also implement a localized RBF method that rests upon a partition of unity approach to subdivide the domain into several smaller subdomains. The radial basis function partition of unity method (RBF-PUM) inherits high approximation characteristics form the global RBF method while resulting in a sparse system of equations, which essentially increases the computational efficiency. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RBF methods we model the velocity field of ice flow in the Haut Glacier d'Arolla. We assume that the flow is governed by the nonlinear Blatter-Pattyn equations. We test the methods for different basal conditions and for a free moving

  7. Low-Cost, High Efficiency, Silicon Based Photovoltaic Devices

    2015-08-27

    for photovoltaic applications. Figure 14: (a) Absorption and scattering efficiencies versus sizes of Au nanoparticle at 550 nm, (b) scattering...efficiency as a function of wavelength for different Au nanoparticles sizes . 32 Review of plasmonics light trapping for photovoltaic application...ensure that the irradiation variation was within 3%. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) system used a 300W Xenon light source with a spot size of 1mm

  8. BKP plane partitions

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  9. BKP plane partitions

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  10. Generalised twisted partition functions

    Petkova, V B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  11. Compact high efficiency, light weight 200-800 MHz high power RF source

    Shrader, M.B.; Preist, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    There has long been a need for a new more efficient less bulky high power RF power source to drive accelerators in the 200 to 800 MHz region. Results on a recent 5-year EIMAC sponsored R and D program which have lead to the introduction of the Klystrode for UHF television and troposcatter applications indicate that at power levels of 1MW or more efficiencies in excess of 75% can be obtained at 450 MHz. Efficiencies of this order coupled with potential size and weight parameters which are a fraction of those of existing high power UHF generators open up new applications which heretofore would have been impractical if not impossible. Measurements at 470 MHz on existing Klystrodes are given. Projected operating conditions for a 1MW 450 MHz Klystrode having an overall length of 60 inches and a total tube, circuit, and magnet weight of 250 pounds is presented

  12. Glutathione is a highly efficient thermostabilizer of poliovirus Sabin strains.

    Abdelnabi, Rana; Delang, Leen; Neyts, Johan

    2017-03-07

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant thiol peptide in animal cells and has a critical role in antioxidation. GSH was reported to be essential for stabilization of some enteroviruses, including poliovirus (PV), during viral morphogenesis. Here, we explored the potential use of GSH as a thermostabilizer of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) formulations. GSH significantly protected the three types of PV from heat-inactivation in a concentration-dependent manner. At a GSH concentration of 20mM, nearly complete protection was observed against heating temperatures up to 53°C for 2min.GSH also markedly protected PV1 from heat-inactivation and this up to 6 h at temperatures of 44°C and 46°C and 3 h at 48°C. The fact that GSH is naturally present at high concentration in the human body makes it an efficient candidate stabilizer for OPV formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies.

    Herbst, John; Anthony, Monique; Stewart, Jeremy; Connors, David; Chen, Taosheng; Banks, Martyn; Petrillo, Edward W; Agler, Michele

    2009-06-01

    In order to identify potential cytochrome P-450 3A4 (drug-metabolizing enzyme) inducers at an early stage of the drug discovery process, a cell-based transactivation high-throughput luciferase reporter assay for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in HepG2 cells has been implemented and multiplexed with a viability end point for data interpretation, as part of a Lead Profiling portfolio of assays. As a routine part of Lead Profiling operations, assays are periodically evaluated for utility as well as for potential improvements in technology or process. We used a recent evaluation of our PXR-transactivation assay as a model for the application of Lean Thinking-based process analysis to lab-bench assay optimization and automation. This resulted in the development of a 384-well multiplexed homogeneous assay simultaneously detecting PXR transactivation and HepG2 cell cytotoxicity. In order to multiplex fluorescent and luminescent read-outs, modifications to each assay were necessary, which included optimization of multiple assay parameters such as cell density, plate type, and reagent concentrations. Subsequently, a set of compounds including known cytotoxic compounds and PXR inducers were used to validate the multiplexed assay. Results from the multiplexed assay correlate well with those from the singleplexed assay formats measuring PXR transactivation and viability separately. Implementation of the multiplexed assay for routine compound profiling provides improved data quality, sample conservation, cost savings, and resource efficiencies.

  14. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  15. Improper ferroelectrics as high-efficiency energy conversion materials

    Wakamatsu, Toru; Tanabe, Kenji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Hiroki [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    An improper ferroelectric is a certain type of ferroelectrics whose primary order parameter is not polarization but another physical quantity such as magnetization. In contrast to a conventional proper ferroelectrics as represented by Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3}, the improper ferroelectrics has been inconceivable for practical applications thus far. Herein, we illustrate the great potential of improper ferroelectrics for efficient conversion of temperature fluctuation to electric energy, as demonstrated with (Ca{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}){sub 8}[AlO{sub 2}]{sub 12}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} (CSAM-16). The present study has experimentally proven that CSAM-16 achieves an excellent electrothermal coupling factor and high electric field sensitivity for pyroelectric energy conversion that approach a practical level for application to self-powered autonomous electronic devices for rapidly spreading wireless sensor networks. The present results provide a novel approach to developing innovative pyroelectric energy harvesting devices using improper ferroelectrics. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    Yan, Feng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Liu, Hongfeng [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Qu, Fengyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Cai, Xue, E-mail: xuecai@mail.sdu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Wu, Xiang, E-mail: wuxiang@hrbnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  17. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongfeng; Qu, Fengyu; Cai, Xue; Wu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment

  18. Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient high throughput computing

    Accion, E; Bria, A; Bernabeu, G; Caubet, M; Delfino, M; Espinal, X; Merino, G; Lopez, F; Martinez, F; Planas, E

    2012-01-01

    Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and the size of their datasets and total volume of data continues increasing. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of scientific data centers has shifted from efficiently coping with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful data storage and processing service in an intensive HTC environment.

  19. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65-85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improper ferroelectrics as high-efficiency energy conversion materials

    Wakamatsu, Toru; Tanabe, Kenji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    An improper ferroelectric is a certain type of ferroelectrics whose primary order parameter is not polarization but another physical quantity such as magnetization. In contrast to a conventional proper ferroelectrics as represented by Pb(Zr,Ti)O_3 and BaTiO_3, the improper ferroelectrics has been inconceivable for practical applications thus far. Herein, we illustrate the great potential of improper ferroelectrics for efficient conversion of temperature fluctuation to electric energy, as demonstrated with (Ca_0_._8_4Sr_0_._1_6)_8[AlO_2]_1_2(MoO_4)_2 (CSAM-16). The present study has experimentally proven that CSAM-16 achieves an excellent electrothermal coupling factor and high electric field sensitivity for pyroelectric energy conversion that approach a practical level for application to self-powered autonomous electronic devices for rapidly spreading wireless sensor networks. The present results provide a novel approach to developing innovative pyroelectric energy harvesting devices using improper ferroelectrics. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. High Efficiency Hydrodynamic DNA Fragmentation in a Bubbling System.

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-18

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling system. We expect that hydrodynamic forces generated during the bubbling process shear the DNA molecules, extending and breaking them at the points where shearing forces are larger than the strength of the phosphate backbone. Factors of applied pressure, bubbling time and temperature have been investigated. Genomic DNA could be fragmented down to controllable 1-10 Kbp fragment lengths with a yield of 75.30-91.60%. We demonstrate that the ends of the genomic DNAs generated from hydrodynamic shearing can be ligated by T4 ligase and the fragmented DNAs can be used as templates for polymerase chain reaction. Therefore, in the bubbling system, DNAs could be hydrodynamically sheared to achieve smaller pieces in dsDNAs available for further processes. It could potentially serve as a DNA sample pretreatment technique in the future.

  2. High-order harmonic conversion efficiency in helium

    Crane, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Calculated results are presented for the energy, number of photons, and conversion efficiency for high-order harmonic generation in helium. The results show the maximum values that we should expect to achieve experimentally with our current apparatus and the important parameters for scaling this source to higher output. In the desired operating regime where the coherence length, given by L coh =πb/(q-1), is greater than the gas column length, l, the harmonic output can be summarized by a single equation: N q =[(π z n z b 3 τ q |d q | z )/4h]{(p/q)(2l/b) z }. N q - numbers of photons of q-th harmonic; n - atom density; b - laser confocal parameter; τ q - pulse width of harmonic radiation; q - harmonic order; p - effective order of nonlinearity. (Note the term in brackets, the phase-matching function, has been separated from the rest of the expression in order to be consistent with the relevant literature)

  3. Efficient visualization of high-throughput targeted proteomics experiments: TAPIR.

    Röst, Hannes L; Rosenberger, George; Aebersold, Ruedi; Malmström, Lars

    2015-07-15

    Targeted mass spectrometry comprises a set of powerful methods to obtain accurate and consistent protein quantification in complex samples. To fully exploit these techniques, a cross-platform and open-source software stack based on standardized data exchange formats is required. We present TAPIR, a fast and efficient Python visualization software for chromatograms and peaks identified in targeted proteomics experiments. The input formats are open, community-driven standardized data formats (mzML for raw data storage and TraML encoding the hierarchical relationships between transitions, peptides and proteins). TAPIR is scalable to proteome-wide targeted proteomics studies (as enabled by SWATH-MS), allowing researchers to visualize high-throughput datasets. The framework integrates well with existing automated analysis pipelines and can be extended beyond targeted proteomics to other types of analyses. TAPIR is available for all computing platforms under the 3-clause BSD license at https://github.com/msproteomicstools/msproteomicstools. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A Novel High Efficiency Fractal Multiview Video Codec

    Shiping Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiview video which is one of the main types of three-dimensional (3D video signals, captured by a set of video cameras from various viewpoints, has attracted much interest recently. Data compression for multiview video has become a major issue. In this paper, a novel high efficiency fractal multiview video codec is proposed. Firstly, intraframe algorithm based on the H.264/AVC intraprediction modes and combining fractal and motion compensation (CFMC algorithm in which range blocks are predicted by domain blocks in the previously decoded frame using translational motion with gray value transformation is proposed for compressing the anchor viewpoint video. Then temporal-spatial prediction structure and fast disparity estimation algorithm exploiting parallax distribution constraints are designed to compress the multiview video data. The proposed fractal multiview video codec can exploit temporal and spatial correlations adequately. Experimental results show that it can obtain about 0.36 dB increase in the decoding quality and 36.21% decrease in encoding bitrate compared with JMVC8.5, and the encoding time is saved by 95.71%. The rate-distortion comparisons with other multiview video coding methods also demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme.

  5. Dissolution-recrystallization method for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Han, Fei; Luo, Junsheng; Wan, Zhongquan; Liu, Xingzhao; Jia, Chunyang, E-mail: cyjia@uestc.edu.cn

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve perovskite crystallization. • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. • The optimal perovskite solar cell obtains the champion PCE of 16.76%. • The optimal devices are of high reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a dissolution-recrystallization method (DRM) with chlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide treating the perovskite films during the spin-coating process is reported. This is the first time that DRM is used to control perovskite crystallization and improve the device performance. Furthermore, the DRM is good for reducing defects and grain boundaries, improving perovskite crystallization and even improving TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. By optimizing, the DRM2-treated perovskite solar cell (PSC) obtains the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.76% under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm{sup −2}) with enhanced J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} compared to CB-treated PSC.

  6. Production of a high-efficiency TILLING population through polyploidization.

    Tsai, Helen; Missirian, Victor; Ngo, Kathie J; Tran, Robert K; Chan, Simon R; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) provides a nontransgenic method for reverse genetics that is widely applicable, even in species where other functional resources are missing or expensive to build. The efficiency of TILLING, however, is greatly facilitated by high mutation density. Species vary in the number of mutations induced by comparable mutagenic treatments, suggesting that genetic background may affect the response. Allopolyploid species have often yielded higher mutation density than diploids. To examine the effect of ploidy, we autotetraploidized the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, whose diploid has been used for TILLING extensively, and mutagenized it with 50 mm ethylmethane sulfonate. While the same treatment sterilized diploid Columbia, the tetraploid M1 plants produced good seed. To determine the mutation density, we searched 528 individuals for induced mutations in 15 genes for which few or no knockout alleles were previously available. We constructed tridimensional pools from the genomic DNA of M2 plants, amplified target DNA, and subjected them to Illumina sequencing. The results were analyzed with an improved version of the mutation detection software CAMBa that accepts any pooling scheme. This small population provided a rich resource with approximately 25 mutations per queried 1.5-kb fragment, including on average four severe missense and 1.3 truncation mutations. The overall mutation density of 19.4 mutations Mb(-1) is 4 times that achieved in the corresponding diploid accession, indicating that genomic redundancy engenders tolerance to high mutation density. Polyploidization of diploids will allow the production of small populations, such as less than 2,000, that provide allelic series from knockout to mild loss of function for virtually all genes.

  7. Chaos synchronization basing on symbolic dynamics with nongenerating partition.

    Wang, Xingyuan; Wang, Mogei; Liu, Zhenzhen

    2009-06-01

    Using symbolic dynamics and information theory, we study the information transmission needed for synchronizing unidirectionally coupled oscillators. It is found that when sustaining chaos synchronization with nongenerating partition, the synchronization error will be larger than a critical value, although the required coupled channel capacity can be smaller than the case of using a generating partition. Then we show that no matter whether a generating or nongenerating partition is in use, a high-quality detector can guarantee the lead of the response oscillator, while the lag responding can make up the low precision of the detector. A practicable synchronization scheme basing on a nongenerating partition is also proposed in this paper.

  8. High efficiency Dual-Cycle Conversion System using Kr-85.

    Prelas, Mark A; Tchouaso, Modeste Tchakoua

    2018-04-26

    This paper discusses the use of one of the safest isotopes known isotopes, Kr-85, as a candidate fuel source for deep space missions. This isotope comes from 0.286% of fission events. There is a vast quantity of Kr-85 stored in spent fuel and it is continually being produced by nuclear reactors. In using Kr-85 with a novel Dual Cycle Conversion System (DCCS) it is feasible to boost the system efficiency from 26% to 45% over a single cycle device while only increasing the system mass by less than 1%. The Kr-85 isotope is the ideal fuel for a Photon Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC) system. PIDEC is an excellent choice for the top cycle in a DCCS. In the top cycle, ionization and excitation of the Kr-85:Cl gas mixture (99% Kr and 1% Cl) from beta particles creates KrCl* excimer photons which are efficiently absorbed by diamond photovoltaic cells on the walls of the pressure vessels. The benefit of using the DCCS is that Kr-85 is capable of operating at high temperatures in the primary cycle and the residual heat can then be converted into electrical power in the bottom cycle which uses a Stirling Engine. The design of the DCCS begins with a spherical pressure vessel of radius 13.7 cm with 3.7 cm thick walls and is filled with a Kr-85:Cl gas mixture. The inner wall has diamond photovoltaic cells attached to it and there is a sapphire window between the diamond photovoltaic cells and the Kr-85:Cl gas mixture which shields the photovoltaic cells from beta particles. The DCCS without a gamma ray shield has specific power of 6.49 W/kg. A removable 6 cm thick tungsten shield is used to safely limit the radiation exposure levels of personnel. A shadow shield remains in the payload to protect the radiation sensitive components in the flight package. The estimated specific power of the unoptimized system design in this paper is about 2.33 W/kg. The specific power of an optimized system should be higher. The Kr-85 isotope is relatively safe because it

  9. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    Chen, Junhong [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  10. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  11. A New Very-High-Efficiency R4 Converter for High-Power Fuel Cell Applications

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    of fullbridge switching stages and power transformers, operate in parallel on primary side and in series on secondary side. Current sharing is guaranteed by series connection of transformer secondary windings and three small cascaded current balancing transformers on primary side. The detailed design of a 10 k......W prototype converter is presented. Input voltage range is 30-60 V and output voltage is 800 V. Test results, including voltage- and current waveforms and efficiency measurements, are presented. A record high converter efficiency of 98.2 % is achieved. The proposed R4 boost converter thus constitutes a low...

  12. δ2H isotopic flux partitioning of evapotranspiration over a grass field following a water pulse and subsequent dry down

    Good, Stephen P.; Soderberg, Keir; Guan, Kaiyu; King, Elizabeth G.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Caylor, Kelly K.

    2014-02-01

    The partitioning of surface vapor flux (FET) into evaporation (FE) and transpiration (FT) is theoretically possible because of distinct differences in end-member stable isotope composition. In this study, we combine high-frequency laser spectroscopy with eddy covariance techniques to critically evaluate isotope flux partitioning of FET over a grass field during a 15 day experiment. Following the application of a 30 mm water pulse, green grass coverage at the study site increased from 0 to 10% of ground surface area after 6 days and then began to senesce. Using isotope flux partitioning, transpiration increased as a fraction of total vapor flux from 0% to 40% during the green-up phase, after which this ratio decreased while exhibiting hysteresis with respect to green grass coverage. Daily daytime leaf-level gas exchange measurements compare well with daily isotope flux partitioning averages (RMSE = 0.0018 g m-2 s-1). Overall the average ratio of FT to FET was 29%, where uncertainties in Keeling plot intercepts and transpiration composition resulted in an average of uncertainty of ˜5% in our isotopic partitioning of FET. Flux-variance similarity partitioning was partially consistent with the isotope-based approach, with divergence occurring after rainfall and when the grass was stressed. Over the average diurnal cycle, local meteorological conditions, particularly net radiation and relative humidity, are shown to control partitioning. At longer time scales, green leaf area and available soil water control FT/FET. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of combining isotope flux partitioning and flux-variance similarity theory to estimate water use efficiency at the landscape scale.

  13. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  14. Exciplex-Forming Cohost for High Efficiency and High Stability Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Shih, Chun-Jen; Lee, Chih-Chien; Chen, Ying-Hao; Biring, Sajal; Kumar, Gautham; Yeh, Tzu-Hung; Sen, Somaditya; Liu, Shun-Wei; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2018-01-17

    An exciplex forming cohost system is employed to achieve a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with good electroluminescent lifetime. The exciplex is formed at the interfacial contact of a conventional star-shaped carbazole hole-transporting material, 4,4',4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA), and a triazine electron-transporting material, 2,4,6-tris[3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine (3P-T2T). The excellent combination of TCTA and 3P-T2T is applied as the cohost of a common green phosphorescent emitter with almost zero energy loss. When Ir(ppy) 2 (acac) is dispersed in such exciplex cohost system, OLED device with maximum external quantum efficiency of 29.6%, the ultrahigh power efficiency of 147.3 lm/W, and current efficiency of 107 cd/A were successfully achieved. More importantly, the OLED device showed a low-efficiency roll-off and an operational lifetime (τ 80 ) of ∼1020 min with the initial brightness of 2000 cd/m 2 , which is 56 times longer than the reference device. The significant difference of device stability was attributed to the degradation of exciplex system for energy transfer process, which was investigated by the photoluminescence aging measurement at room temperature and 100 K, respectively.

  15. Partitioning and Transmutation: IAEA Activities

    Basak, U.; Monti, S.; )

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The importance of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) processes for sustaining nuclear energy growth in the world has been realised in several countries across the world. P and T processes aim at separation and recycling of actinides including minor actinides (MAs) from the spent fuel or high-level liquid waste. The objective of these processes include reuse of separated fissile materials from spent nuclear fuels to obtain energy, enhance resource utilisation, reduce the disposal of toxic radio-nuclides and improve long-term performance of geological repositories. R and D programmes have been launched in many of the Member States to develop advanced partitioning process based on either aqueous or pyro to recover MAs along with other actinides as well as automated and remote techniques for manufacturing fuels containing MAs for the purpose of transmuting them either in fast reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. A number of Member States have been also developing such transmutation systems with the aim to construct and operate demo plants and prototypes in the next decade. The International Atomic Energy Agency has a high priority for the activities on partitioning and transmutation and regularly organises conferences, workshops, seminars and technical meetings in the areas of P and T as a part of information exchange and knowledge sharing at the international level. In the recent past, the Agency organised two technical meetings on advanced partitioning processes and actinide recycle technologies with the objective of providing a common platform for the scientists and engineers working in the areas of separation of actinides along with MAs from spent nuclear fuels and manufacturing of advanced fuels containing MAs in order to bridge the technological gap between them. In 2010, the Agency concluded a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) related to Assessment of Partitioning Processes. The Agency also conducted a first CRP on

  16. Construction of Scaling Partitions of Unity

    Ole Christensen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Partitions of unity in ℝd formed by (matrix scales of a fixed function appear in many parts of harmonic analysis, e.g., wavelet analysis and the analysis of Triebel-Lizorkin spaces. We give a simple characterization of the functions and matrices yielding such a partition of unity. For expanding matrices, the characterization leads to easy ways of constructing appropriate functions with attractive properties like high regularity and small support. We also discuss a class of integral transforms that map functions having the partition of unity property to functions with the same property. The one-dimensional version of the transform allows a direct definition of a class of nonuniform splines with properties that are parallel to those of the classical B-splines. The results are illustrated with the construction of dual pairs of wavelet frames.

  17. Functionalized Graphene Enables Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Steam Generation.

    Yang, Junlong; Pang, Yunsong; Huang, Weixin; Shaw, Scott K; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Pillers, Michelle Anne; Mu, Xin; Luo, Shirui; Zhang, Teng; Huang, Yajiang; Li, Guangxian; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Lieberman, Marya; Luo, Tengfei

    2017-06-27

    The ability to efficiently utilize solar thermal energy to enable liquid-to-vapor phase transition has great technological implications for a wide variety of applications, such as water treatment and chemical fractionation. Here, we demonstrate that functionalizing graphene using hydrophilic groups can greatly enhance the solar thermal steam generation efficiency. Our results show that specially functionalized graphene can improve the overall solar-to-vapor efficiency from 38% to 48% at one sun conditions compared to chemically reduced graphene oxide. Our experiments show that such an improvement is a surface effect mainly attributed to the more hydrophilic feature of functionalized graphene, which influences the water meniscus profile at the vapor-liquid interface due to capillary effect. This will lead to thinner water films close to the three-phase contact line, where the water surface temperature is higher since the resistance of thinner water film is smaller, leading to more efficient evaporation. This strategy of functionalizing graphene to make it more hydrophilic can be potentially integrated with the existing macroscopic heat isolation strategies to further improve the overall solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency.

  18. Volume Bragg grating narrowed high-power and highly efficient cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser.

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Weichao; Zhao, Chujun; Shen, Deyuan; Fan, Dianyuan

    2014-12-10

    High-power and highly efficient operation of a single-mode cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser with narrow lasing bandwidth is demonstrated. The spectral narrowing was realized by an external cavity containing a volume Bragg grating with a center wavelength of 1658 nm. A maximum output power of 10.4 W at 1658.3 nm with a spectral linewidth (FWHM) of ∼0.1  nm was obtained for the launched pump power of 18.4 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 109% with respect to the launched pump power. Lasing characteristics of free-running operation are also evaluated and discussed.

  19. Trial of accelerator cells machining with high precision and high efficiency at Okayama region

    Yoshikawa, Mitsuo; Yoden, Hiroyuki; Yokomizo, Seiichi; Sumida, Tsuneto; Kunishida, Jun; Oshita, Isao

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Promotion of Science and Technology in Regional Areas' by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, we have prepared a special apparatus for machining accelerator cells with a high precision and a high efficiency for the future linear collider. A machining with as small an error as 2 micrometers has been realized. Necessary time to finish one accelerator cell is reduced from 128 minutes to 34 minutes due to the suppression of the heating of the object at the machining. If newly developed one chuck method was employed, the precision and efficiency would be further improved. By cutting at both sides of the spindle, the necessary time for machining would be reduced by half. (author)

  20. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Mechanical, Aerospace, Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.

  1. Impurity effects in silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Hopkins, R. H.; Rohatgi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Model analyses indicate that sophisticated solar cell designs including, e.g., back surface fields, optical reflectors, surface passivation, and double layer antireflective coatings can produce devices with conversion efficiencies above 20 percent (AM1). To realize this potential, the quality of the silicon from which the cells are made must be improved; and these excellent electrical properties must be maintained during device processing. As the cell efficiency rises, the sensitivity to trace contaminants also increases. For example, the threshold Ti impurity concentration at which cell performance degrades is more than an order of magnitude lower for an 18-percent cell. Similar behavior occurs for numerous other metal species which introduce deep level traps that stimulate the recombination of photogenerated carriers in silicon. Purification via crystal growth in conjunction with gettering steps to preserve the large diffusion length of the as-grown material can lead to the production of devices with efficiencies aboved 18 percent, as has been verified experimentally.

  2. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  3. Empirical Bayes Approaches to Multivariate Fuzzy Partitions.

    Woodbury, Max A.; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical Bayes-maximum likelihood estimation procedure is presented for the application of fuzzy partition models in describing high dimensional discrete response data. The model describes individuals in terms of partial membership in multiple latent categories that represent bounded discrete spaces. (SLD)

  4. High-efficiency transmision neutron polarizer for high-resolution double crystal diffractometer

    Ioffe, A.; Krist, T.; Mezei, F.; Gordeev, G.; Ibrayev, B.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient transmission geometry neutron polarizer for the high-resolution double crystal diffractometer at HMI (λ=4.8 A) is described. A polarization of about 94% was achieved and the polarized neutron beam intensity amounts to 40% of the nonpolarized beam intensity. This opens up wide possibilities for the study of magnetic small-angle scattering for extremely small momentum transfer (Q∝10 -5 A -1 ). (orig.)

  5. A versatile, highly-efficient, high-resolution von Hamos Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer

    Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.S.; Raman, S.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient, high-resolution, vertical-focusing, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been specifically designed and constructed for use in measurements of x rays produced in collisions of energetic heavy ions. In this report the design and resulting operational characteristics of the final instrument are fully described. A wide variety of sample data is also included to illustrate the utility of this device in several areas of research. 14 refs., 38 figs

  6. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    Sites, James R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  7. High-efficiency water-loaded microwave antenna in ultra-high-frequency band

    Gong, Zilun; Bartone, Chris; Yang, Fuyi; Yao, Jie

    2018-03-01

    High-index dielectrics are widely used in microwave antennas to control the radiation characteristics. Liquid water, with a high dielectric index at microwave frequency, is an interesting material to achieving tunable functionalities. Here, we demonstrate a water-loaded microwave antenna system that has high loss-tolerance and wideband tunability enabled by fluidity. Our simulation and experimental results show that the resonance frequency can be effectively tuned by the size of loading water. Furthermore, the antenna systems with water loading can achieve high radiation efficiency (>90%) in the ultra-high-frequency (0.3-3 GHz) band. This work brings about opportunities in realistic tunable microwave antenna designs enabled by liquid.

  8. Deep-blue efficient OLED based on NPB with little efficiency roll-off under high current density

    Liu, Jian

    2017-03-01

    NPB usually is used as a hole-transport layer in OLED. In fact, it is a standard pure blue-emission material. However, its light-emitting efficiency in OLED is low due to emissive nature of organic material. Herein, a deep-blue OLDE based on NPB was fabricated. The light-emitting efficiency of the device demonstrates a moderate value, and efficiency roll-off is little under high current density. The device demonstrates that the electroplex's emission decreases with increasing electric field intensity.

  9. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-01-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction

  10. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A. [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  11. Non-equilibrium microwave plasma for efficient high temperature chemistry

    van den Bekerom, D.C.M.; den Harder, N.; Minea, T.; Palomares Linares, J.M.; Bongers, W.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; van Rooij, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a flowing microwave reactor that is used to drive efficient non-equilibrium chemistry for the application of conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. The goal of the procedure described here is to measure the in situ gas temperature and gas

  12. Very High Efficiency Wood and Dung Mogogo in Eritrea

    Ghebrehiwet, Debesai

    In Eritrea, the cooking of traditionally yeast-leavened flat bread (injera or taita) is responsible for over 50%percnt; of the household's energy consumption. However, no literature exists in international journals, which reviews or analyse the efficiency or energy intensity of injera production.

  13. Highly efficient and stable catalyst for peroxynitrite decomposition

    Yurii V. Geletii; Alan J. Bailey; Jennifer J. Cowan; Ira A. Weinstock; Craig L. Hill

    2001-01-01

    The new cobalt substituted-polyoxometalate K7[CoAlW11O39]•15H2O and the simple CoCl2•6H2O salt are efficient catalysts for peroxynitrite decomposition. These compounds also catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid and the nitration of phenol by peroxynitrite.

  14. High Efficient LGp0 End Pumped Nd:YAG Laser

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available the slope efficiency of the laser due to the increased in the fundamental mode volume of the laser. The beam shaping is achieved by using an annular binary Diffractive Optical Element whose geometry is in connection with the location of the Laguerre...

  15. Gate controlled high efficiency ballistic energy conversion system

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    Last year we demonstrated the microjet ballistic energy conversion system[1]. Here we show that the efficiency of such a system can be further improved by gate control. With gate control the electrical current generation is enhanced a hundred times with respect to the current generated from the zeta

  16. High-efficiency ballistic electrostatic generator using microdroplets

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Vreede, Lennart; de Boer, Hans L.; van der Meulen, Mark-Jan; van der Meulen, Mark-Jan; Versluis, Michel; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2014-01-01

    The strong demand for renewable energy promotes research on novel methods and technologies for energy conversion. Microfluidic systems for energy conversion by streaming current are less known to the public, and the relatively low efficiencies previously obtained seemed to limit the further

  17. Development of high efficiency solar cells on silicon web

    Rohatgi, A.; Meier, D. L.; Campbell, R. B.; Schmidt, D. N.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1984-01-01

    Web base material is being improved with a goal toward obtaining solar cell efficiencies in excess of 18% (AM1). Carrier loss mechanisms in web silicon was investigated, techniques were developed to reduce carrier recombination in the web, and web cells were fabricated using effective surface passivation. The effect of stress on web cell performance was also investigated.

  18. An Automatic High Efficient Method for Dish Concentrator Alignment

    Yong Wang

    2014-01-01

    for the alignment of faceted solar dish concentrator. The isosceles triangle configuration of facet’s footholds determines a fixed relation between light spot displacements and foothold movements, which allows an automatic determination of the amount of adjustments. Tests on a 25 kW Stirling Energy System dish concentrator verify the feasibility, accuracy, and efficiency of our method.

  19. High-efficiency passive full wave rectification for electromagnetic harvesters

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Tunkar, Bassam A.; Park, Sangtak; Elrayes, Karim; Mahmoud, Mohamed A. E.; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    We compare the performance of four types of full-wave bridge rectifiers designed for electromagnetic energy harvesters based on silicon diodes, Schottky diodes, passive MOSFETs, and active MOSFETs. Simulation and experimental results show that MOSFET-type rectifiers are more efficient than diode-type rectifiers, reaching voltage and power efficiency of 99% for ideal voltage source with input amplitudes larger than 800 mV. Since active MOSFETs require extra components and an external DC power supply, we conclude that passive MOSFETs are superior for micro-power energy harvesting systems. We demonstrate passive MOSFET rectifiers implemented using discrete, off-shelf components and show that they outperform all electromagnetic harvester rectifiers hitherto reported obtaining a power efficiency of 95%. Furthermore, we show that passive MOSFET rectifiers do not affect the center frequency, harvesting bandwidth, or optimal resistance of electromagnetic harvesters. We demonstrate a complete power management module by adding a capacitor to the rectifier output terminal. We found that this configuration changed the optimal resistive load from 40 Ω to 55 Ω and decreased output power efficiency to 86%.

  20. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  1. Asymmetrical Damage Partitioning in Bacteria: A Model for the Evolution of Stochasticity, Determinism, and Genetic Assimilation.

    Chao, Lin; Rang, Camilla Ulla; Proenca, Audrey Menegaz; Chao, Jasper Ubirajara

    2016-01-01

    Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother's old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother's old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington's genetic assimilation

  2. Asymmetrical Damage Partitioning in Bacteria: A Model for the Evolution of Stochasticity, Determinism, and Genetic Assimilation.

    Lin Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-genetic phenotypic variation is common in biological organisms. The variation is potentially beneficial if the environment is changing. If the benefit is large, selection can favor the evolution of genetic assimilation, the process by which the expression of a trait is transferred from environmental to genetic control. Genetic assimilation is an important evolutionary transition, but it is poorly understood because the fitness costs and benefits of variation are often unknown. Here we show that the partitioning of damage by a mother bacterium to its two daughters can evolve through genetic assimilation. Bacterial phenotypes are also highly variable. Because gene-regulating elements can have low copy numbers, the variation is attributed to stochastic sampling. Extant Escherichia coli partition asymmetrically and deterministically more damage to the old daughter, the one receiving the mother's old pole. By modeling in silico damage partitioning in a population, we show that deterministic asymmetry is advantageous because it increases fitness variance and hence the efficiency of natural selection. However, we find that symmetrical but stochastic partitioning can be similarly beneficial. To examine why bacteria evolved deterministic asymmetry, we modeled the effect of damage anchored to the mother's old pole. While anchored damage strengthens selection for asymmetry by creating additional fitness variance, it has the opposite effect on symmetry. The difference results because anchored damage reinforces the polarization of partitioning in asymmetric bacteria. In symmetric bacteria, it dilutes the polarization. Thus, stochasticity alone may have protected early bacteria from damage, but deterministic asymmetry has evolved to be equally important in extant bacteria. We estimate that 47% of damage partitioning is deterministic in E. coli. We suggest that the evolution of deterministic asymmetry from stochasticity offers an example of Waddington

  3. Development of a high-count-rate neutron detector with position sensitivity and high efficiency

    Nelson, R.; Sandoval, J.

    1996-01-01

    While the neutron scattering community is bombarded with hints of new technologies that may deliver detectors with high-count-rate capability, high efficiency, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high resolution across large areas, only the time-tested, gas-filled 3 He and scintillation detectors are in widespread use. Future spallation sources with higher fluxes simply must exploit some of the advanced detector schemes that are as yet unproved as production systems. Technologies indicating promise as neutron detectors include pixel arrays of amorphous silicon, silicon microstrips, microstrips with gas, and new scintillation materials. This project sought to study the competing neutron detector technologies and determine which or what combination will lead to a production detector system well suited for use at a high-intensity neutron scattering source

  4. Highly efficient catalytic systems based on Pd-coated microbeads

    Lim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Ahyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Bumkyo; Kang, Dong Woo; Koo, Chong Min; Yu, Taekyung; Park, Bum Jun

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of two prototype catalysis systems using palladium (Pd)-coated microparticles was investigated with regard to the recovery and recyclability of the catalytic particles. One such system was the interface-adsorption method, in which polymer particles coated with Pd nanoparticles strongly and irreversibly attach to the oil-water interface. Due to the irreversible adsorption of the catalytic particles to the interface, particle loss was completely prevented while mixing the aqueous solution and while collecting the products. The other system was based on the magnetic field-associated particle recovery method. The use of polymeric microparticles containing Pd nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles accelerated the sedimentation of the particles in the aqueous phase by applying a strong magnetic field, consequently suppressing drainage of the particles from the reactor along the product stream. Upon multiple runs of the catalytic reactions, it was found that conversion does not change significantly, demonstrating the excellent recyclability and performance efficiency in the catalytic processes.

  5. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for HEPA filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to assume trouble-free operation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing was performed with fly ash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 volume percent water vapor in the gas stream

  6. Double Compression Expansion Engine: A Parametric Study on a High-Efficiency Engine Concept

    Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar; Johansson, Bengt; Andersson, Arne

    2018-01-01

    The Double compression expansion engine (DCEE) concept has exhibited a potential for achieving high brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). The effect of different engine components on system efficiency was evaluated in this work using GT Power

  7. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with crosslinked PCBM interlayers

    Qiu, W.

    2017-01-09

    Commercially available phenyl-C-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is crosslinked with 1,6-diazidohexane (DAZH), resulting in films resistant to common solvents used in perovskite solar cell processing. By using crosslinked PCBM as an interlayer and (HC(NH))(CHNH)PbIBr as the active layer, we achieve small area devices and modules with a maximum steady-state power conversion efficiency of 18.1% and 14.9%, respectively.

  8. Initial Test Bed for Very High Efficiency Solar Cells

    2008-05-01

    efficiency, both at the solar cell and module levels. The optical system consists of a tiled nonimaging concentrating system, coupled with a spectral...To achieve the benefits of the new photovoltaic system architecture, a new optical element is designed that combines a nonimaging optical...of the power from each solar cell. Optics Design The most advanced optical design is based on non- symmetric, nonimaging optics, tiled into an

  9. High-efficiency free-electron laser results

    Boyer, K.; Baru, C.A.; Newnam, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.; Young, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results obtained with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser demonstrate the concepts proposed by Morton for enhanced efficiency and show deceleration of electrons by as much as 7%, and extraction of more than 3% of the total electron-beam energy as laser energy when the laser is operated as an amplifier. The experiment is presently being reconfigured to examine its performance as a laser oscillator

  10. Comparison and Design of High Efficiency Microinverters for Photovoltaic Applications

    Dominic, Jason

    2014-01-01

    With the decrease in availability of non-renewable energy sources coupled with the increase in the amount of energy required for the operation of personal electronic devices there has been an increased focus on developing systems that take advantage of renewable energy sources. Renewal energy sources such as photovoltaic (PV) panels have become more popular due to recent developments in PV panel manufacturing that decreases material costs and improves energy harvesting efficiency. Since PV so...

  11. Very high efficiency wood and dung mogogo in Eritrea

    Ghebrehiwet, Debesai [Ministry of Energy and Mines, Asmara (Eritrea). Energy Research and Training Centre

    2002-04-01

    In Eritrea, the cooking of traditionally yeast-leavened flat bread (injera or taita) is responsible for over 50% of the household's energy consumption. However, no literature exists in international journals, which reviews or analyse the efficiency or energy intensity of injera production. Injera is the product of baking a fermented mixture of water and flour for about three days. The mogogo, a clay cooking plate, is the traditional stove for baking injera. Utton (intra diameter of around 60 cm) is a local name given to the three stoves for mogogo, tsahli and moklo, and are built adjacent to each other. The product of cooking is, respectively, injera, tsebhi (sauce) and kicha (hard bread). Adhanet is the name given to the improved mogogo. Recent research and developing efforts by the Energy and Training Center of the Department of Energy, has shown that an improved stove efficiency of 23% has been achieved, in contrast to the efficiency of the traditional stove of 6 to 8%.

  12. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  13. Self-assembled magnetic filter for highly efficient immunomagnetic separation.

    Issadore, David; Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Newton, Andita; Pittet, Mikael; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2011-01-07

    We have developed a compact and inexpensive microfluidic chip, the self-assembled magnetic filter, to efficiently remove magnetically tagged cells from suspension. The self-assembled magnetic filter consists of a microfluidic channel built directly above a self-assembled NdFeB magnet. Micrometre-sized grains of NdFeB assemble to form alternating magnetic dipoles, creating a magnetic field with a very strong magnitude B (from the material) and field gradient ▽B (from the configuration) in the microfluidic channel. The magnetic force imparted on magnetic beads is measured to be comparable to state-of-the-art microfabricated magnets, allowing for efficient separations to be performed in a compact, simple device. The efficiency of the magnetic filter is characterized by sorting non-magnetic (polystyrene) beads from magnetic beads (iron oxide). The filter enriches the population of non-magnetic beads to magnetic beads by a factor of >10(5) with a recovery rate of 90% at 1 mL h(-1). The utility of the magnetic filter is demonstrated with a microfluidic device that sorts tumor cells from leukocytes using negative immunomagnetic selection, and concentrates the tumor cells on an integrated membrane filter for optical detection.

  14. High-efficiency design optimization of a centrifugal pump

    Heo, Man Woong; Ma, Sang Bum; Shim, Hyeon Seok; Kim, Kwang Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Design optimization of a backward-curved blades centrifugal pump with specific speed of 150 has been performed to improve hydraulic performance of the pump using surrogate modeling and three-dimensional steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis. The shear stress transport model was used for the analysis of turbulence. Four geometric variables defining the blade hub inlet angle, hub contours, blade outlet angle, and blade angle profile of impeller were selected as design variables, and total efficiency of the pump at design flow rate was set as the objective function for the optimization. Thirty-six design points were chosen using the Latin hypercube sampling, and three different surrogate models were constructed using the objective function values calculated at these design points. The optimal point was searched from the constructed surrogate model by using sequential quadratic programming. The optimum designs of the centrifugal pump predicted by the surrogate models show considerable increases in efficiency compared to a reference design. Performance of the best optimum design was validated compared to experimental data for total efficiency and head.

  15. Efficient Wide Range Converters (EWiRaC): A new family of high efficient AC-DC Converters

    Petersen, Lars; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    The performance in terms of efficiency of the existing power supplies used for PFC is very dependent on the input voltage range. The boost converter is the most commonly used PFC converter because of its simplicity and high efficiency. But, the boost converter as well as other known converters...... suffers a major penalty in efficiency when used at the low end of the voltage range (90VAC) in a universal voltage range application (90-270VAC). This paper addresses this problem by suggesting a new family of converters that effectively reduces the apparent voltage range with a factor of 2 by changing...... the converter topology according to the input voltage. This new converter type has been named: efficient wide range converter (EWiRaC). The performance of the EWiRaC is experimental verified in a universal input range (90-270VAC) application with an output voltage of 185VDC capable of 500W output power. The EWi...

  16. Carbon isotope discrimination as a selection tool for high water use efficiency and high crop yields

    Kumarasinghe, K.S.; Kirda, C.; Bowen, G.D.; Zapata, F.; Awonaike, K.O.; Holmgren, E.; Arslan, A.; De Bisbal, E.C.; Mohamed, A.R.A.G.; Montenegro, A.

    1996-01-01

    Results of back-up research conducted at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in support of the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Use of Isotope Studies on Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics, are presented here. Neutron probe measurements confirmed the earlier reports of a strong correlation of Δ with grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat. High soil gypsum content and soil salinity, a wide spread problem in soils of arid and semi-arid climatic zones, do not interfere with the association of Δ with crop yields, provided plants are grown in similar soil water status and soil fertility level. Results of a glasshouse experiment using selected cowpea genotypes showed that Δ values measured at flowering stage positively correlated with total dry matter production and percent N 2 derived from atmosphere (%Ndfa), contributing to an earlier report from the laboratory that it may be possible to use Δ values for screening of leguminous crops for high N 2 fixation potential. 13 C isotope discrimination in the leaves of Gliricidia sepium was measured to examine if the technique could be extended to studies with trees. Results of a glasshouse experiment with 18 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed highly significant correlations of Δ with total dry matter production, water use efficiency and total N accumulated through biological nitrogen fixation. Although the correlation of Δ with water use efficiency and dry matter yield are relatively clear and better understood, the correlation with nitrogen fixation still needs a closer examination under different environmental conditions and with different species. While 13 C isotope discrimination may be a valuable tool for identifying annual crops with high water use efficiency and high yield potential, it may be more attractive for tree species considering the long growth periods taken for trees

  17. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    The partition function of Gentile statistics also has the property that it nicely interpolates between the ... We now construct the partition function for such a system which also incorporates the property of interpolation ... As in [4], we however keep s arbitrary even though for s > 2 there are no quadratic. Hamiltonian systems.

  18. High-efficiency targets for high-gain inertial confinement fusion

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the induced spatial incoherence (ISI) technique, which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh--Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh--Taylor instability, pellets using (1)/(4) μm laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150--200) may produce energy gains as high as 200--250

  19. NEW LENSLET BASED IFS WITH HIGH DETECTOR PIXEL EFFICIENCY

    Gong, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Three IFS types currently used for optical design are: lenslet array, imager slicer, and lenslet array and fiber combined. Lenslet array based Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) is very popular for many astrophysics applications due to its compactness, simplicity, as well as cost and mass savings. The disadvantage of lenslet based IFS is its low detector pixel efficiency. Enough spacing is needed between adjacent spectral traces in cross dispersion direction to avoid wavelength cross-talk, because the same wavelength is not aligned to the same column on detector. Such as on a recent exoplanet coronagraph instrument study to support the coming astrophysics decadal survey (LUVOIR), to cover a 45 λ/D Field of View (FOV) with a spectral resolving power of 200 at shortest wavelength, a 4k x 4k detector array is needed. This large format EMCCD pushes the detector into technology development area with a low TRL. Besides the future mission, it will help WFIRST coronagraph IFS by packing all spectra into a smaller area on detector, which will reduce the chance for electrons to be trapped in pixels, and slow the detector degradation during the mission.The innovation we propose here is to increase the detector packing efficiency by grouping a number of lenslets together to form many mini slits. In other words, a number of spots (Point Spread Function at lenslet focus) are aligned into a line to resemble a mini slit. Therefore, wavelength cross-talk is no longer a concern anymore. This combines the advantage of lenslet array and imager slicer together. The isolation rows between spectral traces in cross dispersion direction can be reduced or removed. So the packing efficiency is greatly increased. Furthermore, the today’s microlithography and etching technique is capable of making such a lenslet array, which will relax the detector demand significantly. It will finally contribute to the habitable exoplanets study to analyzing their spectra from direct images. Detailed theory

  20. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor as Highly Efficient Transmutation System

    Merk, B.; Rohde, U.; Scholl, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion and future steps: • MSFR offers very attractive features for efficient transmutation; • significant advantages due to liquid fuel and online refuelling and reprocessing; • significant developments are required on the way to application; • system is very promising for transmutation; • development of a safety approach for liquid fuel reactors (RSWG); • investigation of possibilities to solve the “last transmuter” problem (ICAPP2013) – as future for countries envisaging nuclear phase out or no transition to fast reactor fleet for energy production; • establishing of a strong group “MSFR for transmutation”; • development of a transmutation optimized design