WorldWideScience

Sample records for high negative predictive

  1. Risk score predicts high-grade prostate cancer in DNA-methylation positive, histopathologically negative biopsies.

    Van Neste, Leander; Partin, Alan W; Stewart, Grant D; Epstein, Jonathan I; Harrison, David J; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is challenging because efforts for effective, timely treatment of men with significant cancer typically result in over-diagnosis and repeat biopsies. The presence or absence of epigenetic aberrations, more specifically DNA-methylation of GSTP1, RASSF1, and APC in histopathologically negative prostate core biopsies has resulted in an increased negative predictive value (NPV) of ∼90% and thus could lead to a reduction of unnecessary repeat biopsies. Here, it is investigated whether, in methylation-positive men, DNA-methylation intensities could help to identify those men harboring high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) PCa, resulting in an improved positive predictive value. Two cohorts, consisting of men with histopathologically negative index biopsies, followed by a positive or negative repeat biopsy, were combined. EpiScore, a methylation intensity algorithm was developed in methylation-positive men, using area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic as metric for performance. Next, a risk score was developed combining EpiScore with traditional clinical risk factors to further improve the identification of high-grade (Gleason Score ≥7) cancer. Compared to other risk factors, detection of DNA-methylation in histopathologically negative biopsies was the most significant and important predictor of high-grade cancer, resulting in a NPV of 96%. In methylation-positive men, EpiScore was significantly higher for those with high-grade cancer detected upon repeat biopsy, compared to those with either no or low-grade cancer. The risk score resulted in further improvement of patient risk stratification and was a significantly better predictor compared to currently used metrics as PSA and the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) risk calculator (RC). A decision curve analysis indicated strong clinical utility for the risk score as decision-making tool for repeat biopsy. Low DNA-methylation levels in PCa-negative biopsies led

  2. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    Methods and results. In this prospective observational study, patients were classied into categories of infection, namely denite, probable and possible. Of 76 neonates, 1 had denite infection, 5 probable infection, 30 possible infection, and 32 no infection. .e neutrophil CD64 index at a cut-o. value of 1.8 had a high negative ...

  3. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Nakanishi, Masanori; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Yukio; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Itoh, Harumi; Ishizaki, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  4. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Nakanishi, Masanori [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: mnakanishi@nifty.ne.jp; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kosaka, Nobuyuki [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Chiba, Yukio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Nishikawa, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takeshi [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  5. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    [13] Multiple studies agree that neutrophil CD64 has high diagnostic speci city and sensitivity.[13,18-20] In the light of the above information, we prospectively evaluated the usefulness of neutrophil CD64 expression in diagnosing neonatal infection. e main objective of the study was quantitation of neutrophil. CD64 by ow ...

  6. High Densities of Tumor-Associated Plasma Cells Predict Improved Prognosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Joe Yeong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women, but the heterogeneity of the condition is a significant obstacle to effective treatment. Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs do not express HER2 or the receptors for estrogen or progesterone, and so often have a poor prognosis. Tumor-infiltrating T cells have been well-characterized in TNBC, and increased numbers are associated with better outcomes; however, the potential roles of B cells and plasma cells have been large. Here, we conducted a retrospective correlative study on the expression of B cell/plasma cell-related genes, and the abundance and localization of B cells and plasma cells within TNBCs, and clinical outcome. We analyzed 269 TNBC samples and used immunohistochemistry to quantify tumor-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells, coupled with NanoString measurement of expression of immunoglobulin metagenes. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients bearing TNBCs with above-median densities of CD38+ plasma cells had significantly better disease-free survival (DFS (HR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.26–0.77; p = 0.004 but not overall survival (OS, after adjusting for the effects of known prognostic factors. In contrast, TNBCs with higher immunoglobulin gene expression exhibited improved prognosis (OS p = 0.029 and DFS p = 0.005. The presence of B cells and plasma cells was positively correlated (p < 0.0001, R = 0.558, while immunoglobulin gene IGKC, IGHM, and IGHG1 mRNA expression correlated specifically with the density of CD38+ plasma cells (IGKC p < 0.0001, R = 0.647; IGHM p < 0.0001, R = 0.580; IGHG1 p < 0.0001, R = 0.655. Interestingly, after adjusting the multivariate analysis for the effect of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell density, the expression levels of all three genes lost significant prognostic value, suggesting a biologically important role of plasma cells. Last but not least, the addition of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell

  7. Optimal classifier selection and negative bias in error rate estimation: an empirical study on high-dimensional prediction

    Boulesteix Anne-Laure

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In biometric practice, researchers often apply a large number of different methods in a "trial-and-error" strategy to get as much as possible out of their data and, due to publication pressure or pressure from the consulting customer, present only the most favorable results. This strategy may induce a substantial optimistic bias in prediction error estimation, which is quantitatively assessed in the present manuscript. The focus of our work is on class prediction based on high-dimensional data (e.g. microarray data, since such analyses are particularly exposed to this kind of bias. Methods In our study we consider a total of 124 variants of classifiers (possibly including variable selection or tuning steps within a cross-validation evaluation scheme. The classifiers are applied to original and modified real microarray data sets, some of which are obtained by randomly permuting the class labels to mimic non-informative predictors while preserving their correlation structure. Results We assess the minimal misclassification rate over the different variants of classifiers in order to quantify the bias arising when the optimal classifier is selected a posteriori in a data-driven manner. The bias resulting from the parameter tuning (including gene selection parameters as a special case and the bias resulting from the choice of the classification method are examined both separately and jointly. Conclusions The median minimal error rate over the investigated classifiers was as low as 31% and 41% based on permuted uninformative predictors from studies on colon cancer and prostate cancer, respectively. We conclude that the strategy to present only the optimal result is not acceptable because it yields a substantial bias in error rate estimation, and suggest alternative approaches for properly reporting classification accuracy.

  8. High mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative can be predicted using a simple test

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2009-01-01

    1007 aTBneg individuals who were enrolled from 2004 to 2006; 4983 age-matched controls were followed for comparison. Plasma suPAR levels were measured using the suPARnostic ELISA. Survival was analysed using Cox regression, ROC curves and Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: After 3 months of follow......-up, mortality was 21 per 100 person-year-observation (PYO) among aTBneg individuals and three per 100 PYO among the control population [mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 6.92 (95% CI 4.48-10.7)]. SuPAR values ranged between 0.9 and 45 ng/ml in aTBneg individuals. A log-linear relationship was found between su......PAR levels linear range, a 1 ng/ml increase was associated with a 46% increase in the mortality rate: MRR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.34-1.59). The area under the ROC curves was 0.88 for HIV-positive individuals and 0.79 for HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed...

  9. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Guan-Nan Wang

    Full Text Available In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM. Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  10. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N A; Fu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  11. Negative correlation learning for customer churn prediction: a comparison study.

    Rodan, Ali; Fayyoumi, Ayham; Faris, Hossam; Alsakran, Jamal; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Recently, telecommunication companies have been paying more attention toward the problem of identification of customer churn behavior. In business, it is well known for service providers that attracting new customers is much more expensive than retaining existing ones. Therefore, adopting accurate models that are able to predict customer churn can effectively help in customer retention campaigns and maximizing the profit. In this paper we will utilize an ensemble of Multilayer perceptrons (MLP) whose training is obtained using negative correlation learning (NCL) for predicting customer churn in a telecommunication company. Experiments results confirm that NCL based MLP ensemble can achieve better generalization performance (high churn rate) compared with ensemble of MLP without NCL (flat ensemble) and other common data mining techniques used for churn analysis.

  12. High defect stage, contralateral defects, and poor flexibility are negative predictive factors of bone union in pediatric and adolescent athletes with spondylolysis.

    Yamazaki, Kazufumi; Kota, Shintaro; Oikawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    2018-01-01

    To identify predisposition to spondylolysis and physical characteristics associated with "bone union" following conservative spondylolysis treatment among pediatric and adolescent athletes. We retrospectively analyzed pediatric and adolescent athletes with spondylolysis who underwent conservative treatment and rehabilitation for three or more consecutive months following sports activity cessation. Patients with terminal spondylolysis or who did not discontinue sports activities were excluded. We compared physical fitness factors in the union and nonunion groups and examined the association between bone union and spondylolysis severity by logistic regression analysis. Of 183 patients with spondylolysis who underwent rehabilitation over a four-year period, 127 patients with 227 defects were included in the final analysis. Bone union was achieved in 66.5% (151/227) of the pars interarticularis defects and 70.1% (89/127) of the patients. On multivariate analysis, stage of pars interarticularis defect (odds ratio [OR], 0.26;p = 0.0027), stage of contralateral pars interarticularis defect (OR, 0.51;p = 0.00026), and straight leg-raising test (OR, 1.06;p = 0.028) were significantly associated with bone union. High defect stage, stage of the contralateral pars interarticularis defect, and poor flexibility were negative prognostic factors of bone healing in athletes with spondylolysis. J. Med. Invest. 65:126-130, February, 2018.

  13. A CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Fei Ma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease with no definitive prognostic markers. As a major component of tight junctions, claudins (CLDNs presumably play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the expression of CLDNs and the clinical outcomes of TNBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical specimens of primary breast tumors from a consecutive cohort of 173 TNBC patients were retrospectively collected. The membranous expression of CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. Then, the associations between CLDN expression, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Positive CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 membrane expression was detected in 44.5%, 54.9%, 76.9%, and 73.4% of the cohort specimens, respectively. A lack of CLDN1 expression was related to only lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014. The rate of CLDN4-positive tumors was significantly increased in tumors of a higher grade (P = 0.003. Importantly, negative CLDN1 expression was associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS in both lymph node positive (LN+ and negative (LN- cases (both P<0.001. Similarly it was also associated with shorter overall survival (OS(P = 0.003 in LN+ cases; P = 0.018 in LN- cases. In the LN+ subgroup, CLDN2-negative cases had a significantly higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.008. Multivariate analysis revealed that negative CLDN1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for high risk of both recurrence and death (HR 5.529, 95% CI 2.664-11.475, P<0.001; HR 3.459, 95% CI 1.555-7.696, P = 0.002. However, neither CLDN4 nor CLDN7 expression was associated with survival. CONCLUSION: In TNBC, the CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts a high risk of recurrence and death. The absence of CLDN1 expression is strongly suggested to be an independent adverse prognostic factor

  14. Immunohistochemical subtypes predict the clinical outcome in high-risk node-negative breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant FEC regimen: results of a single-center retrospective study

    Rahal, S.; Boher, J M; Extra, J M; Tarpin, C.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Lambaudie, E.; Sabatier, R.; Thomassin-Piana, J.; Tallet, A.; Resbeut, M.; Houvenaeghel, G.; Laborde, L.; Bertucci, F.; Viens, P.; Gonçalves, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with high-risk node-negative breast cancer (BC). In this setting, prognostic factors predicting for treatment failure might help selecting among the different available cytotoxic combinations. Between 1998 and 2008, 757 consecutive patients with node-negative BC treated in our institution with adjuvant FEC (5FU, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy were identified. Data collection included demographic, clinico-pathological characteristics and treatment information. Molecular subtypes were derived from estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade. Disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier Method, and prognostic factors were examined by multivariate Cox analysis. After a median follow-up of 70 months, the 5-year DFS, DDFS and OS were 90.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 88.2–93.1), 92.8 % (95 % CI: 90.7–95) and 95.1 % (95 % CI, 93.3–96.9), respectively. In the multivariate analysis including classical clinico-pathological parameters, only grade 3 maintained a significant and independent adverse prognostic impact. In an alternative multivariate model where ER, PR and grade were replaced by molecular subtypes, only luminal B/HER2-negative and triple-negative subtypes were associated with reduced DFS and DDFS. Node-negative BC patients receiving adjuvant FEC regimen have a favorable outcome. Luminal B/HER2-negative and triple-negative subtypes identify patients with a higher risk of treatment failure, which might warrant more aggressive systemic treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1746-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  15. Prediction of lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative bacteria

    Juncker, Agnieszka; Willenbrock, Hanni; Von Heijne, G.

    2003-01-01

    A method to predict lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative Eubacteria, LipoP, has been developed. The hidden Markov model (HMM) was able to distinguish between lipoproteins (SPaseII-cleaved proteins), SPaseI-cleaved proteins, cytoplasmic proteins, and transmembrane proteins. This predictor ...

  16. Prediction of lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Juncker, Agnieszka S; Willenbrock, Hanni; Von Heijne, Gunnar; Brunak, Søren; Nielsen, Henrik; Krogh, Anders

    2003-08-01

    A method to predict lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative Eubacteria, LipoP, has been developed. The hidden Markov model (HMM) was able to distinguish between lipoproteins (SPaseII-cleaved proteins), SPaseI-cleaved proteins, cytoplasmic proteins, and transmembrane proteins. This predictor was able to predict 96.8% of the lipoproteins correctly with only 0.3% false positives in a set of SPaseI-cleaved, cytoplasmic, and transmembrane proteins. The results obtained were significantly better than those of previously developed methods. Even though Gram-positive lipoprotein signal peptides differ from Gram-negatives, the HMM was able to identify 92.9% of the lipoproteins included in a Gram-positive test set. A genome search was carried out for 12 Gram-negative genomes and one Gram-positive genome. The results for Escherichia coli K12 were compared with new experimental data, and the predictions by the HMM agree well with the experimentally verified lipoproteins. A neural network-based predictor was developed for comparison, and it gave very similar results. LipoP is available as a Web server at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/LipoP/.

  17. Centrality of positive and negative deployment memories predicts posttraumatic growth in danish veterans

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Thomsen, Yvonne Duval

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine theoretically motivated predictors for the development of positive changes following potentially traumatic experiences (i.e., posttraumatic growth). Specifically, we wanted to examine the prediction that memories of highly negative......-sectional analyses of the data. RESULTS: The main findings were that the centrality of highly emotional memories from deployment predicted growth alongside openness to experience, combat exposure, and social support. Importantly, the centrality of both positive and negative memories predicted growth equally well...

  18. The interplay of personality and negative comments about appearance in predicting body image.

    Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; von Soest, Tilmann; Roald, Helge E; Skolleborg, Knut Chr

    2006-09-01

    This study investigates how personality traits in combination with frequency of and emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance while growing up are related to appearance evaluation and orientation among adult women. Nine hundred and seven participants from a representative sample of Norwegian women aged 22-55, answered questions measuring body image, personality (Big Five), and history of experiencing negative comments about appearance. Results indicated that only emotional reaction to negative comments about appearance significantly predicted both appearance evaluation and orientation, while frequency of negative comments did not. Being extrovert predicted more positive appearance evaluation and being more appearance oriented than being introvert. Scoring high on neuroticism was related to negative appearance evaluation and high appearance orientation. The findings demonstrate the importance of differentiating between the frequency and the emotional impact of teasing as well as including personality traits when studying body image.

  19. Acculturation Predicts Negative Affect and Shortened Telomere Length.

    Ruiz, R Jeanne; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Moore, Tiffany; Ayers, Kimberly S; Pickler, Rita H

    2016-10-12

    Chronic stress may accelerate cellular aging. Telomeres, protective "caps" at the end of chromosomes, modulate cellular aging and may be good biomarkers for the effects of chronic stress, including that associated with acculturation. The purpose of this analysis was to examine telomere length (TL) in acculturating Hispanic Mexican American women and to determine the associations among TL, acculturation, and psychological factors. As part of a larger cross-sectional study of 516 pregnant Hispanic Mexican American women, we analyzed DNA in blood samples (N = 56) collected at 22-24 weeks gestation for TL as an exploratory measure using monochrome multiplex quantitative telomere polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We measured acculturation with the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory, discrimination with the Experiences of Discrimination Scale, and stress with the Perceived Stress Scale. TL was negatively moderately correlated with two variables of acculturation: Anglo orientation and greater acculturation-level scores. We combined these scores for a latent variable, acculturation, and we combined depression, stress, and discrimination scores in another latent variable, "negative affectivity." Acculturation and negative affectivity were bidirectionally correlated. Acculturation significantly negatively predicted TL. Using structural equation modeling, we found the model had an excellent fit with the root mean square error of approximation estimate = .0001, comparative fit index = 1.0, Tucker-Lewis index = 1.0, and standardized root mean square residual = .05. The negative effects of acculturation on the health of Hispanic women have been previously demonstrated. Findings from this analysis suggest a link between acculturation and TL, which may indicate accelerated cellular aging associated with overall poor health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Negative (but not Positive) Parenting Interacts with Infant Negative Affect to Predict Infant Approach: Evidence of Diathesis-Stress.

    Holzman, Jacob B; Burt, Nicole M; Edwards, Erin S; Rosinski, Leanna D; Bridgett, David J

    2018-01-01

    Temperament by parenting interactions may reflect that individuals with greater risk are more likely to experience negative outcomes in adverse contexts (diathesis-stress) or that these individuals are more susceptible to contextual influences in a 'for better or for worse' pattern (differential susceptibility). Although such interactions have been identified for a variety of child outcomes, prior research has not examined approach characteristics - excitement and approach toward pleasurable activities - in the first year of life. Therefore, the current study investigated whether 6-month maternal reported infant negative affect - a phenotypic marker of risk/susceptibility - interacted with 8-month observed parenting behaviors (positive parenting, negative parenting) to predict 12-month infant behavioral approach. Based a sample of mothers and their infants ( N =150), results indicated that negative parenting was inversely associated with subsequent approach for infants with high, but not low, levels of early negative affect. Similar results did not occur regarding positive parenting. These findings better fit a diathesis-stress model rather than a differential susceptibility model. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  1. A 3-Year Study of Predictive Factors for Positive and Negative Appendicectomies.

    Chang, Dwayne T S; Maluda, Melissa; Lee, Lisa; Premaratne, Chandrasiri; Khamhing, Srisongham

    2018-03-06

    Early and accurate identification or exclusion of acute appendicitis is the key to avoid the morbidity of delayed treatment for true appendicitis or unnecessary appendicectomy, respectively. We aim (i) to identify potential predictive factors for positive and negative appendicectomies; and (ii) to analyse the use of ultrasound scans (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans for acute appendicitis. All appendicectomies that took place at our hospital from the 1st of January 2013 to the 31st of December 2015 were retrospectively recorded. Test results of potential predictive factors of acute appendicitis were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test, logistic regression analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values calculation. 208 patients were included in this study. 184 patients had histologically proven acute appendicitis. The other 24 patients had either nonappendicitis pathology or normal appendix. Logistic regression analysis showed statistically significant associations between appendicitis and white cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and bilirubin. Neutrophil count was the test with the highest sensitivity and negative predictive values, whereas bilirubin was the test with the highest specificity and positive predictive values (PPV). US and CT scans had high sensitivity and PPV for diagnosing appendicitis. No single test was sufficient to diagnose or exclude acute appendicitis by itself. Combining tests with high sensitivity (abnormal neutrophil count, and US and CT scans) and high specificity (raised bilirubin) may predict acute appendicitis more accurately.

  2. Chronic and Daily Stressors Along With Negative Affect Interact to Predict Daily Tiredness.

    Hartsell, Elizabeth N; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness. People with high chronic stress who experienced an increase in daily negative affect were the most reactive to daily stressors in terms of experiencing an increase in daily tiredness. We also found that people with low levels of chronic stress were the most reactive to daily stressors when they experienced low levels of daily negative affect. Our results highlight the need for individualized and contextualized approaches to combating daily tiredness in older adults.

  3. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  4. Impact of the endoscopist's experience on the negative predictive value of capsule endoscopy.

    Velayos Jiménez, Benito; Alcaide Suárez, Noelia; González Redondo, Guillermo; Fernández Salazar, Luis; Aller de la Fuente, Rocío; Del Olmo Martínez, Lourdes; Ruiz Rebollo, Lourdes; González Hernández, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the accumulated experience of the capsule endoscopy (CE) reader on the accuracy of this test is discussed. To determine whether the negative predictive value of CE findings changes along the learning curve. We reviewed the first 900 CE read by 3 gastroenterologists experienced in endoscopy over 8 years. These 900 CE were divided into 3 groups (300 CE each): group 1 consisted of the sum of the first 100 CE read by each of the 3 endoscopists; group 2, the sum of the second 100 and groups 3, the sum of the third 100. Patients with normal CE were monitored for at least 28 months to estimate the negative predictive value. A total of 54 (18%) CE in group 1, 58 (19.3%) in group 2 and 47 (15.6%) in group 3 were normal, although only 34 patients in group 1, 38 in group 2 and 36 in group 3 with normal CE completed follow up and were eventually studied. The negative predictive value was 88.2% in group 1, 89.5% in group 2 and 97% in group 3 (P>.05). The negative predictive value tended to increase, but remained high and did not change significantly after the first 100 when readers are experienced in conventional endoscopy and have preliminary specific training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    Itatani, R., E-mail: banguliao@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Namimoto, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Atsuji, S.; Katahira, K.; Morishita, S. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitani, K.; Hamada, Y. [Department of Urology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Kitaoka, M. [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1, Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Nakaura, T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa Medical Center, Kameba 854-1, Amakusa, Kumamoto 863-0046 (Japan); Yamashita, Y. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1, Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy.

  6. Negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Outcome of 5-year follow-up in men with negative findings on initial MRI studies

    Itatani, R.; Namimoto, T.; Atsuji, S.; Katahira, K.; Morishita, S.; Kitani, K.; Hamada, Y.; Kitaoka, M.; Nakaura, T.; Yamashita, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the negative predictive value of multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer. • Patients with positive prostate biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. • Patients with negative initial prostate biopsy findings were followed up for 5 years. • The negative predictive value was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. • MRI is a useful tool to rule out significant prostate cancer before biopsy. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the clinical negative predictive value (NPV) of multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) for prostate cancer in a 5-year follow-up. Materials and methods: One hundred ninety-three men suspected of harboring prostate cancer with negative MRI findings were included. Patients with positive transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy findings were defined as false-negative. Patients with negative initial TRUS-guided biopsy findings were followed up and only patients with negative findings by digital rectal examination, MRI, and repeat biopsy and no increase in PSA at 5-year follow-up were defined as “clinically negative”. The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was calculated. For quantitative analysis, mean signal intensity on T2-weighted images and the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value on ADC maps of the initial MRI studies were compared between peripheral-zone (PZ) cancer and the normal PZ based on pathologic maps of patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. Results: The clinical NPV of mp-MRI was 89.6% for significant prostate cancer. Small cancers, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy masking prostate cancer returned false-negative results. Quantitative analysis showed that there was no significant difference between PZ cancer and the normal PZ. Conclusion: The mp-MRI revealed a high clinical NPV and is a useful tool to rule out clinically significant prostate cancer before biopsy

  7. ClubSub-P: Cluster-based subcellular localization prediction for Gram-negative bacteria and Archaea.

    Nagarajan eParamasivam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The subcellular localization of proteins provides important clues to their function in a cell. In our efforts to predict useful vaccine targets against Gram-negative bacteria, we noticed that misannotated start codons frequently lead to wrongly assigned subcellular localizations. This and other problems in subcellular localization prediction, such as the relatively high false positive and false negative rates of some tools, can be avoided by applying multiple prediction tools to groups of homologous proteins. Here we present ClubSub-P, an online database that combines existing subcellular localization prediction tools into a consensus pipeline from more than 600 proteomes of fully sequenced microorganisms. On top of the consensus prediction at the level of single sequences, the tool uses clusters of homologous proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and from Archaea to eliminate false positive and false negative predictions. ClubSub-P can assign the subcellular localization of proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and Archaea with high precision. The database is searchable, and can easily be expanded using either new bacterial genomes or new prediction tools as they become available. This will further improve the performance of the subcellular localization prediction, as well as the detection of misannotated start codons and other annotation errors. ClubSub-P is available online at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/clubsubp/

  8. ClubSub-P: Cluster-Based Subcellular Localization Prediction for Gram-Negative Bacteria and Archaea

    Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Linke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The subcellular localization (SCL) of proteins provides important clues to their function in a cell. In our efforts to predict useful vaccine targets against Gram-negative bacteria, we noticed that misannotated start codons frequently lead to wrongly assigned SCLs. This and other problems in SCL prediction, such as the relatively high false-positive and false-negative rates of some tools, can be avoided by applying multiple prediction tools to groups of homologous proteins. Here we present ClubSub-P, an online database that combines existing SCL prediction tools into a consensus pipeline from more than 600 proteomes of fully sequenced microorganisms. On top of the consensus prediction at the level of single sequences, the tool uses clusters of homologous proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and from Archaea to eliminate false-positive and false-negative predictions. ClubSub-P can assign the SCL of proteins from Gram-negative bacteria and Archaea with high precision. The database is searchable, and can easily be expanded using either new bacterial genomes or new prediction tools as they become available. This will further improve the performance of the SCL prediction, as well as the detection of misannotated start codons and other annotation errors. ClubSub-P is available online at http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/clubsubp/ PMID:22073040

  9. Trustworthiness and Negative Affect Predict Economic Decision-Making

    Nguyen, Christopher M.; Koenigs, Michael; Yamada, Torricia H.; Teo, Shu Hao; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Tranel, Daniel; Denburg, Natalie L.

    2011-01-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a widely used and well-studied laboratory model of economic decision-making. Here, we studied 129 healthy adults and compared demographic (i.e., age, gender, education), cognitive (i.e., intelligence, attention/working memory, speed, language, visuospatial, memory, executive functions), and personality (i.e., “Big Five”, positive affect, negative affect) variables between those with a “rational” versus an “irrational” response pattern on the UG. Our data indicated t...

  10. Negative Correlation Learning for Customer Churn Prediction: A Comparison Study

    Rodan, Ali; Fayyoumi, Ayham; Faris, Hossam; Alsakran, Jamal; Al-Kadi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Recently, telecommunication companies have been paying more attention toward the problem of identification of customer churn behavior. In business, it is well known for service providers that attracting new customers is much more expensive than retaining existing ones. Therefore, adopting accurate models that are able to predict customer churn can effectively help in customer retention campaigns and maximizing the profit. In this paper we will utilize an ensemble of Multilayer perceptrons ...

  11. Trustworthiness and Negative Affect Predict Economic Decision-Making.

    Nguyen, Christopher M; Koenigs, Michael; Yamada, Torricia H; Teo, Shu Hao; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Tranel, Daniel; Denburg, Natalie L

    2011-09-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a widely used and well-studied laboratory model of economic decision-making. Here, we studied 129 healthy adults and compared demographic (i.e., age, gender, education), cognitive (i.e., intelligence, attention/working memory, speed, language, visuospatial, memory, executive functions), and personality (i.e., "Big Five", positive affect, negative affect) variables between those with a "rational" versus an "irrational" response pattern on the UG. Our data indicated that participants with "rational" UG performance (accepting any offer, no matter the fairness) endorsed higher levels of trust, or the belief in the sincerity and good intentions of others, while participants with "irrational" UG performance (rejecting unfair offers) endorsed higher levels of negative affect, such as anger and contempt. These personality variables were the only ones that differentiated the two response patterns-demographic and cognitive factors did not differ between rational and irrational players. The results indicate that the examination of personality and affect is crucial to our understanding of the individual differences that underlie decision-making.

  12. Negative predictive value of ultrasound in predicting tumor-free margins in specimen sonography

    Naz, S.; Hafeez, S.; Hussain, Z.; Hilal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the success of ultrasound in post-excision specimen visualization, and negative predictive value of ultrasound for estimation of tumor-free margins using histopathology as the gold standard. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from May 2010 till January 2013. Methodology: Sonography of all breast nodules was done before and after exicision by two female radiologists with at least five years clinical experience. All surgeries were performed by the same referring breast surgeons. All nodules were non-palpable and had histopathology as well as specimen sonography performed at AKUH. Subjects were excluded, if histopathology was not available, post-procedure sonogram not done or done in another hospital and nodules that were not seen on ultrasound. After needle localization in 47 patients using ultrasound and in 7 patients using mammogram was done, sonogram was conducted in all 54 lesions. These were then assessed by ultrasound for detection of lesion and tumor-free margins in malignant lesion. Post-excision ultrasound was performed for the evaluation of lesion whether visualized or absent with localizing needle in situ, lesion dimensions, depth measurement between the superior margin of the lesion and its edge. Results: All 54 lesions were present on post-exicison scan, out of which 28 were documented as malignant and 26 as benign. Ultrasound declared all specimens as tumor-free. On histopathology, two lesions were documented as having tumor-positive margins and were proven to be invasive lobular carcinoma. Therefore, the negative predictive value of the specimen sonography for margin detection was 26/28 (92.8%). Conclusion: Ultrasound of the excised breast tumor specimen is a simple and reliable technique for confirmation of the tumor-free margins in non-palpable breast lesions. (author)

  13. Tuning in to art: A predictive processing account of negative emotion in art.

    Van de Cruys, Sander; Chamberlain, Rebecca; Wagemans, Johan

    2017-01-01

    We use the example of art-derived solace to discuss a broader mechanism by which negative affect is instrumental in creating positive appreciation of artworks. Based on the theory of predictive processing, we argue that increasing attunement or reduction of prediction errors, which implies increasing validation of the agents (models), is experienced as positive, even if the artwork's content is negative.

  14. Gene expression variation to predict 10-year survival in lymph-node-negative breast cancer

    Karlsson, Elin; Delle, Ulla; Danielsson, Anna; Olsson, Björn; Abel, Frida; Karlsson, Per; Helou, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    It is of great significance to find better markers to correctly distinguish between high-risk and low-risk breast cancer patients since the majority of breast cancer cases are at present being overtreated. 46 tumours from node-negative breast cancer patients were studied with gene expression microarrays. A t-test was carried out in order to find a set of genes where the expression might predict clinical outcome. Two classifiers were used for evaluation of the gene lists, a correlation-based classifier and a Voting Features Interval (VFI) classifier. We then evaluated the predictive accuracy of this expression signature on tumour sets from two similar studies on lymph-node negative patients. They had both developed gene expression signatures superior to current methods in classifying node-negative breast tumours. These two signatures were also tested on our material. A list of 51 genes whose expression profiles could predict clinical outcome with high accuracy in our material (96% or 89% accuracy in cross-validation, depending on type of classifier) was developed. When tested on two independent data sets, the expression signature based on the 51 identified genes had good predictive qualities in one of the data sets (74% accuracy), whereas their predictive value on the other data set were poor, presumably due to the fact that only 23 of the 51 genes were found in that material. We also found that previously developed expression signatures could predict clinical outcome well to moderately well in our material (72% and 61%, respectively). The list of 51 genes derived in this study might have potential for clinical utility as a prognostic gene set, and may include candidate genes of potential relevance for clinical outcome in breast cancer. According to the predictions by this expression signature, 30 of the 46 patients may have benefited from different adjuvant treatment than they recieved. The research on these tumours was approved by the Medical Faculty Research

  15. Mothers' depressive symptoms predict both increased and reduced negative reactivity: aversion sensitivity and the regulation of emotion.

    Dix, Theodore; Moed, Anat; Anderson, Edward R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether, as mothers' depressive symptoms increase, their expressions of negative emotion to children increasingly reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to minimize ongoing stress or discomfort. In multiple interactions over 2 years, negative affect expressed by 319 mothers and their children was observed across variations in mothers' depressive symptoms, the aversiveness of children's immediate behavior, and observed differences in children's general negative reactivity. As expected, depressive symptoms predicted reduced maternal negative reactivity when child behavior was low in aversiveness, particularly with children who were high in negative reactivity. Depressive symptoms predicted high negative reactivity and steep increases in negative reactivity as the aversiveness of child behavior increased, particularly when high and continued aversiveness from the child was expected (i.e., children were high in negative reactivity). The findings are consistent with the proposal that deficits in parenting competence as depressive symptoms increase reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to avoid conflict and suppress children's aversive behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Ghrelin level negatively predicts quality of life in obese women.

    Lu, P H; Song, Y L; Hsu, C H

    2017-02-01

    A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted to investigate whether ghrelin level in obese women predicts the quality of life (QOL). A total of 307 subjects fulfilled the criteria: (1) age between 20 and 65 years old, (2) body mass index ≥27 kg/m 2 (3) waist circumference ≥80 cm were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to one of the plasma ghrelin level categories according to the quartiles. The median of age and BMI of the 307 obese women were 45 ± 18 years and 29.9 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 , respectively. The main outcome evaluated is the associations of plasma ghrelin level and QOL, which were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Results of linear trend test show significant statistical difference in plasma lipoproteins (triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-cholestero and LDL-cholesterol = and levels of obesity-related hormone peptides, including leptin, adiponectin, insulin among quartiles of ghrelin. Multiple liner regression analysis of serum obesity-related hormone peptide level and QOL using stepwise method shows ghrelin concentration was the only predictor of QOL, including PCS-12 level (β = -0.18, p = 0.001), MCS-12 level (β = -0.14, p = 0.009), WHOQOL-BREF scores: physical (β = -0.13, p = 0.03), psychological (β = -0.16, p = 0.007), social (β = -0.21, p =  ghrelin concentration is strongly associated with QOL level among obese women. Hence, ghrelin concentration might be a valuable marker to be monitored in obese women.

  17. Mismatch Negativity Encoding of Prediction Errors Predicts S-ketamine-Induced Cognitive Impairments

    Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Kometer, Michael; Csomor, Philipp A; Stephan, Klaas E; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    Psychotomimetics like the N-methyl--aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist psilocybin induce psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers that resemble those of schizophrenia. Recent theories of psychosis posit that aberrant encoding of prediction errors (PE) may underlie the expression of psychotic symptoms. This study used a roving mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to investigate whether the encoding of PE is affected by pharmacological manipulation of NMDAR or 5-HT2AR, and whether the encoding of PE under placebo can be used to predict drug-induced symptoms. Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled design, S-ketamine and psilocybin, respectively, were administrated to two groups of healthy subjects. Psychological alterations were assessed using a revised version of the Altered States of Consciousness (ASC-R) questionnaire. As an index of PE, we computed changes in MMN amplitudes as a function of the number of preceding standards (MMN memory trace effect) during a roving paradigm. S-ketamine, but not psilocybin, disrupted PE processing as expressed by a frontally disrupted MMN memory trace effect. Although both drugs produced positive-like symptoms, the extent of PE processing under placebo only correlated significantly with the severity of cognitive impairments induced by S-ketamine. Our results suggest that the NMDAR, but not the 5-HT2AR system, is implicated in PE processing during the MMN paradigm, and that aberrant PE signaling may contribute to the formation of cognitive impairments. The assessment of the MMN memory trace in schizophrenia may allow detecting early phases of the illness and might also serve to assess the efficacy of novel pharmacological treatments, in particular of cognitive impairments. PMID:22030715

  18. Predicting Bullying: Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior.

    Connell, Nadine M; Morris, Robert G; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    Although there has been much interest in research on aggression and in particular bullying, a relatively less charted area of research has centered on articulating a better understanding of the mechanisms and processes by which persons are at increased risk for bullying. Furthermore, those studies that have investigated the linkages between childhood experiences and bullying perpetration have been limited with respect to definitional and operational issues, reliance on cross-sectional data, and the lack of assessing competing explanations of bullying perpetration. Using five waves of data from a community-based longitudinal sample of children followed through age 18 (N = 763), the current study examines the extent to which childhood negative life events in a variety of domains predict adolescent bullying. Results show that early childhood experiences, particularly those within the family and school domains, may alter life trajectories and can act as predictors for later adolescent bullying, thereby underscoring the potential importance that relatively minor experiences can have over the long term. Implications for future research based on these analyses are examined. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Large area negative ion source for high voltage neutral beams

    Poulsen, P.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    A source of negative deuterium ions in the multi-ampere range is described that is readily extrapolated to reactor size, 10 amp or more of neutral beam, that is of interest in future experiments and reactors. The negative ion source is based upon the double charge exchange process. A beam of positive ions is created and accelerated to an energy at which the attachment process D + M → D - + M + proceeds efficiently. The positive ions are atomically neutralized either in D 2 or in the charge exchange medium M. Atomic species make a second charge exchange collision in the charge target to form D - . For a sufficiently thick target, the beam reaches an equilibrium fraction of negative ions. For reasons of efficiency, the target is typically alkali metal vapor; this experiment uses sodium. The beam of negative ions can be accelerated to high (>200 keV) energy, the electrons stripped from the ions, and a high energy neutral beam formed

  20. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  1. Parametric Bayesian priors and better choice of negative examples improve protein function prediction.

    Youngs, Noah; Penfold-Brown, Duncan; Drew, Kevin; Shasha, Dennis; Bonneau, Richard

    2013-05-01

    Computational biologists have demonstrated the utility of using machine learning methods to predict protein function from an integration of multiple genome-wide data types. Yet, even the best performing function prediction algorithms rely on heuristics for important components of the algorithm, such as choosing negative examples (proteins without a given function) or determining key parameters. The improper choice of negative examples, in particular, can hamper the accuracy of protein function prediction. We present a novel approach for choosing negative examples, using a parameterizable Bayesian prior computed from all observed annotation data, which also generates priors used during function prediction. We incorporate this new method into the GeneMANIA function prediction algorithm and demonstrate improved accuracy of our algorithm over current top-performing function prediction methods on the yeast and mouse proteomes across all metrics tested. Code and Data are available at: http://bonneaulab.bio.nyu.edu/funcprop.html

  2. Novel immunohistochemistry-based signatures to predict metastatic site of triple-negative breast cancers.

    Klimov, Sergey; Rida, Padmashree Cg; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Janssen, Emiel Am; Rakha, Emad A; Aneja, Ritu

    2017-09-05

    Although distant metastasis (DM) in breast cancer (BC) is the most lethal form of recurrence and the most common underlying cause of cancer related deaths, the outcome following the development of DM is related to the site of metastasis. Triple negative BC (TNBC) is an aggressive form of BC characterised by early recurrences and high mortality. Athough multiple variables can be used to predict the risk of metastasis, few markers can predict the specific site of metastasis. This study aimed at identifying a biomarker signature to predict particular sites of DM in TNBC. A clinically annotated series of 322 TNBC were immunohistochemically stained with 133 biomarkers relevant to BC, to develop multibiomarker models for predicting metastasis to the bone, liver, lung and brain. Patients who experienced metastasis to each site were compared with those who did not, by gradually filtering the biomarker set via a two-tailed t-test and Cox univariate analyses. Biomarker combinations were finally ranked based on statistical significance, and evaluated in multivariable analyses. Our final models were able to stratify TNBC patients into high risk groups that showed over 5, 6, 7 and 8 times higher risk of developing metastasis to the bone, liver, lung and brain, respectively, than low-risk subgroups. These models for predicting site-specific metastasis retained significance following adjustment for tumour size, patient age and chemotherapy status. Our novel IHC-based biomarkers signatures, when assessed in primary TNBC tumours, enable prediction of specific sites of metastasis, and potentially unravel biomarkers previously unknown in site tropism.

  3. Perceiving social pressure not to feel negative predicts depressive symptoms in daily life.

    Dejonckheere, Egon; Bastian, Brock; Fried, Eiko I; Murphy, Sean C; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Western societies often overemphasize the pursuit of happiness, and regard negative feelings such as sadness or anxiety as maladaptive and unwanted. Despite this emphasis on happiness, the amount of people suffering from depressive complaints is remarkably high. To explain this apparent paradox, we examined whether experiencing social pressure not to feel sad or anxious could in fact contribute to depressive symptoms. A sample of individuals (n = 112) with elevated depression scores (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] ≥ 10) took part in an online daily diary study in which they rated their depressive symptoms and perceived social pressure not to feel depressed or anxious for 30 consecutive days. Using multilevel VAR models, we investigated the temporal relation between this perceived social pressure and depressive symptoms to determine directionality. Primary analyses consistently indicated that experiencing social pressure predicts increases in both overall severity scores and most individual symptoms of depression, but not vice versa. A set of secondary analyses, in which we adopted a network perspective on depression, confirmed these findings. Using this approach, centrality analysis revealed that perceived social pressure not to feel negative plays an instigating role in depression, reflected by the high out- and low instrength centrality of this pressure in the various depression networks. Together, these findings indicate how perceived societal norms may contribute to depression, hinting at a possible malignant consequence of society's denouncement of negative emotions. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Motivated prediction of future feelings: effects of negative mood and mood orientation on affective forecasts.

    Buehler, Roger; McFarland, Cathy; Spyropoulos, Vassili; Lam, Kent C H

    2007-09-01

    This article examines the role of motivational factors in affective forecasting. The primary hypothesis was that people predict positive emotional reactions to future events when they are motivated to enhance their current feelings. Three experiments manipulated participants' moods (negative vs. neutral) and orientation toward their moods (reflective vs. ruminative) and then assessed the positivity of their affective predictions for future events. As hypothesized, when participants adopted a reflective orientation, and thus should have been motivated to engage in mood-regulation processes, they predicted more positive feelings in the negative than in the neutral mood condition. This pattern of mood-incongruent affective prediction was not exhibited when participants adopted a ruminative orientation. Additionally, within the negative mood condition, generating affective forecasts had a more positive emotional impact on reflectors than on ruminators. The findings suggest that affective predictions are sometimes driven by mood-regulatory motives.

  5. Exercise identity and attribution properties predict negative self-conscious emotions for exercise relapse.

    Flora, Parminder K; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Brawley, Lawrence R; Spink, Kevin S

    2012-10-01

    Research on exercise identity (EXID) indicates that it is related to negative affect when exercisers are inconsistent or relapse. Although identity theory suggests that causal attributions about this inconsistency elicit negative self-conscious emotions of shame and guilt, no EXID studies have examined this for exercise relapse. Weiner's attribution-based theory of interpersonal motivation (2010) offers a means of testing the attribution-emotion link. Using both frameworks, we examined whether EXID and attributional properties predicted negative emotions for exercise relapse. Participants (n = 224) read an exercise relapse vignette, and then completed EXID, attributions, and emotion measures. Hierarchical multiple regression models using EXID and the attributional property of controllability significantly predicted each of shame and guilt, R² adjusted = .09, ps ≤ .001. Results support identity theory suggestions and Weiner's specific attribution-emotion hypothesis. This first demonstration of an interlinking of EXID, controllability, and negative self-conscious emotions offers more predictive utility using complementary theories than either theory alone.

  6. Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity

    Rebecca J. Brooker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN, an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems.

  7. Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity.

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner.

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Pickles, Andrew; Sharp, Helen; Glover, Vivette; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Tibu, Florin; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal stress influences fetal developmental trajectories, which may implicate glucocorticoid mechanisms. There is also emerging evidence that effects of prenatal stress on offspring development are sex-dependent. However, little is known about the prospective relationship between maternal prenatal cortisol levels and infant behaviour, and whether it may be different in male and female infants. We sought to address this question using data from a prospective longitudinal cohort, stratified by risk. The Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) included a stratified random sub-sample (n=216) who provided maternal saliva samples, assayed for cortisol, at home over two days at 32weeks of pregnancy (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening) and a measure of infant negative emotionality from the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS) at five weeks-of-age. General population estimates of associations among measures were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal prenatal cortisol sampled on waking predicted infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term, p=0.005); female infants exposed to high levels of prenatal cortisol were more negative (Beta=0.440, p=0.042), whereas male infants were less negative (Beta=-0.407, p=0.045). There was no effect of the 30-min post-waking measure or evening cortisol. Our findings add to an emerging body of work that has highlighted sex differences in fetal programming, whereby females become more reactive following prenatal stress, and males less reactive. A more complete understanding of sex-specific developmental trajectories in the context of prenatal stress is essential for the development of targeted prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Negative Emotions Predict Elevated Interleukin-6 in the United States but not in Japan

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Coe, Christopher L.; Curhan, Katherine B.; Levine, Cynthia S.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Kawakami, Norito; Karasawa, Mayumi; Love, Gayle D.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in Western cultures have shown that negative emotions predict higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, specifically interleukin-6 (IL-6). This link between negative emotions and IL-6 may be specific to Western cultures where negative emotions are perceived to be problematic and thus may not extend to Eastern cultures where negative emotions are seen as acceptable and normal. Using samples of 1044 American and 382 Japanese middle-aged and older adults, we investigated whether the relationship between negative emotions and IL-6 varies by cultural context. Negative emotions predicted higher IL-6 among American adults, whereas no association was evident among Japanese adults. Furthermore, the interaction between culture and negative emotions remained even after controlling for demographic variables, psychological factors (positive emotions, neuroticism, extraversion), health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption), and health status (chronic conditions, BMI). These findings highlight the role of cultural context in shaping how negative emotions affect inflammatory physiology and underscore the importance of cultural ideas and practices relevant to negative emotions for understanding of the interplay between psychology, physiology, and health. PMID:23911591

  10. Thinking while drinking: Fear of negative evaluation predicts drinking behaviors of students with social anxiety.

    Villarosa-Hurlocker, Margo C; Whitley, Robert B; Capron, Daniel W; Madson, Michael B

    2018-03-01

    College students with social anxiety disorder experience more alcohol-related negative consequences, regardless of the amount of alcohol they consume. Social anxiety refers to psychological distress and physiological arousal in social situations due to an excessive fear of negative evaluation by others. The current study examined within-group differences in alcohol-related negative consequences of students who met or exceeded clinically-indicated social anxiety symptoms. In particular, we tested a sequential mediation model of the cognitive (i.e., fear of negative evaluation) and behavioral (protective behavioral strategies) mechanisms for the link between social anxiety disorder subtypes (i.e., interaction and performance-type) and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 412 traditional-age college student drinkers who met or exceeded the clinically-indicated threshold for social anxiety disorder and completed measures of fear of negative evaluation, protective behavioral strategies (controlled consumption and serious harm reduction), and alcohol-related negative consequences. Fear of negative evaluation and serious harm reduction strategies sequentially accounted for the relationship between interaction social anxiety disorder and alcohol-related negative consequences, such that students with more severe interaction social anxiety symptoms reported more fear of negative evaluation, which was related to more serious harm reduction strategies, which predicted fewer alcohol-related negative consequences. Future directions and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting complex syntactic structure in real time: Processing of negative sentences in Russian.

    Kazanina, Nina

    2017-11-01

    In Russian negative sentences the verb's direct object may appear either in the accusative case, which is licensed by the verb (as is common cross-linguistically), or in the genitive case, which is licensed by the negation (Russian-specific "genitive-of-negation" phenomenon). Such sentences were used to investigate whether case marking is employed for anticipating syntactic structure, and whether lexical heads other than the verb can be predicted on the basis of a case-marked noun phrase. Experiment 1, a completion task, confirmed that genitive-of-negation is part of Russian speakers' active grammatical repertoire. In Experiments 2 and 3, the genitive/accusative case manipulation on the preverbal object led to shorter reading times at the negation and verb in the genitive versus accusative condition. Furthermore, Experiment 3 manipulated linear order of the direct object and the negated verb in order to distinguish whether the abovementioned facilitatory effect was predictive or integrative in nature, and concluded that the parser actively predicts a verb and (otherwise optional) negation on the basis of a preceding genitive-marked object. Similarly to a head-final language, case-marking information on preverbal noun phrases (NPs) is used by the parser to enable incremental structure building in a free-word-order language such as Russian.

  12. A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer.

    Paik, Soonmyung; Shak, Steven; Tang, Gong; Kim, Chungyeul; Baker, Joffre; Cronin, Maureen; Baehner, Frederick L; Walker, Michael G; Watson, Drew; Park, Taesung; Hiller, William; Fisher, Edwin R; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Bryant, John; Wolmark, Norman

    2004-12-30

    The likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer who have no involved lymph nodes and estrogen-receptor-positive tumors is poorly defined by clinical and histopathological measures. We tested whether the results of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of 21 prospectively selected genes in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue would correlate with the likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with node-negative, tamoxifen-treated breast cancer who were enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project clinical trial B-14. The levels of expression of 16 cancer-related genes and 5 reference genes were used in a prospectively defined algorithm to calculate a recurrence score and to determine a risk group (low, intermediate, or high) for each patient. Adequate RT-PCR profiles were obtained in 668 of 675 tumor blocks. The proportions of patients categorized as having a low, intermediate, or high risk by the RT-PCR assay were 51, 22, and 27 percent, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of the rates of distant recurrence at 10 years in the low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 6.8 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 4.0 to 9.6), 14.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 8.3 to 20.3), and 30.5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 23.6 to 37.4). The rate in the low-risk group was significantly lower than that in the high-risk group (P<0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, the recurrence score provided significant predictive power that was independent of age and tumor size (P<0.001). The recurrence score was also predictive of overall survival (P<0.001) and could be used as a continuous function to predict distant recurrence in individual patients. The recurrence score has been validated as quantifying the likelihood of distant recurrence in tamoxifen-treated patients with node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  13. Systematic bias of correlation coefficient may explain negative accuracy of genomic prediction.

    Zhou, Yao; Vales, M Isabel; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2017-09-01

    Accuracy of genomic prediction is commonly calculated as the Pearson correlation coefficient between the predicted and observed phenotypes in the inference population by using cross-validation analysis. More frequently than expected, significant negative accuracies of genomic prediction have been reported in genomic selection studies. These negative values are surprising, given that the minimum value for prediction accuracy should hover around zero when randomly permuted data sets are analyzed. We reviewed the two common approaches for calculating the Pearson correlation and hypothesized that these negative accuracy values reflect potential bias owing to artifacts caused by the mathematical formulas used to calculate prediction accuracy. The first approach, Instant accuracy, calculates correlations for each fold and reports prediction accuracy as the mean of correlations across fold. The other approach, Hold accuracy, predicts all phenotypes in all fold and calculates correlation between the observed and predicted phenotypes at the end of the cross-validation process. Using simulated and real data, we demonstrated that our hypothesis is true. Both approaches are biased downward under certain conditions. The biases become larger when more fold are employed and when the expected accuracy is low. The bias of Instant accuracy can be corrected using a modified formula. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Depression Vulnerability Predicts Cigarette Smoking among College Students: Gender and Negative Reinforcement Expectancies as Contributing Factors

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; McChargue, Dennis E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between vulnerability to depression and smoking behavior in college students in 1214 college students (54% female), and evaluated gender and expectancies of negative affect reduction as moderators or mediators of this relationship. Depression vulnerability predicted smoking in females, but not males. The relationship between depression vulnerability and smoking status was mediated by expectancies of negative affect reduction in females only. Female college ...

  15. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  16. Spray-coatable negative photoresist for high topography MEMS applications

    Arnold, Markus; Haas, Sven; Schwenzer, Falk; Schwenzer, Gunther; Reuter, Danny; Geßner, Thomas; Voigt, Anja; Gruetzner, Gabi

    2017-01-01

    In microsystem technology, the lithographical processing of substrates with a topography is very important. Interconnecting lines, which are routed over sloped topography sidewalls from the top of the protecting wafer to the contact pads of the device wafer, are one example of patterning over a topography. For structuring such circuit paths, a photolithography process, and therefore a process for homogeneous photoresist coating, is required. The most flexible and advantageous way of depositing a homogeneous photoresist film over structures with high topography steps is spray-coating. As a pattern transfer process for circuit paths in cavities, the lift-off process is widely used. A negative resist, like ma-N (MRT) or AZnLOF (AZ) is favoured for lift-off processes due to the existing negative angle of the sidewalls. Only a few sprayable negative photoresists are commercially available. In this paper, the development of a novel negative resist spray-coating based on a commercially available single-layer lift-off resist for spin-coating, especially for the patterning of structures inside the cavity and on the cavity wall, is presented. A variety of parameters influences the spray-coating process, and therefore the patterning results. Besides the spray-coating tool and the parameters, the composition of the resist solution itself also influences the coating results. For homogeneous resist coverage over the topography of the substrate, different solvent combinations for diluting the resist solution, different chuck temperatures during the coating process, and also the softbake conditions, are all investigated. The solvent formulations and the process conditions are optimized with respect to the homogeneity of the resist coverage on the top edge of the cavities. Finally, the developed spray-coating process, the resist material and the process stability are demonstrated by the following applications: (i) lift-off, (ii) electroplating, (iii) the wet and (iv) the dry

  17. Use of human papillomavirus DNA, E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry to detect and predict anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    Nittaya Phanuphak

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of having anal cancer. Anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL is the precursor of anal cancer. We explored the use of different biomarkers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV infection and HPV-mediated cell transformation to detect and predict HSIL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.A total of 123 HIV-positive and 123 HIV-negative MSM were enrolled and followed for 12 months. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA with biopsies were performed at every visit along with anal sample collection for cytology, high-risk HPV DNA genotyping, HPV E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry. Performance characteristics and area under the receiver operator characteristics curve were calculated for these biomarkers at baseline, and Cox regression compared the usefulness of these biomarkers in predicting incident HSIL. High-risk HPV DNA, E6/E7 mRNA, and p16 immunocytochemistry each identified 43-46% of MSM whose baseline test positivity would trigger HRA referral. E6/E7 mRNA had the highest sensitivity (64.7% and correctly classified the highest number of prevalent HSIL cases. With the exception of p16 immunochemistry, most tests showed significant increases in sensitivity but decreases specificity versus anal cytology, while the overall number of correctly classified cases was not significantly different. Baseline or persistent type 16 and/or 18 HPV DNA was the only test significantly predicting incident histologic HSIL within 12 months in models adjusted for HIV status and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at baseline.Countries with a high HIV prevalence among MSM and limited HRA resources may consider using biomarkers to identify individuals at high risk of HSIL. E6/E7 mRNA had the highest sensitivity for prevalent HSIL detection regardless of HIV status, whereas type 16 and/or 18 HPV DNA performed best in predicting development of incident HSIL within 12 months.

  18. The Roles of Negative Career Thoughts and Sense of Coherence in Predicting Career Decision Status

    Austin, R. Kirk; Dahl, A. Dennis; Wagner, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between sense of coherence and negative career thoughts was investigated in a non-college-based population to determine the relationship and predictive value of these factors toward career decision status. Participants completed the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, Career Thoughts Inventory, and Career Decision Profile's…

  19. Androgen receptor positive triple negative breast cancer: Clinicopathologic, prognostic, and predictive features.

    Kristine Astvatsaturyan

    Full Text Available Overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR characterizes a distinct molecular subset of triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC. The role of AR as a prognostic/predictive biomarker in TNBC is controversial, but increasing evidence suggests that this subset may respond to therapeutic agents targeting AR. Evaluation of AR has not been standardized, and criteria for selection of patients for antiandrogen therapy remain controversial. In this study we determine the appropriate threshold of AR immunoreactivity to define AR positive (AR+ TNBC, describe the clinicopathologic features of AR+ TNBC, and discuss the utility of AR positivity as a prognostic and predictive marker in TNBC.135 invasive TNBC processed in accordance with ASCO/CAP guidelines, were immunostained for AR. Clinicopathologic features of AR+ TNBC were analyzed and compared to AR negative (AR- TNBC. Patients' age, tumor size, tumor grade, lymph node status, proliferation rate, immunopositivity for EGFR, CK5/6, Ki-67, and disease free survival (DFS were evaluated statistically.A 1% cutpoint was confirmed as the appropriate threshold for AR positivity. Using this cutpoint 41% of 135 TNBC were AR+. AR+ TNBC occurred in older women, were larger, had lower mean proliferation rate and increased incidence of axillary metastasis than AR- TNBC. 76% of TNBC with apocrine morphology were AR+. A subset of AR+TNBC expressed basal markers (EGFR and CK5/6. A prognostic model was created.AR identifies a heterogeneous group of TNBC. Additional evaluation of EGFR expression allowed us to stratify TNBCs into 3 risk groups with significant differences in DFS and therapeutic implications: low-risk (AR+ EGFR- which represents the LAR molecular subtype with the best prognosis and may benefit the most from anti-androgen therapies; high-risk (AR- EGFR+ which represents the basal molecular subtype with the worst prognosis and may benefit the most from chemotherapy regimens; intermediate-risk (AR+EGFR+ and AR

  20. The Role of Metacognition and Negative Emotions on Prediction of Abuse Behaviors

    M.A Mohammadyfar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was determination of the role of metacognition and negative emotions on prediction of abuse behaviors. Method: In correlational research design which is categorized as descriptive research design, 200 participants selected by available sampling in abandonment clinics in Shahrod city. Out of 200 participants, 128 were addicted and 72 were non addicted persons. Metacognition, anxiety, depression, and stress questionnaires were administered among selected samples. Results: The results of regression analysis showed both variables could be significant predictors in prediction of abuse behaviors. Of metacognition subscales, negative believes about not controlling and risk, and cognitive confidence also of negative emotion subscales depression and anxiety were significant predictors. Conclusion: By consideration of results it could be said by intervention of significant variables the probability of suffering of substance abuse and its relapse could be down.

  1. Fear among the extremes: how political ideology predicts negative emotions and outgroup derogation.

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Krouwel, André P M; Boiten, Max; Eendebak, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    The "rigidity of the right" hypothesis predicts that particularly the political right experiences fear and derogates outgroups. We propose that above and beyond that, the political extremes (at both sides of the spectrum) are more likely to display these responses than political moderates. Results of a large-scale sample reveal the predicted quadratic term on socio-economic fear. Moreover, although the political right is more likely to derogate the specific category of immigrants, we find a quadratic effect on derogation of a broad range of societal categories. Both extremes also experience stronger negative emotions about politics than politically moderate respondents. Finally, the quadratic effects on derogation of societal groups and negative political emotions were mediated by socio-economic fear, particularly among left- and right-wing extremists. It is concluded that negative emotions and outgroup derogation flourish among the extremes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. TargetMiner: microRNA target prediction with systematic identification of tissue-specific negative examples.

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Mitra, Ramkrishna

    2009-10-15

    Prediction of microRNA (miRNA) target mRNAs using machine learning approaches is an important area of research. However, most of the methods suffer from either high false positive or false negative rates. One reason for this is the marked deficiency of negative examples or miRNA non-target pairs. Systematic identification of non-target mRNAs is still not addressed properly, and therefore, current machine learning approaches are compelled to rely on artificially generated negative examples for training. In this article, we have identified approximately 300 tissue-specific negative examples using a novel approach that involves expression profiling of both miRNAs and mRNAs, miRNA-mRNA structural interactions and seed-site conservation. The newly generated negative examples are validated with pSILAC dataset, which elucidate the fact that the identified non-targets are indeed non-targets.These high-throughput tissue-specific negative examples and a set of experimentally verified positive examples are then used to build a system called TargetMiner, a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier. In addition to assessing the prediction accuracy on cross-validation experiments, TargetMiner has been validated with a completely independent experimental test dataset. Our method outperforms 10 existing target prediction algorithms and provides a good balance between sensitivity and specificity that is not reflected in the existing methods. We achieve a significantly higher sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 67.8% based on a pool of 90 feature set and 76.5% and 66.1% using a set of 30 selected feature set on the completely independent test dataset. In order to establish the effectiveness of the systematically generated negative examples, the SVM is trained using a different set of negative data generated using the method in Yousef et al. A significantly higher false positive rate (70.6%) is observed when tested on the independent set, while all other factors are kept the

  3. Fronto-temporal connectivity predicts cognitive empathy deficits and experiential negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Abram, Samantha V; Wisner, Krista M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Barch, Deanna M; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; MacDonald, Angus W; Smith, Matthew J

    2017-03-01

    Impaired cognitive empathy is a core social cognitive deficit in schizophrenia associated with negative symptoms and social functioning. Cognitive empathy and negative symptoms have also been linked to medial prefrontal and temporal brain networks. While shared behavioral and neural underpinnings are suspected for cognitive empathy and negative symptoms, research is needed to test these hypotheses. In two studies, we evaluated whether resting-state functional connectivity between data-driven networks, or components (referred to as, inter-component connectivity), predicted cognitive empathy and experiential and expressive negative symptoms in schizophrenia subjects. Study 1: We examined associations between cognitive empathy and medial prefrontal and temporal inter-component connectivity at rest using a group-matched schizophrenia and control sample. We then assessed whether inter-component connectivity metrics associated with cognitive empathy were also related to negative symptoms. Study 2: We sought to replicate the connectivity-symptom associations observed in Study 1 using an independent schizophrenia sample. Study 1 results revealed that while the groups did not differ in average inter-component connectivity, a medial-fronto-temporal metric and an orbito-fronto-temporal metric were related to cognitive empathy. Moreover, the medial-fronto-temporal metric was associated with experiential negative symptoms in both schizophrenia samples. These findings support recent models that link social cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1111-1124, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Preoperative cow-side lactatemia measurement predicts negative outcome in Holstein dairy cattle with right abomasal disorders.

    Boulay, G; Francoz, D; Doré, E; Dufour, S; Veillette, M; Badillo, M; Bélanger, A-M; Buczinski, S

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were (1) to determine the gain in prognostic accuracy of preoperative l-lactate concentration (LAC) measured on farm on cows with right displaced abomasum (RDA) or abomasal volvulus (AV) for predicting negative outcome; and (2) to suggest clinically relevant thresholds for such use. A cohort of 102 cows with on-farm surgical diagnostic of RDA or AV was obtained from June 2009 through December 2011. Blood was drawn from coccygeal vessels before surgery and plasma LAC was immediately measured by using a portable clinical analyzer. Dairy producers were interviewed by phone 30 d following surgery and the outcome was determined: a positive outcome if the owner was satisfied of the overall evolution 30 d postoperatively, and a negative outcome if the cow was culled, died, or if the owner reported being unsatisfied 30 d postoperatively. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for LAC was 0.92 and was significantly greater than the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of heart rate (HR; 0.77), indicating that LAC, in general, performed better than HR to predict a negative outcome. Furthermore, the ability to predict a negative outcome was significantly improved when LAC measurement was considered in addition to the already available HR data (area under the curve: 0.93 and 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 0.99). Important inflection points of the misclassification cost term function were noted at thresholds of 2 and 6 mmol/L, suggesting the potential utility of these cut-points. The 2 and 6 mmol/L thresholds had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for predicting a negative outcome of 76.2, 82.7, 53.3, and 93.1%, and of 28.6, 97.5, 75, and 84%, respectively. In terms of clinical interpretation, LAC ≤2 mmol/L appeared to be a good indicator of positive outcome and could be used to support a surgical treatment decision. The

  5. Clinical validation of an epigenetic assay to predict negative histopathological results in repeat prostate biopsies.

    Partin, Alan W; Van Neste, Leander; Klein, Eric A; Marks, Leonard S; Gee, Jason R; Troyer, Dean A; Rieger-Christ, Kimberly; Jones, J Stephen; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Mangold, Leslie A; Trock, Bruce J; Lance, Raymond S; Bigley, Joseph W; Van Criekinge, Wim; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2014-10-01

    The DOCUMENT multicenter trial in the United States validated the performance of an epigenetic test as an independent predictor of prostate cancer risk to guide decision making for repeat biopsy. Confirming an increased negative predictive value could help avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. We evaluated the archived, cancer negative prostate biopsy core tissue samples of 350 subjects from a total of 5 urological centers in the United States. All subjects underwent repeat biopsy within 24 months with a negative (controls) or positive (cases) histopathological result. Centralized blinded pathology evaluation of the 2 biopsy series was performed in all available subjects from each site. Biopsies were epigenetically profiled for GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 relative to the ACTB reference gene using quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. Predetermined analytical marker cutoffs were used to determine assay performance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate all risk factors. The epigenetic assay resulted in a negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI 85-91). In multivariate models correcting for age, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, first biopsy histopathological characteristics and race the test proved to be the most significant independent predictor of patient outcome (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.60-4.51). The DOCUMENT study validated that the epigenetic assay was a significant, independent predictor of prostate cancer detection in a repeat biopsy collected an average of 13 months after an initial negative result. Due to its 88% negative predictive value adding this epigenetic assay to other known risk factors may help decrease unnecessary repeat prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Empathy costs: Negative emotional bias in high empathisers.

    Chikovani, George; Babuadze, Lasha; Iashvili, Nino; Gvalia, Tamar; Surguladze, Simon

    2015-09-30

    Excessive empathy has been associated with compassion fatigue in health professionals and caregivers. We investigated an effect of empathy on emotion processing in 137 healthy individuals of both sexes. We tested a hypothesis that high empathy may underlie increased sensitivity to negative emotion recognition which may interact with gender. Facial emotion stimuli comprised happy, angry, fearful, and sad faces presented at different intensities (mild and prototypical) and different durations (500ms and 2000ms). The parameters of emotion processing were represented by discrimination accuracy, response bias and reaction time. We found that higher empathy was associated with better recognition of all emotions. We also demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with response bias towards sad and fearful faces. The reaction time analysis revealed that higher empathy in females was associated with faster (compared with males) recognition of mildly sad faces of brief duration. We conclude that although empathic abilities were providing for advantages in recognition of all facial emotional expressions, the bias towards emotional negativity may potentially carry a risk for empathic distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience.

    Harvey, Philip D; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sample of people with schizophrenia was used as the data source of this study. Using regression analyses, the authors predicted the three different aspects of everyday functioning, first with just the two Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors and then with a global negative symptom factor. Finally, we added neurocognitive performance and functional capacity as predictors. Results: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale reduced emotional experience factor accounted for 21 percent of the variance in everyday social functioning, while reduced emotional expression accounted for no variance. The total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor accounted for less variance (19%) than the reduced experience factor alone. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expression factor accounted for, at most, one percent of the variance in any of the functional outcomes, with or without the addition of other predictors. Implications: Reduced emotional experience measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, often referred to as "avolition and anhedonia," specifically predicted impairments in social outcomes. Further, reduced experience predicted social impairments better than emotional expression or the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor. In this cross-sectional study, reduced emotional experience was specifically related with social outcomes, accounting for essentially no variance in work or everyday activities, and being the

  8. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience

    Harvey, Philip D.; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sampl...

  9. Angiographically Negative Acute Arterial Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chae, Eun Young; Myung, Seung Jae; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of angiographically negative acute arterial upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. From 2001 to 2008, 143 consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for acute arterial upper or lower GI bleeding were examined. The angiographies revealed a negative bleeding focus in 75 of 143 (52%) patients. The incidence of an angiographically negative outcome was significantly higher in patients with a stable hemodynamic status (p < 0.001), or in patients with lower GI bleeding (p = 0.032). A follow-up of the 75 patients (range: 0-72 months, mean: 8 ± 14 months) revealed that 60 of the 75 (80%) patients with a negative bleeding focus underwent conservative management only, and acute bleeding was controlled without rebleeding. Three of the 75 (4%) patients underwent exploratory surgery due to prolonged bleeding; however, no bleeding focus was detected. Rebleeding occurred in 12 of 75 (16%) patients. Of these, six patients experienced massive rebleeding and died of disseminated intravascular coagulation within four to nine hours after the rebleeding episode. Four of the 16 patients underwent a repeat angiography and the two remaining patients underwent a surgical intervention to control the bleeding. Angiographically negative results are relatively common in patients with acute GI bleeding, especially in patients with a stable hemodynamic status or lower GI bleeding. Most patients with a negative bleeding focus have experienced spontaneous resolution of their condition

  10. Emotion, working memory task demands and individual differences predict behavior, cognitive effort and negative affect.

    Storbeck, Justin; Davidson, Nicole A; Dahl, Chelsea F; Blass, Sara; Yung, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether positive and negative affect motivates verbal and spatial working memory processes, respectively, which have implications for the expenditure of mental effort. We argue that when emotion promotes cognitive tendencies that are goal incompatible with task demands, greater cognitive effort is required to perform well. We sought to investigate whether this increase in cognitive effort impairs behavioural control over a broad domain of self-control tasks. Moreover, we predicted that individuals with higher behavioural inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities would report more negative affect within the goal incompatible conditions because such individuals report higher negative affect during cognitive challenge. Positive or negative affective states were induced followed by completing a verbal or spatial 2-back working memory task. All participants then completed one of three self-control tasks. Overall, we observed that conditions of emotion and working memory incompatibility (positive/spatial and negative/verbal) performed worse on the self-control tasks, and within the incompatible conditions individuals with higher BIS sensitivities reported more negative affect at the end of the study. The combination of findings suggests that emotion and working memory compatibility reduces cognitive effort and impairs behavioural control.

  11. Angiographically Negative Acute Arterial Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Incidence, Predictive Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Chae, Eun Young; Myung, Seung Jae; Ko, Gi Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To evaluate the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of angiographically negative acute arterial upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. From 2001 to 2008, 143 consecutive patients who underwent an angiography for acute arterial upper or lower GI bleeding were examined. The angiographies revealed a negative bleeding focus in 75 of 143 (52%) patients. The incidence of an angiographically negative outcome was significantly higher in patients with a stable hemodynamic status (p < 0.001), or in patients with lower GI bleeding (p = 0.032). A follow-up of the 75 patients (range: 0-72 months, mean: 8 {+-} 14 months) revealed that 60 of the 75 (80%) patients with a negative bleeding focus underwent conservative management only, and acute bleeding was controlled without rebleeding. Three of the 75 (4%) patients underwent exploratory surgery due to prolonged bleeding; however, no bleeding focus was detected. Rebleeding occurred in 12 of 75 (16%) patients. Of these, six patients experienced massive rebleeding and died of disseminated intravascular coagulation within four to nine hours after the rebleeding episode. Four of the 16 patients underwent a repeat angiography and the two remaining patients underwent a surgical intervention to control the bleeding. Angiographically negative results are relatively common in patients with acute GI bleeding, especially in patients with a stable hemodynamic status or lower GI bleeding. Most patients with a negative bleeding focus have experienced spontaneous resolution of their condition.

  12. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  13. NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF COMPOSITE BEAM SUBJECTED TO COMBINED NEGATIVE BENDING AND AXIAL TENSION

    MAHESAN BAVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has investigated the finite element method (FEM techniques of composite beam subjected to combined axial tension and negative bending. The negative bending regions of composite beams are influenced by worsen failures due to various levels of axial tensile loads on steel section especially in the regions near internal supports. Three dimensional solid FEM model was developed to accurately predict the unfavourable phenomenon of cracking of concrete and compression of steel in the negative bending regions of composite beam due to axial tensile loads. The prediction of quasi-static solution was extensively analysed with various deformation speeds and energy stabilities. The FEM model was then validated with existing experimental data. Reasonable agreements were observed between the results of FEM model and experimental analysis in the combination of vertical-axial forces and failure modes on ultimate limit state behaviour. The local failure modes known as shear studs failure, excess yielding on steel beam and crushing on concrete were completely verified by extensive similarity between the numerical and experimental results. Finally, a proper way of modelling techniques for large FEM models by considering uncertainties of material behaviour due to biaxial loadings and complex contact interactions is discussed. Further, the model is suggested for the limit state prediction of composite beam with calibrating necessary degree of the combined axial loads.

  14. Incremental validity of positive and negative valence in predicting personality disorder.

    Simms, Leonard J; Yufik, Tom; Gros, Daniel F

    2010-04-01

    The Big Seven model of personality includes five dimensions similar to the Big Five model as well as two evaluative dimensions—Positive Valence (PV) and Negative Valence (NV)—which reflect extremely positive and negative person descriptors, respectively. Recent theory and research have suggested that PV and NV predict significant variance in personality disorder (PD) above that predicted by the Big Five, but firm conclusions have not been possible because previous studies have been limited to only single measures of PV, NV, and the Big Five traits. In the present study, we replicated and extended previous findings using three markers of all key constructs—including PV, NV, and the Big Five—in a diverse sample of 338 undergraduates. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that PV incrementally predicted Narcissistic and Histrionic PDs above the Big Five and that NV nonspecifically incremented the prediction of most PDs. Implications for dimensional models of personality pathology are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Keratin 17 is overexpressed and predicts poor survival in estrogen receptor-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative breast cancer.

    Merkin, Ross D; Vanner, Elizabeth A; Romeiser, Jamie L; Shroyer, A Laurie W; Escobar-Hoyos, Luisa F; Li, Jinyu; Powers, Robert S; Burke, Stephanie; Shroyer, Kenneth R

    2017-04-01

    Clinicopathological features of breast cancer have limited accuracy to predict survival. By immunohistochemistry (IHC), keratin 17 (K17) expression has been correlated with triple-negative status (estrogen receptor [ER]/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 [HER2] negative) and decreased survival, but K17 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression has not been evaluated in breast cancer. K17 is a potential prognostic cancer biomarker, targeting p27, and driving cell cycle progression. This study compared K17 protein and mRNA expression to ER/progesterone receptor/HER2 receptor status and event-free survival. K17 IHC was performed on 164 invasive breast cancers and K17 mRNA was evaluated in 1097 breast cancers. The mRNA status of other keratins (16/14/9) was evaluated in 113 ER - /HER2 - ductal carcinomas. IHC demonstrated intense cytoplasmic and membranous K17 localization in myoepithelial cells of benign ducts and lobules and tumor cells of ductal carcinoma in situ. In ductal carcinomas, K17 protein was detected in most triple-negative tumors (28/34, 82%), some non-triple-negative tumors (52/112, 46%), but never in lobular carcinomas (0/15). In ductal carcinomas, high K17 mRNA was associated with reduced 5-year event-free survival in advanced tumor stage (n = 149, hazard ratio [HR] = 3.68, P = .018), and large (n = 73, HR = 3.95, P = .047), triple-negative (n = 103, HR = 2.73, P = .073), and ER - /HER2 - (n = 113, HR = 2.99, P = .049) tumors. There were significant correlations among keratins 17, 16, 14, and 9 mRNA levels suggesting these keratins (all encoded on chromosome 17) could be coordinately expressed in breast cancer. Thus, K17 is expressed in a subset of triple-negative breast cancers, and is a marker of poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage and ER - /HER2 - breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Introducing Bayesian thinking to high-throughput screening for false-negative rate estimation.

    Wei, Xin; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Qian, Hong; Rowan, Karen; Mark, David; Peng, Zhengwei; Huang, Kuo-Sen

    2013-10-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has been widely used to identify active compounds (hits) that bind to biological targets. Because of cost concerns, the comprehensive screening of millions of compounds is typically conducted without replication. Real hits that fail to exhibit measurable activity in the primary screen due to random experimental errors will be lost as false-negatives. Conceivably, the projected false-negative rate is a parameter that reflects screening quality. Furthermore, it can be used to guide the selection of optimal numbers of compounds for hit confirmation. Therefore, a method that predicts false-negative rates from the primary screening data is extremely valuable. In this article, we describe the implementation of a pilot screen on a representative fraction (1%) of the screening library in order to obtain information about assay variability as well as a preliminary hit activity distribution profile. Using this training data set, we then developed an algorithm based on Bayesian logic and Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the number of true active compounds and potential missed hits from the full library screen. We have applied this strategy to five screening projects. The results demonstrate that this method produces useful predictions on the numbers of false negatives.

  17. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  18. Antenatal hydronephrosis: Negative predictive value of normal postnatal ultrasound - a 5-year study

    Moorthy, I.; Joshi, N.; Cook, J.V. E-mail: jcook@epsom-sthelier.nhs.uk; Warren, M

    2003-12-01

    AIM: To determine whether normal postnatal ultrasound, as part of a strict screening protocol for the detection and follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis, effectively excludes the majority of babies with congenital urinary tract abnormalities that would otherwise present with a urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all babies who had postnatal follow-up of antenatally detected hydronephrosis over a 5-year period at our institution, a district general Trust with a specialist paediatric unit. We then studied all babies presenting with urinary tract infection before their first birthday to our institution over the same period. By cross-referencing these two study groups we were able to determine which babies developed a urinary tract infection having been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-five babies had postnatal follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis. Of these, 284 were investigated with ultrasound alone. In the same 5-year period, 230 babies presented with urinary tract infection before their first birthday. Only three of these babies had been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. The negative predictive value of a normal postnatal ultrasound was therefore 98.9% (281/284) for babies who subsequently presented with a urinary tract infection before their first birthday. CONCLUSION: Careful antenatal and postnatal ultrasound with strict protocols is effective in detecting congenital renal tract abnormalities. Infants discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound are highly unlikely to still have an undetected urinary tract abnormality. We suggest that all babies with antenatal hydronephrosis are started on prophylactic antibiotics at birth, pending further investigation. All babies without features of severe obstruction antenatally should have their postnatal ultrasound delayed for a month. We recommend selective use of micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG

  19. Antenatal hydronephrosis: Negative predictive value of normal postnatal ultrasound - a 5-year study

    Moorthy, I.; Joshi, N.; Cook, J.V.; Warren, M.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether normal postnatal ultrasound, as part of a strict screening protocol for the detection and follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis, effectively excludes the majority of babies with congenital urinary tract abnormalities that would otherwise present with a urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all babies who had postnatal follow-up of antenatally detected hydronephrosis over a 5-year period at our institution, a district general Trust with a specialist paediatric unit. We then studied all babies presenting with urinary tract infection before their first birthday to our institution over the same period. By cross-referencing these two study groups we were able to determine which babies developed a urinary tract infection having been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-five babies had postnatal follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis. Of these, 284 were investigated with ultrasound alone. In the same 5-year period, 230 babies presented with urinary tract infection before their first birthday. Only three of these babies had been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. The negative predictive value of a normal postnatal ultrasound was therefore 98.9% (281/284) for babies who subsequently presented with a urinary tract infection before their first birthday. CONCLUSION: Careful antenatal and postnatal ultrasound with strict protocols is effective in detecting congenital renal tract abnormalities. Infants discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound are highly unlikely to still have an undetected urinary tract abnormality. We suggest that all babies with antenatal hydronephrosis are started on prophylactic antibiotics at birth, pending further investigation. All babies without features of severe obstruction antenatally should have their postnatal ultrasound delayed for a month. We recommend selective use of micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG

  20. Negative feedback, beliefs and personal goals in prediction of dysfunctional emotions

    Popov Boris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT demonstrates good results in evaluation therapy researches. However, some of its basic concepts, as well as theory as a whole itself, did not receive satisfactory empirical support so far, in comparison to other cognitive models (Beck, Lazarus etc.. Quasiexperimental study was designed to test the role that (1 negative feedback (A and (2 irrational beliefs (B both play in formation of dysfunctional negative emotions, in the context of significant personal goals (in our case value of potential award - G. ABC theoretical model received limited support: statistically significant three-times interaction A x B x G was found in predicting general negative emotional state, as well as anger. In contrast with that, ANOVA showed only main effect of irrational beliefs (as continuous variable to be significant in predicting emotions of anxiety and depression. Findings are discussed in the context of REBT theory of emotions, as well as their possible practical applications. Limitations of the study were also mentioned. .

  1. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  2. Pathway analysis of gene signatures predicting metastasis of node-negative primary breast cancer

    Yu, Jack X; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Zhang, Yi; Martens, John WM; Smid, Marcel; Klijn, Jan GM; Wang, Yixin; Foekens, John A

    2007-01-01

    Published prognostic gene signatures in breast cancer have few genes in common. Here we provide a rationale for this observation by studying the prognostic power and the underlying biological pathways of different gene signatures. Gene signatures to predict the development of metastases in estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors were identified using 500 re-sampled training sets and mapping to Gene Ontology Biological Process to identify over-represented pathways. The Global Test program confirmed that gene expression profilings in the common pathways were associated with the metastasis of the patients. The apoptotic pathway and cell division, or cell growth regulation and G-protein coupled receptor signal transduction, were most significantly associated with the metastatic capability of estrogen receptor-positive or estrogen-negative tumors, respectively. A gene signature derived of the common pathways predicted metastasis in an independent cohort. Mapping of the pathways represented by different published prognostic signatures showed that they share 53% of the identified pathways. We show that divergent gene sets classifying patients for the same clinical endpoint represent similar biological processes and that pathway-derived signatures can be used to predict prognosis. Furthermore, our study reveals that the underlying biology related to aggressiveness of estrogen receptor subgroups of breast cancer is quite different

  3. Mindfulness Trait Predicts Neurophysiological Reactivity Associated with Negativity Bias: An ERP Study

    Nerissa S. P. Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship of mindfulness trait with the early and late stages of affective processing, by examining the two corresponding ERP components, P2 and LPP, collected from twenty-two male Chinese participants with a wide range of meditation experiences. Multiple regression analyses was performed on the mindfulness scores, as measured by CAMS-R, with the subjective affective ratings and ERP data collected during an emotion processing task. The results showed that increased mindfulness scores predicted increased valence ratings of negative stimuli (less negative, as well as increased P2 amplitudes at the frontocentral location for positive compared to negative stimuli. Based on these findings, a plausible mechanism of mindfulness in reducing negativity bias was discussed. Moreover, our results replicated previous findings on the age-related increase of P2 amplitudes at the frontal sites for positive compared to neutral stimuli. Since the locations at which P2 amplitudes were found as associated with age and mindfulness differed, as did the emotional contents of the stimuli being compared, indicating that the effect of age did not confound our findings on mindfulness and the two factors might operate on early affective processing from distinct sources and mechanisms.

  4. A Culture-Brain Link: Negative Age Stereotypes Predict Alzheimer’s-disease Biomarkers

    Levy, Becca R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.; Slade, Martin D.; Troncoso, Juan; Resnick, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on the age stereotypes of dementia-free participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging that had been measured decades before yearly MRIs and brain autopsies were performed. Those with more negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss, and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques at autopsy, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26641877

  5. A culture-brain link: Negative age stereotypes predict Alzheimer's disease biomarkers.

    Levy, Becca R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Slade, Martin D; Troncoso, Juan; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    Although negative age stereotypes have been found to predict adverse outcomes among older individuals, it was unknown whether the influence of stereotypes extends to brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. To consider this possibility, we drew on dementia-free participants, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, whose age stereotypes were assessed decades before yearly magnetic resonance images and brain autopsies were performed. Those holding more-negative age stereotypes earlier in life had significantly steeper hippocampal-volume loss and significantly greater accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques, adjusting for relevant covariates. These findings suggest a new pathway to identifying mechanisms and potential interventions related to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Perceiving social pressure not to feel negative predicts depressive symptoms in daily life

    Dejonckheere, E.; Bastian, B.; Fried, E.I.; Murphy, S.C.; Kuppens, P.

    Background Western societies often overemphasize the pursuit of happiness, and regard negative feelings such as sadness or anxiety as maladaptive and unwanted. Despite this emphasis on happiness, the amount of people suffering from depressive complaints is remarkably high. To explain this apparent

  7. Negative thermal expansion in TiF{sub 3} from the first-principles prediction

    Wang, Lei [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Yuan, Peng-Fei; Wang, Fei; Sun, Qiang; Liang, Er-Jun [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Center for Clean Energy and Quantum Structures, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Jia, Yu, E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Center for Clean Energy and Quantum Structures, and School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Guo, Zheng-Xiao, E-mail: z.x.guo@ucl.ac.uk [Deparment of Chemistry, University College London, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Rhombohedral TiF{sub 3} as a new NTE material is predicted from first-principles calculation. • The NTE mechanism is proposed based on the analysis of vibrational properties. • The rotation coupling of TiF{sub 6} octahedra at low frequencies is most responsible for NTE. - Abstract: In negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials, rhombohedral TiF{sub 3} as a new member is predicted from first-principles calculation. The NTE behavior of rhombohedral TiF{sub 3} occurs at low temperatures. In our work, the NTE mechanism is elaborated in accordance with vibrational modes. It is confirmed that the rigid unit mode (RUM) of internal TiF{sub 6} octahedra in low-frequency optical range is most responsible for the NTE properties.

  8. The positive bystander effect: passive bystanders increase helping in situations with high expected negative consequences for the helper.

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the interplay between the presence of a passive bystander (not present versus present) in a simulated bike theft and expected negative consequences (low versus high) in predicting intervention behavior when no physical victim is present. It was found that an additional bystander increases individual intervention in situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper in case of intervention were high (i.e., when the bike thief looks fierce) compared to situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper were low (i.e., when the bike thief does not look fierce). In contrast, no such effect for high vs. low expected negative consequences was observed when no additional bystander observed the critical situation. The results are discussed in light of previous laboratory findings on expected negative consequences and bystander intervention.

  9. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    Kritski Afrânio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs and chest X-rays were used for constructing logistic regression and classification and regression tree models. From the logistic regression, we generated a clinical and radiological prediction score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the model's performance in both generation and validation samples. Results It was possible to generate predictive models for SNPT with sensitivity ranging from 64% to 71% and specificity ranging from 58% to 76%. Conclusion The results suggest that those models might be useful as screening tools for estimating the risk of SNPT, optimizing the utilization of more expensive tests, and avoiding costs of unnecessary anti-tuberculosis treatment. Those models might be cost-effective tools in a health care network with hierarchical distribution of scarce resources.

  10. High-brightness negative-hydrogen linear accelerator

    Wadlinger, E.A.; Farrell, J.A.; Dogliani, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    We have designed a linear accelerator to accelerate negative hydrogen ions to 50 MeV with an instantaneous output current of 100 mA and a normalized rms emittance in both transverse planes of 0.02 π cm mrad. The design and results obtained to date with a 2-MeV prototype are presented

  11. Predicting expressway crash frequency using a random effect negative binomial model: A case study in China.

    Ma, Zhuanglin; Zhang, Honglu; Chien, Steven I-Jy; Wang, Jin; Dong, Chunjiao

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between crash frequency and potential influence factors, the accident data for events occurring on a 50km long expressway in China, including 567 crash records (2006-2008), were collected and analyzed. Both the fixed-length and the homogeneous longitudinal grade methods were applied to divide the study expressway section into segments. A negative binomial (NB) model and a random effect negative binomial (RENB) model were developed to predict crash frequency. The parameters of both models were determined using the maximum likelihood (ML) method, and the mixed stepwise procedure was applied to examine the significance of explanatory variables. Three explanatory variables, including longitudinal grade, road width, and ratio of longitudinal grade and curve radius (RGR), were found as significantly affecting crash frequency. The marginal effects of significant explanatory variables to the crash frequency were analyzed. The model performance was determined by the relative prediction error and the cumulative standardized residual. The results show that the RENB model outperforms the NB model. It was also found that the model performance with the fixed-length segment method is superior to that with the homogeneous longitudinal grade segment method. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The negativity bias predicts response rate to Behavioral Activation for depression.

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    This treatment study investigated the extent to which asymmetric dimensions of affective responding, specifically the positivity offset and the negativity bias, at pretreatment altered the rate of response to Behavioral Activation treatment for depression. Forty-one depressed participants were enrolled into 16 weekly sessions of BA. An additional 36 lifetime healthy participants were evaluated prospectively for 16 weeks to compare affective responding between healthy and remitted patients at post-treatment. All participants were assessed at Weeks 0, 8 and 16 using repeated measures, involving a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant images. The negativity bias at pre-treatment predicted the rate of response to BA, while the positivity offset did not. Only one treatment condition was used in this study and untreated depressed participants were not enrolled, limiting our ability to compare the effect of BA. Baseline negativity bias may serve as a signal for patients to engage in and benefit from the goal-directed BA strategies, thereby accelerating rate of response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High intensity negative proton beams from a SNICS ion source

    Evans, C.R.; Hollander, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    For the past year we have been involved in a project to develop an intense (> 100μA) negative proton beam from a SNICS (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) ion source. This report will cover how we accomplished and exceeded this goal by more than 40%. Included in these observations will be the following: A description of an effective method for making titanium hydride cathodes. How to overcome the limitations of the titanium hydride cathode. The modification of the SNICS source to improve output; including the installation of the conical ionizer and the gas cathode. A discussion of problems including: poisoning the proton beam with oxygen, alternative gas cathode materials, the clogging of the gas inlet, long burn-in times, and limited cathode life times. Finally, how to optimize source performance when using a gas cathode, and what is the mechanism by which a gas cathode operates; facts, fantasies, or myth

  14. Long-wavelength negative mass instabilities in high current betatrons

    Godfrey, B.B.; Hughes, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Growth rates of negative mass instabilities in conventional and modified betatrons are calculated by analytic methods and by performing three-dimensional particle simulations. In contrast to earlier work, toroidal corrections to the field equations are included in the analytic model. As a result, good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained. The simulations show that the nonlinear development of the instabilities can seriously disrupt the beam

  15. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms.

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High and low dimensions in the black hole negative mode

    Asnin, Vadim; Gorbonos, Dan; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak; Levi, Michele; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2007-01-01

    The negative mode of the Schwarzschild black hole is central to Euclidean quantum gravity around hot flat space and for the Gregory-Laflamme black string instability. We analyze the eigenvalue as a function of spacetime dimension λ = λ(d) by constructing two perturbative expansions: one for large d and the other for small d - 3, and determining as many coefficients as we are able to compute analytically. By joining the two expansions, we obtain an interpolating rational function accurate to better than 2% through the whole range of dimensions including d = 4

  17. Latent negative self-schema and high emotionality in well adolescents at risk for psychopathology.

    Kelvin, R G; Goodyer, I M; Teasdale, J D; Brechin, D

    1999-09-01

    Teasdale's (1988) differential activation hypothesis proposes that a tendency for negative mood to activate latent negative self-schemas characterises people at risk for depression. The current study tested predictions from this hypothesis in a community sample of 102 adolescents who were free from history of psychiatric illness, and who were subdivided according to level of emotionality, a temperamental style as assessed by parental questionnaire. A musical mood induction task was used to induce temporary mild dysphoria, and the effect of mood induction on self-schemas was assessed. There was no difference between high and low emotionality groups in the liability to sad mood induction. However, adolescents with high emotionality endorsed significantly more negative self-descriptors after dysphoric, but not after neutral, mood induction. This was not accounted for by level of self-reported depressive symptoms over the previous week. This suggests that a " dysphoric mood induction challenge" may provide important information about vulnerability to depression that is not identified by routine self-report of mood or cognitions.

  18. New England observed and predicted July maximum negative stream/river temperature daily rate of change points

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum negative daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  19. Brain negativity as an indicator of predictive error processing: the contribution of visual action effect monitoring.

    Joch, Michael; Hegele, Mathias; Maurer, Heiko; Müller, Hermann; Maurer, Lisa Katharina

    2017-07-01

    The error (related) negativity (Ne/ERN) is an event-related potential in the electroencephalogram (EEG) correlating with error processing. Its conditions of appearance before terminal external error information suggest that the Ne/ERN is indicative of predictive processes in the evaluation of errors. The aim of the present study was to specifically examine the Ne/ERN in a complex motor task and to particularly rule out other explaining sources of the Ne/ERN aside from error prediction processes. To this end, we focused on the dependency of the Ne/ERN on visual monitoring about the action outcome after movement termination but before result feedback (action effect monitoring). Participants performed a semi-virtual throwing task by using a manipulandum to throw a virtual ball displayed on a computer screen to hit a target object. Visual feedback about the ball flying to the target was masked to prevent action effect monitoring. Participants received a static feedback about the action outcome (850 ms) after each trial. We found a significant negative deflection in the average EEG curves of the error trials peaking at ~250 ms after ball release, i.e., before error feedback. Furthermore, this Ne/ERN signal did not depend on visual ball-flight monitoring after release. We conclude that the Ne/ERN has the potential to indicate error prediction in motor tasks and that it exists even in the absence of action effect monitoring. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we are separating different kinds of possible contributors to an electroencephalogram (EEG) error correlate (Ne/ERN) in a throwing task. We tested the influence of action effect monitoring on the Ne/ERN amplitude in the EEG. We used a task that allows us to restrict movement correction and action effect monitoring and to control the onset of result feedback. We ascribe the Ne/ERN to predictive error processing where a conscious feeling of failure is not a prerequisite. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  20. Reality television predicts both positive and negative outcomes for adolescent girls.

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Salmond, Kimberlee; Modi, Kamla

    2013-06-01

    To assess the influence of media, specifically reality television, on adolescent behavior. A total of 1141 preteen and adolescent girls (age range 11-17) answered questions related to their reality television viewing, personality, self-esteem, relational aggression, appearance focus, and desire for fame. Our results indicated that the influence of reality television on adolescent behavior is complex and potentially related to the adolescents' intended uses and gratifications for using reality television. Reality television viewing was positively related to increased self-esteem and expectations of respect in dating relationships. However, watching reality television also was related to an increased focus on appearance and willingness to compromise other values for fame. Reality television viewing did not predict relational aggression. The potential influences of reality television use on adolescent girls are both positive and negative, defying easy categorization. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis.......The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis....

  2. The Role of Negative Affect and Self-Concept Clarity in Predicting Self-Injurious Urges in Borderline Personality Disorder Using Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    Scala, J Wesley; Levy, Kenneth N; Johnson, Benjamin N; Kivity, Yogev; Ellison, William D; Pincus, Aaron L; Wilson, Stephen J; Newman, Michelle G

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in identity as well as negative affect have been shown to predict self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, less is known about the interactive effects of these two predictors. We examined the moderating effect of a particular component of identity, self-concept, on the relationship between negative affect and self-injurious urges utilizing ecological momentary assessments. Outpatients diagnosed with either BPD (n = 36) or any anxiety disorder but no BPD (n = 18) completed surveys throughout the day over a 21-day period. Higher levels of momentary negative affect predicted greater subsequent urges to self-injure, but only when self-concept clarity was low (z = -3.60, p < .01). This effect did not differ between diagnostic groups. The results suggest that self-concept clarity has a protective effect against self-injurious urges in light of high negative affect, and that this effect may be transdiagnostic.

  3. South Korean alcohol free associations: negative expectancy not predicting drinks per occasion.

    Mahoney, Benjamin J; Graham, Deborah; Cottrell, David; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2012-06-01

    Cultural and biological particulars existing in East Asian countries are likely to mediate differences in the alcohol consumption experience. Despite this no research to date has directly explored the alcohol free association or expectancy of any East Asian nations. The current research aims to provide a set of South Korean alcohol expectancies. Two hundred and thirty-seven South Koreans participated in an alcohol free association test and completed a demographic survey. The results both confirmed and contradicted areas of past alcohol expectancy research. There appears to be differences in associates with high probability of recall and alcohol expectancy, where negative, negative sedating and sedating expectancy categories were not found to be predictors of South Korean drinker level. The results suggest that South Koreans have a more even level of negative expectancy across all drinker categories, possibly due to a combination of linguistic, cultural and biological difference found among this population. The results provide a list of South Korean alcohol free association norms for future alcohol research in the region, with the results also underlining the need for alcohol free association tests among East Asian nations. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Stability of DIII-D high-performance, negative central shear discharges

    Hanson, J. M.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J.; Clement, M.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Holcomb, C. T.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Luce, T. C.; Navratil, G. A.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Strait, E. J.; Turco, F.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Tokamak plasma experiments on the DIII-D device (Luxon et al 2005 Fusion Sci. Tech. 48 807) demonstrate high-performance, negative central shear (NCS) equilibria with enhanced stability when the minimum safety factor {{q}\\text{min}} exceeds 2, qualitatively confirming theoretical predictions of favorable stability in the NCS regime. The discharges exhibit good confinement with an L-mode enhancement factor H 89  =  2.5, and are ultimately limited by the ideal-wall external kink stability boundary as predicted by ideal MHD theory, as long as tearing mode (TM) locking events, resistive wall modes (RWMs), and internal kink modes are properly avoided or controlled. Although the discharges exhibit rotating TMs, locking events are avoided as long as a threshold minimum safety factor value {{q}\\text{min}}>2 is maintained. Fast timescale magnetic feedback control ameliorates RWM activity, expanding the stable operating space and allowing access to {β\\text{N}} values approaching the ideal-wall limit. Quickly growing and rotating instabilities consistent with internal kink mode dynamics are encountered when the ideal-wall limit is reached. The RWM events largely occur between the no- and ideal-wall pressure limits predicted by ideal MHD. However, evaluating kinetic contributions to the RWM dispersion relation results in a prediction of passive stability in this regime due to high plasma rotation. In addition, the ideal MHD stability analysis predicts that the ideal-wall limit can be further increased to {β\\text{N}}>4 by broadening the current profile. This path toward improved stability has the potential advantage of being compatible with the bootstrap-dominated equilibria envisioned for advanced tokamak (AT) fusion reactors.

  5. High current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    Etoh, H., E-mail: Hrh-Etoh@shi.co.jp; Aoki, Y.; Mitsubori, H.; Arakawa, Y.; Sakuraba, J.; Kato, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Hiasa, T.; Yajima, S. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Onai, M.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okumura, Y. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In Cs-free operation, continuous H{sup −} beam of 10 mA and D{sup −} beam of 3.3 mA were obtained stably at an arc-discharge power of 3 kW and 2.4 kW, respectively. In Cs-seeded operation, H{sup −} beam current reached 22 mA at a lower arc power of 2.6 kW with less co-extracted electron current. The optimum gas flow rate, which gives the highest H{sup −} current, was 15 sccm in the Cs-free operation, while it decreased to 4 sccm in the Cs-seeded operation. The relationship between H{sup −} production and the design/operating parameters has been also investigated by a numerical study with KEIO-MARC code, which gives a reasonable explanation to the experimental results of the H{sup −} current dependence on the arc power.

  6. Negative EBUS-TBNA Predicts Very Low Prevalence of Mediastinal Disease in Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Taverner, John; Cheang, Mun-Yoong; Antippa, Phillip; See, Katharine; Irving, Louis B; Steinfort, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    Confirmation of mediastinal disease (N2/3) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) generally precludes curative surgical management. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has become a routine first test in mediastinal staging of NSCLC; however, it remains unclear whether a negative EBUS-TBNA should be followed by mediastinoscopy before proceeding to surgery. Understanding the prevalence of metastases in lymph nodes with benign findings on EBUS-TBNA will inform decision making following negative EBUS-TBNA. We examined a retrospective cohort of patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA before resection with mediastinal lymph node sampling for NSCLC between December 2009 and June 2014 in 3 hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. All patients had integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before EBUS-TBNA. Eighty-two matched mediastinal lymph node stations were sampled in 57 patients by both EBUS-TBNA and surgical resection, 47 nodes in patients staged cN0/1 by PET/CT and 35 nodes in patients staged cN2/3. All patients had a negative EBUS-TBNA. Four malignant nodes were identified surgically (4.9% of lymph nodes). The mean size of malignant deposits was 5.5 mm. Per-node negative predictive value was 78/82=0.95. All malignant nodes were located in patients with moderate-high risk disease (cN2/3), giving a disease prevalence in cN2/3 patients of 11%, and 0% in cN0/1. In patients staged cN2, per-node NVP was 0.89. The prevalence of mediastinal nodal disease following negative EBUS-TBNA is very low, at 4.9%. The per-node NVP of EBUS-TBNA is 0.95, decreasing to 0.89 in moderate-high risk patients. We suggest that a negative EBUS-TBNA of mediastinal nodes does not need to be confirmed by mediastinoscopy of those nodal stations, regardless of PET/CT findings.

  7. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  8. [Negative and positive predictive relationships between coping strategies and the three dimensions of burnout among Hungarian medical students].

    Ádám, Szilvia; Nistor, Anikó; Nistor, Katalin; Hazag, Anikó

    2014-08-10

    Effective management and prevention of widespread burnout among medical students in Hungary require thorough understanding of its relations to coping strategies, which lacks sufficient data. To explore the prevalence of burnout and its relations to coping strategies among medical students. Cross-sectional study with 292 participants. Burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey. Coping strategies were evaluated by the Folkman-Lazarus Ways of Coping Questionnaire and questions about health-maintenance behaviours. Associations between burnout and coping strategies were explored with linear regression analyses. The prevalence of high-level burnout was 25-56%. Both problem-focused coping and support-seeking were protective factors of exhaustion and cynicism, however, they predicted reduced personal accomplishment. Emotion-focused coping predicted exhaustion and cynicism and correlated negatively with reduced personal accomplishment. Health-maintenance behaviours were protective factors for exhaustion and predicted reduced personal accomplishment. Deployment of coping strategies that target the most prevalent burnout dimension may improve effective management of burnout.

  9. Claudin-2 is an independent negative prognostic factor in breast cancer and specifically predicts early liver recurrences.

    Kimbung, Siker; Kovács, Anikó; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Malmström, Per; Fernö, Mårten; Hatschek, Thomas; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2014-02-01

    Predicting any future metastatic site of early-stage breast cancer is important as it significantly influences the prognosis of advanced disease. This study aimed at investigating the potential of claudin-2, over-expressed in breast cancer liver metastases, as a biomarker for predicting liver metastatic propensity in primary breast cancer. Claudin-2 expression was analyzed in two independent cohorts. Cohort 1 included 304 women with metastatic breast cancer diagnosed between 2002 and 2007, while cohort 2 included 237 premenopausal women with early-stage node-negative breast cancer diagnosed between 1991 and 1994. Global transcriptional profiling of fine-needle aspirates from metastases was performed, followed by immunohistochemical analyses in archival primary tumor tissue. Associations between claudin-2 expression and relapse site were assessed by univariable and multivariable Cox regression models including conventional prognostic factors. Two-sided statistical tests were used. CLDN2 was significantly up-regulated (P diagnosis and liver-specific recurrence was observed among patients with high levels of claudin-2 expression in the primary tumor (cohort 1, HR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9). These results suggest a novel role for claudin-2 as a prognostic biomarker with the ability to predict not only the likelihood of a breast cancer recurrence, but more interestingly, the liver metastatic potential of the primary tumor. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies: Presurgical evaluation, postoperative outcome and predictive factors.

    Kogias, Evangelos; Klingler, Jan-Helge; Urbach, Horst; Scheiwe, Christian; Schmeiser, Barbara; Doostkam, Soroush; Zentner, Josef; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2017-12-01

    To investigate presurgical diagnostic modalities, clinical and seizure outcome as well as predictive factors after resective epilepsy surgery in 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies. This retrospective study comprises 26 patients (11 males/15 females, mean age 34±12years, range 13-50 years) with 3 Tesla MRI-negative focal epilepsies who underwent resective epilepsy surgery. Non-invasive and invasive presurgical diagnostic modalities, type and localization of resection, clinical and epileptological outcome with a minimum follow-up of 1year (range 1-11 years, mean 2.5±2.3years) after surgery as well as outcome predictors were evaluated. All patients underwent invasive video-EEG monitoring after implantation of intracerebral depth and/or subdural electrodes. Ten patients received temporal and 16 extratemporal or multilobar (n=4) resections. There was no perioperative death or permanent morbidity. Overall, 12 of 26 patients (46%) were completely seizure-free (Engel IA) and 65% had a favorable outcome (Engel I-II). In particular, seizure-free ratio was 40% in the temporal and 50% in the extratemporal group. In the temporal group, long duration of epilepsy correlated with poor seizure outcome, whereas congruent unilateral FDG-PET hypometabolism correlated with a favorable outcome. In almost two thirds of temporal and extratemporal epilepsies defined as "non-lesional" by 3 Tesla MRI criteria, a favorable postoperative seizure outcome (Engel I-II) can be achieved with accurate multimodal presurgical evaluation including intracranial EEG recordings. In the temporal group, most favorable results were obtained when FDG-PET displayed congruent unilateral hypometabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. False-negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin in molar pregnancy: " The high-dose hook effect" !

    Sujata Narendra Datti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency situations can have important consequences. These include missing of ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of first-trimester pregnancy-related maternal death, administration of medications contraindicated in pregnancy, fetal radiation exposure, and medico legal problems. This in turn has led to the dictum to check for pregnancy in all women of child-bearing age group. Urine pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] test is the commonly used test to rule out pregnancy and has been reported by Griffey et al. in their study to achieve 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity in a clinical setting, resulting in a positive predictive value of 98.3% and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. However, the sensitivity is influenced not only by the quantity of β hCG but on its variants that vary with different weeks of pregnancy. β hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. In spite of its high sensitivity, in the presence of molar pregnancy that is associated with very high levels of β hCG it fails to detect the antigen (β hCG. This is explained by the phenomenon known as "high-dose hook effect" which further leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This can be overcome by dilution of the sample. In such cases, diagnosis will be made by serum β hCG and ultrasound (USG. Here, we present a case of gravida 2 para 1 living 1 with 2΍ months amenorrhea with bleeding p/v and pain abdomen of 20 days duration whose urine β hCG was repeatedly negative and diagnosis was made by serum β hCG and USG.

  12. Negative Social Relationships Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among War-Affected Children Via Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Peltonen, Kirsi; Diab, Marwan; Qouta, Samir R

    2016-07-01

    Post traumatic cognitions (PTCs) are important determinants of post traumatic stress symptoms (PTS symptoms). We tested whether risk factors of PTS symptoms (trauma, demographics, social and family-related factors) predict PTCs and whether PTCs mediate the association between risk factors and PTS symptoms among war-affected children. The participants were 240 Palestinian children 10-12 years old, half boys and half girls, and their parents. Children reported about psychological maltreatment, sibling and peer relations, war trauma, PTCs, PTS symptoms, and depression. Parents reported about their socioeconomic status and their own PTS symptoms. The associations between the variables were estimated in structural equation models. In models which included all the variables, PTCs were predicted by and mediated the effects of psychological maltreatment, war trauma, sibling conflict, and peer unpopularity on PTS symptoms. Other predictors had statistically non-significant effects. Psychological maltreatment had the largest indirect effect (b* = 0.29, p = 0.002) and the indirect effects of war trauma (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), sibling conflict (b* = 0.10, p = 0.045), and peer unpopularity (b* = 0.10, p = 0.094) were lower and about the same size. Age-salient social relationships are potentially important in the development of both PTCs and PTS symptoms among preadolescents. Furthermore, PTCs mediate the effects of the risk factors of PTS symptoms. The causality of the associations among the variables is not established but it could be studied in the future with interventions which improve the negative aspects of traumatized children's important social relationships.

  13. Mindful attention predicts greater recovery from negative emotions, but not reduced reactivity.

    Cho, Sinhae; Lee, Hyejeen; Oh, Kyung Ja; Soto, José A

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the role of dispositional mindful attention in immediate reactivity to, and subsequent recovery from, laboratory-induced negative emotion. One hundred and fourteen undergraduates viewed blocks of negative pictures followed by neutral pictures. Participants' emotional responses to negative pictures and subsequent neutral pictures were assessed via self-reported ratings. Participants' emotional response to negative pictures was used to index level of emotional reactivity to unpleasant stimuli; emotional response to neutral pictures presented immediately after the negative pictures was used to index level of emotional recovery from pre-induced negative emotion (residual negativity). Results indicated that mindful attention was not associated with the emotional response to negative pictures, but it was associated with reduced negative emotion in response to the neutral pictures presented immediately after the negative pictures, suggesting better recovery as opposed to reduced reactivity. This effect was especially pronounced in later experimental blocks when the accumulation of negative stimuli produced greater negative emotion from which participants had to recover. The current study extends previous findings on the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and reduced negative emotion by demonstrating that mindful attention may facilitate better recovery from negative emotion, possibly through more effective disengagement from previous stimuli.

  14. Dispositional pathways to trust: Self-esteem and agreeableness interact to predict trust and negative emotional disclosure.

    McCarthy, Megan H; Wood, Joanne V; Holmes, John G

    2017-07-01

    Expressing our innermost thoughts and feelings is critical to the development of intimacy (Reis & Shaver, 1988), but also risks negative evaluation and rejection. Past research suggests that people with high self-esteem are more expressive and self-disclosing because they trust that others care for them and will not reject them (Gaucher et al., 2012). However, feeling good about oneself may not always be enough; disclosure may also depend on how we feel about other people. Drawing on the principles of risk regulation theory (Murray et al., 2006), we propose that agreeableness-a trait that refers to the positivity of interpersonal motivations and behaviors-is a key determinant of trust in a partner's caring and responsiveness, and may work in conjunction with self-esteem to predict disclosure. We examined this possibility by exploring how both self-esteem and agreeableness predict a particularly risky and intimate form of self-disclosure, the disclosure of emotional distress. In 6 studies using correlational, partner-report, and experimental methods, we demonstrate that self-esteem and agreeableness interact to predict disclosure: People who are high in both self-esteem and agreeableness show higher emotional disclosure. We also found evidence that trust mediates this effect. People high in self-esteem and agreeableness are most self-revealing, it seems, because they are especially trusting of their partners' caring. Self-esteem and agreeableness were particularly important for the disclosure of vulnerable emotions (i.e., sadness; Study 5) and disclosures that were especially risky (Study 6). These findings illustrate how dispositional variables can work together to explain behavior in close relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample

    Kuo, Ben CH; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors’ knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as pr...

  16. Clinical implication of negative conversion of predicted circumferential resection margin status after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Lee, Nam Kwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Yong, E-mail: kcyro@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Je; Yang, Dae Sik; Yoon, Won Sup [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Hahn; Kim, Jin [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the prognostic implication of the negative conversion of predicted circumferential resection margin status before surgery in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer with predicted circumferential resection margin involvement. Methods: Thirty-eight patients (28 men, 10 women; median age, 61 years; age range, 39–80 years) with locally advanced rectal cancer with predicted circumferential resection margin involvement who underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by radical surgery were analyzed. Involvement of the circumferential resection margin was predicted on the basis of pre- and post-chemoradiotherapy magnetic resonance imaging. The primary endpoints were 3-year local recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Results: The median follow-up time was 41.1 months (range, 13.9–85.2 months). The negative conversion rate of predicted circumferential resection margin status after preoperative chemoradiotherapy was 65.8%. Patients who experienced negative conversion of predicted circumferential resection margin status had a significantly higher 3-year local recurrence-free survival rate (100.0% vs. 76.9%; P = 0.013), disease-free survival rate (91.7% vs. 59.3%; P = 0.023), and overall survival rate (96.0% vs. 73.8%; P = 0.016) than those who had persistent circumferential resection margin involvement. Conclusions: The negative conversion of the predicted circumferential resection margin status as predicted by magnetic resonance imaging will assist in individual risk stratification as a predictive factor for treatment response and survival before surgery. These findings may help physicians determine whether to administer more intense adjuvant chemotherapy or change the surgical plan for patients displaying resistance to preoperative chemoradiotherapy.

  17. The role of high Rydberg states in the generation of negative ions in negative-ion discharges

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The generation of substantial yields of H - ions in a laser excited H 2 gas has been reported by Pinnaduwage and Christoforu. These H - yields have been attributed to (2 + 1) REMP photoexcitation processes leading to dissociative attachment of doubly-excited or superexcited states (SES), or dissociative attachment of high Rydberg product states. The new feature of these experiments is the implied large dissociative attachment rates, of order 10 -6 cm 3 sec -1 , values that are orders-of-magnitude larger than the dissociative attachment of the vibrationally excited levels of the ground electronic state. While these laser excitations are not directly applicable to a hydrogen negative-ion discharge, the implication of large dissociative attachment rates to the high Rydberg states may affect both the total negative-ion density and the interpretation of discharge performance. Within the discharge energetic electrons will collisionally excite the higher Rydberg states, and the relative contribution of the dissociative attachment of these states when compared with the dissociative attachment to the ground state vibrational levels, is the topic of this paper

  18. Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies.

    Hansel, D E; DeMarzo, A M; Platz, E A; Jadallah, S; Hicks, J; Epstein, J I; Partin, A W; Netto, G J

    2007-05-01

    Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p=0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in

  19. Radiation propagation in random media: From positive to negative correlations in high-frequency fluctuations

    Davis, Anthony B.; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    We survey research on radiation propagation or ballistic particle motion through media with randomly variable material density, and we investigate the topic with an emphasis on very high spatial frequencies. Our new results are based on a specific variability model consisting of a zero-mean Gaussian scaling noise riding on a constant value that is large enough with respect to the amplitude of the noise to yield overwhelmingly non-negative density. We first generalize known results about sub-exponential transmission from regular functions, which are almost everywhere continuous, to merely 'measurable' ones, which are almost everywhere discontinuous (akin to statistically stationary noises), with positively correlated fluctuations. We then use the generalized measure-theoretic formulation to address negatively correlated stochastic media without leaving the framework of conventional (continuum-limit) transport theory. We thus resolve a controversy about recent claims that only discrete-point process approaches can accommodate negative correlations, i.e., anti-clustering of the material particles. We obtain in this case the predicted super-exponential behavior, but it is rather weak. Physically, and much like the alternative discrete-point process approach, the new model applies most naturally to scales commensurate with the inter-particle distance in the material, i.e., when the notion of particle density breaks down due to Poissonian-or maybe not-so-Poissonian-number-count fluctuations occur in the sample volume. At the same time, the noisy structure must prevail up to scales commensurate with the mean-free-path to be of practical significance. Possible applications are discussed.

  20. Do positive or negative stressful events predict the development of new brain lesions in people with Multiple Sclerosis?

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Nawacki, Ewa; Kwasny, Mary J.; Pelletier, Daniel; Mohr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stressful life events have long been suspected to contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. The few studies examining the relationship between stressful events and neuroimaging markers have been small and inconsistent. This study examined whether different types of stressful events and perceived stress could predict development of brain lesions. Methods This was a secondary analysis of 121 patients with MS followed for 48 weeks during a randomized controlled trial comparing Stress Management Therapy for MS to a waitlist control. Patients underwent MRI’s every 8 weeks. Monthly, patients completed an interview measure assessing stressful life events, and self-report measures of perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, which were used to predict the presence of gadolinium enhancing (Gd+) and T2 lesions on MRI’s 29–62 days later. Participants classified stressful events as positive or negative. Negative events were considered “major” if they involved physical threat or threat to the patient’s family structure, and “moderate” otherwise. Results Positive stressful events predicted decreased risk for subsequent Gd+ lesions in the control group (OR=.53 for each additional positive stressful event, 95% CI=.30–.91) and less risk for new or enlarging T2 lesions regardless of group assignment (OR=.74, 95% CI=.55–.99). Across groups, major negative stressful events predicted Gd+ lesions (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.18–2.64) and new or enlarging T2 lesions (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.11–2.23), while moderate negative stressful events, perceived stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms did not. Conclusions Major negative stressful events predict increased risk for Gd+ and T2 lesions, while positive stressful events predict decreased risk. PMID:23680407

  1. The relationship of social function to depressive and negative symptoms in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Corcoran, C M; Kimhy, D; Parrilla-Escobar, M A; Cressman, V L; Stanford, A D; Thompson, J; David, S Ben; Crumbley, A; Schobel, S; Moore, H; Malaspina, D

    2011-02-01

    Social dysfunction is a hallmark symptom of schizophrenia which commonly precedes the onset of psychosis. It is unclear if social symptoms in clinical high-risk patients reflect depressive symptoms or are a manifestation of negative symptoms. We compared social function scores on the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report between 56 young people (aged 13-27 years) at clinical high risk for psychosis and 22 healthy controls. The cases were also assessed for depressive and 'prodromal' symptoms (subthreshold positive, negative, disorganized and general symptoms). Poor social function was related to both depressive and negative symptoms, as well as to disorganized and general symptoms. The symptoms were highly intercorrelated but linear regression analysis demonstrated that poor social function was primarily explained by negative symptoms within this cohort, particularly in ethnic minority patients. Although this study demonstrated a relationship between social dysfunction and depressive symptoms in clinical high-risk cases, this association was primarily explained by the relationship of each of these to negative symptoms. In individuals at heightened risk for psychosis, affective changes may be related to a progressive decrease in social interaction and loss of reinforcement of social behaviors. These findings have relevance for potential treatment strategies for social dysfunction in schizophrenia and its risk states and predict that antidepressant drugs, cognitive behavioral therapy and/or social skills training may be effective.

  2. Absorbed in the task : Personality measures predict engagement during task performance as tracked by error negativity and asymmetrical frontal activity

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that interactions between traits and context predict task engagement, as measured by the amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN), performance, and relative frontal activity asymmetry (RFA). In Study 1, we found that drive for reward, absorption, and constraint independently

  3. Comparing the effects of negative and mixed emotional messages on predicted occasional excessive drinking.

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Muñoz, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages) could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.

  4. Producing high-quality negatives from ERTS black-and-white transparancies

    Richard J. Myhre

    1973-01-01

    A method has been devised for producing high-quality black-and-white negatives quickly and efficiently from dense transparencies orgininating from Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery. Transparencies are evaluated on a standard light source to determine exposure and processing information needed for making negatives. A “System ASA Rating” was developed by...

  5. Validation of a model for predicting smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with initial acid-fast bacilli smear-negative sputum

    Yeh, Jun-Jun [Department of Chest Medicine, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi City (China); Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan (China); Meiho University, Pingtung (China); Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Heng Chun Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China)

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for final smear-positive (SP) active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) in patients with initial negative acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smears (iSN-SP-aPTB) based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Eighty (126, 21) patients of iSN-SP-aPTB and 402 (459, 876) patients of non-initial positive acid fast bacilli (non-iSP) pulmonary disease without iSN-SP-aPTB were included in a derivation (validation, prospective) cohort. HRCT characteristics were analysed, and multivariable regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to develop a score predictive of iSN-SP-aPTB. The derivation cohort showed clusters of nodules/mass of the right upper lobe or left upper lobe were independent predictors of iSN-SP-aPTB, while bronchiectasis in the right middle lobe or left lingual lobe were negatively associated with iSN-SP-aPTB. A predictive score for iSN-SP-aPTB based on these findings was tested in the validation and prospective cohorts. With an ideal cut-off score = 1, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the prediction model were 87.5% (90%, 90.5%), 99% (97.1%, 98.4%), 94.6% (81.3%, 57.5%), and 97.6% (97%, 99.8%) in the derivation (validation, prospective) cohorts, respectively. The model may help identify iSN-SP-aPTB among patients with non-iSP pulmonary diseases. circle Smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis that is initial smear-negative (iSN-SP-aPTB) is infectious. (orig.)

  6. Negative perceptions of ageing predict the onset and persistence of depression and anxiety

    Freeman, Aislinné Theresa; Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2016-01-01

    data on negative ageing perceptions were used for the analysis and it is possible that scores could have changed over time. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing negative perceptions towards ageing by developing interventions that activate positive ageing perceptions, and target societal attitudes by means of policy......BACKGROUND: Although there is a growing literature on the adverse health outcomes related with negative ageing perceptions, studies on their association with mental disorders such as depression and anxiety are scarce. Thus, the aim of the current study was to prospectively assess the association...... between negative ageing perceptions and incident/persistent depression and anxiety using nationally representative data from Ireland. METHODS: Data from two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analysed. The analytical sample consisted of 6095 adults aged ≥50 years...

  7. Comparing the Effects of Negative and Mixed Emotional Messages on Predicted Occasional Excessive Drinking

    Carrera, Pilar; Caballero, Amparo; Mu?oz, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating t...

  8. Comparing the effects of negative and mixed emotional messages on predicted occasional excessive drinking

    Carrera Levillain, Pilar; Caballero González, Amparo; Muñoz Cáceres, María Dolores

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness) versus mixed (joy and sadness), with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating t...

  9. Prediction of Negative Conversion Days of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Based on the Improved Backpropagation Neural Network with Momentum

    Yi-jun Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood nephrotic syndrome is a chronic disease harmful to growth of children. Scientific and accurate prediction of negative conversion days for children with nephrotic syndrome offers potential benefits for treatment of patients and helps achieve better cure effect. In this study, the improved backpropagation neural network with momentum is used for prediction. Momentum speeds up convergence and maintains the generalization performance of the neural network, and therefore overcomes weaknesses of the standard backpropagation algorithm. The three-tier network structure is constructed. Eight indicators including age, lgG, lgA and lgM, etc. are selected for network inputs. The scientific computing software of MATLAB and its neural network tools are used to create model and predict. The training sample of twenty-eight cases is used to train the neural network. The test sample of six typical cases belonging to six different age groups respectively is used to test the predictive model. The low mean absolute error of predictive results is achieved at 0.83. The experimental results of the small-size sample show that the proposed approach is to some degree applicable for the prediction of negative conversion days of childhood nephrotic syndrome.

  10. Beyond Generalized Sexual Prejudice: Need for Closure Predicts Negative Attitudes Toward Bisexual People Relative to Gay/Lesbian People.

    Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; LaFrance, Marianne; Przedworski, Julia M; Perry, Sylvia P; Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Hardeman, Rachel R; Yeazel, Mark W; van Ryn, Michelle

    2017-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bisexual people are sometimes evaluated more negatively than heterosexual and gay/lesbian people. A common theoretical account for this discrepancy argues that bisexuality is perceived by some as introducing ambiguity into a binary model of sexuality. The present brief report tests a single key prediction of this theory, that evaluations of bisexual people have a unique relationship with Need for Closure (NFC), a dispositional preference for simple ways of structuring information. Participants ( n =3406) were heterosexual medical students from a stratified random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. As in prior research, bisexual targets were evaluated slightly more negatively than gay/lesbian targets overall. More importantly for the present investigation, higher levels of NFC predicted negative evaluations of bisexual people after accounting for negative evaluations of gay/lesbian people, and higher levels of NFC also predicted an explicit evaluative preference for gay/lesbian people over bisexual people. These results suggest that differences in evaluations of sexual minority groups partially reflect different psychological processes, and that NFC may have a special relevance for bisexual targets even beyond its general association with prejudice. The practical value of testing this theory on new physicians is also discussed.

  11. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample.

    Kuo, Ben Ch; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors' knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as predictors with any sample populations. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test the predictive power of perceived stress, social support, bidirectional acculturation (i.e., Canadian acculturation and heritage acculturation), religious coping and cultural coping (i.e., collective, avoidance, and engagement coping) in explaining positive and negative affect in a multiethnic sample of 301 undergraduate students in Canada. Two hierarchal multiple regressions were conducted, one for each affect as the dependent variable, with the above described predictors. The results supported the hypotheses and showed the two overall models to be significant in predicting affect of both kinds. Specifically, a higher level of positive affect was predicted by a lower level of perceived stress, less use of religious coping, and more use of engagement coping in dealing with stress by the participants. Higher level of negative affect, however, was predicted by a higher level of perceived stress and more use of avoidance coping in responding to stress. The current findings highlight the value and relevance of empirically examining the stress-coping-adaptation experiences of diverse populations from an affective conceptual framework, particularly with the inclusion of positive affect. Implications and recommendations for advancing future research and theoretical works in this area are considered and presented.

  12. Comparing the Effects of Negative and Mixed Emotional Messages on Predicted Occasional Excessive Drinking

    Pilar Carrera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present two types of emotional message, negative (sadness versus mixed (joy and sadness, with the aim of studying their differential effect on attitude change and the probability estimated by participants of repeating the behavior of occasional excessive drinking in the near future. The results show that for the group of participants with moderate experience in this behavior the negative message, compared to the mixed one, is associated with higher probability of repeating the risk behavior and a less negative attitude toward it. These results suggest that mixed emotional messages (e.g. joy and sadness messages could be more effective in campaigns for the prevention of this risk behavior.

  13. Predictability and interpretability of hybrid link-level crash frequency models for urban arterials compared to cluster-based and general negative binomial regression models.

    Najaf, Pooya; Duddu, Venkata R; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2018-03-01

    Machine learning (ML) techniques have higher prediction accuracy compared to conventional statistical methods for crash frequency modelling. However, their black-box nature limits the interpretability. The objective of this research is to combine both ML and statistical methods to develop hybrid link-level crash frequency models with high predictability and interpretability. For this purpose, M5' model trees method (M5') is introduced and applied to classify the crash data and then calibrate a model for each homogenous class. The data for 1134 and 345 randomly selected links on urban arterials in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina was used to develop and validate models, respectively. The outputs from the hybrid approach are compared with the outputs from cluster-based negative binomial regression (NBR) and general NBR models. Findings indicate that M5' has high predictability and is very reliable to interpret the role of different attributes on crash frequency compared to other developed models.

  14. Auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia: topographic evaluation with a high-density recording montage.

    Hirayasu, Y; Potts, G F; O'Donnell, B F; Kwon, J S; Arakaki, H; Akdag, S J; Levitt, J J; Shenton, M E; McCarley, R W

    1998-09-01

    The mismatch negativity, a negative component in the auditory event-related potential, is thought to index automatic processes involved in sensory or echoic memory. The authors' goal in this study was to examine the topography of auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia with a high-density, 64-channel recording montage. Mismatch negativity topography was evaluated in 23 right-handed male patients with schizophrenia who were receiving medication and in 23 nonschizophrenic comparison subjects who were matched in age, handedness, and parental socioeconomic status. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to measure psychiatric symptoms. Mismatch negativity amplitude was reduced in the patients with schizophrenia. They showed a greater left-less-than-right asymmetry than comparison subjects at homotopic electrode pairs near the parietotemporal junction. There were correlations between mismatch negativity amplitude and hallucinations at left frontal electrodes and between mismatch negativity amplitude and passive-apathetic social withdrawal at left and right frontal electrodes. Mismatch negativity was reduced in schizophrenia, especially in the left hemisphere. This finding is consistent with abnormalities of primary or adjacent auditory cortex involved in auditory sensory or echoic memory.

  15. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  16. Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem

    Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

  17. Use of the negative binomial-truncated Poisson distribution in thunderstorm prediction

    Cohen, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    A probability model is presented for the distribution of thunderstorms over a small area given that thunderstorm events (1 or more thunderstorms) are occurring over a larger area. The model incorporates the negative binomial and truncated Poisson distributions. Probability tables for Cape Kennedy for spring, summer, and fall months and seasons are presented. The computer program used to compute these probabilities is appended.

  18. Development of the negative ion source at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics

    Takagi, Akira [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    On formation of direct high frequency chopped negative hydrogen ion beam from surface forming type negative hydrogen ion source, incident acceleration due to proton synchrotron was tried for a forming experiment and its application. By overlapping a high frequency pulse onto a bias DC voltage of convertor electrode, control of formation of negative hydrogen ion with high speed RF pulse of 2 MHz could be realized. And, incidence into 12 GeV proton accelerator to catch RF particles with waiting bucket system due to booster synchrotron, was effective for control of longitudinal emittance in the booster synchrotron. As a result, controls of the beam width and shape emitted from the booster synchrotron were possible. On application of high speed chopped negative hydrogen ion beam to accelerator, improvement of beam capture efficiency to the accelerated RF bucket, control of longitudinal emittance of accelerated beam, beam measurement at incidence into the accelerator and so forth were conducted. In this paper, results of the high speed chopped beam formation experiment using surface plasma forming type negative ion source and application of high speed beam chopping method synchronized with high frequency pulse at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics are described. (G.K.)

  19. Early life stress predicts negative urgency through brooding, depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype: A pilot study with 6-month follow-up examining suicide ideation.

    Valderrama, Jorge; Miranda, Regina

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the interaction between early life stress and 5-HTT genotypes in predicting two risk factors for suicidal behavior - the brooding subtype of rumination and impulsivity, in the form of negative urgency - over time. Furthermore, we examined early life stress, brooding, and impulsivity as predictors of suicidal ideation over time. Participants with and without a history of early life stress were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and completed assessments assessing brooding and negative urgency at baseline and 6-month follow up. Early life emotional abuse was associated with negative urgency at follow-up. We found an indirect effect of early life emotional abuse on negative urgency through brooding among individuals with 5-HTT low expressing genotypes but not among individuals with 5-HTT high expressing genotypes. Further, a logistic regression analysis revealed that negative urgency was associated with higher odds (O.R. = 16.2) of reporting suicide ideation (versus no ideation) at follow-up. Our findings suggest that brooding and negative urgency may result from the interaction between early life emotional abuse and 5-HTT low expressing genotypes. Further research is necessary to understand how early life stress interacts with 5-HTT genotypes to confer risk for suicidal behavior through psychological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A predictive tool to estimate the risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative axillary ultrasound

    Meretoja, T J; Heikkilä, P S; Mansfield, A S

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative preoperative axillary ultrasound. METHODS: A total of 1,395 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer and SNB formed the original patient series. A univariate analysis was conducted to assess...... risk factors for axillary metastases. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to form a predictive model based on the risk factors. The predictive model was first validated internally in a patient series of 566 further patients and then externally in a patient series of 2,463 patients from......BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the "gold standard" in axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. However, axillary treatment is undergoing a paradigm shift and studies are being conducted on whether SNB may be omitted in low-risk patients. The purpose...

  1. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High voltage holding in the negative ion sources with cesium deposition

    Belchenko, Yu.; Abdrashitov, G.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High voltage holding of the large surface-plasma negative ion source with cesium deposition was studied. It was found that heating of ion-optical system electrodes to temperature >100 °C facilitates the source conditioning by high voltage pulses in vacuum and by beam shots. The procedure of electrode conditioning and the data on high-voltage holding in the negative ion source with small cesium seed are described. The mechanism of high voltage holding improvement by depletion of cesium coverage is discussed.

  3. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1997-01-01

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H - current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm 2 . The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H - current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  4. Failing to learn from negative prediction errors: Obesity is associated with alterations in a fundamental neural learning mechanism.

    Mathar, David; Neumann, Jane; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2017-10-01

    Prediction errors (PEs) encode the difference between expected and actual action outcomes in the brain via dopaminergic modulation. Integration of these learning signals ensures efficient behavioral adaptation. Obesity has recently been linked to altered dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuits, thus implying impairments in cognitive domains that rely on its integrity. 28 obese and 30 lean human participants performed an implicit stimulus-response learning paradigm inside an fMRI scanner. Computational modeling and psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis was utilized for assessing PE-related learning and associated functional connectivity. We show that human obesity is associated with insufficient incorporation of negative PEs into behavioral adaptation even in a non-food context, suggesting differences in a fundamental neural learning mechanism. Obese subjects were less efficient in using negative PEs to improve implicit learning performance, despite proper coding of PEs in striatum. We further observed lower functional coupling between ventral striatum and supplementary motor area in obese subjects subsequent to negative PEs. Importantly, strength of functional coupling predicted task performance and negative PE utilization. These findings show that obesity is linked to insufficient behavioral adaptation specifically in response to negative PEs, and to associated alterations in function and connectivity within the fronto-striatal system. Recognition of neural differences as a central characteristic of obesity hopefully paves the way to rethink established intervention strategies: Differential behavioral sensitivity to negative and positive PEs should be considered when designing intervention programs. Measures relying on penalization of unwanted behavior may prove less effective in obese subjects than alternative approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trait aspects of auditory mismatch negativity predict response to auditory training in individuals with early illness schizophrenia.

    Biagianti, Bruno; Roach, Brian J; Fisher, Melissa; Loewy, Rachel; Ford, Judith M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have heterogeneous impairments of the auditory processing system that likely mediate differences in the cognitive gains induced by auditory training (AT). Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential component reflecting auditory echoic memory, and its amplitude reduction in schizophrenia has been linked to cognitive deficits. Therefore, MMN may predict response to AT and identify individuals with schizophrenia who have the most to gain from AT. Furthermore, to the extent that AT strengthens auditory deviance processing, MMN may also serve as a readout of the underlying changes in the auditory system induced by AT. Fifty-six individuals early in the course of a schizophrenia-spectrum illness (ESZ) were randomly assigned to 40 h of AT or Computer Games (CG). Cognitive assessments and EEG recordings during a multi-deviant MMN paradigm were obtained before and after AT and CG. Changes in these measures were compared between the treatment groups. Baseline and trait-like MMN data were evaluated as predictors of treatment response. MMN data collected with the same paradigm from a sample of Healthy Controls (HC; n = 105) were compared to baseline MMN data from the ESZ group. Compared to HC, ESZ individuals showed significant MMN reductions at baseline ( p = .003). Reduced Double-Deviant MMN was associated with greater general cognitive impairment in ESZ individuals ( p = .020). Neither ESZ intervention group showed significant change in MMN. We found high correlations in all MMN deviant types (rs = .59-.68, all ps < .001) between baseline and post-intervention amplitudes irrespective of treatment group, suggesting trait-like stability of the MMN signal. Greater deficits in trait-like Double-Deviant MMN predicted greater cognitive improvements in the AT group ( p = .02), but not in the CG group. In this sample of ESZ individuals, AT had no effect on auditory deviance processing as assessed by MMN. In ESZ individuals, baseline MMN

  6. Pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy predicts locoregional control in patients with triple negative breast cancer

    Chen, Victor E.; Gillespie, Erin F.; Zakeri, Kaveh; Murphy, James D.; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Lu, Sharon; Einck, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our goal was to determine the impact of pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) on the subsequent risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the setting of adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and materials: This was an institutional review board–approved retrospective chart review of patients with clinical stage I-III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, local surgery (breast conservat...

  7. Negative Aging Attitudes Predict Greater Reactivity to Daily Stressors in Older Adults.

    Bellingtier, Jennifer A; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2016-08-03

    In order to understand conflicting findings regarding the emotional reactions of older adults to daily stressors, we examined the possibility that negative aging attitudes could function as an important individual differences factor related to stressor reactivity. Using a daily dairy design, we examined the aging attitudes of 43 older adults reporting on 380 total days. Participants reported their aging attitudes on Day 1, followed by their stressor exposure and negative affect on Days 2-9. Covariates included age, gender, education, and personality. Using multilevel modeling, our results suggest that individuals with more positive aging attitudes report consistent levels of affect across study days regardless of stressors, whereas those with more negative aging attitudes reported increased emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Positive aging attitudes may serve as a resource that helps buffer reactions to daily stressors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Highly Accurate Prediction of Jobs Runtime Classes

    Reiner-Benaim, Anat; Grabarnick, Anna; Shmueli, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Separating the short jobs from the long is a known technique to improve scheduling performance. In this paper we describe a method we developed for accurately predicting the runtimes classes of the jobs to enable this separation. Our method uses the fact that the runtimes can be represented as a mixture of overlapping Gaussian distributions, in order to train a CART classifier to provide the prediction. The threshold that separates the short jobs from the long jobs is determined during the ev...

  9. Individual Differences in the Habitual Use of Cognitive Reappraisal Predict the Reward-related Feedback Negativity

    Liyang eSai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life can influence brain activity associated with reward processing. In the present study, participant’s neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG recorded during a gambling task, while their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ. Event-related potential (ERP results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants, such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e. amplified FN difference between losses and gains. This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal influences the neural processing of reward.

  10. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A high-efficiency positive (negative) surface ionization source for radioactive ion beam (abstract)a

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ≡5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ≡1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing considerably the efficiency for negative surface ionization of atoms and molecules with intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the Holifield radioactive beam facility. The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Measurement of the dechanneling length for high-energy negative pions

    Scandale, W.; Losito, R.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Della Mea, G.; Vallazza, E.; Afonin, A.G.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Denisov, A.S.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the dechanneling length of 150 GeV/cπ − interacting with a short bent silicon crystal. Dechanneling length measures the rate and the strength of incoherent interactions of channeled particles in a crystal. The mechanism of dechanneling of negatively charged particles has been elucidated through simulation and experiment. It was found that the dechanneling length for negative particles is comparable to the nuclear dechanneling length for positive charges. Indeed, dechanneling of negative particles occurs as a result of incoherent interactions with the nuclei because the trajectories of such particles always intersect atomic planes, explaining the lower channeling efficiency for such particles. Obtained results can be useful for the design of crystals for manipulating high-energy negative particle beams through channeling

  13. The Role of Thought Suppression, Meta-Cognitive Factors and Negative Emotions in Prediction of Substance Dependency Disorder

    Omid Saed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigated the role of thought suppression, meta- cognitive factors, and negative emotions in predicting of substance dependency disorder. Method: Subjects were 70 patients with substance dependence disorder and 70 normal individuals (total 140. Substance dependants were selected of outpatient treatment centers and the normal sample was selected of the general population too. Sampling methods in both samples were convenience sampling. All people were assessed by MCQ-30, White Bear Suppression Inventory, and Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Questionnaires. For data analysis, discriminant analysis were used. Results: Negative meta-cognitive beliefs about worry, depression, and thought suppression were the most significant predictors of substance dependence disorder. Conclusion: Through meta-cognitive beliefs, thought suppression and negative emotion (especially depression, substance dependency disorder can be predicted. Based on this model can be used to take a substance dependency disorder prevention approach and psychotherapy approach (based on cognitive and meta-cognitive therapies. In addition, the findings of this research can be applied in clinical and counseling environments to help substance dependant clients.

  14. High false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian patients on regular hemodialysis.

    El-Sherif, Assem; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Aboelfotoh, Atef; Abdelkarim, Magdy; Saied Mohammad, Abdel-Gawad; Abdallah, Abdallah Mahmoud; Mostafa, Sadek; Elmestikawy, Amr; Elwassief, Ahmed; Salah, Mohamed; Abdelbaseer, Mohamed Ali; Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin

    2012-07-01

    Routine serological testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among hemodialysis (HD) patients is currently recommended. A dilemma existed on the value of serology because some investigators reported a high rate of false-negative serologic testing. In this study, we aimed to detect the false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian HD patients. Seventy-eight HD patients, negative for anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and hepatitis B surface antigen, were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the next step, the viral load was quantified by real-time PCR in RT-PCR-positive patients. Risk factors for HCV infection, as well as clinical and biochemical indicators of liver disease, were compared between false-negative and true-negative anti-HCV HD patients. The frequency of false-negative anti-HCV was 17.9%. Frequency of blood transfusion, duration of HD, dialysis at multiple centers, and diabetes mellitus were not identified as risk factors for HCV infection. The frequency of false-negative results had a linear relation to the prevalence of HCV infection in the HD units. Timely identification of HCV within dialysis units is needed in order to lower the risk of HCV spread within the HD units. The high false-negative rate of anti-HCV among HD patients in our study justifies testing of a large scale of patients for precious assessment of effectiveness of nucleic acid amplification technology testing in screening HD patient. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. A nomogram for predicting pathological complete response in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer

    Jin, Xi; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Chen, Sheng; Yu, Ke-Da; Ma, Ding; Sun, Wei; Shao, Zhi-Min; Di, Gen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been proven to predict long-term clinical benefits for patients. Our research is to construct a nomogram to predict pathological complete response of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer patients. We enrolled 815 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 2003 to 2015 and divided them into a training set and a validation set. Univariate logistic regression was performed to screen for predictors and construct the nomogram; multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors. After performing the univariate logistic regression analysis in the training set, tumor size, hormone receptor status, regimens of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were the final predictors for the construction of the nomogram. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that T4 status, hormone receptor status and receiving regimen of paclitaxel and carboplatin were independent predictors of pathological complete response. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set and the validation set was 0.779 and 0.701, respectively. We constructed and validated a nomogram to predict pathological complete response in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer patients. We also identified tumor size, hormone receptor status and paclitaxel and carboplatin regimen as independent predictors of pathological complete response. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2652-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  16. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  17. The Coordination of calculation and experimental procedures in the determination of high-negative reactivities

    Pinegin, A.A.; Tsyganov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Usually three sources of information about the value of inserted negative reactivity (ρ) are used: dynamical experiment with reactimeters, solution of conventionally critical problems, and dynamical calculation of the process of reactivity insertion with the reactimer model. Each of them gives they own estimation of ρ. The discrepancy between these estimation could be significant, particularly noticeable in dissymmetric insertion of perturbation. The paper discusses origin of problems of estimation high negative reactivity with reactivity meter. Authors believe that correct method of high negative reactivity estimation have to include three dimensional dynamic core model for taking to account spatial effect. Moreover, some special process, such a removal of delayed neutron emitters, change in the fraction of delayed neutrons, inner source etc. (Authors)

  18. The coordination of calculation and experimental procedures in the determination of high-negative reactivities

    Pinegin, A.A.; Tsyganov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    Usually three sources of information about the value of inserted negative reactivity (ρ) are used: dynamical experiment with reactimeters, solution of conventionally critical problems, and dynamical calculation of the process of reactivity insertion with the reactimeter model. Each of them gives they own estimation of ρ. The discrepancy between these estimations could be significant, particularly noticeable in dissymmetric insertion of perturbation. Origin of problems of estimation high negative reactivity is discussed using the reactivity meter. A correct method of high negative reactivity estimation have to include three dimensional dinamic core model for taking to account spatial effect. Moreover, some special processes, such as removal of delayed neutron emitters, change in the fraction of delayed neutrons, inner sources are considered etc. (author)

  19. Structured Parent-Child Observations Predict Development of Conduct Problems: the Importance of Parental Negative Attention in Child-Directed Play.

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.

  20. Management of High-Voltage Burns of the Hand and Wrist with Negative Pressure Dressing

    Nazım Gümüş

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Negative pressure dressing stimulates wound healing by promoting cellular proliferation and regeneration. It also removes interstitial edema and increases local blood flow, resulting in rapid growth of the granulation tissue. We used the dressing method in deep hand and wrist burns caused by high-voltage electrical current, which leads to progressive tissue necrosis, elevated compartment pressure, and deep tissue edema, to reveal if subatmospheric pressure could limit the zone of injury or ongoing tissue necrosis after electrical burn. Material and Methods: Six hands of five patients, who came in contact with high-voltage electrical wire carrying more than 1000 volts, are presented in this study. Hands and wrists were seriously injured and contracted. After the initial treatment involving fluid resuscitation, fasciotomy, carpal tunnel release, and debridement, a negative pressure dressing was applied to the wounds of hand, wrist, and forearm with 125 mm Hg continuous pressure, and maintained for 20 days. Results: When negative pressure dressing was stopped on the 20th day, significant granulation tissue developed over the hand and forearm wounds. However, wrist wounds needed more debridement and repeated dressings because of the presence of necrosis. Edema of the hands subsided significantly during the use of negative pressure dressing. Time to closure for hand and forearm wounds decreased considerably. Moreover, in one wrist, spontaneous closure was achieved at about one month. All hands except one treated with negative pressure dressing could be saved from amputation; however, significant tissue loss developed, needing complex reconstruction procedures. One hand was amputated because of the permanent loss of blood perfusion. Conclusion: The management of high-voltage burns of hand and wrist with subatmospheric pressure appears to be capable of reducing hand edema and accelerating closure of the wounds. It seems that negative

  1. Time-resolved measurements of highly-polymerised negative ions in rf silane plasma deposition experiments

    Howling, A.A.; Sansonnens, L.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.

    1993-07-01

    The time-resolved fluxes of negative polysilicon hydride ions from a power-modulated rf silane plasma have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry and modeled using a simple polymerisation scheme. Experiments were performed with plasma parameters suitable for high-quality amorphous silicon deposition. Polysilicon hydride anions diffuse from the plasma with low energy (approximately 0.5 eV) during the afterglow after the electron density has decayed and the sheath fields have collapsed. The mass-dependence of the temporal behavior of the anion loss flux demonstrates that the plasma composition is influenced by the modulation frequency. The negative species attain much higher masses than the positive or neutral species, and anions containing as many as sixteen silicon atoms have been observed, corresponding to the 500 amu limit of the mass spectrometer. This suggests that negative ions could be the precursors to particle formation. Ion-molecule and ion-ion reactions are discussed and a simple negative ion polymerisation scheme is proposed which qualitatively reproduces the experimental results. The model shows that the densities of high mass negative ions in the plasma are strongly reduced by modulation frequencies near 1 kHz. Each plasma period is then too short for the polymerisation chain to propagate to high masses before the elementary anions are lost in each subsequent afterglow period. This explains why modulation of the rf power can reduce particle contamination. We conclude that, for the case of silane rf plasmas, the initiation steps which ultimately lead to particle contamination proceed by negative ion polymerisation. (author) 15 figs., 72 refs

  2. Reductions in Negative Automatic Thoughts in Students Attending Mindfulness Tutorials Predicts Increased Life Satisfaction

    Ritvo, Paul; Vora, Khushboo; Irvine, Jane; Mongrain, Myriam; Azargive, Saam; Azam, Muhammad Abid; Pirbaglou, Meysam; Guglietti, Crissa; Wayne, Noah; Perez, Daniel Felipe; Cribbie, Rob

    2013-01-01

    University education confronts students with stressful developmental challenges that can lead to mental health problems. Innovative programs must address an increasing prevalence of these problems but are impeded by the high costs involved. In this study, thirty-nine undergraduate students attended weekly one hour mindfulness meditation tutorials…

  3. Do health complaints in adolescence negatively predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood?

    Låftman, Sara B; Magnusson, Charlotta

    2017-12-01

    Self-reported psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, such as nervousness, sadness, headache and stomach-ache, are common among adolescents, particularly among girls, and studies suggest that the prevalence has risen among adolescent girls during the last few decades. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the potential long-term consequences of such health complaints. The aim of the current study was to assess whether psychological and psychosomatic health complaints in adolescence predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood among women and men. The data used are from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is based on a nationally representative sample with self-reported survey information from adolescents aged 10-18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20-28 in 2010 ( n=783). Information was also collected from parents and from official registers. Linear probability models showed that self-reported psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with a lower chance of having entered tertiary education 10 years later. This association was accounted for by differences in grade point average (GPA), suggesting that GPA may mediate the association between psychological complaints and later education. The pattern was similar for both genders. Furthermore, among men, psychosomatic complaints in adolescence were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having entered tertiary education 10 years later when adjusting for GPA and social class in adolescence. A similar but non-significant tendency was found among women. The findings suggest that health complaints in adolescence may have long-term consequences in terms of lower educational attainment.

  4. A Langmuir probe system for high power RF-driven negative ion sources on high potential

    McNeely, P; Christ-Koch, S; Fantz, U; Dudin, S V

    2009-01-01

    A fully automated Langmuir probe system capable of operating simultaneously with beam extraction has been developed and commissioned for the negative hydrogen ion source testbeds at IPP Garching. It allows the measurement of temporal and spatial distributions of the plasma parameters within a single plasma pulse ( 10 18 m -3 ) and hot (T e > 10 eV) plasma with bi-Maxwellian electron energy distribution at low pressures. The plasma found near the plasma grid is very different being of low density (≤10 17 m -3 ) and very cold (T e < 2 eV). This plasma is also strongly influenced by the presence of caesium, the potential of the plasma grid, and if an ion beam is extracted from the source. Caesium strongly reduces the plasma potential of the source and enhances the negative ion density near the plasma grid. Extracting an ion beam is observed to reduce the electron density and increase the potential near the plasma grid. Applying a potential greater than the plasma potential to the plasma grid is found to significantly decrease the electron density near the plasma grid.

  5. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Striatal Reward Responses Relate to Approach-Avoidance Learning and Encoding of Positive-Negative Prediction Errors in Dopaminergic Midbrain Regions.

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-10-28

    Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning. Recent correlational approaches also indicate that biases in approach-avoidance learning involve hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine function. However, the computational and neural mechanisms underpinning such learning biases remain unknown. Here we assessed hemispheric reward asymmetry in striatal activity in 34 human participants who performed a task involving rewards and punishments. We show that the relative difference in reward response between hemispheres relates to individual biases in approach-avoidance learning. Moreover, using a computational modeling approach, we demonstrate that better encoding of positive (vs negative) PEs in dopaminergic midbrain regions is associated with better approach (vs avoidance) learning, specifically in participants with larger reward responses in the left (vs right) ventral striatum. Thus, individual dispositions or traits may be determined by neural processes acting to constrain learning about specific aspects of the world. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514491-10$15.00/0.

  6. The utility of MMPI-2-RF substantive scales in prediction of negative treatment outcomes in a community mental health center.

    Anestis, Joye C; Gottfried, Emily D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) substantive scales in the prediction of premature termination and therapy no-shows while controlling for other relevant predictors in a university-based community mental health center, a sample at high risk of both premature termination and no-show appointments. Participants included 457 individuals seeking services from a university-based psychology clinic. Results indicated that Juvenile Conduct Problems (JCP) predicted premature termination and Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction and JCP predicted number of no-shows, when accounting for initial severity of illness, personality disorder diagnosis, therapist experience, and other related MMPI-2-RF scales. The MMPI-2-RF Aesthetic-Literary Interests scale also predicted number of no-shows. Recommendations for applying these findings in clinical practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Drug response prediction in high-risk multiple myeloma

    Vangsted, A J; Helm-Petersen, S; Cowland, J B

    2018-01-01

    from high-risk patients by GEP70 at diagnosis from Total Therapy 2 and 3A to predict the response by the DRP score of drugs used in the treatment of myeloma patients. The DRP score stratified patients further. High-risk myeloma with a predicted sensitivity to melphalan by the DRP score had a prolonged...

  8. Economic and social distance: Perceived income inequality negatively predicts an interdependent self-construal.

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ángel; Willis, Guillermo B; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa

    2017-07-03

    Previous research has shown that economic inequality influences how people are related with others. In this article, we suggest that perceived economic inequality influences self-construal. Specifically, we propose that higher economic inequality leads to an independent self-construal, whereas lower economic inequality leads to an interdependent self-construal. Correlational data from Studies 1a and 1b revealed that people who perceive lower levels of economic inequality tend to show higher levels of interdependent self-construal, even after controlling for social class. In Study 2, using an experimental design, we found that perceived high economic inequality leads to a more independent and less interdependent self-construal compared to the low economic inequality condition. These results expand the literature bridging the gap between a macro-social factor, such as economic inequality, and a micro-social factor, such as self-construal. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Negative argininosuccinate synthetase expression in melanoma tumours may predict clinical benefit from arginine-depleting therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase

    Feun, L G; Marini, A; Walker, G; Elgart, G; Moffat, F; Rodgers, S E; Wu, C J; You, M; Wangpaichitr, M; Kuo, M T; Sisson, W; Jungbluth, A A; Bomalaski, J; Savaraj, N

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arginine-depleting therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) was reported to have activity in advanced melanoma in early phase I–II trial, and clinical trials are currently underway in other cancers. However, the optimal patient population who benefit from this treatment is unknown. Methods: Advanced melanoma patients with accessible tumours had biopsy performed before the start of treatment with ADI-PEG20 and at the time of progression or relapse when amenable to determine whether argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in tumour was predictive of response to ADI-PEG20. Results: Twenty-seven of thirty-eight patients treated had melanoma tumours assessable for ASS staining before treatment. Clinical benefit rate (CBR) and longer time to progression were associated with negative expression of tumour ASS. Only 1 of 10 patients with ASS-positive tumours (ASS+) had stable disease, whereas 4 of 17 (24%) had partial response and 5 had stable disease, when ASS expression was negative (ASS−), giving CBR rates of 52.9 vs 10%, P=0.041. Two responding patients with negative ASS expression before therapy had rebiopsy after tumour progression and the ASS expression became positive. The survival of ASS− patients receiving at least four doses at 320 IU m−2 was significantly better than the ASS+ group at 26.5 vs 8.5 months, P=0.024. Conclusion: ADI-PEG20 is safe and the drug is only efficacious in melanoma patients whose tumour has negative ASS expression. Argininosuccinate synthetase tumour positivity is associated with drug resistance and tumour progression. PMID:22472884

  10. Investigations of a new, highly negative liposome with improved biodistribution for imaging

    Hnatowich, D.J.; Clancy, B.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive feature of liposomes is the wide range of lipid composition that can lead to liposome formation, coupled with the observation that liposome biodistribution may be altered by varying lipid composition. For instance, adding charged lipids to neutral lecithin will alter the biodistribution of the resulting charged liposomes. We have prepared highly negative liposomes by replacing lecithin with negatively charged cardiolipin. The liposomes have been labeled in the lipid phase with Ga-67 and Tc-99m oxine and their properties evaluated. The expected high negative charge of the resulting liposomes was confirmed by an ion-exchange chromatographic technique. Using paper chromatography, the stability of the label was determined during incubation in saline and serum. Finally, biodistributions were determined at 2 h in mice, and the results compared with those for negative lecithin liposomes. Accumulated activities in liver and spleen were reduced by factors of five and 20, respectively, over lecithin liposomes. Since preferential accumulation of activity in these organs constitutes the biggest limitation to the use of lecithin liposomes, cardiolipin liposomes may prove to be more useful carriers of radioactivity in imaging applications. More importantly, however, these results illustrate the value of studying novel liposome types as potential radiopharmaceuticals

  11. Negative-feedback control system of the high voltage power supply for ECRH

    Ding Tonghai; Liu Baohua; Jiang Shufang

    2001-01-01

    A kind of high accuracy negative high voltage power supply (HVPS) was introduced. The serial feedback was regulated according to the character of the high power tetrode and a new kind of integrator with preset value, which solved the key technological problem of the HVPS that the ECRH system required a voltage of -80 kV, a pulse width of 10 - 100 ms and a precision of 99.7%. The result using a PSPICE code simulation has shown that the method is practical

  12. Immunohistochemical expression profiles of mucin antigens in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma: MUC4- and MUC6-negative expression predicts a shortened survival in the early postoperative phase.

    Honjo, Kie; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Higashi, Michiyo; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Nomoto, Mitsuharu; Yoshimura, Takuya; Batra, Surinder K; Yonezawa, Suguru; Semba, Ichiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Tanimoto, Akihide; Yamada, Sohsuke

    2018-02-01

    In mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the most common salivary gland carcinoma, there is a lack of novel prognostic markers, but post-operative early recurrence strongly affects the clinical course and a poor outcome. It is critical to predict which MEC patients are prone to develop recurrence/metastases. Mucins play pivotal roles in influencing cancer biology, thus affecting cell differentiation, adhesion, carcinoma invasion, aggressiveness and/or metastatic potential. Our aim is to elucidate the significance of expression profiles for mucins, particularly MUC4 and MUC6, and their correlations with various clinicopathological features and recurrence in salivary gland MECs. We performed immunohistochemical analyses on patients with surgically resected primary MEC using antibodies against mucin core proteins MUC4/8G7 and MUC6/CLH5 in 73 paraffin-embedded samples. Recurrence was noted in 15 of 73 (20.5%) patients. MUC4 or MUC6 expression was considered to be negative when <30% or 0% of the MEC cells showed positive staining, respectively. MUC4- and/or MUC6-negative expression respectively and variably showed a significant relationship to pathological tumor high-grade, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and/or tumor-related death. In addition, MUC4 showed significantly negative co-expression with MUC6. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that not only single MUC4/6-negative expression but also the combination of both predicted significantly shorter disease-free and disease-specific survivals in MECs, especially within the first two years postoperatively. Therefore, each mucin plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of MEC progression. The detection of MUC4 and/or MUC6 might be a powerful parameter in the clinical management of MECs in the early postsurgical phase.

  13. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  14. High-negative effective refractive index of silver nanoparticles system in nanocomposite films

    Altunin, Konstantin K.; Gadomsky, Oleg N.

    2012-03-01

    We have proved on the basis of the experimental optical reflection and transmission spectra of the nanocomposite film of poly(methyl methacrylate) with silver nanoparticles that (PMMA + Ag) nanocomposite films have quasi-zero refractive indices in the optical wavelength range. We show that to achieve quasi-zero values of the complex index of refraction of composite materials is necessary to achieve high-negative effective refractive index in the system of spherical silver nanoparticles.

  15. Current Sharing inside a High Power IGBT Module at the Negative Temperature Coefficient Operating Region

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084596; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Bongiorno, M; Thiringer, T

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the current sharing effect of a high power Soft Punch Through IGBT module in the Negative Temperature Coefficient region. The unbalanced current sharing between two of the substrates is demonstrated for different current and temperature levels and its impact on the thermal stressing of the device is evaluated. The results indicate that the current asymmetry does not lead to a significant thermal stressing unbalance between the substrates.

  16. Negative binomial multiplicity distributions, a new empirical law for high energy collisions

    Van Hove, L.; Giovannini, A.

    1987-01-01

    For a variety of high energy hadron production reactions, recent experiments have confirmed the findings of the UA5 Collaboration that charged particle multiplicities in central (pseudo) rapidity intervals and in full phase space obey negative binomial (NB) distributions. The authors discuss the meaning of this new empirical law on the basis of new data and they show that they support the interpretation of the NB distributions in terms of a cascading mechanism of hardron production

  17. A digital controlled negative high voltage power source for LINAC of HLS

    Gao Hui; Chen Jun; Hong Jun; Wang Weibing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the working principle of a 10-80 kV negative high voltage power source for the electronic gun of the 200 MeV LINAC of NSRL, especially how to realize the switch power, voltage/current sampling, feedback control and microcontroller module. The firmware design for the SOC microcontroller of ADuC8xx and the application software design for PC are also presented. (authors)

  18. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A comprehensive iterative approach is highly effective in diagnosing individuals who are exome negative.

    Shashi, Vandana; Schoch, Kelly; Spillmann, Rebecca; Cope, Heidi; Tan, Queenie K-G; Walley, Nicole; Pena, Loren; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Stong, Nicholas; Need, Anna C; Goldstein, David B

    2018-06-15

    Sixty to seventy-five percent of individuals with rare and undiagnosed phenotypes remain undiagnosed after exome sequencing (ES). With standard ES reanalysis resolving 10-15% of the ES negatives, further approaches are necessary to maximize diagnoses in these individuals. In 38 ES negative patients an individualized genomic-phenotypic approach was employed utilizing (1) phenotyping; (2) reanalyses of FASTQ files, with innovative bioinformatics; (3) targeted molecular testing; (4) genome sequencing (GS); and (5) conferring of clinical diagnoses when pathognomonic clinical findings occurred. Certain and highly likely diagnoses were made in 18/38 (47%) individuals, including identifying two new developmental disorders. The majority of diagnoses (>70%) were due to our bioinformatics, phenotyping, and targeted testing identifying variants that were undetected or not prioritized on prior ES. GS diagnosed 3/18 individuals with structural variants not amenable to ES. Additionally, tentative diagnoses were made in 3 (8%), and in 5 individuals (13%) candidate genes were identified. Overall, diagnoses/potential leads were identified in 26/38 (68%). Our comprehensive approach to ES negatives maximizes the ES and clinical data for both diagnoses and candidate gene identification, without GS in the majority. This iterative approach is cost-effective and is pertinent to the current conundrum of ES negatives.

  20. When do self-discrepancies predict negative emotions? Exploring formal operational thought and abstract reasoning skills as moderators.

    Stevens, Erin N; Holmberg, Nicole J; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in higher-order cognitive abilities may be an important piece to understanding how and when self-discrepancies lead to negative emotions. In the current study, three measures of reasoning abilities were considered as potential moderators of the relationship between self-discrepancies and depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants (N = 162) completed measures assessing self-discrepancies, depression and anxiety symptoms, and were administered measures examining formal operational thought, and verbal and non-verbal abstract reasoning skills. Both formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning were significant moderators of the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms. Discrepancies predicted depressive symptoms for individuals with higher levels of formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning skills, but not for those with lower levels. The discussion focuses on the need to consider advanced reasoning skills when examining self-discrepancies.

  1. Meta-analytic approach to the accurate prediction of secreted virulence effectors in gram-negative bacteria

    Sato Yoshiharu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many pathogens use a type III secretion system to translocate virulence proteins (called effectors in order to adapt to the host environment. To date, many prediction tools for effector identification have been developed. However, these tools are insufficiently accurate for producing a list of putative effectors that can be applied directly for labor-intensive experimental verification. This also suggests that important features of effectors have yet to be fully characterized. Results In this study, we have constructed an accurate approach to predicting secreted virulence effectors from Gram-negative bacteria. This consists of a support vector machine-based discriminant analysis followed by a simple criteria-based filtering. The accuracy was assessed by estimating the average number of true positives in the top-20 ranking in the genome-wide screening. In the validation, 10 sets of 20 training and 20 testing examples were randomly selected from 40 known effectors of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. On average, the SVM portion of our system predicted 9.7 true positives from 20 testing examples in the top-20 of the prediction. Removal of the N-terminal instability, codon adaptation index and ProtParam indices decreased the score to 7.6, 8.9 and 7.9, respectively. These discrimination features suggested that the following characteristics of effectors had been uncovered: unstable N-terminus, non-optimal codon usage, hydrophilic, and less aliphathic. The secondary filtering process represented by coexpression analysis and domain distribution analysis further refined the average true positive counts to 12.3. We further confirmed that our system can correctly predict known effectors of P. syringae DC3000, strongly indicating its feasibility. Conclusions We have successfully developed an accurate prediction system for screening effectors on a genome-wide scale. We confirmed the accuracy of our system by external validation

  2. Prototype high current, high duty factor negative hydrogen ion source for LAMPF

    Lawrence, G.P.; Hayward, T.D.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Present plans for the high current proton storage ring at LAMPF incorporate charge changing (stripping) injection of H - ions in all modes of operation. Achievable stored current levels in this device will be strongly dependent on the maximum H - beam intensity which can be accelerated by the linac, consistent with acceptable beam spill. This requirement has stimulated a program to develop an H - ion source capable of providing a suitably high peak current (up to 25 mA) at high duty factor (up to 12 percent), with a normalized x,x' or y,y' emittance acceptable to the accelerating system. There are presently two main approaches which could lead to H - ion sources providing this kind of performance. These are (a) the charge exchange method, in which an intense proton beam is fractionally converted to H - beam in a suitable charge adding medium, and (b) the direct extraction method, in which H - ions are obtained by a surface emission process associated with a gas discharge plasma. While both approaches may eventually find optimum application in different situations, it is not obvious, at present, which scheme will turn out to be the most satisfactory for LAMPF. A prototype charge exchange H - ion source has been constructed as a first step in the development program and is presently being evaluated. Work on surface emission direct extraction techniques is in the planning stages. (U.S.)

  3. Review on α-Fe2O3 based negative electrode for high performance supercapacitors

    Nithya, V. D.; Arul, N. Sabari

    2016-09-01

    Supercapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device which has drawn attention of the researchers in recent years due to its high power density and long cycle life. Recently, an enormous effort has been imposed to improve the energy density of supercapacitor and might be attained through asymmetric cell configuration that offer wider potential window. Until now, a significant advancement has been achieved in the fabrication of positive electrodes for asymmetric cell. Nevertheless, the electrochemical performance of negative electrode materials is less explored, especially Hematite (α-Fe2O3). The α-Fe2O3 has been proved to be a promising negative electrode in supercapacitor application due to its wide operating potential, high redox activity, low cost, abundant availability and eco-friendliness. In this review, we have chosen α-Fe2O3 as the negative electrode and discussed its latest research progress with emphasis on various surface engineering synthesis strategies such as, carbon, polymer, metal-metal oxide, and ternary based α-Fe2O3 composites for supercapacitor. Besides, the importance of their synergistic effects over the supercapacitive performance in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, cycling life and rate capability are highlighted. Also, an extensive analysis of the literature about its symmetric/asymmetric cell performance is explored.

  4. A single high dose of escitalopram increases mismatch negativity without affecting processing negativity or P300 amplitude in healthy volunteers

    Wienberg, M; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jensen, K S

    2009-01-01

    processing. The present study was designed to replicate and further extent the results of our initial study on the effects of a low dose of escitalopram (10 mg) on MMN, PN and P300 amplitude. In a randomised, double-blind, cross-over experiment, 20 healthy male volunteers received either a single, orally...... administered dose of 15 mg escitalopram (a highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) or placebo, after which their PN, MMN and P300 amplitude were assessed. Similar to our initial study with 10 mg escitalopram, 15 mg escitalopram significantly increased MMN, while it did not affect P300 amplitude....... In contrast to our initial study, however, the currently higher dose of escitalopram did not increase PN. Results support the view that a broad range of increased serotonergic activity enhances MMN, while the relationship between serotonin and PN seems more complex. The current study does not support...

  5. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  6. Predicting High Frequency Exchange Rates using Machine Learning

    Palikuca, Aleksandar; Seidl,, Timo

    2016-01-01

    This thesis applies a committee of Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines on high-dimensional, high-frequency EUR/USD exchange rate data in an effort to predict directional market movements on up to a 60 second prediction horizon. The study shows that combining multiple classifiers into a committee produces improved precision relative to the best individual committee members and outperforms previously reported results. A trading simulation implementing the committee classifier...

  7. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based NBI in LHD

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B.J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar- and/or Ne-gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in the LHD plasmas heated with the high-energy negative-ion-based NBI. Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is much enhanced effectively in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionisation) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive Ne- and/or Ar-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with the wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density, and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with an addition of the centrally focused ECRH to the low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with the high-energy NBI heating indicate that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to the ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature would be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planed in near future in LHD. (author)

  8. Predicting Success in College Mathematics from High School Mathematics Preparation

    Shepley, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model to predict the college mathematics courses a freshman could expect to pass by considering their high school mathematics preparation. The high school information that was used consisted of the student's sex, the student's grade point average in mathematics, the highest level of high school mathematics courses taken, and the number of mathematics courses taken in high school. The high school sample was drawn from graduated Seniors in the State...

  9. High-Level Synthesis of DSP Applications Using Adaptive Negative Cycle Detection

    Nitin Chandrachoodan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of detecting negative weight cycles in a graph is examined in the context of the dynamic graph structures that arise in the process of high level synthesis (HLS. The concept of adaptive negative cycle detection is introduced, in which a graph changes over time and negative cycle detection needs to be done periodically, but not necessarily after every individual change. We present an algorithm for this problem, based on a novel extension of the well-known Bellman-Ford algorithm that allows us to adapt existing cycle information to the modified graph, and show by experiments that our algorithm significantly outperforms previous incremental approaches for dynamic graphs. In terms of applications, the adaptive technique leads to a very fast implementation of Lawlers algorithm for the computation of the maximum cycle mean (MCM of a graph, especially for a certain form of sparse graph. Such sparseness often occurs in practical circuits and systems, as demonstrated, for example, by the ISCAS 89/93 benchmarks. The application of the adaptive technique to design-space exploration (synthesis is also demonstrated by developing automated search techniques for scheduling iterative data-flow graphs.

  10. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clinical impact on patients' stratification and outcome. Methods: Specimens were obtained from RMS patients and cell lines, and ALK expression was analysed by quantitative RT–PCR, western blotting, IHC, and copy number analysis. Results: High ALK mRNA expression was detected in the vast majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours, whereas PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS displayed considerably lower amounts of both mRNA and protein. Notably, ALK mRNA distinguished unfavourable PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours from PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS (Ptumour size (PALK mRNA levels were of prognostic relevance by Cox univariate regression analysis and correlated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.001) and survival (P=0.01), whereas by multivariate analysis elevated ALK mRNA expression resulted a negative prognostic marker when clinical stage was not included. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of ALK mRNA expression helps to improve risk stratification of RMS patients and identifies tumours with adverse biological characteristics and aggressive behaviour. PMID:24149177

  11. Petunia × hybrida floral scent production is negatively affected by high-temperature growth conditions.

    Cna'ani, Alon; Mühlemann, Joelle K; Ravid, Jasmin; Masci, Tania; Klempien, Antje; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Dudareva, Natalia; Pichersky, Eran; Vainstein, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Increasing temperatures due to changing global climate are interfering with plant-pollinator mutualism, an interaction facilitated mainly by floral colour and scent. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that increasing ambient temperature leads to a decrease in phenylpropanoid-based floral scent production in two Petunia × hybrida varieties, P720 and Blue Spark, acclimated at 22/16 or 28/22 °C (day/night). This decrease could be attributed to down-regulation of scent-related structural gene expression from both phenylpropanoid and shikimate pathways, and up-regulation of a negative regulator of scent production, emission of benzenoids V (EOBV). To test whether the negative effect of increased temperature on scent production can be reduced in flowers with enhanced metabolic flow in the phenylpropanoid pathway, we analysed floral volatile production by transgenic 'Blue Spark' plants overexpressing CaMV 35S-driven Arabidopsis thaliana production of anthocyanin pigments 1 (PAP1) under elevated versus standard temperature conditions. Flowers of 35S:PAP1 transgenic plants produced the same or even higher levels of volatiles when exposed to a long-term high-temperature regime. This phenotype was also evident when analysing relevant gene expression as inferred from sequencing the transcriptome of 35S:PAP1 transgenic flowers under the two temperature regimes. Thus, up-regulation of transcription might negate the adverse effects of temperature on scent production. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The negative influence of high-glucose ambience on neurogenesis in developing quail embryos.

    Yao Chen

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is defined as glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it is presented as high blood glucose levels during the onset pregnancy. This condition has an adverse impact on fetal development but the mechanism involved is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of high glucose on the developing quail embryo, especially its impact on the development of the nervous system. We established that high glucose altered the central nervous system mophologically, such that neural tube defects (NTDs developed. In addition, we found that high glucose impaired nerve differentiation at dorsal root ganglia and in the developing limb buds, as revealed by neurofilament (NF immunofluorescent staining. The dorsal root ganglia are normally derived from neural crest cells (NCCs, so we examine the delamination of NCCs from dorsal side of the neural tube. We established that high glucose was detrimental to the NCCs, in vivo and in vitro. High glucose also negatively affected neural differentiation by reducing the number and length of neurites emanating from neurons in culture. We established that high glucose exposure caused an increase in reactive oxidative species (ROS generation by primary cultured neurons. We hypothesized that excess ROS was the factor responsible for impairing neuron development and differentiation. We provided evidence for our hypothesis by showing that the addition of vitamin C (a powerful antioxidant could rescue the damaging effects of high glucose on cultured neurons.

  13. Demonstration of high performance negative central magnetic shear discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

    Rice, B.W.; Burrell, K.H.; Lao, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Reliable operation of discharges with negative central magnetic shear has led to significant increases in plasma performance and reactivity in both low confinement, L-mode, and high confinement, H-mode, regimes in the DIII-D tokamak. Using neutral beam injection early in the initial current ramp, a large range of negative shear discharges have been produced with durations lasting up to 3.2 s. The total non- inductive current (beam plus bootstrap) ranges from 50% to 80% in these discharges. In the region of shear reversal, significant peaking of the toroidal rotation [f φ ∼ 30-60 kHz] and ion temperature [T i (0) ∼ 15-22 keV] profiles are observed. In high power discharges with an L-mode edge, peaked density profiles are also observed. Confinement enhancement factors up to H ≡ τ E /τ ITER-89P ∼ 2.5 with an L-mode edge, and H ∼ 3.3 in an Edge Localized Mode (ELM)-free H-mode, are obtained. Transport analysis shows both ion thermal diffusivity and particle diffusivity to be near or below standard neoclassical values in the core. Large pressure peaking in L- mode leads to high disruptivity with Β N ≡ Β T /(I/aB) ≤ 2.3, while broader pressure profiles in H- mode gives low disruptivity with Β N ≤ 4.2

  14. Adaptive control strategy for ECRH negative high-voltage power supply based on CMAC neural network

    Luo Xiaoping; Du Pengying; Du Shaowu

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the negative high-voltage power supply in an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system can not satisfy the requirements because of the nonlinearity and sensitivity, the direct inverse model control strategy was proposed by using cerebellar model articulation controller(CMAC) for better control, and experiments were carried out to study the system performances with CMAC tracing dynamic signals. The results show that this strategy is strong in self-learning and self-adaptation and easy to be realized. (authors)

  15. Mobile natural gas leak surveys indicate that two utilities have high false negative rates

    von Fischer, J. C.; Brewer, P. E.; Chamberlain, S.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the distribution systems that carry natural gas to consumers, leaks need to be discovered for safety reasons and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, few utilities have adopted newer laser-based technologies that have greater sensitivity and precision, and instead rely on "industry standard" equipment that is far less sensitive. In partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund and Google, we mapped natural gas leaks in the domains of two anonymous utilities (Utility "A" and "B") using high sensitivity Picarro methane analyzers in Google Street View Cars. Surprisingly, when we shared these results with utilities, their survey crews were unable to find most of the leaks that our survey indicated (84% in A and 80% in B). To investigate this phenomenon, our team visited a subset of the leaks in each utility domain (n=32 in A and n=30 in B), and worked alongside utility surveyors to search the leak indication area, using a Los Gatos Research ultraportable methane analyzer to pinpoint leak locations. We found evidence of natural gas leaks at 69% and 68% of the locations in Utilities A and B respectively where survey crews had found nothing. We describe this as a "false negative" rate for the utility because the utility survey falsely indicated that there was no leak at these locations. Of these false negatives, 7% (n=2 of 32 in A, n=2 of 30 in B) were determined to be Grade 1 leaks requiring immediate repair due to high safety risk. Instrument sensitivity appears to explain some of the false negative rates. In particular, use of some industry standard equipment appears to have created a false sense of confidence among utility surveyors that leaks were not present. However, there was also evidence of communication failures and that surveyors did not use optimal approaches in their search. Based on these findings, we suggest that: 1) mobile deployment of high-precision methane analyzers can help find more natural gas leaks, and 2) use of some hand-held survey

  16. Disordered carbon negative electrode for electrochemical capacitors and high-rate batteries

    Ogihara, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yoshiyuki; Kamakura, Ayumu; Naoi, Katsuhiko; Kusachi, Yuki; Utsugi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the properties of high-rate capability and cycleability for a disordered carbon negative electrode in LiPF 6 /PC based electrolyte solution, the cell performance tests with various rates and depth of discharges (DODs) has been studied by spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses. From the charge-discharge measurements, a surface carbon-edge redox reaction occurring between a carbonyl (C edge =O) and a lithium alkoxide (C edge -OLi) that delivers a large capacity was found fast and high cycleability at only shallow DOD (2.0-0.4 V). The limited or shallow charge-discharge cycling utilizing such facile and reversible action of the C edge =O/C edge -OLi of the disordered carbon is suited to an application for an negative electrode of asymmetric hybrid capacitors. A deep DOD discharge (2.0-0.0 V) revealed the existence of some complex processes involving a lithium cluster deposition at pores or microvoids as well as a lithium ion intercalation at graphene layers. The cluster deposition at pores was found to be relatively fast and reproducible. The lithium ion intercalation at graphenes and the subsequent cluster deposition at microvoids were found to be slow and degrade the cycleability after 100 cycles because of the accumulation of a thick and low-ion-conductive solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on surface

  17. A High-Intensity, RF Plasma-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    Alton, G.D.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Lohwasser, R.; Reed, C.A.; Zhang, T.

    1999-01-01

    A high-intensity, plasma-sputter negative-ion source based on the use of RF power for plasma generation has been developed that can be operated in either pulsed or dc modes. The source utilizes a high-Q, self-igniting, inductively coupled antenna system, operating at 80 MHz that has been optimized to generate Cs-seeded plasmas at low pressures (typically, - (610 microA); F - (100 microA); Si - (500 microA); S - (500 microA); P - (125 microA); Cl - (200 microA); Ni - (150 microA); Cu - (230 microA); Ge - (125 microA); As - (100 microA); Se - (200 microA); Ag - (70 microA); Pt - (125 microA); Au - (250 microA). The normalized emittance var e psilon n of the source at the 80% contour is: var e psilon n = 7.5 mm.mrad.(MeV) 1/2 . The design principles of the source, operational parameters, ion optics, emittance and intensities for a number of negative-ion species will be presented in this report

  18. Sleep quality predicts positive and negative affect but not vice versa. An electronic diary study in depressed and healthy individuals.

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Bos, Elisabeth H; Hoenders, H J Rogier; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The exact nature of the complex relationship between sleep and affect has remained unclear. This study investigated the temporal order of change in sleep and affect in participants with and without depression. 27 depressed patients and 27 pair-matched healthy controls assessed their sleep in the morning and their affect 3 times a day for 30 consecutive days in their natural environment. Daily sleep quality and average positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) were used to examine whether changes in sleep quality preceded or followed changes in PA and NA, and whether this was different for patients and healthy controls. Second, presumptive mediating factors were investigated. We hypothesized that fatigue mediated the effect of changes in sleep quality on subsequent PA/NA, and that rumination mediated the effect of changes in PA/NA on subsequent sleep quality. Multilevel models showed that changes in sleep quality predicted changes in PA (B=0.08, paffect the following day, partly mediated by fatigue. Treatment of sleep symptoms would benefit affect in clinical care and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on Air-cooled Self-humidifying PEMFC Control Method Based on Segmented Predict Negative Feedback Control

    Zhiyu, You; Tao, Xu; Zhixiang, Liu; Yun, Peng; Weirong, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain the optimal output performance of the air-cooled self-humidifying proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the operating temperature, the air flow, purge interval and some other parameters must be controlled strictly. As a key factor, the operating temperature mainly determines the optimal output performance of the fuel cell. However, some intrinsic issues such as long adjusting time, over-shoot still exist inevitably for the traditional PID temperature-controlled method in circumstances of the load variation. Consequently, output performance of PEMFC decreases because the operating temperature of the fuel cell fails to reach, and the corresponding lifetime of PEMFC is also reduced. In this study, a segmented predict negative feedback control method, based on the advance proportional control one, is proposed and verified by experiments to overcome the shortcomings of PID temperature control. The results demonstrate that the optimal output performance of PEMFC can be realized by utilizing the proposed method for temperature control due to its excellent properties, simple controlling and small over-shoot

  20. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Personal distress, but not sympathy, predicts the negative influence of bystanders on responding to an emergency.

    2015-06-01

    At the request of the authors this article has been retracted. During the preparation of a follow-up study, a mistake was found in the experimental script of the cued reaction time task of experiment 2. Four out of six conditions were mislabeled. Consequently, the reported findings and their interpretation and discussion are incorrect. Careful reexamination and reanalyzing of the data using the correct labels revealed a pattern of results that is not entirely compatible with several of the main claims of the article. Importantly, the corrected results show that reaction times do not increase with more bystanders present at an emergency.Moreover, not only personal distress but also perspective taking predicts the negative influence of bystanders on reaction times.We believe that these new findings undermine our central claim of decreased action preparation as a function of bystanders present at an emergency and the enhancement of this effect in people with higher levels of trait personal distress. While the results and discussion of experiment 1 and 3 remain correct, the new results of experiment 2 influence the article to such an extent that we currently see no other option than to retract the article from publication. We will continue to work on this topic and hope to publish the new results in due time. We deeply regret the publication of invalid results.We sincerely apologize to the Editor and reviewers of the manuscript, and the readers of Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience.

  1. Recent progress of high-power negative ion beam development for fusion plasma heating

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Aoyagi, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; and others

    1997-03-01

    A negative-ion-based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) has been constructed for JT-60U. The N-NBI is designed to inject 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beams using two ion sources, each producing a 500 keV, 22 A D{sup -} ion beam. Beam acceleration test started in July, 1995 using one ion source. In the preliminary experiment, D{sup -} ion beam of 13.5 A has been successfully accelerated with an energy of 400 keV (5.4 MW) for 0.12 s at an operating pressure of 0.22 Pa. This is the highest D{sup -} beam current and power in the world. Co-extracted electron current was effectively suppressed to the ratio of Ie/I{sub D}- <1. The highest energy beam of 460 keV, 2.4 A, 0.44 s has also been obtained. Neutral beam injection starts in March, 1996 using two ion sources. To realize 1 MeV class NBI system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), demonstration of ampere class negative ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV is an important mile stone. To achieve the mile stone, a high energy test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF) was constructed. The system consists of a 1 MV, 1 A acceleration power supply and a 100 kW power supply system for negative ion production. Up to now, an H{sup -} ion beam was accelerated up to the energy of 805 keV with an acceleration drain current of 150 mA for 1 s in a five stage electrostatic multi-aperture accelerator. (author)

  2. Interreligious contact, perceived group threat, and perceived discrimination: Predicting negative attitudes among religious minorities and majorities in Indonesia

    Kanas, A.M.; Sterkens, C.J.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between interreligious contact and negative attitudes toward the religious outgroup among minority Christians and majority Muslims in Indonesia. It answers two research questions: Does interreligious contact reduce negative outgroup attitudes equally for minority

  3. The cost of empathy: Parent-adolescent conflict predicts emotion dysregulation for highly empathic youth.

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim H J

    2017-09-01

    Empathy plays a key role in maintaining close relationships and promoting prosocial conflict resolution. However, research has not addressed the potential emotional cost of adolescents' high empathy, particularly when relationships are characterized by more frequent conflict. The present 6-year longitudinal study (N = 467) investigated whether conflict with parents predicted emotion dysregulation more strongly for high-empathy adolescents than for lower-empathy adolescents. Emotion dysregulation was operationalized at both the experiential level, using mood diary data collected for 3 weeks each year, and at the dispositional level, using annual self-report measures. In line with predictions, we found that more frequent adolescent-parent conflict predicted greater day-to-day mood variability and dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation for high-empathy adolescents, but not for average- and low-empathy adolescents. Mood variability and difficulties in emotion regulation, in turn, also predicted increased conflict with parents. These links were not moderated by empathy. Moreover, our research allowed for a novel investigation of the interplay between experiential and dispositional emotion dysregulation. Day-to-day mood variability predicted increasing dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation over time, which suggests that experiential dysregulation becomes consolidated into dispositional difficulties in emotion regulation. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that, for high-empathy adolescents, conflict was a driver of this dysregulation consolidation process. Finally, emotion dysregulation played a role in overtime conflict maintenance for high-empathy adolescents. This suggests that, through emotion dysregulation, high empathy may paradoxically also contribute to maintaining negative adolescent-parent interactions. Our research indicates that high empathy comes at a cost when adolescent-parent relationships are characterized by greater negativity

  4. Negative perceptions of ageing predict the onset and persistence of depression and anxiety: Findings from a prospective analysis of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    Freeman, Aislinné Theresa; Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Haro, Josep Maria; Koyanagi, Ai

    2016-07-15

    Although there is a growing literature on the adverse health outcomes related with negative ageing perceptions, studies on their association with mental disorders such as depression and anxiety are scarce. Thus, the aim of the current study was to prospectively assess the association between negative ageing perceptions and incident/persistent depression and anxiety using nationally representative data from Ireland. Data from two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analysed. The analytical sample consisted of 6095 adults aged ≥50 years. Validated scales for negative ageing perceptions, depression, and anxiety were used. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between negative ageing perceptions at baseline and the onset and persistence of depression and anxiety at two-year follow up. After adjusting for potential confounders, negative ageing perceptions at baseline predicted the new onset of depression and anxiety at follow-up. Among those with depression or anxiety at baseline, negative ageing perceptions also predicted the persistence of these conditions at follow-up. Baseline data on negative ageing perceptions were used for the analysis and it is possible that scores could have changed over time. Addressing negative perceptions towards ageing by developing interventions that activate positive ageing perceptions, and target societal attitudes by means of policy change, public campaigns, and community education programmes, may shift social perceptions and reduce the burden of depression and anxiety among the elderly. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Are inflationary predictions sensitive to very high energy physics?

    Burgess, C.P.; Lemieux, F.; Holman, R.; Cline, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been proposed that the successful inflationary description of density perturbations on cosmological scales is sensitive to the details of physics at extremely high (trans-Planckian) energies. We test this proposal by examining how inflationary predictions depend on higher-energy scales within a simple model where the higher-energy physics is well understood. We find the best of all possible worlds: inflationary predictions are robust against the vast majority of high-energy effects, but can be sensitive to some effects in certain circumstances, in a way which does not violate ordinary notions of decoupling. This implies both that the comparison of inflationary predictions with CMB data is meaningful, and that it is also worth searching for small deviations from the standard results in the hopes of learning about very high energies. (author)

  6. MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy: role for diffusion tensor imaging in high field MRI.

    Chen, Qin; Lui, Su; Li, Chun-Xiao; Jiang, Li-Jun; Ou-Yang, Luo; Tang, He-Han; Shang, Hui-Fang; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Gong, Qi-Yong; Zhou, Dong

    2008-07-01

    Our aim is to use the high field MR scanner (3T) to verify whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could help in locating the epileptogenic zone in patients with MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy. Fifteen patients with refractory partial epilepsy who had normal conventional MRI, and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. DTI was performed on a 3T MR scanner, individual maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated, and Voxel-Based Analysis (VBA) was performed for individual comparison between patients and controls. Voxel-based analysis revealed significant MD increase in variant regions in 13 patients. The electroclinical seizure localization was concurred to seven patients. No patient exhibited regions of significant decreased MD. Regions of significant reduced FA were observed in five patients, with two of these concurring with electroclinical seizure localization. Two patients had regions of significant increase in FA, which were distinct from electroclinical seizure localization. Our study's results revealed that DTI is a responsive neuroradiologic technique that provides information about the epileptogenic areas in patients with MRI-negative refractory partial epilepsy. This technique may also helpful in pre-surgical evaluation.

  7. High mobility group protein DSP1 negatively regulates HSP70 transcription in Crassostrea hongkongensis

    Miao, Zongyu; Xu, Delin; Cui, Miao; Zhang, Qizhong, E-mail: zhangqzdr@126.com

    2016-06-10

    HSP70 acts mostly as a molecular chaperone and plays important roles in facilitating the folding of nascent peptides as well as the refolding or degradation of the denatured proteins. Under stressed conditions, the expression level of HSP70 is upregulated significantly and rapidly, as is known to be achieved by various regulatory factors controlling the transcriptional level. In this study, a high mobility group protein DSP1 was identified by DNA-affinity purification from the nuclear extracts of Crassostrea hongkongensis using the ChHSP70 promoter as a bait. The specific interaction between the prokaryotically expressed ChDSP1 and the FITC-labeled ChHSP70 promoter was confirmed by EMSA analysis. ChDSP1 was shown to negatively regulate ChHSP70 promoter expression by Luciferase Reporter Assay in the heterologous HEK293T cells. Both ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were induced by either thermal or CdCl{sub 2} stress, while the accumulated expression peaks of ChDSP1 were always slightly delayed when compared with that of ChHSP70. This indicates that ChDSP1 is involved, very likely to exert its suppressive role, in the recovery of the ChHSP70 expression from the induced level to its original state. This study is the first to report negative regulator of HSP70 gene transcription, and provides novel insights into the mechanisms controlling heat shock protein expression. -- Highlights: •HMG protein ChDSP1 shows affinity to ChHSP70 promoter in Crassostrea hongkongensis. •ChDSP1 negatively regulates ChHSP70 transcription. •ChHSP70 and ChDSP1 transcriptions were coordinately induced by thermal/Cd stress. •ChDSP1 may contribute to the recovery of the induced ChHSP70 to its original state. •This is the first report regarding negative regulator of HSP70 transcription.

  8. Minimal Residual Disease at First Achievement of Complete Remission Predicts Outcome in Adult Patients with Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Mingming Zhang

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prognostic effect of minimal residual disease at first achievement of complete remission (MRD at CR1 in adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. A total of 97 patients received treatment in our center between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Patients were divided into two arms according to the post-remission therapy (chemotherapy alone or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT they received. MRD was detected by four-color flow cytometry. We chose 0.02% and 0.2% as the cut-off points of MRD at CR1 for risk stratification using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The 3-year overall survival (OS and leukemia free survival (LFS rates for the whole cohort were 46.2% and 40.5%. MRD at CR1 had a significantly negative correlation with survival in both arms. Three-year OS rates in the chemotherapy arm were 70.0%, 25.2%, 0% (P = 0.003 for low, intermediate, and high levels of MRD at CR1, respectively. Three-year OS rates in the transplant arm were 81.8%, 64.3%, 27.3% (P = 0.005 for low, intermediate, and high levels of MRD at CR1, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed that higher level of MRD at CR1 was a significant adverse factor for OS and LFS. Compared with chemotherapy alone, allo-HSCT significantly improved LFS rates in patients with intermediate (P = 0.005 and high (P = 0.022 levels of MRD at CR1, but not patients with low level of MRD at CR1 (P = 0.851. These results suggested that MRD at CR1 could strongly predict the outcome of adult ALL. Patients with intermediate and high levels of MRD at CR1 would benefit from allo-HSCT.

  9. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in High Risk Patients Undergoing Panniculectomy: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    2018-01-16

    Complications Wounds; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy; Wound Healing Delayed; Incisional; Panniculectomy; Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy; Incisional Vac; Wound Vac; Obese; Renal Failure; Kidney Transplant; Complications; Wound Healing Complication

  10. Sarcopenia Is Negatively Related to High Gravitational Impacts Achieved From Day-to-day Physical Activity.

    Hartley, April; Gregson, Celia L; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Clark, Emma M; Tobias, Jon H

    2018-04-17

    Sarcopenia has been associated with reduced physical activity (PA). We aimed to determine if sarcopenia, and specific components of muscle size, function, and physical performance, are associated with high impacts achieved during habitual PA, as these are related to bone strength in community-dwelling older women. Participants were older women from the Cohort of Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon. We defined sarcopenia using the EWGSOP criteria. Lower limb peak muscle power and force were assessed using Jumping Mechanography (JM). High vertical impacts were assessed by tri-axial accelerometry (at least 1.5g above gravity). Cross-sectional associations were analyzed by linear regression, adjusting for age, height and weight (or fat mass for models including appendicular lean mass index), comorbidities, smoking, alcohol, and Index of Multiple Deprivation. Our analyses included 380 participants, with mean age 76.7 (SD 3.0) years; 242 (64%) also completed JM. In age-adjusted analysis, a negative relationship was observed between severity of sarcopenia and high, but not medium or low, impacts (p = .03 for trend). Regarding components of sarcopenia underlying this relationship, multivariable analyses revealed that gait speed (β 1.47 [95% CI 1.14, 1.89], [β-1] reflects the proportionate increase in high impacts per SD increase in exposure) and peak force (1.40 [1.07, 1.84]) were independently associated with high impacts. Older women with sarcopenia experienced fewer bone-strengthening high impacts than those with presarcopenia or without sarcopenia. To increase bone strengthening activity in older women, interventions need to improve both lower limb muscle force and walking speed.

  11. Evaluation with 3.0-T MR imaging: predicting the pathological response of triple-negative breast cancer treated with anthracycline and taxane neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Seho; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2015-09-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) which expresses neither hormonal receptors nor HER-2 is associated with poor prognosis and shorter survival. Several studies have suggested that TNBC patients attaining pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) show a longer survival than those without pCR. To assess the accuracy of 3.0-T breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting pCR and to evaluate the clinicoradiologic factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of 3.0-T breast MRI in TNBC patients treated with anthracycline and taxane (ACD). This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board; patient consent was not required. Between 2009 and 2012, 35 TNBC patients with 3.0-T breast MRI prior to (n = 26) or after (n = 35) NAC were included. MRI findings were reviewed according to pCR to chemotherapy. The diagnostic accuracy of 3.0-T breast MRI for predicting pCR and the clinicoradiological factors affecting MRI accuracy and response to NAC were analyzed. 3.0-T MRI following NAC with ACD accurately predicted pCR in 91.4% of TNBC patients. The residual tumor size between pathology and 3.0-T MRI in non-pCR cases showed a higher correlation in the Ki-67-positive TNBC group (r = 0.947) than in the Ki-67 negative group (r = 0.375) with statistical trends (P = 0.069). Pre-treatment MRI in the non-pCR group compared to the pCR group showed a larger tumor size (P = 0.030) and non-mass presentation (P = 0.015). 3.0-T MRI in TNBC patients following NAC with ACD showed a high accuracy for predicting pCR to NAC. Ki-67 can affect the diagnostic accuracy of 3.0-T MRI for pCR to NAC with ACD in TNBC patients. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  12. Resources predicting positive and negative affect during the experience of stress: a study of older Asian Indian immigrants in the United States.

    Diwan, Sadhna; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2004-10-01

    Using the life stress model of psychological well-being, in this study we examined risks and resources predicting the occurrence of both positive and negative affect among older Asian Indian immigrants who experienced stressful life events. We collected data through a telephone survey of 226 respondents (aged 50 years and older) in the Southeastern United States. We used hierarchical, negative binomial regression analyses to examine correlates of positive and negative affect. Different coping resources influenced positive and negative affect when stressful life events were controlled for. Being female was a common risk factor for poorer positive and increased negative affect. Satisfaction with friendships and a cultural or ethnic identity that is either bicultural or more American were predictive of greater positive affect. Greater religiosity and increased mastery were resources predicting less negative affect. Cognitive and structural interventions that increase opportunities for social integration, increasing mastery, and addressing spiritual concerns are discussed as ways of coping with stress to improve the well-being of individuals in this immigrant community.

  13. High heat flux (HHF) elements for negative ion systems on ITER

    Milnes, J.; Chuilon, B.; Xue, Y.; Martin, D.; Waldon, C.

    2007-01-01

    Negative Ion Neutral Beam systems on ITER will require actively cooled scrapers and dumps to process and shape the beam before injection into the tokamak. The scale of the systems is much larger than any presently operating, bringing challenges for designers in terms of available sub cooling, total pressure drop, deflection and mandatory remote maintenance. High heat fluxes (∼15-20 MW/m 2 ), pulse lengths in excess of 3000 s and high number of cycles pose new challenges in terms of stress and fatigue life. The designs outlined in the Design Description Document for the ITER Neutral Beam System [N53 DDD 29 01-07-03 R 0.1. ITER Design Description Document, DDD 5.3, Neutral Beam H and CD system (including Appendices).], based on swirl tubes, have been reviewed as part of the design process and recommendations made. Additionally, alternative designs have been proposed based on the Hypervapotron high heat flux elements with modified geometry and drawing upon a vast background knowledge of large scale equipment procurement and integration. A full thermo-mechanical analysis of all HHF components has also been undertaken based on ITER design criteria and the limited material data available. The advantages and disadvantages of all designs are presented and recommendations for improvements discussed

  14. Highly adaptable triple-negative breast cancer cells as a functional model for testing anticancer agents.

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in developing effective therapies against solid tumors stems from an inability to adequately model the rare subpopulation of panresistant cancer cells that may often drive the disease. We describe a strategy for optimally modeling highly abnormal and highly adaptable human triple-negative breast cancer cells, and evaluating therapies for their ability to eradicate such cells. To overcome the shortcomings often associated with cell culture models, we incorporated several features in our model including a selection of highly adaptable cancer cells based on their ability to survive a metabolic challenge. We have previously shown that metabolically adaptable cancer cells efficiently metastasize to multiple organs in nude mice. Here we show that the cancer cells modeled in our system feature an embryo-like gene expression and amplification of the fat mass and obesity associated gene FTO. We also provide evidence of upregulation of ZEB1 and downregulation of GRHL2 indicating increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition in metabolically adaptable cancer cells. Our results obtained with a variety of anticancer agents support the validity of the model of realistic panresistance and suggest that it could be used for developing anticancer agents that would overcome panresistance.

  15. The blues broaden, but the nasty narrows: attentional consequences of negative affects low and high in motivational intensity.

    Gable, Philip; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-02-01

    Positive and negative affects high in motivational intensity cause a narrowing of attentional focus. In contrast, positive affects low in motivational intensity cause a broadening of attentional focus. The attentional consequences of negative affects low in motivational intensity have not been experimentally investigated. Experiment 1 compared the attentional consequences of negative affect low in motivational intensity (sadness) relative to a neutral affective state. Results indicated that low-motivation negative affect caused attentional broadening. Experiment 2 found that disgust, a high-motivation negative affect not previously investigated in attentional studies, narrowed attentional focus. These experiments support the conceptual model linking high-motivation affective states to narrowed attention and low-motivation affective states to broadened attention.

  16. Prediction of vehicle crashes by drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations in Korea using a zero-inflated negative binomial model.

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Ramjan, Lucie M; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    Traffic safety is a significant public health challenge, and vehicle crashes account for the majority of injuries. This study aims to identify whether drivers' characteristics and past traffic violations may predict vehicle crashes in Korea. A total of 500,000 drivers were randomly selected from the 11.6 million driver records of the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korea. Records of traffic crashes were obtained from the archives of the Korea Insurance Development Institute. After matching the past violation history for the period 2004-2005 with the number of crashes in year 2006, a total of 488,139 observations were used for the analysis. Zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to determine the incident risk ratio (IRR) of vehicle crashes by past violations of individual drivers. The included covariates were driver's age, gender, district of residence, vehicle choice, and driving experience. Drivers violating (1) a hit-and-run or drunk driving regulation at least once and (2) a signal, central line, or speed regulation more than once had a higher risk of a vehicle crash with respective IRRs of 1.06 and 1.15. Furthermore, female gender, a younger age, fewer years of driving experience, and middle-sized vehicles were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of vehicle crashes. Drivers' demographic characteristics and past traffic violations could predict vehicle crashes in Korea. Greater resources should be assigned to the provision of traffic safety education programs for the high-risk driver groups.

  17. A study on negative and depressive symptom prevalence in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Azar, Marleine; Pruessner, Marita; Baer, Lawrence H; Iyer, Srividya; Malla, Ashok K; Lepage, Martin

    2016-09-21

    Negative symptoms are known to be present in the prodromal stage of psychotic disorders, yet little is known about their prevalence. Studies examining the presence of negative symptoms in ultra-high risk (UHR) populations have shown some limitations, notably failing to control depression. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of negative symptoms in the presence of significant levels of depression and in the absence of such symptoms (primary negative symptoms) over 1 year and to examine differences in negative symptoms in psychosis converters and non-converters. Participants were 123 individuals at UHR for the development of psychosis receiving follow-up for a period of 2 years. Negative symptoms and depression were measured using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale at baseline, 6 and 12 months post-admission. At baseline, the prevalence of negative symptoms and primary negative symptoms was 76.4% and 32.7%, respectively. Whereas the prevalence of negative symptoms was significantly decreased at 6 months, the prevalence of primary negative symptoms was similar at all time points. Negative symptoms at baseline were not different between later converters and non-converters to psychosis. Our findings confirm the presence of secondary and primary negative symptoms in individuals at UHR, but suggest a differential trajectory of both measures over time. Future studies should include larger UHR groups and focus on the investigation of intra-individual changes in primary negative symptoms over time and further explore their potential role for psychosis conversion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. The influence of organizational culture on negative work-home interference among highly educated employees in the hospitality industry

    Blomme, R.J.; Sok, J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    An issue which has recently come to the fore in studies conducted among hospitality industry employees is the effect of negative work-home interference on the turnover of highly educated employees. This article examines the role of organizational culture with regard to negative work-home

  19. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  20. Nuclear Kaiso expression is associated with high grade and triple-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Jeroen F Vermeulen

    Full Text Available Kaiso is a BTB/POZ transcription factor that is ubiquitously expressed in multiple cell types and functions as a transcriptional repressor and activator. Little is known about Kaiso expression and localization in breast cancer. Here, we have related pathological features and molecular subtypes to Kaiso expression in 477 cases of human invasive breast cancer. Nuclear Kaiso was predominantly found in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC (p = 0.007, while cytoplasmic Kaiso expression was linked to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC (p = 0.006. Although cytoplasmic Kaiso did not correlate to clinicopathological features, we found a significant correlation between nuclear Kaiso, high histological grade (p = 0.023, ERα negativity (p = 0.001, and the HER2-driven and basal/triple-negative breast cancers (p = 0.018. Interestingly, nuclear Kaiso was also abundant in BRCA1-associated breast cancer (p<0.001 and invasive breast cancer overexpressing EGFR (p = 0.019. We observed a correlation between nuclear Kaiso and membrane-localized E-cadherin and p120-catenin (p120 (p<0.01. In contrast, cytoplasmic p120 strongly correlated with loss of E-cadherin and low nuclear Kaiso (p = 0.005. We could confirm these findings in human ILC cells and cell lines derived from conditional mouse models of ILC. Moreover, we present functional data that substantiate a mechanism whereby E-cadherin controls p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent gene repression. In conclusion, our data indicate that nuclear Kaiso is common in clinically aggressive ductal breast cancer, while cytoplasmic Kaiso and a p120-mediated relief of Kaiso-dependent transcriptional repression characterize ILC.

  1. Highly efficient bioinspired molecular Ru water oxidation catalysts with negatively charged backbone ligands.

    Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Li, Fusheng; Li, Fei; Sun, Licheng

    2015-07-21

    The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the natural photosynthesis system II (PSII) oxidizes water to produce oxygen and reducing equivalents (protons and electrons). The oxygen released from PSII provides the oxygen source of our atmosphere; the reducing equivalents are used to reduce carbon dioxide to organic products, which support almost all organisms on the Earth planet. The first photosynthetic organisms able to split water were proposed to be cyanobacteria-like ones appearing ca. 2.5 billion years ago. Since then, nature has chosen a sustainable way by using solar energy to develop itself. Inspired by nature, human beings started to mimic the functions of the natural photosynthesis system and proposed the concept of artificial photosynthesis (AP) with the view to creating energy-sustainable societies and reducing the impact on the Earth environments. Water oxidation is a highly energy demanding reaction and essential to produce reducing equivalents for fuel production, and thereby effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) are required to catalyze water oxidation and reduce the energy loss. X-ray crystallographic studies on PSII have revealed that the OEC consists of a Mn4CaO5 cluster surrounded by oxygen rich ligands, such as oxyl, oxo, and carboxylate ligands. These negatively charged, oxygen rich ligands strongly stabilize the high valent states of the Mn cluster and play vital roles in effective water oxidation catalysis with low overpotential. This Account describes our endeavors to design effective Ru WOCs with low overpotential, large turnover number, and high turnover frequency by introducing negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate. Negatively charged ligands stabilized the high valent states of Ru catalysts, as evidenced by the low oxidation potentials. Meanwhile, the oxygen production rates of our Ru catalysts were improved dramatically as well. Thanks to the strong electron donation ability of carboxylate containing ligands, a seven

  2. A high-intensity plasma-sputter heavy negative ion source

    Alton, G.D.; Mori, Y.; Takagi, A.; Ueno, A.; Fukumoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    A multicusp magnetic field plasma surface ion source, normally used for H/sup /minus//ion beam formation, has been modified for the generation of high-intensity, pulsed, heavy negative ion beams suitable for a variety of uses. To date, the source has been utilized to produce mA intensity pulsed beams of more than 24 species. A brief description of the source, and basic pulsed-mode operational data, (e.g., intensity versus cesium oven temperature, sputter probe voltage, and discharge pressure), are given. In addition, illustrative examples of intensity versus time and the mass distributions of ion beams extracted from a number of samples along with emittance data, are also presented. Preliminary results obtained during dc operation of the source under low discharge power conditions suggest that sources of this type may also be used to produce high-intensity (mA) dc beams. The results of these investigations are given, as well, and the technical issues that must be addressed for this mode of operation are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Interrelation and independence of positive and negative psychological constructs in predicting general treatment adherence in coronary artery patients - Results from the THORESCI study.

    van Montfort, Eveline; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kupper, Nina

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac patients, positive psychological factors have been associated with improved medical and psychological outcomes. The current study examined the interrelation between and independence of multiple positive and negative psychological constructs. Furthermore, the potential added predictive value of positive psychological functioning regarding the prediction of patients' treatment adherence and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was investigated. 409 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients were included (mean age = 65.6 ± 9.5; 78% male). Self-report questionnaires were administered one month post-PCI. Positive psychological constructs included positive affect (GMS) and optimism (LOT-R); negative constructs were depression (PHQ-9, BDI), anxiety (GAD-7) and negative affect (GMS). Six months post-PCI self-reported general adherence (MOS) and CR participation were determined. Factor Analysis (Oblimin rotation) revealed two components (r = − 0.56), reflecting positive and negative psychological constructs. Linear regression analyses showed that in unadjusted analyses both optimism and positive affect were associated with better general treatment adherence at six months (p psychological constructs (i.e. optimism) may be of incremental value to negative psychological constructs in predicting patients' treatment adherence. A more complete view of a patients' psychological functioning will open new avenues for treatment. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship between positive psychological factors and other cardiac outcomes, such as cardiac events and mortality.

  4. Poor value of surveillance cultures for prediction of septicaemia caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci in patients undergoing haemodialysis with central venous catheters

    Nielsen, J; Kolmos, H J; Rosdahl, V T

    1998-01-01

    Surveillance cultures for the demonstration of coagulase-negative staphylococci in patients on catheter haemodialysis were performed in an attempt to predict dialysis catheter-related septicaemia. In all, 43 patients with 67 haemodialysis catheters were followed for a 1-y period. Once a week, swab...

  5. Structure life prediction at high temperature: present and future capabilities

    Chaboche, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The life prediction techniques for high temperature conditions include several aspects which are considered successively in this article. Crack initiation criteria themselves, defined for the isolated volume element (the tension-compression specimen for example), including parametric relationships and continuous damage approaches and calculation of local stress and strain fields in the structure and their evolution under cyclic plasticity, which poses several difficult problems to obtain stabilized cyclic solutions are examined. The use of crack initiation criteria or damage rules from the result of the cyclic inelastic analysis and the prediction of crack growth in the structure are considered. Different levels are considered for the predictive tools: the classical approach, future methods presently under development and intermediate rules, which are already in use. Several examples are given on materials and components used either in the nuclear industry or in gas turbine engines. (author)

  6. Thermomechanical fatigue life prediction of high temperature components

    Seifert, Thomas; Hartrott, Philipp von; Riedel, Hermann; Siegele, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the work described in this paper is to provide a computational method for fatigue life prediction of high temperature components, in which the time and temperature dependent fatigue crack growth is a relevant damage mechanism. The fatigue life prediction is based on a law for microcrack growth and a fracture mechanics estimate of the cyclic crack tip opening displacement. In addition, a powerful model for nonisothermal cyclic plasticity is employed, and an efficient laboratory test procedure is proposed for the determination of the model parameters. The models are efficiently implemented into finite element programs and are used to predict the fatigue life of a cast iron exhaust manifold and a notch in the perimeter of a turbine rotor made of a ferritic/martensitic 10%-chromium steel. (orig.)

  7. The cytochrome P450 isoenzyme and some new opportunities for the prediction of negative drug interaction in vivo

    Sychev DA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dmitrij A Sychev,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Andrey A Svistunov,3 Maksim L Maksimov,4 Vadim V Tarasov,3 Vladimir N Chubarev,3 Vitalij A Otdelenov,1 Natal’ja P Denisenko,1 George E Barreto,5,6 Gjumrakch Aliev7–9 1Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education Studies, Moscow, Russia; 2King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia; 4Branch Campus of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Further Professional Education «Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education» of the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, Kazan State Medical Academy, Volga Region, Kazan, Russia; 5Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá D.C., Colombia; 6Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile; 7GALLY International Biomedical Research Consulting LLC, San Antonio, TX, USA; 8School of Health Science and Healthcare Administration, University of Atlanta, Johns Creek, GA, USA; 9Institute of Physiologically Active Compounds Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Russia Abstract: Cytochrome (CYP 450 isoenzymes are the basic enzymes involved in Phase I biotransformation. The most important role in biotransformation belongs to CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP1A2. Inhibition and induction of CYP isoenzymes caused by drugs are important and clinically relevant pharmacokinetic mechanisms of drug interaction. Investigation of the activity of CYP isoenzymes by using phenotyping methods (such as the determination of the concentration of specific substrates and metabolites in biological fluids during drug administration provides the prediction of negative side effects caused by drug interaction. In clinical practice, the process of phenotyping of CYP isoenzymes and some endogenous substrates in the ratio of cortisol to 6

  8. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence

    Zaman, Maseeh uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine—no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine—MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m 2 . Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical

  9. Confinement improvement in high-ion temperature plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI in LHD

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Ikeda, K.

    2006-10-01

    The increase in the ion temperature due to transport improvement has been observed in plasmas heated with high-energy negative-NBI, in which electrons are dominantly heated, in Large Helical Device (LHD). When the centrally focused ECRH is superposed on the NBI plasma, the ion temperature is observed to rise, accompanied by formation of the electron-ITB. This is ascribed to the ion transport improvement with the transition to the neoclassical electron root with a positive radial electric field. In high-Z plasmas, the ion temperature is increased with an increase in the ion heating power, and reaches 13.5keV. The central ion temperature increases with an increase in a gradient of the electron temperature in an outer plasma region of ρ=0.8, suggesting the ion transport improvement in the outer plasma region induced by the neoclassical electron root. These results indicate the effectiveness of the electron-root scenario for obtaining high-ion temperature plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  10. Predicting High-Power Performance in Professional Cyclists.

    Sanders, Dajo; Heijboer, Mathieu; Akubat, Ibrahim; Meijer, Kenneth; Hesselink, Matthijs K

    2017-03-01

    To assess if short-duration (5 to ~300 s) high-power performance can accurately be predicted using the anaerobic power reserve (APR) model in professional cyclists. Data from 4 professional cyclists from a World Tour cycling team were used. Using the maximal aerobic power, sprint peak power output, and an exponential constant describing the decrement in power over time, a power-duration relationship was established for each participant. To test the predictive accuracy of the model, several all-out field trials of different durations were performed by each cyclist. The power output achieved during the all-out trials was compared with the predicted power output by the APR model. The power output predicted by the model showed very large to nearly perfect correlations to the actual power output obtained during the all-out trials for each cyclist (r = .88 ± .21, .92 ± .17, .95 ± .13, and .97 ± .09). Power output during the all-out trials remained within an average of 6.6% (53 W) of the predicted power output by the model. This preliminary pilot study presents 4 case studies on the applicability of the APR model in professional cyclists using a field-based approach. The decrement in all-out performance during high-intensity exercise seems to conform to a general relationship with a single exponential-decay model describing the decrement in power vs increasing duration. These results are in line with previous studies using the APR model to predict performance during brief all-out trials. Future research should evaluate the APR model with a larger sample size of elite cyclists.

  11. Real-time Tsunami Inundation Prediction Using High Performance Computers

    Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recently off-shore tsunami observation stations based on cabled ocean bottom pressure gauges are actively being deployed especially in Japan. These cabled systems are designed to provide real-time tsunami data before tsunamis reach coastlines for disaster mitigation purposes. To receive real benefits of these observations, real-time analysis techniques to make an effective use of these data are necessary. A representative study was made by Tsushima et al. (2009) that proposed a method to provide instant tsunami source prediction based on achieving tsunami waveform data. As time passes, the prediction is improved by using updated waveform data. After a tsunami source is predicted, tsunami waveforms are synthesized from pre-computed tsunami Green functions of linear long wave equations. Tsushima et al. (2014) updated the method by combining the tsunami waveform inversion with an instant inversion of coseismic crustal deformation and improved the prediction accuracy and speed in the early stages. For disaster mitigation purposes, real-time predictions of tsunami inundation are also important. In this study, we discuss the possibility of real-time tsunami inundation predictions, which require faster-than-real-time tsunami inundation simulation in addition to instant tsunami source analysis. Although the computational amount is large to solve non-linear shallow water equations for inundation predictions, it has become executable through the recent developments of high performance computing technologies. We conducted parallel computations of tsunami inundation and achieved 6.0 TFLOPS by using 19,000 CPU cores. We employed a leap-frog finite difference method with nested staggered grids of which resolution range from 405 m to 5 m. The resolution ratio of each nested domain was 1/3. Total number of grid points were 13 million, and the time step was 0.1 seconds. Tsunami sources of 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake were tested. The inundation prediction up to 2 hours after the

  12. Predicting disease risks from highly imbalanced data using random forest

    Chakraborty Sounak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a method utilizing Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP dataset for predicting disease risk of individuals based on their medical diagnosis history. The presented methodology may be incorporated in a variety of applications such as risk management, tailored health communication and decision support systems in healthcare. Methods We employed the National Inpatient Sample (NIS data, which is publicly available through Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, to train random forest classifiers for disease prediction. Since the HCUP data is highly imbalanced, we employed an ensemble learning approach based on repeated random sub-sampling. This technique divides the training data into multiple sub-samples, while ensuring that each sub-sample is fully balanced. We compared the performance of support vector machine (SVM, bagging, boosting and RF to predict the risk of eight chronic diseases. Results We predicted eight disease categories. Overall, the RF ensemble learning method outperformed SVM, bagging and boosting in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC. In addition, RF has the advantage of computing the importance of each variable in the classification process. Conclusions In combining repeated random sub-sampling with RF, we were able to overcome the class imbalance problem and achieve promising results. Using the national HCUP data set, we predicted eight disease categories with an average AUC of 88.79%.

  13. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  14. BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data.

    Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/.

  15. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Ariko Fukushima

    Full Text Available The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG, which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC. When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect, while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect. These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  16. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  17. Frequencies of inaudible high-frequency sounds differentially affect brain activity: positive and negative hypersonic effects.

    Fukushima, Ariko; Yagi, Reiko; Kawai, Norie; Honda, Manabu; Nishina, Emi; Oohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    The hypersonic effect is a phenomenon in which sounds containing significant quantities of non-stationary high-frequency components (HFCs) above the human audible range (max. 20 kHz) activate the midbrain and diencephalon and evoke various physiological, psychological and behavioral responses. Yet important issues remain unverified, especially the relationship existing between the frequency of HFCs and the emergence of the hypersonic effect. In this study, to investigate the relationship between the hypersonic effect and HFC frequencies, we divided an HFC (above 16 kHz) of recorded gamelan music into 12 band components and applied them to subjects along with an audible component (below 16 kHz) to observe changes in the alpha2 frequency component (10-13 Hz) of spontaneous EEGs measured from centro-parieto-occipital regions (Alpha-2 EEG), which we previously reported as an index of the hypersonic effect. Our results showed reciprocal directional changes in Alpha-2 EEGs depending on the frequency of the HFCs presented with audible low-frequency component (LFC). When an HFC above approximately 32 kHz was applied, Alpha-2 EEG increased significantly compared to when only audible sound was applied (positive hypersonic effect), while, when an HFC below approximately 32 kHz was applied, the Alpha-2 EEG decreased (negative hypersonic effect). These findings suggest that the emergence of the hypersonic effect depends on the frequencies of inaudible HFC.

  18. High-performance Negative Database for Massive Data Management System of The Mingantu Spectral Radioheliograph

    Shi, Congming; Wang, Feng; Deng, Hui; Liu, Yingbo; Liu, Cuiyin; Wei, Shoulin

    2017-08-01

    As a dedicated synthetic aperture radio interferometer in China, the MingantU SpEctral Radioheliograph (MUSER), initially known as the Chinese Spectral RadioHeliograph (CSRH), has entered the stage of routine observation. More than 23 million data records per day need to be effectively managed to provide high-performance data query and retrieval for scientific data reduction. In light of these massive amounts of data generated by the MUSER, in this paper, a novel data management technique called the negative database (ND) is proposed and used to implement a data management system for the MUSER. Based on the key-value database, the ND technique makes complete utilization of the complement set of observational data to derive the requisite information. Experimental results showed that the proposed ND can significantly reduce storage volume in comparison with a relational database management system (RDBMS). Even when considering the time needed to derive records that were absent, its overall performance, including querying and deriving the data of the ND, is comparable with that of a relational database management system (RDBMS). The ND technique effectively solves the problem of massive data storage for the MUSER and is a valuable reference for the massive data management required in next-generation telescopes.

  19. Plasma thymidine kinase-1 activity predicts outcome in patients with hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy.

    Bonechi, Martina; Galardi, Francesca; Biagioni, Chiara; De Luca, Francesca; Bergqvist, Mattias; Neumüller, Magnus; Guarducci, Cristina; Boccalini, Giulia; Gabellini, Stefano; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Di Leo, Angelo; Pestrin, Marta; Malorni, Luca

    2018-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate if thymidine kinase-1 (TK1), a well-known proliferation marker, could represent a valid circulating biomarker to identify hormone receptor positive (HR+)/HER2 negative (HER2neg) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients most likely to benefit from endocrine therapy (ET). We used the DiviTum™ assay to analyze TK1 activity in cell lysates of three HR+/HER2neg BC cell lines and in plasma of 31 HR+/HER2neg MBC patients receiving ET. Blood samples were collected at treatment initiation, after one month and at disease progression. CTCs count and ESR1 / PIK3CA mutations in circulating tumor DNA were performed and correlated with TK1 activity. TK1 activity was reduced in the two endocrine-sensitive cell lines after 2 days of treatment. In patients, high baseline TK1 activity correlated with CTCs positivity (p-value=0.014). Patients with low baseline levels of TK1 activity had a significantly better PFS compared to those with high baseline TK1 activity (p-value=0.012). Patients with an early drop of TK1 activity after one month of treatment had a significantly better PFS compared to those who experienced an increase (p-value=0.0026). Our study suggests that TK1 could be a potential prognostic, predictive and monitoring marker of early ET response in HR+/HER2neg MBC patients.

  20. Predictive value of social inhibition and negative affectivity for cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2014-01-01

    Methodological considerations and selected null findings indicate the need to reexamine the Type D construct. We investigated whether associations with cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) involve the specific combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition...

  1. Combined Scintigraphy and Tumor Marker Analysis Predicts Unfavorable Histopathology of Neuroblastic Tumors with High Accuracy.

    Wolfgang Peter Fendler

    Full Text Available Our aim was to improve the prediction of unfavorable histopathology (UH in neuroblastic tumors through combined imaging and biochemical parameters.123I-MIBG SPECT and MRI was performed before surgical resection or biopsy in 47 consecutive pediatric patients with neuroblastic tumor. Semi-quantitative tumor-to-liver count-rate ratio (TLCRR, MRI tumor size and margins, urine catecholamine and NSE blood levels of neuron specific enolase (NSE were recorded. Accuracy of single and combined variables for prediction of UH was tested by ROC analysis with Bonferroni correction.34 of 47 patients had UH based on the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC. TLCRR and serum NSE both predicted UH with moderate accuracy. Optimal cut-off for TLCRR was 2.0, resulting in 68% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.86, p < 0.001. Optimal cut-off for NSE was 25.8 ng/ml, resulting in 74% sensitivity and 85% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.81, p = 0.001. Combination of TLCRR/NSE criteria reduced false negative findings from 11/9 to only five, with improved sensitivity and specificity of 85% (AUC-ROC 0.85, p < 0.001.Strong 123I-MIBG uptake and high serum level of NSE were each predictive of UH. Combined analysis of both parameters improved the prediction of UH in patients with neuroblastic tumor. MRI parameters and urine catecholamine levels did not predict UH.

  2. Maximizing gain in high-throughput screening using conformal prediction.

    Svensson, Fredrik; Afzal, Avid M; Norinder, Ulf; Bender, Andreas

    2018-02-21

    Iterative screening has emerged as a promising approach to increase the efficiency of screening campaigns compared to traditional high throughput approaches. By learning from a subset of the compound library, inferences on what compounds to screen next can be made by predictive models, resulting in more efficient screening. One way to evaluate screening is to consider the cost of screening compared to the gain associated with finding an active compound. In this work, we introduce a conformal predictor coupled with a gain-cost function with the aim to maximise gain in iterative screening. Using this setup we were able to show that by evaluating the predictions on the training data, very accurate predictions on what settings will produce the highest gain on the test data can be made. We evaluate the approach on 12 bioactivity datasets from PubChem training the models using 20% of the data. Depending on the settings of the gain-cost function, the settings generating the maximum gain were accurately identified in 8-10 out of the 12 datasets. Broadly, our approach can predict what strategy generates the highest gain based on the results of the cost-gain evaluation: to screen the compounds predicted to be active, to screen all the remaining data, or not to screen any additional compounds. When the algorithm indicates that the predicted active compounds should be screened, our approach also indicates what confidence level to apply in order to maximize gain. Hence, our approach facilitates decision-making and allocation of the resources where they deliver the most value by indicating in advance the likely outcome of a screening campaign.

  3. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, M.

    2012-01-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 x 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used...... to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field...... in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O-2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  4. High-capacity FeTiO3/C negative electrode for sodium-ion batteries with ultralong cycle life

    Ding, Changsheng; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika

    2018-06-01

    The development of electrode materials which improve both the energy density and cycle life is one of the most challenging issues facing the practical application of sodium-ion batteries today. In this work, FeTiO3/C nanoparticles are synthesized as negative electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance and charge-discharge mechanism of the FeTiO3/C negative electrode are investigated in an ionic liquid electrolyte at 90 °C. The FeTiO3/C negative electrode delivers a high reversible capacity of 403 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 10 mA g-1, and exhibits high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for up to 2000 cycles. The results indicate that FeTiO3/C is a promising negative electrode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  5. High resistance rate against 15 different antibiotics in aerobic gram-negative bacteria isolates of cardiology intensive care unit patients

    Küçükates E

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic gram negative bacteria were isolated and examined microbiologically from various clinical samples of 602 patients hospitalized between January 1997 and December 2000 in surgical and coronary intensive care units (ICUs. A total of 827 isolates were obtained from 602 patients. The majority of microorganisms were isolated from the respiratory tract (50.3% and blood (39.9%. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated gram negative species (32.7%, followed by Acinetobacter spp. (24.0% and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.4%. High resistance rates to all antibiotics studied were observed. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics against gram negatives.

  6. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  7. High Heat flux (HHF) elements for Negative Ion Systems on ITER

    Milnes, J.; Chuilon, B.; Martin, D.; Waldon, Ch.; Yong Xue

    2006-01-01

    Negative Ion Neutral Beam systems on ITER will require actively cooled scrapers and dumps to process and shape the beam before injection into the tokamak. The scale of the systems is much larger than any presently operating, bringing challenges for designers in terms of available sub cooling, total pressure drop, deflection and mandatory remote maintenance. In common with Positive Ion systems, flux densities in the order of 15-20 MW/m 2 are commonplace but with much longer pulses. A pulse length in excess of 3000 seconds and the anticipated beam breakdown rate pose new challenges in terms of stress and fatigue life. The cooling system specification (up to 26 bar, 80 o C) adds further constraints impacting the material choice and operating temperature. The DDD designs, based on swirl tubes, have been reviewed as part of the design process and recommendations made. Additionally, alternative designs have been proposed based on the Hypervapotron high heat flux elements with modified geometry and drawing upon a vast background knowledge of large scale equipment procurement and integration. Existing operational and design experience has been applied to give a simple, robust and low maintenance alternative. A full thermomechanical analysis of all HHF components has been undertaken based on ITER design criteria and the limited material data available. The results of this analysis will be presented, highlighting areas where further R(and)D is necessary to reach the operating limits set out in the functional specification. Extensive comparison of these analyses is made with the large operational database of existing JET beamline components for benchmarking purposes. A particular feature of the thermo-mechanical analyses is a fully self-consistent description in which ageing characteristics are related to the local temperature, and the components' power loading takes into account the thermal distortion. The advantages and disadvantages of all designs will be presented and

  8. The value of a registry negative urine pregnancy test for the prediction of a future unintended pregnancy among young women.

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Rottenstreich, Amihai

    2018-05-15

    Performance of urine pregnancy test in general adolescents' clinic reflects caregiver or woman's concern that there might be a pregnancy. We aimed to assess whether young-unmarried women in whom a negative urine pregnancy test was registered would be at increased risk of a future unintended pregnancy. The study cohort included consecutive women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015. The risk of unintended pregnancy was compared between women with a negative urine pregnancy test (n = 2774), the study group, and those in whom urine pregnancy test was not carried out (n = 126,659), the control group. During the study period, 2147 (1.7%) women experienced an unintended pregnancy. The risk of unintended pregnancy was significantly higher in patients in whom a past pregnancy test was negative 4.3% (n = 118), as compared with the control group 1.6% (n = 2028) (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23-3.26). In multivariate analysis history of a negative pregnancy test results was an independent predictor for a future unintended pregnancy (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.63-2.52). A history of a negative pregnancy test among young conscripted women is a significant risk indicator for a future unintended pregnancy. Directed efforts should be made in this particular vulnerable group of patients.

  9. Female college students' negative feelings toward their fathers : Comparison of present feelings with recollections of their junior high school days

    石丸, 綾子; Ishimaru, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    An adolescent daughter’s relationship with her father is strained owing to her negative feelings, such as opposition, defiant attitude, and hatred, toward father. However, further details regarding these feelings and how they evolve during a daughter’s growing years have not been examined yet. In this study, a questionnaire survey was administered to female college students, asking about their negative feelings toward their fathers in the present and during their junior high school days. The ...

  10. Preliminary psychometric properties of the brief Negative Symptom Scale in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis.

    Strauss, Gregory P; Chapman, Hannah C

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) are reported in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants included 29 CHR youth who met criteria for a prodromal syndrome on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). The adapted BNSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, suggesting that the BNSS has utility for assessing negative symptoms in a CHR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive Peer Support or Negative Peer Influence? the Role of Peers among Adolescents in Recovery High Schools

    Karakos, Holly L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from previous research suggests that peers at times exert negative influence and at other times exert positive influence on drug and alcohol use among adolescents in recovery. This study explores recovery high school staff members' perceptions of peer support among students in recovery high schools using qualitative interview data. Themes…

  12. Prediction of high airway pressure using a non-linear autoregressive model of pulmonary mechanics.

    Langdon, Ruby; Docherty, Paul D; Schranz, Christoph; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2017-11-02

    For mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), suboptimal PEEP levels can cause ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). In particular, high PEEP and high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) can cause over distension of alveoli that is associated with VILI. However, PEEP must also be sufficient to maintain recruitment in ARDS lungs. A lung model that accurately and precisely predicts the outcome of an increase in PEEP may allow dangerous high PIP to be avoided, and reduce the incidence of VILI. Sixteen pressure-flow data sets were collected from nine mechanically ventilated ARDs patients that underwent one or more recruitment manoeuvres. A nonlinear autoregressive (NARX) model was identified on one or more adjacent PEEP steps, and extrapolated to predict PIP at 2, 4, and 6 cmH 2 O PEEP horizons. The analysis considered whether the predicted and measured PIP exceeded a threshold of 40 cmH 2 O. A direct comparison of the method was made using the first order model of pulmonary mechanics (FOM(I)). Additionally, a further, more clinically appropriate method for the FOM was tested, in which the FOM was trained on a single PEEP prior to prediction (FOM(II)). The NARX model exhibited very high sensitivity (> 0.96) in all cases, and a high specificity (> 0.88). While both FOM methods had a high specificity (> 0.96), the sensitivity was much lower, with a mean of 0.68 for FOM(I), and 0.82 for FOM(II). Clinically, false negatives are more harmful than false positives, as a high PIP may result in distension and VILI. Thus, the NARX model may be more effective than the FOM in allowing clinicians to reduce the risk of applying a PEEP that results in dangerously high airway pressures.

  13. Mother-Child Positivity and Negativity: Family-Wide and Child-Specific Main Effects and Interactions Predict Child Adjustment

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Pike, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Links between positive and negative aspects of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment are undisputed. Scholars recognize the importance of parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, yet, less is known about PDT in the context of the shared (family-wide) parent-child relationship climate, or about the extent to which positivity…

  14. Early-Occurring Maternal Depression and Maternal Negativity in Predicting Young Children's Emotion Regulation and Socioemotional Difficulties

    Maughan, Angeline; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined the effects of maternal depression and concomitant negative parenting behaviors on children's emotion regulation patterns and socioemotional functioning. One hundred fifty-one mothers and their children were assessed when children were approximately 1 1/2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-years of age. Ninety-three of the…

  15. Addendum to the article: Misuse of null hypothesis significance testing: Would estimation of positive and negative predictive values improve certainty of chemical risk assessment?

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Newman, Michael C; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We argued recently that the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) are valuable metrics to include during null hypothesis significance testing: They inform the researcher about the probability of statistically significant and non-significant test outcomes actually being true. Although commonly misunderstood, a reported p value estimates only the probability of obtaining the results or more extreme results if the null hypothesis of no effect was true. Calculations of the more informative PPV and NPV require a priori estimate of the probability (R). The present document discusses challenges of estimating R.

  16. High symmetry versus optical isotropy of a negative-index metamaterial

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lliew, Rumen

    2010-01-01

    condition since it is usually assumed that light does not resolve the spatial details of MM but experiences the properties of an effective medium, which is then optically isotropic. In this work we challenge this assumption by analyzing the isofrequency surfaces of the dispersion relation of the split cube...... in carcass negative index MM. We show that this MM is basically optically isotropic but not in the spectral domain where it exhibits negative refraction. The primary goal of this contribution is to introduce a tool that allows to probe a MM against optical isotropy....

  17. On the increase of predictive performance with high-level data fusion

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Smilde, A.K.; Hageman, J.A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Eeuwijk, F.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The combination of the different data sources for classification purposes, also called data fusion, can be done at different levels: low-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices, medium-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices after feature selection and high-level, i.e. combining model outputs. In this paper the predictive performance of high-level data fusion is investigated. Partial least squares is used on each of the data sets and dummy variables representing the classes are used as response variables. Based on the estimated responses y-hat j for data set j and class k, a Gaussian distribution p(g k |y-hat j ) is fitted. A simulation study is performed that shows the theoretical performance of high-level data fusion for two classes and two data sets. Within group correlations of the predicted responses of the two models and differences between the predictive ability of each of the separate models and the fused models are studied. Results show that the error rate is always less than or equal to the best performing subset and can theoretically approach zero. Negative within group correlations always improve the predictive performance. However, if the data sets have a joint basis, as with metabolomics data, this is not likely to happen. For equally performing individual classifiers the best results are expected for small within group correlations. Fusion of a non-predictive classifier with a classifier that exhibits discriminative ability lead to increased predictive performance if the within group correlations are strong. An example with real life data shows the applicability of the simulation results.

  18. Time-to-positivity, type of culture media and oxidase test performed on positive blood culture vials to predict Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with Gram-negative bacilli bacteraemia.

    Cobos-Triguero, N; Zboromyrska, Y; Morata, L; Alejo, I; De La Calle, C; Vergara, A; Cardozo, C; Arcas, M P; Soriano, A; Marco, F; Mensa, J; Almela, M; Martínez, J A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of oxidase test and time-to-positivity (TTP) in aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vials to detect the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteraemia. TTP was recorded for each aerobic and anaerobic blood culture vial of monomicrobial bacteraemia due to GNB. Oxidase test was performed in a pellet of the centrifuged content of the positive blood culture. An algorithm was developed in order to perform the oxidase test efficiently taking into account TTP and type of vial. A total of 341 episodes of GNB bacteraemia were analysed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the oxidase test performed on positive vials with GNB to predict P. aeruginosa were 95%, 99%, 91%, and 99%, respectively. When growth was first or exclusively detected in anaerobic vials, P. aeruginosa was never identified hence the performance of the oxidase test could be avoided. When growth was only or first detected in aerobic vials, a TTP≥8h predicted P. aeruginosa in 37% or cases (63 of 169), therefore oxidase test is highly recommended. Oxidase test performed onto positive blood culture vials previously selected by TTP and type of vials is an easy and inexpensive way to predict P. aeruginosa. In most cases, this can lead to optimization of treatment in less than 24 hours.

  19. High-pressure phase transitions - Examples of classical predictability

    Celebonovic, Vladan

    1992-09-01

    The applicability of the Savic and Kasanin (1962-1967) classical theory of dense matter to laboratory experiments requiring estimates of high-pressure phase transitions was examined by determining phase transition pressures for a set of 19 chemical substances (including elements, hydrocarbons, metal oxides, and salts) for which experimental data were available. A comparison between experimental and transition points and those predicted by the Savic-Kasanin theory showed that the theory can be used for estimating values of transition pressures. The results also support conclusions obtained in previous astronomical applications of the Savic-Kasanin theory.

  20. Relaxation effects in ionic mobility and cluster formation: negative ions in SF6 at high pressures

    Juarez, A M; De Urquijo, J; Hinojosa, G; Hernandez-Avila, J L; Basurto, E

    2010-01-01

    The relaxation effects of the ionic mobility and the formation of negative-ion clusters in SF 6 are studied in this work. For this purpose, we have measured the mobility of negative ions in SF 6 over the pressure range 100-800 Torr at a fixed value of density-normalized electric field, E/N, of 20 Td (1 Townsend = 10 -17 V cm 2 ). The data obtained show a clear dependence of the negative-ion drift velocity on drift distance. It is observed that the drift velocity (mobility) reaches a steady-state value only for drift distances above 2 cm, over the studied pressure range. In addition to this, we have observed that the ionic mobility depends strongly on the gas pressure. An explanation of this dependence of the ionic mobility on gas pressure is given in terms of a negative-ion clustering formation process. It was found that the assumption of a linear dependence of the cluster ion mass on pressure provides a satisfactory explanation for the observed mobilities.

  1. Negative Affectivity Predicts Lower Quality of Life and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Chiara Conti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is essential to consider the clinical assessment of psychological aspects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM, in order to prevent potentially adverse self-management care behaviors leading to diabetes-related complications, including declining levels of Quality of Life (QoL and negative metabolic control.Purpose: In the framework of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, the specific aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of distressed personality factors as Negative Affectivity (NA and Social Inhibition (SI on diabetes-related clinical variables (i.e., QoL and glycemic control.Methods: The total sample consists of a clinical sample, including 159 outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, and a control group composed of 102 healthy respondents. All participants completed the following self- rating scales: The Type D Scale (DS14 and the World Health Organization QoL Scale (WHOQOLBREF. Furthermore, the participants of the clinical group were assessed for HbA1c, disease duration, and BMI. The observed covariates were BMI, gender, and disease duration, while HbA1c was considered an observed variable.Results: SEM analysis revealed significant differences between groups in regards to the latent construct of NA and the Environmental dimension of QoL. For the clinical sample, SEM showed that NA had a negative impact on both QoL dimensions and metabolic control.Conclusions: Clinical interventions aiming to improve medication adherence in patients with T2DM should include the psychological evaluation of Type D Personality traits, by focusing especially on its component of NA as a significant risk factor leading to negative health outcomes.

  2. Predictive value of BRCA1/2 mRNA expression for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in BRCA-negative breast cancers.

    Xu, Ye; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that BRCA1 and BRCA2 play a central role in DNA repair, but the relationship between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mRNA expression and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in sporadic breast cancer patients has not been well established. Here, we investigate the association between BRCA1 or BRCA2 mRNA expression levels and pathological response in 674 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mRNA expression were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in core biopsy breast cancer tissue obtained prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A total 129 patients (19.1%) achieved pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy (n = 531), BRCA1 mRNA low expression patients had a significantly higher pCR rate than intermediate or high BRCA1 mRNA expression groups (24.6% vs 16.8% or 14.0%, P = .031) and retained borderline significance (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.93-2.56, P = .094) in multivariate analysis. Among the 129 patients who received a taxane-based regimen, pCR rate showed no differences in BRCA1 low, intermediate, and high mRNA level subgroups (19.6%, 26.8% and 21.4%, respectively; P = .71). BRCA2 mRNA level was not associated with pCR rate in the anthracyline-based treated subgroup (P = .60) or the taxane-based regimen subgroup (P = .82). Taken together, our findings suggested that BRCA1 mRNA expression could be used as a predictive marker in BRCA1/2 mutation-negative breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant anthracycline-based treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Predicting the Quality of Mother-Child Reminiscing Surrounding Negative Emotional Events at 42 and 48 Months Old

    Laible, Deborah; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that a number of factors likely predict the quality of reminiscing between preschool children and their mothers. This study was designed to investigate three such factors, including child temperament, maternal personality, and maternal caregiving representations. Seventy mothers and their preschool children were…

  4. The role of chronic pain and current substance use in predicting negative social support among disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS.

    Mitchell, Mary M; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Isenberg, Sarina; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and substance use can strain the supportive relationships of persons with serious chronic illness, which may increase the likelihood of receiving negative, rather than positive, social support from informal caregivers and social network members. To our knowledge, this is the first study to longitudinally examine the effects of chronic pain and substance use on negative social support. The sample (N = 383) comprised disadvantaged, primarily African-American, persons living with HIV/AIDS with a history of injection drug use, 32.4% of whom reported frequent or constant pain in the prior 6 months. Using factor analysis and structural equation modeling, current substance use and greater levels of chronic pain positively predicted negative social support 12 months later, after controlling for baseline negative support, viral load, age and sex. We also found a significant interaction effect such that among those not using substances, there was a significant positive association between pain and negative support, but no such association among those currently using substances. The findings emphasize the importance of treatment of chronic pain and substance use in the supportive functioning of social networks of a disadvantaged population with serious chronic conditions and persistent health disparities.

  5. Solitary Alcohol Use in Teens Is Associated With Drinking in Response to Negative Affect and Predicts Alcohol Problems in Young Adulthood.

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Adolescent solitary drinking may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior, with important implications for understanding risk for alcohol-use disorders later in life. Within a self-medication framework, we hypothesized that solitary alcohol use would be associated with drinking in response to negative affect and that such a pattern of drinking would predict alcohol problems in young adulthood. We tested these predictions in a longitudinal study in which we examined whether solitary drinking in adolescence (ages 12-18) predicted alcohol-use disorders in young adulthood (age 25) in 466 alcohol-using teens recruited from clinical programs and 243 alcohol-using teens recruited from the community. Findings showed that solitary drinking was associated with drinking in response to negative affect during adolescence and predicted alcohol problems in young adulthood. Results indicate that drinking alone is an important type of alcohol-use behavior that increases risk for the escalation of alcohol use and the development of alcohol problems.

  6. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    Kirillin, I.V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bandiera, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders. (orig.)

  7. High energy particles with negative and positive energies in the vicinity of black holes

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that the energy in the centre of mass frame of two colliding particles in free fall at any point of the ergosphere of the rotating black hole can grow without limit for fixed energy values of particles on infinity. The effect takes place for large negative values of the angular momentum of one of the particles. It occurs that the geodesics with negative energy in equatorial plane of rotating black holes cannot originate or terminate inside the ergosphere. Their length is always finite and this leads to conclusion that they must originate and terminate inside the gravitational radius of the ergosphere. The energy in the centre of mass frame of one particle falling into the gravitational radius and the other arriving from the area inside it is growing without limit on the horizon.

  8. Rapid, highly sensitive detection of Gram-negative bacteria with lipopolysaccharide based disposable aptasensor.

    Zhang, Jian; Oueslati, Rania; Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Jiangang; Almeida, Raul; Wu, Jayne

    2018-07-30

    Gram-negative bacteria are one of the most common microorganisms in the environment. Their differential detection and recognition from Gram-positive bacteria has been attracting much attention over the years. Using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model, we demonstrated on-site detection of Gram-negative bacteria by an AC electrokinetics-based capacitive sensing method using commercial microelectrodes functionalized with an aptamer specific to lipopolysaccharides. Dielectrophoresis effect was utilized to enrich viable bacteria to the microelectrodes rapidly, achieving a detection limit of 10 2 cells/mL within a 30 s' response time. The sensor showed a negligible response to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a Gram-positive species. The developed sensor showed significant advantages in sensitivity, selectivity, cost, operation simplicity, and response time. Therefore, this sensing method has shown great application potential for environmental monitoring, food safety, and real-time diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumour 18 F-FDG Uptake on preoperative PET/CT may predict axillary lymph node metastasis in ER-positive/HER2-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer subtypes

    Kim, Jin You; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Suk [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Department of Radiology, Seo-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Taewoo [Pusan National University Hospital, Busan Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Young Tae [Pusan National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the association between tumour FDG uptake on preoperative PET/CT and axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) according to breast cancer subtype. The records of 671 patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent {sup 18} F-FDG PET/CT and surgery were reviewed. Using immunohistochemistry, tumours were divided into three subtypes: oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, HER2-positive, and triple-negative. Tumour FDG uptake, expressed as maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), and clinicopathological variables were analysed. ALNM was present in 187 of 461 ER-positive/HER2-negative, 54 of 97 HER2-positive, and 38 of 113 triple-negative tumours. On multivariate analysis, high tumour SUV{sub max} (≥4.25) (P < 0.001), large tumour size (>2 cm) (P = 0.003) and presence of lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001) were independent variables associated with ALNM. On subset analyses, tumour SUV{sub max} maintained independent significance for predicting ALNM in ER-positive/HER2-negative (adjusted odds ratio: 3.277, P < 0.001) and HER2-positive tumours (adjusted odds ratio: 14.637, P = 0.004). No association was found for triple-negative tumours (P = 0.161). Tumour SUV{sub max} may be an independent prognostic factor for ALNM in patients with invasive breast cancer, especially in ER-positive/HER2-negative and HER2-positive subtypes, but not in those with triple-negative subtype. (orig.)

  10. Effect of high energy electrons on H⁻ production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron.

    Onai, M; Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Shibata, T; Mattei, S; Fujita, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H(-) production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H(-) extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  11. Therapeutic rationale to target highly expressed CDK7 conferring poor outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer

    Li, Bo; Chonghaile, Triona Ni; Fan, Yue; Madden, Stephen F.; Klinger, Rut; O'Connor, Aisling E.; Walsh, Louise; O'Hurley, Gillian; Udupi, Girish Mallya; Joseph, Jesuchristopher; Tarrant, Finbarr; Conroy, Emer; Gaber, Alexander; Chin, Suet-Feung; Bardwell, Helen A; Provenzano, Elena; Crown, John; Dubois, Thierry; Linn, Sabine; Jirstrom, Karin; Caldas, Carlos; O'Connor, Darran P; Gallagher, William M

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients commonly exhibit poor prognosis and high relapse after treatment, but there remains a lack of biomarkers and effective targeted therapies for this disease. Here, we report evidence highlighting the cell-cycle–related kinase CDK7 as a driver and candidate

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect in Children at High and Low Familial Risk for Depressive Disorder

    Olino, Thomas M.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Gentzler, Amy L.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although low positive affect (PA) and high negative affect (NA) have been posited to predispose to depressive disorders, little is known about the developmental trajectories of these affects in children at familial risk for mood disorders. Methods: We examined 202 offspring of mothers who had a history of juvenile-onset unipolar…

  13. Transdiagnostic assessment of repetitive negative thinking and responses to positive affect: Structure and predictive utility for depression, anxiety, and mania symptoms.

    McEvoy, Peter M; Hyett, Matthew P; Ehring, Thomas; Johnson, Sheri L; Samtani, Suraj; Anderson, Rebecca; Moulds, Michelle L

    2018-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a cognitive process that is repetitive, passive, relatively uncontrollable, and focused on negative content, and is elevated in emotional disorders including depression and anxiety disorders. Repetitive positive thinking is associated with bipolar disorder symptoms. The unique contributions of positive versus negative repetitive thinking to emotional symptoms are unknown. The first aim of this study was to use confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the psychometrics of two transdiagnostic measures of RNT, the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ-10) and Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ), and a measure of repetitive positive thinking, the Responses to Positive Affect (RPA) Questionnaire. The second aim was to determine incremental predictive utility of these measures. All measures were administered to a sample of 2088 undergraduate students from the Netherlands (n = 992), Australia (n = 698), and America (n = 398). Unidimensional, bifactor, and three-factor models were supported for the RTQ-10, PTQ, and RPA, respectively. A common factor measured by all PTQ items explained most variance in PTQ scores suggesting that this measure is essentially unidimensional. The RNT factor of the RTQ-10 demonstrated the strongest predictive utility, although the PTQ was also uniquely although weakly associated with anxiety, depression, and mania symptoms. The RPA dampening factor uniquely predicted anxiety and depression symptoms, suggesting that this scale is a separable process to RNT as measured by the RTQ-10 and PTQ. Findings were cross-sectional and need to be replicated in clinical samples. Transdiagnostic measures of RNT are essentially unidimensional, whereas RPA is multidimensional. RNT and RPA have unique predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting High-School Students' Bystander Behavior in Simulated Dating Violence Situations.

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; Yule, Kristen; Sargent, Kelli S; McDonald, Renee

    2016-03-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is associated with a variety of negative health consequences for victims. Bystander programs are being developed and implemented with the intention of preventing such violence, but determinants of high-school students' responsive bystander behavior remain unclear. The present study examines hypothesized determinants of high-school students' bystander behavior in simulated situations of dating violence. Participants were 80 high-school students who completed self-reports of hypothesized determinants of bystander behavior (responsibility, efficacy, and perceived benefits for intervening) at a baseline assessment. A virtual-reality paradigm was used to observationally assess bystander behavior at 1-week and 6-month assessments after baseline. Efficacy for intervening was positively associated with observed bystander behavior at the 1-week and 6-month assessments. Moreover, efficacy predicted bystander behavior over and above feelings of responsibility and perceived benefits for intervening. Contrary to our predictions, neither responsibility nor perceived benefits for intervening were associated with observed bystander behavior. This research advances our understanding of determinants of bystander behavior for high-school students and can inform prevention programming for adolescents. The study also introduces an innovative way to assess high-school students' bystander behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicted crystal structures of molybdenum under high pressure

    Wang, Bing; Zhang, Guang Biao [Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang, Yuan Xu, E-mail: wangyx@henu.edu.cn [Institute for Computational Materials Science, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang 550018 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A double-hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) structure of molybdenum is predicted. ► Calculated acoustic velocity confirms the bcc–dhcp phase transition at 660 GPa. ► The valence electrons of dhcp Mo are mostly localized in the interstitial sites. -- Abstract: The high-pressure structures of molybdenum (Mo) at zero temperature have been extensively explored through the newly developed particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm on crystal structural prediction. All the experimental and earlier theoretical structures were successfully reproduced in certain pressure ranges, validating our methodology in application to Mo. A double-hexagonal close-packed (dhcp) structure found by Mikhaylushkin et al. (2008) [12] is confirmed by the present PSO calculations. The lattice parameters and physical properties of the dhcp phase were investigated based on first principles calculations. The phase transition occurs only from bcc phase to dhcp phase at 660 GPa and at zero temperature. The calculated acoustic velocities also indicate a transition from the bcc to dhcp phases for Mo. More intriguingly, the calculated density of states (DOS) shows that the dhcp structure remains metallic. The calculated electron density difference (EDD) reveals that its valence electrons are localized in the interstitial regions.

  16. Magical thinking in predictions of negative events: Evidence for tempting fate but not for a protection effect

    Job van Wolferen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test two hypotheses regarding magical thinking about the perceived likelihood of future events. The first is that people believe that those who ``tempt fate'' by failing to take necessary precautions are more likely to suffer negative outcomes. The second is the ``protection effect'', where reminding people of precautions they have taken leads them to see related risks as less likely. To this end, we describe the results from three attempted direct replications of a protection effect experiment reported in Tykocinski (2008 and two replications of a tempting fate experiment reported in Risen and Gilovich (2008 in which we add a test of the protection effect. We did not replicate the protection effect but did replicate the tempting fate effect.

  17. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-07-25

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR), and acid yellow 36 (AY) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane–dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye–dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  18. High Performance Negative Feedback Near Infrared Single Photon Counting Detectors & Arrays, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Amplification Technologies Inc ("ATI") proposes to develop the enabling material and device technology for the design of ultra low noise, high gain and high speed...

  19. Resolution, Scales and Predictability: Is High Resolution Detrimental To Predictability At Extended Forecast Times?

    Mesinger, F.

    The traditional views hold that high-resolution limited area models (LAMs) down- scale large-scale lateral boundary information, and that predictability of small scales is short. Inspection of various rms fits/errors has contributed to these views. It would follow that the skill of LAMs should visibly deteriorate compared to that of their driver models at more extended forecast times. The limited area Eta Model at NCEP has an additional handicap of being driven by LBCs of the previous Avn global model run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. This should make its relative skill compared to that of the Avn deteriorate even faster. These views are challenged by various Eta results including rms fits to raobs out to 84 h. It is argued that it is the largest scales that contribute the most to the skill of the Eta relative to that of the Avn.

  20. Predicting Psychosocial Maladjustment in Emerging Adulthood From High School Experiences of Peer Victimization.

    Buchanan, Carie M; McDougall, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare recollections of sexual, physical, verbal, social, and cyber peer victimization experienced in high school in terms of depressed affect, self-esteem, and loneliness experienced in university. In all, 247 university students (70 males and 177 females; M = 20.62, SD = 2.54) completed online measures assessing retrospective accounts of their experiences of different forms of peer victimization during high school (i.e., sexual, physical, verbal, social, and cyber) and their current psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, depressed affect, and loneliness). Three separate hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine whether different indices of negative psychosocial adjustment are more strongly predicted by experiencing sexual or nonsexual forms of peer victimization. Although many university students recalled experiencing sexual peer victimization in high school at least once at an even higher percentage than verbal and social forms of peer victimization, the results of the present study suggest that social peer victimization in high school predicts higher levels of depressed affect and loneliness in university students than sexual peer victimization experienced in high school. Surprisingly, the young adults reporting higher levels of cyber peer victimization in high school were less lonely in university. Although the hypothesized relationships between each form of peer victimization and specific indices of psychosocial functioning were not consistently supported, these findings suggest that the form of peer victimization matters and may be differentially associated with well-being in emerging adulthood. It is important that future research explores how individual characteristics may further predict varied experiences of peer victimization and the long-term impact of those experiences.

  1. Experimental study of high current negative ion sources D- / H-. Analysis based on the simulation of the negative ion transport in the plasma source

    Riz, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the frame of the development of a neutral beam injection system able to work the ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), two negative ion sources, Dragon and Kamaboko, have been installed on the MANTIS test bed in Cadarache, and studies in order to extract 20 mA/cm 2 of D - . The two production modes of negative ions have been investigated: volume production; surface production after cesium injection in the discharge. Experiments have shown that cesium seeding is necessary in order to reach the requested performances for ITER. 20 mA/cm 2 have been extracted from the Kamaboko source for an arc power density of 2.5 kW/liter. Simultaneously, a code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ions transport in the source plasma, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collisions H - /H + and of charge exchange H - /H 0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. The code allows to obtain the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at a given location. The calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain several phenomena observed on negative ion sources, such as the isotopic effect H - /D - and the influence of the polarisation of the plasma grid and of the magnetic filter on the negative ions current. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, working with large arc power densities (> 1 kW/liter), only negative ions produced in volume at a distance lower that 2 cm from the plasma grid and those produced at the grid surface have a chance of being extracted. (author)

  2. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative Colonization in Hospitalized Cambodian Infants.

    Turner, Paul; Pol, Sreymom; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Neou, Leakhena; Chea, Phal; Day, Nicholas Pj; Cooper, Ben S; Turner, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections are a significant cause of mortality in young infants. We aimed to determine characteristics of, and risk factors for, colonization and invasive infection caused by 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) or carbapenem-resistant organisms in outborn infants admitted to a neonatal unit (NU) in Cambodia. During the first year of operation, patients admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children NU, Siem Reap, Cambodia, underwent rectal swabbing on admission and twice weekly until discharge. Swabs were taken also from 7 environmental sites. Swabs were cultured to identify 3GC or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study included 333 infants with a median age at NU admission of 10 days (range, 0-43). Colonization by ≥1 3GC-resistant organism was detected in 85.9% (286/333). Admission swabs were collected in 289 infants: 61.9% were colonized by a 3GC-resistant organism at the time of admission, and a further 23.2% were colonized during hospitalization, at a median of 4 days [95% confidence interval: 3-5]. Probiotic treatment (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.98) was associated with delayed colonization. Colonization by a carbapenem-resistant organism occurred in 25 (7.5%) infants. Six infants had NU-associated K. pneumoniae bacteremia; phenotypically identical colonizing strains were found in 3 infants. Environmental colonization occurred early. Colonization by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative organisms occurred early in hospitalized Cambodian infants and was associated with subsequent invasive infection. Trials of potential interventions such as probiotics are needed.

  3. Semi-supervised prediction of SH2-peptide interactions from imbalanced high-throughput data.

    Kundu, Kousik; Costa, Fabrizio; Huber, Michael; Reth, Michael; Backofen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are the largest family of the peptide-recognition modules (PRMs) that bind to phosphotyrosine containing peptides. Knowledge about binding partners of SH2-domains is key for a deeper understanding of different cellular processes. Given the high binding specificity of SH2, in-silico ligand peptide prediction is of great interest. Currently however, only a few approaches have been published for the prediction of SH2-peptide interactions. Their main shortcomings range from limited coverage, to restrictive modeling assumptions (they are mainly based on position specific scoring matrices and do not take into consideration complex amino acids inter-dependencies) and high computational complexity. We propose a simple yet effective machine learning approach for a large set of known human SH2 domains. We used comprehensive data from micro-array and peptide-array experiments on 51 human SH2 domains. In order to deal with the high data imbalance problem and the high signal-to-noise ration, we casted the problem in a semi-supervised setting. We report competitive predictive performance w.r.t. state-of-the-art. Specifically we obtain 0.83 AUC ROC and 0.93 AUC PR in comparison to 0.71 AUC ROC and 0.87 AUC PR previously achieved by the position specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) based SMALI approach. Our work provides three main contributions. First, we showed that better models can be obtained when the information on the non-interacting peptides (negative examples) is also used. Second, we improve performance when considering high order correlations between the ligand positions employing regularization techniques to effectively avoid overfitting issues. Third, we developed an approach to tackle the data imbalance problem using a semi-supervised strategy. Finally, we performed a genome-wide prediction of human SH2-peptide binding, uncovering several findings of biological relevance. We make our models and genome-wide predictions, for all the 51 SH2

  4. Effect of mixing rule boundary conditions on high pressure (liquid + liquid) equilibrium prediction

    Hsieh, Min-Kang; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Prediction of LLE from the combined use of EOS and liquid model are examined. ► The mixing rule used affects the predicted pressure dependence of LLE. ► MHV1 mixing rule predicts decent LLE at low pressures. ► WS mixing rule predicts more accurate excess volume and LLE at high pressures. ► The hybrid of MHV1 and WS mixing rule gives overall the best predictions. - Abstract: We examine the prediction of high pressure (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) from the Peng–Robinson equation with three excess Gibbs free energy (G ex )-based mixing rules (MR): the first order modified Huron–Vidal (MHV1), the Wong–Sandler (WS), and a hybrid of these two (referred to as G ex B 2 ). These mixing rules differ by the boundary conditions used for determination of the temperature and composition dependence of parameters a and b in the PR EOS. The condition of matching the excess Gibbs free energy from the EOS at zero pressure to that from the G ex model, used in MHV1 and G ex B 2 MR, leads to a similar miscibility gap from PR EOS and the G ex model used. On the other hand, the condition of matching excess Helmholtz energy from the EOS at infinite pressure to that from the G ex model, used in the WS MR, shows remarkable deviations. The condition of quadratic composition dependence in the second virial coefficient (B 2 ), used in WS and G ex B 2 MR, allows for both positive and negative values in the molar excess volume. Depending on the mixture, either the increase or decrease of the miscibility gap with pressure can be observed when the WS or the G ex B 2 MR is used. The condition of linear combination of molecular sizes of each component used in the MHV1 MR, however, often leads to small, positive molar excess volumes. As a consequence, the predicted LLE from using the MHV1 MR are insensitive to pressure. Therefore, we find that the G ex B 2 mixing rule provides the best predictive power for the LLE over a wide range of temperature and pressure.

  5. Mining geriatric assessment data for in-patient fall prediction models and high-risk subgroups.

    Marschollek, Michael; Gövercin, Mehmet; Rust, Stefan; Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2012-03-14

    Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1), and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2). A data set of n = 5,176 single in-patient episodes covering 1.5 years of admissions to a geriatric hospital were extracted from the hospital's data base and matched with fall incident reports (n = 493). A classification tree model was induced using the C4.5 algorithm as well as a logistic regression model, and their predictive performance was evaluated. Furthermore, high-risk subgroups were identified from extracted classification rules with a support of more than 100 instances. The classification tree model showed an overall classification accuracy of 66%, with a sensitivity of 55.4%, a specificity of 67.1%, positive and negative predictive values of 15% resp. 93.5%. Five high-risk groups were identified, defined by high age, low Barthel index, cognitive impairment, multi-medication and co-morbidity. Our results show that a little more than half of the fallers may be identified correctly by our model, but the positive predictive value is too low to be applicable. Non-fallers, on the other hand, may be sorted out with the model quite well. The high-risk subgroups and the risk factors identified (age, low ADL score, cognitive impairment, institutionalization, polypharmacy and co-morbidity) reflect domain knowledge and may be used to screen certain subgroups of patients with a high risk of falling. Classification models derived from a large data set using data mining methods can compete with current dedicated fall risk screening tools, yet lack diagnostic precision. High-risk subgroups may be identified

  6. Mining geriatric assessment data for in-patient fall prediction models and high-risk subgroups

    Marschollek Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1, and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2. Methods A data set of n = 5,176 single in-patient episodes covering 1.5 years of admissions to a geriatric hospital were extracted from the hospital's data base and matched with fall incident reports (n = 493. A classification tree model was induced using the C4.5 algorithm as well as a logistic regression model, and their predictive performance was evaluated. Furthermore, high-risk subgroups were identified from extracted classification rules with a support of more than 100 instances. Results The classification tree model showed an overall classification accuracy of 66%, with a sensitivity of 55.4%, a specificity of 67.1%, positive and negative predictive values of 15% resp. 93.5%. Five high-risk groups were identified, defined by high age, low Barthel index, cognitive impairment, multi-medication and co-morbidity. Conclusions Our results show that a little more than half of the fallers may be identified correctly by our model, but the positive predictive value is too low to be applicable. Non-fallers, on the other hand, may be sorted out with the model quite well. The high-risk subgroups and the risk factors identified (age, low ADL score, cognitive impairment, institutionalization, polypharmacy and co-morbidity reflect domain knowledge and may be used to screen certain subgroups of patients with a high risk of falling. Classification models derived from a large data set using data mining methods can compete with current dedicated fall risk screening tools, yet lack

  7. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state.

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K

    2017-07-17

    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  8. Mothering, fathering, and the regulation of negative and positive emotions in high-functioning preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Hirschler-Guttenberg, Yael; Golan, Ofer; Ostfeld-Etzion, Sharon; Feldman, Ruth

    2015-05-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties in regulating emotions and authors have called to study the specific processes underpinning emotion regulation (ER) in ASD. Yet, little observational research examined the strategies preschoolers with ASD use to regulate negative and positive emotions in the presence of their mothers and fathers. Forty preschoolers with ASD and 40 matched typically developing children and their mothers and fathers participated. Families were visited twice for identical battery of paradigms with mother or father. Parent-child interactions were coded for parent and child behaviors and children engaged in ER paradigms eliciting negative (fear) and positive (joy) emotions with each parent. ER paradigms were microcoded for negative and positive emotionality, ER strategies, and parent regulation facilitation. During free play, mothers' and fathers' sensitivity and warm discipline were comparable across groups; however, children with ASD displayed lower positive engagement and higher withdrawal. During ER paradigms, children with ASD expressed less positive emotionality overall and more negative emotionality during fear with father. Children with ASD used more simple self-regulatory strategies, particularly during fear, but expressed comparable levels of assistance seeking behavior toward mother and father in negative and positive contexts. Parents of children with ASD used less complex regulation facilitation strategies, including cognitive reappraisal and emotional reframing, and employed simple tactics, such as physical comforting to manage fear and social gaze to maintain joy. Findings describe general and parent- and emotion-specific processes of child ER and parent regulation facilitation in preschoolers with ASD. Results underscore the ability of such children to seek parental assistance during moments of high arousal and the parents' sensitive adaptation to their children's needs. Reduced positive emotionality

  9. A Highly Sensitive Telomerase Activity Assay that Eliminates False-Negative Results Caused by PCR Inhibitors

    Hidenobu Yaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR on magnetic beads (MBs and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGGn-3' of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  10. Cues of High and Low Body Weight Negatively Influence Adults' Perceptions and Ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm

    Anthony A. Volk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant and child facial cues influence perceptions and ratings in the Hypothetical Adoption Paradigm as well as actual parental care. A previous study demonstrated that infant and child facial cues of low body weight negatively influenced adults' ratings. The current study sought to replicate and expand on those results by presenting adults with normal faces as well as faces that were digitally altered to display high or low body weight. Cues of abnormal body weight significantly, and negatively, influenced adults’ ratings of adoption preference, health, and cuteness. Effect sizes were larger for cues of high body weight. Thus, infant and child facial cues of abnormal body weight may represent a relative risk factor to the quality of adult care obtained by children with abnormal body weight.

  11. Design considerations for a negative ion source for dc operation of high-power, multi-megaelectron-volt neutral beams

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    A dc negative hydrogen and/or deuterium ion source is needed to prouce high-power, high-energy neutral beams for alpha diagnostics and current drive applicatiosn in fusion devices. The favorable beam particle energy for such applications extends to 1.5 MeV/amu. Continuous-wave (cw) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have been proposed to accelerate negative ions effeciently to this energy range. In this paper, the desired beam properties for ion beams injected into cw RFQ accelerators are summariezed. A number of candidate ion sources being developed at Culham, JAERI, LBL, and ORNL may prove useful for these applications. The properties of the Volume Ionization with Transverse Extraction (VITEX) ion sources being developed at ORNL are presented. Scaling such a dc ion source to produce ampere beams is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Design considerations for a negative ion source for dc operation of high-power, multi-megaelectron-volt neutral beams

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Akerman, M.A.; Becraft, W.R.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Whealton, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A dc negative hydrogen and/or deuterium ion source is needed to produce high-power, high-energy neutral beams for alpha diagnostics and current drive applications in fusion devices. The favorable beam particle energy for such applications extends to 1.5 MeV/amu. Continuous-wave (cw) radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have been proposed to accelerate negative ions efficiently to this energy range. In this paper, the desired beam properties for ion beams injected into cw RFQ accelerators are summarized. A number of candidate ion sources being developed at Culham, JAERI, LBL, and ORNL may prove useful for these applications. The properties of the Volume Ionization with Transverse Extraction (VITEX) ion sources being developed at ORNL are presented. Scaling such a dc ion source to produce ampere beams is discussed. 53 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Counting to ten milliseconds: low-anger, but not high-anger, individuals pause following negative evaluations.

    Robinson, Michael D; Wilkowski, Benjamin M; Meier, Brian P; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2012-01-01

    Low-anger individuals are less reactive, both emotionally and behaviourally, to a large variety of situational primes to anger and aggression. Why this is so, from an affective processing perspective, has been largely conjectural. Four studies (total N=270) sought to link individual differences in anger to tendencies exhibited in basic affective processing tasks. On the basis of motivational factors and considerations, it was hypothesised that negative evaluations would differentially activate a psychological alarm system at low levels of anger, resulting in a pause that should be evident in the speed of making subsequent evaluations. Just such a pattern was evident in all studies. By contrast, high-anger individuals did not pause following their negative evaluations. In relation to this affective processing tendency, at least, dramatically different effects were observed among low- versus high-anger individuals. Implications for the personality-processing literature, theories of trait anger, and fast-acting regulatory processes are discussed.

  14. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Morelli, Annamaria; Comeglio, Paolo; Sarchielli, Erica; Cellai, Ilaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Vannelli, Gabriella B.; Maggi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose...

  15. High-current negative-ion sources for pulsed spallation neutron sources: LBNL workshop, October 1994

    Alonso, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    The neutron scattering community has endorsed the need for a high-power (1 to 5 MW) accelerator-driven source of neutrons for materials research. Properly configured, the accelerator could produce very short (sub-microsecond) bursts of cold neutrons, said time structure offering advantages over the continuous flux from a reactor. The recent cancellation of the ANS reactor project has increased the urgency to develop a comprehensive strategy based on the best technological scenarios. Studies to date have built on the experience from ISIS (the 160 kW source in the UK), and call for a high-current (approx. 100 mA peak) H- source-linac combination injecting into one or more accumulator rings in which beam may be further accelerated. The I to 5 GeV proton beam is extracted in a single turn and brought to the target-moderator stations. The high current, high duty-factor, high brightness and high reliability required of the ion source present a very large challenge to the ion source community. The Workshop reported on here, held in Berkeley in October 1994, analyzed in detail the source requirements for proposed accelerator scenarios, the present performance capabilities of different H- source technologies, and identified necessary R ampersand D efforts to bridge the gap

  16. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  17. House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy.

    Kim, Haejin; Tse, Kevin; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Reponen, Tiina; LeMasters, Grace; Lummus, Zana; Horner, Anthony A

    2012-06-01

    Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays. These investigations determined whether parameters of house dust extract (HDE) bioactivity were predictive of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for infants at high risk of allergy participating in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). We conducted a nested case-control study, selecting 99 CCAAPS children who had positive SPT results to at least 1 aeroallergen at age 3 years and 101 subjects with negative SPT results. HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. Alternatively, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were preincubated with HDEs, and then LPS-induced IL-6 responses were assessed. HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive (cases) and negative (control subjects) SPT results had similar bioactivities. However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results. Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study. HDE immunostimulatory activities predicted the aeroallergen sensitization status of CCAAPS subjects better than HDE endotoxin levels. These results provide the first published evidence that HDE bioassays have clinical relevance in predicting atopic risk. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  18. High-permeability region size on perfusion CT predicts hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis in stroke.

    Josep Puig

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability has been proposed as a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation (HT after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA administration; however, the reliability of perfusion computed tomography (PCT permeability imaging for predicting HT is uncertain. We aimed to determine the performance of high-permeability region size on PCT (HPrs-PCT in predicting HT after intravenous tPA administration in patients with acute stroke.We performed a multimodal CT protocol (non-contrast CT, PCT, CT angiography to prospectively study patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion treated with tPA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. HT was graded at 24 hours using the European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study II criteria. ROC curves selected optimal volume threshold, and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified predictors of HT.The study included 156 patients (50% male, median age 75.5 years. Thirty-seven (23,7% developed HT [12 (7,7%, parenchymal hematoma type 2 (PH-2]. At admission, patients with HT had lower platelet values, higher NIHSS scores, increased ischemic lesion volumes, larger HPrs-PCT, and poorer collateral status. The negative predictive value of HPrs-PCT at a threshold of 7mL/100g/min was 0.84 for HT and 0.93 for PH-2. The multiple regression analysis selected HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min combined with platelets and baseline NIHSS score as the best model for predicting HT (AUC 0.77. HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min was the only independent predictor of PH-2 (OR 1, AUC 0.68, p = 0.045.HPrs-PCT can help predict HT after tPA, and is particularly useful in identifying patients at low risk of developing HT.

  19. High-permeability region size on perfusion CT predicts hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis in stroke

    Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Daunis-i-Estadella, Pepus; van Eendendburg, Cecile; Carrillo-García, María; Aboud, Carlos; Hernández-Pérez, María; Serena, Joaquín; Biarnés, Carles; Nael, Kambiz; Liebeskind, David S.; Thomalla, Götz; Menon, Bijoy K.; Demchuk, Andrew; Wintermark, Max; Pedraza, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Objective Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability has been proposed as a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration; however, the reliability of perfusion computed tomography (PCT) permeability imaging for predicting HT is uncertain. We aimed to determine the performance of high-permeability region size on PCT (HPrs-PCT) in predicting HT after intravenous tPA administration in patients with acute stroke. Methods We performed a multimodal CT protocol (non-contrast CT, PCT, CT angiography) to prospectively study patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion treated with tPA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. HT was graded at 24 hours using the European-Australasian Acute Stroke Study II criteria. ROC curves selected optimal volume threshold, and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified predictors of HT. Results The study included 156 patients (50% male, median age 75.5 years). Thirty-seven (23,7%) developed HT [12 (7,7%), parenchymal hematoma type 2 (PH-2)]. At admission, patients with HT had lower platelet values, higher NIHSS scores, increased ischemic lesion volumes, larger HPrs-PCT, and poorer collateral status. The negative predictive value of HPrs-PCT at a threshold of 7mL/100g/min was 0.84 for HT and 0.93 for PH-2. The multiple regression analysis selected HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min combined with platelets and baseline NIHSS score as the best model for predicting HT (AUC 0.77). HPrs-PCT at 7mL/100g/min was the only independent predictor of PH-2 (OR 1, AUC 0.68, p = 0.045). Conclusions HPrs-PCT can help predict HT after tPA, and is particularly useful in identifying patients at low risk of developing HT. PMID:29182658

  20. Negative impact of high cumulative glucocorticoid dose on bone metabolism of patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Braz, Nayara Felicidade Tomaz; Rocha, Natalia Pessoa; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Gomez, Rodrigo Santiago; Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Malheiro, Olívio Brito; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2017-08-01

    This current study aimed to evaluate the frequency of low bone mass, osteopenia, and osteoporosis in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and to investigate the possible association between bone mineral density (BMD) and plasma levels of bone metabolism markers. Eighty patients with MG and 62 controls BMD were measured in the right femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, dickkopf (DKK-1), sclerostin, insulin, leptin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-23) were analyzed by Luminex®. The mean age of patients was 41.9 years, with 13.5 years of length of illness, and a mean cumulative dose of glucocorticoids 38,123 mg. Patients had significant reduction in BMD of the lumbar, the femoral neck, and in the whole body when compared with controls. Fourteen percent MG patients had osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and 2.5% at the femoral neck. In comparison with controls, patients with MG presented lower levels of osteocalcin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, parathyroid hormone, sclerostin, TNF-α, and DKK-1 and higher levels of FGF-23, leptin, and IL-6. There was a significant negative correlation between cumulative glucocorticoid dose and serum calcium, lumbar spine T-score, femoral neck BMD, T-score, and Z-score. After multivariate analysis, higher TNF-α levels increased the likelihood of presenting low bone mass by 2.62. MG patients under corticotherapy presented low BMD and altered levels of bone markers.

  1. Influence of negative energy balance on cyclicity and fertility in the high producing dairy cow.

    Wathes, D C; Fenwick, M; Cheng, Z; Bourne, N; Llewellyn, S; Morris, D G; Kenny, D; Murphy, J; Fitzpatrick, R

    2007-09-01

    The peripartum period is of critical importance to subsequent health and fertility. Most cows enter a state of negative energy balance (NEB) associated with many metabolic changes which have carry over effects on the resumption and normality of estrous cyclicity and the success of subsequent inseminations. A dataset on 500 lactations explored the relationships between metabolic traits measured before and after calving with fertility. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that longer calving to conception intervals were associated with altered profiles of IGF-I, urea and body condition score. These relationships between metabolic profiles and fertility differed between first lactation cows (which are still growing but produce less milk) and mature animals. Early postpartum the liver undergoes extensive biochemical and morphological modifications to adapt to NEB, the uterus is extensively remodeled and must clear bacterial infections, and the ovary must resume ovulatory cycles. RNA isolated from liver and uterine tissues harvested 2 weeks postpartum from cows in mild (MNEB) and severe (SNEB) energy balance was used to screen the Affymetrix 23K bovine microarray. In liver, SNEB resulted in differential expression of key genes involved in lipid catabolism, gluconeogenesis, and the synthesis and stability of IGF-I. This was accompanied by reduced systemic concentrations of IGF-I which is likely to impact on ovarian function and early embryo development. Within endometrium, cows in SNEB showed histological evidence for higher levels of inflammation and the microarray analysis identified groups of differentially expressed genes involved in tissue remodeling and immune response. This may delay uterine repair after calving, likely contributing to the observed reduction in fertility.

  2. Negative effects of transthyretin in high myopic vitreous on diabetic retinopathy

    Jun Shao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between vitreous transthyretin (TTR levels, high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR. METHODS: We selected 6722 individuals from the southern Jiangsu Province for diabetes and ophthalmic examinations. The TTR concentration in the vitreous of 50 patients with high myopia and diabetes, 50 patients with only DR, and 20 healthy controls were determined by ELISA. Key factors in Tie2 pathway in DR development including vascular endothecial growth factor (VEGF, Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 1 and VEGFR2 were also detected by ELISA. RESULTS: The prevalence of DR in patients with diabetes and myopia [6.00 D, and diabetes without myopia were 11.1%, 2.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. The vitreous TTR concentration of patients with diabetes and high myopia was approximately 6.5- and 4.2-times higher than those of patients with DR and healthy controls, respectively (P<0.05. Following the vitreous TTR concentration, the levels of VEGF, Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 in vitreous of diabetes and high myopia patients, DR patients and healthy controls were detected as dramatically fluctuated. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that TTR can affect the vitreous contents of key factors in Tie2 pathway for neovascularization, and there should be a protective association between abundant TTR levels in the vitreous of highly myopic patients and a decreased risk of DR.

  3. Negative Effects of High Glucose Exposure in Human Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons

    Annamaria Morelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are often associated with male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, suggesting that hypothalamic defects involving GnRH neurons may impair the reproductive function. Among metabolic factors hyperglycemia has been implicated in the control of the reproductive axis at central level, both in humans and in animal models. To date, little is known about the direct effects of pathological high glucose concentrations on human GnRH neurons. In this study, we investigated the high glucose effects in the human GnRH-secreting FNC-B4 cells. Gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR, confirmed that FNC-B4 cells express GnRH and several genes relevant for GnRH neuron function (KISS1R, KISS1, sex steroid and leptin receptors, FGFR1, neuropilin 2, and semaphorins, along with glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. High glucose exposure (22 mM; 40 mM significantly reduced gene and protein expression of GnRH, KISS1R, KISS1, and leptin receptor, as compared to normal glucose (5 mM. Consistent with previous studies, leptin treatment significantly induced GnRH mRNA expression at 5 mM glucose, but not in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a deleterious direct contribution of high glucose on human GnRH neurons, thus providing new insights into pathogenic mechanisms linking metabolic disorders to reproductive dysfunctions.

  4. A modified Janus cassette (Sweet Janus to improve allelic replacement efficiency by high-stringency negative selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available The Janus cassette permits marker-free allelic replacement or knockout in streptomycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus through sequential positive and negative selection. Spontaneous revertants of Janus can lead to high level of false-positives during negative selection, which necessitate a time-consuming post-selection screening process. We hypothesized that an additional counter-selectable marker in Janus would decrease the revertant frequency and reduce false-positives, since simultaneous reversion of both counter-selectable makers is much less likely. Here we report a modified cassette, Sweet Janus (SJ, in which the sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis conferring sucrose sensitivity is added to Janus. By using streptomycin and sucrose simultaneously as selective agents, the frequency of SJ double revertants was about 105-fold lower than the frequency of Janus revertants. Accordingly, the frequency of false-positives in the SJ-mediated negative selection was about 100-fold lower than what was seen for Janus. Thus, SJ enhances negative selection stringency and can accelerate allelic replacement in pneumococcus, especially when transformation frequency is low due to strain background or suboptimal transformation conditions. Results also suggested the sacB gene alone can function as a counter-selectable marker in the Gram-positive pneumococcus, which will have the advantage of not requiring a streptomycin-resistant strain for allelic replacement.

  5. The predictive value of endorectal 3 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension in patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer.

    Somford, D M; Hamoen, E H; Fütterer, J J; van Basten, J P; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C A; Vreuls, W; van Oort, I M; Vergunst, H; Kiemeney, L A; Barentsz, J O; Witjes, J A

    2013-11-01

    We determined the positive and negative predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy for different prostate cancer risk groups. We evaluated a cohort of 183 patients who underwent 3 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast enhanced sequences, with an endorectal coil before radical prostatectomy. Pathological stage at radical prostatectomy was used as standard reference for extraprostatic extension. The cohort was classified into low, intermediate and high risk groups according to the D'Amico criteria. We recorded prevalence of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy and determined sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension in each group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy. The overall prevalence of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy was 49.7% ranging from 24.7% to 77.1% between low and high risk categories. Overall staging accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension was 73.8%, with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 58.2%, 89.1%, 84.1% and 68.3%, respectively. Positive predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension was best in the high risk cohort with 88.8%. Negative predictive value was highest in the low risk cohort with 87.7%. With an odds ratio of 10.3 multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is by far the best preoperative predictor of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy. For adequate patient counseling, knowledge of predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension is

  6. High latitude plasma convection: Predictions for EISCAT and Sondre Stromfjord

    Sojka, J.J.; Raitt, W.J.; Schunk, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    We have used a plasma convection model to predict diurnal patterns of horizontal drift velocities in the vicinity of the EISCAT incoherent scatter facility at Tromso, Norway and for Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland, a proposed new incoherent scatter facility site. The convection model includes the offset of 11.4 0 between the geographic and geomagnetic poles (northern hemisphere), the tendency of plasma to corotate about the geographic pole, and a magnetospheric electric field mapped to a circle about a center offset by 5 0 in the antisunward direction from the magnetic pole. Four different magnetospheric electric field configurations were considered, including a constant cross-tail electric field, asymmetric electric fields with enhancements on the dawn and dusk sides of the polar cap, and an electric field pattern that is not aligned parallel to the noon-midnight magnetic meridian. The different electric field configurations produce different signatures in the plasma convection pattern which are clearly identified. Both of the high-latitude sites are better suited to study magnetospheric convection effects than either Chatanika, Alaska or Millstone Hill, Massachusetts. Also, each site appears to have unique capabilities with regard to studying certain aspects of the magnetospheric electric field

  7. Novel Intermode Prediction Algorithm for High Efficiency Video Coding Encoder

    Chan-seob Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called high efficiency video coding (HEVC. In the HEVC, there are three units in block structure: coding unit (CU, prediction unit (PU, and transform unit (TU. The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock (MB. Each CU performs recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the tree block. In this paper, we propose a fast CU depth decision algorithm for HEVC technology to reduce its computational complexity. In 2N×2N PU, the proposed method compares the rate-distortion (RD cost and determines the depth using the compared information. Moreover, in order to speed up the encoding time, the efficient merge SKIP detection method is developed additionally based on the contextual mode information of neighboring CUs. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the average time-saving factor of 44.84% in the random access (RA at Main profile configuration with the HEVC test model (HM 10.0 reference software. Compared to HM 10.0 encoder, a small BD-bitrate loss of 0.17% is also observed without significant loss of image quality.

  8. Implicit negative affect predicts attention to sad faces beyond self-reported depressive symptoms in healthy individuals: An eye-tracking study.

    Bodenschatz, Charlott Maria; Skopinceva, Marija; Kersting, Anette; Quirin, Markus; Suslow, Thomas

    2018-04-04

    Cognitive theories of depression assume biased attention towards mood-congruent information as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. Among other symptoms, depression is characterized by excessive negative affect (NA). Yet, little is known about the impact of naturally occurring NA on the allocation of attention to emotional information. The study investigates how implicit and explicit NA as well as self-reported depressive symptoms predict attentional biases in a sample of healthy individuals (N = 104). Attentional biases were assessed using eye-tracking during a free viewing task in which images of sad, angry, happy and neutral faces were shown simultaneously. Participants' implicit affectivity was measured indirectly using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test. Questionnaires were administered to assess actual and habitual explicit NA and presence of depressive symptoms. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with sustained attention to sad faces and reduced attention to happy faces. Implicit but not explicit NA significantly predicted gaze behavior towards sad faces independently from depressive symptoms. The present study supports the idea that naturally occurring implicit NA is associated with attention allocation to dysphoric facial expression. The findings demonstrate the utility of implicit affectivity measures in studying individual differences in depression-relevant attentional biases and cognitive vulnerability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictions versus high-throughput experiments in T-cell epitope discovery: competition or synergy?

    Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    and limitations regarding the number of proteins and MHC alleles that are feasibly handled by such experimental methods have made in silico prediction models of high interest. MHC binding prediction methods are today of a very high quality and can predict MHC binding peptides with high accuracy. This is possible...

  10. Negative predictive value of 124I-PET/CT imaging in patients affected by metastatic thyroid cancer and treated with 131I

    Pettinato, C.; Civollani, S.; Nanni, C.; Celli, M.; Allegri, V.; Zagni, P.; Fanti, S.; Monari, F.; Cima, S.; Mazzarotto, R.; Spezi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: patients affected by metastatic Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (mDTC) are treated with 131 I even in presence of negative diagnostic 131 I whole body (WB) scan. Actually, very often, these patients present positive post therapy 131 I whole body scan, showing iodine avid metastases that were not seen with the diagnostic imaging. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the feasibility to use 124 I PET/CT images to predict patients who will not benefit from the iodine therapy, because of the absence of avidity, avoiding useless treatments. Material and methods: 25 patients affected by mDTC were enrolled in the study approved by the ethical Committee of our Institution, with the aim to evaluate the usefulness of 124 I PET/CT sequential scans to predict absorbed doses to metastatic thyroid cancer patients undergoing 131 I therapy. Patients (pts) were divided into 4 groups, based on their histology: group A, 4 pts with follicular cancer; group B, 13 pts with papillary cancer; group C, 2 pts with papillary tall cells cancer; group D, 6 patients with papillary cancer with follicular variant. Patients showing negative 124 I-PET/CT were treated with a reduced dose of 131 I (3700 MBq) and post treatment WB scans were acquired 96 hours after the therapeutic administration. Results: 12 patients showed at least one metastatic lesion at 124 I PET/CT imaging, and most of the lesions were visible at the 24 hours scan (4 pts group A, 3 pts group B, 5 pts group D). The remaining 13 patients did not show any uptake of all known metastatic lesions at each PET/CT time points (10 pts group B, 2 pts group C, 1 pt group D). Negative PET/CT findings were confirmed by post therapy WB scan. Discussion and Conclusion: 124 I-PET/CT scan is a useful diagnostic tool to discriminate patients with iodine avid metastases. Actually, when they are present, the superiority of PET/CT resolution and sensitivity, compared to standard 131 I planar imaging, allow the

  11. Negative emotional primes and attentional bias towards alcohol in high anxious individuals

    Samelink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term,

  12. Efficacy of high-dose alkylating chemotherapy in HER2/neu-negative breast cancer

    Rodenhuis, S.; Bontenbal, M.; Hoesel, Q.G.C.M. van; Smit, W.M.; Nooij, M.A.; Voest, E.E.; Wall, E. van der; Hupperets, P.; Tinteren, H. van; Peterse, J.L.; Vijver, M.J. van de; Vries, E.G.E. de

    2006-01-01

    Background: High-dose chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has been abandoned by many. Patients and methods: 885 patients with stage III primary breast cancer and four or more axillary lymph node metastases were randomised to receive either five courses of FEC (fluorouracil,

  13. Efficacy of high-dose alkylating chemotherapy in HER2/neu-negative breast cancer

    Rodenhuis, S; Bontenbal, M; van Hoesel, QGCM; Smit, WM; Nooij, MA; Voest, EE; van der Wall, E; Hupperets, P; van Tinteren, H; Peterse, JL; van de Vijver, MJ; de Vries, EGE

    Background: High-dose chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has been abandoned by many. Patients and methods: 885 patients with stage III primary breast cancer and four or more axillary lymph node metastases were randomised to receive either five courses of FEC (fluorouracil,

  14. Are children's views of the "enemy" shaped by a highly-publicized negative event?

    Oppenheimer, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh,

  15. Are Children's Views of the "Enemy" Shaped by a Highly-Publicized Negative Event?

    Oppenheimer, Louis

    2010-01-01

    In the beginning of the first decade of this century, some highly-publicized extremistic acts of terror occurred. A hostage tragedy in a school in Beslan (North Ossetia) was followed in the Netherlands by the brutal murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker and newspaper columnist Theo van Gogh, bomb attacks in Bali and Madrid and other acts of…

  16. Women's Ways of Drinking: College Women, High-Risk Alcohol Use, and Negative Consequences

    Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…

  17. The Negative Impact of Community Stressors on Learning Time: Examining Inequalities between California High Schools

    Mirra, Nicole; Rogers, John

    2015-01-01

    Allocated classroom time is not the same as time available for learning--a host of economic and social stressors undermine learning time in schools serving low-income students. When time is limited, it is hard to meet rigorous learning standards. The challenge is compounded in high-poverty schools where community stressors place additional demands…

  18. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects.

    Lira, Fabio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Hélio A; Caperuto, Erico C; Carnevali, Luiz C; Seelaender, Marília; Damaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila M; de Mello, Marco T; Santos, Ronaldo V

    2010-08-04

    A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7) were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (approximately 12 h). The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.002). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between endotoxin and PAI-1 (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), endotoxin and total cholesterol (r = 0.65; p < 0.01), endotoxin and LDL-c (r = 0.55; p < 0.049) and endotoxin and TG levels (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). The plasma levels of MCP-1, ICAM/CD54 and VCAM/CD106 did not differ. These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Value of 201Tl imaging in predicting therapeutic 131I uptake in patients with thyroglobulin-positive but 131I scan-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Conlu, R.A.O.; Obaldo, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Serum thyroglobulin assay and 131Iodine (1311) whole body scan are considered complementary in detecting malignant thyroid tissue or metastases. A large number of patients, however, are encountered presenting with scan-negative, thyroglobulin-positive differentiated thyroid carcinoma posing a dilemma in therapeutic management. One of the first alternative scanning agents to be employed is 201Thallium (201Tl). Recent studies have demonstrated its usefulness in identifying lesions that are not visualized with traditional 131I whole body scan. It is not clear, however, whether 201Tl scan helps in the decision-making for subsequent 131I therapy. This study was conducted to determine if 201Tl scan can predict therapeutic 131I uptake and to define the clinical role of 201Tl scanning in these patients. Methods and results: A total of 12 patients (20-63 y/o), 5 males and 7 females, underwent surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer and all had serum thyroglobulin values above 10 ng/ml and normal TPO autoantibodies. Pre-therapy 131I scan using 111 MBq (3mCi) of 131I were obtained. As required for inclusion, all patients had negative pre-therapy scan and negative TPO autoantibody results and underwent 20lTl scanning within 3 weeks. All patients were given 131I therapy (3.7-5.5 GBq or 100-150 mCi) between one to two months after 201Tl scanning. Within a week after therapy, all patients underwent whole body 1311 scanning. 201Tl imaging demonstrated thyroid remnants in 9 out of 12 patients having positive 201Tl scan but negative pre-therapy 1311 scan. However, only 2 of the positive 201Tl scans showed 131I uptake post-therapy (positive predictive value of 20%). None of the subjects presented with a negative 201Tl scan and a positive post-therapy 131I scan. Conclusion: Our study suggests that evidence of remnants or metastases on 201Tl scanning may be an inappropriate basis for the decision to proceed with 131I therapy. The role of 20lTl imaging in this subset of

  20. Persistent high job demands and reactivity to mental stress predict future ambulatory blood pressure.

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M

    2000-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that work stress (persistent high job demands over 1 year) in combination with high reactivity to mental stress predict ambulatory blood pressure. Assessment of cardiovascular responses to standardized behavioural tasks, job demands, and ambulatory blood pressure over a working day and evening after 12 months. We studied 81 school teachers (26 men, 55 women), 36 of whom experienced persistent high job demands over 1 year, while 45 reported lower job demands. Participants were divided on the basis of high and low job demands, and high and low systolic pressure reactions to an uncontrollable stress task. Blood pressure and concurrent physical activity were monitored using ambulatory apparatus from 0900 to 2230 h on a working day. Cardiovascular stress reactivity was associated with waist/hip ratio. Systolic and diastolic pressure during the working day were greater in high job demand participants who were stress reactive than in other groups, after adjustment for age, baseline blood pressure, body mass index and negative affectivity. The difference was not accounted for by variations in physical activity. Cardiovascular stress reactivity and sustained psychosocial stress may act in concert to increase cardiovascular risk in susceptible individuals.

  1. High novelty-seeking rats are resilient to negative physiological effects of the early life stress.

    Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress dramatically impacts adult behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrine function. Using rats bred for novelty-seeking differences and known to display divergent anxiety, depression, and stress vulnerability, we examined the interaction between early life adversity and genetic predisposition for high- versus low-emotional reactivity. Thus, bred Low Novelty Responder (bLR) rats, which naturally exhibit high anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and bred High Novelty Responder (bHR) rats, which show low anxiety/depression together with elevated aggression, impulsivity, and addictive behavior, were subjected to daily 3 h maternal separation (MS) stress postnatal days 1-14. We hypothesized that MS stress would differentially impact adult bHR/bLR behavior, physiology (stress-induced defecation), and neuroendocrine reactivity. While MS stress did not impact bHR and bLR anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and elevated plus maze, it exacerbated bLRs' already high physiological response to stress - stress-induced defecation. In both tests, MS bLR adult offspring showed exaggerated stress-induced defecation compared to bLR controls while bHR offspring were unaffected. MS also selectively impacted bLRs' (but not bHRs') neuroendocrine stress reactivity, producing an exaggerated corticosterone acute stress response in MS bLR versus control bLR rats. These findings highlight how genetic predisposition shapes individuals' response to early life stress. Future work will explore neural mechanisms underlying the distinct behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences of MS in bHR/bLR animals.

  2. Striking Distance Determined From High-Speed Videos and Measured Currents in Negative Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    Visacro, Silverio; Guimaraes, Miguel; Murta Vale, Maria Helena

    2017-12-01

    First and subsequent return strokes' striking distances (SDs) were determined for negative cloud-to-ground flashes from high-speed videos exhibiting the development of positive and negative leaders and the pre-return stroke phase of currents measured along a short tower. In order to improve the results, a new criterion was used for the initiation and propagation of the sustained upward connecting leader, consisting of a 4 A continuous current threshold. An advanced approach developed from the combined use of this criterion and a reverse propagation procedure, which considers the calculated propagation speeds of the leaders, was applied and revealed that SDs determined solely from the first video frame showing the upward leader can be significantly underestimated. An original approach was proposed for a rough estimate of first strokes' SD using solely records of current. This approach combines the 4 A criterion and a representative composite three-dimensional propagation speed of 0.34 × 106 m/s for the leaders in the last 300 m propagated distance. SDs determined under this approach showed to be consistent with those of the advanced procedure. This approach was applied to determine the SD of 17 first return strokes of negative flashes measured at MCS, covering a wide peak-current range, from 18 to 153 kA. The estimated SDs exhibit very high dispersion and reveal great differences in relation to the SDs estimated for subsequent return strokes and strokes in triggered lightning.

  3. Corrosion behaviour of high manganese austenitic stainless steels: positive and negative aspects

    Raja, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    Stainless steel 304 has found use as a most versatile engineering material in many industrial applications. Recently, the Indian industries have developed high Mn stainless steels with low C and Ni contents and simultaneously introduced N and Cu in the system. Composition of some of the alloys which are prevalent in the market are given. Individually, the effect of Ni, C, Mn, N and Cu on various forms of corrosion is reasonably understood. However, it will be worthwhile to review the response of these alloys, containing all these elements, towards various forms of corrosion. The objective of this paper is preciously to do this

  4. Trustworthy Tricksters: Violating a Negative Social Expectation Affects Source Memory and Person Perception When Fear of Exploitation Is High.

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Mario; Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel; Bell, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    People who are high in victim-sensitivity-a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others-are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target's trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the "trustworthy trickster"). These findings are in line with recent theorizing on schema inconsistency and expectancy violation effects in social cognition and with research on the different facets of justice sensitivity in personality psychology.

  5. Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for prediction of regions of high Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes uncertainty

    Ling, J.; Templeton, J.

    2015-08-01

    Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models are widely used in industry to predict fluid flows, despite their acknowledged deficiencies. Not only do RANS models often produce inaccurate flow predictions, but there are very limited diagnostics available to assess RANS accuracy for a given flow configuration. If experimental or higher fidelity simulation results are not available for RANS validation, there is no reliable method to evaluate RANS accuracy. This paper explores the potential of utilizing machine learning algorithms to identify regions of high RANS uncertainty. Three different machine learning algorithms were evaluated: support vector machines, Adaboost decision trees, and random forests. The algorithms were trained on a database of canonical flow configurations for which validated direct numerical simulation or large eddy simulation results were available, and were used to classify RANS results on a point-by-point basis as having either high or low uncertainty, based on the breakdown of specific RANS modeling assumptions. Classifiers were developed for three different basic RANS eddy viscosity model assumptions: the isotropy of the eddy viscosity, the linearity of the Boussinesq hypothesis, and the non-negativity of the eddy viscosity. It is shown that these classifiers are able to generalize to flows substantially different from those on which they were trained. Feature selection techniques, model evaluation, and extrapolation detection are discussed in the context of turbulence modeling applications.

  6. High plasma folate is negatively associated with leukocyte telomere length in Framingham Offspring cohort.

    Paul, Ligi; Jacques, Paul F; Aviv, Abraham; Vasan, Ramachandran S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Levy, Daniel; Selhub, Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Shortening of telomeres, the protective structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, is associated with age-related pathologies. Telomere length is influenced by DNA integrity and DNA and histone methylation. Folate plays a role in providing precursors for nucleotides and methyl groups for methylation reactions and has the potential to influence telomere length. We determined the association between leukocyte telomere length and long-term plasma folate status (mean of 4 years) in Framingham Offspring Study (n = 1,044, females = 52.1 %, mean age 59 years) using data from samples collected before and after folic acid fortification. Leukocyte telomere length was determined by Southern analysis and fasting plasma folate concentration using microbiological assay. There was no significant positive association between long-term plasma folate and leukocyte telomere length among the Framingham Offspring Study participants perhaps due to their adequate folate status. While the leukocyte telomere length in the second quintile of plasma folate was longer than that in the first quintile, the difference was not statistically significant. The leukocyte telomere length of the individuals in the fifth quintile of plasma folate was shorter than that of those in the second quintile by 180 bp (P folate concentrations in the upper four quintiles of plasma folate (P for trend = 0.001). Multivitamin use was associated with shorter telomeres in this cohort (P = 0.015). High plasma folate status possibly resulting from high folic acid intake may interfere with the role of folate in maintaining telomere integrity.

  7. Using In Vitro High-Throughput Screening Data for Predicting ...

    Today there are more than 80,000 chemicals in commerce and the environment. The potential human health risks are unknown for the vast majority of these chemicals as they lack human health risk assessments, toxicity reference values and risk screening values. We aim to use computational toxicology and quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) technologies to fill these data gaps, and begin to prioritize these chemicals for additional assessment. By coupling qHTS data with adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) we can use ontologies to make predictions about potential hazards and to identify those assays which are sufficient to infer these same hazards. Once those assays are identified, we can use bootstrap natural spline-based metaregression to integrate the evidence across multiple replicates or assays (if a combination of assays are together necessary to be sufficient). In this pilot, we demonstrate how we were able to identify that benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]F) may induce DNA damage and steatosis using qHTS data and two separate AOPs. We also demonstrate how bootstrap natural spline-based metaregression can be used to integrate the data across multiple assay replicates to generate a concentration-response curve. We used this analysis to calculate an internal point of departure of 0.751µM and risk-specific concentrations of 0.378µM for both 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 additive risk for B[k]F induced DNA damage based on the p53 assay. Based on the available evidence, we

  8. Prospective validation of immunological infiltrate for prediction of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer--a substudy of the neoadjuvant GeparQuinto trial.

    Issa-Nummer, Yasmin; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Loibl, Sibylle; Kunz, Georg; Nekljudova, Valentina; Schrader, Iris; Sinn, Bruno Valentin; Ulmer, Hans-Ullrich; Kronenwett, Ralf; Just, Marianne; Kühn, Thorsten; Diebold, Kurt; Untch, Michael; Holms, Frank; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Habeck, Jörg-Olaf; Dietel, Manfred; Overkamp, Friedrich; Krabisch, Petra; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Denkert, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    We have recently described an increased lymphocytic infiltration rate in breast carcinoma tissue is a significant response predictor for anthracycline/taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). The aim of this study was to prospectively validate the tumor-associated lymphocyte infiltrate as predictive marker for response to anthracycline/taxane-based NACT. The immunological infiltrate was prospectively evaluated in a total of 313 core biopsies from HER2 negative patients of the multicenter PREDICT study, a substudy of the neoadjuvant GeparQuinto study. Intratumoral lymphocytes (iTuLy), stromal lymphocytes (strLy) as well as lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC) were evaluated by histopathological assessment. Pathological complete response (pCR) rates were analyzed and compared between the defined subgroups using the exact test of Fisher. Patients with lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC) had a significantly increased pCR rate of 36.6%, compared to non-LPBC patients (14.3%, pimmunological infiltrate in breast tumor tissue is predictive for response to anthracycline/taxane-based NACT. Patients with LPBC and increased stromal lymphocyte infiltration have significantly increased pCR rates. The lymphocytic infiltrate is a promising additional parameter for histopathological evaluation of breast cancer core biopsies.

  9. A modified high-intensity Cs sputter negative-ion source with multi-target mechanism

    Si Houzhi; Zhang Weizhong; Zhu Jinhau; Du Guangtian; Zhang Tiaorong; Gao Xiang

    1993-01-01

    The source is based on Middleton's high-intensity mode, but modified to a multi-target version. It is equipped with a spherical molybdenum ionizer, a 20-position target wheel and a vacuum lock for loading and unloading sample batches. A metal-ceramic bonded section protected by a specially designed labyrinth shielding system results in reliable insulation of the cathode and convenient control of cesium vapor. The latter is particularly important when an oversupply of cesium occurs. The source was developed for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications. Recently, three versions based on the prototype of the source have been successfully tested to meet different requirements: (a) Single target version, (b) multi-target version with manual sample change, and (c) multi-target version with remote control sample change. Some details of the technical and operational characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  10. Ultra-long-pulse microwave negative high voltage power supply with fast protection

    Xu Weihua; Wu Junshuan; Zheng Guanghua; Huang Qiaolin; Yang Chunsheng; Zhou Yuanwei; Chen Yonghao

    1998-01-01

    Two 1.4 MW high voltage power supply (HVPS) modules with 3-5 s pulse duration have been developed for LHCD experiment in the HT-7 tokamak. The power source consists of a pulsed generator and the electric circuit. Duration of the ultra-long-pulse is controlled by switching-on dc relay immediately and switching-off ac contactor after a given time, and the fast protection is executed by a crowbar. Due to the soft starting of the power source, the problem of overvoltage induced by dc relay switching-on has been solved. Each power supply module outputs a rated power (-35 kV, 40 A) on the dummy load. With the klystrons connected as the load of the power supply modules, LHCD experiments have been conducted successfully in the HT-7 tokamak

  11. High nymphal host density and mortality negatively impact parasitoid complex during an insect herbivore outbreak.

    Hall, Aidan A G; Johnson, Scott N; Cook, James M; Riegler, Markus

    2017-08-26

    Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitization, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitization patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged. Then, we assessed host-parasitoid density relationships across three spatial scales (leaf, tree and site) over one year. We detected four endoparasitoid species of the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera); two primary parasitoid and one heteronomous hyperparasitoid Psyllaephagus species (the latter with female development as a primary parasitoid and male development as a hyperparasitoid), and the hyperparasitoid Coccidoctonus psyllae. Parasitoid development was host-synchronized, although synchrony between sites appeared constrained during winter (due to temperature differences). Parasitization was predominantly driven by one primary parasitoid species and was mostly inversely host-density dependent across the spatial scales. Hyperparasitization by C. psyllae was psyllid-density dependent at the site scale, however, this only impacted the rarer primary parasitoid. High larval parasitoid mortality due to density-dependent nymphal psyllid mortality (a consequence of resource limitation) compounded by a summer heat wave was incorporated in the assessment and resulted in density independence of host-parasitoid relationships. As such, high larval parasitoid mortality during insect herbivore outbreaks may contribute to the absence of host density-dependent parasitization during outbreak events. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Robust Prediction of High Lift Using Surface Vorticity, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FlightStream has been developed a fast, accurate, aerodynamic prediction code based on vorticity computations on the surface of an aircraft. The code, though still a...

  13. Prediction of province-level outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in Iran using a zero-inflated negative binomial model.

    Jafarzadeh, S Reza; Norris, Michelle; Thurmond, Mark C

    2014-08-01

    To identify events that could predict province-level frequency of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Iran, 5707 outbreaks reported from April 1995 to March 2002 were studied. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to estimate the probability of a 'no-outbreak' status and the number of outbreaks in a province, using the number of previous occurrences of FMD for the same or adjacent provinces and season as covariates. For each province, the probability of observing no outbreak was negatively associated with the number of outbreaks in the same province in the previous month (odds ratio [OR]=0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01, 0.30) and in 'the second previous month' (OR=0.10, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.51), the total number of outbreaks in the second previous month in adjacent provinces (OR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.91) and the season (winter [OR=0.18, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.55] and spring [OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.81], compared with summer). The expected number of outbreaks in a province was positively associated with number of outbreaks in the same province in previous month (coefficient [coef]=0.74, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.82) and in the second previous month (coef=0.23, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.31), total number of outbreaks in adjacent provinces in the previous month (coef=0.32, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.41) and season (fall [coef=0.20, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.33] and spring [coef=0.18, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.31], compared to summer); however, number of outbreaks was negatively associated with the total number of outbreaks in adjacent provinces in the second previous month (coef=-0.19, 95% CI: -0.28, -0.09). The findings indicate that the probability of an outbreak (and the expected number of outbreaks if any) may be predicted based on previous province information, which could help decision-makers allocate resources more efficiently for province-level disease control measures. Further, the study illustrates use of zero inflated negative binomial model to study diseases occurrence where disease is

  14. Genomic prediction applied to high-biomass sorghum for bioenergy production.

    de Oliveira, Amanda Avelar; Pastina, Maria Marta; de Souza, Vander Filipe; da Costa Parrella, Rafael Augusto; Noda, Roberto Willians; Simeone, Maria Lúcia Ferreira; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; de Magalhães, Jurandir Vieira; Damasceno, Cynthia Maria Borges; Margarido, Gabriel Rodrigues Alves

    2018-01-01

    The increasing cost of energy and finite oil and gas reserves have created a need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources. Due to its abiotic stress tolerance and annual cultivation, high-biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shows potential as a bioenergy crop. Genomic selection is a useful tool for accelerating genetic gains and could restructure plant breeding programs by enabling early selection and reducing breeding cycle duration. This work aimed at predicting breeding values via genomic selection models for 200 sorghum genotypes comprising landrace accessions and breeding lines from biomass and saccharine groups. These genotypes were divided into two sub-panels, according to breeding purpose. We evaluated the following phenotypic biomass traits: days to flowering, plant height, fresh and dry matter yield, and fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin proportions. Genotyping by sequencing yielded more than 258,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, which revealed population structure between subpanels. We then fitted and compared genomic selection models BayesA, BayesB, BayesCπ, BayesLasso, Bayes Ridge Regression and random regression best linear unbiased predictor. The resulting predictive abilities varied little between the different models, but substantially between traits. Different scenarios of prediction showed the potential of using genomic selection results between sub-panels and years, although the genotype by environment interaction negatively affected accuracies. Functional enrichment analyses performed with the marker-predicted effects suggested several interesting associations, with potential for revealing biological processes relevant to the studied quantitative traits. This work shows that genomic selection can be successfully applied in biomass sorghum breeding programs.

  15. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  16. Disentangling the Predictive Validity of High School Grades for Academic Success in University

    Vulperhorst, Jonne; Lutz, Christel; de Kleijn, Renske; van Tartwijk, Jan

    2018-01-01

    To refine selective admission models, we investigate which measure of prior achievement has the best predictive validity for academic success in university. We compare the predictive validity of three core high school subjects to the predictive validity of high school grade point average (GPA) for academic achievement in a liberal arts university…

  17. High Chromosome Number in hematological cancer cell lines is a Negative Predictor of Response to the inhibition of Aurora B and C by GSK1070916

    Hardwicke Mary

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aurora kinases play critical roles in mitosis and are being evaluated as therapeutic targets in cancer. GSK1070916 is a potent, selective, ATP competitive inhibitor of Aurora kinase B and C. Translation of predictive biomarkers to the clinic can benefit patients by identifying the tumors that are more likely to respond to therapies, especially novel inhibitors such as GSK1070916. Methods 59 Hematological cancer-derived cell lines were used as models for response where in vitro sensitivity to GSK1070916 was based on both time and degree of cell death. The response data was analyzed along with karyotype, transcriptomics and somatic mutation profiles to determine predictors of response. Results 20 cell lines were sensitive and 39 were resistant to treatment with GSK1070916. High chromosome number was more prevalent in resistant cell lines (p-value = 0.0098, Fisher Exact Test. Greater resistance was also found in cell lines harboring polyploid subpopulations (p-value = 0.00014, Unpaired t-test. A review of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL cell lines showed an association between NOTCH1 mutation status and chromosome number (p-value = 0.0066, Fisher Exact Test. Conclusions High chromosome number associated with resistance to the inhibition of Aurora B and C suggests cells with a mechanism to bypass the high ploidy checkpoint are resistant to GSK1070916. High chromosome number, a hallmark trait of many late stage hematological malignancies, varies in prevalence among hematological malignancy subtypes. The high frequency and relative ease of measurement make high chromosome number a viable negative predictive marker for GSK1070916.

  18. Predictive value and clinical utility of centrally assessed ER, PgR, and Ki-67 to select adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer: TEXT and SOFT trials.

    Regan, Meredith M; Pagani, Olivia; Francis, Prudence A; Fleming, Gini F; Walley, Barbara A; Kammler, Roswitha; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Russo, Leila; Szőke, János; Doimi, Franco; Villani, Laura; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Sessa, Fausto; Peg Cámara, Vicente; Rodríguez Peralto, José Luis; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Colleoni, Marco; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Viale, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    The SOFT and TEXT randomized phase III trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer. We investigated the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and Ki-67 expression in women with HER2-negative disease. Of 5707 women enrolled, 4115 with HER2-negative (HR+/HER2-) disease had ER, PgR, and Ki-67 centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was defined from randomization to first invasive local, regional, or distant recurrence or contralateral breast cancer. The prognostic and predictive values of ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression levels were assessed using Cox modeling and STEPP methodology. In this HR+/HER2- population, the median ER, PgR, and Ki-67 expressions were 95, 90, and 18 % immunostained cells. As most patients had strongly ER-positive tumors, the predictive value of ER levels could not be investigated. Lower PgR and higher Ki-67 expression were associated with reduced BCFI. There was no consistent evidence of heterogeneity of the relative treatment effects according to PgR or Ki-67 expression levels, though there was a greater 5-year absolute benefit of exemestane + ovarian function suppression (OFS) versus tamoxifen with or without OFS at lower levels of PgR and higher levels of Ki-67. Women with poor prognostic features of low PgR and/or high Ki-67 have greater absolute benefit from exemestane + OFS versus tamoxifen + OFS or tamoxifen alone, but individually PgR and Ki-67 are of limited predictive value for selecting adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- early breast cancer.

  19. BRCAness as a Biomarker for Predicting Prognosis and Response to Anthracycline-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Hitomi Mori

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous tumor that encompasses many different subclasses of the disease. In this study, we assessed BRCAness, defined as the shared characteristics between sporadic and BRCA1-mutated tumors, in a large cohort of TNBC cases.The BRCAness of 262 patients with primary TNBCs resected between January 2004 and December 2014 was determined through the isolation of DNA from tumor tissue. Classification of BRCAness was performed using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. The tumor subtypes were determined immunohistochemically using resected specimens.Of the 262 TNBCs, the results of the MLPA assays showed that 174 (66.4% tumors had BRCAness. Patients with BRCAness tumors were younger than patients with non-BRCAness tumors (P = 0.003. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their pathological stages. The BRCAness group had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS compared with the non-BRCAness group (P = 0.04 and had a shorter overall survival (OS although this did not reach statistical significance. Adjuvant treatments with anthracycline-based regimens provided significantly greater benefits to the BRCAness group (P = 0.003 for RFS, and P = 0.03 for OS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that BRCAness was an independent negative prognostic factor, and the anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy was an independent positive prognostic factor for both RFS and OS in TNBC.The 66.4% patients of TNBCs showed BRCAness. BRCAness is essential as a biomarker in the subclassification of TNBCs and might be of use for predicting their prognosis. Furthermore, this biomarker might be a predictive factor for the effectiveness of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with TNBCs.

  20. Neuropilin-1highCD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells Exhibit Primary Negative Immunoregulation in Sepsis

    Yu-Lei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs appear to be involved in sepsis-induced immune dysfunction; neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1 was identified as a surface marker for CD4+CD25+Tregs. In the current study, we investigated the negative immunoregulation of Nrp-1highCD4+CD25+Tregs and the potential therapeutic value of Nrp-1 in sepsis. Splenic CD4+CD25+Tregs from cecal ligation and puncture (CLP mouse models were further segregated into Nrp-1highTregs and Nrp-1lowTregs; they were cocultured with CD4+CD25−  T cells. The expression of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor-3 (Foxp-3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4, membrane associated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-βm+, apoptotic rate, and secretive ability [including TGF-β and interleukin-10 (IL-10] for various types of Tregs, as well as the immunosuppressive ability of Tregs on CD4+CD25−  T cells, were determined. Meanwhile, the impact of recombinant Nrp-1 polyclonal antibody on the demethylation of Foxp-3-TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region was measured in in vitro study. Sepsis per se markedly promoted the expression of Nrp-1 of CD4+CD25+Tregs. Foxp-3/CTLA-4/TGF-βm+ of Nrp-1highTregs were upregulated by septic challenge. Nrp-1highTregs showed strong resilience to apoptosis and secretive ability and the strongest immunosuppressive ability on CD4+CD25−  T cells. In the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the recombinant Nrp-1 polyclonal antibody reduced the demethylation of Foxp-3-TSDR. Nrp-1highTregs might reveal primary negative immunoregulation in sepsis; Nrp-1 could represent a new potential therapeutic target for the study of immune regulation in sepsis.

  1. High Working Memory Capacity Predicts Less Retrieval Induced Forgetting

    Mall, Jonathan T.; Morey, Candice C.

    2013-01-01

    Background : Working Memory Capacity (WMC) is thought to be related to executive control and focused memory search abilities. These two hypotheses make contrasting predictions regarding the effects of retrieval on forgetting. Executive control during memory retrieval is believed to lead to retrieval

  2. Predicting the High Redshift Galaxy Population for JWST

    Flynn, Zoey; Benson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will be launched in Oct 2018 with the goal of observing galaxies in the redshift range of z = 10 - 15. As redshift increases, the age of the Universe decreases, allowing us to study objects formed only a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. This will provide a valuable opportunity to test and improve current galaxy formation theory by comparing predictions for mass, luminosity, and number density to the observed data. We have made testable predictions with the semi-analytical galaxy formation model Galacticus. The code uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to determine viable sets of model parameters that match current astronomical data. The resulting constrained model was then set to match the specifications of the JWST Ultra Deep Field Imaging Survey. Predictions utilizing up to 100 viable parameter sets were calculated, allowing us to assess the uncertainty in current theoretical expectations. We predict that the planned UDF will be able to observe a significant number of objects past redshift z > 9 but nothing at redshift z > 11. In order to detect these faint objects at redshifts z = 11-15 we need to increase exposure time by at least a factor of 1.66.

  3. Development of high performance negative ion sources and accelerators for MeV class neutral beam injectors

    Taniguchi, M.; Hanada, M.; Iga, T.

    2003-01-01

    Operation of accelerator at low pressure is an essential requirement to reduce stripping loss of the negative ions, which in turn results in high efficiency of the NB systems. For this purpose, a vacuum insulated beam source (VIBS) has been developed at JAERI, which reduces the gas pressure in the accelerator by enhanced gas conductance through the accelerator. The VIBS achieves the high voltage insulation of 1 MV by immersing the whole structure of accelerator in vacuum with long (∼ 1.8 m) insulation distance. Results of the voltage holding test using a long vacuum gap of 1.8 m indicate that a transition from vacuum discharge to gas discharge occurs at around 0.2 Pa m in the long vacuum gap. So far, the VIBS succeeded in acceleration of 20 mA (H - ) beam up to 970 keV for 1 s. The high voltage holding capability of the VIBS was drastically improved by installing a new large stress ring, which reduces electric field concentration at the triple junction of the accelerator column. At present the VIBS sustains 1 MV stably for more than 1200 s. Acceleration of ampere class H- beams at high current density is to be started soon to demonstrate ITER relevant beam optics. Operation of negative ion source at low pressure is also essential to reduce the stripping loss. However, it was not so easy to attain high current density H - ions at low pressure, since destruction cross section of the negative ions becomes large if the electron temperature is > 1 eV, in low pressure discharge. Using strong magnetic filter to lower the electron temperature, and putting higher arc discharge power to compensate reduction of plasma density through the filter, an H - ion beam of 310 A/m 2 was extracted at very low pressure of 0.1Pa. This satisfies the ITER requirement of current density at 1/3 of the ITER design pressure (0.3 Pa). (author)

  4. Factors Predicting HBsAg Seroclearance and Alanine Transaminase Elevation in HBeAg-Negative Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients with Persistently Normal Liver Function.

    Tai-Long Chien

    Full Text Available A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg, and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients.Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal. The factors that were predictive of the end points were identified.A total of 235 patients with an average age of 48.1 +/- 10.7 years were followed up for 7 years. Eight patients (3.4% lost HBsAg, and 15 patients (6.4% experienced ALT elevation. The overall cumulative HBsAg seroclearances were 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.3% at years 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Regarding HBsAg seroclearance, the qHBsAg (< 30 IU/ml cutoff resulted in a hazard ratio (HR of 19.6 with a 95% confidence interval (CI of 2.2-166.7 (P = 0.008. The baseline ALT level (odd ratio (OR 1.075, 95% CI 1.020-1.132, P = 0.006 and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (3.7, 1.1-12.4, P = 0.032 were associated with ALT elevation. Limited to men, the baseline liver stiffness (1.6, 1.0-2.5, P = 0.031 and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (10.4, 2.1-52.4, P = 0.004 were factors that were independently associated with ALT elevation.A low qHBsAg level predicted HBsAg clearance. Baseline ALT and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml were independent predictive factors for ALT elevation. Among the men, the independent predictive factors for ALT elevation were qHBsAg and liver stiffness.

  5. Medico-economic impact of MSKCC non-sentinel node prediction nomogram for ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancers.

    Hélène Bonsang-Kitzis

    Full Text Available Avoiding axillary lymph node dissection (ALND for invasive breast cancers with isolated tumor cells or micrometastatic sentinel node biopsy (SNB could decrease morbidity with minimal clinical significance.The aim of this study is to simulate the medico-economic impact of the routine use of the MSKCC non-sentinel node (NSN prediction nomogram for ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients.We studied 1036 ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a metastatic SNB. All had a complementary ALND. For each patient, we calculated the probability of the NSN positivity using the MSKCC nomogram. After validation of this nomogram in the population, we described how the patients' characteristics spread as the threshold value changed. Then, we performed an economic simulation study to estimate the total cost of caring for patients treated according to the MSKCC predictive nomogram results.A 0.3 threshold discriminate the type of sentinel node (SN metastases: 98.8% of patients with pN0(i+ and 91.6% of patients with pN1(mic had a MSKCC score under 0.3 (false negative rate = 6.4%. If we use the 0.3 threshold for economic simulation, 43% of ALND could be avoided, reducing the costs of caring by 1 051 980 EUROS among the 1036 patients.We demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of using the MSKCC NSN prediction nomogram by avoiding ALND for the pN0(i+ or pN1(mic ER+ HER2- breast cancer patients with a MSKCC score of less than or equal to 0.3.

  6. High Sensitivity TSS Prediction: Estimates of Locations Where TSS Cannot Occur

    Schaefer, Ulf; Kodzius, Rimantas; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2013-01-01

    from mouse and human genomes, we developed a methodology that allows us, by performing computational TSS prediction with very high sensitivity, to annotate, with a high accuracy in a strand specific manner, locations of mammalian genomes that are highly

  7. Predicting Future High-Cost Schizophrenia Patients Using High-Dimensional Administrative Data

    Yajuan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe burden of serious and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia is substantial and requires health-care organizations to have adequate risk adjustment models to effectively allocate their resources to managing patients who are at the greatest risk. Currently available models underestimate health-care costs for those with mental or behavioral health conditions.ObjectivesThe study aimed to develop and evaluate predictive models for identification of future high-cost schizophrenia patients using advanced supervised machine learning methods.MethodsThis was a retrospective study using a payer administrative database. The study cohort consisted of 97,862 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (ICD9 code 295.* from January 2009 to June 2014. Training (n = 34,510 and study evaluation (n = 30,077 cohorts were derived based on 12-month observation and prediction windows (PWs. The target was average total cost/patient/month in the PW. Three models (baseline, intermediate, final were developed to assess the value of different variable categories for cost prediction (demographics, coverage, cost, health-care utilization, antipsychotic medication usage, and clinical conditions. Scalable orthogonal regression, significant attribute selection in high dimensions method, and random forests regression were used to develop the models. The trained models were assessed in the evaluation cohort using the regression R2, patient classification accuracy (PCA, and cost accuracy (CA. The model performance was compared to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hierarchical Condition Categories (CMS-HCC model.ResultsAt top 10% cost cutoff, the final model achieved 0.23 R2, 43% PCA, and 63% CA; in contrast, the CMS-HCC model achieved 0.09 R2, 27% PCA with 45% CA. The final model and the CMS-HCC model identified 33 and 22%, respectively, of total cost at the top 10% cost cutoff.ConclusionUsing advanced feature selection leveraging detailed

  8. Integrating prediction, provenance, and optimization into high energy workflows

    Schram, M.; Bansal, V.; Friese, R. D.; Tallent, N. R.; Yin, J.; Barker, K. J.; Stephan, E.; Halappanavar, M.; Kerbyson, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a novel approach for efficient execution of workflows on distributed resources. The key components of this framework include: performance modeling to quantitatively predict workflow component behavior; optimization-based scheduling such as choosing an optimal subset of resources to meet demand and assignment of tasks to resources; distributed I/O optimizations such as prefetching; and provenance methods for collecting performance data. In preliminary results, these techniques improve throughput on a small Belle II workflow by 20%.

  9. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  10. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Life Satisfaction among Highly Achieving Students in Hong Kong: Do Gratitude and the "Good-Enough Mindset" Add to the Contribution of Perfectionism in Prediction?

    Chan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and the "good-enough mindset" added to the contribution of perfectionism in predicting life satisfaction in 245 Chinese highly achieving students in Hong Kong. Participants completed self-report questionnaires that included scales on life satisfaction, positive and negative perfectionism…

  12. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Gupta, V.; Chand, S. [Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. > Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowires through lead hydroxination. > The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. > Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. > The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd{sup 2+} with Pb{sup 2+} ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  13. Measurement of negative ion mobility in O2 at high pressures using a point plate gap as an ion detector

    Okuyama, Y; Kimura, T; Suzuki, S; Itoh, H

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for negative ion mobility in O 2 at 0.5-2.0 atm. The ion mobility is observed using a high-pressure ion drift tube with a positive corona gap (Geiger counter), which is constructed from a point plate gap and acts as a negative ion detector. The variation of waveforms in the burst pulse is observed by varying the voltage applied to the ion detector to find the optimum voltage that must be applied across the ion detector in O 2 . This is investigated carefully to ensure the precise determination of mobility. The distortion of the electric field near the mesh electrode, which operates as the cathode of the ion detector and as the anode of the ion drift gap, is then examined to determine the optimum applied voltage to suppress its effect on the measurement of mobility. The mobility is subsequently measured at a reduced electric field intensity of 2.83 × 10 -3 to 2.83. The observed mobility of 2.31 ± 0.03 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in O 2 is concluded to be that of O 2 - . This value is also obtained in experiments over a wide range of gas pressures (0.5-2.0 atm) and drift lengths (1.00-9.00 cm). The mobilities of O 3 - and O - are also obtained experimentally. (paper)

  14. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    Sankapal, B.R.; Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K.; Gupta, V.; Chand, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. → Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH) 2 nanowires through lead hydroxination. → The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. → Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. → The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd 2+ with Pb 2+ ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  15. Marijuana usage in relation to harmfulness ratings, perceived likelihood of negative consequences, and defense mechanisms in high school students.

    Como-Lesko, N; Primavera, L H; Szeszko, P R

    1994-08-01

    This study investigated high school students' marijuana usage patterns in relation to their harmfulness ratings of 15 licit and illicit drugs, perceived negative consequences from using marijuana, and types of defense mechanisms employed. Subjects were classified into one of five pattern-of-use groups based on marijuana usage: principled nonusers, nonusers, light users, moderate users, and heavy users. Principled nonusers (individuals who have never used marijuana and would not do so if it was legalized) rated marijuana, hashish, cocaine, and alcohol as significantly more harmful than heavy users. A cluster analysis of the drugs' harmfulness ratings best fit a three cluster solution and were named medicinal drugs, recreational drugs, and hard drugs. In general, principled nonusers rated negative consequences from using marijuana as significantly more likely to occur than other groups. Principled nonusers and heavy users utilized reversal from the Defense Mechanism Inventory, which includes repression and denial, significantly more than nonusers, indicating some trait common to the two extreme pattern-of-use groups.

  16. Traits across the personality hierarchy differentially relate to positive and negative affect: Evidence for the predictive validity of empirically derived meta-traits.

    Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. High impulsivity predicting vulnerability to cocaine addiction in rats

    Molander, Anna C; Mar, Adam; Norbury, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impulsivity is a vulnerability marker for drug addiction in which other behavioural traits such as anxiety and novelty seeking ('sensation seeking') are also widely present. However, inter-relationships between impulsivity, novelty seeking and anxiety traits are poorly understood...... increasing or decreasing impulsivity in SHI and SLI rats, did reduce the contrast in impulsivity between these two groups of animals. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation indicates that behavioural impulsivity in rats on the 5-CSRTT, which predicts vulnerability for cocaine addiction, is distinct from anxiety...

  18. Fast Algorithms for High-Order Sparse Linear Prediction with Applications to Speech Processing

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon

    2016-01-01

    In speech processing applications, imposing sparsity constraints on high-order linear prediction coefficients and prediction residuals has proven successful in overcoming some of the limitation of conventional linear predictive modeling. However, this modeling scheme, named sparse linear prediction...... problem with lower accuracy than in previous work. In the experimental analysis, we clearly show that a solution with lower accuracy can achieve approximately the same performance as a high accuracy solution both objectively, in terms of prediction gain, as well as with perceptual relevant measures, when...... evaluated in a speech reconstruction application....

  19. Limitations in predicting PAM50 intrinsic subtype and risk of relapse score with Ki67 in estrogen receptor-positive HER2-negative breast cancer

    Fernand ez-Martinez, Aranzazu; Pascual, Tomás; Perrone, Giuseppe; Morales, Serafin; de la Haba, Juan; González-Rivera, Milagros; Galván, Patricia; Zalfa, Francesca; Amato, Michela; Gonzalez, Lucia; Prats, Miquel; Rojo, Federico; Manso, Luis; Paré, Laia; Alonso, Immaculada; Albanell, Joan; Vivancos, Ana; González, Antonio; Matito, Judit; González, Sonia; Fernandez, Pedro; Adamo, Barbara; Muñoz, Montserrat; Viladot, Margarita; Font, Carme; Aya, Francisco; Vidal, Maria; Caballero, Rosalía; Carrasco, Eva; Altomare, Vittorio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Prat, Aleix; Martin, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    PAM50/Prosigna gene expression-based assay identifies three categorical risk of relapse groups (ROR-low, ROR-intermediate and ROR-high) in post-menopausal patients with estrogen receptor estrogen receptor-positive (ER+)/ HER2-negative (HER2-) early breast cancer. Low risk patients might not need adjuvant chemotherapy since their risk of distant relapse at 10-years is below 10% with endocrine therapy only. In this study, 517 consecutive patients with ER+/HER2- and node-negative disease were evaluated for Ki67 and Prosigna. Most of Luminal A tumors (65.6%) and ROR-low tumors (70.9%) had low Ki67 values (0-10%); however, the percentage of patients with ROR-medium or ROR-high disease within the Ki67 0-10% group was 42.7% (with tumor sizes ≤2 cm) and 33.9% (with tumor sizes > 2 cm). Finally, we found that the optimal Ki67 cutoff for identifying Luminal A or ROR-low tumors was 14%. Ki67 as a surrogate biomarker in identifying Prosigna low-risk outcome patients or Luminal A disease in the clinical setting is unreliable. In the absence of a well-validated prognostic gene expression-based assay, the optimal Ki67 cutoff for identifying low-risk outcome patients or Luminal A disease remains at 14%. PMID:28423537

  20. Worse prognosis in breast cancer patients can be predicted by immunohistochemical analysis of positive MMP-2 and negative estrogen and progesterone receptors

    Edneia A. S. Ramos

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Breast cancer is the most cause of death, and approximately 90% of these deaths are due to metastases. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 gelatinase activity is able to degrade a major constituent of the tumor microenvironment, type IV collagen. Two well-established proteins used as markers in clinical practice for breast cancer are the receptors for estrogen (ER and progesterone (PR. Although the presence of these receptors has been associated with a better prognosis, loss of these proteins can occur during tumor progression, with subsequent resistance to hormone therapy. Objective: To study the correlation among MMP-2, ER, and PR, as well as the establishment of the metastatic process in primary breast tumors. Method: Breast cancer samples (n=44 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for MMP-2, ER, and PR. Results: We observed that 90% of patients who had metastases and died showed positive staining for MMP-2 (p=0.0082 for both. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that negative ER patients who were also positive for MMP-2 had even worse disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (p= 0.012 and p=0.005, respectively. Similar results were found in PR-negative patients for DFS (a trend p=0.077 and OS (p=0.038. Conclusion: Regardless of our small sample size (n=44, the data obtained strongly suggest that MMP-2 in combination with already well-established markers could help to predict the emergence of metastases and death in patients with breast cancer.

  1. The predictive value of childhood recurrent abdominal pain for adult emotional disorders, and the influence of negative cognitive style. Findings from a cohort study.

    Kate Stein

    Full Text Available Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP in childhood is common, with no explanatory pathology identified in the majority of cases. Previous studies have consistently demonstrated an association between childhood RAP and later emotional distress disorders. The aim of this study was to replicate this finding through the analysis of a large dataset, and explore how a negative style of thinking could potentially influence this relationship.The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC is a population cohort of children born in the Avon area of the UK, between 1991-1992. Data on childhood RAP was collected via maternal reports at 3, 4, 7 and 9 years. Mood, anxiety and cognitive style were measured at age 18. We controlled for various confounding factors, including maternal anxiety and the child's pre-existing psychopathology. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations, and moderation effects of cognitive style were analysed using likelihood ratios.Experiencing RAP at any one time-point is associated with an increased odds of depression and/or anxiety disorder at 18 (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83. We found a dose-response relationship and each additional marker of RAP was associated with a 26% (CI: 7% to 47% increase in risk of having a mood and/or anxiety disorder. Individuals who attribute adversity to global, stable or personal factors were at amplified risk.Childhood RAP predicts depression and anxiety disorders at 18 and should be targeted for early intervention. Individuals with a negative cognitive style may be particularly vulnerable, suggesting that cognitive interpretations of physical symptoms could play an important role in long-term health outcomes.

  2. High Precision Clock Bias Prediction Model in Clock Synchronization System

    Zan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Time synchronization is a fundamental requirement for many services provided by a distributed system. Clock calibration through the time signal is the usual way to realize the synchronization among the clocks used in the distributed system. The interference to time signal transmission or equipment failures may bring about failure to synchronize the time. To solve this problem, a clock bias prediction module is paralleled in the clock calibration system. And for improving the precision of clock bias prediction, the first-order grey model with one variable (GM(1,1 model is proposed. In the traditional GM(1,1 model, the combination of parameters determined by least squares criterion is not optimal; therefore, the particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to optimize GM(1,1 model. At the same time, in order to avoid PSO getting stuck at local optimization and improve its efficiency, the mechanisms that double subgroups and nonlinear decreasing inertia weight are proposed. In order to test the precision of the improved model, we design clock calibration experiments, where time signal is transferred via radio and wired channel, respectively. The improved model is built on the basis of clock bias acquired in the experiments. The results show that the improved model is superior to other models both in precision and in stability. The precision of improved model increased by 66.4%~76.7%.

  3. Prediction of failure strain and burst pressure in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe

    Law, M.; Bowie, G.

    2007-01-01

    Failure pressures and strains were predicted for a number of burst tests as part of a project to explore failure strain in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe. Twenty-three methods for predicting the burst pressure and six methods of predicting the failure strain are compared with test results. Several methods were identified which gave accurate and reliable estimates of burst pressure. No method of accurately predicting the failure strain was found, though the best was noted

  4. Prediction of failure strain and burst pressure in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe

    Law, M. [Institute of Materials and Engineering Science, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: mlx@ansto.gov.au; Bowie, G. [BlueScope Steel Ltd., Level 11, 120 Collins St, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Failure pressures and strains were predicted for a number of burst tests as part of a project to explore failure strain in high yield-to-tensile strength ratio linepipe. Twenty-three methods for predicting the burst pressure and six methods of predicting the failure strain are compared with test results. Several methods were identified which gave accurate and reliable estimates of burst pressure. No method of accurately predicting the failure strain was found, though the best was noted.

  5. When negation is not negation

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  6. Cervical cancer screening by high risk HPV testing in routine practice: results at one year recall of high risk HPV-positive and cytology-negative women.

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Frayle, Helena; Ferro, Antonio; Callegaro, Susanna; Del Sole, Annamaria; Stomeo, Anna; Cirillo, Emanuela; Fedato, Chiara; Pagni, Silvana; Barzon, Luisa; Zorzi, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing requires the use of additional triage and follow-up analyses. We evaluated women's compliance with and the performance of this strategy in a routine setting. Five cervical service screening programmes in North-East Italy. Eligible women aged 25-64 invited for a new screening episode underwent HPV testing for high risk types (hrHPV by Hybrid Capture 2) and cytology triage. Women with positive HPV and cytology results were referred for colposcopy; women with positive HPV but negative cytology results were referred to 1-year repeat hrHPV testing. Of 46,694 women screened by HPV testing up to December 2011, 3,211 (6.9%) tested hrHPV positive; 45% of these had a positive triage cytology. Those with negative cytology were invited for 1-yr repeat testing. Compliance with invitation was 61.6% at baseline and 85.3% at 1-yr repeat. Rate of persistent hrHPV positivity was 58% (830/1,435). Colposcopy performed in women with a positive hrHPV test at 1-yr repeat accounted for 36% of all colposcopies performed within the screening programmes. Cumulatively, a histological high-grade lesion was detected in 276 women (5.9‰ detection rate), 234 at baseline (85%), and 42 (15%) at 1-yr repeat. Compliance with hrHPV-based screening programmes was high both at baseline and at 1-yr repeat. Compared with the randomized trials, a higher proportion of triage cytology was read as positive, and only a small number of high-grade lesions were detected among the group of hrHPV positive cytology negative women who repeated testing 1-yr after baseline.

  7. When do ego threats lead to self-regulation failure? Negative consequences of defensive high self-esteem.

    Lambird, Kathleen Hoffman; Mann, Traci

    2006-09-01

    High self-esteem (HSE) is increasingly recognized as heterogeneous. By measuring subtypes of HSE, the present research reevaluates the finding that HSE individuals show poor self-regulation following ego threat (Baumeister, Heatherton, & Tice, 1993). In Experiment 1, participants with HSE showed poor self-regulation after ego threat only if they also were defensive (high in self-presentation bias). In Experiment 2, two measures--self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem--were used to subtype HSE individuals as defensive. Both operationalizations of defensive HSE predicted poor self-regulation after ego threat. The results indicate that (a) only defensive HSE individuals are prone to self-regulation failure following ego threat and (b) measures of self-presentation bias and implicit self-esteem can both be used to detect defensiveness.

  8. Non-linear feeding functional responses in the Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) predict immediate negative impact of wetland degradation on this flagship species

    Deville, Anne-Sophie; Grémillet, David; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Guillemain, Matthieu; Von Houwald, Friederike; Gardelli, Bruno; Béchet, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the functional response of predators to prey density is essential for understanding food web dynamics, to parameterize mechanistic models of animal responses to environmental change, and for designing appropriate conservation measures. Greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus), a flagship species of Mediterranean wetlands, primarily feed on Artemias (Artemia spp.) in commercial salt pans, an industry which may collapse for economic reasons. Flamingos also feed on alternative prey such as Chironomid larvae (e.g., Chironomid spp.) and rice seeds (Oryza sativa). However, the profitability of these food items for flamingos remains unknown. We determined the functional responses of flamingos feeding on Artemias, Chironomids, or rice. Experiments were conducted on 11 captive flamingos. For each food item, we offered different ranges of food densities, up to 13 times natural abundance. Video footage allowed estimating intake rates. Contrary to theoretical predictions for filter feeders, intake rates did not increase linearly with increasing food density (type I). Intake rates rather increased asymptotically with increasing food density (type II) or followed a sigmoid shape (type III). Hence, flamingos were not able to ingest food in direct proportion to their abundance, possibly because of unique bill structure resulting in limited filtering capabilities. Overall, flamingos foraged more efficiently on Artemias. When feeding on Chironomids, birds had lower instantaneous rates of food discovery and required more time to extract food from the sediment and ingest it, than when filtering Artemias from the water column. However, feeding on rice was energetically more profitable for flamingos than feeding on Artemias or Chironomids, explaining their attraction for rice fields. Crucially, we found that food densities required for flamingos to reach asymptotic intake rates are rarely met under natural conditions. This allows us to predict an immediate

  9. prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high

    ACSS

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences ... with high G/G ratios in SDS-insoluble protein fraction were Sceptre x Nata and Kariega x Sceptre. ...... Molecular characterisation and dynamic.

  10. Affective processing within 1/10th of a second: High arousal is necessary for early facilitative processing of negative but not positive words.

    Hofmann, Markus J; Kuchinke, Lars; Tamm, Sascha; Võ, Melissa L-H; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2009-12-01

    Lexical decisions to high- and low-arousal negative words and to low-arousal neutral and positive words were examined in an event-related potentials (ERP) study. Reaction times to positive and high-arousal negative words were shorter than those to neutral (low-arousal) words, whereas those to low-arousal negative words were longer. A similar pattern was observed in an early time window of the ERP response: Both positive and high-arousal negative words elicited greater negative potentials in a time frame of 80 to 120 msec after stimulus onset. This result suggests that arousal has a differential impact on early lexical processing of positive and negative words. Source localization in the relevant time frame revealed that the arousal effect in negative words is likely to be localized in a left occipito-temporal region including the middle temporal and fusiform gyri. The ERP arousal effect appears to result from early lexico-semantic processing in high-arousal negative words.

  11. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet impairs exercise economy and negates the performance benefit from intensified training in elite race walkers

    Ross, Megan L.; Garvican‐Lewis, Laura A.; Welvaert, Marijke; Heikura, Ida A.; Forbes, Sara G.; Mirtschin, Joanne G.; Cato, Louise E.; Strobel, Nicki; Sharma, Avish P.; Hawley, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support.Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole‐body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities.The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real‐life race performance in elite race walkers.In contrast to training with diets providing chronic or periodised high carbohydrate availability, adaptation to an LCHF diet impairs performance in elite endurance athletes despite a significant improvement in peak aerobic capacity. Abstract We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate (CHO), high fat diet (LCHF) during 3 weeks of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world‐class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: high CHO availability (g kg−1 day−1: 8.6 CHO, 2.1 protein, 1.2 fat) consumed before, during and after training (HCHO, n = 9); identical macronutrient intake, periodised within or between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (diets providing chronic or periodised high‐CHO availability, and despite a significant improvement in V˙O2 peak , adaptation to the topical LCHF diet negated performance benefits in elite endurance athletes, in part due to reduced exercise economy. PMID:28012184

  12. CD20 positivity and white blood cell count predict treatment outcomes in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients ineligible for pediatric-inspired chemotherapy.

    Isshiki, Yusuke; Ohwada, Chikako; Sakaida, Emiko; Onoda, Masahiro; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Fukazawa, Motoharu; Cho, Ryuko; Sugawara, Takeaki; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Hara, Satoru; Yokota, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been controversial as post-remission therapies for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. We retrospectively analyzed 96 adolescent and adult cases of Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia to evaluate whether allo-HSCT should be performed after first complete remission (1CR). In total, 34 patients received chemotherapy followed by allo-HSCT (HSCT group) and 62 received chemotherapy alone (chemotherapy group). No significant differences in the event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival were observed between the two groups. In the chemotherapy group, use of pediatric regimens was significantly associated with favorable EFS, while high white blood cell (WBC) count and CD20 positivity were associated with poor outcome. In patients who received pediatric regimens, subsequent allo-HSCT did not influence EFS. In patients who received conventional chemotherapy (adult regimen), subsequent allo-HSCT did not improve EFS. High WBC count and CD20 positivity were also significantly associated with poor EFS in patients who received adult regimens. Patients with low WBC count and absence of CD20 who received adult regimens did not benefit from allo-HSCT. Allo-HSCT may not be required in the pediatric regimen-eligible patients; however, pediatric regimen-ineligible patients with either CD20 positivity or high WBC count should receive allo-HSCT after achieving 1CR. This study was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as #C000016287. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. High Order Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Technology for Airframe Noise Prediction, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel, high-accuracy, high-fidelity, multiresolution (MRES), wavelet-based framework for efficient prediction of airframe noise sources and...

  14. Using high-throughput literature mining to support read-across predictions of skin sensitization (WC)

    Read-across predictions require high quality measured data for source analogues. These data are typically retrieved from structured databases, but biomedical literature data are often untapped because current literature mining approaches are resource intensive. Our high-throughpu...

  15. HIGH PRESSURE PHASE EQUILIBRIUM: PREDICTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL SOLUBILITY

    Lúcio CARDOZO-FILHO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method to predict the solubility of essential oils in supercritical carbon dioxide. The method is based on the formulation proposed in 1979 by Asselineau, Bogdanic and Vidal. The Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equations of state were used with the van der Waals mixing rules with two interaction parameters. Method validation was accomplished calculating orange essential oil solubility in pressurized carbon dioxide. The solubility of orange essential oil in carbon dioxide calculated at 308.15 K for pressures of 50 to 70 bar varied from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.6± 0.1 mg/g. For same the range of conditions, experimental solubility varied from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.6± 0.1 mg/g. Predicted values were not very sensitive to initial oil composition.Este trabalho descreve uma metodologia para o cálculo da solubilidade de óleos essenciais em dióxido de carbono a altas pressões baseada na formulação proposta em 1979 por Asselineau, Bogdanic e Vidal. Foram utilizadas as equações cúbicas de estado de Peng-Robinson e Soave-Redlich-Kwong com regras de mistura de van der Waals com dois parâmetros de interação. O cálculo da solubilidade do óleo essencial de laranja em dióxido de carbono pressurizado foi usado para validação do método. A solubilidade calculada a 308,15 K para pressões entre 50 e 70 bar variou entre 1,5 e 4,1 mg/g. Valores experimentais para as mesmas condições variam entre 1,7± 0.1 a 3,6± 0.1 mg/g. Os valores preditos não são muito sensíveis à composição inicial do óleo essencial.

  16. Adolescent Eating Disorders Predict Psychiatric, High-Risk Behaviors and Weight Outcomes in Young Adulthood.

    Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J; Crosby, Ross D; Eddy, Kamryn T; Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Swanson, Sonja A; Field, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16 years, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Eating disorders were ascertained at ages 14 and 16 years in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years after predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94; BN: OR = 3.39, 95% CI = 1.25-9.20; BED: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.06-3.75; and PD: OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.38-4.74). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.22-14.72; PD: OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 2.78-8.57; subthreshold BN: OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.44-10.98; and subthreshold BED: OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.43-3.75). Although BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.06-12.14 and OR = 6.42, 95% CI = 1.69-24.30), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders

  17. Adolescent Eating Disorders Predict Psychiatric, High-Risk Behaviors and Weight Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Micali, Nadia; Solmi, Francesca; Horton, Nicholas J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Field, Alison E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED), including purging disorder (PD), subthreshold BN, and BED at ages 14 and 16, are prospectively associated with later depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol and substance use, and self-harm. Method Eating disorders were ascertained at 14 and 16 years of age in 6,140 youth at age 14 (58% of those eligible) and 5,069 at age 16 (52% of those eligible) as part of the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Outcomes (depression, anxiety disorders, binge drinking, drug use, deliberate self-harm, weight status) were measured using interviews and questionnaires about 2 years following predictors. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for gender, socio-demographic variables, and prior outcome were used to examine prospective associations between eating disorders and each outcome. Results All eating disorders were predictive of later anxiety disorders. AN, BN, BED, PD, and OSFED were prospectively associated with depression (respectively AN: odds ratio [OR]=1.39 [95% CIs: 1.00-1.94]; BN: OR=3.39[1.25-9.20]; BED: OR=2.00 [1.06-3.75]; PD: OR=2.56 [1.38-4.74]). All eating disorders but AN predicted drug use and deliberate self-harm (BN: OR=5.72[2.22-14.72], PD: OR=4.88[2.78-8.57], subthreshold BN: OR=3.97[1.44-10.98], subthreshold BED: OR=2.32[1.43-3.75]). Whilst BED and BN predicted obesity (respectively OR=3.58 [1.06-12.14] and OR=6.42 [1.69-24.30]), AN was prospectively associated with underweight. Conclusions Adolescent eating disorders, including subthreshold presentations, predict negative outcomes, including mental health disorders, substance use, deliberate self-harm, and weight outcomes. This study highlights the high public health and clinical burden of eating disorders among adolescents. PMID:26210334

  18. High Stromal Carbonic Anhydrase IX Expression Is Associated With Decreased Survival in p16-Negative Head-and-Neck Tumors

    Brockton, Nigel; Dort, Joseph; Lau, Harold; Hao, Desiree; Brar, Sony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Petrillo, Stephanie; Diaz, Roman; Doll, Corinne; Magliocco, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Alcohol use and tobacco use are the most established risk factors; however, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a subset of HNSCCs. Although HPV-positive tumors typically present at a more advanced stage at diagnosis, they are associated with a better prognosis. Tumor hypoxia confers poor prognosis and treatment failure, but direct tumor oxygen measurement is challenging. Endogenous markers of hypoxia (EMHs) have been proposed but have not replicated the prognostic utility of direct oxygen measurement. The expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia may be influenced by oxygen-independent factors, such as the HPV status of the tumor. Methods and Materials: Consecutive cases of locally advanced HNSCC, treated with a uniform regimen of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were identified. Tissue microarrays were assembled from triplicate 0.6-mm cores of archived tumor tissue. HPV status was inferred from semiquantitative p16 immunostaining and directly measured by use of HPV-specific chromogenic in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Automated quantitative fluorescent immunohistochemistry was conducted to measure epithelial and stromal expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Results: High stromal CAIX expression was associated with significantly reduced overall survival (p = 0.03) in patients with p16-negative tumors. Conclusions: This is the first study to use quantitative immunohistochemistry to examine endogenous markers of hypoxia stratified by tumor p16/HPV status. Assessment of CAIX expression in p16-negative HNSCC could identify patients with the least favorable prognosis and inform therapeutic strategies.

  19. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host.

    Cirocco, Robert M; Facelli, José M; Watling, Jennifer R

    2016-03-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites' effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ(13)C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. [Stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescence].

    Ozawa, Eiji

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescents. Adolescent students (N=1500) completed a questionnaire that measured attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping. Analysis of date yielded, two factors of the attitudes toward negative emotions: "Negative feelings about negative emotions" and "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions". In order to examine the theoretical relationships among attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping, a hypothetical model was tested by covariance structure analysis. This model predicted that students who have a high level of attitudes toward negative emotions would report enhanced problem solving which promoted stress coping. The results indicated that "Negative feelings about negative emotions" enhanced avoidable coping, and avoidable coping enhanced stress reactions. "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions" was related to a decrease of avoidable coping. Based on the results from covariance structure analysis and a multiple population analysis, the clinical significance and developmental characteristics were discussed.

  1. Photoinduced Field-Effect Passivation from Negative Carrier Accumulation for High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Liu, Zhaolang; Yang, Zhenhai; Wu, Sudong; Zhu, Juye; Guo, Wei; Sheng, Jiang; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2017-12-26

    Carrier recombination and light management of the dopant-free silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are the critical factors in developing high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the traditional passivation technologies can hardly provide efficient surface passivation on the front surface of Si. In this study, a photoinduced electric field was induced in a bilayer antireflective coating (ARC) of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) films, due to formation of an accumulation layer of negative carriers (O 2 - species) under UV (sunlight) illumination. This photoinduced field not only suppressed the silicon surface recombination but also enhanced the built-in potential of HSCs with 84 mV increment. In addition, this photoactive ARC also displayed the outstanding light-trapping capability. The front PEDOT:PSS/Si HSC with the saturated O 2 - received a champion PCE of 15.51% under AM 1.5 simulated sunlight illumination. It was clearly demonstrated that the photoinduced electric field was a simple, efficient, and low-cost method for the surface passivation and contributed to achieve a high efficiency when applied in the Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs.

  2. Cantilever-type electrode array-based high-throughput microparticle sorting platform driven by gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic force

    Kim, Youngho; Kim, Byungkyu; Lee, Junghun; Kim, Younggeun; Shin, Sang-Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a cantilever-type electrode (CE) array-based high-throughput sorting platform, which is a tool used to separate microparticles using gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) force. This platform consists of meso-size channels and a CE array, which is designed to separate a large number of target particles by differences in their dielectric material properties (DMP) and the weight of the particles. We employ a two-step separation process, with sedimentation as the first step and n-DEP as the second step. In order to differentiate the weight and the DMP of each particle, we employ the sedimentation phenomena in a vertical channel and the CE-based n-DEP in an inclined channel. By using three kinds of polystyrene beads with diameters of 10, 25 and 50 µm, the optimal population (10 7 beads ml −1 ) of particles and the appropriate length (25 mm) of the vertical channel for high performance were determined experimentally. Conclusively, by combining sedimentation and n-DEP schemes, we achieve 74.5, 94.7 and 100% separation efficiency for sorting microparticles with a diameter of 10, 25 and 50 µm, respectively.

  3. A high efficiency gene disruption strategy using a positive-negative split selection marker and electroporation for Fusarium oxysporum.

    Liang, Liqin; Li, Jianqiang; Cheng, Lin; Ling, Jian; Luo, Zhongqin; Bai, Miao; Xie, Bingyan

    2014-11-01

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex consists of fungal pathogens that cause serial vascular wilt disease on more than 100 cultivated species throughout the world. Gene function analysis is rapidly becoming more and more important as the whole-genome sequences of various F. oxysporum strains are being completed. Gene-disruption techniques are a common molecular tool for studying gene function, yet are often a limiting step in gene function identification. In this study we have developed a F. oxysporum high-efficiency gene-disruption strategy based on split-marker homologous recombination cassettes with dual selection and electroporation transformation. The method was efficiently used to delete three RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes. The gene-disruption cassettes of three genes can be constructed simultaneously within a short time using this technique. The optimal condition for electroporation is 10μF capacitance, 300Ω resistance, 4kV/cm field strength, with 1μg of DNA (gene-disruption cassettes). Under these optimal conditions, we were able to obtain 95 transformants per μg DNA. And after positive-negative selection, the transformants were efficiently screened by PCR, screening efficiency averaged 85%: 90% (RdRP1), 85% (RdRP2) and 77% (RdRP3). This gene-disruption strategy should pave the way for high throughout genetic analysis in F. oxysporum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting reattendance at a high-risk breast cancer clinic.

    Ormseth, Sarah R; Wellisch, David K; Aréchiga, Adam E; Draper, Taylor L

    2015-10-01

    The research about follow-up patterns of women attending high-risk breast-cancer clinics is sparse. This study sought to profile daughters of breast-cancer patients who are likely to return versus those unlikely to return for follow-up care in a high-risk clinic. Our investigation included 131 patients attending the UCLA Revlon Breast Center High Risk Clinic. Predictor variables included age, computed breast-cancer risk, participants' perceived personal risk, clinically significant depressive symptomatology (CES-D score ≥ 16), current level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and survival status of participants' mothers (survived or passed away from breast cancer). A greater likelihood of reattendance was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, p = 0.004), computed breast-cancer risk (AOR = 1.10, p = 0.017), absence of depressive symptomatology (AOR = 0.25, p = 0.009), past psychiatric diagnosis (AOR = 3.14, p = 0.029), and maternal loss to breast cancer (AOR = 2.59, p = 0.034). Also, an interaction was found between mother's survival and perceived risk (p = 0.019), such that reattendance was associated with higher perceived risk among participants whose mothers survived (AOR = 1.04, p = 0.002), but not those whose mothers died (AOR = 0.99, p = 0.685). Furthermore, a nonlinear inverted "U" relationship was observed between state anxiety and reattendance (p = 0.037); participants with moderate anxiety were more likely to reattend than those with low or high anxiety levels. Demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors were found to be independently associated with reattendance to a high-risk breast-cancer clinic. Explication of the profiles of women who may or may not reattend may serve to inform the development and implementation of interventions to increase the likelihood of follow-up care.

  5. High Genomic Instability Predicts Survival in Metastatic High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    Sara Stigliani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify novel molecular prognostic markers to better predict relapse risk estimate for children with high-risk (HR metastatic neuroblastoma (NB. We performed genome- and/or transcriptome-wide analyses of 129 stage 4 HR NBs. Children older than 1 year of age were categorized as “short survivors” (dead of disease within 5 years from diagnosis and “long survivors” (alive with an overall survival time ≥ 5 years. We reported that patients with less than three segmental copy number aberrations in their tumor represent a molecularly defined subgroup with a high survival probability within the current HR group of patients. The complex genomic pattern is a prognostic marker independent of NB-associated chromosomal aberrations, i.e., MYCN amplification, 1p and 11q losses, and 17q gain. Integrative analysis of genomic and expression signatures demonstrated that fatal outcome is mainly associated with loss of cell cycle control and deregulation of Rho guanosine triphosphates (GTPases functioning in neuritogenesis. Tumors with MYCN amplification show a lower chromosome instability compared to MYCN single-copy NBs (P = .0008, dominated by 17q gain and 1p loss. Moreover, our results suggest that the MYCN amplification mainly drives disruption of neuronal differentiation and reduction of cell adhesion process involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Further validation studies are warranted to establish this as a risk stratification for patients.

  6. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    Valerio, Luis G.; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.; Contrera, Joseph F.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals

  7. Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion

    Yang, Jang Sik; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool; Katsuki, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results

  8. Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion

    Yang, Jang Sik; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Katsuki, Masashi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results

  9. Comprehensive analysis of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high, -low, and -negative colorectal cancers based on protein marker expression and molecular features.

    Zlobec, Inti; Bihl, Michel; Foerster, Anja; Rufle, Alex; Lugli, Alessandro

    2011-11-01

    CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is being investigated for its role in the molecular and prognostic classification of colorectal cancer patients but is also emerging as a factor with the potential to influence clinical decision-making. We report a comprehensive analysis of clinico-pathological and molecular features (KRAS, BRAF and microsatellite instability, MSI) as well as of selected tumour- and host-related protein markers characterizing CIMP-high (CIMP-H), -low, and -negative colorectal cancers. Immunohistochemical analysis for 48 protein markers and molecular analysis of CIMP (CIMP-H: ≥ 4/5 methylated genes), MSI (MSI-H: ≥ 2 instable genes), KRAS, and BRAF were performed on 337 colorectal cancers. Simple and multiple regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed. CIMP-H was found in 24 cases (7.1%) and linked (p CIMP-low or -negative cases. Of the 48 protein markers, decreased levels of RKIP (p = 0.0056), EphB2 (p = 0.0045), CK20 (p = 0.002), and Cdx2 (p CIMP-H, independently of MSI status. In addition to the expected clinico-pathological and molecular associations, CIMP-H colorectal cancers are characterized by a loss of protein markers associated with differentiation, and metastasis suppression, and have increased CD8+ T-lymphocytes regardless of MSI status. In particular, Cdx2 loss seems to strongly predict CIMP-H in both microsatellite-stable (MSS) and MSI-H colorectal cancers. Cdx2 is proposed as a surrogate marker for CIMP-H. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. All in Its Proper Time: Monitoring the Emergence of a Memory Bias for Novel, Arousing-Negative Words in Individuals with High and Low Trait Anxiety

    Eden, Annuschka Salima; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Keuper, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus; Laeger, Inga; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arou...

  11. Algorithms and Methods for High-Performance Model Predictive Control

    Frison, Gianluca

    routines employed in the numerical tests. The main focus of this thesis is on linear MPC problems. In this thesis, both the algorithms and their implementation are equally important. About the implementation, a novel implementation strategy for the dense linear algebra routines in embedded optimization...... is proposed, aiming at improving the computational performance in case of small matrices. About the algorithms, they are built on top of the proposed linear algebra, and they are tailored to exploit the high-level structure of the MPC problems, with special care on reducing the computational complexity....

  12. High ASMA+ Fibroblasts and Low Cytoplasmic HMGB1+ Breast Cancer Cells Predict Poor Prognosis.

    Amornsupak, Kamolporn; Jamjuntra, Pranisa; Warnnissorn, Malee; O-Charoenrat, Pornchai; Sa-Nguanraksa, Doonyapat; Thuwajit, Peti; Eccles, Suzanne A; Thuwajit, Chanitra

    2017-10-01

    The influence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been recognized in several cancers, although their roles in breast cancer are unclear. The present study aimed to determine the levels and prognostic significance of α-smooth muscle actin-positive (ASMA + ) CAFs, plus HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in cancer cells. A total of 127 breast samples, including 96 malignant and 31 benign, were examined for ASMA, HMGB1, and RAGE by immunohistochemistry. The χ 2 test and Fisher's exact test were used to test the association of each protein with clinicopathologic parameters. The Kaplan-Meier method or log-rank test and Cox regression were used for survival analysis. ASMA + fibroblast infiltration was significantly increased in the tumor stroma compared with that in benign breast tissue. The levels of cytoplasmic HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly greater in the breast cancer tissue than in the benign breast tissues. High ASMA expression correlated significantly with large tumor size, clinical stage III-IV, and angiolymphatic and perinodal invasion. In contrast, increased cytoplasmic HMGB1 correlated significantly with small tumor size, pT stage, early clinical stage, luminal subtype (but not triple-negative subtype), and estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression. The levels of ASMA (hazard ratio, 14.162; P = .010) and tumor cytoplasmic HMGB1 (hazard ratio, 0.221; P = .005) could serve as independent prognostic markers for metastatic relapse in breast cancer patients. The ASMA-high/HMGB1-low profile provided the most reliable prediction of metastatic relapse. We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the potential clinical implications of the combined assessment of ASMA + fibroblasts and cytoplasmic HMGB1 in breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Negative mass

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  14. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened negative dispersion over S + C + L + U bands

    Habib, Selim; Khandker, Emran

    2015-01-01

    We present a new cladding design for photonic crystal fiber (PCF) on a decagonal structure to simultaneously achieve ultra-flattened large negative dispersion and ultrahigh birefringence. Numerical results confirm that the proposed PCFexhibits ultra-flattened large negative dispersion over the S ...

  15. Does Small Prostate Predict High Grade Prostate Cancer?

    Caliskan, S.; Kaba, S.; Koca, O.; Ozturk, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study is aimed to assess the patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer and investigate the association between prostate size and adverse outcomes at final pathology. Study Design: Comparative, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January 2008 to January 2016. Methodology: The patients treated with open radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were reviewed. Patient characteristics including prostate specific antigen (PSA), free PSA levels, age, biopsy, and radical prostatectomy results were recorded. The patients whose data were complete or prostate weight was equal to or less than 80 gm, were included in the study. Patients with < 40 gm prostate weight was in group 1 and the patients in group 2 had a prostate weight from 40 to 80 gm. High grade prostate cancer was defined to have a Gleason score between 7 or higher at biopsy and final pathology. Pathology and biopsy results were compared within groups. MedCalc Statistical Software demo version was used for statistical analyses. Results: There were 162 patients in this study. Of these, 71 (43.82 percent) patients were in group 1 and 91 (56.17 percent) patients were in group 2. The age ranged from 49 to 76 years. Mean value of 62.70 +-6.82 and 65.82 +- 5.66 years in group 1 and 2, respectively. Fifty (70.42 percent) and 68 patients (74.74 percent) had a Gleason score of 6 in group 1 and 2, respectively. Organconfined disease was reported in 53 patients (74.64 percent) in group 1 and in 78 patients (85.71 percent) in group 2. Gleason score concordance between biopsy and prostatectomy was reported in 61 patients (67.03 percent) and downgrading was detected in 4 patients (4.4 percent) in group 2. The median tumor volume of the patients was 4.47 cm/sup 3/ in group 1 and 6 cm/sup 3/ in group 2 (p=0.502). High grade prostate cancer was reported in 52.11 percent and 45.05 percent of the patients in

  16. Characteristics of the scrape-off layer in DIII-D high-performance negative central magnetic shear discharges

    Lasnier, C.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Allen, S.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Buchenauer, D.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Burrell, K.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Casper, T.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cuthbertson, J.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Hill, D.N. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jong, R.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lao, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazarus, E.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Moyer, R.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Porter, G.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Rice, B.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Stallard, B.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Taylor, T.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Watkins, J.G. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this paper we present measurements of the global power and particle balance in the high-performance phase of negative central magnetic shear (NCS) discharges and compare with reference VH-mode discharges. The principal differences observed are that NCS has a much lower fraction of the total input power flowing into the boundary, less core radiation, and larger rate of stored energy increase as a fraction of total power. Scrape-off layer (SOL) temperature and divertor heat flux profiles, and radiation profiles at the midplane, are similar to VH-mode. Due to the good core particle confinement and efficient fueling by neutral beam injection (NBI), with little gas puffing, the gas load on the walls and the recycling are very low during the NCS discharges. This results in a rate of density rise relative to beam fueling at the L to H transition time which is 1/3 of the value for VH transitions, which is in turn 1/2 that for L-to-ELMing-H-mode transitions. (orig.).

  17. A highly-sensitive label-free biosensor based on two dimensional photonic crystals with negative refraction

    Malmir, Narges; Fasihi, Kiazand

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present a novel high-sensitive optical label-free biosensor based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC). The suggested structure is composed of a negative refraction structure in a hexagonal lattice PC, along with a positive refraction structure which is arranged in a square lattice PC. The frequency shift of the transmission peak is measured respect to the changes of refractive indices of the studied materials (the blood plasma, water, dry air and normal air). The studied materials are filled into a W1 line-defect waveguide which is located in the PC structure with positive refraction (the microfluidic nanochannel). Our numerical simulations, which are based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, show that in the proposed structure, a sensitivity about 1100 nm/RIU and a transmission efficiency more than 75% can be achieved. With this design, to the best of our knowledge, the obtained sensitivity and the transmission efficiency are one of the highest values in the reported PC label-free biosensors.

  18. A Stewart isolator with high-static-low-dynamic stiffness struts based on negative stiffness magnetic springs

    Zheng, Yisheng; Li, Qingpin; Yan, Bo; Luo, Yajun; Zhang, Xinong

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the isolation performance of passive Stewart platforms, the negative stiffness magnetic spring (NSMS) is employed to construct high static low dynamic stiffness (HSLDS) struts. With the NSMS, the resonance frequencies of the platform can be reduced effectively without deteriorating its load bearing capacity. The model of the Stewart isolation platform with HSLDS struts is presented and the stiffness characteristic of its struts is studied firstly. Then the nonlinear dynamic model of the platform including both geometry nonlinearity and stiffness nonlinearity is established; and its simplified dynamic model is derived under the condition of small vibration. The effect of nonlinearity on the isolation performance is also evaluated. Finally, a prototype is built and the isolation performance is tested. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate that, by using the NSMS, the resonance frequencies of the Stewart isolator are reduced and the isolation performance in all six directions is improved: the isolation frequency band is increased and extended to a lower-frequency level.

  19. An empirical tool to evaluate the safety of cyclists: Community based, macro-level collision prediction models using negative binomial regression.

    Wei, Feng; Lovegrove, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Today, North American governments are more willing to consider compact neighborhoods with increased use of sustainable transportation modes. Bicycling, one of the most effective modes for short trips with distances less than 5km is being encouraged. However, as vulnerable road users (VRUs), cyclists are more likely to be injured when involved in collisions. In order to create a safe road environment for them, evaluating cyclists' road safety at a macro level in a proactive way is necessary. In this paper, different generalized linear regression methods for collision prediction model (CPM) development are reviewed and previous studies on micro-level and macro-level bicycle-related CPMs are summarized. On the basis of insights gained in the exploration stage, this paper also reports on efforts to develop negative binomial models for bicycle-auto collisions at a community-based, macro-level. Data came from the Central Okanagan Regional District (CORD), of British Columbia, Canada. The model results revealed two types of statistical associations between collisions and each explanatory variable: (1) An increase in bicycle-auto collisions is associated with an increase in total lane kilometers (TLKM), bicycle lane kilometers (BLKM), bus stops (BS), traffic signals (SIG), intersection density (INTD), and arterial-local intersection percentage (IALP). (2) A decrease in bicycle collisions was found to be associated with an increase in the number of drive commuters (DRIVE), and in the percentage of drive commuters (DRP). These results support our hypothesis that in North America, with its current low levels of bicycle use (macro-level CPMs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  1. High Predictive Skill of Global Surface Temperature a Year Ahead

    Folland, C. K.; Colman, A.; Kennedy, J. J.; Knight, J.; Parker, D. E.; Stott, P.; Smith, D. M.; Boucher, O.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the high skill of real-time forecasts of global surface temperature a year ahead issued by the UK Met Office, and their scientific background. Although this is a forecasting and not a formal attribution study, we show that the main instrumental global annual surface temperature data sets since 1891 are structured consistently with a set of five physical forcing factors except during and just after the second World War. Reconstructions use a multiple application of cross validated linear regression to minimise artificial skill allowing time-varying uncertainties in the contribution of each forcing factor to global temperature to be assessed. Mean cross validated reconstructions for the data sets have total correlations in the range 0.93-0.95,interannual correlations in the range 0.72-0.75 and root mean squared errors near 0.06oC, consistent with observational uncertainties.Three transient runs of the HadCM3 coupled model for 1888-2002 demonstrate quite similar reconstruction skill from similar forcing factors defined appropriately for the model, showing that skilful use of our technique is not confined to observations. The observed reconstructions show that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) likely contributed to the re-commencement of global warming between 1976 and 2010 and to global cooling observed immediately beforehand in 1965-1976. The slowing of global warming in the last decade is likely to be largely due to a phase-delayed response to the downturn in the solar cycle since 2001-2, with no net ENSO contribution. The much reduced trend in 2001-10 is similar in size to other weak decadal temperature trends observed since global warming resumed in the 1970s. The causes of variations in decadal trends can be mostly explained by variations in the strength of the forcing factors. Eleven real-time forecasts of global mean surface temperature for the year ahead for 2000-2010, based on broadly similar methods, provide an independent test of the

  2. Prediction of Ignition of High Explosive When Submitted To Impact

    Picart, Didier; Delmaire-Sizes, Franck; Gruau, Cyril; Trumel, Herve

    2009-06-01

    High explosive structures may unintentionally ignite and transit to deflagration or detonation, when subjected to mechanical loadings, such as low velocity impact. We focus our attention on ignition. The Browning and Scammon [1] criterion has been adapted. A concrete like constitutive law is derived, with an up-to-date experimental characterization. These models have been implemented in Abaqus/Explicit [2]. Numerical simulations are used to calibrate the ignition threshold. The presentation or the poster will detail the main assumptions, the models (Browning et al, mechanical behavior) and the calibration procedure. Comparisons between numerical results and experiments [3] will show the interest of this method but also its limitations (numerical artifacts, lack of mechanical data, misinterpretation of reactive tests). [1] R. Browning and R. Scammon, Shock compression of condensed matter, pp. 987-990, (2001). [2] C. Gruau, D. Picart et al., 17^th Dymat technical meeting, Cambridge, UK, (2007). [3] F. Delmaire-Sizes et al., 3^rd International symposium on energetic materials, Tokyo, Japan, (2008).

  3. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from a university environment in Thailand.

    Seng, Rathanin; Leungtongkam, Udomluk; Thummeepak, Rapee; Chatdumrong, Wassana; Sitthisak, Sutthirat

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize the molecular epidemiology of the methicillin-resistant staphylococci in the general university environment, where all five locations; the library, restrooms, canteens, computer rooms and outdoor surfaces, are in common use by a large population of students. We used Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) supplemented with 4 μg/ml of oxacillin to screen the methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The species level was identified by PCR of rdr (Staphylococcus epidermidis), groESL (Staphylococcus haemolyticus) and nuc (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus warneri) genes and DNA sequencing of tuf and dnaJ genes. The susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined using the disk diffusion method. Antibiotic and disinfectant resistance genes, together with SCCmec types, were detected by the PCR method. The methicillin resistant-staphylococci were isolated from 41 of 200 samples (20.5%), and all of them were found to be methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). The library had the highest percentage of contamination, with 43.3% of the samples found to be contaminated. All isolates belonged to 6 different species including S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis, S. warneri, S. cohnii, S. saprophyticus and S. hominis. The antimicrobial resistance rates were highest against penicillin (100%), then cefoxitin (73.1%), erythromycin (73.1%) and oxacillin (68.3%). Altogether, the isolates were approximately 61.0% multidrug resistant (MDR), with the S. epidermidis isolates being the most multidrug resistant. The prevalence of the qacA/B gene was detected in 63.4% of the isolates, and SCCmec could be typed in 43.9% (18/41) of the isolates. The type range was: II (n = 1), IVd (n = 1), I (n = 2), V (n = 6), IVa (n = 8) and untypeable (n = 23). This result indicates that these university environments are contaminated with methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci that carry various SCCmec types and

  4. High Class-Imbalance in pre-miRNA Prediction: A Novel Approach Based on deepSOM.

    Stegmayer, Georgina; Yones, Cristian; Kamenetzky, Laura; Milone, Diego H

    2017-01-01

    The computational prediction of novel microRNA within a full genome involves identifying sequences having the highest chance of being a miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA). These sequences are usually named candidates to miRNA. The well-known pre-miRNAs are usually only a few in comparison to the hundreds of thousands of potential candidates to miRNA that have to be analyzed, which makes this task a high class-imbalance classification problem. The classical way of approaching it has been training a binary classifier in a supervised manner, using well-known pre-miRNAs as positive class and artificially defining the negative class. However, although the selection of positive labeled examples is straightforward, it is very difficult to build a set of negative examples in order to obtain a good set of training samples for a supervised method. In this work, we propose a novel and effective way of approaching this problem using machine learning, without the definition of negative examples. The proposal is based on clustering unlabeled sequences of a genome together with well-known miRNA precursors for the organism under study, which allows for the quick identification of the best candidates to miRNA as those sequences clustered with known precursors. Furthermore, we propose a deep model to overcome the problem of having very few positive class labels. They are always maintained in the deep levels as positive class while less likely pre-miRNA sequences are filtered level after level. Our approach has been compared with other methods for pre-miRNAs prediction in several species, showing effective predictivity of novel miRNAs. Additionally, we will show that our approach has a lower training time and allows for a better graphical navegability and interpretation of the results. A web-demo interface to try deepSOM is available at http://fich.unl.edu.ar/sinc/web-demo/deepsom/.

  5. Negative Leadership

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  6. Negative liability

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  7. Negative ... concord?

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  8. When high working memory capacity is and is not beneficial for predicting nonlinear processes.

    Fischer, Helen; Holt, Daniel V

    2017-04-01

    Predicting the development of dynamic processes is vital in many areas of life. Previous findings are inconclusive as to whether higher working memory capacity (WMC) is always associated with using more accurate prediction strategies, or whether higher WMC can also be associated with using overly complex strategies that do not improve accuracy. In this study, participants predicted a range of systematically varied nonlinear processes based on exponential functions where prediction accuracy could or could not be enhanced using well-calibrated rules. Results indicate that higher WMC participants seem to rely more on well-calibrated strategies, leading to more accurate predictions for processes with highly nonlinear trajectories in the prediction region. Predictions of lower WMC participants, in contrast, point toward an increased use of simple exemplar-based prediction strategies, which perform just as well as more complex strategies when the prediction region is approximately linear. These results imply that with respect to predicting dynamic processes, working memory capacity limits are not generally a strength or a weakness, but that this depends on the process to be predicted.

  9. Predicting Community College Outcomes: Does High School CTE Participation Have a Significant Effect?

    Dietrich, Cecile; Lichtenberger, Eric; Kamalludeen, Rosemaliza

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relative importance of participation in high school career and technical education (CTE) programs in predicting community college outcomes. A hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was used to predict community college outcome attainment among a random sample of direct community college entrants. Results show that…

  10. Positive and Negative Affect as Links Between Social Anxiety and Depression: Predicting Concurrent and Prospective Mood Symptoms in Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders.

    Cohen, Jonah N; Taylor Dryman, M; Morrison, Amanda S; Gilbert, Kirsten E; Heimberg, Richard G; Gruber, June

    2017-11-01

    The co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression is associated with increased functional impairment and a more severe course of illness. Social anxiety disorder is unique among the anxiety disorders in sharing an affective profile with depression, characterized by low levels of positive affect (PA) and high levels of negative affect (NA). Yet it remains unclear how this shared affective profile contributes to the covariation of social anxiety and depressive symptoms. We examined whether self-reported PA and NA accounted for unique variance in the association between social anxiety and depressive symptoms across three groups (individuals with remitted bipolar disorder, type I [BD; n = 32], individuals with remitted major depressive disorder [MDD; n = 31], and nonpsychiatric controls [n = 30]) at baseline and follow-ups of 6 and 12 months. Low levels of PA, but not NA, accounted for unique variance in both concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the BD group; in contrast, high levels of NA, but not PA, accounted for unique variance in concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the MDD group. Limitations include that social anxiety and PA/NA were assessed concurrently and all measurement was self-report. Few individuals with MDD/BD met current diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder. There was some attrition at follow-up assessments. Results suggest that affective mechanisms may contribute to the high rates of co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression in both MDD and BD. Implications of the differential role of PA and NA in the relationship between social anxiety and depression in MDD and BD and considerations for treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A prospective, clinical study on asymptomatic sensitisation and development of allergic rhinitis: high negative predictive value of allergological testing

    Bodtger, Uffe; Assing, Kristian; Poulsen, Lars K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic aeroallergen sensitisation affects approximately 10% of Western adolescents and is an established risk factor for the development of respiratory allergy. The reported incidence is 2-20% annually. Previous studies are based on out-seasonal symptom recollection or selected ...

  12. Time to Detection in Culture Supports Prediction of Low Transmissibility of Tuberculosis and Discontinuation of Isolation for Low-Risk Patients With A Single AFB-Negative and NAAT-Negative Respiratory Specimen.

    Khan, Saahir; Nakasone, Audrey; Ghajar, Minoo; Zhowandai, Mariam; Prabhu, Sunita; Alexander, Rick; Low, Julie; Peterson, Ellena; Thrupp, Lauri

    2018-05-01

    For 94 patients with culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, time-to-detection (TTD), acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results were reviewed. All 12 patients whose first specimen was negative by AFB smear and NAAT had prolonged TTD, indicating low transmissibility and supporting discontinuing isolation for low-risk patients.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:619-621.

  13. RESTING SYMPATHETIC BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY IN SUBJECTS WITH LOW AND HIGH TOLERANCE TO CENTRAL HYPOVOLEMIA INDUCED BY LOWER BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE

    Carmen eHinojosa-Laborde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central hypovolemia elicited by orthostasis or hemorrhage triggers sympathetically-mediated baroreflex responses to maintain organ perfusion; these reflexes are less sensitive in patients with orthostatic intolerance, and during conditions of severe blood loss, may result in cardiovascular collapse (decompensatory or circulatory shock. The ability to tolerate central hypovolemia is variable and physiological factors contributing to tolerance are emerging. We tested the hypothesis that resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS are attenuated in male and female subjects who have low tolerance (LT to central hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP. MSNA and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP were recorded in 47 human subjects who subsequently underwent LBNP to tolerance (onset of presyncopal symptoms. LT subjects experienced presyncopal symptoms prior to completing LBNP of -60 mm Hg, and subjects with high tolerance (HT experienced presyncopal symptoms after completing LBNP after -60 mmHg. Contrary to our hypothesis, resting MSNA burst incidence was not different between LT and HT subjects, and was not related to time to presyncope. BRS was assessed as the slope of the relationship between spontaneous fluctuations in DAP and MSNA during 5 min of supine rest. MSNA burst incidence/DAP correlations were greater than or equal to 0.5 in 37 subjects (LT: n= 9; HT: n=28, and BRS was not different between LT and HT (-1.8 ± 0.3 vs. -2.2 ± 0.2 bursts•(100 beats-1•mmHg-1, p=0.29. We conclude that tolerance to central hypovolemia is not related to either resting MSNA or sympathetic BRS.

  14. High-resolution melt analysis for species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci derived from bovine milk.

    Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Barkema, Herman W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Morck, Douglas W; van der Meer, Frank J U M; De Buck, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens isolated from bovine milk. In this study, we report a rapid assay for species identification of CNS using high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of 16S rDNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment, spanning the variable region V1 and V2, was performed with a resulting amplicon of 215 bp. A library of distinct melt curves of reference strains of 13 common CNS species was created using HRMA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and, when needed, tuf gene, of 100 CNS isolates obtained from Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network was done to determine their species identity, allowing for subsequent evaluation of the performance of HRMA for field isolates of bovine CNS. A combination of HRMA and sequencing revealed that Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. xylosus, S. simulans, and S. sciuri had multiple genotypes, complicating their resolution by HRMA. As the 3 genotypes of S. chromogenes had distinct melt curves, the 3 distinct genotypes were employed as reference strains in a blinded trial of 156 CNS isolates to identify S. chromogenes. HRMA correctly identified all S. chromogenes isolates which were later confirmed by sequencing. Staphylococcus chromogenes (68%) was most frequently found among the CNS isolates, followed by S. haemolyticus (10%) and S. xylosus (6%). The present study revealed that HRMA of 16S rRNA gene (V1-V2) could be used as a rapid, efficient, low-cost, and minimally cumbersome technique for S. chromogenes identification, the most common CNS derived from bovine milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, High Low Tide Prediction

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has High Low Tide Predictions from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). The official Tide and Tidal Current...

  16. Powering and Motion Predictions of High Speed Sea Lift (HSSL) Ships

    Gorski, Joseph; Miller, Ronald; Carrica, Pablo; Kandasamy, Mani; Stern, Fred

    2007-01-01

    High Speed Sea Lift (HSSL) is an important area of in terest for the US Navy. Computational tools are needed to predict the hydrodynamics of these configurations for their proper design and analysis in many areas including...

  17. High nitrate to phosphorus regime attenuates negative effects of rising pCO2 on total population carbon accumulation

    S. A. Krug

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing rise in atmospheric pCO2 and consequent increase in ocean acidification have direct effects on marine calcifying phytoplankton, which potentially alters carbon export. To date it remains unclear, firstly, how nutrient regime, in particular by coccolithophores preferred phosphate limitation, interacts with pCO2 on particulate carbon accumulation; secondly, how direct physiological responses on the cellular level translate into total population response. In this study, cultures of Emiliania huxleyi were full-factorially exposed to two different N:P regimes and three different pCO2 levels. Cellular biovolume and PIC and POC content significantly declined in response to pCO2 in both nutrient regimes. Cellular PON content significantly increased in the Redfield treatment and decreased in the high N:P regime. Cell abundance significantly declined in the Redfield and remained constant in the high N:P regime. We hypothesise that in the high N:P regime severe phosphorous limitation could be compensated either by reduced inorganic phosphorous demand and/or by enzymatic uptake of organic phosphorous. In the Redfield regime we suggest that enzymatic phosphorous uptake to supplement enhanced phosphorous demand with pCO2 was not possible and thus cell abundance declined. These hypothesised different physiological responses of E. huxleyi among the nutrient regimes significantly altered population carrying capacities along the pCO2 gradient. This ultimately led to the attenuated total population response in POC and PIC content and biovolume to increased pCO2 in the high N:P regime. Our results point to the fact that the physiological (i.e. cellular PIC and POC response to ocean acidification cannot be linearly extrapolated to total population response and thus carbon export. It is therefore necessary to consider both effects of nutrient limitation on cell physiology and their consequences for population size when predicting the influence of

  18. Pretreatment data is highly predictive of liver chemistry signals in clinical trials.

    Cai, Zhaohui; Bresell, Anders; Steinberg, Mark H; Silberg, Debra G; Furlong, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this retrospective analysis was to assess how well predictive models could determine which patients would develop liver chemistry signals during clinical trials based on their pretreatment (baseline) information. Based on data from 24 late-stage clinical trials, classification models were developed to predict liver chemistry outcomes using baseline information, which included demographics, medical history, concomitant medications, and baseline laboratory results. Predictive models using baseline data predicted which patients would develop liver signals during the trials with average validation accuracy around 80%. Baseline levels of individual liver chemistry tests were most important for predicting their own elevations during the trials. High bilirubin levels at baseline were not uncommon and were associated with a high risk of developing biochemical Hy's law cases. Baseline γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level appeared to have some predictive value, but did not increase predictability beyond using established liver chemistry tests. It is possible to predict which patients are at a higher risk of developing liver chemistry signals using pretreatment (baseline) data. Derived knowledge from such predictions may allow proactive and targeted risk management, and the type of analysis described here could help determine whether new biomarkers offer improved performance over established ones.

  19. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Annuschka Salima Eden; Annuschka Salima Eden; Vera eDehmelt; Vera eDehmelt; Matthias eBischoff; Pienie eZwitserlood; Harald eKugel; Kati eKeuper; Peter eZwanzger; Christian eDobel; Christian eDobel; Christian eDobel

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which n...

  20. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: an fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Eden, Annuschka S.; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which n...

  1. From the lab - Predicting Autism in High-Risk Infants | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... High-Risk Infants Follow us Photo: iStock Predicting Autism in High-Risk Infants AN NIH-SUPPORTED STUDY ... high-risk, 6-month-old infants will develop autism spectrum disorder by age 2. Such a tool ...

  2. HbA1c level cannot predict the treatment outcome of smear-positive non-multi-drug-resistant HIV-negative pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients

    Tashiro, Ken; Horita, Nobuyuki; Nagai, Kenjiro; Ikeda, Misako; Shinkai, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sato, Takashi; Hara, Yu; Nagakura, Hideyuki; Shibata, Yuji; Watanabe, Hiroki; Nakashima, Kentaro; Ushio, Ryota; Nagashima, Akimichi; Narita, Atsuya; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Kudo, Makoto; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether the HbA1c level on admission could predict the in-hospital treatment outcome of smear-positive non-multi-drug-resistant HIV-negative culture-proven pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients. Our standard regimens under the direct observation were HRZE or HRE for the first two months followed by combination therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin. Our cohort consisted of consecutive 239 patients consisted of 147 men and 92 women with a median age of 73 years. The HbA1c level of patients whose HbA1c was above 7.0% on admission showed clear declining trends after admission. HbA1c on admission had no Spearman’s rank correlation with time to discharge alive (r = 0.17) and time to becoming non-infective (r = 0.17). By Kaplan-Meier curves and a log-rank trend test, HbA1c quartile subgroups showed no association with times to discharge alive (p = 0.431), becoming non-infective (p = 0.113), and in-hospital death (p = 0.427). Based on multi-variate Cox analysis, HbA1c on admission had no significant impact on time to discharge alive (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% CI 0.89–1.20, p = 0.659), becoming non-infective (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% CI 0.80–1.06, p = 0.277), and in-hospital death (hazard ratio = 0.68, 0.43–1.07, p = 0.097). In conclusion, the HbA1c level on admission did not seem to affect in-hospital tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Japanese cohort. PMID:28406247

  3. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara; Ferri, Mario; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra; Ziparo, Vincenzo; David, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting

  4. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ferri, Mario [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Pilozzi, Emanuela [Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ziparo, Vincenzo [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); David, Vincenzo [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting.

  5. Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors

    Mellins, Claude A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Ouzama; Warne, Patricia; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.

    2007-01-01

    HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves. Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and…

  6. Bias changing molecule–lead couple and inducing low bias negative differential resistance for electrons acceptor predicted by first-principles study

    Min, Y.; Fang, J.H.; Zhong, C.G.; Dong, Z.C.; Zhao, Z.Y.; Zhou, P.X.; Yao, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    A first-principles study of the transport properties of 3,13-dimercaptononacene–6,21-dione molecule sandwiched between two gold leads is reported. The strong effect of negative differential resistance with large peak-to-valley ratio of 710% is present under low bias. We found that bias can change molecule–lead couple and induce low bias negative differential resistance for electrons acceptor, which may promise the potential applications in molecular devices with low-power dissipation in the future. - Highlights: • Acceptor is constructed to negative differential resistor (NDR). • NDR effect is present under low bias. • Bias change molecule–lead couple and induce NDR effect

  7. Statistical approach to predict compressive strength of high workability slag-cement mortars

    Memon, N.A.; Memon, N.A.; Sumadi, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt made to develop empirical expressions to estimate/ predict the compressive strength of high workability slag-cement mortars. Experimental data of 54 mix mortars were used. The mortars were prepared with slag as cement replacement of the order of 0, 50 and 60%. The flow (workability) was maintained at 136+-3%. The numerical and statistical analysis was performed by using database computer software Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Three empirical mathematical models were developed to estimate/predict 28 days compressive strength of high workability slag cement-mortars with 0, 50 and 60% slag which predict the values accurate between 97 and 98%. Finally a generalized empirical mathematical model was proposed which can predict 28 days compressive strength of high workability mortars up to degree of accuracy 95%. (author)

  8. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su; Shikhovtsev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5–1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  9. Oxygen-deficient hematite nanorods as high-performance and novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Yinxiang; Yu, Minghao; Zhai, Teng; Liang, Chaolun; Xie, Shilei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Tong, Yexiang

    2014-05-21

    Oxygen-deficient α-Fe2 O3 nanorods with outstanding capacitive performance are developed and demonstrated as novel negative electrodes for flexible asymmetric supercapacitors. The asymmetric-supercapacitor device based on the oxygen-deficient α-Fe2 O3 nanorod negative electrode and a MnO2 positive electrode achieves a maximum energy density of 0.41 mW·h/cm(3) ; it is also capable of charging a mobile phone and powering a light-emitting diode indicator. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Assessment of prediction skill in equatorial Pacific Ocean in high resolution model of CFS

    Arora, Anika; Rao, Suryachandra A.; Pillai, Prasanth; Dhakate, Ashish; Salunke, Kiran; Srivastava, Ankur

    2018-01-01

    The effect of increasing atmospheric resolution on prediction skill of El Niño southern oscillation phenomenon in climate forecast system model is explored in this paper. Improvement in prediction skill for sea surface temperature (SST) and winds at all leads compared to low resolution model in the tropical Indo-Pacific basin is observed. High resolution model is able to capture extreme events reasonably well. As a result, the signal to noise ratio is improved in the high resolution model. However, spring predictability barrier (SPB) for summer months in Nino 3 and Nino 3.4 region is stronger in high resolution model, in spite of improvement in overall prediction skill and dynamics everywhere else. Anomaly correlation coefficient of SST in high resolution model with observations in Nino 3.4 region targeting boreal summer months when predicted at lead times of 3-8 months in advance decreased compared its lower resolution counterpart. It is noted that higher variance of winds predicted in spring season over central equatorial Pacific compared to observed variance of winds results in stronger than normal response on subsurface ocean, hence increases SPB for boreal summer months in high resolution model.

  11. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    RNA and protein levels of the StAR and 3β-HSD in group HFPD+CS were both higher than those of in group ND+CS. These results indicated that Kunming male mice with high-fat, high-protein diet and casein injection for 8weeks can be used to establish a diet-induced obesity and chronic systemic inflammation. The sperm parameters in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI decreased accompanied by pathological changes of testicular tissue. This resultant effect of reduced serum testosterone levels was associated with the overproduction of TNF-α and IL-10 and down-regulation of StAR and CYP11A1. Under the same casein-induced chronic inflammation condition, the mice with high-fat, high-protein diet had better testicular steroidogenesis activity and sperm parameters compared with the mice in normal diet, indicating that the mice with casein-induced inflammatory injury consuming a high-fat, high-protein diet gained weight normally, reduced serum adiponectin level and increased testosterone production by an upregulation of 3β-HSD expression. High-fat, high-protein diet attenuated the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Christensen, Edward; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Larson, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. A global high-resolution model experiment on the predictability of the atmosphere

    Judt, F.

    2016-12-01

    Forecasting high-impact weather phenomena is one of the most important aspects of numerical weather prediction (NWP). Over the last couple of years, a tremendous increase in computing power has facilitated the advent of global convection-resolving NWP models, which allow for the seamless prediction of weather from local to planetary scales. Unfortunately, the predictability of specific meteorological phenomena in these models is not very well known. This raises questions about which forecast problems are potentially tractable, and what is the value of global convection-resolving model predictions for the end user. To address this issue, we use the Yellowstone supercomputer to conduct a global high-resolution predictability experiment with the recently developed Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS). The computing power of Yellowstone enables the model to run at a globally uniform resolution of 4 km with 55 vertical levels (>2 billion grid cells). These simulations, which require 3 million core-hours for the entire experiment, allow for the explicit treatment of organized deep moist convection (i.e., thunderstorm systems). Resolving organized deep moist convection alleviates grave limitations of previous predictability studies, which either used high-resolution limited-area models or global simulations with coarser grids and cumulus parameterization. By computing the error growth characteristics in a set of "identical twin" model runs, the experiment will clarify the intrinsic predictability limits of atmospheric phenomena on a wide range of scales, from severe thunderstorms to global-scale wind patterns that affect the distribution of tropical rainfall. Although a major task by itself, this study is intended to be exploratory work for a future predictability experiment going beyond of what has so far been feasible. We hope to use CISL's new Cheyenne supercomputer to conduct a similar predictability experiments on a global mesh with 1-2 km resolution. This

  14. The spiral of distrust: (Non-)cooperation in a repeated trust game is predicted by anger and individual differences in negative reciprocity orientation.

    Harth, Nicole S; Regner, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated state anger and individual differences in negative reciprocity orientation as predictors of individuals' willingness to cooperate with strangers. In order to observe real behaviour, we used a trust game that was played over six periods. In the trust game, a first player (sender) determines how much of a certain endowment she/he wants to share with a second player (trustee), who then can give something back. We varied whether participants received feedback [feedback (yes, no)] about the trustee's behavioural decision (amount sent back). Supporting our hypotheses, the results suggest that feedback compared with no feedback about the trustee's behaviour increased anger. Specifically, information about low back transfers triggered anger and non-cooperation in return. Importantly, participants with a strong negative reciprocity orientation reported higher levels of anger and were less willing to cooperate with the trustee compared with those with low negative reciprocity orientation. Moreover, even when anger was low, individuals with a strong negative reciprocity orientation were less willing to cooperate compared with those with a low negative reciprocity orientation. Thus, negative reciprocity orientation seems to arouse a spiral of distrust. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Influence of Peer Social Experiences on Positive and Negative Indicators of Mental Health among High School Students

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Gelley, Cheryl D.; Roth, Rachel A.; Bateman, Lisa P.

    2015-01-01

    Modern definitions of complete mental health include both positive and negative indicators of psychological functioning. We examined the associations between peer relationships (victimization and receipt of prosocial acts) and multiple indicators of mental health that represent subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative…

  16. Dustborne and airborne gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in high versus low ERMI homes

    The study aimed at investigating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in moldy and non-moldy homes, as defined by the home's Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value. The ERMI values were determined from floor dust samples in 2010 and 2011 and homes were classified...

  17. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  18. All in its proper time: monitoring the emergence of a memory bias for novel, arousing-negative words in individuals with high and low trait anxiety.

    Eden, Annuschka Salima; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Keuper, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus; Laeger, Inga; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arousing-negative associated words, which was not present at the end of training. Cued recall and valence ratings revealed a memory bias for pseudowords that had been paired with arousing-negative pictures, immediately after learning and two weeks later. This held even for items that were not explicitly remembered. High anxious individuals evidenced a stronger memory bias in the cued-recall test, and their ratings were also more negative overall compared to low anxious persons. Both effects were evident, even when explicit recall was controlled for. Regarding the memory bias in anxiety prone persons, explicit memory seems to play a more crucial role than implicit memory. The study stresses the need for several time points of bias measurement during the course of learning and retrieval, as well as the employment of different measures for learning success.

  19. All in its proper time: monitoring the emergence of a memory bias for novel, arousing-negative words in individuals with high and low trait anxiety.

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    Full Text Available The well-established memory bias for arousing-negative stimuli seems to be enhanced in high trait-anxious persons and persons suffering from anxiety disorders. We monitored the emergence and development of such a bias during and after learning, in high and low trait anxious participants. A word-learning paradigm was applied, consisting of spoken pseudowords paired either with arousing-negative or neutral pictures. Learning performance during training evidenced a short-lived advantage for arousing-negative associated words, which was not present at the end of training. Cued recall and valence ratings revealed a memory bias for pseudowords that had been paired with arousing-negative pictures, immediately after learning and two weeks later. This held even for items that were not explicitly remembered. High anxious individuals evidenced a stronger memory bias in the cued-recall test, and their ratings were also more negative overall compared to low anxious persons. Both effects were evident, even when explicit recall was controlled for. Regarding the memory bias in anxiety prone persons, explicit memory seems to play a more crucial role than implicit memory. The study stresses the need for several time points of bias measurement during the course of learning and retrieval, as well as the employment of different measures for learning success.

  20. Pretreatment data is highly predictive of liver chemistry signals in clinical trials

    Cai Z

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zhaohui Cai,1,* Anders Bresell,2,* Mark H Steinberg,1 Debra G Silberg,1 Stephen T Furlong11AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USA; 2AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Södertälje, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The goal of this retrospective analysis was to assess how well predictive models could determine which patients would develop liver chemistry signals during clinical trials based on their pretreatment (baseline information.Patients and methods: Based on data from 24 late-stage clinical trials, classification models were developed to predict liver chemistry outcomes using baseline information, which included demographics, medical history, concomitant medications, and baseline laboratory results.Results: Predictive models using baseline data predicted which patients would develop liver signals during the trials with average validation accuracy around 80%. Baseline levels of individual liver chemistry tests were most important for predicting their own elevations during the trials. High bilirubin levels at baseline were not uncommon and were associated with a high risk of developing biochemical Hy’s law cases. Baseline γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT level appeared to have some predictive value, but did not increase predictability beyond using established liver chemistry tests.Conclusion: It is possible to predict which patients are at a higher risk of developing liver chemistry signals using pretreatment (baseline data. Derived knowledge from such predictions may allow proactive and targeted risk management, and the type of analysis described here could help determine whether new biomarkers offer improved performance over established ones.Keywords: bilirubin, Hy’s Law, ALT, GGT, baseline, prediction

  1. The Role of Goal Importance in Predicting University Students' High Academic Performance

    Kyle, Vanessa A.; White, Katherine M.; Hyde, Melissa K.; Occhipinti, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We examined goal importance, focusing on high, but not exclusive priority goals, in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict students' academic performance. At the beginning of semester, students in a psychology subject (N = 197) completed TPB and goal importance items for achieving a high grade. Regression analyses revealed partial…

  2. Improved Performance and Safety for High Energy Batteries Through Use of Hazard Anticipation and Capacity Prediction

    Atwater, Terrill

    1993-01-01

    Prediction of the capacity remaining in used high rate, high energy batteries is important information to the user. Knowledge of the capacity remaining in used batteries results in better utilization. This translates into improved readiness and cost savings due to complete, efficient use. High rate batteries, due to their chemical nature, are highly sensitive to misuse (i.e., over discharge or very high rate discharge). Battery failure due to misuse or manufacturing defects could be disastrous. Since high rate, high energy batteries are expensive and energetic, a reliable method of predicting both failures and remaining energy has been actively sought. Due to concerns over safety, the behavior of lithium/sulphur dioxide cells at different temperatures and current drains was examined. The main thrust of this effort was to determine failure conditions for incorporation in hazard anticipation circuitry. In addition, capacity prediction formulas have been developed from test data. A process that performs continuous, real-time hazard anticipation and capacity prediction was developed. The introduction of this process into microchip technology will enable the production of reliable, safe, and efficient high energy batteries.

  3. The Role of Life Satisfaction and Parenting Styles in Predicting Delinquent Behaviors among High School Students

    Onder, Fulya Cenkseven; Yilmaz, Yasin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the parenting styles and life satisfaction predict delinquent behaviors frequently or not. Firstly the data were collected from 471 girls and 410 boys, a total of 881 high school students. Then the research was carried out with 502 students showing low (n = 262, 52.2%) and high level of delinquent…

  4. Small Crack Growth and Fatigue Life Predictions for High-Strength Aluminium Alloys. Part 1; Experimental and Fracture Mechanics Analysis

    Wu, X. R.; Newman, J. C.; Zhao, W.; Swain, M. H.; Ding, C. F.; Phillips, E. P.

    1998-01-01

    The small crack effect was investigated in two high-strength aluminium alloys: 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad alloy. Both experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to study crack initiation and growth of small cracks. In the experimental program, fatigue tests, small crack and large crack tests A,ere conducted under constant amplitude and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading conditions. A pronounced small crack effect was observed in both materials, especially for the negative stress ratios. For all loading conditions, most of the fatigue life of the SENT specimens was shown to be crack propagation from initial material defects or from the cladding layer. In the analysis program, three-dimensional finite element and A weight function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors and to develop SIF equations for surface and corner cracks at the notch in the SENT specimens. A plastisity-induced crack-closure model was used to correlate small and large crack data, and to make fatigue life predictions, Predicted crack-growth rates and fatigue lives agreed well with experiments. A total fatigue life prediction method for the aluminum alloys was developed and demonstrated using the crack-closure model.

  5. Predicting the onset of psychosis in patients at clinical high risk: practical guide to probabilistic prognostic reasoning.

    Fusar-Poli, P; Schultze-Lutter, F

    2016-02-01

    Prediction of psychosis in patients at clinical high risk (CHR) has become a mainstream focus of clinical and research interest worldwide. When using CHR instruments for clinical purposes, the predicted outcome is but only a probability; and, consequently, any therapeutic action following the assessment is based on probabilistic prognostic reasoning. Yet, probabilistic reasoning makes considerable demands on the clinicians. We provide here a scholarly practical guide summarising the key concepts to support clinicians with probabilistic prognostic reasoning in the CHR state. We review risk or cumulative incidence of psychosis in, person-time rate of psychosis, Kaplan-Meier estimates of psychosis risk, measures of prognostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in receiver operator characteristic curves, positive and negative predictive values, Bayes' theorem, likelihood ratios, potentials and limits of real-life applications of prognostic probabilistic reasoning in the CHR state. Understanding basic measures used for prognostic probabilistic reasoning is a prerequisite for successfully implementing the early detection and prevention of psychosis in clinical practice. Future refinement of these measures for CHR patients may actually influence risk management, especially as regards initiating or withholding treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. FLOCK cluster analysis of mast cell event clustering by high-sensitivity flow cytometry predicts systemic mastocytosis.

    Dorfman, David M; LaPlante, Charlotte D; Pozdnyakova, Olga; Li, Betty

    2015-11-01

    In our high-sensitivity flow cytometric approach for systemic mastocytosis (SM), we identified mast cell event clustering as a new diagnostic criterion for the disease. To objectively characterize mast cell gated event distributions, we performed cluster analysis using FLOCK, a computational approach to identify cell subsets in multidimensional flow cytometry data in an unbiased, automated fashion. FLOCK identified discrete mast cell populations in most cases of SM (56/75 [75%]) but only a minority of non-SM cases (17/124 [14%]). FLOCK-identified mast cell populations accounted for 2.46% of total cells on average in SM cases and 0.09% of total cells on average in non-SM cases (P < .0001) and were predictive of SM, with a sensitivity of 75%, a specificity of 86%, a positive predictive value of 76%, and a negative predictive value of 85%. FLOCK analysis provides useful diagnostic information for evaluating patients with suspected SM, and may be useful for the analysis of other hematopoietic neoplasms. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  7. Negative CO

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  8. Negative Certainty

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  9. Stochastic Short-term High-resolution Prediction of Solar Irradiance and Photovoltaic Power Output

    Melin, Alexander M. [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M. [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M. [ORNL; Zhang, Yichen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    2017-09-01

    The increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy sources into electric grids has increased the need for accurate modeling and prediction of solar irradiance and power production. Existing modeling and prediction techniques focus on long-term low-resolution prediction over minutes to years. This paper examines the stochastic modeling and short-term high-resolution prediction of solar irradiance and PV power output. We propose a stochastic state-space model to characterize the behaviors of solar irradiance and PV power output. This prediction model is suitable for the development of optimal power controllers for PV sources. A filter-based expectation-maximization and Kalman filtering mechanism is employed to estimate the parameters and states in the state-space model. The mechanism results in a finite dimensional filter which only uses the first and second order statistics. The structure of the scheme contributes to a direct prediction of the solar irradiance and PV power output without any linearization process or simplifying assumptions of the signal’s model. This enables the system to accurately predict small as well as large fluctuations of the solar signals. The mechanism is recursive allowing the solar irradiance and PV power to be predicted online from measurements. The mechanism is tested using solar irradiance and PV power measurement data collected locally in our lab.

  10. Mining geriatric assessment data for in-patient fall prediction models and high-risk subgroups

    Marschollek, Michael; Gövercin, Mehmet; Rust, Stefan; Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1), and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2). Methods A ...

  11. Cinnamon counteracts the negative effects of a high fat/high fructose diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes.

    Richard A Anderson

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance leads to memory impairment. Cinnamon (CN improves peripheral insulin resistance but its effects in the brain are not known. Changes in behavior, insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated mRNA expression in the brain were measured in male Wistar rats fed a high fat/high fructose (HF/HFr diet to induce insulin resistance, with or without CN, for 12 weeks. There was a decrease in insulin sensitivity associated with the HF/HFr diet that was reversed by CN. The CN fed rats were more active in a Y maze test than rats fed the control and HF/HFr diets. The HF/HFr diet fed rats showed greater anxiety in an elevated plus maze test that was lessened by feeding CN. The HF/HFr diet also led to a down regulation of the mRNA coding for GLUT1 and GLUT3 that was reversed by CN in the hippocampus and cortex. There were increases in Insr, Irs1 and Irs2 mRNA in the hippocampus and cortex due to the HF/HFr diet that were not reversed by CN. Increased peripheral insulin sensitivity was also associated with increased glycogen synthase in both hippocampus and cortex in the control and HF/HFr diet animals fed CN. The HF/HFr diet induced increases in mRNA associated with Alzheimers including PTEN, Tau and amyloid precursor protein (App were also alleviated by CN. In conclusion, these data suggest that the negative effects of a HF/HFr diet on behavior, brain insulin signaling and Alzheimer-associated changes were alleviated by CN suggesting that neuroprotective effects of CN are associated with improved whole body insulin sensitivity and related changes in the brain.

  12. A Novel Differentiation Therapy Approach to Reduce the Metastatic Potential of Basal, Highly Metastatic, Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

    2012-05-01

    metastatic process (Condeelis and Pollard 2006), we quantitated macrophage recruitment in the lungs of mice injected with 231-Empty or 231-GATA3 cells by...image quantitation of Ki-67 expression and H&E staining of metastatic lung lesions using Apirio Image Analysis software (Figure 9) which demonstrated...expression in MD A-MB-231 and in another triple negative breast cancer cell line, Hs578T Transient knock down of GATA3 in the lum inal GATA3 positiv

  13. Prediction-Oriented Marker Selection (PROMISE): With Application to High-Dimensional Regression.

    Kim, Soyeon; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lee, J Jack

    2017-06-01

    In personalized medicine, biomarkers are used to select therapies with the highest likelihood of success based on an individual patient's biomarker/genomic profile. Two goals are to choose important biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcomes and to cull unimportant biomarkers to reduce the cost of biological and clinical verifications. These goals are challenging due to the high dimensionality of genomic data. Variable selection methods based on penalized regression (e.g., the lasso and elastic net) have yielded promising results. However, selecting the right amount of penalization is critical to simultaneously achieving these two goals. Standard approaches based on cross-validation (CV) typically provide high prediction accuracy with high true positive rates but at the cost of too many false positives. Alternatively, stability selection (SS) controls the number of false positives, but at the cost of yielding too few true positives. To circumvent these issues, we propose prediction-oriented marker selection (PROMISE), which combines SS with CV to conflate the advantages of both methods. Our application of PROMISE with the lasso and elastic net in data analysis shows that, compared to CV, PROMISE produces sparse solutions, few false positives, and small type I + type II error, and maintains good prediction accuracy, with a marginal decrease in the true positive rates. Compared to SS, PROMISE offers better prediction accuracy and true positive rates. In summary, PROMISE can be applied in many fields to select regularization parameters when the goals are to minimize false positives and maximize prediction accuracy.

  14. Regional Scale High Resolution δ18O Prediction in Precipitation Using MODIS EVI

    Huang, Cho-Ying; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Shou-De; Lo, Yi-Chen; Huang, Bo-Wen; Hatch, Kent A.; Shiu, Hau-Jie; You, Cheng-Feng; Chang, Yuan-Mou; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The natural variation in stable water isotope ratio data, also known as water isoscape, is a spatiotemporal fingerprint and a powerful natural tracer that has been widely applied in disciplines as diverse as hydrology, paleoclimatology, ecology and forensic investigation. Although much effort has been devoted to developing a predictive water isoscape model, it remains a central challenge for scientists to generate high accuracy, fine scale spatiotemporal water isoscape prediction. Here we develop a novel approach of using the MODIS-EVI (the Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer-Enhanced Vegetation Index), to predict δ18O in precipitation at the regional scale. Using a structural equation model, we show that the EVI and precipitated δ18O are highly correlated and thus the EVI is a good predictor of precipitated δ18O. We then test the predictability of our EVI-δ18O model and demonstrate that our approach can provide high accuracy with fine spatial (250×250 m) and temporal (16 days) scale δ18O predictions (annual and monthly predictabilities [r] are 0.96 and 0.80, respectively). We conclude the merging of the EVI and δ18O in precipitation can greatly extend the spatial and temporal data availability and thus enhance the applicability for both the EVI and water isoscape. PMID:23029053

  15. The value of repeat scintigraphy in patients with a high clinical suspicion for Meckel diverticulum after a negative or equivocal first Meckel scan

    Vali, Reza; Daneman, Alan; McQuattie, Susan; Shammas, Amer [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Technetium {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate is the most common and accurate noninvasive method of preoperative investigation for Meckel diverticulum. Despite introducing various methods to increase the sensitivity of the study, there are many case reports of false-negative Meckel scans. A repeat scan is sometimes requested in patients with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum and negative or equivocal first Meckel scan. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the value of repeat scintigraphy for these patients. Seven hundred fifty-three Meckel scans were recorded retrospectively. In 33 cases (22 male and 11 female; mean age: 6.8 years), the Meckel scintigraphy was repeated either due to a high clinical suspicion of Meckel diverticulum and a negative study (n = 21) or due to equivocal findings in the first scan (n = 12). The study was interpreted as positive if an abnormal focal activity was identified in the abdomen and pelvis during the procedure. The results were correlated with pathology and clinical symptoms. Seven out of 12 (58%) equivocal studies were positive on the second study. Six of them were proven to be positive at operation (confirmed by pathology) while one of them was negative on laparoscopy. From 21 negative first scans with a high suspicion for Meckel diverticulum, three (14%) were positive on the second study. All three were proven to be Meckel diverticulum on pathology. Repeat Meckel scans in patients with equivocal findings on the first study or a negative result with a high clinical suspicion for a Meckel diverticulum are useful especially in cases in which the first study had been done without appropriate preparation. (orig.)

  16. Early stage cost-effectiveness analysis of a BRCA1-like test to detect triple negative breast cancers responsive to high dose alkylating chemotherapy

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Steuten, Lotte Maria Gertruda; Retel, Valesca P.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with a BRCA1-like profile may benefit from high dose alkylating chemotherapy (HDAC). This study examines whether BRCA1-like testing to target effective HDAC in TNBC patients can be more cost-effective than treating all patients with standard

  17. Prediction of breast cancer recurrence using lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters from {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in operable triple-negative breast cancer

    Kim, Yong-il [CHA University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joong [Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June-Key [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Keon Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Triple-negative breast cancer has a poor prognosis. We evaluated several metabolic and volumetric parameters from preoperative {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer and compared them with current clinicopathologic parameters. A total of 228 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (mean age 47.0 ± 10.8 years, all women) who had undergone preoperative PET/CT were included. The PET/CT metabolic parameters evaluated included maximum, peak, and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax, SUVpeak, and SUVmean, respectively). The volumetric parameters evaluated included metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Metabolic and volumetric parameters were evaluated separately for tumor (T) and lymph nodes (N). The prognostic value of these parameters was compared with that of clinicopathologic parameters. All lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters showed significant differences between patients with and without recurrence. However, tumor metabolic and volumetric parameters showed no significant differences. In a univariate survival analysis, all lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters (SUVmax-N, SUVpeak-N, SUVmean-N, MTV-N, and TLG-N; all P < 0.001), T stage (P = 0.010), N stage (P < 0.001), and TNM stage (P < 0.001) were significant parameters. In a multivariate survival analysis, SUVmax-N (P = 0.005), MTV (P = 0.008), and TLG (P = 0.006) with TNM stage (all P < 0.001) were significant parameters. Lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters were significant predictors of recurrence in patients with triple-negative breast cancer after surgery. Lymph node metabolic and volumetric parameters were useful parameters for evaluating prognosis in patients with triple-negative breast cancer by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, rather than tumor parameters. (orig.)

  18. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: an fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons.

    Eden, Annuschka S; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at 4-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit) memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  19. Brief learning induces a memory bias for arousing-negative words: An fMRI study in high and low trait anxious persons

    Annuschka Salima Eden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.

  20. Self-imagery in individuals with high body dissatisfaction: the effect of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the self-concept.

    Farrar, Stephanie; Stopa, Lusia; Turner, Hannah

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of eating disorders highlight low self-esteem as a maintaining factor. This study explored the impact of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the working self (implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-concept clarity) in individuals with high body dissatisfaction (an important aspect of eating disorders). The impact of these images on state body satisfaction and affect was also explored. A group of participants with high body dissatisfaction completed measures of explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity, state body satisfaction and affect prior to completing a negative (n = 33) or positive (n = 33) self-imagery retrieval task. Following this they completed the baseline measures and a measure of implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative self-image in mind had a negative effect on explicit self-esteem, whilst holding a positive self-image had a beneficial effect. There were no effects of imagery on implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative image in mind led to a significant reduction in self-concept clarity; however, positive self-imagery did not affect self-concept clarity. Holding a negative self-image in mind led to a decrease in body satisfaction and state affect. The opposite was found for the positive self-imagery group. Implicit self-esteem was not measured at baseline. Imagery techniques which promote positive self-images may help improve aspects of the working self, body satisfaction and affect in individuals with high levels of body dissatisfaction. As such, these imagery techniques warrant further investigation in a clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Abier Sofrata

    Full Text Available Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  2. Disclosure of negative intrusions : the relationship with thought-action fusion, shame, guilt and fear.

    Wells-Britton, Kaighley; Simonds, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Background: Given their highly unacceptable nature, negative intrusions are likely to promote the experience of negative affect such as fear, shame and guilt. Moreover, moral thought-action fusion (believing that negative thinking is the equivalent of acting immorally) is likely to inflate the occurrence of negative affect when intrusions are experienced. In turn, negative affect is likely related to disclosure. The current study investigated whether thought-action fusion beliefs predict anti...

  3. Compound Structure-Independent Activity Prediction in High-Dimensional Target Space.

    Balfer, Jenny; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Profiling of compound libraries against arrays of targets has become an important approach in pharmaceutical research. The prediction of multi-target compound activities also represents an attractive task for machine learning with potential for drug discovery applications. Herein, we have explored activity prediction in high-dimensional target space. Different types of models were derived to predict multi-target activities. The models included naïve Bayesian (NB) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers based upon compound structure information and NB models derived on the basis of activity profiles, without considering compound structure. Because the latter approach can be applied to incomplete training data and principally depends on the feature independence assumption, SVM modeling was not applicable in this case. Furthermore, iterative hybrid NB models making use of both activity profiles and compound structure information were built. In high-dimensional target space, NB models utilizing activity profile data were found to yield more accurate activity predictions than structure-based NB and SVM models or hybrid models. An in-depth analysis of activity profile-based models revealed the presence of correlation effects across different targets and rationalized prediction accuracy. Taken together, the results indicate that activity profile information can be effectively used to predict the activity of test compounds against novel targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Roll force prediction of high strength steel using foil rolling theory in cold skin pass rolling

    Song, Gil Ho; Jung, Jae Chook

    2013-01-01

    Skin pass rolling is a very important process for applying a certain elongation to a strip in the cold rolling and annealing processes, which play an important role in preventing the stretching of the yield point when the material is processed. The exact prediction of the rolling force is essential for obtaining a given elongation with the steel grade and strip size. Unlike hot rolling and cold rolling, skin pass rolling is used to apply an elongation of within 2% to the strip. Under a small reduction, it is difficult to predict the rolling force because the elastic deformation behavior of the rolls is complicated and a model for predicting the rolling force has not yet been established. Nevertheless, the exact prediction of the rolling force in skin pass rolling has gained increasing importance in recent times with the rapid development of high strength steels for use in automobiles. In this study, the possibility of predicting the rolling force in skin pass rolling for producing various steel grades was examined using foil rolling theory, which is known to have similar elastic deformation behavior of rolls in the roll bite. It was found that a noncircular arc model is more accurate than a circular model in predicting the roll force of high strength steel below TS 980 MPa in skin pass rolling

  5. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  6. Unified model for small-t and high-t scattering at high energies: predictions at RHIC and LHC

    Martynov, E. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, N.N. Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Nicolescu, B. [CNRS and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Theory Group, Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France)

    2008-07-15

    The urgency of predictions in the large-t region at LHC stimulated us to present a unified model of small- and high-t scattering at high energies. Our model is based on safe theoretical ground: analyticity, unitarity, Regge behavior, gluon exchange and saturation of bounds established in axiomatic quantum field theory. We make precise predictions for the behavior of the differential cross sections at high t, the evolution of the dip-shoulder structure localized in the region 0.5

  7. Extrinsic Cognitive Load Impairs Spoken Word Recognition in High- and Low-Predictability Sentences.

    Hunter, Cynthia R; Pisoni, David B

    Listening effort (LE) induced by speech degradation reduces performance on concurrent cognitive tasks. However, a converse effect of extrinsic cognitive load on recognition of spoken words in sentences has not been shown. The aims of the present study were to (a) examine the impact of extrinsic cognitive load on spoken word recognition in a sentence recognition task and (b) determine whether cognitive load and/or LE needed to understand spectrally degraded speech would differentially affect word recognition in high- and low-predictability sentences. Downstream effects of speech degradation and sentence predictability on the cognitive load task were also examined. One hundred twenty young adults identified sentence-final spoken words in high- and low-predictability Speech Perception in Noise sentences. Cognitive load consisted of a preload of short (low-load) or long (high-load) sequences of digits, presented visually before each spoken sentence and reported either before or after identification of the sentence-final word. LE was varied by spectrally degrading sentences with four-, six-, or eight-channel noise vocoding. Level of spectral degradation and order of report (digits first or words first) were between-participants variables. Effects of cognitive load, sentence predictability, and speech degradation on accuracy of sentence-final word identification as well as recall of preload digit sequences were examined. In addition to anticipated main effects of sentence predictability and spectral degradation on word recognition, we found an effect of cognitive load, such that words were identified more accurately under low load than high load. However, load differentially affected word identification in high- and low-predictability sentences depending on the level of sentence degradation. Under severe spectral degradation (four-channel vocoding), the effect of cognitive load on word identification was present for high-predictability sentences but not for low-predictability

  8. A prediction and damage assessment model for snowmelt flood events in middle and high latitudes Region

    Qiao, C.; Huang, Q.; Chen, T.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of global warming, the snowmelt flood events in the mountainous area of the middle and high latitudes are increasingly frequent and create severe casualties and property damages. Carrying out the prediction and risk assessment of the snowmelt flood is of great importance in the water resources management, the flood warning and prevention. Based on the remote sensing and GIS techniques, the relationships of the variables influencing the snowmelt flood such as the snow area, the snow depth, the air temperature, the precipitation, the land topography and land covers are analyzed and a prediction and damage assessment model for snowmelt floods is developed. This model analyzes and predicts the flood submerging area, flood depth, flood grade, and the damages of different underlying surfaces in the study area in a given time period based on the estimation of snowmelt amount, the snowmelt runoff, the direction and velocity of the flood. Then it was used to predict a snowmelt flood event in the Ertis River Basin in northern Xinjiang, China, during March and June, 2005 and to assess its damages including the damages of roads, transmission lines, settlements caused by the floods and the possible landslides using the hydrological and meteorological data, snow parameter data, DEM data and land use data. A comparison was made between the prediction results from this model and observation data including the flood measurement and its disaster loss data, which suggests that this model performs well in predicting the strength and impact area of snowmelt flood and its damage assessment. This model will be helpful for the prediction and damage assessment of snowmelt flood events in the mountainous area in the middle and high latitudes in spring, which has great social and economic significance because it provides a relatively reliable method for snowmelt flood prediction and reduces the possible damages caused by snowmelt floods.

  9. Prediction model for high glycated hemoglobin concentration among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan

    Lee Bai-Chin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to construct a prediction model to identify subjects with high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels by incorporating anthropometric, lifestyle, clinical, and biochemical information in a large cross-sectional ethnic Chinese population in Taiwan from a health checkup center. Methods The prediction model was derived from multivariate logistic regression, and we evaluated the performance of the model in identifying the cases with high HbA1c levels (> = 7.0%. In total 17,773 participants (age > = 30 years were recruited and 323 participants (1.8% had high HbA1c levels. The study population was divided randomly into two parts, with 80% as the derivation data and 20% as the validation data. Results The point-based clinical model, including age (maximal 8 points, sex (1 point, family history (3 points, body mass index (2 points, waist circumference (4 points, and systolic blood pressure (3 points reached an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.723 (95% confidence interval, 0.677- 0.769 in the validation data. Adding biochemical measures such as triglycerides and HDL cholesterol improved the prediction power (AUC, 0.770 [0.723 - 0.817], P = Conclusions A prediction model was constructed for the prevalent risk of high HbA1c, which could be useful in identifying high risk subjects for diabetes among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan.

  10. Anomalous thermal expansion, negative linear compressibility, and high-pressure phase transition in ZnAu2(CN) 4 : Neutron inelastic scattering and lattice dynamics studies

    Gupta, Mayanak K.; Singh, Baltej; Mittal, Ranjan; Zbiri, Mohamed; Cairns, Andrew B.; Goodwin, Andrew L.; Schober, Helmut; Chaplot, Samrath L.

    2017-12-01

    We present temperature-dependent inelastic-neutron-scattering measurements, accompanied by ab initio calculations of the phonon spectra and elastic properties as a function of pressure to quantitatively explain an unusual combination of negative thermal expansion and negative linear compressibility behavior of ZnAu2(CN) 4 . The mechanism of the negative thermal expansion is identified in terms of specific anharmonic phonon modes that involve bending of the -Zn-NC-Au-CN-Zn- linkage. The soft phonon at the L point at the Brillouin zone boundary quantitatively relates to the high-pressure phase transition at about 2 GPa. The ambient pressure structure is also found to be close to an elastic instability that leads to a weakly first-order transition.

  11. Using high-level construal and perceptions of changeability to promote self-change over self-protection motives in response to negative feedback.

    Belding, Jennifer N; Naufel, Karen Z; Fujita, Kentaro

    2015-06-01

    Diagnostic negative information presents people with a motivational dilemma. Although negative feedback can provide useful information with which to guide future self-improvement efforts, it also presents short-term affective costs. We propose that construal level, jointly with the perceived changeability of the feedback domain, determines whether people choose to accept or dismiss such information. Whereas low-level construal promotes short-term self-protection motivation (promoting dismissal), high-level construal promotes long-term self-change motivation (promoting acceptance)--to the extent that change is perceived as possible. Four studies support this hypothesis and examine underlying cognitive and motivational mechanisms. The present work may provide an integrative theoretical framework for understanding when people will be open to and accept negative diagnostic information, and has important practical implications for promoting self-change efforts. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Two-miRNA classifiers differentiate mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular thyroid adenomas in fine needle aspirations with high specificity

    Stokowy, Tomasz; Wojtas, Bartosz; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of thyroid by fine needle aspiration is challenging for the "indeterminate" category and can be supported by molecular testing. We set out to identify miRNA markers that could be used in a diagnostic setting to improve the discrimination of mutation-negative indeterminate fine needle...... aspirations. miRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed for freshly frozen tissue samples of 19 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 23 RAS and PAX8/PPARG mutation-negative follicular adenomas. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative polymerase...... chain reaction in a set of 44 fine needle aspiration samples representing 24 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 20 follicular adenomas. Twenty-six miRNAs characterized by a significant differential expression between follicular thyroid carcinomas and follicular adenomas were identified. Nevertheless...

  13. Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits.

    Rosen, L D; Lim, A F; Felt, J; Carrier, L M; Cheever, N A; Lara-Ruiz, J M; Mendoza, J S; Rokkum, J

    2014-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends no screen time for children under the age of 2 and limited screen time for all children. However, no such guidelines have been proposed for preteens and teenagers. Further, research shows that children, preteens, and teenagers are using massive amounts of media and those with more screen time have been shown to have increased obesity, reduced physical activity, and decreased health. This study examined the impact of technology on four areas of ill-being-psychological issues, behavior problems, attention problems and physical health-among children (aged 4-8), preteens (9-12), and teenagers (13-18) by having 1030 parents complete an online, anonymous survey about their own and their child's behaviors. Measures included daily technology use, daily food consumption, daily exercise, and health. Hypothesis 1, which posited that unhealthy eating would predict impaired ill-being, was partially supported, particularly for children and preteens. Hypothesis 2, which posited that reduced physical activity would predict diminished health levels, was partially supported for preteens and supported for teenagers. Hypothesis 3, that increased daily technology use would predict ill-being after factoring out eating habits and physical activity, was supported. For children and preteens, total media consumption predicted illbeing while for preteens specific technology uses, including video gaming and electronic communication, predicted ill-being. For teenagers, nearly every type of technological activity predicted poor health. Practical implications were discussed in terms of setting limits and boundaries on technology use and encouraging healthy eating and physical activity at home and at school.

  14. Use of a Machine-learning Method for Predicting Highly Cited Articles Within General Radiology Journals.

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Doshi, Ankur M; Ginocchio, Luke A; Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the performance of a text classification machine-learning model in predicting highly cited articles within the recent radiological literature and to identify the model's most influential article features. We downloaded from PubMed the title, abstract, and medical subject heading terms for 10,065 articles published in 25 general radiology journals in 2012 and 2013. Three machine-learning models were applied to predict the top 10% of included articles in terms of the number of citations to the article in 2014 (reflecting the 2-year time window in conventional impact factor calculations). The model having the highest area under the curve was selected to derive a list of article features (words) predicting high citation volume, which was iteratively reduced to identify the smallest possible core feature list maintaining predictive power. Overall themes were qualitatively assigned to the core features. The regularized logistic regression (Bayesian binary regression) model had highest performance, achieving an area under the curve of 0.814 in predicting articles in the top 10% of citation volume. We reduced the initial 14,083 features to 210 features that maintain predictivity. These features corresponded with topics relating to various imaging techniques (eg, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy computed tomography, computed tomography reconstruction algorithms, tomosynthesis, elastography, and computer-aided diagnosis), particular pathologies (prostate cancer; thyroid nodules; hepatic adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), and other topics (radiation dose, electroporation, education, general oncology, gadolinium, statistics). Machine learning can be successfully applied to create specific feature-based models for predicting articles likely to achieve high influence within the radiological literature. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University

  15. Predicting Factors for High-Grade Cervical Dysplasia in Women With Low-Grade Cervical Cytology and Nonvisible Squamocolumnar Junction.

    Bogani, Giorgio; Taverna, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudia; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, U; Mosca, Lavinia; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Scaffa, Cono; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    To assess the risk of developing high-grade cervical dysplasia among women with low-grade cervical cytology and nonvisible squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) at colposcopic examination. Data of consecutive women with low-grade intraepithelial lesion(≤LSIL) undergoing colposcopic examination, which was unsatisfactory (due to the lack of the visualization of the entire SCJ), were retrospectively reviewed. The risk of developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) was assessed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Data of 86 women were retrieved. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 36.3 (13.4) years. A total of 71 (82.5%) patients had high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) at the time of diagnosis. Among the 63 patients undergoing repetition of HPV testing, 15 (24%) and 48 (76%) women had positive and negative tests for HR-HPV at 12 months, respectively. We observed that 5 (33%) of 15 patients with HPV persistence developed CIN2+, while only 1 (2%) patient of 48 patients without HPV persistence developed CIN2+ (odds ratio [OR]: 23.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.46-223.7; P < .001). The length of HR-HPV persistence correlated with an increased risk of developing CIN2+ ( P < .001; P for trend). High-risk HPV persistence is the only factor predicting for CIN2+ (hazard ratio: 3.19; 95% CI: 1.55-6.57; P = .002). High-risk HPV persistence predicts the risk of developing CIN2+ in patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examination. Further studies are warranted in order to implement the use of HPV testing in patients with unsatisfactory colposcopy.

  16. High Quality Model Predictive Control for Single Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverters

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    Single phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect the photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the presented control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but are more complex to implement. Recently, the model-predictive control...... algorithm for single-phase inverter has been presented, where the algorithm implementation is straightforward. In the proposed approach, all switching states are tested in each switching period to achieve the control objectives. However, since the number of the switching states in single-phase inverter...... is low, the inverter output current has a high total harmonic distortions. In order to reduce the total harmonic distortions of the injected current, this paper presents a high-quality model-predictive control for one of the newest structure of the grid connected photovoltaic inverter, i.e., HERIC...

  17. Prediction of thermal coagulation from the instantaneous strain distribution induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Takagi, Ryo; Tomiyasu, Kentaro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2017-07-01

    The targeting of the ultrasound beam and the prediction of thermal lesion formation in advance are the requirements for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment with safety and reproducibility. To visualize the HIFU focal zone, we utilized an acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging-based method. After inducing displacements inside tissues with pulsed HIFU called the push pulse exposure, the distribution of axial displacements started expanding and moving. To acquire RF data immediately after and during the HIFU push pulse exposure to improve prediction accuracy, we attempted methods using extrapolation estimation and applying HIFU noise elimination. The distributions going back in the time domain from the end of push pulse exposure are in good agreement with tissue coagulation at the center. The results suggest that the proposed focal zone visualization employing pulsed HIFU entailing the high-speed ARFI imaging method is useful for the prediction of thermal coagulation in advance.

  18. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  19. Inclusive negative-hadron production from high-energy nu-bar-nucleus charged-current interactions

    Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.; Endorf, R.; Hanft, R.; Malko, J.A.; Moffatt, G.; Nezrick, F.A.; Scott, W.; Smart, W.; Wolfson, J.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amrakhov, A.H.; Denisov, A.G.; Ermolov, P.F.; Gapienko, V.A.; Klukhin, V.I.; Koreshev, V.I.; Pitukhin, P.V.; Rjabov, V.G.; Slobodyuk, E.A.; Sirotenko, V.I.; Efremenko, V.I.; Gorichev, P.A.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Khovansky, V.D.; Kliger, G.K.; Kolganov, V.Z.; Krutchinin, S.P.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Rosanov, A.N.; Savitsky, M.M.; Shevchenko, V.G.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Ross, R.T.; Seidl, A.A.; Sinclair, D.

    1978-01-01

    We present data on inclusive negative-hadron production from charged-current antineutrino interactions in a 21% Ne--H mixture. Inclusive single-particle distributions are presented and are shown to be insensitive to the momentum transferred to the hadron vertex. Comparisons made to inclusive data from π - p and π - n interactions indicate a close similarity between the hadrons resulting from π-nucleon and nu-bar-nucleus interactions. The general features of the nu-bar-nucleus data are found to be similar to those seen in nu-barp interactions. This last observation implies that nu-barp and nu-barn interactions are similar and that nuclear effects are small

  20. Partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    OLIMOV, K.; LUTPULLAEV, S.L.; PETROV, V.I.; OLIMOV, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    New experimental data on the partial inelasticity coefficients of negative pions produced in "1"6Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/s, pC-interactions at 4.2 and 9.9 GeV/s, and d,α,C(C)-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/s are presented. It is established that the behavior of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions at intermediate energies (<10 GeV) in hadron-nucleus collisions has a transitional character, reaching the limiting value at ultrahigh energies. It is shown that the mean values of partial inelasticity coefficients of pions produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions decrease with an increase in mass number of the projectile nucleus. (authors)

  1. Coherent Interlayer Tunneling and Negative Differential Resistance with High Current Density in Double Bilayer Graphene-WSe2 Heterostructures.

    Burg, G William; Prasad, Nitin; Fallahazad, Babak; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Kim, Kyounghwan; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J; Register, Leonard F; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2017-06-14

    We demonstrate gate-tunable resonant tunneling and negative differential resistance between two rotationally aligned bilayer graphene sheets separated by bilayer WSe 2 . We observe large interlayer current densities of 2 and 2.5 μA/μm 2 and peak-to-valley ratios approaching 4 and 6 at room temperature and 1.5 K, respectively, values that are comparable to epitaxially grown resonant tunneling heterostructures. An excellent agreement between theoretical calculations using a Lorentzian spectral function for the two-dimensional (2D) quasiparticle states, and the experimental data indicates that the interlayer current stems primarily from energy and in-plane momentum conserving 2D-2D tunneling, with minimal contributions from inelastic or non-momentum-conserving tunneling. We demonstrate narrow tunneling resonances with intrinsic half-widths of 4 and 6 meV at 1.5 and 300 K, respectively.

  2. A highly accurate predictive-adaptive method for lithium-ion battery remaining discharge energy prediction in electric vehicle applications

    Liu, Guangming; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Hua, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy prediction (EP) method is introduced for battery E RDE determination. • EP determines E RDE through coupled prediction of future states, parameters, and output. • The PAEP combines parameter adaptation and prediction to update model parameters. • The PAEP provides improved E RDE accuracy compared with DC and other EP methods. - Abstract: In order to estimate the remaining driving range (RDR) in electric vehicles, the remaining discharge energy (E RDE ) of the applied battery system needs to be precisely predicted. Strongly affected by the load profiles, the available E RDE varies largely in real-world applications and requires specific determination. However, the commonly-used direct calculation (DC) method might result in certain energy prediction errors by relating the E RDE directly to the current state of charge (SOC). To enhance the E RDE accuracy, this paper presents a battery energy prediction (EP) method based on the predictive control theory, in which a coupled prediction of future battery state variation, battery model parameter change, and voltage response, is implemented on the E RDE prediction horizon, and the E RDE is subsequently accumulated and real-timely optimized. Three EP approaches with different model parameter updating routes are introduced, and the predictive-adaptive energy prediction (PAEP) method combining the real-time parameter identification and the future parameter prediction offers the best potential. Based on a large-format lithium-ion battery, the performance of different E RDE calculation methods is compared under various dynamic profiles. Results imply that the EP methods provide much better accuracy than the traditional DC method, and the PAEP could reduce the E RDE error by more than 90% and guarantee the relative energy prediction error under 2%, proving as a proper choice in online E RDE prediction. The correlation of SOC estimation and E RDE calculation is then discussed to illustrate the

  3. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer.

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Shahbaba, Babak; Uchio, Edward; Feddersen, Søren; Moylan, Donald; Wojno, Kirk; Shore, Neal

    2018-03-01

    Distinguishing between low- and high-grade prostate cancers (PCa) is important, but biopsy may underestimate the actual grade of cancer. We have previously shown that urine/plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers can predict high grade PCa. Our objective was to determine the accuracy of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied, designated a Gleason Score (GS) based on biopsy, and assigned to prostatectomy prior to participation in the study. The primary outcome measure was the urine/plasma test accuracy in predicting high grade PCa on prostatectomy compared with biopsy findings. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using standard formulas, while comparisons between groups were performed using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Fisher's exact test. GS as assigned by standard 10-12 core biopsies was 3 + 3 in 90 (29.4%), 3 + 4 in 122 (39.8%), 4 + 3 in 50 (16.3%), and > 4 + 3 in 44 (14.4%) patients. The urine/plasma assay confirmed a previous validation and was highly accurate in predicting the presence of high-grade PCa (Gleason ≥3 + 4) with sensitivity between 88% and 95% as verified by prostatectomy findings. GS was upgraded after prostatectomy in 27% of patients and downgraded in 12% of patients. This plasma/urine biomarker test accurately predicts high grade cancer as determined by prostatectomy with a sensitivity at 92-97%, while the sensitivity of core biopsies was 78%. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Frameworks to monitor and predict resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 30,000 CPU cores which filter events at up to 100 kHz input rate. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. This talk will present an overview of how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on both CPU usage and dataflow over the data-acquisition network during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism will be explained along with how is used to profile expected resource usage and output event-rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  5. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219969; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  6. Prediction of high frequency core loss for electrical steel using the data provided by manufacturer

    Roy, Rakesh [National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, Shillong (India); Dalal, Ankit; Kumar, Praveen [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes a technique to determine the core loss data, at high frequencies, using the loss data provided by the lamination manufacturer. Steinmetz equation is used in this proposed method to determine core loss at high frequency. This Steinmetz equation consists of static hysteresis and eddy current loss. The presented technique considers the coefficients of Steinmetz equation as variable with frequency and peak magnetic flux density. The high frequency core loss data, predicted using this model is compared with the catalogue data given by manufacturer and very good accuracy has been obtained for a wide range of frequency. - Highlights: • A curve fitting algorithm is proposed to predict core loss at high frequency. • The loss data given by the steel manufacturers are used in curve fitting algorithm. • The algorithm is tested on nine different material’s data set given by the manufacturer.

  7. Prediction of high frequency core loss for electrical steel using the data provided by manufacturer

    Roy, Rakesh; Dalal, Ankit; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a technique to determine the core loss data, at high frequencies, using the loss data provided by the lamination manufacturer. Steinmetz equation is used in this proposed method to determine core loss at high frequency. This Steinmetz equation consists of static hysteresis and eddy current loss. The presented technique considers the coefficients of Steinmetz equation as variable with frequency and peak magnetic flux density. The high frequency core loss data, predicted using this model is compared with the catalogue data given by manufacturer and very good accuracy has been obtained for a wide range of frequency. - Highlights: • A curve fitting algorithm is proposed to predict core loss at high frequency. • The loss data given by the steel manufacturers are used in curve fitting algorithm. • The algorithm is tested on nine different material’s data set given by the manufacturer.

  8. Model predictive control of a high speed switched reluctance generator system

    Marinkov, Sava; De Jager, Bram; Steinbuch, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel voltage control strategy for the high-speed operation of a Switched Reluctance Generator. It uses a linear Model Predictive Control law based on the average system model. The controller computes the DC-link current needed to achieve the tracking of a desired voltage

  9. Predicting Change over Time in Career Planning and Career Exploration for High School Students

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Prideaux, Lee-Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed 166 high school students in Grade 8 and again in Grade 10. Four models were tested: (a) whether the T1 predictor variables (career knowledge, indecision, decision-making selfefficacy, self-esteem, demographics) predicted the outcome variable (career planning/exploration) at T1; (b) whether the T1 predictor variables predicted…

  10. High energy transurethral thermotherapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: criteria to predict treatment outcome

    D'Ancona, F. C. H.; Francisca, E. A. E.; Hendriks, J. C. M.; Debruyne, F. M. J.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the individual value of baseline parameters to predict the outcome of high energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy in the treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Two hundred and forty-seven patients with symptomatic