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Sample records for high na oil

  1. 'High throughput': new technique to evaluation of biocides for biofouling control in oil fields; 'High throughput': nova tecnologia para avaliacao da eficacia de biocidas no controle de biofilme na industria do petroleo

    Yin, Bei [DOW, IL(United States); Yang, Jeff [DOW, Shangai (China); Bertheas, Ute [DOW, Horgen (Switzerland); Takahashi, Debora F. [DOW, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The wide metabolism diversifications and versatile surviving mechanisms lead to the broad existence of microorganisms in oil fields. Water flooding in secondary production can encourage microbial growth and biofilm build-up. Microbial contamination in oil field can cause many problems including microbiologically induced corrosion, oil and gas souring, deposition of iron sulfide, degradation of polymer additives, and plugging oil and gas pipelines and water purification systems. In general, biocides are needed both topside and down hole to control problematic microorganisms. In this study, a high throughput test method was developed that enables a more realistic determination of biocides efficacy against anaerobic microorganisms commonly found in oil field environments. Using this method, a thorough comparison of several commonly used biocides products in oil field for their efficacy against oil field anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolates was executed. This study showed that for each individual application, it is important to screen biocides and their combinations against microorganisms cultured from the field. Since biocides vary in their mode of action, this study also demonstrated the critical importance of utilizing the high throughput method for determining the best and most customized solution for each application. (author)

  2. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  3. The oil market towards 2030 - can OPEC combine high oil price with high market share

    Aune, Finn Roar; Glomsroed, Solveig; Lindholt, Lars; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine within a partial equilibrium model for the oil market whether OPEC can combine high oil prices with a high market share. The oil market model explicitly accounts for reserves, development and production in 4 field categories across 13 regions. Oil companies may invest in new field development or alternatively on improved oil recovery in the decline phase of fields in production. Non-OPEC production is profit-driven, whereas OPEC meets the residual call for OPEC oil at a pre-specified oil price, while maintaining a surplus capacity. The model is run over a range of exogenous oil prices from 15 to 60 $ per barrel. Sustained high oil prices stimulate Non-OPEC production, but its remaining reserves gradually diminish despite new discoveries. Oil demand is only slightly affected by higher prices. Thus, OPEC is able to keep and eventually increase its current market share beyond 2010 even with oil prices around $30 per barrel. In fact, the model simulations indicate that an oil price around $40 is profitable for OPEC, even in the long term. Sensitivity analyses show that the most profitable price level for OPEC is generally above $35 per barrel. Even with several factors working jointly in OPEC's disfavour, the oil price seems to stick to the 30 $ level. Thus, for OPEC there is a trade-off between high prices and high market share in the short to medium term, but not in the long term. For OECD countries, on the other hand, there is a clear trade-off between low oil prices and low import dependence. (Author)

  4. Enhancement of Hydrodynamic Processes in Oil Pipelines Considering Rheologically Complex High-Viscosity Oils

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khamidullina, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil-water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines.

  5. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  6. Fortum Oil and Gas 2000: Exceptionally high price of crude oil and strong refining margins

    Ropponen, V.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Fortum intends to be an active player in the structural reorganization of the oil business by utilizing its niche position in oil refining. Fortum produces sophisticated motor fuel components, which it uses in its reformulated gasolines and sells and exports to other oil companies, even to highly demanding markets in California. The increase in the price of crude oil considerably improved the results of Oil and Gas Upstream. Similarly, an improvement in the refining margin, as well as profitable shipping operations and a strong demand for gasoline components, boosted the results of Oil Refining and Marketing. (orig.)

  7. Application of microemulsion in oil production operations; Emprego de microemulsao na producao de petroleo

    Oliveira, Marcia Cristina K. de; Gonzalez, Gaspar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable liquid-liquid dispersions that present a wide range of potential applications in the Petroleum Industry due to their high stability, ultralow interfacial tension and capacity to modify the wettability of the solids eventually present in the system. In this work some specific application such as removal of deposits from solid surfaces, oily sludge separation, heavy oil recovery from consolidated porous media and oil mobilization from limestone cores, currently under examination at PETROBRAS, are reviewed. It has been found that heavy oil fraction strongly attached to solid surfaces can be removed up to above 90% in the case solids contaminated with oil previously treated by thermal desorption or for sand contaminated with crude oil. Tests with field samples of oily sludge showed that these contaminants can readily be resolved into oil, water and free loose solid particles. In fluid injection tests using consolidated porous media it was observed that the injection of microemulsion after secondary oil removal with sea water conduced to an additional recovery of 59%. Qualitative tests carried out with consolidated limestone cores impregnated with crude oil showed that the oil was efficiently displaced by microemulsion. This effect has been ascribed to the rock matrix wettability inversion caused by the microemulsion. (author)

  8. Borehole sealing with highly compactd Na bentonite

    Pusch, R.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the use of highly compacted Na bentonite for borehole plugging. Bentonites have an extremely low permeability and a low diffusivity, and a swelling ability which produces a nonleaching boundary between clay and rock if the initial bulk density of the bentonite is sufficiently high. The suggested technique, which is applicable to long vertical, and inclined, as well as horizontal boreholes, is based on the use of perforated copper pipes to insert elements of compacted bentonite. Such pipe segments are connected at the rock surface and successively inserted in the hole. When the hole is equipped, the clay takes up water spontaneously and swells through the perforation, and ultimately forms an almost completely homogenous clay core. It embeds the pipe which is left in the hole. Several tests were conducted in the laboratory and one field test was run in Stripa. They all showed that a gel soon fills the slot between the pipe and the confinement which had the form of metal pipes in the laboratory investigations. Subsequently, more clay migrates through the perforation and produces a stiff clay filling in the slot. The redistribution of minerals, leading ultimately to a high degree of homogeneity, can be described as a diffusion process. The rate of redistribution depends on the joint geometry and water flow pattern in the rock. In the rock with an average joint frequence of one per meter or higher, very good homogeneity and sealing ability of the clay are expected within a few months after the application of the plug. (author)

  9. Viewpoint On the Climate Change Effects of High Oil Prices

    Vielle, M.; Viguier, L.

    2005-11-01

    Some commentators claim that the oil market has achieved within a few months what international bureaucrats have struggled to obtain in a decade of international climate negotiations. The fallacy of the oil price argument is that substitutions and income effects that would result from higher oil prices are not considered. Using a computable general equilibrium model, we show that high oil prices cannot serve as substitutes for effective climate policies.

  10. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  11. The ARGO Project: assessing NA-TECH risks on off-shore oil platforms

    Capuano, Paolo; Basco, Anna; Di Ruocco, Angela; Esposito, Simona; Fusco, Giannetta; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Mercogliano, Paola; Salzano, Ernesto; Solaro, Giuseppe; Teofilo, Gianvito; Scandone, Paolo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    ARGO (Analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on off-shore oil platforms) is a 2 years project, funded by the DGS-UNMIG (Directorate General for Safety of Mining and Energy Activities - National Mining Office for Hydrocarbons and Georesources) of Italian Ministry of Economic Development. The project, coordinated by AMRA (Center for the Analysis and Monitoring of Environmental Risk), aims at providing technical support for the analysis of natural and anthropogenic risks on offshore oil platforms. In order to achieve this challenging objective, ARGO brings together climate experts, risk management experts, seismologists, geologists, chemical engineers, earth and coastal observation experts. ARGO has developed methodologies for the probabilistic analysis of industrial accidents triggered by natural events (NA-TECH) on offshore oil platforms in the Italian seas, including extreme events related to climate changes. Furthermore the environmental effect of offshore activities has been investigated, including: changes on seismicity and on the evolution of coastal areas close to offshore platforms. Then a probabilistic multi-risk framework has been developed for the analysis of NA-TECH events on offshore installations for hydrocarbon extraction.

  12. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. High oil prices: A non-OPEC capacity game

    Osmundsen, Petter; Asche, Frank; Misund, Baard; Mohn, Klaus

    2005-08-01

    The current high oil price is partly due to low investments in the oil industry the last decade. According to economic theory, exploration and development of new oil and gas fields should respond positively to increasing petroleum prices. But since the late 1990s, financial analysts have focused strongly on short-term accounting return measures, like RoACE, for benchmarking and valuation of international oil and gas companies. Consequently, the demand for strict capital discipline among oil and gas companies may have reduced their willingness to invest for future reserves and production growth. Thus, we have experienced an unusual combination of high oil prices and low investment levels in exploration and development. In many ways, the oil companies' focus on RoACE, at the expense of reserve replacement, resembles an implicit co-ordination on low capacity among non-OPEC petroleum producers. This is a partial explanation of the current high oil prices. By examining actual parameters used by the financial markets in pricing of oil companies, we address the issue of whether the low investment outcome could represent a long-term equilibrium. This is hardly likely, as oil companies are made aware that stronger emphasis is put on reserve replacement. (Author)

  14. Production of synthetic hydrocarbon lube oil from highly waxy feedstocks

    Xue, Q; Ding, Z; Zheng, Sh; Wu, W

    1980-01-01

    A feasible way to utilize the low value soft wax is to convert it into synthetic hydrocarbon lube oil by thermal cracking/polymerization route. The first commercial plant for this purpose has been in normal operation since 1970. It has been proved to be economically sound. The antioxidant response of the product polymer oil can be distinctly improved by hydro-refining. It has been found that the vacuum gas oil from highly waxy crude with or without furfural refining can be used as cracking stock. If high viscosity index polymer oil is desired, it is better to use slack wax as the cracking stock.

  15. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  16. High oil prices are here to stay

    Toennesen, Bjoern Inge

    2004-01-01

    The presentation discusses the development in the OPEC countries with emphasis on oil price fluctuation, spare production capacity and OPEC control. The capacity expansion in non-OPEC countries and the global demand development are also surveyed. (tk)

  17. Oil spill in Bombay high marine impacts

    pollutant contamination requires reliable baseline against which the measured environmental quality can be compared. Fortunately, the coastal waters of Murud are being periodically monitored under the Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS... avoidance reaction even at low concentration of oil in water. Moreover, the fish possesses an enzyme system which can deal with petroleum hydrocarbons in its tissues. Hence, fish kills due to oil pollution are rare and when occur, the numbers involved...

  18. The impact of high oil prices on natural gas

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The principle of gas-to-oil (oil prices determine the price of natural gas) in the Netherlands and several other developments elsewhere (war in Iraq and a cold winter in the USA) has caused high natural gas prices. The question is whether the liberalization of the energy market can change this principle [nl

  19. Properties of organogels of high stearic soybean oil

    Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that food companies have to phase out the use of partially hydrogenated oils containing trans-fats by 2018. The use of high-stearic oils has been recognized as one of the ways to replace trans fats in food. Organogels also have drawn a ...

  20. Study on high power ultraviolet laser oil detection system

    Jin, Qi; Cui, Zihao; Bi, Zongjie; Zhang, Yanchao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Fu, Shiyou

    2018-03-01

    Laser Induce Fluorescence (LIF) is a widely used new telemetry technology. It obtains information about oil spill and oil film thickness by analyzing the characteristics of stimulated fluorescence and has an important application in the field of rapid analysis of water composition. A set of LIF detection system for marine oil pollution is designed in this paper, which uses 355nm high-energy pulsed laser as the excitation light source. A high-sensitivity image intensifier is used in the detector. The upper machine sends a digital signal through a serial port to achieve nanoseconds range-gated width control for image intensifier. The target fluorescence spectrum image is displayed on the image intensifier by adjusting the delay time and the width of the pulse signal. The spectral image is coupled to CCD by lens imaging to achieve spectral display and data analysis function by computer. The system is used to detect the surface of the floating oil film in the distance of 25m to obtain the fluorescence spectra of different oil products respectively. The fluorescence spectra of oil products are obvious. The experimental results show that the system can realize high-precision long-range fluorescence detection and reflect the fluorescence characteristics of the target accurately, with broad application prospects in marine oil pollution identification and oil film thickness detection.

  1. Towards sustained high oil prices and increasingly volatile

    Auverlot, Dominique; Teillant, Aude; Rech, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    It is particularly difficult to predict the evolution of global oil production and its ability to meet the demand: the main uncertainties are related to the magnitude of the growth of emerging countries, more or less rapid decline in the production of major oil fields current events as well as natural or accidental, but especially geopolitics, which may affect, at any time, production. In a tight market today, the rapid growth of emerging economies, disruption of the oil supply chain world, even its mere mention, could cause short-term loss of excess production capacity - largely concentrated in Saudi Arabia - an increase substantial progress and, as contemplated by the International Atomic Energy imbalances between global oil supply and demand. If, after 2020, production of conventional oil begins to decline and the demand from emerging markets continues to grow, more massive imbalances may arise, leading to potential geopolitical tensions. Control would then demand the best answer. Otherwise, the resources of unconventional hydrocarbons, considerable expected to meet the demand, provided that their development is fast enough and their operating conditions are environmentally friendly. A consensus is emerging today on keeping oil prices high (above $ 100 / barrel) and volatile in the coming years, allowing some producing countries to pursue their development, but for France amplifying the negative effects on the economic growth oil bill (more than 49 billion euros in 2011) weighs more heavily in our trade deficit. In all cases, climate issues, the weight of the oil bill on our economy, securing our energy supply and technical uncertainties or geopolitical oil production call for reducing our oil consumption, accelerated motion the transition to a low carbon economy and development of our own energy resources. Contents: - Current analysis of oil reserves; - Uncertainties about the evolution of world oil production; - What is the potential long-term oil production

  2. Valorisation of Jatropha curcas: Solubilisation of proteins and sugars from the NaOH extracted de-oiled press cake

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibilities for increasing the valorisation of de-oiled Jatropha press cake (DO-JPC). The studied raw material is the by-product of the alkaline protein extraction of the DO-JPC: NaOH Extracted DO-JPC (NEDO-JPC). Protein solubilisation of NEDO-JPC was performed

  3. Biosurfactant and enzyme mediated crude oil degradation by Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3.

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Elumalai, Punniyakotti; Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Sabarinathan, Devaraj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-10-01

    The present study focuses on the optimization of biosurfactant (BS) production using two potential biosurfactant producer Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3 and role of enzymes in the biodegradation of crude oil. The optimal conditions for P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 for biodegradation were pH of 8 and 7; temperature of 30 and 40 °C, respectively. P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 produced 3.81 and 4.68 g/L of BS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry confirmed that BS was mainly composed of fatty acids. Furthermore, the role of the degradative enzymes, alkane hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and laccase on biodegradation of crude oil are explained. Maximum biodegradation efficiency (BE) was recorded for mixed consortia (86%) followed by strain P. stutzeri NA3 (84%). Both bacterial strains were found to be vigorous biodegraders of crude oil than other biosurfactant-producing bacteria due to their enzyme production capabilities and our results suggests that the bacterial isolates can be used for effective degradation of crude oil within short time periods.

  4. Physical and oxidative stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate and sodium alginate

    Yesiltas, Betül; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2017-01-01

    .2 ratio NaCas:NaAlg by Box-Behnken's design, the formulae 70%-1.4%-1.2 was decided due to high fish oil content's decreasing effect on droplet size and peroxide value. Practical applications: Physically and oxidatively stable high fat (50-70%) omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions are of high......A systematic study was carried out in order to evaluate the physical and oxidative stability of high fat omega-3 delivery fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with combinations of sodium caseinate (NaCas) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The influence of 3 factors related to emulsion composition...... (fish oil content: 50, 60 and 70%; total amount of NaCas and NaAlg: 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 %; and ratio NaCas:NaAlg: 0.4, 1.2 and 2) on physical (droplet size, viscosity and zeta potential) and oxidative (primary and secondary oxidation products) parameters was evaluated. It was possible to produce emulsions...

  5. Mechanical lifter for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens

    Rakhmanov, R N; Akhunov, A M; Asfandiyarov, Kh A; Maksutov, R A

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical lifter is described for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens. The lifter differs from the known and has significant advantages over them. The lifter was made and tested on a stand well.

  6. Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil

    Liang, Xuezheng; Gao, Shan; He, Mingyuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang, Jianguo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Energy Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The highly efficient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methanol. The KF/MgO has been selected as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions with the yield of 99.3%. Operational simplicity, without need of the purification of raw vegetable oil, low cost of the catalyst used, high activities, no saponification and reusability are the key features of this methodology. (author)

  7. Polyalhpaolefins and VHVI base oils - base oils for high performance lubricants; Polyalfaolefine und VHVI-Grundoele - Grundoele fuer hochwertige Schmierstoffe

    Lehmus, M.; Nissfolk, F.; Kulmala, K. [Fortum Oil and Gas Oyj / Base Oils, Fortum (Finland)

    2002-01-01

    Next to polyalphaolefines (PAOs base oils of the API/ATIEL Group IV), VHVI base oils (belonging to API/ATIEL Group III) are being increasingly used in high-performance automotive and industrial lubricants. A comparative study of the properties of VHVI base oils and polyalphaolefins shows that high-quality VHVI base oils have comparable volatility, oxidation stability and viscosity indices to polyalphaolefins, whereas the most pronounced differences are viscometric properties in the low-temperature range. However, there are noticeable differences between different market-typical VHVI base oils, depending primarily on the manufacturing process. The differences in the physicochemical properties of PAOs and various VHVI base oils are attributable to differences in the typical molecular composition. This is illustrated by a compositional analysis of several VHVI base oils, in which the (iso)paraffin content and the content of different naphthenic and aromatic compounds is analyzed. The base oil influence on specific properties of formulated lubricants is discussed on the basis of several examples, and studies conducted with passenger car engine oils (PCMOs), heavy-duty engine oils (HDEOs) and gear oils are described in detail. As a result of extremely low CCS viscosities, PAOs are optimally suited for use in 0W-X PCMOs whereas 5W-X PCMOs meeting highest performance requirements can also be formulated with high-quality VHVI base oils. Emission measurements with HDEOs formulated with either SN mineral base oil or VHVI base oil demonstrated that the base oil type affects tailpipe particle emissions in the particle size range <5 {mu}m as replacement of SN mineral base oil with VHVI base oil resulted in lower particle emissions. Test stand measurements with gear oils formulated with either VHVI base oils or PAOs yielded comparable results in terms of power transfer ratio and oil temperature increase. (orig.)

  8. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  9. Fatty acids, essential oil, and phenolics modifications of black cumin fruit under NaCl stress conditions.

    Bourgou, Soumaya; Bettaieb, Iness; Saidani, Moufida; Marzouk, Brahim

    2010-12-08

    This research evaluated the effect of saline conditions on fruit yield, fatty acids, and essential oils compositions and phenolics content of black cumin (Nigella sativa). This plant is one of the most commonly found aromatics in the Mediterranean kitchen. Increasing NaCl levels to 60 mM decreased significantly the fruits yield by 58% and the total fatty acids amount by 35%. Fatty acids composition analysis indicated that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid (58.09%) followed by oleic (19.21%) and palmitic (14.77%) acids. Salinity enhanced the linoleic acid percentage but did not affect the unsaturation degree of the fatty acids pool and thus the oil quality. The essential oil yield was 0.39% based on the dry weight and increased to 0.53, 0.56, and 0.72% at 20, 40, and 60 mM NaCl. Salinity results on the modification of the essential oil chemotype from p-cymene in controls to γ-terpinene/p-cymene in salt-stressed plants. The amounts of total phenolics were lower in the treated plants. Salinity decreased mainly the amount of the major class, benzoics acids, by 24, 29, and 44% at 20, 40, and 60 mM NaCl. The results suggest that salt treatment may regulate bioactive compounds production in black cumin fruits, influencing their nutritional and industrial values.

  10. Crude oil prices : how high, how much harm?

    Levesque, M.; Alexander, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the issue of crude oil prices and the economy. Crude oil prices are on the rise due to the recent events in the Middle East. In early April, West Texas Intermediate crude oil climbed to nearly US$28 a barrel. Most of the increase reflects the expectation of stronger world oil demand combined with supply constraints on the part of OPEC. Although there has been some concern expressed that rising oil prices may hinder economic recovery, the authors of this report do not see evidence that rising oil prices would throw economic recovery off course, arguing that the current spike will be short-lived. They stated that even under a worse-case scenario where prices remain inflated, there is little reason to fear for the health of the Canadian economy. OPEC is expected to increase its low production quotas in June. In addition, non-OPEC nations (Russia in particular) are expected to increase oil production in the coming months. The authors also indicated that it is unlikely that conflict in the West Bank will disrupt oil supply because Israel is not an oil-exporting nation. However, oil supply could be affected if other Arab nations were drawn into the issue. It was also noted that military action against Iraq would increase oil prices, possibly as high as US$40 a barrel, but the full extent of this hike in price will probably be unsustainable. In addition, the authors emphasized that the increase in energy costs would not be enough to seriously jeopardize the economic recovery in the United States. As for Canada, it is estimated that a US$10 per barrel increase in crude oil prices would have a small, but positive impact on Canadian GDP because in contrast to the United States, Canada produces much more energy than it consumers. In 2001, Canada ran a trade surplus of $2.8 billion. The report ended by stating that although higher oil prices could add a full percentage point to headline inflation by the end of the year, core inflation is likely to remain

  11. Production Biodiesel from Coconut Oil Using Microwave: Effect of Some Parameters on Transesterification Reaction by NaOH Catalyst

    A. Suryanto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of reaction time and NaOH catalyst in transesterification of coconut oil enhanced by microwave and to obtain a biodiesel. Reaction was conducted in batch reactor which equipped by microwave. Coconut oil contains saturated fatty acids about 70% with medium chain (C8-C14, especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The reaction was initiated by mixing oil and methanol with oil to methanol mole ratios of 1:3, 1:6, 1:9 and 1:12, catalyst concentration of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 wt.%, as well as setting electrical power at 100, 264 and 400 W. The reaction times were of  0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 min. The result showed that microwave could be employed as an energy source and was able to accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel using NaOH catalyst. The biodiesel yields increase with increasing microwave power. The highest yield of biodiesel obtained  was of  97.37%  with reaction conditions set at 0.2 wt.% catalyst, a reaction time of 2 min, molar ratio of methanol to oil 1:9 and microwave power of 400 watt. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 15th January 2015; Revised: 10th March 2015; Accepted: 15th March 2015How to Cite: Suryanto, A., Suprapto, S., Mahfud, M. (2015. Production Biodiesel from Coconut Oil Using Microwave: Effect of Reaction Time on Transesterification Reaction by NaOH Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 162-168. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8080.162-168 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.8080.162-168 

  12. News/High speed oil defense boat

    1978-01-01

    An oil defense boat that can travel at 30 knots to the scene of a spill and surround the polluted area or protect a nearby beach or harbor, with a 200 m floating plastic barrier within 20 minutes, has been developed by Vator Oy of Helsinki in association with the Finnish Board of Navigation. The Vator 18T boat, which can carry a crew of three or four, has a trimaran glass reinforced plastic hull. The floating plastic barrier (Nokia SUP Spillbooms) is produced by the Oy Nokia A.B., Cable Works Division of Helsinki and is made of a PVC-coated fabric enclosing floats of polyethylene foam and either chain ballast or iron sinkers.

  13. Highly porous oil sorbent based on hollow fibers as the interceptor for oil on static and running water

    Dong, Ting [College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Shengbin [College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Dianji University, Shanghai 201306 (China); Xu, Guangbiao, E-mail: guangbiao_xu@dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Highly porous sorbent was made up of kapok and PET fibers. • The sorbent was prepared by air-laying-bonding method. • The sorbent showed much higher oil sorption capacity than 100% loose kapok fibers. • The sorbent showed high intercepting efficiency to oils on water. • The runing of water significantly accelerated the oil leakage. - Abstract: Highly porous fibrous assembly made by kapok and hollow PET fibers was prepared by the air-laying-bonding method, and used as the interceptor for oils on static and running water. SEM showed that the vast majority of kapok and PET fibers in the assembly was intact and retained their hollow lumens, with the assembly's porosity high to 98.03%. Oil sorption tests exhibited that kapok/PET assembly could absorb 63.00 g/g of vegetable oil and 58.50 g/g of used motor oil, with high oil retention after 24 h dripping. In static condition of oil interception, the two oils started to leak at around 20 min for 10-mm thick kapok/PET wall. The time for that was prolonged with increasing the thickness of kapok/PET wall. After oil breakthrough, continuous oil leaking took place. The typical leakage was divided into three stages in which oils leaked separately in sharply increased rate, reduced rate and finally gently. In running condition, oils leaked in markedly quicker way than that in static condition, with initial leakage of oils shortened to less 6 min when the water ran at 60.35 ml/s. The leakage of oils was considerably accelerated with increasing running rates.

  14. Highly porous oil sorbent based on hollow fibers as the interceptor for oil on static and running water

    Dong, Ting; Cao, Shengbin; Xu, Guangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly porous sorbent was made up of kapok and PET fibers. • The sorbent was prepared by air-laying-bonding method. • The sorbent showed much higher oil sorption capacity than 100% loose kapok fibers. • The sorbent showed high intercepting efficiency to oils on water. • The runing of water significantly accelerated the oil leakage. - Abstract: Highly porous fibrous assembly made by kapok and hollow PET fibers was prepared by the air-laying-bonding method, and used as the interceptor for oils on static and running water. SEM showed that the vast majority of kapok and PET fibers in the assembly was intact and retained their hollow lumens, with the assembly's porosity high to 98.03%. Oil sorption tests exhibited that kapok/PET assembly could absorb 63.00 g/g of vegetable oil and 58.50 g/g of used motor oil, with high oil retention after 24 h dripping. In static condition of oil interception, the two oils started to leak at around 20 min for 10-mm thick kapok/PET wall. The time for that was prolonged with increasing the thickness of kapok/PET wall. After oil breakthrough, continuous oil leaking took place. The typical leakage was divided into three stages in which oils leaked separately in sharply increased rate, reduced rate and finally gently. In running condition, oils leaked in markedly quicker way than that in static condition, with initial leakage of oils shortened to less 6 min when the water ran at 60.35 ml/s. The leakage of oils was considerably accelerated with increasing running rates.

  15. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  16. Highly conductive porous Na-embedded carbon nanowalls for high-performance capacitive deionization

    Chang, Liang; Hu, Yun Hang

    2018-05-01

    Highly conductive porous Na-embedded carbon nanowalls (Na@C), which were recently invented, have exhibited excellent performance for dye-sensitized solar cells and electric double-layer capacitors. In this work, Na@C was demonstrated as an excellent electrode material for capacitive deionization (CDI). In a three-electrode configuration system, the specific capacity of the Na@C electrodes can achieve 306.4 F/g at current density of 0.2 A/g in 1 M NaCl, which is higher than that (235.2 F/g) of activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Furthermore, a high electrosorption capacity of 8.75 mg g-1 in 100 mg/L NaCl was obtained with the Na@C electrodes in a batch-mode capacitive deionization cell. It exceeds the electrosorption capacity (4.08 mg g-1) of AC electrodes. The Na@C electrode also showed a promising cycle stability. The excellent performance of Na@C electrode for capacitive deionization (CDI) can be attributed to its high electrical conductivity and large accessible surface area.

  17. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    Imran, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis reactor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in an entrained flow pyrolysis reactor by feeding a premixed feedstock of the catalyst and biomass. Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 was very effective for de-oxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid and oxygen content of the bio-oil was decreased from 47.5 wt.% to 16.4 wt.%. An organic rich bio-oil was obtained with 5.8 wt.% water content and a higher heating value of 36.1 MJ/kg. Carboxylic acids were completely removed and the bio-oil had almost a neutral pH. This bio-oil of high calorific low, low water and oxygen content may be an attractive fuel precursor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor produced a very similar quality bio-oil compared to post treatment of pyrolysis vapors, and shows the possible application of Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 in a commercial type reactor system such as a fluidized bed reactor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic residue removal for high-NA extreme illumination

    Moon, James; Nam, Byong-Sub; Jeong, Joo-Hong; Kong, Dong-Ho; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yim, Dong Gyu

    2007-10-01

    An epidemic for smaller node has been that, as the device architecture shrinks, lithography process requires high Numerical Aperture (NA), and extreme illumination system. This, in turn, creates many lithography problems such as low lithography process margin (Depth of Focus, Exposure Latitude), unstable Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity and restricted guideline for device design rule and so on. Especially for high NA, extreme illumination such as immersion illumination systems, above all the related problems, restricted design rule due to forbidden pitch is critical and crucial issue. This forbidden pitch is composed of numerous optical effects but majority of these forbidden pitch compose of photo resist residue and these residue must be removed to relieve some room for already tight design rule. In this study, we propose automated algorithm to remove photo resist residue due to high NA and extreme illumination condition. This algorithm automatically self assembles assist patterns based on the original design layout, therefore insuring the safety and simplicity of the generated assist pattern to the original design and removes any resist residue created by extreme illumination condition. Also we tested our automated algorithm on full chip FLASH memory device and showed the residue removal effect by using commercial verification tools as well as on actual test wafer.

  19. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  20. Challenges of anamorphic high-NA lithography and mask making

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Chip makers are actively working on the adoption of 0.33 numerical aperture (NA) EUV scanners for the 7-nm and 5-nm nodes (B. Turko, S. L. Carson, A. Lio, T. Liang, M. Phillips, et al., in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 977602 (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225014; A. Lio, in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97760V (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225017). In the meantime, leading foundries and integrated device manufacturers are starting to investigate patterning options beyond the 5-nm node (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022). To minimize the cost and process complexity of multiple patterning beyond the 5-nm node, EUV high-NA single-exposure patterning is a preferred method over EUV double patterning (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022; J. van Schoot, K. van Ingen Schenau, G. Bottiglieri, K. Troost, J. Zimmerman, et al., `Proc. SPIE. 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97761I (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2220150). The EUV high-NA scanner equipped with a projection lens of 0.55 NA is designed to support resolutions below 10 nm. The high-NA system is beneficial for enhancing resolution, minimizing mask proximity correction bias, improving normalized image log slope (NILS), and controlling CD uniformity (CDU). However, increasing NA from 0.33 to 0.55 reduces the depth of focus (DOF) significantly. Therefore, the source mask optimization (SMO) with sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) are needed to increase DOF to meet the demanding full chip process control requirements (S. Hsu, R. Howell, J. Jia, H.-Y. Liu, K. Gronlund, et al., EUV `Proc. SPIE9048, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', (2015) doi: 10

  1. High precision measurements of 26Naβ- decay

    Grinyer, G. F.; Svensson, C. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A. N.; Austin, R. A.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Hackman, G.; Hardy, J. C.; Hyland, B.; Iacob, V. E.; Koopmans, K. A.; Kulp, W. D.; Leslie, J. R.; MacDonald, J. A.; Morton, A. C.; Ormand, W. E.; Osborne, C. J.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Schwarzenberg, J.; Smith, M. B.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Wood, J. L.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2005-04-01

    High-precision measurements of the half-life and β-branching ratios for the β- decay of 26Na to 26Mg have been measured in β-counting and γ-decay experiments, respectively. A 4π proportional counter and fast tape transport system were employed for the half-life measurement, whereas the γ rays emitted by the daughter nucleus 26Mg were detected with the 8π γ-ray spectrometer, both located at TRIUMF's isotope separator and accelerator radioactive beam facility. The half-life of 26Na was determined to be T1/2=1.07128±0.00013±0.00021s, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. The logft values derived from these experiments are compared with theoretical values from a full sd-shell model calculation.

  2. Utilization of oil palm fronds in producing activated carbon using Na2CO3 as an activator

    Maulina, S.; Anwari, FN

    2018-02-01

    Oil Palm Frond is a waste in palm oil plantations that have the potential to be processed into more valuable products. This possibility is because of the presence of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in oil palm fronds. Therefore, this study aimed to utilize oil palm fronds in manufacturing of activated carbon through pyrolysis and impregnation that meets the requirements of the Industrial National Standard 06-3730-1995. The palm-fringed oil palm fronds were pyrolyzed in reactors at 150°C, 200°C, and 250°C for 60 minutes. Subsequently, the charcoal produced from the pyrolysis was smoothed with a ball mill, sieved with a size of 140 meshes, and impregnated using a Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) for 24 hours at a concentration of 0 %, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5 % (w/v). The activated carbon has 35.13% of charcoal yield, 8.6% of water content, 14.25% of ash content, 24.75% of volatile matter, 72.75% of fixed carbon, and 492.29 of iodine number. Moreover, SEM analysis indicated that activated carbon porous are coarse and distributed.

  3. Warming of olive oil processed by high hydrostatic pressure

    Houška, M.; Kubásek, M.; Strohalm, J.; Landfeld, A.; Kamarád, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2004), s. 303-308 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe EP9026 Keywords : olive oil * food processing * high pressure * warming Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.504, year: 2004

  4. Are high oil prices a threat for the price stability?

    Mollerus, A.

    2000-01-01

    The high price for oil and the decreased value of the Euro increase the risks for the stability of prices. Still, the prospects for inflation are favorable for the Euro zone. Less favorable are the consequences for the Netherlands, while the inflation difference with the Euro zone appears to become bigger, in particular as a result of the new Tax regulations in the Netherlands

  5. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  6. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Water Content, Temperature and NaCl on CO2 Corrosion of Carbon Steel (A106B in Iraqi Crude Oil

    Saad Ahmed Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine the corrosion rate of carbon steel (A 106 GradeB as flow line in crude oil production with CO2 content employing three Iraqi crude oil (Kirkuk crude oil, Halfaya crude oil, and Rumalia crude oil with identical produced water (brine [1%NaCl,2%NaCl, and 3%NaCl]. Experiments were performed in an autoclave test apparatus, crude oilproduced water mixtures, water cuts were (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 100%, and temperature (20, 40, 60°C. For all experiments, CO2 partial pressure was maintained at 4bar and rotational speed 500 rpm. The corrosion rates were determined by the weight loss method. The results revealed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased by increasing water cut and temperature, but decreased with increasing salt concentration for all types of crude oil. Rumaila crude oil exhibited the highest corrosion rate and Kirkuk crude oil exhibits the lowest corrosion rate while Halfaya crude oil exhibits a moderate corrosion rate.

  8. Teor de óleo e de cafeína em variedades de café Oil and caffeine content in the coffee bean

    J. S. Tango

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a porcentagem de óleo e de cafeína em sementes de diversas variedades de Coffee arabica. As sementes provieram de frutos despolpados, secos em terreiro sem despolpar, ou secos na própria planta. O tratamento des frutos influiu sôbre o teor de óleo, sendo também significativa a diferença entre as variedades. Os dados confirmam resultados anteriores de que a variedade mucronata é rica e a, variedade laurina, pobre, em óleo. No que concerne ao teor de cafeína, o tratamento dos frutos não mostrou influência, mas pronunciada diferença se constatou entre as variedades. Sete das variedades se mostraram mais pobres do que o café 'Sumatra', tomado comg padrão. A variedade laurina destacou-se das demais pelo baixo teor dêsse alcalóide com, aproximadamente, a metade do nível encontrado nas demais variedades analisadas, o que a torna valiosa para um piano de melhoramento visando a redução do nível de cafeína nas sementes.Oil and caffeine contents were determined for seed samples obtained from cherries of sixteen varieties of Coffea arabica which were submitted to three types of treatments pulped, non pulped and left to dry with pericarp in the sun, or naturally dried on the tree. Cherry processing seems not to have influence on the oil content in the seeds (table I, but significant differences were noted among the varieties with respect to this characteristic. Mucronata revealed to have high oil content while the laurina is a low oil producing variety. Coffee cherries left to dry on the trees gave lower caffeine content. Seven of the sixteen varieties presented a lower caffeine content than the standard 'Sumatra'. The laurinis variety had an exceptional lower caffeine content of about half the amount found in the control. Laurina characteristics are controlled by a recessive allele lr with strong pleiotropic effects. It is not yet known how the laurina allele affects the chemical reactions which lead to a so low caffeine

  9. The Effects of High and Volatile Oil Prices

    Artus, Patrick; Autume, Antoine d'; Chalmin, Philippe; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Coeure, Benoit; Kalantizs, Yannick; Klein, Caroline; Guesnerie, Roger; Callonnec, Gael; Gaudin, Thomas; Moisan, Francois; Lescaroux, Francois; Clerc, Marie; Marcus, Vincent; Lalanne, Guy; Pouliquen, Erwan; Simon, Olivier; Mignon, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    demand into play (this is estimated at around 0.2 in the short term and around 0.4 over the longer term for fuel demand) and possibly caused behavioural changes such as those seen in France and described in the report. The other explanation is related to energy and environmental policies, which have helped reduce oil demand. However, the strong growth expected in emerging markets is likely to increase global demand for oil by several million barrels per day by 2014. This reflects the expectation that the number of cars on the road worldwide will double by 2030, and it seems unlikely that tougher environmental constraints will contain these trends. Half of this growth will come from Asia. Such an increase in global oil demand will only be sustainable if it is accompanied by higher prices that will enable the exploitation of new unconventional oil fields or fields with high production costs. As regards volatility, the authors first repeat that there are real determinants at play: the level of oil prices encourages or discourages investment in production capacity. Low oil prices slow capacity investments and therefore limit future supply, which then causes prices to rise, thereby providing an incentive to invest and develop supply. However, neither these (endogenous) irregularities in the investment programs of oil companies and exporting countries nor changing demand trends alone can account for the sharp rise in prices between 2002 and 2008 and the very sudden drop that followed in July-August 2008. A number of observers believe that the explanation lies in speculation on the oil market. The report's authors sift through all the arguments for and against this theory. While it is undeniable that speculation has developed on the oil futures market, the authors question two key points: was this speculation really focused on an oil price rally, and could it have such a significant retroactive effect on spot prices? Their conclusions recognise that speculation was indeed

  10. Enhancement of oleic acid in butter oil by high oleic fraction of moringa oleifera oil

    Nadeem, M.; Ullah, R.

    2016-01-01

    Oleic acid in butter oil (BO) was enhanced by a high oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO). HOF was blended with BO at four different concentrations i.e. 5%, 10 percent, 15% and 20% (HOF-5, HOF-10, HOF-15 and HOF-20, respectively), compared with a control (BO). The oleic acid in HOF increased from 71.55 percent to 80.25%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and total flavonoid content of HOF was 76.88% and 34.52 mg/100 g. Supplementation of butter oil with 20% HOF, decreased the cholesterol from 224 to 177 mg/100 g. Peroxide value of three months stored HOF-20 was 1.18 (meqO/sub 2/ kg) as compared to control, 3.15 (meqO/sub 2/kg). Induction period of HOF-20 was 4.07 h greater than control. These results evidenced that oleic acid in butter oil can be substantially increased by HOF of MOO. (author)

  11. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk) Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability 
and Nutritional Value.

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mehr, Hamed Mahdavian; Yousefabad, Seyed Hossein Asadi

    2015-03-01

    In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel) and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well--balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation-sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  12. Bio diesel Production via Transesterification of Palm Oil Using NaOH/ Al2O3 Catalysts

    Taufiq Yap Yun Hin; Nurul Fitriyah Abdullah; Mahiran Basri; Taufiq Yap Yun Hin; Nurul Fitriyah Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increase in price of petroleum and environmental concerns, the search for alternative fuels has gained importance. In this work, bio diesel production by transesterification of palm oil with methanol has been studied in a heterogeneous system using sodium hydroxide loaded on alumina (NaOH/ Al 2 O 3 ). NaOH/ Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared by impregnation of alumina with different amount of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide followed by calcination in air for 3 h. The prepared catalysts were then characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and temperature-programmed desorption of CO 2 (CO 2 -TPD). Moreover, the dependence of the conversion of palm oil on the reactions variables such as the molar ratio of methanol/oil, the amount of catalysts used, reaction temperatures and reaction times were performed. The conversion of 99 % was achieved under the optimum reaction conditions. The bio diesel obtained was characterized by FT-IR and the pour point was measured. (author)

  13. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Unneland, Trond

    2001-05-01

    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  14. High internal phase emulsion (HIPE)-templated biopolymeric oleofilms containing an ultra-high concentration of edible liquid oil.

    Wijaya, Wahyu; Van der Meeren, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2018-04-25

    We report, for the first time, the fabrication of oleofilms (containing more than 97 wt% edible liquid oil) using high internal phase emulsions (with oil volume fraction φoil = 0.82) as templates. Advanced microscopy studies revealed an interesting microstructure of these films where jammed oil droplets were embedded in a dried matrix of biopolymeric complexes.

  15. Highly efficient upconversion luminescence in hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanocrystals synthesized by a novel reverse microemulsion method

    Gunaseelan, M.; Yamini, S.; Kumar, G. A.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2018-01-01

    A new reverse microemulsion system is proposed for the first time to synthesize NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals, which demonstrated high upconversion emission in 550 and 662 nm at 980 nm diode laser excitation. The reverse microemulsion (μEs) system is comprised of CTAB and oleic acid as surfactant and 1-butanol co-surfactant and isooctane oil phase. The surfactant to water ratio is able to tune the microemulsion droplet size from 14 to 220 nm, which eventually controls the crystallinity and particulate morphology of NaYF4:Yb,Er. Also, the microemulsion precursor and calcination temperature plays certain role in transforming the cubic NaYF4:Yb,Er to highly luminescent hexagonal crystal structured upconversion material. Single phase hexagonal NaYF4:YbEr nanorod prepared by water-in-oil reverse microemulsion (μEs) gives intense red upconversion emission. Both nanosphere and nanorod shaped NaYF4:Yb,Er was obtained, but nanorod morphology resulted an enhanced upconversion luminescence. The structural, morphological, thermal and optical luminescence properties of the NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles are discussed in detail by employing powder X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, high resolution electron microscopy, TGA-DTA, UV-DRS, FTIR and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Intense upconversion emission achieved in the microemulsion synthesized NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystal can make it as useful optical phosphor for solar cell applications.

  16. Effects of H2O/Na2O molar ratio on the strength of alkaline activated ground blast furnace slag-ultrafine palm oil fuel ash based concrete

    Yusuf, Moruf Olalekan; Megat Johari, Megat Azmi; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of H 2 O/Na 2 O on GBFS-POFA alkaline activated concrete are investigated. • High H 2 O/Na 2 O contents enhance dissolutions/workability at the expense of strength. • Lower H 2 O/Na 2 O molar ratios aid compressive strength of the products. • Increase in H 2 O/Na 2 O favours the reactivity of Ca and the products molecular bonds. • Low H 2 O/Na 2 O positively affects the microstructural density of the products. - Abstract: Effects of H 2 O/Na 2 O molar ratios (MRs) on the developed alkaline activated pozzolanic solid wastes (PMs)-ultrafine palm oil fuel ash (UPOFA) and ground blast furnace slag (GBFS)-were studied by using the constant mass of combined activators (10 M NaOH aq + Na 2 SiO 3aq of silica-modulus (Ms = SiO 2 /Na 2 O) of 3.3).The free water content (FWC) expressed as FWC/(PMs) varied from 0.02 to 0.1 by mass while the total H 2 O/Na 2 O MRs ranged from 18.9 to 23.1 The findings revealed that increase in H 2 O/Na 2 O MRs negatively affects the strength but positively impact the mixture workability (consistency). The microstructural morphology examination using Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM + EDS) reveals the contribution of H 2 O/Na 2 O MRs to the product nature, compactness, and the reactivity of Ca 2+ and Al 3+ while Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicates that H 2 O/Na 2 O ratios contributed to the product amorphousity and carbonation process but sparingly affected its formed polymerized structural units (SiQ n (mAl), n = 2 and 3)

  17. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  18. Numerical Simulation of Oil Jet Lubrication for High Speed Gears

    Tommaso Fondelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geared Turbofan technology is one of the most promising engine configurations to significantly reduce the specific fuel consumption. In this architecture, a power epicyclical gearbox is interposed between the fan and the low pressure spool. Thanks to the gearbox, fan and low pressure spool can turn at different speed, leading to higher engine bypass ratio. Therefore the gearbox efficiency becomes a key parameter for such technology. Further improvement of efficiency can be achieved developing a physical understanding of fluid dynamic losses within the transmission system. These losses are mainly related to viscous effects and they are directly connected to the lubrication method. In this work, the oil injection losses have been studied by means of CFD simulations. A numerical study of a single oil jet impinging on a single high speed gear has been carried out using the VOF method. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the resistant torque due to the oil jet lubrication, correlating the torque data with the oil-gear interaction phases. URANS calculations have been performed using an adaptive meshing approach, as a way of significantly reducing the simulation costs. A global sensitivity analysis of adopted models has been carried out and a numerical setup has been defined.

  19. Environmental considerations in a high desert, crude oil pipeline spill

    Lowe, M.A.; Mancini, E.R.; Chamberlain, D.W.; Albright, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    A road grader punctured a high-pressure crude oil pipeline in the California high desert resulting in the release of approximately 4,200 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil. Oil sprayed over a steeply sloped hillside and flowed into an adjacent, densely vegetated ephemeral stream channel which carried secondary treatment sewage discharge. Three underflow dams were constructed in the channel within 2.8 km of the site. To ensure containment at the first dam, the sewage discharge was diverted from the channel, eventually to an upland impulse sprinkler irrigation system. Channel water and phase-separated ANS crude oil, impounded behind the first dam, percolated through alluvial sands/gravels to a depth of about five meters. The oil percolated through the soils on the receding surface of the water, affecting soils to an equivalent depth and saturating a horizontally narrow band of stream-bank soils as much as two to four meters into the bank. Stream channel undergrowth and a small number of mature trees were cleared to provide access for cleanup and/or to remove oiled plants. A large number of trees experienced partial leaf-drop within 25 days of the spill while two heavily oiled trees died. New vegetative growth was evident within five weeks of the spill. Site restoration included planting cuttings of five riparian tree species and hydroseeding exposed banks. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from not detectable to 203,000 parts per million and averaged approximately 25,000 ppm in affected soils as sampled in place and in stockpiles. Approximately 30,000 tons of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was excavated from the length of the stream channel (3,600 tons) as well as the area behind the first dam and spill site (26,400 tons). All soils were staged on site for waste profiling and final disposition. After treatment, the contaminated soil was beneficially reused as daily cover at a southern California landfill at a turnkey cost of approximately $57/ton

  20. High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries Enabled by Oriented NaO2 Nanowires as Discharge Products.

    Khajehbashi, S Mohammad B; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Guobin; Tan, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Lai-Sen; Li, Jiantao; Luo, Wen; Peng, Dong-Liang; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-06-13

    Na-O 2 batteries are emerging rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical energy density and abundant resources, but they suffer from sluggish kinetics due to the formation of large-size discharge products with cubic or irregular particle shapes. Here, we report the unique growth of discharge products of NaO 2 nanowires inside Na-O 2 batteries that significantly boosts the performance of Na-O 2 batteries. For this purpose, a high-spin Co 3 O 4 electrocatalyst was synthesized via the high-temperature oxidation of pure cobalt nanoparticles in an external magnetic field. The discharge products of NaO 2 nanowires are 10-20 nm in diameter and ∼10 μm in length, characteristics that provide facile pathways for electron and ion transfer. With these nanowires, Na-O 2 batteries have surpassed 400 cycles with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA h g -1 , an ultra-low over-potential of ∼60 mV during charging, and near-zero over-potential during discharging. This strategy not only provides a unique way to control the morphology of discharge products to achieve high-performance Na-O 2 batteries but also opens up the opportunity to explore growing nanowires in novel conditions.

  1. Dual Superlyophobic Copper Foam with Good Durability and Recyclability for High Flux, High Efficiency, and Continuous Oil-Water Separation.

    Zhou, Wenting; Li, Song; Liu, Yan; Xu, Zhengzheng; Wei, Sufeng; Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing

    2018-03-21

    Traditional oil-water separation materials have to own ultrahigh or ultralow surface energy. Thus, they can only be wetted by one of the two, oil or water. Our experiment here demonstrates that the wettability in oil-water mixtures can be tuned by oil and water initially. Hierarchical voids are built on commercial copper foams with the help of hydrothermally synthesized titanium dioxide nanorods. The foams can be easily wetted by both oil and water. The water prewetted foams are superhydrophilic and superoleophobic under oil-water mixtures, meanwhile the oil prewetted foams are superoleophilic and superhydrophobic. In this paper, many kinds of water-oil mixtures were separated by two foams, prewetted by corresponding oil or water, respectively, combining a straight tee in a high flux, high efficiency, and continuous mode. This research indicates that oil-water mixtures can be separated more eco-friendly and at lower cost.

  2. HIGH PRESSURE PHASE EQUILIBRIUM: PREDICTION OF ESSENTIAL OIL SOLUBILITY

    Lúcio CARDOZO-FILHO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method to predict the solubility of essential oils in supercritical carbon dioxide. The method is based on the formulation proposed in 1979 by Asselineau, Bogdanic and Vidal. The Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equations of state were used with the van der Waals mixing rules with two interaction parameters. Method validation was accomplished calculating orange essential oil solubility in pressurized carbon dioxide. The solubility of orange essential oil in carbon dioxide calculated at 308.15 K for pressures of 50 to 70 bar varied from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.6± 0.1 mg/g. For same the range of conditions, experimental solubility varied from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.6± 0.1 mg/g. Predicted values were not very sensitive to initial oil composition.Este trabalho descreve uma metodologia para o cálculo da solubilidade de óleos essenciais em dióxido de carbono a altas pressões baseada na formulação proposta em 1979 por Asselineau, Bogdanic e Vidal. Foram utilizadas as equações cúbicas de estado de Peng-Robinson e Soave-Redlich-Kwong com regras de mistura de van der Waals com dois parâmetros de interação. O cálculo da solubilidade do óleo essencial de laranja em dióxido de carbono pressurizado foi usado para validação do método. A solubilidade calculada a 308,15 K para pressões entre 50 e 70 bar variou entre 1,5 e 4,1 mg/g. Valores experimentais para as mesmas condições variam entre 1,7± 0.1 a 3,6± 0.1 mg/g. Os valores preditos não são muito sensíveis à composição inicial do óleo essencial.

  3. Utilization of palm oil mill effluent as a novel and promising substrate for biosurfactant production by Nevskia ramosa NA3

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces palm oil mill effluent as a promising substrate for biosurfactant production. Potential strains ofbacteria were isolated from various hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and screened for biosurfactant production with the helpof the drop collapse method and surface tension measurements. Out of 26 isolates of bacteria, the strain NA3 showed thehighest bacterial growth with the highest surface tension reduction of 27.2 mN/m. It was then identified as Nevskia ramosaNA3 by biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to determinethe important nutritional requirements for biosurfactant production by N. ramosa NA3 under controlled conditions. Six outof 11 factors of the production medium were found to significantly affect the production of biosurfactant. FeCl2 and NaNO3had a direct proportional correlation with the biosurfactant production. Commercial sugar, glucose, K2HPO4 and MgCl2showed inversely proportional relationship with biosurfactant production in the selected experimental range.

  4. High-Viscosity Oil Filtration in the Pool Under Thermal Action

    Shagapov, V. Sh.; Yumagulova, Yu. A.; Gizzatullina, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a mathematical model and constructed numerical solutions of the problem of heating a high-viscosity oil pool through one horizontal well or a system of wells and have shown the possibility of their further operation until the limiting profitable discharge of oil is attained. The expenditure of heat in heating the oil pool, the evolution of discharge of oil, and the mass of extracted oil over the considered period have been considered.

  5. MAPK-mediated regulation of growth and essential oil composition in a salt-tolerant peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under NaCl stress.

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Guilong; Guo, Kai; Harvey, Paul; Chen, Quan; Zhao, Zhongjuan; Wei, Yanli; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2016-11-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) is an important and commonly used flavoring agent worldwide, and salinity is a major stress that limits plant growth and reduces crop productivity. This work demonstrated the metabolic responses of essential oil production including the yield and component composition, gene expression, enzyme activity, and protein activation in a salt-tolerant peppermint Keyuan-1 with respect to NaCl stress. Our results showed that Keyuan-1 maintained normal growth and kept higher yield and content of essential oils under NaCl stress than wild-type (WT) peppermint.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and qPCR results showed that compared to WT seedlings, a 150-mM NaCl stress exerted no obvious changes in essential oil composition, transcriptional level of enzymes related to essential oil metabolism, and activity of pulegone reductase (Pr) in Keyuan-1 peppermint which preserved the higher amount of menthol and menthone as well as the lower content of menthofuran upon the 150-mM NaCl stress. Furthermore, it was noticed that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein exhibited a time-dependent activation in the Keyuan-1 peppermint and primarily involved in the modulation of the essential oil metabolism in the transcript and enzyme levels during the 12-day treatment of 150 mM NaCl. In all, our data elucidated the effect of NaCl on metabolic responses of essential oil production, and demonstrated the MAPK-dependent regulation mechanism of essential oil biosynthesis in the salt-tolerant peppermint, providing scientific basis for the economic and ecological utilization of peppermint in saline land.

  6. Tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com óleos minerais e vegetais utilizados na agricultura Surface tension of mineral oils and vegetable oils

    Cristina G. de Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tensão superficial estática de soluções aquosas com formulações de óleos minerais e vegetais emulsionáveis utilizados como adjuvantes na agricultura. Os óleos minerais e vegetais, quando adicionados aos produtos fitossanitários, podem imprimir características desejáveis à calda de pulverização, como reduzir a tensão superficial em soluções aquosas, possibilitar maior contato da calda com a superfície vegetal ou reduzir o potencial de deriva durante as pulverizações. Foram testados os seguintes produtos comerciais: óleos minerais (Assist, Attach, Dytrol, Iharol, Mineral Oil, Spinner, Sunspray-E e Triona e óleos vegetais (Agrex'oil Vegetal, Crop Oil, Natur'l Óleo, Óleo Vegetal Nortox e Veget Oil, todos com registro de uso na agricultura. A tensão superficial das soluções aquosas foi avaliada em 11 concentrações para cada produto (0,025; 0,05; 0,1; 0,25; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% v/v. Essa propriedade dos óleos minerais e dos óleos vegetais foi estimada medindo-se a massa das gotas formadas na extremidade de uma bureta. Ao conjunto de dados obtidos para cada produto, na avaliação da tensão superficial, foram determinadas as análises de variância e de regressão, ajustando-se os dados ao Modelo de Mitscherlich. Entre os óleos minerais, destacaram-se os produtos: Assist, Dytrol, Iharol e Mineral Oil por apresentarem as menores tensões superficiais mínimas estimadas pelo Modelo, respectivamente, 29,255; 28,442; 26,097 e 28,584 mN m-1. Os óleos vegetais que apresentaram os menores valores de tensão superficial mínima estimados pelo Modelo, foram: Agrex' oil Vegetal (27,716 mN m-1, Natur'l óleo (28,216 mN m-1, Veget Oil (27,308 mN m-1 e Crop Oil (29,964 mN m-1.The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface tension of water emulsion with mineral oils and vegetable oils used as adjuvant. The mineral and vegetable oils when added to the agrochemicals can

  7. High freight rates hinder oil markets' return to equilibrium

    Anon

    2005-01-01

    Hurricane damage to refineries in the US has created shortages of refined products there, boosting imports and sending freight rates across the Atlantic to record levels. The situation was made worse for a time by a strike at France's main oil terminals in the Mediterranean, which prevented some oil tankers from being rapidly redeployed to routes across the Atlantic. Worldscale (WS) rates for routes from the UK and Europe to the US Atlantic and Gulf Coasts rose well above WS500 for clean tonnage during October. High rates were nevertheless not simply confined to product tankers crossing the Atlantic. Rates for crude tankers to the US have also risen, and tightness has begun to appear in some other markets as well. The net result has been to slow down the movement of oil from regions of surplus to those of scarcity, depressing prices in the former and keeping them at high levels in the latter. Atlantic tanker markets look like remaining tight for the rest of the year and perhaps beyond. (author)

  8. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neste Oy starts the production of extra high viscosity index lubricating oil in Porvoo

    Kilander, H.

    1997-01-01

    Neste Oy is starting the manufacture of basic oil, used in advanced motor lubricants, in Finland. The plant will start the manufacture of the EHVI (Extra High Viscosity) by the end of 1997. The EHVI basic oil is a synthetic-like oil product, suitable for manufacture of high-quality lubricants. In the beginning the production of the basic oil will be about 50 000 tons/a. The investment costs of the plants are 180 million FIM

  10. The research of full automatic oil filtering control technology of high voltage insulating oil

    Gong, Gangjun; Zhang, Tong; Yan, Guozeng; Zhang, Han; Chen, Zhimin; Su, Chang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the design scheme of automatic oil filter control system for transformer oil in UHV substation is summarized. The scheme specifically includes the typical double tank filter connection control method of the transformer oil of the UHV substation, which distinguishes the single port and the double port connection structure of the oil tank. Finally, the design scheme of the temperature sensor and respirator is given in detail, and the detailed evaluation and application scenarios are given for reference.

  11. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, H. van den; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of

  12. Orange oil/water nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenizer

    Kourniatis, Loretta R.; Spinelli, Luciana S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to use the high-pressure homogenizer (HPH) to prepare stable oil/water nanoemulsions presenting narrow particle size distribution. The dispersions were prepared using nonionic surfactants based on ethoxylated ether. The size and distribution of the droplets formed, along with their stability, were determined in a Zetasizer Nano ZS particle size analyzer. The stability and the droplet size distribution in these systems do not present the significant differences with the increase of the processing pressure in the HPH). The processing time can promote the biggest dispersion in the size of particles, thus reducing its stability. (author)

  13. Oil and gas projects in Amazon: an environmental challenge; Projetos de petroleo e gas na Amazonia: um desafio ambiental

    Taam, Mauricio [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, Nelson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regional Norte SMS ; Cardoso, Vanderlei [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude

    2004-07-01

    In the heart of the Amazon forest, some 600 km from the city of Manaus, the Brazilian Oil Company - PETROBRAS - is developing the 'URUCU PROJECT'. Consisting on 3 oil and gas production fields and 3 natural gas processing plant, 2 huge pipelines crossing the dense Amazon forest and its rivers and going towards COARI - the Fluvial Terminal of Solimoes river. Then, vessels and ferries, loads LGN to the north region and oil to feed the Manaus refinery plant. In a near future natural gas pipelines will connect COARI to Manaus and URUCU to Porto Velho. The whole project will allow energy supply to the less developed and isolated region of Brazil, and brings relief for the local population, but represents one of the biggest challenges for the oil and gas industry in terms of environmental sustainability for projects in very sensitive areas. The paper concludes that it is viable to face such a challenges counting on an Environmental Management System tailored to fit the region peculiarities, including a high level of Preparedness and Response for oil incidents, and last but never least assuming a respectful attitude towards the Amazon and its people. (author)

  14. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  15. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  16. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  17. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  18. Palm Oil

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  19. Risk Associated With The Decompression Of High Pressure High Temperature Fluids - Study On Black Oil

    Figueroa, D. C.; Fosbøl, P. L.; Thomsen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluids produced from deep underground reservoirs may result in exponential increase in temperature. It is a consequence of adiabatic fluid decompression from the inverse Joule Thomson Effect (JTE). The phenomenon requires analysis in order to avoid any operational risks. This study evaluates...... the JTE upon decompression of black oil in high pressure-high temperature reservoirs. Also the effect caused by the presence of water and brine on the black oil is studied. The final temperature is calculated from the corresponding energy balance at isenthalpic and non-isenthalpic conditions. It is found...... that the final temperature of black oil increases upon adiabatic decompression. In the case of the isenthalpic process at initial conditions of the reservoir, e.g. 150°C and 1000 bars, it is found that the final temperature can increase to 173.7°C. At non-isenthalpic conditions the final temperature increases...

  20. Controlled phase stability of highly Na-active triclinic structure in nanoscale high-voltage Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7 cathode for Na-ion batteries

    Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Jae-Chan; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing demand for high energy density in energy-storage systems, a high-voltage cathode is essential in rechargeable Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The operating voltage of a triclinic-polymorph Na2CoP2O7, also known as the rose form, is above 4.0 V (vs. Na/Na+), which is relatively high compared to that of other cathode materials. Thus, it can be employed as a potential high-voltage cathode material in Na-ion batteries. However, it is difficult to synthesize a pure rose phase because of its low phase stability, thus limiting its use in high-voltage applications. Herein, compositional-engineered, rose-phase Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2) nanopowder are prepared using a wet-chemical method. The Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C cathode shows high electrochemical reactivity with Na ions at 4.0 V, delivering high capacity and high energy density.

  1. Integration of a high-NA light microscope in a scanning electron microscope.

    Zonnevylle, A C; Van Tol, R F C; Liv, N; Narvaez, A C; Effting, A P J; Kruit, P; Hoogenboom, J P

    2013-10-01

    We present an integrated light-electron microscope in which an inverted high-NA objective lens is positioned inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM objective lens and the light objective lens have a common axis and focal plane, allowing high-resolution optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on the same area of a sample simultaneously. Components for light illumination and detection can be mounted outside the vacuum, enabling flexibility in the construction of the light microscope. The light objective lens can be positioned underneath the SEM objective lens during operation for sub-10 μm alignment of the fields of view of the light and electron microscopes. We demonstrate in situ epifluorescence microscopy in the SEM with a numerical aperture of 1.4 using vacuum-compatible immersion oil. For a 40-nm-diameter fluorescent polymer nanoparticle, an intensity profile with a FWHM of 380 nm is measured whereas the SEM performance is uncompromised. The integrated instrument may offer new possibilities for correlative light and electron microscopy in the life sciences as well as in physics and chemistry. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Waste crab shell derived CaO impregnated Na-ZSM-5 as a solid base catalyst for the transesterification of neem oil into biodiesel

    Vijayalakshmi Shankar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Activated calcium oxide extracted from crab shell impregnated on Na-ZSM-5 has been investigated. Crab shells were collected, powdered and calcined at 900 °C, and CaO was impregnated on Na-ZSM-5 and calcined at 550 °C for 10 h. The CaO/Na-ZSM-5 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and BET surface area. The prepared catalyst was tested for its catalytic activity by transesterifing neem oil into biodiesel in the presence of methanol. The influence of various parameters including reaction time, temperature, methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and dosage were also investigated. Produced biodiesel have also been tested using proton NMR spectroscopy. Biodiesel yield as 95% has been achieved with 15% CaO impregnated on Na-ZSM-5 at 75 °C. The optimum transesterification reaction conditions were identified as follows: reaction temperature, 75 °C; reaction time, 6 h; methanol-to-neem oil molar ratio, 12:1; catalyst dosage, 0.2 g; and catalyst concentration, 15%. Based on the above study, it can be concluded that the calcium oxide impregnated Na-ZSM-5 can be a potential catalyst for biodiesel production.

  4. Comparison of chemical characteristics of high oleic acid fraction of moringa oleifera oil with some vegetable oils

    Rahman, F.; Nadeem, M.; Zahoor, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0 degree C. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1 degree C as compared to 10.2 degree C in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability. (author)

  5. The effect of NaOH catalyst concentration and extraction time on the yield and properties of Citrullus vulgaris seed oil as a potential biodiesel feed stock

    J.K. Efavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oil was extracted from Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon seeds for potential feedstock in biodiesel production. The results showed that, the oil content from Citrullus vulgaris seeds oil during extraction reached an average yield of 50%. Biodiesel was produced via transesterification using NaOH as catalyst. The effect of NaOH on the yield of the biodiesel was investigated at three different concentrations; 0.13, 0.15 and 0.18 g and oil to methanol ratio of 5:1 under different reaction times; 90, 120 and 150 min at 60 °C. The yield of biodiesel from NaOH concentration of 0.13 g was found to be 70% as compared to those of concentrations, 0.15 g and 0.18 g which were 53% and 49% respectively.Gas chromatography was used to identify the methyl ester groups present in the biodiesel and the results revealed both concentration and time-dependent increase in oil yield. The physicochemical properties of the watermelon seed oil such as flash point (141.3 ± 0.4–143.4 ± 0.2, density (0.86 ± 0.04–0.91 ± 0.01 g/cm3, kinematic viscosity (30.50 ± 0.1–31.20 ± 0.04 mm2/s and acid value (mg KOH/g are similar to conventional vegetable oils. This work therefore, highlights the potential utility of water melon seeds for biodiesel production. Keywords: Citrullus vulgaris, Gas chromatography, Catalyst

  6. Effect of Solids-To-Liquids, Na2SiO3-To-NaOH and Curing Temperature on the Palm Oil Boiler Ash (Si + Ca) Geopolymerisation System

    Yahya, Zarina; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Abd Razak, Rafiza; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the solids-to-liquids (S/L) and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratios on the production of palm oil boiler ash (POBA) based geopolymer. Sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution were used as alkaline activator with a NaOH concentration of 14 M. The geopolymer samples were prepared with different S/L ratios (0.5, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75) and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratios (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0). The main evaluation techniques in this study were compressive strength, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed that the maximum compressive strength (11.9 MPa) was obtained at a S/L ratio and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 1.5 and 2.5 at seven days of testing.

  7. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  8. Oil spills

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. US oil companies ready to take the high ground again

    Odell, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the 1930s, the petroleum industry, which essentially started in the United States of America (USA), was prevented from expanding its influence to Middle East petroleum producing countries because of the colonial control exercised by Britain, France and the Netherlands. However, with the Second World War, these relationships changed, and gradually the oil traded internationally became the principle source of energy on the world market. A well-known oil industry commentator and critic describes these developments and notes that since the Gulf War, the USA has drawn closer to Saudi Arabia, a major oil producer, and hence permitted U S. oil companies to dominate the world scene. (UK)

  10. Competitiveness in oil derivatives distribution in Brazil; A concorrencia na distribuicao de combustiveis petroliferos no Brasil

    Carneiro, Flavio Henrique Rodrigues [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-36]. E-mail: falavios@uol.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this paper is understanding the stimulus given for the Federal government, since the opening of the oil derivatives market, to improve the prices and services competitiveness among the fuel distributing companies in Brazil. The text establishes a confrontation between articles from national press on the subject and the general directives given by brazilian law doctrine. The sources of investigation have been caught in national periodicals and magazines of national circulation in the period from 1999 until 2002. The paper is divided in three parts. The first one presents the Brazilian's fuel distributing historical; the second analyses the free competition in fuel distributing realm in Brazil; and the last one argues the possibilities of forming a free competitive market in the national fuel distributing realm. (author)

  11. Suplementação com óleo de soja na dieta de potros Soybean oil supplementation in the diet of foals

    Waleska Tobo Pastori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 X 4 balanceado, foram utilizados quatro potros, filhos do mesmo garanhão, com idade entre 10 e 12 meses e 270 ± 9,80 kg. Foram analisados os efeitos dos níveis de 5, 10, 15 e 20% de óleo de soja no concentrado sobre a aceitabilidade e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e sobre a concentração plasmática de colesterol total e suas frações nas lipoproteínas de densidade muito baixa (VLDL-C, densidade baixa (LDL-C e densidade alta (HDL-C e nos triglicérides totais. O aumento do nível de óleo na dieta afetou as digestibilidades da matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido, que apresentaram resposta quadrática, com diminuição após os valores de 10,7; 9,5 e 10,5%, respectivamente, de extrato etéreo na dieta. Os níveis de óleo de soja tiveram efeito linear sobre as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e LDL-C, que apresentaram diminuição de 0,65 mg/dL e 0,58 mg/dL, respectivamente, a cada 1% de aumento no extrato etéreo do concentrado. Níveis de óleo de soja superiores a 9,5% no concentrado afetam a digestibilidade da dieta, principalmente na parede celular, e diminuem as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol e LDL-C.Four foals, sired by the same stallion, aged between 10 and 12 months and 270 ± 9.80 kg average weight, were alloted in a 4 X 4 balanced Latin Square design. The effects were analyzed of the inclusion of the levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of soybean oil in the concentrate on the acceptability, nutrient digestibilities and on total cholesterol plasma concentrations and its fractions: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and total triglycerides (TRG. The increase in the level of soybean oil in the diet affected the digestibilities of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber that presented a quadratic response which decreased after a expected values of 10

  12. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high-fat d...... metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil.......Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...

  13. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

    Mirela Sangoi BARRETO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1. Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each, and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2. Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3. Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05. The volume of residual filling material was similar to that in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than that observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05. When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05. Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material.

  14. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

    Bergamasco, Juliana; Araujo, Marcelo V. de; Vasconcellos, Adriano de; Luizon Filho, Roberto A.; Hatanaka, Rafael R.; Giotto, Marcus V.; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Nery, José G.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg −1 ), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg −1 ). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR, 23 Na- and 13 C-NMR-MAS spectroscopic data and the interaction of the polymeric network intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lipases residual amino acids a possible explanation for this synergistic effect is provided. Highlights: • Rhizomucor miehei lipase was immobilized on PVA microspheres (PVA4, PVA12, PVA25). • Polymer-enzyme complex was characterized by XDR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, 13 C-CPMAS-NMR, 23 Na-MAS-NMR. • Polymer-enzymes (PVA12 and PVA25) enzymes yielded considerable amount of ethyl esters. • Synergistic effect was observed for the polymer-enzyme complexes

  16. Oils

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  17. Production of high quality water for oil sands application

    Beaudette-Hodsman, C.; Macleod, B. [Pall Corp., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Venkatadri, R. [Pall Corp., East Hills, NY (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pressurized microfiltration membrane system installed at an oil sands extraction site in Alberta. The system was designed to complement a reverse osmosis (RO) system installed at the site to produce the high quality feed water required by the system's boilers. Groundwater in the region exhibited moderate total suspended solids and high alkalinity and hardness levels, and the RO system required feed water with a silt density index of 3 or less. The conventional pretreatment system used at the site was slowing down production due to the severe fouling of the RO membranes. The new microfiltration system contained an automated PVDF hollow fiber microfiltration membrane system contained in a trailer. Suspended particles and bacteria were captured within the filter, and permeate was sent to the RO unit. Within 6 hours of being installed, the unit was producing water with SDI values in the range of 1.0 to 2.5. It was concluded that the microfiltration system performed reliably regardless of wide variations in feed water quality and flow rates. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  18. Computer modeling of oil spill trajectories with a high accuracy method

    Garcia-Martinez, Reinaldo; Flores-Tovar, Henry

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes a high accuracy numerical method to model oil spill trajectories using a particle-tracking algorithm. The Euler method, used to calculate oil trajectories, can give adequate solutions in most open ocean applications. However, this method may not predict accurate particle trajectories in certain highly non-uniform velocity fields near coastal zones or in river problems. Simple numerical experiments show that the Euler method may also introduce artificial numerical dispersion that could lead to overestimation of spill areas. This article proposes a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with fourth-order velocity interpolation to calculate oil trajectories that minimise these problems. The algorithm is implemented in the OilTrack model to predict oil trajectories following the 'Nissos Amorgos' oil spill accident that occurred in the Gulf of Venezuela in 1997. Despite lack of adequate field information, model results compare well with observations in the impacted area. (Author)

  19. How bioavailable is highly weathered Deepwater Horizon oil?

    Bostic, J.; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Reddy, C. M.; Aeppli, C.; Swarthout, B.

    2016-02-01

    Oiled sand patties continue to be deposited on northern Gulf of Mexico beaches five years after the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill. It is known that during the first 18 months post-spill, sand patties from DwH were chemically transformed, both biotically and abiotically, from wellhead release to beach deposition. However, the chemically transformed oil, which appears to become more polar over time, is not well understood in regards to its biodegradation potential. Biodegradation exerts a large control on the fate of spilled oil, representing a major conduit for its removal from the environment. To assess the bioavailability of this weathered oil, sand patties were collected from intertidal and supratidal zones of beaches in Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi in July 2015. Microbial biomarkers of the viable community, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), were detected on all samples collected. The PLFA distributions (mostly saturated and branched structures) and abundances (2 - 9 x 1013 cells/g sand patty) were similar across sampling locations. The positive correlation between PLFA abundance and surface area to volume ratios of sand patties indicates that microbes are preferentially inhabiting outside surfaces of the patties. We will present data on the radiocarbon (14C) content of PLFA to assess carbon (C) sources assimilated by microbes. 14C of PLFA is a powerful tool for assessing C sources assimilated in this setting. Oil has no 14C (Δ14C= -1000‰) while modern organic matter has relatively abundant 14C (Δ14C= 0‰). Fingerprinting analysis of biomarker ratios using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography will be presented to ascertain if oil originated from DwH. The extent of the chemical transformation of the oil into more polar compounds will also be measured using thin layer chromatography. Results of this investigation aim to determine the bioavailability and ultimate fate of oiled sand patties that continue to wash ashore on Gulf of Mexico

  20. Logistics: Price Rises Incurred by High Oil Price

    Lai Zhihui

    2011-01-01

    @@ "When the oil price grows by 100%, the logistic indus-try will see a price growth of 40%, while the logistics in-dustry a price rise of 35%, which means every price increase of 5% in the oil price will bring along that of 2% in this industry." said Liu Zongsheng, General Manager of Itochu Logistics Co., Ltd., on the seminar "Focusing on the eco-nomic consequences of raising oil price, interest rate and deposit reserve ratio", which was held recently.

  1. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  2. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  3. The Dutch disease effect in a high versus low oil dependent countries

    Allegret , Jean-Pierre; Benkhodja , Mohamed Tahar

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the main impacts of the recent increase of oil price on oil exporting economies, we estimate a DSGE model for a sample of 16 oil exporting countries (Algeria, Argentina, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Oman, Russia, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela) over the period from 1980 to 2010, except for Russia where our sample begins in 1992. In order to distinguish between high-dependent and low-dependent countries, we use two indic...

  4. Jussara berry (Euterpe edulis M.) oil-in-water emulsions are highly stable: the role of natural antioxidants in the fruit oil.

    Carvalho, Aline G A; Silva, Kelly A; Silva, Laís O; Costa, André M M; Akil, Emília; Coelho, Maria A Z; Torres, Alexandre G

    2018-05-23

    Antioxidants help prevent lipid oxidation, and therefore are critical to maintain sensory quality and chemical characteristics of edible oils. Jussara berry (Euterpe edulis M.) oil is a source of minor compounds with potential antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of such compounds on the effectiveness to prevent or delay oxidation of oil present in oil-in-water emulsions, and how the emulsions physical stability would be affected. Jussara berry oil extracted by ethanol extraction, its stripped variations (partially stripped, highly stripped and highly stripped with added BHT), and expeller pressed oil were used to prepare oil-in-water emulsions. Jussara berry oils were analyzed before emulsions preparation to ensure its initial quality and composition, and oil-in-water emulsions were analyzed regarding their oxidative and physical stability. Ethanol extracted oil emulsion presented higher oxidative stability when compared to highly stripped oil emulsion with added synthetic antioxidant BHT (oxidative stability index 45% lower, after 60 days, and reached undetectable levels after 90 days). All emulsions maintained physically stable for up to 120 days of storage. Our results indicate that natural antioxidants in jussara berry oil protect emulsions from oxidation while keeping physical stability unchanged. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Giacomo Costagli; Matteo Betti

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill.) is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or sol...

  6. Oil turbulence in the next decade. An essay on high oil prices in a supply-constrained world

    Jesse, J.H.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-06-01

    A CIEP analysis of the recent development of demand and supply for crude oil indicates that the mismatch in supply and demand growth could cause tighter oil markets than we already experience today. In the World Energy Outlook 2007, the International Energy Agency (IEA) warned of a possible 'energy crunch'. But what was anticipated to happen in the first part of the next decade has been fast-forwarded to today, more than 5 years earlier, and could shake the very foundation of our energy systems if no action is undertaken. Without exaggeration, the recent developments in the international oil market are ground-breaking: a little over a year ago, in January 2007, the West Texas Intermediate crude oil price (WTI) traded for USD50 dollar a barrel. Within a year, the price doubled to USD100 per barrel in January 2008 and pushed through to over USD135 in June 2008, against the backdrop of the fresh market supposition about reaching a whopping USD200 per barrel in 2009. If this proves to be true, the world will not only have moved from an 'Oil Demand-led World' to an 'Oil Supply-constrained World' (since 2004) but, more importantly, will then also experience a radical change in the oil price formation. Until recently, the oil price was largely underpinned by the marginal cost of the last barrel needed to match demand, with some political and economic conjuncture mark-ups or -downs. As will be presented in this paper, the current high oil prices are still primarily driven by structural factors that can be well explained without resorting to blaming speculative investors playing the futures market or the low dollar. But if prices are heading towards USD200 a barrel in 12 months' time, or for that matter even to USD150 a barrel, other drivers will gain prominence over marginal costs as the main driver. In that case, OPEC will have accomplished a long-held wish: oil will then be priced at its real value in the Western world (for instance the economic value of mobility for

  7. East Africa, an oil geopolitics at high risk

    Auge, Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    As the Sub-Saharan African oil production has been concentrated in the Guinea Gulf countries since the 1950's, as this region remains the main African oil producer (Maghreb excluded), and as new discoveries has been made in Uganda in 2006 and exploration has been extended to neighbouring countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique), this report first questions the situation of the exploration of the Albert Lake by proposing an overview of intervening actors, by commenting the political use of the debate about oil, by commenting the situation on the Congolese side of the lake, and by commenting how the lake is shared between Uganda and the Republic of Congo. In the next part, the author discusses the use and future of the Ugandan oil by outlining the role of the Essar company in the regional refining, and by evoking projects of regional pipelines. The last part addresses the status of exploration in other East African countries (Kenya, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Tanzania, Mozambique)

  8. Eco-Friendly Superwetting Material for Highly Effective Separations of Oil/Water Mixtures and Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Yi; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2017-02-20

    Because the treatment of oily wastewater, generated from many industrial processes, has become an increasing environmental concern, the search continues for simple, inexpensive, eco-friendly, and readily scalable processes for fabricating novel materials capable of effective oil/water separation. In this study we prepared an eco-friendly superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-modified cotton that mediated extremely efficient separations of mixtures of oil/water and oil/corrosive solutions. This PVP-modified cotton exhibited excellent antifouling properties and could be used to separate oil/water mixtures continuously for up to 20 h. Moreover, the compressed PVP-modified cotton could separate both surfactant-free and -stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with fluxes of up to 23,500 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 -a level one to two orders of magnitude higher than that possible when using traditional ultrafiltration membranes having similar rejection properties. The high performance of our PVP-modified cotton and its green, low-energy, cost-effective preparation suggest its great potential for practical applications.

  9. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung; Wei, Shawn; Irish, Lana

    2014-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-04-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  12. Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.

    Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

    2013-09-01

    Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids.

  13. Comparison Between Oil-mist and Oil-jet Lubrication of High-speed, Small-bore, Angular-contact Ball Bearings

    Pinel, Stanley I.; Signer, Hans R.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Parametric tests were conducted with an optimized 35-mm-bore-angular-contact ball bearing on a high-speed, high-temperature bearing tester. Results from both air-oil mist lubrication and oil-jet lubrication systems used to lubricate the bearing were compared to speeds of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. The maximum obtainable speed with air-oil mist lubrication is 2.5 x 10(exp 6) DN. Lower bearing temperatures and higher power losses are obtained with oil-jet lubrication than with air-oil mist lubrication. Bearing power loss is a direct function of oil flow to the bearing and independent of oil delivery system. For a given oil-flow rate, bearing temperature and power loss increase with increases in speed. Bearing life is an inverse function of temperature, the difference in temperature between the individual bearing ring components, and the resultant elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thicknesses. Bearing life is independent of the oil delivery system except as it affects temperature. Cage slip increased with increases in speed. Cage slip as high as 7 percent was measured and was generally higher with air-oil mist lubrication than with oil-jet lubrication.

  14. Oils

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  15. Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres for High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries.

    Sun, Bing; Kretschmer, Katja; Xie, Xiuqiang; Munroe, Paul; Peng, Zhangquan; Wang, Guoxiu

    2017-12-01

    As a new family member of room-temperature aprotic metal-O 2 batteries, Na-O 2 batteries, are attracting growing attention because of their relatively high theoretical specific energy and particularly their uncompromised round-trip efficiency. Here, a hierarchical porous carbon sphere (PCS) electrode that has outstanding properties to realize Na-O 2 batteries with excellent electrochemical performances is reported. The controlled porosity of the PCS electrode, with macropores formed between PCSs and nanopores inside each PCS, enables effective formation/decomposition of NaO 2 by facilitating the electrolyte impregnation and oxygen diffusion to the inner part of the oxygen electrode. In addition, the discharge product of NaO 2 is deposited on the surface of individual PCSs with an unusual conformal film-like morphology, which can be more easily decomposed than the commonly observed microsized NaO 2 cubes in Na-O 2 batteries. A combination of coulometry, X-ray diffraction, and in situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry provides compelling evidence that the operation of the PCS-based Na-O 2 battery is underpinned by the formation and decomposition of NaO 2 . This work demonstrates that employing nanostructured carbon materials to control the porosity, pore-size distribution of the oxygen electrodes, and the morphology of the discharged NaO 2 is a promising strategy to develop high-performance Na-O 2 batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Maintaining K+ balance on the low-Na+, high-K+ diet

    Cornelius, Ryan J.; Wang, Bangchen; Wang-France, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A low-Na+, high-K+ diet (LNaHK) is considered a healthier alternative to the “Western” high-Na+ diet. Because the mechanism for K+ secretion involves Na+ reabsorptive exchange for secreted K+ in the distal nephron, it is not understood how K+ is eliminated with such low Na+ intake. Animals on a LNaHK diet produce an alkaline load, high urinary flows, and markedly elevated plasma ANG II and aldosterone levels to maintain their K+ balance. Recent studies have revealed a potential mechanism involving the actions of alkalosis, urinary flow, elevated ANG II, and aldosterone on two types of K+ channels, renal outer medullary K+ and large-conductance K+ channels, located in principal and intercalated cells. Here, we review these recent advances. PMID:26739887

  17. A comparison of intraoral antimicrobial effects of stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice, baking soda/peroxide dentifrice, conventional NaF dentifrice and essential oil mouthrinse.

    Bacca, L A; Leusch, M; Lanzalaco, A C; Macksood, D; Bouwsma, O J; Shaffer, J B; Howard-Nordan, K S; Knippenberg, S H; Kreutzjans, M K; Miller, J M; Poore, C L; Sunberg, R J; Vastola, K A; Becus, M; Bartizek, R D; Block, R P; Briner, W W; White, D J

    1997-01-01

    The intraoral antimicrobial activity of four commercial oral products-conventional NaF dentifrice (Crest), baking soda/peroxide/NaF dentifrice (Mentadent), essential oil mouthrinse (Listerine) and SnF2 dentifrice (Crest Plus Gum Care)-have been compared in three test regimens. Formulations were compared for their ability to suppress the regrowth and apical extension of dental plaque following toothbrushing during thirty hours of non-brushing where products were used as oral rinses (30-hour plaque regrowth model). Formulations were also compared for their ability to suppress the colony-forming units (cfu) of facultative anaerobic bacteria sampled from buccal gingival surfaces following use (Gingival Surface Microbial Index-GSMI model). Lastly, formulations were compared for effects in suppressing the glycolytic metabolic activity and regrowth activity of in vivo-treated dental plaques sampled at various periods following topical use and incubated under controlled ex vivo conditions (Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth-PGRM model). In thirty-hour plaque regrowth testing, the rank ordered antimicrobial efficacy of formulations followed SnF2 > essential oils > NaF = water = baking soda/peroxide. In GSMI testing, all formulations were shown to suppress the cfu of facultative anaerobic bacteria relative to baseline, although SnF2 treatment was observed to reduce bacterial levels to a significantly greater degree than NaF dentifrice or baking soda/peroxide dentifrice up to two hours following brushing. In PGRM testing, the SnF2 dentifrice provided significant inhibition of bacterial metabolism and regrowth following topical application when compared with the NaF dentifrice as control. The baking soda/peroxide dentifrice provided no reduction in either bacterial metabolism or regrowth in PGRM. Previous studies had demonstrated modest effects for essential oil rinse in reducing PGRM plaque regrowth, with no effects for this treatment on plaque metabolism. Overall, these results

  18. Optimization of biodiesel production and engine performance from high free fatty acid Calophyllum inophyllum oil in CI diesel engine

    Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Silitonga, A.S.; Chong, W.T.; Leong, K.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Calophyllum inophyllum has been evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel. • Acid and base catalyzed transesterification processes was used to produce biodiesel. • The physiochemical properties of CIME fulfilled specification of ASTM D6751. • Engine performance and emission are conducted for CIME and its blends. - Abstract: In the present study, crude Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CCIO) has been evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. C.inophyllum oil has high acid value which is 59.30 mg KOH/g. Therefore, the degumming, esterification, neutralization and transesterification process are carried out to reduce the acid value to 0.34 mg KOH/g. The optimum yield was obtained at 9:1 methanol to oil ratio with 1 wt.%. NaOH catalyst at 50 °C for 2 h. On the other hand, the C.inophyllum biodiesel properties fulfilled the specification of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. After that, the C.inophyllum biodiesel diesel blends were tested to evaluate the engine performance and emission characteristic. The performance and emission of 10% C.inophyllum biodiesel blends (CIB10) give a satisfactory result in diesel engines as the brake thermal increase 2.30% and fuel consumption decrease 3.06% compared to diesel. Besides, CIB10 reduces CO and smoke opacity compared to diesel. In short, C.inophyllum biodiesel can become an alternative fuel in the future

  19. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  20. Evaluation of nano emulsion containing asphaltenes dispersant additive in dehydration of oil; Avaliacao de nanoemulsoes contendo aditivo dispersante de asfaltenos na desidratacao de petroleo

    Oliveira, Priscila F. de; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: prisfrias@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the problem of the formation of emulsions type water-oil during oil production, new alternatives of the breakdown of these emulsions have been proposed over the years. Several polymers have been used to destabilize these emulsions and among them are those based on polyphenylene ether. The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions type oil / water, where an asphaltenes dispersant additive was dissolved in dispersed phase in order to evaluate them as a new alternative in the breakdown of oil emulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared in the presence of surfactant based on polyoxide using a high pressure homogenizer (HPH). We obtained stable nanoemulsions for more than 30 days in the presence or absence of additive. These nanoemulsions were effective in water /oil phase separation, and the nanoemulsion containing the dispersant additive provided a faster separation of these phases. (author)

  1. High-order simulation of foam enhanced oil recovery

    Van der Meer, J.M.; Van Odyck, D.E.A.; Wirnsberger, P.; Jansen, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    If secondary hydrocarbon recovery methods fail because of the occurrence of gravity override or viscous fingering one can turn to an enhanced oil recovery method like the injection of foam. The generation of foam can be described by a set of partial differential equations with strongly nonlinear

  2. Microbial diversity of a high salinity oil field

    Neria, I.; Gales, G.; Alazard, D.; Ollivier, B.; Borgomano, J.; Joulian, C.

    2009-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study to investigate the microbial diversity of an onshore oil field. It aim to compare results obtained from molecular methods, physicochemical analyses and cultivation. A core of 1150 m depth sediments ( in situ T=45 degree centigrade) was collected and immediately frozen with liquid nitrogen prior to further investigation. Macroscopic and Scanning Electron Microscopy analyses were performed. (Author)

  3. Soybean Oil: Powering a High School Investigation of Biodiesel

    De La Rosa, Paul; Azurin, Katherine A.; Page, Michael F. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory investigation challenges students to synthesize, analyze, and compare viable alternative fuels to Diesel No. 2 using a renewable resource, as well as readily available reagents and supplies. During the experiment, students synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil in an average percent yield of 83.8 ± 6.3%. They then prepared fuel…

  4. Oxidized fish oil in rat pregnancy causes high newborn mortality and increases maternal insulin resistance.

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Lewandowski, Paul A; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2016-09-01

    Fish oil is commonly taken by pregnant women, and supplements sold at retail are often oxidized. Using a rat model, we aimed to assess the effects of supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy in mothers and offspring, focusing on newborn viability and maternal insulin sensitivity. Female rats were allocated to a control or high-fat diet and then mated. These rats were subsequently randomized to receive a daily gavage treatment of 1 ml of unoxidized fish oil, a highly oxidized fish oil, or control (water) throughout pregnancy. At birth, the gavage treatment was stopped, but the same maternal diets were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Supplementation with oxidized fish oil during pregnancy had a marked adverse effect on newborn survival at day 2, leading to much greater odds of mortality than in the control (odds ratio 8.26) and unoxidized fish oil (odds ratio 13.70) groups. In addition, maternal intake of oxidized fish oil during pregnancy led to increased insulin resistance at the time of weaning (3 wks after exposure) compared with control dams (HOMA-IR 2.64 vs. 1.42; P = 0.044). These data show that the consumption of oxidized fish oil is harmful in rat pregnancy, with deleterious effects in both mothers and offspring. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Poverty and growth impacts of high oil prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    Naranpanawa, Athula; Bandara, Jayatilleke S.

    2012-01-01

    The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ► Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ► Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ► Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.

  6. Fast preparation of Na0.44MnO2 nanorods via a high NaOH concentration hydrothermal soft chemical reaction and their lithium storage properties

    Liu, Cai; Li, Jiangang; Zhao, Pengxiang; Guo, Wenli; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a high NaOH concentration hydrothermal soft chemical reaction to prepare Na 0.44 MnO 2 nanorods. In this process, Na-birnessite precursors and concentrated NaOH solution are introduced into the hydrothermal reaction. As a result, the hydrothermal time can be significantly shortened from 96 to 24 h, the hydrothermal temperature can be reduced from 205 to 180 °C and the yield of Na 0.44 MnO 2 can be increased from about 0.6 to about 2.4 g/(mL . day), respectively. Furthermore, the obtained Na 0.44 MnO 2 nanorods with one-dimensional tunnel structures exhibit favorable electrochemical lithium storage properties, which make them promising for the cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries

  7. Characterization of Whey Protein Oil-In-Water Emulsions with Different Oil Concentrations Stabilized by Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization

    Essam Hebishy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH: 100 or 200 MPa at 25 °C, in comparison to colloid mill (CM: 5000 rpm at 20 °C and conventional homogenization (CH: 15 MPa at 60 °C, on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions with different oil concentrations (10, 30 or 50 g/100 g emulsified by whey protein isolate (4 g/100 g was investigated. Emulsions were characterized for their microstructure, rheological properties, surface protein concentration (SPC, stability to creaming and oxidative stability under light (2000 lux/m2. UHPH produced emulsions containing lipid droplets in the sub-micron range (100–200 nm and with low protein concentrations on droplet surfaces. Droplet size (d3.2, µm was increased in CH and UHPH emulsions by increasing the oil concentration. CM emulsions exhibited Newtonian flow behaviour at all oil concentrations studied; however, the rheological behaviour of CH and UHPH emulsions varied from Newtonian flow (n ≈ 1 to shear-thinning (n ˂ 1 and thixotropic behaviour in emulsions containing 50% oil. This was confirmed by the non-significant differences in the d4.3 (µm value between the top and bottom of emulsions in tubes left at room temperature for nine days and also by a low migration velocity measured with a Turbiscan LAB instrument. UHPH emulsions showed significantly lower oxidation rates during 10 days storage in comparison to CM and CH emulsions as confirmed by hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS. UHPH emulsions treated at 100 MPa were less oxidized than those treated at 200 MPa. The results from this study suggest that UHPH treatment generates emulsions that have a higher stability to creaming and lipid oxidation compared to colloid mill and conventional treatments.

  8. Note: A high-energy-density Tesla-type pulse generator with novel insulating oil

    Liu, Sheng; Su, Jiancang; Fan, Xuliang

    2017-09-01

    A 10-GW high-energy-density Tesla-type pulse generator is developed with an improved insulating liquid based on a modified Tesla pulser—TPG700, of which the pulse forming line (PFL) is filled with novel insulating oil instead of transformer oil. Properties of insulating oil determining the stored energy density of the PFL are analyzed, and a criterion for appropriate oil is proposed. Midel 7131 is chosen as an application example. The results of insulating property experiment under tens-of-microsecond pulse charging demonstrate that the insulation capability of Midel 7131 is better than that of KI45X transformer oil. The application test in Tesla pulser TPG700 shows that the output power is increased to 10.5 GW with Midel 7131. The output energy density of TPG700 increases for about 60% with Midel 7131.

  9. Super-Hydrophobic High Throughput Electrospun Cellulose Acetate (CA) Nanofibrous Mats as Oil Selective Sorbents

    Han, Chao

    The threat of oil pollution increases with the expansion of oil exploration and production activities, as well as the industrial growth around the world. Use of sorbents is a common method to deal with the oil spills. In this work, an advanced sorbent technology is described. A series of non-woven Cellulose Acetate (CA) nanofibrous mats with a 3D fibrous structure were synthesized by a novel high-throughput electrospinning technique. The precursor was solutions of CA/ acetic acid-acetone in various concentrations. Among them, 15.0% CA exhibits a superhydrophobic surface property, with a water contact angle of 128.95°. Its oil sorption capacity is many times higher the oil sorption capacity of the best commercial sorbent available in the market. Also, it showed good buoyancy properties on the water both as dry-mat and oil-saturated mat. In addition, it is biodegradable, easily available, easily manufactured, so the CA nanofibrous mat is an excellent candidate as oil sorbent for oil spill in water treatment.

  10. Experimental unit to study motion of gas-liquid mixtures in vertical pipes for lifting highly viscous oils

    Abishev, S K; Bulgakov, R R; Sakharov, V A

    1981-01-01

    Basic features are presented of a new experimental-research unit of gas-lift recovery of oil UGDN-2 for conditions of lifting the highly viscous oil. It is proposed that this unit be used to conduct experiments and to determine the calculated relationships of a gas-liquid lifter on fluids simulating highly viscous oil.

  11. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  12. NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca Solid-State High-Temperature Battery Cells

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Experiments and theoretical study have demonstrated the promise of all-solid-state, high-temperature electrochemical battery cells based on NiF2 as the active cathode material, CaF2 doped with NaF as the electrolyte material, and Ca as the active anode material. These and other all-solid-state cells have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments that must operate in environments much hotter than can be withstood by ordinary commercially available batteries. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus (where the mean surface temperature is about 450 C), and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal wells and oil wells. All-solid-state high-temperature power cells are sought as alternatives to other high-temperature power cells based, variously, on molten anodes and cathodes or molten eutectic salt electrolytes. Among the all-solid-state predecessors of the present NiF2/NaF:CaF2/Ca cells are those described in "Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells" (NPO-44396), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 5 (May 2008), page 40. In those cells, the active cathode material is FeS2, the electrolyte material is a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and LiSiO4, and the active anode material is Li contained within an alloy that remains solid in the intended high operational temperature range.

  13. Enthalpy increment measurements of NaCrO2 using a high temperature Calvet calorimeter

    Iyer, V.S.; Jayanthi, K.; Ramarao, G.A.; Venugopal, V.; Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Enthalpy increment measurements on NaCrO 2 (s) were carried out in the temperature range 323 to 839 K using a high temperature Calvet micro calorimeter. The enthalpy increment values were least-squares fitted with temperature with the constraint that (Hdeg T - Hdeg 298 ) at 298.18 K equals zero, and can be given by: (Hdeg T - Hdeg 298 ) J/mol) ± 336 = -23515 + 75.364T(K) + 0.01256T 2 (K) (323 to 839 K). The first differential of the above equation with temperature gives the constant pressure molar heat capacity of NaCrO 2 (s), which is given by: Cdeg p (NaCrO 2 , s, T) (J/K mol) = 75.364 + 0.02512T(K). The thermal properties of NaCrO 2 (s) were calculated using the molar heat capacities from the present study and Sdeg(298 K) from the literature. (orig.)

  14. Expression of a highly basic peroxidase gene in NaCl-adapted tomato cell suspensions.

    Medina, M I; Botella, M A; Quesada, M A; Valpuesta, V

    1997-05-05

    A tomato peroxidase gene, TPX2, that is only weakly expressed in the roots of young tomato seedlings is highly expressed in tomato suspension cells adapted to high external NaCl concentration. The protein encoded by this gene, with an isolectric point value of approximately 9.6, is found in the culture medium of the growing cells. Our data suggest that the expression of TPX2 in the salt-adapted cells is not the result of the elicitation imposed by the in vitro culture or the presence of high NaCl concentration in the medium.

  15. Breeding and application of high-oil soybean varieties through radiation

    Guo Tai; Liu Zhongtang; Hu Xiping; Wang Zhixin; Wu Xiuhong; Zheng Wei; Chen Dexiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper reported the results of breeding and utilizing of high-oil soybean varieties, and at the same time, discussed the key technique of selecting high-oil soybean variety. This research based on crossbreeding, through genetic improvement and radiation treatment, continuous directive selection, combined with quality analysis and disease-resistant identification, and we had created four high-oil soybean varieties (lines), they were Hefeng46 (Hefu93154-4), Hefeng47(Hefu 93154-2), Hefeng48 (Hefu 93155-6), Hefu 93148-4. Their oil content ranges from 21.28% to 23.18%, and the yield is 2208-2578.5 kg/hm 2 , compared with the check, the yield is 10.1%-13.1% higher. All those varieties resisted one or two main soybean diseases. (authors)

  16. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  17. Co-intercalation of Mg(2+) and Na(+) in Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 as a High-Voltage Cathode for Magnesium Batteries.

    Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Youngjin; Arumugam, Durairaj; Woo, Sang Won; Jo, Yong Nam; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-04-06

    Thanks to the advantages of low cost and good safety, magnesium metal batteries get the limelight as substituent for lithium ion batteries. However, the energy density of state-of-the-art magnesium batteries is not high enough because of their low operating potential; thus, it is necessary to improve the energy density by developing new high-voltage cathode materials. In this study, nanosized Berlin green Fe2(CN)6 and Prussian blue Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 are compared as high-voltage cathode materials for magnesium batteries. Interestingly, while Mg(2+) ions cannot be intercalated in Fe2(CN)6, Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 shows reversible intercalation and deintercalation of Mg(2+) ions, although they have the same crystal structure except for the presence of Na(+) ions. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that Mg(2+) ions are more stable in Na(+)-containing Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 than in Na(+)-free Fe2(CN)6, indicating Na(+) ions in Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 plays a crucial role in stabilizing Mg(2+) ions. Na(0.69)Fe2(CN)6 delivers reversible capacity of approximately 70 mA h g(-1) at 3.0 V vs Mg/Mg(2+) and shows stable cycle performance over 35 cycles. Therefore, Prussian blue analogues are promising structures for high-voltage cathode materials in Mg batteries. Furthermore, this co-intercalation effect suggests new avenues for the development of cathode materials in hybrid magnesium batteries that use both Mg(2+) and Na(+) ions as charge carriers.

  18. Monitoring of high refractive index edible oils using coated long period fiber grating sensors

    Coelho, Luís.; Viegas, Diana; Santos, José Luís.; de Almeida, Jose Manuel M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the quality of high refractive index edible oils is of great importance for the human health. Uncooked edible oils in general are healthy foodstuff, olive oil in particular, however, they are frequently used for baking and cooking. High quality edible oils are made from seeds, nuts or fruits by mechanical processes. Nevertheless, once the mechanical extraction is complete, up to 15% of the oil remains in oil pomace and in the mill wastewater, which can be extracted using organic solvents, often hexane. Optical fiber sensors based on long period fiber gratings (LPFG) have very low wavelength sensitivity when the surround refractive index is higher than the refractive index of the cladding. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated LPFG could lead to the realization of high sensitivity chemical sensor for the food industry. In this work LPFG coated with a TiO2 thin film were successfully used for to detect small levels of hexane diluted in edible oils and for real time monitoring the thermal deterioration of edible oils. For a TiO2 coating of 30 nm a wavelength sensitivity of 1361.7 nm/RIU (or 0.97 nm / % V/V) in the 1.4610-1.4670 refractive index range was achieved, corresponding to 0 to 12 % V/V of hexane in olive oil. A sensitivity higher than 638 nm/RIU at 225 ºC was calculated, in the 1.4670-1.4735 refractive index range with a detection limit of thermal deterioration of about 1 minute.

  19. Combination of Sardine and Shark Oil High Content of Omega-3 and Squalene

    Muhamad Musbah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sardine oil contain high concentration of  EPA but low of  DHA while shark is reverse. Shark oil  high contain of DHA and squalene but low EPA. This research aim to fortify the quality of  fish oil withomega-3 and squalen and improve the quality of fish oil. The combination of fish oil (sardine:shark 1: 1, 1: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 2: 1, 3: 1 and 4:1 showed significant results on peroxide, anisidine, and total oxidation value, however free fatty acids analysis did not show the influence to the content value.  The best oxidation parameters value werefound (sardine: shark (1:4 with peroxide was 5.44±0.06 mEq/kg, anisidine was 8.3±0.72 mEq/kg and total oxidation was 19.27±0.7mEq/kg. Fatty acids profile between  sardines and shark oil containedvarious SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Sardine oil which was added more to combination ratio will increase omega-3. Sample 1:4 had 43.16% squalene.

  20. At-wavelength interferometry of high-NA diffraction-limited EUV optics

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick; Rekawa, Senajith; Denham, Paul; Liddle, J. Alexander; Anderson, Erik; Jackson, Keith; Bokor, Jeffrey; Attwood, David

    2003-08-01

    Recent advances in all-reflective diffraction-limited optical systems designed for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography have pushed numerical aperture (NA) values from 0.1 to 0.3, providing Rayleigh resolutions of 27-nm. Worldwide, several high-NA EUV optics are being deployed to serve in the development of advanced lithographic techniques required for EUV lithography, including the creation and testing of new, high-resolution photoresists. One such system is installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. Sub{angstrom}-accuracy optical testing and alignment techniques, developed for use with the previous generations of EUV lithographic optical systems, are being extended for use at high NA. Considerations for interferometer design and use are discussed.

  1. At-wavelength interferometry of high-NA diffraction-limited EUV optics

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick; Rekawa, Senajith; Denham, Paul; Liddle, J. Alexander; Anderson, Erik; Jackson, Keith; Bokor, Jeffrey; Attwood, David

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in all-reflective diffraction-limited optical systems designed for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography have pushed numerical aperture (NA) values from 0.1 to 0.3, providing Rayleigh resolutions of 27-nm. Worldwide, several high-NA EUV optics are being deployed to serve in the development of advanced lithographic techniques required for EUV lithography, including the creation and testing of new, high-resolution photoresists. One such system is installed on an undulator beamline at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source. Sub(angstrom)-accuracy optical testing and alignment techniques, developed for use with the previous generations of EUV lithographic optical systems, are being extended for use at high NA. Considerations for interferometer design and use are discussed

  2. Mapeamento de QTL para conteúdos de proteína e óleo em soja Mapping QTL for protein and oil content in soybean

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar e mapear locos de caracteres quantitativos (QTL que afetam os conteúdos de proteína e óleo em soja (Glycine max L. Merr.. Plantas F2, derivadas do cruzamento entre a linhagem CS3032PTA276 e a variedade UFVS2012, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação e forneceram as folhas para extração e análise de DNA. Quarenta e oito marcadores microssatélites (SSR polimórficos foram avaliados na população F2. A avaliação dos fenótipos foi realizada em 207 famílias das progênies F2:3, em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, conduzido em Viçosa, MG, em 2006. Foram detectados quatro QTL associados ao conteúdo de proteína, nos grupos de ligação D1a, G, A1, e I, e três QTL associados ao conteúdo de óleo, nos grupos A1, I e O. A variação fenotípica explicada pelos QTL variou de 6,24 a 18,94% e 17,26 a 25,93%, respectivamente, para os conteúdos de proteína e óleo. Foram detectados novos QTL associados aos conteúdos de proteína e óleo, além dos previamente relatados em outros estudos. Regiões distintas das atualmente conhecidas podem estar envolvidas no controle genético do teor de proteína e óleo na soja.The objective of this study was to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. protein and oil contents. F2 plants, derived from the cross between the CS3032PTA276 line and the variety UFVS2012, were grown in a greenhouse and provided the leaves for DNA extraction and analysis. Forty-eight polymorphic microsatelite markers (SSR were evaluated in the F2 population. Evaluation of the phenotype was performed in 207 families from F2:3 progenies, in a complete block design with three replicates, carried out in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, in 2006. Four QTL associated with protein content, in linkage groups D1a, G, A1, and I, and three QTL for oil content in groups A1, I and O were identified. Phenotypic variation for protein and oil

  3. Lack of promotion of colon carcinogenesis by high-oleic safflower oil.

    Takeshita, M; Ueda, H; Shirabe, K; Higuchi, Y; Yoshida, S

    1997-04-15

    The nonpromoting effect of olive oil on colon carcinogenesis has been attributed to its high oleic acid content, whereas a positive association of monounsaturated fat in beef tallow with colon tumors has been reported. The effect of constituents other than fatty acids could not be neglected in these experiments. In order to minimize the effects of minor constituents in the oils, the authors compared conventional safflower oil with oil from a mutant strain of safflower that is rich in oleic acid. ICR mice were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body weight every week for 12 weeks) and then were fed either a high-fat diet (23.5% by weight), containing safflower oil (HF-LA) or high-oleic safflower oil (HF-OA), or a low-fat diet (5% by weight), containing safflower oil (LF-LA) or high-oleic safflower oil (LF-OA). The test diets were continued until termination of the experiment at 30 weeks after the first administration of DMH. Fatty acid composition of colon phospholipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tumor multiplicity in animals fed the HF-OA diet was indistinguishable from that in animals fed LF-LA or LF-OA. In contrast, animals fed the HF-LA diet had a significantly higher incidence of colon tumors (mostly adenocarcinomas) than the other groups. Fatty acid profiles of colon phospholipids reflected those of the diet. Animals fed a HF-LA diet showed a marked decrease of nervonic acid (C24:1, n-9) in the colon sphingomyelin. These data indicate that oleic acid does not enhance DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice, even when they are fed a high-fat diet.

  4. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wen, Ting [Institute of Nanostructured Functional Materials, Huanghe Science and Technology College, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006 (China); Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States); Yang, Wenge, E-mail: yyggwang@gmail.com, E-mail: yangwg@hpstar.ac.cn, E-mail: yusheng.zhao@unlv.edu [High Pressure Synergetic Consortium (HPSynC), Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-01-14

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na{sub 3}OBr and Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2}, respectively. The cubic Na{sub 3}OBr structure and tetragonal Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} with intergrowth K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na{sub 4}OI{sub 2} exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications.

  5. Robust high pressure stability and negative thermal expansion in sodium-rich antiperovskites Na3OBr and Na4OI2

    Wang, Yonggang; Wen, Ting; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Pravica, Michael; Zhao, Yusheng; Yang, Wenge

    2016-01-01

    The structure stability under high pressure and thermal expansion behavior of Na 3 OBr and Na 4 OI 2 , two prototypes of alkali-metal-rich antiperovskites, were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques under high pressure and low temperature. Both are soft materials with bulk modulus of 58.6 GPa and 52.0 GPa for Na 3 OBr and Na 4 OI 2 , respectively. The cubic Na 3 OBr structure and tetragonal Na 4 OI 2 with intergrowth K 2 NiF 4 structure are stable under high pressure up to 23 GPa. Although being a characteristic layered structure, Na 4 OI 2 exhibits nearly isotropic compressibility. Negative thermal expansion was observed at low temperature range (20–80 K) in both transition-metal-free antiperovskites for the first time. The robust high pressure structure stability was examined and confirmed by first-principles calculations among various possible polymorphisms qualitatively. The results provide in-depth understanding of the negative thermal expansion and robust crystal structure stability of these antiperovskite systems and their potential applications

  6. Business trends report 2006. High oil prices ensure high activity level; What are the challenges?

    2006-01-01

    The first in a series of annual business trends reports which The Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) has decided to publish. The report highlights features in the development of the global economy and the energy markets, and presents an analysis of the level of activity on the Norwegian Shelf through to 2010. It also gives a status report and outlines the challenges that lie within three important areas for the oil industry: the relationship with the external environment, health, safety and working environment, and personnel and competence requirements within the industry. The main message contained in the report is summarised as follows: 'While prospects for the immediate future look good, we foresee a lack of new, important and technically challenging projects in the longer term. Discoveries made on the Norwegian Shelf during recent years have been small. Exploration activity must be intensified and its results must be improved. The most important and effective stimulus in this connection is new prospective exploration acreage. The Comprehensive Management Plan for Lofoten and the Barents Sea will be revised in 2010. By that time the knowledge gaps in the plan have to be filled so that the decision-making basis is as good as possible. Even though the level of activity looks as if it will continue to be high in the medium term, we have no time to lose.' Environmental status and challenges are briefly reviewed, as well as the industry's future recruitment challenges (author) (ml)

  7. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  8. Forecasting short-run crude oil price using high- and low-inventory variables

    Ye, Michael; Zyren, John; Shore, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Since inventories have a lower bound or a minimum operating level, economic literature suggests a nonlinear relationship between inventory level and commodity prices. This was found to be the case in the short-run crude oil market. In order to explore this inventory-price relationship, two nonlinear inventory variables are defined and derived from the monthly normal level and relative level of OECD crude oil inventories from post 1991 Gulf War to October 2003: one for the low inventory state and another for the high inventory state of the crude oil market. Incorporation of low- and high-inventory variables in a single equation model to forecast short-run WTI crude oil prices enhances the model fit and forecast ability

  9. High resolution laser spectroscopy of the D lines of on-line produced 21Na, 22Na, 24Na, 25Na using a new high sensitivity method of detection of optical resonances

    Huber, G.; Thibault, G.; Klapisch, R.; Duong, H.T.; Vialle, J.L.; Pinard, I.; Juncar, P.; Jacquinot, P.

    1975-01-01

    A polyisotopic sodium beam of 21 - 25 Na, produced by spallation of Al, was illuminated by a tunable dye laser. The atomic beam, analyzed by a sixpole magnet is then ionized and detected after a mass spectrometer. The results are the isotope shifts, nuclear magnetic moment and quadrupole moment of 25 Na [fr

  10. Simultaneous correlative scanning electron and high-NA fluorescence microscopy.

    Nalan Liv

    Full Text Available Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM is a unique method for investigating biological structure-function relations. With CLEM protein distributions visualized in fluorescence can be mapped onto the cellular ultrastructure measured with electron microscopy. Widespread application of correlative microscopy is hampered by elaborate experimental procedures related foremost to retrieving regions of interest in both modalities and/or compromises in integrated approaches. We present a novel approach to correlative microscopy, in which a high numerical aperture epi-fluorescence microscope and a scanning electron microscope illuminate the same area of a sample at the same time. This removes the need for retrieval of regions of interest leading to a drastic reduction of inspection times and the possibility for quantitative investigations of large areas and datasets with correlative microscopy. We demonstrate Simultaneous CLEM (SCLEM analyzing cell-cell connections and membrane protrusions in whole uncoated colon adenocarcinoma cell line cells stained for actin and cortactin with AlexaFluor488. SCLEM imaging of coverglass-mounted tissue sections with both electron-dense and fluorescence staining is also shown.

  11. Influence of core NA on thermal-induced mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers

    Tao, Rumao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the influence of core NA on thermal-induced mode instabilities (MI) in high power fiber amplifiers. The influence of core NA and the V-parameter on MI has been investigated numerically. It shows that core NA has a larger influence on MI for fibers with a smaller core-cladding-ratio, and the influence of core NA on the threshold is more obvious when the amplifiers are pumped at 915 nm. The dependence of the threshold on the V-parameter revealed that the threshold increases linearly as the V-parameter decreases when the V-parameter is larger than 3.5, and the threshold shows an exponential increase as the V-parameter decreases when the V-parameter is less than 3.5. We also discussed the effect of linewidth on MI, which indicates that the influence of linewidth can be neglected for a linewidth smaller than 1 nm when the fiber core NA is smaller than 0.07 and the fiber length is shorter than 20 m. Fiber amplifiers with different core NA were experimentally analyzed, which agreed with the theoretical predictions. (letter)

  12. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer.

    Joshi, Saurabh; Gogate, Parag R; Moreira, Paulo F; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50°C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one of the promising energy source alternatives to fossil fuel. To produce biodiesel in a more economical way, the employment of the low-cost feed stocks, such as non-edible oils with high free fatty acid (FFA, is necessary. Accordingly, the esterification reaction of FFA in vegetable oils plays an important role in the biodiesel production. In this work, esterification of FFA contained in Crude Jatropha Oil (CJO in the presence of tin (II chloride catalyst in a batch reactor has been carried out. The esterification reaction was conducted using methanol at the temperature of 40-60 °C for 4 hours. The effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil was studied in the range 15:1 to 120:1. The influence of catalyst loading was investigated in the range of 2.5 to 15% w/w oil. The optimum reaction conversion was obtained at 60 °C with the catalyst loading of 10% w/w oil and molar ratio of methanol to oil of 120:1. A pseudo-homogeneous reversible second order kinetic model for describing the esterification of FFA contained in CJO with methanol over tin (II chloride catalyst was developed based on the experimental data. The kinetic model can fit the data very well.

  14. An overview of the impact of electrotechnologies for the recovery of oil and high-value compounds from vegetable oil industry

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oil recovery from oilseeds and fruits is one of the food processes where efficiency is the key to ensure profitability. Wastes and by-products generated during oil production process are, on the other hand, a great source of high-added value compounds that could be recovered in turn at a later...

  15. Performance and Meat Quality of Thin Tailed Sheep in Supplementary Feeding Lemuru Fish Oil Protected By Saponification with Different NaOH Concentration

    Agustinah Setyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to obtain oil and the exact saponification with different NaOH concentration to protect unsaturated fats, which does can result in good production performance and lamb meat quality with low saturated fatty acid. Stage one studied the performance of sheep production on supplementing lemuru fish oil (LFO protected with different saponification optimization. Twenty lambs aged 5-6 months early weighing 8-14 kg were divided into 4 treatments, namely P0 basal feed (50% elephant grass + 50% concentrate, P1 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 10%, P2 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 20% and P3 (basal feed + soap LFO NaOH 30% with completely randomized design and 5 replication for performance and 3 replication for meat quality. The results showed that the treatment effect was not significant (P>0.05 on the consumption of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrien (TDN, daily gain and blood cholesterol. P2 yield the highest daily gain 130.95 ± 19.29 g/head/day of cholesterol at the same time low of 58.67 mg/dl. Stage two studied the criteria of lamb carcass and meat quality in supplementary feeding LFO protected with different saponification optimization. Twelve sheeps were slaughtered for P0, P1, P2 and P3. The results showed that the treatment effect was not significant (P> 0.05 to slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, the physical quality of meat (pH, water holding capacity, cooking losses and tenderness, and chemical quality of the meat (DM levels, CP , EE, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids except in EPA and DHA increased very significantly (P<0.01. Conclusively, giving soap LFO with different optimization did not significantly affect the appearance and quality of sheep meat production, except in EPA and DHA which were significantly increased

  16. NaCl stress-induced changes in the essential oil quality and abietane diterpene yield and composition in common sage

    Taieb Tounekti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how increasing NaCl salinity in the medium can affects the essential oils (EOs composition and phenolic diterpene content and yield in leaves of Salvia officinalis L. The protective role of such compounds against NaCl stress was also argued with regard to some physiological characteristics of the plant (water and ionic relations as well as the leaf gas exchanges. Materials and Methods: Potted plants were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 75 and 100 mM for 4 weeks during July 2012. Replicates from each treatment were harvested after 0, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of adding salt to perform physiological measurements and biochemical analysis. Results: Sage EOs were rich in manool, viridiflorol, camphor, and borneol. Irrigation with a solution containing 100 mM NaCl for 4 weeks increased considerably 1.8-cineole, camphor and beta-thujone concentrations, whereas lower concentrations (50 and 75 mM had no effects. On the contrary, borneol and viridiflorol concentrations decreased significantly under the former treatment, while manool and total fatty acid concentrations were not affected. Leaf extracts contained also several diterpenes such as carnosic acid (CA, carnosol (CAR and 12- and #1054;-methoxy carnosic acid (MCA. The concentrations and total contents of CA and MCA increased after 3 weeks of irrigation with 75 or 100 mM NaCl. The 50 mM NaCl had no effect on these diterpenes. Our results suggest a protective role for CA against salinity stress. Conclusion: This study may provide ways to manipulate the concentration and yield of some phenolic diterpenes and EOs in sage. In fact soil salinity may favour a directional production of particular components of interest. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 208-216

  17. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  18. Edge placement error control and Mask3D effects in High-NA anamorphic EUV lithography

    van Setten, Eelco; Bottiglieri, Gerardo; de Winter, Laurens; McNamara, John; Rusu, Paul; Lubkoll, Jan; Rispens, Gijsbert; van Schoot, Jan; Neumann, Jens Timo; Roesch, Matthias; Kneer, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    To enable cost-effective shrink at the 3nm node and beyond, and to extend Moore's law into the next decade, ASML is developing a new high-NA EUV platform. The high-NA system is targeted to feature a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.55 to extend the single exposure resolution limit to 8nm half pitch. The system is being designed to achieve an on-product-overlay (OPO) performance well below 2nm, a high image contrast to drive down local CD errors and to obtain global CDU at sub-1nm level to be able to meet customer edge placement error (EPE) requirements for the devices of the future. EUV scanners employ reflective Bragg multi-layer mirrors in the mask and in the Projection Optics Box (POB) that is used to project the mask pattern into the photoresist on the silicon wafer. These MoSi multi-layer mirrors are tuned for maximum reflectivity, and thus productivity, at 13.5nm wavelength. The angular range of incident light for which a high reflectivity at the reticle can be obtained is limited to +/- 11o, exceeding the maximum angle occurring in current 0.33NA scanners at 4x demagnification. At 0.55NA the maximum angle at reticle level would extend up to 17o in the critical (scanning) direction and compromise the imaging performance of horizontal features severely. To circumvent this issue a novel anamorphic optics design has been introduced, which has a 4x demagnification in the X- (slit) direction and 8x demagnification in the Y- (scanning) direction as well as a central obscuration in the exit pupil. In this work we will show that the EUV high-NA anamorphic concept can successfully solve the angular reflectivity issues and provide good imaging performance in both directions. Several unique imaging challenges in comparison to the 0.33NA isomorphic baseline are being studied, such as the impact of the central obscuration in the POB and Mask-3D effects at increased NA that seem most pronounced for vertical features. These include M3D induced contrast loss and non

  19. Genotype and year variability of the chemical composition of walnut oil of Moroccan seedlings from the high Atlas Mountains

    Kodad, O.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein and oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol concentration were determined for two years in the kernel of ten candidate walnut selections from the high Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Considerable variation between genotypes was found for all parameters. The ranges of protein content (11.58–14.5% of kernel dry weight, DW, oil content (54.4–67.48% of kernel DW, oleic (12.47–22.01% of total oil, linoleic (55.03–60.01%, linolenic (9.3–15.87%, palmitic (6.84–9.12%, and stearic (1.7–2.92% acid percentages, γ-tocopherol (188.1–230.7 mg·kg-1 of oil, δ-tocopherol (23.3–43.4 mg·kg-1, and α-tocopherol (8.9–16.57 mg·kg-1 contents agreed with previous results obtained from other commercial walnut cultivars. The effect of year was significant for all the chemical components, except for oil content and palmitic acid percentage. Some genotypes showed high oil contents and consistently high values of γ-tocopherol in both years of study. The introduction of these genotypes as new cultivars by vegetative propagation may result in a an increase in quality of the walnuts from the high Atlas Mountains of Morocco, and as a seed source for forest walnut propagation in the same region.Se determinó durante dos años el contenido en proteína y aceite, la composición en ácidos grasos y la concentración en tocoferoles en la pepita de diez plantones de nogal seleccionados en el Alto Atlas de Marruecos, encontrándose una considerable variación entre genotipos para todos los parámetros. Los rangos del contenido en proteína (11.58–14.5 % del peso seco, PS, contenido en aceite (54.4–67.48 % PS, porcentaje de ácido oleico (12.47–22.01% del aceite total, linoleico (55.03–60.01 %, linolénico (9.3–15.87 %, palmítico (6.84–9.12 %, y esteárico (1.7–2.92 %, contenido en γ-tocoferol (188.1–230.7 mg·kg−1 de aceite, δ-tocoferol (23.3–43.4 mg·kg−1 y α-tocoferol (8.9–16.57 mg·kg−1, coincidieron con

  20. Selective induction of high-ouabain-affinity isoform of Na+-K+-ATPase by thyroid hormone

    Haber, R.S.; Loeb, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The administration of thyroid hormone is known to result in an induction of the Na + -K + -adenosinetriphosphatase (Na + -K + -ATPase) in rat skeletal muscle and other thyroid hormone-responsive tissues. Since the Na + -K + -ATPase in a variety of mammalian tissues has recently been reported to exist in at least two forms distinguishable by differing affinities for the inhibitory cardiac glycoside ouabain. The authors have studied the effects of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3 ) treatment on these two forms of the enzyme in rat diaphragm. The inhibition of Na + -K + -ATPase activity in a crude membrane fraction by varying concentrations of ouabain conformed to a biphasic pattern consistent with the presence of two distinct isoforms with inhibition constants (K I s) for ouabain of ∼10 -7 and 10 -4 M, respectively. Measurement of the specific binding of [ 3 H]ouabain to these membranes confirmed the presence of a class of high-affinity ouabain binding sites with a dissociation constant (K d ) of slightly less than 10 -7 M, whose maximal binding capacity was increased by T 3 treatment by 185%. Binding studies in unfractionated homogenates of diaphragm similarly demonstrated the presence of high-affinity sites whose maximal binding capacity was increased by T 3 treatment. Quantitation of both the high- and low-ouabain-affinity forms of the Na + -K + -ATPase by ouabain-dependent phosphorylation from [ 32 P]orthophosphate confirmed that T 3 treatment markedly increased the number of high-affinity sites while having little effect on the number of low-affinity sites. These observations provide, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that these two forms of the Na + -K + -ATPase are subject to selective hormonal induction

  1. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  2. Nanofluid of graphene-based amphiphilic Janus nanosheets for tertiary or enhanced oil recovery: High performance at low concentration.

    Luo, Dan; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Jingyi; Cao, Feng; Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaogang; Willson, Richard C; Yang, Zhaozhong; Chu, Ching-Wu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2016-07-12

    The current simple nanofluid flooding method for tertiary or enhanced oil recovery is inefficient, especially when used with low nanoparticle concentration. We have designed and produced a nanofluid of graphene-based amphiphilic nanosheets that is very effective at low concentration. Our nanosheets spontaneously approached the oil-water interface and reduced the interfacial tension in a saline environment (4 wt % NaCl and 1 wt % CaCl2), regardless of the solid surface wettability. A climbing film appeared and grew at moderate hydrodynamic condition to encapsulate the oil phase. With strong hydrodynamic power input, a solid-like interfacial film formed and was able to return to its original form even after being seriously disturbed. The film rapidly separated oil and water phases for slug-like oil displacement. The unique behavior of our nanosheet nanofluid tripled the best performance of conventional nanofluid flooding methods under similar conditions.

  3. Economic study of NHR application on high pour point oil field

    Zhao Gang; Zhang Zuoyi; Ma Yuanle

    1997-01-01

    In order to extent the application of NHR (nuclear heating reactor) and cut down the oil production costs, the authors designed different heating disposition by NHR and boiler heating stations in high pour point oil reservoir, total 16.9 km 2 , in Daqing oil field. This work was based on the study of history matching, water flood planning and hot water circulation for the reservoir. The analyzing results show that, the convert heating cost of NHR is a third of boiler's and the net oil production of NHR is 4 times more than the latter. Considering economization and reliability, authors suggest to adopt the scheme of two NHR with one boiler heating station

  4. Microbiological method for exploitation of oil deposits with a high mineralization of interstitial waters

    Senyukov, V M; Yulbarisov, E M; Taldykina, N N; Shishenina, E P

    1970-07-01

    A literature review is made of microbiological processes suitable for secondary oil recovery. On the basis of literature data, basic experiments were conducted in the Arlansk field. This field has viscous oil, highly mineralized connate water (rho = 1.18) and permeability above 1,000 md. A mixture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria with nutrient was injected through one well, then 650 cu m of fresh water was injected. Mineralogical and bacteriological analyses were made of produced fluids in nearby wells. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were found in produced fluids, 600 m from the injection wells. On the basis of this result, it was concluded that microbiological processes can be used to increase secondary recovery of oil. However, no oil recovery data are presented. (10 refs.)

  5. High-rate oil removing scouring agent. Koyubun jokyoyo seirenzai ni tsuite

    Ishihara, K.; Sato, Y. (Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiyaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Fiber forming, scutching and knitting processes in recent years are performed three to five times faster than in the conventional processes. Associated therewith, oil solutions are taken importantly for their stability and workability, such as smoothing properties, heat resistance and abrasion resistance. On the other hand, difficulty is increasing in removing the oils after scutching and knitting. This paper explains basic rinsing activities required in oil removal, and describes various test characteristics and compatibility of various high-rate oil removing scouring agents. An oil-in-water rinsing mechanism relies upon comprehensive actions of a surfactant in wetting, permeation, emulsified dispersion and solubilization. The most importantly taken among them is the emulsifying action, which largely depends upon its chemical structure. Therefore, for a high-rate oil removing scouring agent, creation of activators is required that make the above basic characteristics and activities compatible for various applications. For example, the above product covers a great variety of kinds for diverse applications, based on non-ionic and anion-based activators. 6 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Characteristics and Composition of a High Oil Yielding Castor Variety from Pakistan.

    Panhwar, Tarique; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Mahesar, Abdul Waheed; Kandhro, Aftab Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Laghari, Zahid Hussain; Chang, Abdul Sattar; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view the versatile applications of castor oil in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and recently as renewable source, the present work is a step towards the commercialization of castor on large scale in Pakistan. The current study introduces a castor variety with high oil content. Initially seeds were physically examined for some physical parameters. Seed moisture, ash content and linear dimensions such as length, width and thickness were found to be 4.53%, 6.44%, 12.24 mm, 8.31 mm and 5.67 mm, respectively. For oil extraction, Soxhlet method was used which resulted in the high oil content 54.0%. For quality assessment of oil, physicochemical parameters were checked according to official standard AOCS methods and compared with ASTM specifications. The determined parameters were as follows; specific gravity 0.953 g/cm(-3), refractive index 1.431, viscosity 672.0 mPas.s, moisture content 0.32%, FFA 0.14%, IV 83.61 gI2/100 g, PV 2.25 meq/Kg and SV 186.0 mgKOH/g. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis of oil showed that, most abundant fatty acid was ricinoleic acid 94.59%, followed by palmitic 0.31%, linoleic 1.84%, oleic (n-9) 2.05%, oleic (n-10) 0.22%, stearic 0.45% and eicosenoic acid 0.53%. The detected fatty acids were compared with registered variety and varieties of other regions.

  7. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  8. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  9. Palm oil as a sustainable energy alternative in degraded areas of the Amazon region; O dende como alternativa energetica sustentavel em areas degradadas na Amazonia

    Villela, Alberto Arruda

    2009-02-15

    Bio fuels are important tools in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG); however, to minimize the conflict with food crops, energy crops with high efficiency and capacity to absorb Co2, such as the oil palm, should be prioritized. The European Union intends to replace 10% of liquid fossil fuel demand with bio fuels by 2020. According to studies conducted by the European Commission, this will entail the annual import of more than 3 million tonnes of palm oil, the most produced and least expensive vegetable oil in the world. 87% of global production comes from Indonesia and Malaysia, where the relentless expansion of oil palm cultivation has caused extensive forest devastation, threatening biodiversity and increasing GHG emissions. The Netherlands, a large importer of oil palm products, developed a methodology (Cramer) for the certification of sustainable bio energy production, assessing economic, social, environmental aspects, as well as GHG emissions, throughout the supply chain. It sets a mandatory minimum 30% reduction of GHG emissions in the bio-energy chain for use in transport and 70% for use in heat and power generation, as compared to the chain of the fossil counterpart. This dissertation shows that oil and bio diesel (ethyl ester) from palm grown in the Amazon meets this GHG mitigation criterion when degraded areas are utilized for cultivation, but not when forests are razed for that purpose. (author)

  10. Influence of CO{sup 2} on PVT properties of an oil crude at high pressure

    Kim, Nilo Ricardo; Bonet, Euclides Jose [Centro de Estudos de Petroleo (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Elias Junior, Antonio; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The current oil frontier in Brazil is in Santos and Campos Basins, where huge oil accumulations were identified recently. Well tests have shown high values of pressure and concentration of carbon dioxide in these reservoirs. The characterization of the fluids existing in the pores of the reservoir rocks is a task for the exploitation of the hydrocarbons. The objective of this work is to present the experimental set up that was assembled to perform PVT analysis for oils at high pressure, moderate temperature and high CO{sub 2} content, oils analogous to that found in the new Brazilian pre-salt discoveries. Samples of dead oil and synthetic gas were received at the laboratory, where the recombination was carried out to obtain live oil, with twelve mole percent CO{sub 2}. The fluids were maintained inside special cylinders, with a floating piston, separating two compartments, one with the test fluid and the other with hydraulic fluid. Pressure was provided by a positive displacement pump connected to the bottles. The experiments achieved pressures up to 70 MPa at constant temperature, conditions expected for the reservoir. Starting at the high pressure, the fluid volume was increased by withdrawing the hydraulic fluid from the cylinder. Pressure and volume were recorded to determine the bubble point and compressibility of the system. The pressure drop continued until the mixture was in the two phase region, finishing the constant composition expansion process. After that, the sample was re-pressurized and the PVT bottle was agitated to reach the thermodynamic equilibrium, when the live oil was at single phase again. An aliquot of this mixture was transferred, keeping their pressure and temperature conditions, to a high pressure viscometer and to a densimeter. Another portion of live oil was flashed to a test tube and to a gasometer, to render the gas oil ratio. Afterwards, successive additions of carbon dioxide increased its concentration in live oil to 15, 20 and 35

  11. The investigation for attaining the optimal yield of oil shale by integrating high temperature reactors

    Bhattacharyya, A.T.

    1984-03-01

    This work presents a systemanalytical investigation and shows how far a high temperature reactor can be integrated for achieving the optimal yield of kerogen from oil shale. About 1/3 of the produced components must be burnt out in order to have the required high temperature process heat. The works of IGT show that the hydrogen gasification of oil shale enables not only to reach oil shale of higher quality but also allows to achieve a higher extraction quantity. For this reason a hydro-gasification process has been calculated in this work in which not only hydrogen is used as the gasification medium but also two high temperature reactors are integrated as the source of high temperature heat. (orig.) [de

  12. Novel high-NA MRF toolpath supports production of concave hemispheres

    Maloney, Chris; Supranowitz, Chris; Dumas, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Many optical system designs rely on high numerical aperture (NA) optics, including lithography and defense systems. Lithography systems require high-NA optics to image the fine patterns from a photomask, and many defense systems require the use of domes. The methods for manufacturing such optics with large half angles have often been treated as proprietary by most manufacturers due to the challenges involved. In the past, many high-NA concave surfaces could not be polished by magnetorheological finishing (MRF) due to collisions with the hardware underneath the polishing head. By leveraging concepts that were developed to enable freeform raster MRF capabilities, QED Technologies has implemented a novel toolpath to facilitate a new high-NA rotational MRF mode. This concept involves the use of the B-axis (rotational axis) in combination with a "virtual-axis" that utilizes the geometry of the polishing head. Hardware collisions that previously restricted the concave half angle limit can now be avoided and the new functionality has been seamlessly integrated into the software. This new MRF mode overcomes past limitations for polishing concave surfaces to now accommodate full concave hemispheres as well as extend the capabilities for full convex hemispheres. We discuss some of the previous limitations, and demonstrate the extended capabilities using this novel toolpath. Polishing results are used to qualify the new toolpath to ensure similar results to the "standard" rotational MRF mode.

  13. Aberration retrieval for high-NA optical systems using the Extended Nijboer-Zernike theory

    Dirksen, P.; Braat, J.J.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Leeuwestein, A.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we have given a detailed description of the so-called Extended Nijboer-Zernike approach and its application to aberration measurements of the optical projection system in a wafer scanner in the case of a low or medium high-NA system. The Extended Nijboer-Zernike theory provides an

  14. Oils

    1927-12-21

    The abstract describes a process for obtaining liquids from solid carbonaceous materials. The treatment, which involves heating them under pressures of 10 to 1000 atm with high-boiling hydrocarbons or their derivatives containing no constituent which boils below 300/sup 0/C, can be performed in the presence of gases containing nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or carbon monoxide, and excluding hydrogen. Catalytic substances used are sulfides of alkali or alkaline earth metals or other substances which have an alkaline reaction.

  15. Strategies of materials sourcing and services in the oil and gas industry; Estrategias de suprimentos de materiais e servicos na industria de oil and gas

    Aun, Rogerio [Arthur Andersen Business Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Strategic Sourcing is a procurement management technique that aims to establish a globally competitive supply base. By setting an appropriate sourcing strategy to specific sourcing groups considering the purchasing volume and the sourcing complexity, significant savings can be achieved in the total company expenditures. There are four basic sourcing strategies that can be used: purchasing process simplification, purchasing volume leverage, strategic relationship with suppliers, supply assurance. E-procurement is a valuable tool for Strategic Sourcing implementation and can be used to simplify and reduce the cost of the purchasing process. Strategic Sourcing can be applied in most industries, as well as in Oil and Gas Industry. Recently Arthur Andersen was engaged in a Strategic Sourcing project for an Oil and Gas Company resulting in savings of 10% cost reduction on the expenditures analyzed. (author)

  16. An experimental investigation of Na incorporation in cordierite in low P/high T metapelites

    Tropper, Peter; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Haefeker, Udo A.; Mirwald, Peter W.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the incorporation of Na in cordierite in metapelites as a function of temperature and pressure using natural quartzphyllite rocks as starting materials. The experiments were performed in a hydrothermal apparatus as well as a piston-cylinder apparatus with two natural quartzphyllite samples, which represent the protolith rocks of the hornfelses from the Brixen Granite contact aureole near Franzensfeste. Sample W shows high muscovite contents (57 wt%) and only accessory plagioclase while sample SP5 has high plagioclase (16 wt%) and lower muscovite contents (20 vol%). The experiments were done dry at pressures of 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 GPa in a temperature range of 550 °C to 780 °C. The Na content of the newly formed cordierites shows a systematic variation and decreases linearly with increasing temperatures and no influence of pressure and melting on the Na contents of cordierite was observed. The experiments also show that the difference in mineral assemblage considerably shifts the obtained Na contents of cordierite. The P-independent temperature correlations for both sets of experiments can be described with the linear relationships: T (°C) = (Na [apfu] - 0.4052)/(-0.000487); R2 = 0.96; (±20 °C, calibration W) and T (°C) = (Na [apfu] - 0.3671)/(-0.000383); R2 = 0.94; (±15 °C, calibration SP5). The difference between the two temperatures is large and the SP5 experiments yield temperatures that are up to 100 °C higher. This is not unexpected since theoretical phase relations in the system NMASH predict different Na contents depending on the buffering assemblage (plagioclase vs. paragonite). On the other hand these T differences could also reflect disequilibrium behaviour in the SP5 experiments. Detailed micro-Raman spectroscopic investigations reveal that cordierites from both experiments show disordered structures but the SP5 experiments show a much higher degree of Si-Al disorder and the elevated Na

  17. Caracterização bioquímica de linhagens de soja com alto teor de proteína Biochemical characterization of high protein soybean lines

    Rita Maria Alves de Moraes

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar bioquimicamente duas isolinhas de soja com alto teor de proteína. O aumento do teor de proteína nas isolinhas foi acompanhado por redução no teor de óleo e de carboidratos totais. Em relação à composição aminoacídica, o aumento do teor de proteína promoveu acréscimo em todos os aminoácidos, exceto glicina, alanina, metionina, cisteína e tirosina, mantendo a relação enxofre/nitrogênio. A quantificação dos polipeptídios mostrou que o aumento do teor de proteína manteve inalterado o teor das proteínas 7S, promoveu aumento no teor das proteínas 11S e, conseqüentemente, da relação 11S/7S. Pode haver melhoria na qualidade do farelo de soja das isolinhas, uma vez que as proteínas 11S têm melhor qualidade nutricional do que as proteínas 7S.The objective of this work was to characterize high protein soybean near isogenic lines. The increasing of protein was followed by reducing of oil and carbohydrate. In respect to aminoacid composition, increasing of protein promoted a rising in all aminoacids, except for glycine, alanine, methionine, cysteine and tyrosine, although the ratio S/N has been kept. The measure of polypeptides showed that the increasing of protein did not alter the quantity of 7S proteins, provided increasing of 11S proteins and 11S/7S ratio. An improvement of meal quality in these lines can occur once the 11S proteins have a better nutritional quality than 7S proteins.

  18. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Lee, Chien-Chiang; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-01-01

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  19. Nuclear energy consumption, oil prices, and economic growth: Evidence from highly industrialized countries

    Lee, Chien-Chiang, E-mail: cclee@cm.nsysu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yi-Bin

    2011-03-15

    This study utilizes the Johansen cointegration technique, the Granger non-causality test of Toda and Yamamoto (1995), the generalized impulse response function, and the generalized forecast error variance decomposition to examine the dynamic interrelationship among nuclear energy consumption, real oil price, oil consumption, and real income in six highly industrialized countries for the period 1965-2008. Our empirical results indicate that the relationships between nuclear energy consumption and oil are as substitutes in the U.S. and Canada, while they are complementary in France, Japan, and the U.K. Second, the long-run income elasticity of nuclear energy is larger than one, indicating that nuclear energy is a luxury good. Third, the results of the Granger causality test find evidence of unidirectional causality running from real income to nuclear energy consumption in Japan. A bidirectional relationship appears in Canada, Germany and the U.K., while no causality exists in France and the U.S. We also find evidence of causality running from real oil price to nuclear energy consumption, except for the U.S., and causality running from oil consumption to nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Japan, and the U.K., suggesting that changes in price and consumption of oil influence nuclear energy consumption. Finally, the results observe transitory initial impacts of innovations in real income and oil consumption on nuclear energy consumption. In the long run the impact of real oil price is relatively larger compared with that of real income on nuclear energy consumption in Canada, Germany, Japan, and the U.S.

  20. Production of high quality castile soap from high rancid olive oil

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-edible olive oil, characterized by high acid and peroxide values as well as deep in color and unpleasant odor, was used to produce a fine castile soap (soap sample nº. 1. Semi-fine virgin olive oil was also used to produce the standard castile soap (soap sample nº. 2. The obtained results illustrated that the unpleasant odor was disappeared in soap nº. 1 compared to the standard soap (weakly like oil. Also, there were remarkable that no high differences were observed in all physical and chemical properties (appearance, smooth surface, erosion from hand-washing, consistency, moisture content, total fatty acids, free alkali and salt content in the two fresh soap samples. Whilst, the color in soap sample nº. 1 was fuscous green color compared to the standard soap (which was white to pale yellow. Soap samples were stored on a shelf at room temperature for 6 months showed some changes in their chemical properties. On the other hand, physical properties of the above two samples were improved after the storage period (6 months where their structures became very firm with high lather volume and rates of their erosions from hand-washing were retrenched except, the color in soap sample nº. 1 was not improved which was dark green color. Therefore, the present study recommend to use non-edible olive oil as unusually fatty material to produce a fine castile soap (high smooth surface, fairly lather and high glossy appearance as an alternative to edible olive oil (which is very expensive and also to reduce the cost of castile soap manufacturing.Aceite de oliva no comestible, caracterizado por su alta acidez e índice de peróxido así como de su elevada coloración y sabor desagradable se utilizó para la producción de jabón fino tipo ‘‘Castilla’’ (muestra de jabón nº 1. Otro aceite de oliva semifino se empleo para la fabricación de jabón estándar tipo ‘‘Castilla’’. Los resultados mostraron

  1. Fatty acid composition of commercial vegetable oils from the French market analysed using a long highly polar column

    Vingering Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern for consumed fat by western populations has raised the question of the level and the quality of fat intake, especially the composition of fatty acids (FA and their impact on human health. As a consequence, consumers and nutritionists have requested updated publications on FA composition of food containing fat. In the present study, fourteen different kinds of edible oils (rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, argan, groundnut, grape seed, sesame, sunflower, walnut and organic walnut, avocado, wheat germ, and two combined oils were analysed for FA determination using a BPX-70 60 m highly polar GC column. Oils were classified according to the classification of Dubois et al. (2007, 2008. Monounsaturated FA (MUFA group oils, including rapeseed, olive, hazelnut, and avocado oils, contained mainly oleic acid (OA. Groundnut and argan oils, also rich in MUFA, showed in addition high linoleic acid (LA contents. In the polyunsaturated (PUFA group, grape seed oil presented the highest LA content while sunflower, sesame, and wheat germ oils showed noticeable MUFA amounts in addition to high PUFA contents. Walnut oils, also rich in LA, showed the highest linolenic acid (ALA content. The n-6/n-3 ratio of each oil was calculated. Trans-FA (TFA was also detected and quantified. Results were compared with the data published during the past decade, and the slight discrepancies were attributed to differences in origin and variety of seed-cultivars, and in seed and oil processes.

  2. Hydration of vegetable oils for high-grade Diesel fuel components; Hydrierung von Pflanzenoelen zu hochwertigen Dieselkraftstoffkomponenten

    Endisch, M.; Olschar, M.; Kuchling, T. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Balfanz, U. [BP AG, Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The legally regulated admixture of biogenic fuel components for diesel fuels are actually realized in Germany by an admixture of vegetable oil methylester (e.g. from rapeseed oil). The paper describes the hydration of vegetable oils as alternative to this procedure. Infrared and {sup 13}NMR spectroscopy were used to analyse the reaction kinetics for rapeseed, soy been and palm oil hydration. Experimental results of investigations under operational conditions using a continuous test facility and different vegetable oils identified the possibilities of this technology. The technology allows the high-yield production of diesel fuel components with certain numbers higher than average.

  3. Mechanisms of radiation - chemical conversion of high-paraffinic crude oil

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Zaikina, R.F.; Silverman, J.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Regularities of radiation-thermal cracking (RTC) are studied in high-paraffinic oil. Irradiation of oil samples by 2 MeV electrons was performed using a special facility assembled at the electron accelerator ELU-4. The following characteristic RTC features were observed in oil with high contents of heavy paraffins: low level of isomerization in light RTC fractions; very high polymerization rate and low olefin contents in RTC products; relatively low yields of light fractions at low irradiation dose rates; increase in the molecular weight of the gasoline fraction as the irradiation dose rate grows. Similar intense polymerization of RTC products was observed in our experiments with such wastes of oil extraction as asphalt-pitch-paraffin sediments (APPS). Theoretically this feedstock contains great reserves of hydrogen, and, therefore, has high potential yields of light fractions. However, in this case RTC was accompanied by intense reactions of polymerization and chemical adsorption that limited the maximum yields of light RTC products to 40% in our experiments. A specific feature of APPS radiation-induced destruction is formation of the big amount of a reactive paraffinic residue. As a result of interaction with the polymerizing residue the light liquid fractions were completely absorbed and the heavy residue got denser and solidified after several days of exposure at room temperature. RTC regularities in heavy paraffinic oil differ from those observed both in highly viscous petroleum feedstock and light paraffin oils. We attribute these observations to the behavior of heavy alkyl radicals that initiate polymerization and isomerization in heavy paraffin fractions

  4. Flexible Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic MoS2 Sponge for Highly Efficient Oil-Water Separation

    Gao, Xiaojia; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Wen, Cuie

    2016-01-01

    Removal of oils and organic solvents from water is an important global challenge for energy conservation and environmental protection. Advanced sorbent materials with excellent sorption capacity need to be developed. Here we report on a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic MoS2 nanosheet sponge (SMS) for highly efficient separation and absorption of oils or organic solvents from water. This novel sponge exhibits excellent absorption performance through a combination of superhydrophobicity, high porosity, robust stability in harsh conditions (including flame retardance and inertness to corrosive and different temperature environments) and excellent mechanical properties. The dip-coating strategy proposed for the fabrication of the SMS, which does not require a complicated process or sophisticated equipment, is very straightforward and easy to scale up. This finding shows promise for water remediation and oil recovery. PMID:27272562

  5. Effects of High Carbon Dioxide Level on the Emergence of Oil Palm Pollinating Weevil, Elaeidobius Kamerunicus

    Amanina, N.S.; Hasnudin, M.Y.; Haniff, M.H.; Roslan, M.N.; A'fifah, A.R.; Ramle, M.

    2016-01-01

    Elaeidobius kamerunicus is the main pollinating insect of oil palm in Malaysia. The increase of ambient carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) may promote greater crop growth and yield of oil palm. However, E. kamerunicus' adaptability and survival under high CO 2 level are still unknown. An oil palm weevil emergence study was conducted in plant growth chambers with two CO 2 levels, 400 Parts Per Million and 800 Parts Per Million. The plant growth chambers were set at 27 degree celcius and 70% relative humidity for the entire study period. Spikelets were taken from apical, middle and basal regions of anthesising male inflorescences from 6-year old DxP palms under normal field conditions. The sampled spikelets were placed in clear plastic tubes with both open ends covered with muslin cloth. The emergence of adults was observed at two-day interval until 10 days after incubation. The total number of weevils which emerged from the spikelets at 400 Parts Per Million and 800 Parts Per Million CO 2 levels were 240 and 233 individuals, respectively. Doubling the ambient CO 2 level to 800 Parts Per Million had no effect on E. kamerunicus emergence in controlled condition. Further study on oil palm weevil adaptability and survival under high CO 2 level is needed to provide information on the effects of future climate change scenario and oil palm yield. (author)

  6. Influence of shaly sands on continuous steam injection oil recovering method; Influencia de areias argilosas na recuperacao de petroleo por injecao de vapor

    Barbosa, J.M.D.; Rodrigues, M.A.F.; Galvao, E.R.V.P.; Barillas, J.L.M.; Mata, W.; Dutra Junior, T.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Steam flooding is one of the most used thermal recovery methods in Northeast Brazil, because of high occurrence of heavy oil reservoir. In this process, the oil into the reservoir is heated while reduces, substantially, its viscosity and improves the production. This process can be affected by various parameters, including reservoir heterogeneity and the presence of clay. This work studied the influence of the presence of shaly sand layers in the reservoir for this type of recovery. The studied models were synthetics, but the used reservoir data can be extrapolated to real situations of Potiguar Basin. The influence of reservoir parameters in this process is quite important to the oil industry, and some of them were tested, such as the horizontal permeability of the reservoir and clay, the vertical/horizontal permeability ratio, the influence of capillary pressure of shaly sand and how all heterogeneities are allowed to affect in the oil productivity. In this study the parameter of greater influence in the oil recovery was the horizontal permeability, and the configuration of the layer of clay and other parameters affected least the process. (author)

  7. Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Krill Oil in Mice Fed a High-Sugar High-Fat Diet

    Chenyang Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia. Previous studies have confirmed that krill oil can alleviate hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To discern whether krill oil changes the structure of the gut microbiota during the hyperlipidemia treatment, 72 mice were acclimatized with a standard chow diet for 2 weeks and then randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (control group, n = 12 or a high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF diet supplemented with a low (100 μg/g·d, HSHF+LD group, n = 12, moderate (200 μg/g·d, HSHF+MD group, n = 12 or high dosage of krill oil (600 μg/g·d, HSHF+HD group, n = 12, simvastatin (HSHF+S group, n = 12 or saline (HSHF group, n = 12 continuously for 12 weeks. The resulting weight gains were attenuated, the liver index and the low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations showed a stepwise reduction in the treated groups compared with those of the control group. A dose-dependent modulation of the gut microbiota was observed after treatment with krill oil. Low- and moderate- doses of krill oil increased the similarity between the composition of the HSHF diet-induced gut microbiota and that of the control, whereas the mice fed the high-dose exhibited a unique gut microbiota structure that was different from that of the control and HSHF groups. Sixty-five key operational taxonomic units (OTUs that responded to the krill oil treatment were identified using redundancy analysis, of which 26 OTUs were increased and 39 OTUs were decreased compared with those of the HSHF group. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study suggest that the structural alterations in the gut microbiota induced by krill oil treatment were dose-dependent and associated with the alleviation of hyperlipidemia. Additionally, the high-dose krill oil treatment showed combined effects on the alleviation of

  8. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Changes in the Characteristics of Water-in-Oil-based High Internal ...

    Changes in the Characteristics of Water-in-Oil-based High Internal Phase Emulsion Containing Moringa Leaves Extract at Various Storage Conditions. ... Conclusion: Moringa HIPE showed stability and can be guided exclusively to protect skin against ultraviolet radiation-mediated oxidative damage. Keywords: Moringa ...

  10. Free and sulphurized hopanoids and highly branched isoprenoids in immature lacustrine oil shales

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Las Heras, F.X.C. de; Grimalt, J.O.; Lopez, J.F.; Albaiges, J.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1997-01-01

    A study of the solvent extracts of four samples from two immature oil shales from Tertiary lacustrine basins, Ribesalbes and Campins (southern European rift system), deposited under reducing conditions, has allowed the identification of S-containing hopanoids and novel highly branched isoprenoids

  11. Thermal diffusivity estimation of the olive oil during its high-pressure treatment

    Kubásek, M.; Houška, M.; Landfeld, A.; Strohalm, J.; Kamarád, Jiří; Žitný, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 74, - (2006), s. 286-291 ISSN 0260-8774 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : olive oil * food processing * high pressure * thermal diffusivity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2006

  12. Technical and Economic Analysis of Injecting Enhancers into High-Paraffin Oil Heaters

    Konakhina, I. A.; Khamidullina, G. R.; Khusnutdinova, E. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper covers an algorithm of how to optimize the selection of preferred solutions to upgrade heat-exchange equipment. The algorithm is discussed in terms of high-paraffin oil heaters as compared with other heat-exchange surface features.

  13. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    Bender,J. P.; Junges,A.; Franceschi,E.; Corazza,F. C.; Dariva,C.; Oliveira,J. Vladimir; Corazza,M. L.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (L...

  14. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  15. Traceability of PDO Olive Oil “Terra di Bari” Using High Resolution Melting

    Cinzia Montemurro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to verify the applicability of microsatellite (SSR markers in High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis for the identification of the olive cultivars used in the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil. A panel of nine cultivars, widespread in Apulia region, was tested with seventeen SSR primer pairs and the PCR products were at first analysed with a Genetic Analyzer automatic sequencer. An identification key was obtained for the nine cultivars, which showed an unambiguous discrimination among the varieties constituting the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil: Cima di Bitonto, Coratina, and Ogliarola. Subsequently, an SSR based method was set up with the DCA18 marker, coupled with HRM analysis for the distinction of the Terra di Bari olive oil from non-Terra di Bari olive oil using different mixtures. Thus, this analysis enabled the distinction and identification of the PDO mixtures. Hence, this assay provided a flexible, cost-effective, and closed-tube microsatellite genotyping method, well suited to varietal identification and authentication analysis in olive oil.

  16. Methylcellulose-Directed Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Zeolite NaA with High CO₂ Uptake.

    Shakarova, Dilshod; Ojuva, Arto; Bergström, Lennart; Akhtar, Farid

    2014-07-28

    Zeolite NaA nanocrystals with a narrow particle size distribution were prepared by template-free hydrothermal synthesis in thermo-reversible methylcellulose gels. The effects of the amount of methylcellulose, crystallization time and hydrothermal treatment temperature on the crystallinity and particle size distribution of the zeolite NaA nanocrystals were investigated. We found that the thermogelation of methylcellulose in the alkaline Na₂O-SiO₂-Al₂O₃-H₂O system played an important role in controlling the particle size. The synthesized zeolite nanocrystals are highly crystalline, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the nanocrystals can also display a well-defined facetted morphology. Gas adsorption studies on the synthesized nanocrystalline zeolite NaA showed that nanocrystals with a size of 100 nm displayed a high CO₂ uptake capacity (4.9 mmol/g at 293 K at 100 kPa) and a relatively rapid uptake rate compared to commercially available, micron-sized particles. Low-cost nanosized zeolite adsorbents with a high and rapid uptake are important for large scale gas separation processes, e.g., carbon capture from flue gas.

  17. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Aslam, Muhammad Zubair; Tang, Tong Boon

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design. PMID:24967606

  18. A High Resolution Capacitive Sensing System for the Measurement of Water Content in Crude Oil

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a non-intrusive system to measure ultra-low water content in crude oil. The system is based on a capacitance to phase angle conversion method. Water content is measured with a capacitance sensor comprising two semi-cylindrical electrodes mounted on the outer side of a glass tube. The presence of water induces a capacitance change that in turn converts into a phase angle, with respect to a main oscillator. A differential sensing technique is adopted not only to ensure high immunity against temperature variation and background noise, but also to eliminate phase jitter and amplitude variation of the main oscillator that could destabilize the output. The complete capacitive sensing system was implemented in hardware and experiment results using crude oil samples demonstrated that a resolution of ±50 ppm of water content in crude oil was achieved by the proposed design.

  19. Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.

    Huey Fang Teh

    Full Text Available To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.

  20. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH MOTOR OIL BY HIGHLY BIODEGRADABLE SURFACTANTS

    Ignacio Moya-Ramírez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of a sandy soil contaminated with motor oil was studied by applying two different washing procedures: one discontinuous and the other continuous. In addition the capacity of three highly biodegradable surfactants, two synthetic (Glucopon 600 and Findet 1214N/23 and a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis, to enhance oil removal was tested. The results obtained with the continuous procedure were much better than those achieved with the discontinuous one, even in experiments conducted with distilled water. Both the addition of surfactants and the rise in temperature significantly increased the removal of the pollutant in experiments conducted with the discontinuous procedure, but the biosurfactant showed a higher capacity for soil remediation than the synthetic surfactants at concentrations close to its CMC. Conversely, when the continuous method was used, surfactant concentration seems to have a lower effect on motor oil removal, at least below the CMC.

  1. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    J. P. Bender

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE, liquid-liquid (LLE and vapor-liquid-liquid (VLLE equilibrium were recorded. It was experimentally observed that, at a given temperature and surfactant content, an increase in the concentration of glycerol/oil ratio led to a pronounced increase in the slope of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve. A comparison with results reported for the same system but using propane as solvent showed that much lower pressure transition values are obtained when using n-butane.

  2. Differential gene expression at different stages of mesocarp development in high- and low-yielding oil palm.

    Wong, Yick Ching; Teh, Huey Fang; Mebus, Katharina; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Kwong, Qi Bin; Koo, Ka Loo; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2017-06-21

    The oil yield trait of oil palm is expected to involve multiple genes, environmental influences and interactions. Many of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to oil yield are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to study the gene expression profiles of mesocarp tissue at different developmental stages, comparing genetically related high- and low- oil yielding palms to identify genes that contributed to the higher oil-yielding palm and might contribute to the wider genetic improvement of oil palm breeding populations. A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms. Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to

  3. Thermodynamic study of NaFe complex oxides. High temperature properties of Na sub 5 FeO sub 4 and Na sub 3 FeO sub 3

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    In order to contribute the investigation into corrosion mechanism of the structural materials by leakage sodium, thermodynamic study of Na-Fe complex oxides formed by the reactions was carried out. Na sub 5 FeO sub 4 and Na sub 3 FeO sub 3 were used as the sample. Its high temperature properties (i.e. melting, solidification and transformation) were observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC. Moreover, the original test named 'melting point confirmation test' was performed for the observation of traces of melting and solidification after the tests. Following contents have been obtained by this study. (1) Na sub 5 FeO sub 4 was stably as the solid without phase transformation and melting until 800degC. However, the compound was showing a tendency to change into Na sub 4 FeO sub 3 with temperature increasing under the low oxygen potential. (2) The stability of Na sub 3 FeO sub 3 is the same as that of Na sub 5 FeO sub 4 until 700degC. Over the temperature, the compound was changed differential compound ...

  4. Dynamic impacts of high oil prices on the bioethanol and feedstock markets

    Cha, Kyung Soo; Bae, Jeong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of high international oil prices on the bioethanol and corn markets in the US. Between 2007 and 2008, the prices of major grain crops had increased sharply, reflecting the rise in international oil prices. These dual price shocks had caused substantial harm to the global economy. Employing a structural vector auto-regression model (SVAR), we analyze how increases in international oil prices could impact the prices of and demand for corn, which is used as a major bioethanol feedstock in the US. The results indicate that an increase in the oil price would increase bioethanol demand for corn and corn prices in the short run and that corn prices would stabilize in the long run as corn exports and feedstock demand for corn decline. Consequently, policies supporting biofuels should encourage the use of bioethanol co-products for feed and the development of marginal land to mitigate increases in the feedstock price. - Research highlights: → World economy experienced 'dual shocks', which were caused by skyrocketed oil prices and grain prices between 2007 and 2008. → Sharp increases in ethanol production in response to high oil prices were considered as a major driving force to 'ag-flation' in the United States. → Applying a time series econometric tool, called the 'structural vector auto-regression model', we evaluated relationship between ethanol production and corn prices. → The result shows that ethanol production affects corn prices in the short run, while corn prices are lowered as other corn demands (feed for livestock or export demand) decline in the long run.

  5. Identification of highly effective antitrypanosomal compounds in essential oils from the Apiaceae family.

    Ngahang Kamte, Stephane L; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Sut, Stefania; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Bruno, Maurizio; Afshar, Fariba Heshmati; Iannarelli, Romilde; Benelli, Giovanni; Cappellacci, Loredana; Hofer, Anders; Maggi, Filippo; Petrelli, Riccardo

    2018-07-30

    The Apiaceae family encompasses aromatic plants of economic importance employed in foodstuffs, beverages, perfumery, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Apiaceae are rich sources of essential oils because of the wealth of secretory structures (ducts and vittae) they are endowed with. The Apiaceae essential oils are available on an industrial level because of the wide cultivation and disposability of the bulky material from which they are extracted as well as their relatively cheap price. In the fight against protozoal infections, essential oils may represent new therapeutic options. In the present work, we focused on a panel of nine Apiaceae species (Siler montanum, Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Kundmannia sicula, Crithmum maritimum, Helosciadium nodiflorum, Pimpinella anisum, Heracleum sphondylium and Trachyspermum ammi) and their essential oils as a model for the identification of trypanocidal compounds to be used as alternative/integrative therapies in the treatment of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and as starting material for drug design. The evaluation of inhibitory effects of the Apiaceae essential oils against Trypanosoma brucei showed that some of them (E. spinosa, S. amomum, C. maritimum and H. nodiflorum) were active, with EC 50 in the range 2.7-10.7 μg/mL. Most of these oils were selective against T. brucei, except the one from C. maritimum that was highly selective against the BALB/3T3 mammalian cells. Testing nine characteristic individual components (α-pinene, sabinene, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, limonene, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, and myristicin) of these oils, we showed that some of them had much higher selectivity than the oils themselves. Terpinolene was particularly active with an EC 50 value of 0.035 μg/mL (0.26 µM) and a selectivity index (SI) of 180. Four other compounds with EC 50 in the range 1.0-6.0 μg/mL (7.4-44 µM) had also good SI: α-pinene (>100), β-ocimene (>91), limonene (>18) and sabinene (>17

  6. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  7. Application specific integrated circuit for high temperature oil well applications

    Fallet, T.; Gakkestad, J.; Forre, G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the design of an integrated BiCMOS circuit for high temperature applications. The circuit contains Pierce oscillators with automatic gain control, and measurements show that it is operating up to 266{sup o}C. The relative frequency variation up to 200 {sup o}C is less than 60 ppm caused mainly by the crystal element itself. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  8. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM, DUNHAM COEFFICIENTS, AND POTENTIAL ENERGY FUNCTION OF NaCl

    Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Requena, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na 35 Cl and Na 37 Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δ v = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  10. HIGH-RESOLUTION ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM, DUNHAM COEFFICIENTS, AND POTENTIAL ENERGY FUNCTION OF NaCl

    Cabezas, C.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular, Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopía y Bioespectroscopía, Unidad asociada CSIC, Parque científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 5, E-47011, Valladolid (Spain); Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agundez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM, CSIC. C/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Castro-Carrizo, A. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la la Piscine, F-38406, Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Zuñiga, J.; Bastida, A.; Requena, A. [Universidad de Murcia. Faculdad de Química, Dpto. de Química-Física, Campus Espinardo E-30100, Murcia (Spain)

    2016-07-10

    We report laboratory spectroscopy for the first time of the J = 1–0 and J = 2–1 lines of Na{sup 35}Cl and Na{sup 37}Cl in several vibrational states. The hyperfine structure has been resolved in both transitions for all vibrational levels, which permit us to predict with high accuracy the hyperfine splitting of the rotational transitions of the two isotopologues at higher frequencies. The new data have been merged with all previous works at microwave, millimeter, and infrared wavelengths and fitted to a series of mass-independent Dunham parameters and to a potential energy function. The obtained parameters have been used to compute a new dipole moment function, from which the dipole moment for infrared transitions up to Δ v = 8 has been derived. Frequency and intensity predictions are provided for all rovibrational transitions up to J = 150 and v = 8, from which the ALMA data of evolved stars can be modeled and interpreted.

  11. Desempenho de diferentes lipases imobilizadas na síntese de biodiesel de óleo de palma = Performance of different immobilized lipases in palm oil biodiesel synthesis

    Grazielle dos Santos Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as condicoes otimizadas da sintese enzimatica de biodiesel, a partir do oleo de palma e etanol, empregando diferentes lipases imobilizadas (lipase de Pseudomonas fluorescens imobilizada em SiO2-PVA e lipase de Candida antartica imobilizada em resina acrilica - Novozym„µ 435 em meio isento de solvente. Uma matriz de planejamento fatorial foi utilizada para avaliar a influencia da temperatura (42 ¡V 58„aC e a razao molar entre etanol e oleo de palma (6:1 ¡V 18:1 no rendimento detransesterificacao alcancado para cada preparacao de lipase. Os efeitos principais foram ajustados por analise de regressao multipla a modelos lineares e o rendimento maximo foi obtido quando o sistema operacional foi operado a 42„aC com substratos contendo etanol eoleo de palma na razao molar de 18:1. Os modelos matematicos que representam o rendimento global da reacao para cada lipase imobilizada foram considerados adequados para descrever os resultados experimentais.Optimized conditions for palm oil and ethanol enzymatic biodiesel synthesis were determined with different immobilized lipases SiO2-PVA-immobilized lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens and acrylic resin-immobilized lipase, NovozymR435, from Candida antartica, in solvent-free medium. A full factorial design assessed the influence oftemperature (42 ¡V 58¢XC and ethanol: palm oil (6:1 ¡V 18:1 molar ratio on the transesterification yield. Main effects were adjusted by multiple regression analysis to linear models and the maximum transesterification yield was obtained at 42¢XC and 18:1 ethanol:palm oil molar ratio. Mathematical models featuring total yield for each immobilized lipase were suitable to describe the experimental results.

  12. Deposition of highly oriented (K,Na)NbO3 films on flexible metal substrates

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Thydén, Karl; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2018-01-01

    In view of developing flexible, highly textured Pb-free piezoelectric thin films, (K,Na)NbO3 was deposited by chemical solution deposition on cube-textured Ni-W alloy substrates. After heat treatment, a strong (001)pc out-of-plane preferential orientation is created in the (K,Na)NbO3 layer, which...

  13. Postnatal fish oil supplementation in high-risk infants to prevent allergy: randomized controlled trial.

    D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Martino, D; McCarthy, S; Metcalfe, J; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2012-10-01

    Relative deficiency of dietary omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been implicated in the rising allergy prevalence in Westernized countries. Fish oil supplementation may provide an intervention strategy for primary allergy prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil n-3 PUFA supplementation from birth to 6 months of age on infant allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 420 infants at high atopic risk received a daily supplement of fish oil containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 110 mg eicosapentaenoic acid or a control (olive oil), from birth to age 6 months. PUFA levels were measured in 6-month-old infants' erythrocytes and plasma and their mothers' breast milk. Eczema, food allergy, asthma and sensitization were assessed in 323 infants for whom clinical follow-up was completed at 12 months of age. At 6 months of age, infant docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid levels were significantly higher (both P acid levels were lower (P = .003) in the fish oil group. Although n-3 PUFA levels at 6 months were associated with lower risk of eczema (P = .033) and recurrent wheeze (P = .027), the association with eczema was not significant after multiple comparisons and there was no effect of the intervention per se on the primary study outcomes. Specifically, between-group comparisons revealed no differences in the occurrence of allergic outcomes including sensitization, eczema, asthma, or food allergy. Postnatal fish oil supplementation improved infant n-3 status but did not prevent childhood allergic disease.

  14. Development of high temperature resistant geomembranes for oil sands secondary containments

    Mills, A. [Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Martin, D. [Layfield Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Plastic liner materials are often adversely impacted by chemicals at elevated temperatures. Heat accelerates the oxidation of the polymeric chains, which in turn accelerates the degradation of the plastic. This paper discussed geomembrane containment systems placed under heated petroleum storage tanks at an oil sands processing plant. Various high temperature-resistant geomembrane materials were tested. Compatibility testing procedures for the various fluids contained by the systems were outlined. Installation procedures for the membranes were also discussed. The membrane systems were designed for use with heavy gas oil; light gas oil; and naphtha. Temperatures in the ground below the tanks were approximately 79 degrees C. Testing was done using sealed containers held in an oil bath at temperatures of 105 degrees C. Heat applied to the chemicals during the tests pressurized the test vessels. Liner materials used in the initial tests included an ester-based thermoplastic polyurethane liner; high density polyethylene (HDPE); linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP) olefins; polyvinyl chloride (PVC); and polyvinylidene (PVDF) materials. A second set of tests was then conducted using alloy materials and PVC. Heat stability tests demonstrated that the blue 0.75 mm alloy showed a tensile strength ratio within the industry's 15 per cent pass criteria. The samples were then tested with diluted bitumen and diluents at 65, 85 and 100 degrees C. The developed liners were installed underneath petroleum tanks with leak detection chambers. It was concluded that the geomembrane liners prevented the hot liquids from leaking. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. Design and development of a high efficiency tank for crude oil dehydration (i)

    Forero, Jorge Enrique; Ortiz Olga Patricia; Narino, Fredy Abelardo

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a new tank design for dehydrating and desalting large volumes of crude oils previously degasified, crude oil dehydration efficiency is reduced by gas presence in the emulsion interphase. The design presented in this paper is versatile (it is adaptable to any classical dehydration process), highly efficient in terms of separation (values usually greater than 90% and/or treated crude oil BSW less than 0,5% are ensured), low installation and operation costs, less consumption of additives. These are some of the advantages found in pilot tests plants and proven in industrial systems at the ECOPETROL S.A. production fields with treatment capacities from 14 to 50 KBD. Although this process also can be applied to other ranks of flow, maintaining the design critical conditions of each case in particular. This system does not exhibit the typical limitations shown by treatment traditional systems (FWKO, Gun Barrel, thermal and electrostatic separators, etc.) (Al-Ghamdi, 2007) since it can be easily adapted to system treatments for light, intermediate, and heavy crude oils and to treatments with BSW content ranging from a very low levels of ≤ 1% to very high levels ≥ 95%, values that are not unusual in production fields nowadays, especially where accelerated production methods are used

  16. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.

  17. Destabilization of Oil-in-Water Emulsions Formed Using Highly Hydrolyzed Whey Proteins.

    Agboola; Singh; Munro; Dalgleish; Singh

    1998-01-19

    Oil-in-water emulsions (4 wt % soy oil) were prepared with 0.5-5 wt % whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) (27% degree of hydrolysis), in a two-stage homogenizer using various first-stage pressures of 10.3, 20.6, and 34.3 MPa and a constant second-stage pressure of 3.4 MPa. Destabilization studies on the emulsions were carried out for up to 24 h, using both laser light scattering and confocal laser microscopy. It was found that emulsions formed with oiling off and coalescence at all homogenization pressures. Emulsions formed with 2, 3, and 4% WPH showed coalescence and creaming only, while slight flocculation but no creaming occurred in emulsions formed with 5% WPH. Furthermore, the apparent rate of coalescence increased with homogenization pressure but decreased with WPH concentration. In contrast, the surface concentration of WPH increased with the WPH concentration in the emulsions but decreased with homogenization pressure. Analysis of WPH by high-performance liquid chromatography showed an increase in the concentration of high molecular weight peptides at the droplet surface compared to the WPH solution. This was considered very important for the stability of these oil-in-water emulsions.

  18. Characterization of alonized steel used in the oil industry; Caracterizacao de acos alonizados utilizados na industria do petroleo

    Cortes Paredes, Ramon; D' Oliveira, Ana Sofia C.M.; Capra, Andre [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: ramon@demec.ufpr.br; sofmat@demec.ufpr.br; capra@demec.ufpr.br

    2001-07-01

    The problems and the damages caused by the corrosion in the production and refining of the oil are enormous. In the process of refining it is present among other substances, naphtenic gas where the character of the corrosive attack is significantly aggressive. The deterioration provoked by hydrogen is the most harmful deterioration in an oil refinery. There are several publications that certify eht excellent protection conferred to the steel in industrial atmosphere given by aluminum coating. This covering represents a pure ideal compromise between the passive protection and the active protection. Moreover, the presence of a metal to metal layer (Fe/Al) in the zone between aluminum and steel, obtained by additional thermal heat treatment, represents an additional protective barrier, in particular against the diffusion of hydrogen in the steel in environments that contains naphtenic gas ou sulfide acid. In industrial scale, tubes are manufactured through the process of alonizing and it is already used in the Presidente Getulio Vargas Refinery - REPAR, PR, Brazil. The process require a heat treatment to allow the diffusion of aluminum in the tube in order to form the Fe/Al intermetallic, which presents recognized resistance to the sulfurous corrosive environment in the oil refining. This was the motivation for the characterization of these alonized steel in order to determine what types of intermetallic are formed. Test samples have been prepared and optic and electronic microscopy examinations was varied out. The studied alonized surface showed enhanced hardness and additionally, it was observed that the aluminum diffusion permits the formation of a different types of Fe/Al. It was also found the presence of aluminum without the formation of intermetallic. (author)

  19. Yolk-shell structured Sb@C anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries

    Song, Junhua; Yan, Pengfei; Luo, Langli; Qi, Xingguo; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Biwei; Feng, Shuo; Wang, Chongmin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Yuehe; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Despite great advances in sodium-ion battery developments, the search for high energy and stable anode materials remains a challenge. Alloy or conversion-typed anode materials are attractive candidates of high specific capacity and low voltage potential, yet their applications are hampered by the large volume expansion and hence poor electrochemical reversibility and fast capacity fade. Here, we use antimony (Sb) as an example to demonstrate the use of yolk-shell structured anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries. The Sb@C yolk-shell structure prepared by controlled reduction and selective removal of Sb2O3 from carbon coated Sb2O3 nanoparticles can accommodate the Sb swelling upon sodiation and improve the structural/electrical integrity against pulverization. It delivers a high specific capacity of ~554 mAh•g-1, good rate capability (315 mhA•g-1 at 10C rate) and long cyclability (92% capacity retention over 200 cycles). Full-cells of O3-Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 cathodes and Sb@C-hard carbon composite anodes demonstrate a high specific energy of ~130 Wh•kg-1 (based on the total mass of cathode and anode) in the voltage range of 2.0-4.0 V, ~1.5 times energy of full-cells with similar design using hard carbon anodes.

  20. High dose flaxseed oil supplementation may affect fasting blood serum glucose management in human type 2 diabetics.

    Barre, Douglas E; Mizier-Barre, Kazimiera A; Griscti, Odette; Hafez, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized partially by elevated fasting blood serum glucose and insulin concentrations and the percentage of hemoglobin as HbA1c. It was hypothesized that each of blood glucose and its co-factors insulin and HbA1c and would show a more favorable profile as the result of flaxseed oil supplementation. Patients were recruited at random from a population pool responding to a recruitment advertisement in the local newspaper and 2 area physicians. Completing the trial were 10 flaxseed oil males, 8 flaxseed oil females, 8 safflower (placebo) oil males and 6 safflower oil females. Patients visited on two pre-treatment occasions each three months apart (visits 1 and 2). At visit 2 subjects were randomly assigned in double blind fashion and in equal gender numbers to take flaxseed oil or safflower oil for three further months until visit 3. Oil consumption in both groups was approximately 10 g/d. ALA intake in the intervention group was approximately 5.5 g/d. Power was 0.80 to see a difference of 1 mmol of glucose /L using 12 subjects per group with a p < 0.05. Flaxseed oil had no impact on fasting blood serum glucose, insulin or HbA1c levels. It is concluded that high doses of flaxseed oil have no effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetics.

  1. Production of microbial oil with high oleic acid content by Trichosporon capitatum

    Wu, Hong; Zong, Minhua [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lei [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Microbial oils with high unsaturated fatty acids content, especially oleic acid content, are good feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. Trichosporon capitatum was found to accumulate lipid with around 80% oleic acid and 89% total unsaturated fatty acids content on nitrogen-limited medium. In order to improve its lipid yield, effects of medium components and culture conditions on cell growth and lipid accumulation were investigated. Optimization of media resulted in a 61% increase in the lipid yield of T. capitatum after cultivation at 28 C and 160 rpm for 6 days. In addition, T. capitatum could grow well on cane molasses and afford a lipid yield comparable to that on synthetic nitrogen-limited medium. The biodiesel from the microbial oil produced by T. capitatum on cane molasses displayed a low cold filter plugging point (-15 C), and so T. capitatum might be a promising strain to provide lipid suitable for high quality biodiesel production. (author)

  2. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  3. High-pressure growth of NaMn7O12 crystals

    Gilioli, Edi; Calestani, Gianluca; Licci, Francesca; Paorici, Carlo; Gauzzi, Andrea; Bolzoni, Fulvio; Prodi, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of producing large crystals of metastable NaMn 7 O 12 manganite, suitable for physical measurements (i.e.: RXS, Raman, EPR, STS, single-crystal neutron diffraction), we carried out a systematic investigation of the parameters controlling the growth of crystals, including the thermodynamic variables (T, P, and reagent composition) and the kinetic factors, such as reaction time and heating/cooling rate. By varying each parameter while maintaining constant the other ones, we found the thermodynamic conditions under which an optimum equilibrium is reached between the competing nucleation and growth rates. They were found to range between 400 and 700 o C (T) and between 20 and 60 Kbars (P), respectively. Under these conditions, we further optimized the growth process, by establishing the most appropriate growth duration (several hours), reagent type (pre-reacted precursor) and composition (presence of 0.4 mole% water and of 5% Na excess with respect to the stoichiometric composition). Typical crystals having several hundreds μm in linear sizes were reproducibly obtained, while the largest sample was about 800 μm. A description of the crystal growth mechanism, based on the experimental results, is also presented and discussed. It assumes that two different mechanisms control the crystal growth, depending on whether the crystallization is taking place outside the stability field, i.e. in presence of native reagents, or inside it, i.e. in a polycrystalline NaMn 7 O 12 phase matrix. In the first case, large crystal growth occurs thanks to the low nucleation and high diffusion rates, while in the second one the crystallization is due to the solid-state mechanism based on the free energy reduction caused by grain boundary migration. - Graphical abstract: Optical (a) and SEM images (b) of NaMn 7 O 12 crystals. Note the markers: 300 μm, top-right corner (a) and 40 μm, bottom left (b)

  4. Essential oil composition, phytotoxic and antifungal activities of Ruta chalepensis L. leaves from High Atlas Mountains (Morocco).

    Bouajaj, Sana; Romane, Abderrahmane; Benyamna, Abdennaji; Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Hamrouni, Lamia; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at the determination of chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, and to evaluate their phytotoxic and antifungal activities. Leaves of Ruta chalepensis L. were collected from the region of Tensift Al Haouz (High Atlas Mountains) Marrakech, Morocco. The essential oil (oil yield is 0.56%) was analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified and accounted for 92.4% of the total oil composition. The major components were undecan-2-one (49.08%), nonan-2-one (33.15%), limonene (4.19%) and decanone (2.71%). Antifungal ability of essential oils was tested by disc agar diffusion against five plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium polyphialidicum. The oils were also tested in vitro for herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of two weed species, Triticum durum and Phalaris canariensis L.

  5. Acid esterification of a high free fatty acid crude palm oil and crude rubber seed oil blend: Optimization and parametric analysis

    Khan, Modhar A.; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni M. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Chemical Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Free fatty acids content plays an important role in selecting the appropriate route for biodiesel production. Oils with high content of free fatty acids can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. In the current study, an equivolume blend of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil is fed to the reaction with methanol as the alcohol of choice and sulfuric acid. Selected reaction parameters were optimized, using Taguchi method for design of experiments, to yield the lowest free fatty acid content in the final product. The investigated parameters include alcohol to oil ratio, temperature and amount of catalyst. The effect and significance of each parameter were then studied based on the fractional factorial design and verified by additional experiments. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce the free fatty acid content in the feedstock to lower than 0.6% (95% reduction) were 65 C, 15:1 methanol to oil ratio (by mole) and 0.5 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} after 3 h of reaction time. Temperature had been found to have the most effect on the reduction of free fatty acids followed by reactants ratio while increasing catalyst amount had nominal effect. (author)

  6. Characterising Dynamic Instability in High Water-Cut Oil-Water Flows Using High-Resolution Microwave Sensor Signals

    Liu, Weixin; Jin, Ningde; Han, Yunfeng; Ma, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-scale entropy algorithm was used to characterise the complex flow phenomena of turbulent droplets in high water-cut oil-water two-phase flow. First, we compared multi-scale weighted permutation entropy (MWPE), multi-scale approximate entropy (MAE), multi-scale sample entropy (MSE) and multi-scale complexity measure (MCM) for typical nonlinear systems. The results show that MWPE presents satisfied variability with scale and anti-noise ability. Accordingly, we conducted an experiment of vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut and collected the signals of a high-resolution microwave resonant sensor, based on which two indexes, the entropy rate and mean value of MWPE, were extracted. Besides, the effects of total flow rate and water-cut on these two indexes were analysed. Our researches show that MWPE is an effective method to uncover the dynamic instability of oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut.

  7. Physicochemical properties of peanut oil-based diacylglycerol and their derived oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate.

    Long, Zhao; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Liu, Daolin; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Qiangzhong

    2015-10-01

    High purity peanut oil-based diacylglycerol (PO-DAG) (94.95 wt%) was prepared via enzymatic glycerolysis from peanut oil (PO). The resulting dominance of DAGs was proven to greatly influence the properties of corresponding fresh or frozen-thawed emulsions. Stable fresh oil-in-water emulsions were produced using either PO-DAG or PO, with stability enhanced by increased concentrations of Na-CN. The lower equilibrium interfacial tension along with greater negative ζ-potential of PO revealed that Na-CN was preferentially adsorbed to the PO interface. Adding 0.05 mol/L NaCl to the PO emulsions minimized depletion flocculation caused by the unadsorbed Na-CN, but further NaCl addition increased oil droplet size and concomitant coalescence. For the PO-DAG emulsions, adding 0.2 mol/L NaCl did not significantly (p>0.05) affect their ζ-potential but adding 0.05 or 0.1 mol/L NaCl lowered ζ-potential, although NaCl at these concentrations increased oil droplet size and coalescence. Freezing-thawing process considerably weakened the stability of PO-DAG emulsions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor to oil shale recovery

    Wadekamper, D.C.; Arcilla, N.T.; Impellezzeri, J.R.; Taylor, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    Current oil shale recovery processes combust some portion of the products to provide energy for the recovery process. In an attempt to maximize the petroleum products produced during recovery, the potentials for substituting nuclear process heat for energy generated by combustion of petroleum were evaluated. Twelve oil shale recovery processes were reviewed and their potentials for application of nuclear process heat assessed. The High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor-Reformer/Thermochemical Pipeline (HTGR-R/TCP) was selected for interfacing process heat technology with selected oil shale recovery processes. Utilization of these coupling concepts increases the shale oil product output of a conventional recovery facility from 6 to 30 percent with the same raw shale feed rate. An additional benefit of the HTGR-R/TCP system was up to an 80 percent decrease in emission levels. A detailed coupling design for a typical counter gravity feed indirect heated retorting and upgrading process were described. Economic comparisons prepared by Bechtel Group Incorporated for both the conventional and HTGR-R/TCP recovery facility were summarized

  9. America's gas tank : the high cost of Canada's oil and gas export strategy

    Price, M.; Bennett, J.

    2002-10-01

    The high environmental cost of exporting oil and gas from Canada to the United States is discussed. The increased demand for fossil fuels by the United States has coincided with Canada's deregulation of the energy industry and a greater control of Canadian energy companies by American interests. The authors note that most of the oil and gas produced in Canada is exported to the United States, where many of the extraction and production decisions affecting Canadians and the Canadian environment are made. It was cautioned that if the current trend continues, oil and gas development will degrade habitat for endangered species and greenhouse gases will escalate. This is because the fossil fuel industry, particularly the development of Alberta's tar sands, is helping to increase greenhouse gas emissions outside of Canada by selling fossil fuels that are burned outside of Canada. It is recommended that federal and provincial governments in Canada should shift their policies away from fossil fuel production and promote renewable energy production. The United States plans to increase Canadian oil and gas imports in the coming decade, requiring more wells to be drilled and pipelines to carry it. If the fossil fuel industry proceeds with the current plans, greenhouse gas emissions in Canada will grow to 827 million tonnes by 2010, 44 per cent beyond the Kyoto target, having an overall negative impact on public health, wildlife and fresh water supplies. refs., tabs., figs

  10. High Sensitivity Gravity Measurements in the Adverse Environment of Oil Wells

    Pfutzner, Harold

    2014-03-01

    Bulk density is a primary measurement within oil and gas reservoirs and is the basis of most reserves calculations by oil companies. The measurement is performed with a gamma-ray source and two scintillation gamma-ray detectors from within newly drilled exploration and production wells. This nuclear density measurement, while very precise is also very shallow and is therefore susceptible to errors due to any alteration of the formation and fluids in the vicinity of the borehole caused by the drilling process. Measuring acceleration due to gravity along a well provides a direct measure of bulk density with a very large depth of investigation that makes it practically immune to errors from near-borehole effects. Advances in gravity sensors and associated mechanics and electronics provide an opportunity for routine borehole gravity measurements with comparable density precision to the nuclear density measurement and with sufficient ruggedness to survive the rough handling and high temperatures experienced in oil well logging. We will describe a borehole gravity meter and its use under very realistic conditions in an oil well in Saudi Arabia. The density measurements will be presented. Alberto Marsala (2), Paul Wanjau (1), Olivier Moyal (1), and Justin Mlcak (1); (1) Schlumberger, (2) Saudi Aramco.

  11. Applying high-resolution melting (HRM) technology to olive oil and wine authenticity.

    Pereira, Leonor; Gomes, Sónia; Barrias, Sara; Fernandes, José Ramiro; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Olive oil and wine production have a worldwide economic impact. Their market reliability is under great concern because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts. The need for a traceability system in all its extension is crucial particularly for the cases of olive oils and wines with certified labels, in which only a limited number of olives and grapevine varieties, respectively, are allowed in a restricted well-defined geographical area. Molecular markers have been vastly applied to the food sector, and in particular High-Resolution DNA Melting technology has been successfully applied for olive oil and wine authentication, as part of the traceability system. In this review, the applications of HRM and their usefulness for this sector considering, Safety, Security and Authenticity will be reviewed. A broad overview of the HRM technique will be presented, focusing on the aspects that are crucial for its success, in particular the new generation of fluorescent dsDNA dyes used for amplicon detection and quantification, and the data analysis. A brief outlook on the olive oil and wine authenticity procedures, based on new DNA technology advances, and in which way this may influence the future establishment of a traceability system will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deoxy-liquefaction of three different species of macroalgae to high-quality liquid oil.

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guoming; Chen, Ming; Li, Jiedong; Yang, Yaoyao; Zhu, Qiuyan; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Zonghua; Liu, Haichao

    2014-10-01

    Three species of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica and Gelidium amansii) were converted into liquid oils via deoxy-liquefaction. The elemental analysis, FTIR and GC-MS results showed that the three liquid oils were all mainly composed of aromatics, phenols, alkanes and alkenes, other oxygen-containing compounds, and some nitrogen-containing compounds though there were some differences in terms of their types or contents due to the different constituents in the macroalgae feedstocks. The oxygen content was only 5.15-7.30% and the H/C molar ratio was up to 1.57-1.73. Accordingly, the HHV of the three oils were 42.50, 41.76 and 40.00 MJ/kg, respectively. The results suggested that U. lactuca, L. japonica and G. amansii have potential as biomass feedstock for fuel and chemicals and that deoxy-liquefaction technique may be an effective way to convert macroalgae into high-quality liquid oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Research on High Sensitive D-Shaped FBG Hydrogen Sensors in Power Transformer Oil.

    Luo, Ying-Ting; Wang, Hong-Bin; Ma, Guo-Ming; Song, Hong-Tu; Li, Chengrong; Jiang, Jun

    2016-10-04

    Dissolved hydrogen is a symbol gas decomposed by power transformer oil for electrical faults such as overheat or partial discharges. A novel D-shaped fiber Bragg grating (D-FBG) sensor is herein proposed and was fabricated with magnetron sputtering to measure the dissolved hydrogen concentration in power transformer oil in this paper. Different from the RI (refractive index)-based effect, D-FBG in this case is sensitive to curvature caused by stress from sensing coating, leading to Bragg wavelength shifts accordingly. The relationship between the D-FBG wavelength shift and dissolved hydrogen concentration in oil was measured experimentally in the laboratory. The detected sensitivity could be as high as 1.96 μL/L at every 1-pm wavelength shift. The results proved that a simple, polished FBG-based hydrogen sensor provides a linear measuring characteristic in the range of low hydrogen concentrations in transformer oil. Moreover, the stable hydrogen sensing performance was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  14. Research on High Sensitive D-Shaped FBG Hydrogen Sensors in Power Transformer Oil

    Ying-Ting Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved hydrogen is a symbol gas decomposed by power transformer oil for electrical faults such as overheat or partial discharges. A novel D-shaped fiber Bragg grating (D-FBG sensor is herein proposed and was fabricated with magnetron sputtering to measure the dissolved hydrogen concentration in power transformer oil in this paper. Different from the RI (refractive index-based effect, D-FBG in this case is sensitive to curvature caused by stress from sensing coating, leading to Bragg wavelength shifts accordingly. The relationship between the D-FBG wavelength shift and dissolved hydrogen concentration in oil was measured experimentally in the laboratory. The detected sensitivity could be as high as 1.96 μL/L at every 1-pm wavelength shift. The results proved that a simple, polished FBG-based hydrogen sensor provides a linear measuring characteristic in the range of low hydrogen concentrations in transformer oil. Moreover, the stable hydrogen sensing performance was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  15. Diets high in corn oil or extra-virgin olive oil differentially modify the gene expression profile of the mammary gland and influence experimental breast cancer susceptibility.

    Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Ruiz de Villa, M Carme; Escrich, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Nutritional factors, especially dietary lipids, may have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the effects of high-fat diets on the susceptibility of the mammary gland to experimental malignant transformation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, high-corn-oil, or high-extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction. Animals were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene at 53 days and euthanized at 36, 51, 100 and 246 days. Gene expression profiles of mammary glands were determined by microarrays. Further molecular analyses were performed by real-time PCR, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry. Carcinogenesis parameters were determined at 105 and 246 days. High-corn-oil diet increased body weight and mass when administered from weaning. The EVOO diet did not modify these parameters and increased the hepatic expression of UCP2, suggesting a decrease in intake/expenditure balance. Both diets differentially modified the gene expression profile of the mammary gland, especially after short dietary intervention. Corn oil down-regulated the expression of genes related to immune system and apoptosis, whereas EVOO modified the expression of metabolism genes. Further analysis suggested an increase in proliferation and lower apoptosis in the mammary glands by effect of the high-corn-oil diet, which may be one of the mechanisms of its clear stimulating effect on carcinogenesis. The high-corn-oil diet strongly stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in association with modifications in the expression profile and an increased proliferation/apoptosis balance of the mammary gland.

  16. Electrochemical catalytic reforming of oxygenated-organic compounds: a highly efficient method for production of hydrogen from bio-oil.

    Yuan, Lixia; Chen, Yaqiong; Song, Chongfu; Ye, Tongqi; Guo, Qingxiang; Zhu, Qingshi; Torimoto, Youshifumi; Li, Quanxin

    2008-11-07

    A novel approach to produce hydrogen from bio-oil was obtained with high carbon conversion (>90%) and hydrogen yield (>90%) at Tcatalytic reforming of oxygenated-organic compounds over 18%NiO/Al(2)O(3) reforming catalyst; thermal electrons play important promoting roles in the decomposition and reforming of the oxygenated-organic compounds in the bio-oil.

  17. Biomass to fuels : Upgrading of flash pyrolysis oil by reactive distillation using a high boiling alcohol and acid catalysts

    Mahfud, F.H.; Melian Cabrera, I.V.; Manurung, R.M.; Heeres, H.J.

    We here report our studies on the upgrading of flash pyrolysis oil using an improved alcohol treatment method. The method consists of treating pyrolysis oil with a high boiling alcohol like n-butanol in the presence of a (solid) acid catalyst at 323-353 K under reduced pressure (<10 kPa). Using this

  18. Synthesis of Zeolite NaA from Low Grade (High Impurities) Indonesian Natural Zeolite

    Mustain, Asalil; Wibawa, Gede; Nais, Mukhammad Furoiddun; Falah, Miftakhul

    2014-01-01

    The zeolite NaA has been successfully synthesized from the low grade natural zeolite with high impurities. The synthesis method was started by mixing natural zeolite powder with NH4Cl aqueous solution in the reactor as pretreatment. The use of pretreatment was to reduce the impurities contents in the zeolite. The process was followed by alkaline fusion hydrothermal treatment to modify the framework structure of natural zeolite and reduce the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio. Finally, the synthesized zeolite ...

  19. 'Devil's Staircase'-Type Phase Transition in NaV2O5 under High Pressure

    Ohwada, K.; Fujii, Y.; Takesue, N.; Isobe, M.; Ueda, Y.; Nakao, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Murakami, Y.; Ito, K.; Amemiya, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The 'devil's staircase'-type phase transition in the quarter-filled spin-ladder compound NaV 2 O 5 has been discovered at low temperature and high pressure by synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction. A large number of transitions are found to successively take place among higher-order commensurate phases with 2a x 2b x zc type superstructures. The observed temperature and pressure dependence of modulation wave number q c , defined by 1/z, is well reproduced by the axial next nearest neighbor Ising model. The q c is suggested to reflect atomic displacements presumably coupled with charge ordering in this system

  20. High strength H2S resistant steels and alloys for oil field tubular products

    Straatmann, J.A.; Grobner, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    New sources of oil and natural gas are more frequently occurring at greater depths in hostile surface and underground environments. The materials utilized in drilling and completing the wells require higher strength along with improved resistance to corrosive/embrittling attack by contaminants present in the deep, high pressure-high temperature formations. Higher strength steels having yield strengths in excess of 690 MPa and possessing improved resistance to sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSC) have been developed and are currently being evaluated by the oil industry. The research to develop these new steels combined modifications of chemical compositions, heat treatment and processing variables. For most severe SSC environments and deep wells, it was necessary to provide even better alloys for tubular materials. The successful solution to the problem was found with the utilization of nickel-base alloys. These materials are being evaluated in commercial applications

  1. High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for CO2-orange peel oil

    G.R. Stuart

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing interest in fractionating orange peel oil by the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2. However, progress in this area has been hindered by the lack of more comprehensive work concerning the phase equilibrium behavior of the SCCO2-orange peel oil system. In this context, the aim of this work is to provide new phase equilibrium data for this system over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, permitting the construction of coexistence PT-xy curves as well as the P-T diagram. The experiments were performed in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 50-70ºC from 70 to 135 atm and in the CO2 mass fraction composition range of 0.35-0.98. Based on the experimental phase equilibrium results, appropriate operating conditions can be set for high-pressure fractionation purposes.

  2. Strength and Biot's coefficient for high-porosity oil- or water-saturated chalk

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    . The Biot coefficient states the degree of cementation or how the pore pressure contributes to the strain resulting from an external load for a porous material. It is here calculated from dynamic measurements and correlated with the strength of outcrop chalk characterized by the onset of pore collapse...... during hydrostatic loading. The hypothesis is that the Biot coefficient and the theory of poroelasticity may cover the fluid effect by including the increased fluid bulk modulus from oil to water. A high number of test results for both oil- and water-saturated high-porosity outcrop chalk show correlation......In the petroleum industry it is relevant to know the Biot coefficient for establishing the effective stresses present in both the overburden and for the reservoir interval. When depleting a reservoir it is important to estimate the settlement through the strain imposed by the effective stress. Also...

  3. Effect of a 6-month intervention with cooking oils containing a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive and canola oils) compared with control oil in male Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Nigam, Priyanka; Bhatt, Suryaprakash; Misra, Anoop; Chadha, Davinder S; Vaidya, Meera; Dasgupta, Jharna; Pasha, Qadar M A

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary intervention with canola or olive oil in comparison with commonly used refined oil in Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This was a 6-month intervention study including 93 males with NAFLD, matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Subjects were randomized into three groups to receive olive oil (n=30), canola oil (n=33), and commonly used soyabean/safflower oil (control; n=30) as cooking medium (not exceeding 20 g/day) along with counseling for therapeutic lifestyle changes. The BMI, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin levels, lipids, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA denoting β-cell function (HOMA-βCF), and disposition index (DI) were measured at pre- and post-intervention. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference multiple comparison test procedures. Olive oil intervention led to a significant decrease in weight and BMI (ANOVA, P=0.01) compared with the control oil group. In a comparison of olive and canola oil, a significant decrease in fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR, HOMA-βCF, and DI (Poil group. Pre- and post-intervention analysis revealed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein level (P=0.004) in the olive oil group and a significant decrease in FBG (P=0.03) and triglyceride (P=0.02) levels in the canola oil group. The pre- and post-intervention difference in liver span was significant only in the olive (1.14 ± 2 cm; Poil groups. In the olive and canola oil groups, post-intervention grading of fatty liver was reduced significantly (grade I, from 73.3% to 23.3% and from 60.5% to 20%, respectively [Poil group no significant change was observed. Results suggest significant improvements in grading of fatty liver, liver span, measures of insulin resistance, and lipids with use of canola and olive oil compared with control oils in Asian Indians with NAFLD.

  4. High-sensitive portable ASE-2 X-ray analyzer of sulfur in mineral oil

    Anchugov, I.S.; Goganov, A.D.; Plotnikov, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    The high-sensitivity ASE-2 analyzer of sulfur on the basis of existing ASE-I device is designed. ASE-2 analyzer realizes a standard method of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescent determinations of a sulfur mass fraction in mineral oil and allows to carry out the quantitative determination of sulfur in hydrocarbonic raw material and fuel in a 0.002-5 mass.% range [ru

  5. A study of the components of an active substance of high alkaline alkylsalicylate oil additives

    Kravchuk, G G; Glavati, O L; Glavati, Ye V; Zhurba, A S

    1981-01-01

    The active substance of aklylsalicylate additives (Pr) MACK, dispersal-1 and AS-6OC (from Shell Oil) is isolated and studied. It is shown that the Pr is provided by the presence of both a neutral salicylate, as well as that of a high alkaline component (colloid CaCtheta/sub 3/, stabilized by salicylate). The free alkylphenols present in the Pr do not deteriorate its quality.

  6. High-Performance All-Solid-State Na-S Battery Enabled by Casting-Annealing Technology.

    Fan, Xiulin; Yue, Jie; Han, Fudong; Chen, Ji; Deng, Tao; Zhou, Xiuquan; Hou, Singyuk; Wang, Chunsheng

    2018-04-24

    Room-temperature all-solid-state Na-S batteries (ASNSBs) using sulfide solid electrolytes are a promising next-generation battery technology due to the high energy, enhanced safety, and earth abundant resources of both sodium and sulfur. Currently, the sulfide electrolyte ASNSBs are fabricated by a simple cold-pressing process leaving with high residential stress. Even worse, the large volume change of S/Na 2 S during charge/discharge cycles induces additional stress, seriously weakening the less-contacted interfaces among the solid electrolyte, active materials, and the electron conductive agent that are formed in the cold-pressing process. The high and continuous increase of the interface resistance hindered its practical application. Herein, we significantly reduce the interface resistance and eliminate the residential stress in Na 2 S cathodes by fabricating Na 2 S-Na 3 PS 4 -CMK-3 nanocomposites using melting-casting followed by stress-release annealing-precipitation process. The casting-annealing process guarantees the close contact between the Na 3 PS 4 solid electrolyte and the CMK-3 mesoporous carbon in mixed ionic/electronic conductive matrix, while the in situ precipitated Na 2 S active species from the solid electrolyte during the annealing process guarantees the interfacial contact among these three subcomponents without residential stress, which greatly reduces the interfacial resistance and enhances the electrochemical performance. The in situ synthesized Na 2 S-Na 3 PS 4 -CMK-3 composite cathode delivers a stable and highly reversible capacity of 810 mAh/g at 50 mA/g for 50 cycles at 60 °C. The present casting-annealing strategy should provide opportunities for the advancement of mechanically robust and high-performance next-generation ASNSBs.

  7. Highly effective ionic liquids for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils

    Fathy A. Yassin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As conventional energy sources deplete, the need for developing alternative energy resources which are environment friendly becomes more imperative. Vegetable oils are attracting increased interest in this purpose. The methanolysis of vegetable oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e., biodiesel fuel was catalyzed by commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The imidazolium chloride ionic liquid was frequently chosen for the synthesis of biodiesel. The dual-functionalized’ ionic liquid is prepared by a direct combination reaction between imidazolium cation and various metal chlorides such as CoCl2, CuCl2, NiCl2, FeCl3 and AlCl3. Imidazolium tetrachloroferrate was proved to be a selective catalyst for the methanolysis reaction at a yield of 97% when used at 1:10, catalyst: oil ratio for 8 h at 55 °C. Operational simplicity, reusability of the used catalyst for 8 times at least, high yields and no saponification are the key features of this methodology. The dynamic viscosity and density of the upgraded vegetable oil decreased from 32.1 cP and 0.9227 g/cm3 to 10.2 cP and 0.9044 g/cm3 respectively, compared to those of the base vegetable oil. The objective of this study was the synthesis and characterization of biodiesel using commercial ionic liquid and its chloride modification. The ionic liquid catalysts were characterized using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, TG and UV.

  8. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  9. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96-99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  10. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  11. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction

  12. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment.

  13. Atmospheric emissions as a tool in evaluation of sustainability research in oil industry; Emissao atmosferica como uma ferramenta na avaliacao do desenvolvimento sustentavel na industria do petroleo

    Zanella, Nicolas P.; Baich, Paulo R.M.; Machado, Maria I. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work is directly to analysis of atmosphere surrounding Ipiranga Refinery; witch is located in the city of Rio Grande, in estate of Rio Grande do Sul. The refinery is surrounded by neighborhood, witch are impacted by atmospheric emissions of refinery. The objective of this work is correlating the refinery to the inhabitants that lives near the refinery, using an environmental sustainability index. This work will be achieve by analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) bounded in particulate matter with diameter of 100 {mu}m (PTS), the acquisition of health data on the city hospitals and correlation of this data with PAH concentrations in Particulate Matter. The Samples were obtain by FEPAM, witch have three samples sites in the center of city. The samples was obtained by a High Volume Sampler equipped with quartz fiber filters. The meteorological data important to this work, like wind direction and speed, will be obtain in Meteorological Station on FURG. The results expect to this work are the quantification of PAH bounded with PM-100 and the quantification of PAH emitted by Ipiranga Refinery. And possibly, to correlate this data to made the Environmental Sustainability index. (author)

  14. A High-Fructose-High-Coconut Oil Diet Induces Dysregulating Expressions of Hippocampal Leptin and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase, and Spatial Memory Deficits in Rats.

    Lin, Ching-I; Shen, Chu-Fu; Hsu, Tsui-Han; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-06-16

    We investigated the effects of high-fructose-high-fat diets with different fat compositions on metabolic parameters, hippocampal-dependent cognitive function, and brain leptin (as well as stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) mRNA expressions). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups, a control group ( n = 8), a high-fructose soybean oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12), and a high-fructose coconut oil group (37.5% of fat calories, n = 12) for 20 weeks. By the end of the study, the coconut oil group exhibited significantly higher serum fasting glucose, fructosamine, insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels compared to those of the control and soybean oil groups. However, hippocampal leptin expression and leptin receptor mRNA levels were significantly lower, while SCD1 mRNA was significantly higher in rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet than in rats fed the other experimental diets. In addition, the coconut oil group spent significantly less time in the target quadrant on the probe test in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. Rats fed the high-fructose-high-coconut oil diet for 20 weeks were prone to develop hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These metabolic consequences may contribute to hippocampal-dependent memory impairment, accompanied by a lower central leptin level, and a higher SCD1 gene expression in the brain.

  15. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  16. Uso de óleo na dieta de eqüinos submetidos ao exercício Use of oil in diet of equine under exercise

    Fernando Mattos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar, por meio de parâmetros hematofisiológicos, o desempenho atlético de cavalos submetidos a exercícios de média intensidade alimentados com dietas suplementadas com dois níveis de óleo vegetal (250 e 500 g/dia. Foram utilizados 18 eqüinos machos, castrados, sem raça definida, com faixa etária entre 4 e 8 anos de idade e peso corporal de 456±2,90 kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente aleatório, em um esquema de parcela subdividida no tempo, em que os tempos de coleta constituíram a subparcela e os níveis de óleo de soja (0, 250 e 500 g/cavalo/dia, a parcela. Os cavalos receberam, durante 30 dias, 8,40; 7,95 e 7,30 kg/dia das rações contendo 0, 250 e 500 g de óleo, respectivamente, divididas em três refeições diárias. Ao final dos 30 dias, foi realizado o exercício-teste com todos os cavalos, durante 2 horas, ao trote alongado. Foram avaliados, no início e final do exercício, os teores de glicose e lactato sangüíneos, o hematócrito e a temperatura corporal. As freqüências cardíaca e respiratória foram tomadas no início, 1 e 2 horas de exercício e 15 minutos após o exercício. Verificou-se efeito da interação tempos de coleta ´ níveis de óleo na dieta sobre os teores de glicose e lactato e valores de hematócrito, temperatura corporal, freqüência cardíaca e respiratória. A adição de 250 e 500 g de óleo na dieta de eqüinos submetidos ao exercício de média intensidade proporcionou melhora no desempenho hematofisiológico e, portanto, pode resultar em melhor desempenho atlético dos cavalos. Os cavalos que consumiram óleo na proporção de 500 g/dia apresentaram melhor recuperação pós-prova, confirmada pela freqüência cardíaca e pelo hematócrito.The objective of this research was to estimate, by haematophysiological parameters, the physical performance of horses under exercise of mid intensity and fed diets with two levels of

  17. The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices

    Meyler, Aidan [European Central Bank, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution - refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes - excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types - passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in

  18. The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices

    Meyler, Aidan

    2009-01-01

    Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution - refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes - excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types - passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in

  19. Corrosion Prevention And Control In High Pressure Oil And Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Hafez, M.T.; Radwan, M.H.; Jones, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    At the start of the 1990s there were concerns over the increasing threat of corrosion to the integrity of high-pressure oil and gas transmission pipelines. For example: corrosion was the major cause of reportable incidents in North America (1]. Corrosion was the major cause of pipeline failure in the Gulf of Mexico [2]. Corrosion in a North American onshore oil pipeline had required over $1 billion in repairs(3]. Internal corrosion along the complete length of pipelines had resulted in replacement[4] . However, the worldwide published failure statistics indicate that the incidents of corrosion are not increasing year on year(5-9]. Indeed, CONCA WE[8,9] statistics (for pipelines In Western Europe) show that the failure rate from corrosion (the most likely failure mode with increasing age) has not increased with pipeline age (Figure 1). In fact the statistics for gas pipelines in Europe

  20. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  1. Some considerations on silicone oil in high-current and energy-disconnecting mechanisms

    Vogel, H.F.

    1984-03-01

    Silicone oil is considered inflammable. The dissociation products generated by an electric arc under silicone oil are known to form a highly explosive mixture with air. We calculate the arc energy required for dissociation to be 32 kJ per liter of gas mixture at standard pressure and temperature. We calculate the arc voltage gradient at a pressure of 50 atm and current density of 1 kA/mm 2 to be 0.5 kV/cm, resulting in an arc voltage of several kV, depending on the arc length. In a multikiloampere arc, the resulting arc power is likely to cause a pressure of many atmospheres in a shock wave

  2. Application of Technology of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Processing High-Viscosity Oils for the Purpose of Improving the Rheological Characteristics of Oils

    Zemenkov, Y. D.; Zemenkova, M. Y.; Vengerov, A. A.; Brand, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    There is investigated the technology of hydrodynamic cavitational processing viscous and high-viscosity oils and the possibility of its application in the pipeline transport system for the purpose of increasing of rheological properties of the transported oils, including dynamic viscosity shear stress in the article. It is considered the possibility of application of the combined hydrodynamic cavitational processing with addition of depressor additive for identification of effect of a synergism. It is developed the laboratory bench and they are presented results of modeling and laboratory researches. It is developed the hardware and technological scheme of application of the developed equipment at industrial objects of pipeline transport.

  3. High-resolution internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules

    Guo, Mingyang; Ye, Xin; He, Junyu; Quéméner, Goulven; Wang, Dajun

    2018-02-01

    We report the full internal state control of ultracold 23Na87Rb molecules, including vibrational, rotational, and hyperfine degrees of freedom. Starting from a sample of weakly bound Feshbach molecules, we realize the creation of molecules in single hyperfine levels of both the rovibrational ground and excited states with a high-efficiency and high-resolution stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. This capability brings broad possibilities for investigating ultracold polar molecules with different chemical reactivities and interactions with a single molecular species. Moreover, starting from the rovibrational and hyperfine ground state, we achieve rotational and hyperfine control with one- and two-photon microwave spectroscopy to reach levels not accessible by the stimulated Raman transfer. The combination of these two techniques results in complete control over the internal state of ultracold polar molecules, which paves the way to study state-dependent molecular collisions and state-controlled chemical reactions.

  4. Herpin effective media resonant underlayers and resonant overlayer designs for ultra-high NA interference lithography.

    Bourke, Levi; Blaikie, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    Dielectric waveguide resonant underlayers are employed in ultra-high NA interference photolithography to effectively double the depth of field. Generally a single high refractive index waveguiding layer is employed. Here multilayer Herpin effective medium methods are explored to develop equivalent multilayer waveguiding layers. Herpin equivalent resonant underlayers are shown to be suitable replacements provided at least one layer within the Herpin trilayer supports propagating fields. In addition, a method of increasing the intensity incident upon the photoresist using resonant overlayers is also developed. This method is shown to greatly enhance the intensity within the photoresist making the use of thicker, safer, non-absorbing, low refractive index matching liquids potentially suitable for large-scale applications.

  5. Hardware and software system for monitoring oil pump operation in power high-voltage transformers

    Михайло Дмитрович Дяченко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic prerequisites for the creation of an automated monitoring system for oil pumps of high-voltage transformers. This is due to the fact that the long operation of oil pumps results in deterioration and destruction of bearings, rubbing of the rotor, breakage and damage to the impeller, leakage, etc., which inevitably causes a significant decrease in the insulating properties of the transformer oil and leads to expenditures for its further recovery. False triggerings of gas protection sometimes occur. Continuous operation of the electric motor also requires additional equipment to protect the motor itself from various emergency situations, such as a short in the stator winding, a housing breakdown, an incomplete phase mode, etc. The use of stationary systems provides: diagnosing defects at an early stage of their development, increasing the reliability and longevity of the equipment components, increasing the overhaul period, decreasing the number of emergency stops, and adjusting the schedule of preventative maintenance. The basic principles of identification of the damaged part of the oil pump are given, the hardware and algorithmic solutions are considered in the work. The full-scale tests of the model sample on the power transformer of the high-voltage substation confirmed the assumption of the possibility of detecting the damaged unit separating it from the rest connected in one mechanical structure. A detailed analysis of the operation of each of the units is carried out by means of the general substation switchboard and displayed as graphs, diagrams and text messages. When the limit values of vibration are reached, faults in the operation of the unit are detected, the overlimit current values, a warning alarm is activated, and the command to disconnect the damaged unit is issued. The optimal solution for the organization of the information collection system using the principle of sensor networks, but combined

  6. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  7. Preparation of non-porous microspheres with high entrapment efficiency of proteins by a (water-in-oil)-in-oil emulsion technique.

    Viswanathan, N B; Thomas, P A; Pandit, J K; Kulkarni, M G; Mashelkar, R A

    1999-03-08

    Emulsification-solvent removal methods have been widely used for encapsulating bioactive macromolecules like proteins and polypeptides in biodegradable polymers. We report, a (water-in-oil)-in-oil emulsion technique wherein proteins and polypeptides differing in molecular weight and shape were encapsulated in polymers of current biomedical interest. When an oil was used as the processing medium in combination with a carefully selected mixed solvent system such that a stable (w/o1/o2 emulsion is formed and solvents are removed by a combination of extraction and evaporation, the entrapment efficiency was high and the product nonporous. The entrapment efficiency of globular proteins exceeded 90% while that of fibrous proteins was around 70%. Fracture studies revealed that the polymer matrix was dense. The mechanism of entrapment involved solvent-induced precipitation of the protein as the microspheres were being formed. The principle of the method will find use in preparation of non-porous polymer microparticles with reduced burst effect.

  8. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Ni Luh Arpiwi; I Made Sutha Negara; I Nengah Simpen

    2017-01-01

    Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field. The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to e...

  9. Succession of Deferribacteres and Epsilonproteobacteria through a nitrate-treated high-temperature oil production facility

    Gittel, Antje; Kofoed, Michael; Sørensen, Ketil B

    2012-01-01

    , Denmark) and aimed to assess their potential in souring control. Nitrate addition to deoxygenated seawater shifted the low-biomass seawater community dominated by Gammaproteobacteria closely affiliated with the genus Colwellia to a high-biomass community with significantly higher species richness....... Epsilonproteobacteria accounted for less than 1% of the total bacterial community in the nitrate-amended injection water and were most likely outcompeted by putative nitrate-reducing, methylotrophic Gammaproteobacteria of the genus Methylophaga. Reservoir passage and recovery of the oil resulted in a significant change...... abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria throughout the production facility suggested that the Deferribacteres play a major role in nitrate-induced souring control at high temperatures....

  10. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  11. High-precision calculation of loosely bound states of LiPs+ and NaPs+

    Yamashita, Takuma; Kino, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A positronic alkali atom would be the first step to investigate behavior of a positronium(Ps) in an external field from atoms/molecules because the system can be regarded as a simple three-body system using model potentials reflecting electron orbitals of the ion core. In order to precisely determine binding energies and structures of positronic alkali atoms (LiPs + and NaPs + ), we improve the model potential so as to reproduce highly excited atomic energy levels of alkali atoms (Li and Na). The polarization potential included by the model potential is expanded in terms of Gaussian functions to finely determine a short range part of the potential which has been assumed to be a simple form. We find better reproducibility not only of atomic levels of the alkali atoms but also of the dipole polarizability of the core ion than previous works. We construct a model potential between a positron and an ion core based on the model potential between the valence electron and ion core. Binding energies associated with a dissociation of the alkali ion core and positronium, and interparticle distances are recalculated. Our results show slightly deeper bound than other previous studies. (paper)

  12. Development of High Heat Input Welding High Strength Steel Plate for Oil Storage Tank in Xinyu Steel Company

    Zhao, Hemin; Dong, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xiong

    This essay introduces the developed high-heat input welding quenched and tempered pressure vessel steel 12MnNiVR for oil storage tank by Xinyu Steel, which passed the review by the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Technical Committee in 2009. The review comments that compared to the domestic and foreign similar steel standard, the key technical index of enterprise standard were in advanced level. After the heat input of 100kJ/cm electro-gas welding, welded points were still with excellent low temperature toughness at -20°C. The steel plate may be constructed for oil storage tank, which has been permitted by thickness range from 10 to 40mm, and design temperature among -20°C-100°C. It studied microstructure genetic effects mechanical properties of the steel. Many production practices indicated that the mechanical properties of products and the steel by stress relief heat treatment of steel were excellent, with pretreatment of hot metal, converter refining, external refining, protective casting, TMCP and heat treatment process measurements. The stability of performance and matured technology of Xinyu Steel support the products could completely service the demand of steel constructed for 10-15 million cubic meters large oil storage tank.

  13. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodiesel's Characteristics Preparation from Palm Oil

    Tilani Hamid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separated from glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels' properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

  15. Effects of oil palm shell coarse aggregate species on high strength lightweight concrete.

    Yew, Ming Kun; Bin Mahmud, Hilmi; Ang, Bee Chin; Yew, Ming Chian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS) coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera), in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3-5, 6-9, and 10-15 years old). The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56 MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10-15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days.

  16. Sensory analysis and consumer acceptance of 140 high-quality extra virgin olive oils.

    Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Popp, Martin; Bongartz, Annette

    2014-08-01

    Sensory analysis is a crucial tool for evaluating the quality of extra virgin olive oils. One aim of such an investigation is to verify if the sensory attributes themselves - which are strictly related to volatile and phenolic compounds - may permit the discrimination of high-quality products obtained by olives of different cultivars and/or grown in various regions. Moreover, a crucial topic is to investigate the interdependency between relevant parameters determining consumer acceptance and objective sensory characteristics evaluated by the panel test. By statistically analysing the sensory results, a grouping - but not discriminatory - effect was shown for some cultivars and some producing areas. The preference map shows that the most appreciated samples by consumers were situated in the direction of the 'ripe fruity' and 'sweet' axis and opposite to the 'bitter' and 'other attributes' (pungent, green fruity, freshly cut grass, green tomato, harmony, persistency) axis. Extra virgin olive oils produced from olives of the same cultivars and grown in the same areas shared similar sensorial attributes. Some differences in terms of expectation and interpretation of sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oils might be present for consumers and panellists: most of the consumers appear unfamiliar with positive sensorial attributes, such as bitterness and pungency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. High strength oil palm shell concrete beams reinforced with steel fibres

    S. Poh-Yap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of lightweight oil palm shell to produce high strength lightweight sustainable material has led many researchers towards its commercialization as structural concrete. However, the low tensile strength of Oil Palm Shell Concrete (OPSC has hindered its development. This study aims to enhance the mechanical properties and flexural behaviours of OPSC by the addition of steel fibres of up to 3% by volume, to produce oil palm shell fibre-reinforced concrete (OPSFRC. The experimental results showed that the steel fibres significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of OPSFRC. The highest compressive strength, splitting tensile and flexural strengths of 55, 11.0 and 18.5 MPa, respectively, were achieved in the OPSFRC mix reinforced with 3% steel fibres. In addition, the flexural beam testing on OPSFRC beams with 3% steel fibres showed that the steel fibre reinforcement up to 3% produced notable increments in the moment capacity and crack resistance of OPSFRC beams, but accompanied by reduction in the ductility.

  18. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF OIL DEPOTS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES: A NEW PERSPECTIVE

    A. O. Ok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original approach to identify oil depots from single high resolution aerial/satellite images in an automated manner. The new approach considers the symmetric nature of circular oil depots, and it computes the radial symmetry in a unique way. An automated thresholding method to focus on circular regions and a new measure to verify circles are proposed. Experiments are performed on six GeoEye-1 test images. Besides, we perform tests on 16 Google Earth images of an industrial test site acquired in a time series manner (between the years 1995 and 2012. The results reveal that our approach is capable of detecting circle objects in very different/difficult images. We computed an overall performance of 95.8% for the GeoEye-1 dataset. The time series investigation reveals that our approach is robust enough to locate oil depots in industrial environments under varying illumination and environmental conditions. The overall performance is computed as 89.4% for the Google Earth dataset, and this result secures the success of our approach compared to a state-of-the-art approach.

  19. Effects of Oil Palm Shell Coarse Aggregate Species on High Strength Lightweight Concrete

    Ming Kun Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC. Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera, in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3–5, 6–9, and 10–15 years old. The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56 MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10–15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days.

  20. Treatability and kinetics studies of mesophilic aerobic biodegradation of high oil and grease pet food wastewater

    Liu, Victor Lei; Nakhla, G.; Bassi, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, batch activated sludge studies were investigated for the treatment of raw pet food wastewater characterized by oil and grease concentrations of 50,000-66,000 mg/L, COD and BOD concentrations of 100,000 and 80,000 mg/L, respectively, as well as effluent from an existing anaerobic digester treating the aforementioned wastewater. A pre-treatment process, dissolved air flotation (DAF) achieved 97-99% reduction in O and G to about 400-800 mg/L, which is still atypically high for AS. The batch studies were conducted using a 4-L bioreactor at room temperature (21 deg. C) under different conditions. The experimental results showed for the DAF pretreated effluent, 92% COD removal efficiency can be achieved by using conventional activated sludge system at a 5 days contact time and applied initial soluble COD to biomass ratio of 1.17 mg COD/mg VSS. Similarly for the digester effluent at average oil and grease concentrations of 13,500 mg/L, activated sludge affected 63.7-76.2% soluble COD removal at 5 days. The results also showed that all kinetic data best conformed to the zero order biodegradation model with a low biomass specific maximum substrate utilization rate of 0.168 mg COD/mg VSS day reflecting the slow biodegradability of the wastewater even after 99% removal of oil and grease

  1. Enhancing results : solid expandable tubulars facilitate high-temperature oil recovery

    Noel, G.; Nylund, J.; Flaming, S. [Enventure Global Technology LLC, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Steam-based recovery methods can provide a cost-effective approach to developing heavy oil and oil sands energy resources. This paper described a solid expandable tubular system designed to prevent damage without decreases in hole size. The pipe's permanent deformation creates an energized seal that cases off damaged tubulars. The new sealing systems allow for operations in the range of 270 degrees C. The system was comprised of mechanical retainers designed to hold the multi-component, high-temperature seal in place on the expandable casing. The seals are held in place by retainer rings designed to protect the seal in the hole as well as to provide increased anchoring capacity when the pipe is expanded and clad onto the base casing. The retainers are wrapped with a redundant standard seal material. The weight and size of the casings are individually configured for specific wells and are also designed to maintain consistency across multiple weight ranges. Details of the testing protocol used to ensure that the sealing system operated well in various oil production scenarios were presented, as well as the results of case studies conducted to demonstrate the system in the field. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. An empirical model of daily highs and lows of West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices

    He, Angela W.W.; Wan, Alan T.K.; Kwok, Jerry T.K.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large collection of literature on energy price forecasting, but most studies typically use monthly average or close-to-close daily price data. In practice, the daily price range constructed from the daily high and low also contains useful information on price volatility and is used frequently in technical analysis. The interaction between the daily high and low and the associated daily range has been examined in several recent studies on stock price and exchange rate forecasts. The present paper adopts a similar approach to analyze the behaviour of the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price over a ten-year period. We find that daily highs and lows of the WTI oil price are cointegrated, with the error correction term being closely approximated by the daily price range. Two forecasting models, one based on a vector error correction mechanism and the other based on a transfer function framework with the range taken as a driver variable, are presented for forecasting the daily highs and lows. The results show that both of these models offer significant advantages over the naive random walk and univariate ARIMA models in terms of out-of-sample forecast accuracy. A trading strategy that makes use of the daily high and low forecasts is further developed. It is found that this strategy generally yields very reasonable trading returns over an evaluation period of about two years. (author)

  3. High pressure experimental studies on Na3Fe(PO4)(CO3) and Na3Mn(PO4)(CO3): Extensive pressure behaviors of carbonophosphates family

    Gao, Jing; Huang, Weifeng; Wu, Xiang; Qin, Shan

    2018-04-01

    Carbon-bearing phases in the Earth's interior have profound implications for the long-term Earth carbon cycle. Here we investigate high-pressure behaviors of carbonophosphates bonshtedtite Na3Fe(PO4)(CO3) and sidorenkite Na3Mn(PO4)(CO3) in diamond anvil cells up to ∼12 GPa at room temperature. Modifications in in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra confirm the structural stability of carbonophosphates within the pressure region. Fitting the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the volume compression curve, the isothermal bulk modulus parameters are obtained to be K0 = 56(1) GPa, K0' = 3.3(1), V0 = 303.3(3) Å3 for Na3Fe(PO4)(CO3) and K0 = 54(1) GPa, K0' = 3.4(1), V0 = 313.4(2) Å3 for Na3Mn(PO4)(CO3). Crystallographic axes exhibit an elastic anisotropy with a more compressible c-axis relative to the ab-plane. An inverse linear correlation between the K0 value and the ionic radius of M2+ (M = Mg, Fe, Mn) is well determined for carbonophosphates. The pressure-dependence responsiveness of [PO4] and [CO3] in carbonophosphates show a negative relationship to the M2+ radius. We also discussed the effect of [PO4] group on the structural variations and high-pressure behaviors of carbonates. Furthermore, the geochemical properties of carbonophosphates hold implications to diamond genesis.

  4. Vital signs: oil supplies improving but natural gas tight enough to keep prices high

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Canada's 1999 year-end oil reserves were boosted by 2.1 million barrels by the launch of new oil sands mining projects near Fort McMurray and revisions in two existing operations, offsetting a decline of 3.7 per cent in remaining conventional reserves. Total oil reserves at year end stood at some 11.9 billion barrels, up from 9.8 billion barrels a year earlier. Conventional crude reserves dropped to 4.37 billion barrels. Despite the decline, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) were encouraged by a 70 per cent replacement rate, on production of 441 million barrels of oil, despite low activity resulting from soft prices in early part of 1999. Production from offshore Newfoundland sites amounted to 38.6 million barrels; remaining reserves in the Hibernia and Terra Nova field are estimated at 868 million barrels. Meanwhile, natural gas reserves slipped by about a trillion cubic feet to about 61 trillion cubic feet, reflecting an 83 per cent replacement rate which, however, represented an improvement from 76 per cent in 1998. Reserves replacement in 2000 is expected to improve over 1999 due to improved prices resulting in increased activity in 2000 which is expected to continue into 2001. Despite improvements in replacement, consumers have much to worry about as far as further consumer price increases are concerned. The situation can be traced back to the summer 2000 storage injection period when supplies normally stored for use in the winter were sold instead, to take advantage of high prices. The injection for storage was reduced due largely to continued strong demand from the US electric power generating sector. This situation will continue, barring a dramatic softening of the US economy

  5. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  6. Chemical and microbiological characterization of mangrove sediments after a large oil-spill in Guanabara Bay - RJ - Brazil Caracterização química e microbiológica de sedimentos de manguezal após um grande derramamento de óleo na Baia de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Maria do Carmo Maciel-Souza; Andrew Macrae; Antonia Garcia Torres Volpon; Patrícia Silva Ferreira; Leda Cristina Mendonça-Hagler

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen months after a 1,3 million L oil spill into Guanabara Bay, analyses of mangrove sediments showed that the three sites closest to the spill remain highly polluted (>10 µg-g-1 polyaromatic hydrocarbons). A fourth site was less polluted, from which most hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated.Dezessete meses após um derramamento de 1,3 milhões de litros de óleo na Baía de Guanabara, análises de sedimento do manguezal mostraram que os três pontos de amostragem mais próximos d...

  7. Molecular-level characterization of crude oil compounds combining reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with off-line high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Sim, Arum; Cho, Yunju; Kim, Daae; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Kim, Byung Ju; Kim, Sunghwan

    2014-01-01

    A reversed-phase separation technique was developed in a previous study (Loegel et al., 2012) and successfully applied to the de-asphalted fraction of crude oil. However, to the best of our knowledge, the molecular-level characterization of oil fractions obtained by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) has not yet been reported. A detailed characterization of the oil fractions prepared by reversed-phase HPLC was performed in this study. HPLC fractionation was carried out on conventional crude oil and an oil shale pyrolysate. The analyses of the fractions showed that the carbon number of alkyl chains and the double bond equivalent (DBE) value were the major factors determining elution order. The compounds with larger DBE (presumably more condensed aromatic structures) and smaller carbon number (presumably compounds with short side chains) were eluted earlier but those compounds with lower DBE values (presumably less aromatic structures) and higher carbon number (presumably compounds with longer alkyl chains) eluted later in the chromatograms. This separation behavior is in good agreement with that expected from the principles of reversed-phase separation. The data presented in this study show that reversed-phase chromatography is effective in separating crude oil compounds and can be combined with ultrahigh-resolution MS data to better understand natural oils and oil shale pyrolysates.

  8. Muscle-like high-stress dielectric elastomer actuators with oil capsules

    La, Thanh-Giang; Lau, Gih-Keong; Shiau, Li-Lynn; Wei-Yee Tan, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Despite being capable of generating large strains, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are short of strength. Often, they cannot produce enough stress or as much work as that achievable by human elbow muscles. Their maximum actuation capacity is limited by the electrical breakdown of dielectric elastomers. Often, failures of these soft actuators are pre-mature and localized at the weakest spot under high field and high stress. Localized breakdowns, such as electrical arcing, thermal runaway and punctures, could spread to ultimately cause rupture if they were not stopped. This work shows that dielectric oil immersion and self-clearable electrodes nibbed the buds of localized breakdowns from DEAs. Dielectric oil encapsulation in soft-membrane capsules was found to help the DEA sustain an ultra-high electrical breakdown field of 835 MVm −1 , which is 46% higher than the electrical breakdown strength of the dry DEA in air at 570 MV m −1 . Because of the increased apparent dielectric strength, this oil-capsuled DEA realizes a higher maximum isotonic work density of up to 31.51Jkg −1 , which is 43.8% higher than that realized by the DEA in air. Meanwhile, it produces higher maximum isometric stress of up to 1.05 MPa, which is 75% higher than that produced by the DEA in air. Such improved actuator performances are comparable to those achieved by human flexor muscles, which can exert up to 1.2 MPa during elbow flexion. This muscle-like, high-stress dielectric elastomeric actuation is very promising to drive future human-like robots. (paper)

  9. Porous carbon-free SnSb anodes for high-performance Na-ion batteries

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Ha, Choong-Wan; Choi, Hae-Young; Seong, Jae-Wook; Park, Cheol-Min; Lee, Sang-Min

    2018-05-01

    A simple melt-spinning/chemical-etching process is developed to create porous carbon-free SnSb anodes. Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) incorporating these anodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performances by accomodating large volume changes during repeated cycling. The porous carbon-free SnSb anode produced by the melt-spinning/chemical-etching process shows a high reversible capacity of 481 mAh g-1, high ICE of 80%, stable cyclability with a high capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles, and a fast rate capability of 327 mAh g-1 at 4C-rate. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that the synthesized porous carbon-free SnSb anodes involve the highly reversible reaction with sodium through the conversion and recombination reactions during sodiation/desodiation process. The novel and simple melt-spinning/chemical-etching synthetic process represents a technological breakthrough in the commercialization of Na alloy-able anodes for SIBs.

  10. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu

  11. Infrared losses from a Na/Sc metal-halide high intensity discharge arc lamp

    Smith, D J; Bonvallet, G A; Lawler, J E

    2003-01-01

    A study of the near-infrared (IR) emission from the arc of a metal-halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamp with a sodium/scandium chemistry is reported. Radiometrically calibrated spectra from 0.7 to 2.5 μm were recorded as a function of position on the arc tube of a 250 W lamp. These spectra were analysed to determine the relative densities of Na and Sc atoms and the arc temperature as a function of radius. Information from these spectra, combined with absorption measurements in the companion paper (Bonvallet and Lawler 2003), were used to determine the absolute output power in the near-IR from the MH-HID lamp

  12. ELLERMAN BOMBS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. IV. VISIBILITY IN Na I AND Mg I

    Rutten, R. J.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Vissers, G. J. M., E-mail: R.J.Rutten@uu.nl [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-08-01

    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the solar Balmer lines that mark reconnection in the photosphere. Ellerman noted in 1917 that he did not observe such brightenings in the Na i D and Mg i b lines. This non-visibility should constrain EB interpretation, but has not been addressed in published bomb modeling. We therefore test Ellerman’s observation and confirm it using high-quality imaging spectrometry with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. However, we find a diffuse brightness in these lines that seems to result from prior EBs. We tentatively suggest this is a post-bomb hot-cloud phenomenon also found in recent EB spectroscopy in the ultraviolet.

  13. Catalyst systems in the production of biodiesel from residual oil; Sistemas cataliticos na producao de biodiesel por meio de oleo residual

    Souza, Carlos Alexandre de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The vegetable oils and fat animals appear like an alternative for substitution the diesel oil in ignition engines for compression. Submitting the oil on transesterification reaction, we obtain a fuel with same characteristics as diesel, called biodiesel. Generally, 85 per cent of biodiesel cost is from the oil production. Through transesterification vegetable oil can be transformed in a mixture of esters of fatty acids. The residual oil from frying has been used as a possibility of raw materials of biodiesel, due to its easy acquisition and the viability of not being discarded as waste. (author)

  14. Effects of Origanum Syriacum Essential Oil on Blood Parameters of Broilers Reared at High Ambient Heat

    E Tekce

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The biochemical and hematological blood values of broilers fed under heat stress and that were administered Origanum syriacum (OS essential oil were investigated in this study. In total, 400 male broilers (Ross-308; age, 1 day were used for the period of 42-days of the study. The experiment included ten groups (n = 50/group; each group divided into five sub-groups: normal heat, 22°C: basal feed (BF-positive control group (PC, BF + 100 ppm OS; BF + 300 ppm OS; BF + 600 ppm OS. Heat stress, 36°C: BF-positive control group (PC, BF + 100 ppm SOS; BF + 300 ppm OS; and BF + 600 ppm OS. Biochemical and hematological parameters were measured in blood collected into EDTA tubes. Total bilirubin, cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ increased, whereas alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase (CK, CK-MB, urea, uric acid, Cl-, and K+ decreased (p<0.05; however, no changes were detected in the other hematological values.

  15. A study of interference effects in Na(3S,3P)-Ne, Ar scattering experiments at high angular resolution

    Berg, F.T.M. van den.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents measurements of differential cross sections for the scattering of Na-atoms in the ground-state and first excited-state by the rare gas atoms Ne and Ar. The scattering experiments were performed in a crossed-beam apparatus built and tested by van Deventer et al. The unique high angular-resolution (0.1 0 ) of this beam-scattering apparatus permits us (i) to remove the discrepancies that still exist between the various X 2 Σ- and A 2 PI-potential curves for Na-Ar and Na-Ne reported up to now, (ii) to obtain detailed information on the B 2 Σ-potentials for these systems and (iii) to demonstrate the necessity of taking into account the spin-uncoupling effects, in the interpretation of the experimental Na-Ne scattering patterns. (Auth.)

  16. Experimental Study of Enhancing Oil Recovery with Weak Base Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer

    Dandan Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na2CO3 was used together with surfactant and polymer to form the Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP flooding system. Interfacial tension (IFT and emulsification of Dagang oil and chemical solutions were studied in the paper. The experiment results show that the ASP system can form super-low interfacial tension with crude oil and emulsified phase. The stability of the emulsion is enhanced by the Na2CO3, surfactant, and the soap generated at oil/water contact. Six core flooding experiments are conducted in order to investigate the influence of Na2CO3 concentration on oil recovery. The results show the maximum oil recovery can be obtained with 0.3 wt% surfactant, 0.6 wt% Na2CO3, and 2000 mg/L polymer. In a heterogeneous reservoir, the ASP flooding could not enhance the oil recovery by reducing IFT until it reaches the critical viscosity, which indicates expanding the sweep volume is the premise for reducing IFT to enhance oil recovery. Reducing or removing the alkali from ASP system to achieve high viscosity will reduce oil recovery because of the declination of oil displacement efficiency. Weak base ASP alkali can ensure that the whole system with sufficient viscosity can start the medium and low permeability layers and enhance oil recovery even if the IFT only reaches 10−2 mN/m.

  17. Genotype and year variability of the chemical composition of walnut oil of Moroccan seedlings from the high Atlas Mountains

    Kodad, O.; EstopaNan, G.; Juan, T.; Socias i Company, R.; Sindic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Protein and oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol concentration were determined for two years in the kernel of ten candidate walnut selections from the high Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Considerable variation between genotypes was found for all parameters. The ranges of protein content (11.58–14.5% of kernel dry weight, DW), oil content (54.4–67.48% of kernel DW), oleic (12.47–22.01% of total oil), linoleic (55.03–60.01%), linolenic (9.3–15.87%), palmitic (6.84–9.12%), and stearic (1.7–2.92%) acid percentages, ?-tocopherol (188.1–230.7 mg·kg-1 of oil), d-tocopherol (23.3–43.4 mg·kg-1), and a-tocopherol (8.9–16.57 mg·kg-1) contents agreed with previous results obtained from other commercial walnut cultivars. The effect of year was significant for all the chemical components, except for oil content and palmitic acid percentage. Some genotypes showed high oil contents and consistently high values of ?-tocopherol in both years of study. The introduction of these genotypes as new cultivars by vegetative propagation may result in a an increase in quality of the walnuts from the high Atlas Mountains of Morocco, and as a seed source for forest walnut propagation in the same region. (Author)

  18. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  20. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  1. Fabrication and thermoelectric properties of highly textured NaCo2O4 ceramic

    Cheng Jinguang; Sui Yu; Fu Haijin; Lu Zhe; Wei Bo; Qian Zhengnan; Miao Jipeng; Liu Zhiguo; Huang Xiqiang; Zhu Ruibin; Wang Xianjie; Su Wenhui

    2006-01-01

    Highly textured NaCo 2 O 4 polycrystalline sample was fabricated by means of the cold high-pressure compacting followed by the solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope were employed to show that the plate-like grains within the sample are aligned along the pressing direction. The resistivity ρ and thermoelectric power S along the preferred {0 0 1} plane were measured in the whole temperature range from 15 to 973 K in air and the correlation between thermoelectric properties and texture was investigated. It was found that both ρ and S exhibit metallic behavior in the whole temperature range and the above sample exhibits lower ρ and higher S due to high texture and density. The power factor exhibits a steep rise above 400 K and reaches 761 μW m -1 K -2 at 973 K, suggesting a promising candidate for thermoelectric application at higher temperature. The change of slope in both resistivity and thermoelectric power curves at about 450 K might arise from the spin-state transition of Co ions in the CoO 2 blocks

  2. High Temperature Corrosion of Nickel in NaVO3-V2O5 Melts

    J. Porcayo-Calderon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many alloys used at high temperature in industrial processes are Ni-based and many others contain it in appreciable quantities, so it is of interest to evaluate the performance of pure nickel in order to determine the behavior of its alloys once the elements responsible for their protection have been depleted due to accelerated corrosion processes in the presence of vanadium-rich molten salts. Due to this, this work presents the study of Ni behavior in NaVO3-V2O5 mixtures at different temperatures. The behavior of pure nickel was determined by both electrochemical and mass loss measurements. The results show that the aggressiveness of the vanadium salts is increased by increasing both the V2O5 content and temperature. V2O5 addition considerably increases the current densities of the anodic and cathodic reactions. The corrosion process of Ni is modified due to the presence of its corrosion products, and its presence increases the activation energy by at least one order of magnitude. Although nickel shows a high reactivity in vanadium-rich salts, its reaction products are highly stable and protect it from the corrosive medium because the corrosion reactions trap the vanadium and block the migration of nickel ions.

  3. A study on high NA and evanescent imaging with polarized illumination

    Yang, Seung-Hune

    Simulation techniques are developed for high NA polarized microscopy with Babinet's principle, partial coherence and vector diffraction for non-periodic geometries. A mathematical model for the Babinet approach is developed and interpreted. Simulation results of the Babinet's principle approach are compared with those of Rigorous Coupled Wave Theory (RCWT) for periodic structures to investigate the accuracy of this approach and its limitations. A microscope system using a special solid immersion lens (SIL) is introduced to image Blu-Ray (BD) optical disc samples without removing the protective cover layer. Aberration caused by the cover layer is minimized with a truncated SIL. Sub-surface imaging simulation is achieved by RCWT, partial coherence, vector diffraction and Babinet's Principle. Simulated results are compared with experimental images and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. A technique for obtaining native and induced using a significant amount of evanescent energy is described for a solid immersion lens (SIL) microscope. Characteristics of native and induced polarization images for different object structures and materials are studied in detail. Experiments are conducted with a NA = 1.48 at lambda = 550nm microscope. Near-field images are simulated and analyzed with an RCWT approach. Contrast curve versus object spatial frequency calculations are compared with experimental measurements. Dependencies of contrast versus source polarization angles and air gap for native and induced polarization image profiles are evaluated. By using the relationship between induced polarization and topographical structure, an induced polarization image of an alternating phase shift mask (PSM) is converted into a topographical image, which shows very good agreement with AFM measurement. Images of other material structures include a dielectric grating, chrome-on-glass grating, silicon CPU structure, BD-R and BD-ROM.

  4. Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils.

    Chen, Miao; Xia, Qinghai; Liu, Mousheng; Yang, Yaling

    2011-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method using Triton X-114 (TX-114) nonionic surfactant was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of propyl gallate (PG), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) from edible oils. The optimum conditions of CPE were 2.5% (v/v) TX-114, 0.5% (w/v) NaCl and 40 min equilibration time at 50 °C. The surfactant-rich phase was then analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 280 nm, using a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1.5% (v/v) acetic acid. Under the studied conditions, 4 synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) were successfully separated within 24 min. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.9 ng mL(-1) for PG, 11 ng mL(-1) for TBHQ, 2.3 ng mL(-1) for BHA, and 5.9 ng mL(-1) for BHT. Recoveries of the SPAs spiked into edible oil were in the range 81% to 88%. The CPE method was shown to be potentially useful for the preconcentration of the target analytes, with a preconcentration factor of 14. Moreover, the method is simple, has high sensitivity, consumes much less solvent than traditional methods, and is environment-friendly. Practical Application: The method established in this article uses less organic solvent to extract SPAs from edible oils; it is simple, highly sensitive and results in no pollution to the environment.

  5. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Hou, Du-Jie [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). The Key Lab. of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism; She, Yue-Hui [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology; Li, Hua-Min [Beijing Bioscience Research Center (China); Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Yu, Long-Jiang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology

    2012-08-15

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. (orig.)

  6. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  7. High-performance computing on GPUs for resistivity logging of oil and gas wells

    Glinskikh, V.; Dudaev, A.; Nechaev, O.; Surodina, I.

    2017-10-01

    We developed and implemented into software an algorithm for high-performance simulation of electrical logs from oil and gas wells using high-performance heterogeneous computing. The numerical solution of the 2D forward problem is based on the finite-element method and the Cholesky decomposition for solving a system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE). Software implementations of the algorithm used the NVIDIA CUDA technology and computing libraries are made, allowing us to perform decomposition of SLAE and find its solution on central processor unit (CPU) and graphics processor unit (GPU). The calculation time is analyzed depending on the matrix size and number of its non-zero elements. We estimated the computing speed on CPU and GPU, including high-performance heterogeneous CPU-GPU computing. Using the developed algorithm, we simulated resistivity data in realistic models.

  8. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner.

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 °C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 °C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 °C to 255 °C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chae Hoon, E-mail: chsohn@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  10. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun; Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  11. Influence of soybean storage conditions on crude oil quality Influência das condições de armazenagem da soja na qualidade do óleo bruto

    Ernandes R. de Alencar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate the quality of crude oil from soybeans stored under different conditions. The grains were harvested at 18% (w.b. moisture content (m.c., and after drying to 11.2, 12.8 and 14.8% they were stored at 20, 30 or 40 ºC. Changes in free fatty acid (FFA content, peroxide, iodine and photometric color index of the extracted oil were determined at 45-day intervals for 180-day storage. In general, oil FFA content increased in all the samples, except in grains at 11.2% m.c. and stored at 20 ºC. The peroxide and photometric color index increased significantly, independently of storage conditions; however, the increase was more accentuated in oil extracted of stored grains at high m.c. and temperature. It was concluded that crude oil quality is not affected during 6-month storage of soybeans up to 15.0% m.c. (w.b. at 20 ºC, and for storage at 30 ºC, the grain moisture up to 13% maintains oil quality within the Brazilian market standards.Propôs-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade do óleo bruto extraído dos grãos de soja armazenados em diferentes condições. Grãos de soja foram colhidos com aproximadamente 18,0% de teor de água (b.u. e, após secados até 11,2, 12,8 e 14,8% b.u., armazenados a 20, 30 e 40 ºC. A cada 45 dias até 180 dias de armazenamento, foram determinados o teor de ácidos graxos livres, o índice de peróxido, o índice de iodo e o índice fotométrico de cor do óleo bruto. Em geral, o percentual de ácidos graxos livres aumentou, exceto no óleo extraído dos grãos armazenados com 11,2% a 20 ºC. O índice de peróxido e o índice fotométrico de cor do óleo aumentaram significativamente em todas as condições de armazenagem; entretanto, este comportamento foi mais acentuado no óleo extraído dos grãos armazenados com maior teor de água e temperatura mais elevada. Pode-se concluir, com base nos resultados, que é possível armazenar grãos de soja com teor de água de até 15,0% (b

  12. Oil and gas-fuelled high-efficiency boilers still going strong; Oel und Gas - Brennwert setzt sich weiter durch

    Donnerbauer, R.

    2007-07-15

    High-efficiency boilers are going strong. They are generally used in gas boilers and are now conquering the gas boiler field as well. Producers are advertising their high energy efficiency, as was reflected at the ISH 2007. Further, the option of bio-natural gas and bio-oil provides an image of high sustainability. (orig.)

  13. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Wang Geun [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-Ro, Suncheon, Jeollanam-Do 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Balathanigaimani, M.S., E-mail: msbala@rgipt.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Ratapur Chowk, Rae Bareli, 229316 Uttar Pradesh (India); Moon, Hee, E-mail: hmoon@jnu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Highly porous carbon materials from Mongolian anthracite by chemical activation. • Cheaper and eco-friendly activation process has been employed. • Activated carbons with graphitic structure and energetically heterogeneous surface. • Surface hydrophobicity and porosity of the activated carbons can be controlled. - Abstract: Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816–2063 m{sup 2}/g and of 0.55–1.61 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  14. Health Food Supplements (Health Food Highly Nutritious From Chlorella And Oil Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe utilization of microalgae as a food ingredient considered effective, because in addition to alternative food sources also contains nutrients chlorella microalgae in particular is very good for health. This microalgae rich in protein (60.5%, fat (11%, carbohydrates (20.1%, water, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals Besides these microalgae contain pigments (chlorophyll, tocopherol and the active component (antimicrobial and antioxidants. This is what underlies microalgae is very useful to be used as a source of raw materials of health food supplements. Currently the health food supplements have become a necessity for people to maintain their health in order to remain vibrant. This study aims to produce high nutritious health food supplements from raw material chlorella enriched with fish protein concentrate and oil catfish. The method used in the manufacture of high nutritious health food supplement is a method of microencapsulation with different formulations. The results showed that the best formulations based on the profile of amino acids, fatty acids and standards AAE per day especially essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic is formulation B (chlorella 2%, 1% fish oil and fish protein concentrate 1%.

  15. Health Food Supplements (“Health Food” Highly Nutritious From Chlorella And Oil Catfish (Pangasius hypopthalmus

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of microalgae as a food ingredient considered effective, because in addition to alternativefood sources also contains nutrients chlorella microalgae in particular is very good for health. This microalgaerich in protein (60.5%, fat (11%, carbohydrates (20.1%, water, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals Besidesthese microalgae contain pigments (chlorophyll, tocopherol and the active component (antimicrobial andantioxidants. This is what underlies microalgae is very useful to be used as a source of raw materials ofhealth food supplements. Currently the health food supplements have become a necessity for people tomaintain their health in order to remain vibrant. This study aims to produce high nutritious health foodsupplements from raw material chlorella enriched with fish protein concentrate and oil catfish. The methodused in the manufacture of high nutritious health food supplement is a method of microencapsulation withdifferent formulations. The results showed that the best formulations based on the profile of amino acids,fatty acids and standards AAE per day especially essential fatty acids oleic and linoleic is formulation B(chlorella 2%, 1% fish oil and fish protein concentrate 1%.

  16. Results of experimental investigations on the heat conductivity of nanofluids based on diathermic oil for high temperature applications

    Colangelo, Gianpiero; Favale, Ernani; Risi, Arturo de; Laforgia, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work reports experimental results for nanofluids using diathermic oil as base fluid. ► Nanofluids with CuO, Al 2 O 3 , ZnO and Cu, with different shapes and concentrations have been tested. ► Thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids with diathermic oil is higher than those with demineralized water. ► Better results were obtained with ZnO, for nanofluids with metal oxide nanoparticles. -- Abstract: The work reported in this paper shows the experimental results from a study on diathermic oil based nanofluids. Diathermic oil finds application in renewable energy, cogeneration and cooling systems. For example, it is used in solar thermodynamic or biomass plants, where high efficiency, compact volumes and high energy fluxes are required. Besides diathermic oil is very important in those applications where high temperatures are reached or where the use of water or vapor is not suitable. Therefore an improvement of diathermic oil thermo-physical properties, by using of nanoparticles, can increase the performance of the systems. In literature there are not many experimental data on diathermic oil based nanofluids because many experimental campaigns are focused on water nanofluids. Samples of nanofluids, with nanoparticles of CuO, Al 2 O 3 , ZnO and Cu, having different shapes and concentrations varying from 0.0% up to 3.0%, have been produced and their thermal conductivity has been measured by means of hot-wire technique, according to the standard ASTM D 2717-95. Measurements were carried out to investigate the effects of volume fraction, particle size of nanoparticles on the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid. The effect of temperature has been also investigated in the range 20–60 °C. A dependence was observed on the measured parameters and the results showed that the heat transfer performance of diathermic oil enhances more than water with the same nanoparticles.

  17. Intensification of transferring the Kazakhstan high-congealed oil: challenges and advances

    Maimakov, Tayhan P.; Boiko, Galinal; Lyubchenko, Nina P. [High education institute «UNAT», Almaty (Kazakhstan); Shaihutdinov, Yerengaip M. [Kazakh national technical university, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2008-07-01

    It were investigated the rheohgica! parameters of South-Turgay region crude oils at presence of novel pour point depressant additive DP-43/2005. It has shown that additive improves pour point and rheohgica; properties of crude oil mixture Kumkol-Akshabidak, inhibits wax deposition and can provide safe conditions of crude oil mixture transportation through pipeline at the cold season of year. Keywords: oil, temperature of fluidity loss, rheology, viscosity, oligomer depressor dopants.

  18. Water pollution potential of mineral oils with high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extracts); Untersuchungen zur Wassergefaehrdung durch Mineraloele mit hohen Gehalten an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (Heizoel Schwer und Extrakte)

    Albers, G. [Mobil Schmierstoff GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    A data base on highly aromatic mineral oils has been compiled to classify mineral oil products according to their water-pollution potential (water hazard class or Wassergefaehrdungsklasse, WGK). This activity has been undertaken through the Commission for Water Hazardous Materials (Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe, KBwS). In this special case, highly aromatic mineral oils containing a high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe, PAK) were evaluated. A test method for measuring the elution potential of PAK into water was developed on petroleum products with high viscosity and high freeze point. This method was applied to determine the solubility of 23 PAK (including 16 PAK according to EPA 610 and 6 PAK according to the German drinking water regulation (Trinkwasserverordnung, TVO)) from heavy fuel oil and neutral oil extract in the aqueous phase. For the 6 PAK, according to TVO, a sum limit of 0,2 {mu}g/l in drinking water is permitted by German legislation. This limit was not exceeded in any of the water phases examined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Einstufung von Mineraloelprodukten in die Wassergefaehrdungsklassen (WGK) durch die Kommission Bewertung Wassergefaehrdender Stoffe ist es notwendig, Basisdaten zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Im speziellen Fall handelt es sich um die Bewertung von Mineraloelen, die sich durch einen hohen Gehalt an polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) auszeichnen. Zur Eluierbarkeit von PAK`s aus Produkten mit hoher Viskosiaet bzw. mit hohem Stockpunkt wurde eine Pruefmethode entwickelt. Diese Methode wurde zur Bestimmung der Loeslichkeit von 23 PAK`s (16 PAK`s nach EPA-Liste incl. 6 PAK`s der TVO) aus den Mineraloelen Heizoel Schwer und Neutralextrakt in der Wasserphase eingesetzt. Fuer die PAK der TVO ist in der TVO ein Summengrenzwert von 0,2 {mu}g/l Trinkwasser angegeben. Dieser Grenzwert wurde in keiner der untersuchten Wasserphasen ueberschritten. (orig.)

  19. Development and validation of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography for citral analysis from essential oils.

    Gaonkar, Roopa; Yallappa, S; Dhananjaya, B L; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2016-11-15

    Citral is a widely used monoterpene aldehyde in aromatherapy, food and pesticide industries. A new validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP - HPLC) procedure for the detection and quantification of cis-trans isomers of citral was developed. The RP-HPLC analysis was carried out using Enable C - 18G column (250×4.6mm, 5μ), with acetonitrile and water (70: 30) mobile phase in isocratic mode at 1mL/min flow. A photodiode array (PDA) detector was set at 233nm for the detection of citral. The method showed linearity, selectivity and accuracy for citral in the range of 3-100μg/mL. In order to compare the new RP-HPLC method with the available methods, one of the commercially available essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus was analyzed using new RP-HPLC method and the same was analyzed using GC-MS for the comparison of the method for the detection of citral. The GC-MS analysis was done using mass selective detector (MSD) showed citral content to be of 72.76%; wherein the new method showed to contain that same at 74.98%. To prove the application of the new method, essential oils were extracted from lemongrass, lemon leaves and mosambi peels by steam distillation. The citral content present in the essential and also in the condensate was analyzed. The method was found to be suitable for the analysis of citral in essential oils and water based citral formulations with a very good resolution of its components geranial and neral. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical and experimental fundamentals of designing promising technological equipment to improve efficiency and environmental safety of highly viscous oil recovery from deep oil reservoirs

    Moiseyev, V. A.; Nazarov, V. P.; Zhuravlev, V. Y.; Zhuykov, D. A.; Kubrikov, M. V.; Klokotov, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    The development of new technological equipment for the implementation of highly effective methods of recovering highly viscous oil from deep reservoirs is an important scientific and technical challenge. Thermal recovery methods are promising approaches to solving the problem. It is necessary to carry out theoretical and experimental research aimed at developing oil-well tubing (OWT) with composite heatinsulating coatings on the basis of basalt and glass fibers. We used the method of finite element analysis in Nastran software, which implements complex scientific and engineering calculations, including the calculation of the stress-strain state of mechanical systems, the solution of problems of heat transfer, the study of nonlinear static, the dynamic transient analysis of frequency characteristics, etc. As a result, we obtained a mathematical model of thermal conductivity which describes the steady-state temperature and changes in the fibrous highly porous material with the heat loss by Stefan-Boltzmann's radiation. It has been performed for the first time using the method of computer modeling in Nastran software environments. The results give grounds for further implementation of the real design of the OWT when implementing thermal methods for increasing the rates of oil production and mitigating environmental impacts.

  1. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  2. The interaction of the soybean seed high oleic acid oil trait with other fatty acid modifications

    Oil value is determined by the functional qualities imparted from the fatty acid profile. Soybean oil historically had excellent utilization in both food and industrial uses, but the need to increase the stability of the oil without negative health consequences has led to a significant decline in s...

  3. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of residual bacterial species of fouled membranes after NaOCl cleaning.

    Navarro, Ronald R; Hori, Tomoyuki; Inaba, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Kazuyuki; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    Biofouling is one of the major problems during wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this regard, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been widely used to wash fouled membranes for maintenance and recovery purposes. Advanced chemical and biological characterization was conducted in this work to evaluate the performance of aqueous NaOCl solutions during washing of polyacrylonitrile membranes. Fouled membranes from MBR operations supplemented with artificial wastewater were washed with 0.1% and 0.5% aqueous NaOCl solutions for 5, 10 and 30 min. The changes in organics composition on the membrane surface were directly monitored by an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectrometer. In addition, high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes was applied to detect any residual microorganisms. Results from ATR-FT-IR analysis indicated the complete disappearance of functional groups representing different fouling compounds after at least 30 min of treatment with 0.1% NaOCl. However, the biomolecular survey revealed the presence of residual bacteria even after 30 min of treatment with 0.5% NaOCl solution. Evaluation of microbial diversity of treated samples using Chao1, Shannon and Simpson reciprocal indices showed an increase in evenness while no significant decline in richness was observed. These implied that only the population of dominant species was mainly affected. The high-resolution phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of numerous operational taxonomic units (OTUs) whose close relatives exhibit halotolerance. Some OTUs related to thermophilic and acid-resistant strains were also identified. Finally, the taxonomic analysis of recycled membranes that were previously washed with NaOCl also showed the presence of numerous halotolerant-related OTUs in the early stage of fouling. This further suggested the possible contribution of such chemical tolerance on their survival against NaOCl washing, which in turn

  4. High-NaCl diet impairs dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure

    Saeed, Aso; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 2 wk of high-NaCl diet on kidney function and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without...... arterial pressure variability (SAPV), and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analytical techniques. Rats with ACRF showed marked reductions in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow (RBF), whereas mean arterial pressure and SAPV were significantly elevated. In addition, spontaneous...... adenine (controls). After 10 wk, rats were randomized to either remain on the same diet (0.6% NaCl) or to be switched to high 4% NaCl chow. Two weeks after randomization, renal clearance experiments were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and dynamic RBFA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), systolic...

  5. Determination of Na+ and K+ ions in the high-level liquid waste by ion chromatography (IC)

    Chen Lianzhong; Ma Guilan

    1992-01-01

    The determination of Na + and k + ions in the high-level liquid waste is investigated using ion chromatography. In order to protect the low capacity ion exchange resin in single column IC and remove the transition metal as well as other heavy metal ions that are contained in liquid waste, the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin is used. Those impurity metal ions are strongly absorbed by EDTA chelating resin and 100% of Na + and K + ions in the solution are eluted. The ability of the decontamination of EDTA chelating resin is satisfactory. The sample of the high-level liquid waste is diluted appropriately, then an aliquot of the sample is passed through the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin, the eluate is analysed by single column ion chromatography. The precision of this method is better than 5% for the determination of Na + and K + ions (at μg· ml -1 level)

  6. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  7. Oil-free bearing development for high-speed turbomachinery in distributed energy systems – dynamic and environmental evaluation

    Tkacz Eliza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern distributed energy systems, which are used to provide an alternative to or an enhancement of traditional electric power systems, require small size highspeed rotor turbomachinery to be developed. The existing conventional oil-lubricated bearings reveal performance limits at high revolutions as far as stability and power loss of the bearing are concerned. Non-conventional, oil-free bearings lubricated with the machine working medium could be a remedy to this issue. This approach includes a correct design of the machine flow structure and an accurate selection of the bearing type. Chosen aspects of the theoretical and experimental investigations of oil-free bearings and supports; including magnetic, tilting pad, pressurized aerostatic and hydrostatic bearings as well as some applications of oil-free bearing technology for highspeed turbomachinery; are described in the paper.

  8. Oil spill model coupled to an ultra-high-resolution circulation model: implementation for the Adriatic Sea

    Korotenko, K.

    2003-04-01

    An ultra-high-resolution version of DieCAST was adjusted for the Adriatic Sea and coupled with an oil spill model. Hydrodynamic module was developed on base of th low dissipative, four-order-accuracy version DieCAST with the resolution of ~2km. The oil spill model was developed on base of particle tracking technique The effect of evaporation is modeled with an original method developed on the base of the pseudo-component approach. A special dialog interface of this hybrid system allowing direct coupling to meteorlogical data collection systems or/and meteorological models. Experiments with hypothetic oil spill are analyzed for the Northern Adriatic Sea. Results (animations) of mesoscale circulation and oil slick modeling are presented at wabsite http://thayer.dartmouth.edu/~cushman/adriatic/movies/

  9. Oils from different depth in the Alagoas sub-basin distribution and concentration; Oleos em diferentes profundidades na sub-bacia Alagoas: distribuicao e econcentracao

    Reboucas, Lucia M.C.; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G.; Sabino, Adilson R.; Nogueira, Fred A.R.; Moraes, Reinaldo J.R.; Crispim, Alessandre [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia . Lab. de Analises de Biomarcadores e Semioquimicos]. E-mail: lmcr@qui.ufal.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the distribution and the concentration of n-alkane homologue series and the HPA compounds in 22 oils from Alagoas sub-basin, Pilar Field, Brazil. The n-alkane profile of whole oil gas chromatograms (CG-FID) to light, medium and heave oils represented no-biodegraded oils. The light and medium oils have n-alkane distribution with a maximum in nC{sub 10} and nC{sub 17}. The ration pristine/phytane (P/F) between 1,5 and 2,7 suggest Lacustrine origin. The nalkane distribution from the heavy oils show two maximum between nC{sub 15} and nC{sub 23}. The concentrations of n-alkane are different to all the 22 oils. The F2 fraction classified as light (API>39), medium (36oils show that they can be readily distinguished to three or four oil families in each oil class. Therefore, it seems that the same oil can belong to different family accord to abundance of n-alkane or to the HPA, F2 fraction, compounds. By the F2 fraction we can suggest different families or different migration route. The oils show by GC-MS (characteristic ion m/z to each class) abundant fluorenone and alkylfluorenones compounds. Other HPA homologue series compounds as: naphthalene, biphenyl, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, chrysene, mono- and triaromatic steroid, benzohopane and their alkyl derivates, were identified in the oils. (author)

  10. Thermal properties of Na2MoO4(s) and Na2Mo2O7(s) by high-temperature Calvet calorimetry in the temperature range 335 K to 760 K

    Iyer, V.S.; Agarwal, Renu; Roy, K.N.; Venkateswaran, R.S.; Venugopal, V.; Sood, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Enthalpy increment measurements were made on Na 2 MoO 4 and Na 2 Mo 2 O 7 in the temperature range 335 K to 760 K by the drop method using a high-temperature Calvet calorimeter. The calorimeter was calibrated using an electrical method and synthetic sapphire SRM-720(Al 2 O 3 ). An on-line computer was used for acquiring and processing results from the calorimeter. The enthalpy increments for Na 2 MoO 4 and Na 2 Mo 2 O 7 were least-squares fitted to a polynomial with temperature and are given. The thermal properties of Na 2 MoO 4 and Na 2 Mo 2 O 7 were obtained using the above experimental values. These are the first experimental results on the thermal properties of these compounds. (author)

  11. Use of high-boiling point organic solvents for pulping oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Serrano, Luis; Moral, Ana; Pérez, Antonio; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-04-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunches were used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosic pulp. Pulping was done by using high-boiling point organic solvents of decreased polluting power relative to classical (Kraft, sulphite) solvents but affording operation at similar pressure levels. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of oil palm empty fruit bunches (viz. 66.97%, 47.91% and 24.45%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and diethanolamine under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 70% solvent concentration, 170 degrees C and 90 min; and (b) 80% solvent, 180 degrees C and 150 min. The solid/liquid ratio was six in both cases. The amine solvents were found to provide pulp with better properties than did the glycol solvents. Ethanolamine pulp exhibited the best viscosity and drainage index (viz. 636 mL/g and 17 degrees SR, respectively), and paper made from it the best breaking length (1709 m), stretch (1.95%), burst index (0.98 kN/g) and tear index (0.33 mNm(2)/g). Operating costs can be reduced by using milder conditions, which provide similar results. In any case, the amines are to be preferred to the glycols as solvents for this purpose.

  12. High temperature solvent extraction of oil shale and bituminous coal using binary solvent mixtures

    Goetz, G.K.E. [Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A high volatile bituminous coal from the Saar Basin and an oil shale from the Messel deposit, both Germany, were extracted with binary solvent mixtures using the Advanced Solvent Extraction method (ASE). Extraction temperature and pressure were kept at 100 C, respectively 150 C, and 20,7 MPa. After the heating phase (5 min) static extractions were performed with mixtures (v:v, 1:3) of methanol with toluene, respectively trichloromethane, for further 5 min. Extract yields were the same or on a higher level compared to those from classical soxhlet extractions (3 days) using the same solvents at 60 C. Comparing the results from ASE with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) the extract yields were similar. Increasing the temperature in ASE releases more soluble organic matter from geological samples, because compounds with higher molecular weight and especially more polar substances were solubilized. But also an enhanced extraction efficiency resulted for aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons which are used as biomarkers in Organic Geochemistry. Application of thermochemolysis with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) on the extraction residues shows clearly that at higher extraction temperatures minor amounts of free fatty acids or their methyl esters (original or produced by ASE) were trapped inside the pore systems of the oil shale or the bituminous coal. ASE offers a rapid and very efficient extraction method for geological samples reducing analysis time and costs for solvents. (orig.)

  13. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD supplement with perilla oil (POH for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  14. Environmental Forensics: Molecular Insight into Oil Spill Weathering Helps Advance High Magnetic Field FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    McKenna, Amy

    2013-03-01

    events in the FT-ICR experiment. For example, the high density of peaks at each nominal mass unit provides unprecedented insight into how excitation conditions affect ion motion during detection. Aggregated oil (i.e., tar balls, tar mats) that reached the surface exhibits a more than two-fold increase in the total number of detected species, with an increased number of oxygenated species. Principal component analysis (PCA) applied to two possible source oils (contained within the same ship) and weathered samples provide the first application of FT-ICR MS for source identification. Molecular formulae from parent and weathered oil indicate that the lightest petroleum fractions (saturated hydrocarbons) are the most readily oxidized components, and can serve as a template to determine chemical transformations that occur throughout the water column. The ability to differentiate and catalogue compositional changes that occur to oil after its release into the environment relies heavily on gains achieved in nearly all steps in the FT-ICR mass spectral experiment required to accommodate larger ion populations inherent to heavily weathered crude oil. Here, we present the requirement for FT-ICR MS for comprehensive oil spill characterization, and highlight advances made to FT-ICR MS experimental conditions developed from petroleum characterization. Work supported by DMR-06-54118, NSF CHE-10-49753 (RAPID), BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, and the State of Florida

  15. High-NaCl intake impairs dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in ANG II-infused rats

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Marcussen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) in ANG II-infused rats and the influence of high-NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received ANG II (250 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) or saline vehicle (sham) for 14 days after which acute renal clearance experiments...

  16. Development of Bio-Oil Commodity Fuel as a Refinery Feedstock from High Impact Algae Biomass

    Kastner, James [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Mani, Sudhagar [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Das, K. C. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Hilten, Roger [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Jena, Umakanta [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-11-30

    A two-stage hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process was developed to 1) reduce nitrogen levels in algal oil, 2) generate a nitrogen rich stream with limited inhibitors for recycle and algae cultivation, and 3) improve downstream catalytic hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the algal oil to refinery intermediates. In the first stage, low temperature HTL was conducted at 125, 175, and 225°C at holding times ranging from 1 to 30 min (time at reaction temperature). A consortium of three algal strains, namely Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella minutissima, and Scenedesmus bijuga were used to grow and harvest biomass in a raceway system – this consortium is called the UGA Raceway strain throughout the report. Subsequent analysis of the final harvested product indicated that only two strains predominated in the final harvest - Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus bijuga. Two additional strains representing a high protein (Spirulina platensis) and high lipid algae (Nannochloropsis) strains were also used in this study. These strains were purchased from suppliers. S. platensis biomass was provided by Earthrise Nutritionals LLC (Calipatria, CA) in dry powder form with defined properties, and was stored in airtight packages at 4°C prior to use. A Nannochloropsis paste from Reed Mariculture was purchased and used in the two-stage HTL/HDO experiments. The solids and liquids from this low temperature HTL pretreatment step were separated and analyzed, leading to the following conclusions. Overall, these results indicate that low temperature HTL (200-250°C) at short residence times (5-15 min) can be used to lyse algae cells and remove/separate protein and nitrogen before subsequent higher temperature HTL (for lipid and other polymer hydrolysis) and HDO. The significant reduction in nitrogen when coupled with low protein/high lipid algae cultivation methods at scale could significantly improve downstream catalytic HDO results. However, significant barriers and

  17. A new drift chamber TDC readout for the high intensity program of the NA48 experiment

    Ramusino, A C; Cartiglia, N; Chiozzi, S; Clemencic, M; Damiani, C; Gianoli, A; Milano, L; Malaguti, R; Petrucci, F; Scarpa, M

    2004-01-01

    A new read-out for the drift chambers (DCH) (8192 channels) of the NA48 experiment at CERN has been developed and realized by the Ferrara and Torino INFN sites and has taken data during the 2002 run. The core of the system is a set of 32 VME-9U Time-to-Digital- Converter boards (NA48-TDC). The NA48-TDCs record the time of arrival of signals from the DCH and store them in 40 MHz pipelined ring memories pending the trigger supervisor's decision. Dual memories and data extraction resources allow independent and simultaneous processing of level-1 and level-2 trigger requests. Time measurements are performed by the TDC-F1 commercial ASICs, having an intrinsic time resolution of 120 ps and multi-hit capabilities. The NA48-TDC board features a maximum sustained rate of 500 kHz per channel.

  18. A new drift chamber TDC readout for the high intensity program of the NA48 experiment

    Arcidiacono, R.; Cartiglia, N.; Chiozzi, S.; Clemencic, M.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Damiani, C.; Gianoli, A.; Milano, L.; Malaguti, R.; Petrucci, F.; Scarpa, M.

    2004-01-01

    A new read-out for the drift chambers (DCH) (8192 channels) of the NA48 experiment at CERN has been developed and realized by the Ferrara and Torino INFN sites and has taken data during the 2002 run. The core of the system is a set of 32 VME-9U Time-to-Digital-Converter boards (NA48-TDC). The NA48-TDCs record the time of arrival of signals from the DCH and store them in 40 MHz pipelined ring memories pending the trigger supervisor's decision. Dual memories and data extraction resources allow independent and simultaneous processing of level-1 and level-2 trigger requests. Time measurements are performed by the TDC-F1 commercial ASICs, having an intrinsic time resolution of 120 ps and multi-hit capabilities. The NA48-TDC board features a maximum sustained rate of 500 kHz per channel

  19. Superhydrophilic graphene oxide@electrospun cellulose nanofiber hybrid membrane for high-efficiency oil/water separation.

    Ao, Chenghong; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Jiangqi; He, Xu; Zhang, Xiaofang; Li, Qingye; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2017-11-01

    Inspired from fishscales, membranes with special surface wettability have been applied widely for the treatment of oily waste water. Herein, a novel superhydrophilic graphene oxide (GO)@electrospun cellulose nanofiber (CNF) membrane was successfully fabricated. This membrane exhibited a high separation efficiency, excellent antifouling properties, as well as a high flux for the gravity-driven oil/water separation. Moreover, the GO@CNF membrane was capable to effectively separate oil/water mixtures in a broad pH range or with a high concentration of salt, suggesting that this membrane was quite promising for future real-world practice in oil spill cleanup and oily wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of the preparation of lignin bio-resins used in oil spilled agglomeration; A influencia do uso da lignina na preparacao de bio-resinas utilizadas na aglomeracao de oleo derramado

    Silva, Joao Felipe T.; Pereira, Thaissa; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Delazare, Thais; Souza Junior, Fernando G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj

    2011-07-01

    Locate the oil, a source of energy that took millions of years to be formed is a task that requires much knowledge and technology, and large investments. However, during its operation, storage or transportation of oil, the risk of spills occurring in potential that can cause extensive damage to the environment. Experience of major accidental oil spills has shown the importance of damage to the environment, harming marine life, fishing and tourism. Thus this study aims to evaluate the use of renewable sources to create an 'absorbent green' by using the lignin, furfural and cardanol, being catalyzed by sulfuric acid. This bio-resin synthesized shows good chemical similarity with oil, because it has both aromatic and aliphatic compounds, thereby facilitating the strong physical interaction between the resin and oil, allowing the agglomeration process in the same lake environments. (author)

  1. The influence of the preparation of lignin bio-resins used in oil spilled agglomeration; A influencia do uso da lignina na preparacao de bioresinas utilizadas na aglomeracao de oleo derramado

    Silva, Joao Felipe T.; Silva, Thaissa P.; Ferreira, Leticia P.; Delazare, Thais; Souza Junior, Fernando G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Locate petroleum, an energy source which spent millions of years to be formed, requires a lot of knowledge and technology, beyond large investments. However, along extraction, storage or transport of oil, there is a real risk of spills take place, causing extensive damage to the environment. Experience acquired due to accidental oil spills shows the large extension of damage imposed to the environment, impacting marine life, fishing and even tourism. Thus this study proposes the use of renewable sources, aiming to create an {sup g}reen absorbent material{sup .} This material is obtained through a polycondensation among lignin, furfural and cardanol, catalyzed by a strong acid. Synthesized bio-resin presents a good chemical similarity with oil, due to the tuning of its aromatic / aliphatic compounds, producing a strong physical interaction between the resin and oil, making the agglomeration process easy and contributing for the cleanup of oil spilled on water. (author)

  2. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  3. Nannochloropsis algae pyrolysis with ceria-based catalysts for production of high-quality bio-oils.

    Aysu, Tevfik; Sanna, Aimaro

    2015-10-01

    Pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor with newly prepared ceria based catalysts. The effects of pyrolysis parameters such as temperature and catalysts on product yields were investigated. The amount of bio-char, bio-oil and gas products, as well as the compositions of the resulting bio-oils was determined. The results showed that both temperature and catalyst had significant effects on conversion of Nannochloropsis into solid, liquid and gas products. The highest bio-oil yield (23.28 wt%) and deoxygenation effect was obtained in the presence of Ni-Ce/Al2O3 as catalyst at 500°C. Ni-Ce/Al2O3 was able to retain 59% of the alga starting energy in the bio-oil, compared to only 41% in absence of catalyst. Lower content of acids and oxygen in the bio-oil, higher aliphatics (62%), combined with HHV show promise for production of high-quality bio-oil from Nannochloropsis via Ni-Ce/Al2O3 catalytic pyrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High Amounts of n-Alkanes in the Composition of Asphodelus aestivus Brot. Flower Essential Oil from Cyprus.

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-10-01

    There is only a couple of reports indicating essential oil composition of Asphodelus species in the literature. However, from the members of this genus many non-volatile secondary metabolites were isolated. In Cyprus, Asphodelus aestivus Brot. can be found abundantly in all regions of the island. This plant has various ethnobotanical uses in Cyprus. There is no report on the volatiles nor the essential oil composition of A. aestivus. The smell of A. aestivus flowers resembles that of a cat pee which caught our attention. Therefore, we have carried out GC, GC/MS analysis of the essential oil (yield: 0.01 v/w) obtained from Asphodelus aestivus flowers. Seventeen compounds were identified in the essential oil comprising 96.2% of the oil. The major components of the essential oil were hexadecanoic acid 35.6%, pentacosane 17.4%, tricosane 13.4% and heptacosane 8.4%. In our results, we expected to see sulfur containing cat pee odorants due to the odor of the flower whereas high amounts of n-alkanes, saturated fatty acids and minor amounts of acyclic diterpenes were observed.

  5. Research of Brazilian crude in pilot plant for base oil production; Pesquisa em planta piloto visando valorizar o cru nacional na producao de oleos lubrificantes

    Fontes, Anita E.F.; Nogueira, Wlamir S.; Ximenes, Lelia M. de O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Santos, Claudio A.P. dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges for PETROBRAS is to find alternative crude oils to produce base oil and wax in its refinery. Duque de Caxias refinery has been using imported crude oil for 31 years living with constants threats to continuity because of the Persian Gulf conflicts. If we analyze the profitability of this business, we can verify that the lubes complex had contributed for the profitability by about 41,9% in 2002, even using imported crude oil. So, if we can incorporate a national crude oil in the actual refinery scheme, we would produce besides strategic gains better profitability for the base oil and wax unit. This paper describes a series of tests performed in the pilot plant, in which we produced base oils and wax using a mixture of imported crude with Brazilian crude oil. The base oils produced were classified as Group I with lower aromatic, Sulphur and basic Nitrogen content. Another great advantage of this alternative is that the light fractions obtained from distillation step can be used as feed to make fuels of better quality, due to the lower sulphur content, thus also reducing the environmental impact. (author)

  6. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress.

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2010-10-01

    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  7. Pivotal role of α2 Na+ pumps and their high affinity ouabain binding site in cardiovascular health and disease

    Chen, Ling; Hamlyn, John M.; Leenen, Frans H. H.; Lingrel, Jerry B.; Wier, W. Gil; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reduced smooth muscle (SM)‐specific α2 Na+ pump expression elevates basal blood pressure (BP) and increases BP sensitivity to angiotensin II (Ang II) and dietary NaCl, whilst SM‐α2 overexpression lowers basal BP and decreases Ang II/salt sensitivity. Prolonged ouabain infusion induces hypertension in rodents, and ouabain‐resistant mutation of the α2 ouabain binding site (α2R/R mice) confers resistance to several forms of hypertension. Pressure overload‐induced heart hypertrophy and failure are attenuated in cardio‐specific α2 knockout, cardio‐specific α2 overexpression and α2R/R mice. We propose a unifying hypothesis that reconciles these apparently disparate findings: brain mechanisms, activated by Ang II and high NaCl, regulate sympathetic drive and a novel neurohumoral pathway mediated by both brain and circulating endogenous ouabain (EO). Circulating EO modulates ouabain‐sensitive α2 Na+ pump activity and Ca2+ transporter expression and, via Na+/Ca2+ exchange, Ca2+ homeostasis. This regulates sensitivity to sympathetic activity, Ca2+ signalling and arterial and cardiac contraction. PMID:27350568

  8. High-precision half-life determination for 21Na using a 4 π gas-proportional counter

    Finlay, P.; Laffoley, A. T.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Dunlop, M. R.; Dunlop, R.; Hackman, G.; Leslie, J. R.; MacLean, A. D.; Miller, D.; Moukaddam, M.; Olaizola, B.; Severijns, N.; Smith, J. K.; Southall, D.; Svensson, C. E.

    2017-08-01

    A high-precision half-life measurement for the superallowed β+ transition between the isospin T =1 /2 mirror nuclei 21Na and 21Ne has been performed at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion beam facility yielding T1 /2=22.4506 (33 ) s, a result that is a factor of 4 more precise than the previous world-average half-life for 21Na and represents the single most precisely determined half-life for a transition between mirror nuclei to date. The contribution to the uncertainty in the 21Na F tmirror value due to the half-life is now reduced to the level of the nuclear-structure-dependent theoretical corrections, leaving the branching ratio as the dominant experimental uncertainty.

  9. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  10. Estratégias de irrigação com água salina na mamoneira Irrigation strategies with saline water in castor oil plant

    Maria Eugênia da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado em campo para avaliar estratégias de irrigação com água salina no crescimento e na produção da mamoneira (BRS Energia, além de identificar eventuais estádios de maior tolerância à salinidade e monitorar alguns atributos químicos do solo. Os tratamentos consistiram da irrigação com águas de CE 0,53; 2,09; 3,66 dS m-1 de acordo com a fase de desenvolvimento da cultura, totalizando cinco estratégias de irrigação com água salina e uma testemunha. As avaliações de crescimento foram realizadas aos 20; 40; 60; 80; 100 dias após a semeadura (DAS. As coletas de solo foram realizadas concomitantemente às avaliações de crescimento, nas camadas 0-0,10; 0,10-0,30; 0,30-0,50 m. A irrigação contínua com água de CE 3,66 dS m-1 reduziu a altura de planta, o comprimento de racemo terciário, o número de frutos por área útil e a produtividade de frutos. Essa estratégia aumentou acentuadamente os teores de Na+ e a CE do solo no final do ciclo. Por outro lado, a irrigação com água salina começando aos 45 DAS não prejudicou as variáveis de crescimento e os componentes de produção. Essa estratégia minimizou os impactos negativos sobre a salinidade/sodicidade do solo no final do ciclo. Comportamento similar foi observado para a irrigação contínua com água de CE 2,09 dS m-1 (mistura de águas com CE de 0,53 e 3,66 dS m-1. A mamoneira não apresentou tolerância diferenciada à salinidade em função da fase de desenvolvimento, embora tenha sido prejudicada quando aumentaram a intensidade e a duração do estresse salino.This experiment was conducted under field conditions to evaluate irrigation strategies with saline water on growth and production of castor oil plant (cv. BRS Energia, identify eventual stages with higher tolerance to salinity and monitor some soil chemical attributes. The treatments consisted of irrigations with water of EC 0.53; 2.09; 3.66 dS m-1 according to the development

  11. Model for equipment life-cycle cost forecasting and its application in assets management in the oil industry; Modelo para previsao de custo de ciclo de vida de equipamentos e sua aplicacao na gestao de ativos na industria do petroleo

    Cesca, Igor Gimenes; Elias Junior, Antonio; Carvalho, Marcos Henrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Lima, Gabriel Alves da Costa [Centro de Estudos de Petroleo (CEPETRO/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In the area of oil exploration and production (E and P), knowing the behavior of the equipment in their life cycles becomes even more important than in other industries due to: 1) high cost and 2) severity in terms of requirements safety. The purchase of equipment should not be decided only at the initial cost, but through the life cycle cost (LCC). This paper presents a study to find the cost over the life cycle of a group of equipment used in the petroleum industry by methods of dynamic programming, as well as a discussion on how to use such information in assets management in order to obtain better financial indicators. The main causes of variation in the useful economic life of equipment is the resale value and maintenance costs. Thus, it is possible to avoid high expenditure on maintenance costs and avoid an excessive depreciation of the equipment. So it is possible to conclude that the more intense the depreciation of value, the greater the useful economic life. For maintenance costs, the more intense are the costs, the lower the useful economic life. (author)

  12. High-NaCl diet impairs dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure.

    Saeed, Aso; DiBona, Gerald F; Grimberg, Elisabeth; Nguy, Lisa; Mikkelsen, Minne Line Nedergaard; Marcussen, Niels; Guron, Gregor

    2014-03-15

    This study examined the effects of 2 wk of high-NaCl diet on kidney function and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (ACRF). Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow containing adenine or were pair-fed an identical diet without adenine (controls). After 10 wk, rats were randomized to either remain on the same diet (0.6% NaCl) or to be switched to high 4% NaCl chow. Two weeks after randomization, renal clearance experiments were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and dynamic RBFA, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), systolic arterial pressure variability (SAPV), and heart rate variability were assessed by spectral analytical techniques. Rats with ACRF showed marked reductions in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow (RBF), whereas mean arterial pressure and SAPV were significantly elevated. In addition, spontaneous BRS was reduced by ∼50% in ACRF animals. High-NaCl diet significantly increased transfer function fractional gain values between arterial pressure and RBF in the frequency range of the myogenic response (0.06-0.09 Hz) only in ACRF animals (0.3 ± 4.0 vs. -4.4 ± 3.8 dB; P renal failure by facilitating pressure transmission to the microvasculature.

  13. Crude oil and its’ distillation: an experimental approach in High School using conceptual maps

    Dionísio Borsato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual maps are representations of ideas organized in the form of bidimensional diagrams. In the present work the theme of oil fractional distillation was explored, and the conceptual maps were elaborated both before and after the activities by 43 students from the 1st and 3rd High School grades of a public school in Londrina – PR. The study was conducted theoretically and in practice, with a daily life approach. The use of the motivational theme and the opening text as previous organizers, enabled the establishment of a cognitive link between the students’ previous knowledge and the new concepts. Differences between the maps were verified before and after the activities as well as among the work groups. The students, stimulated by the technique, created better structured maps.

  14. High pressure changes of the castor oil viscosity by ultrasonic method

    Rostocki, A J; Siegoczynski, R M; Kielczynski, P; Szalewski, M

    2008-01-01

    The pressure change of viscosity of castor oil have been measured by ultrasonic method within the range of pressure up to 0.9 GPa. For the measurement, the authors have applied a new ultrasonic method based on Bleustein-Gulyaev (B-G) waves. For the lower pressures (up to 0.3 GPa) the results have been compared with earlier results obtained by falling body method, whereas for the higher pressure range results were compared with those obtained by the flow type viscometer. The measurements have shown: 1. Exponential rise of viscosity with pressure up to 0.4 GPa according to the Barus formula. 2. Extraordinary increment of viscosity at constant pressure during phase transition. 3. The decomposition of the high pressure phase during the decompression process have shown very large hysteresis of viscosity on pressure. 4. After the decompression process the viscosity lasts higher then a initial value for several hours

  15. A new simplex chemometric approach to identify olive oil blends with potentially high traceability.

    Semmar, N; Laroussi-Mezghani, S; Grati-Kamoun, N; Hammami, M; Artaud, J

    2016-10-01

    Olive oil blends (OOBs) are complex matrices combining different cultivars at variable proportions. Although qualitative determinations of OOBs have been subjected to several chemometric works, quantitative evaluations of their contents remain poorly developed because of traceability difficulties concerning co-occurring cultivars. Around this question, we recently published an original simplex approach helping to develop predictive models of the proportions of co-occurring cultivars from chemical profiles of resulting blends (Semmar & Artaud, 2015). Beyond predictive model construction and validation, this paper presents an extension based on prediction errors' analysis to statistically define the blends with the highest predictability among all the possible ones that can be made by mixing cultivars at different proportions. This provides an interesting way to identify a priori labeled commercial products with potentially high traceability taking into account the natural chemical variability of different constitutive cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Self-Consolidating High Strength Concrete Incorporating Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    Belal Alsubari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fuel ash (POFA has previously been used as a partial cement replacement in concrete. However, limited research has been undertaken to utilize POFA in high volume in concrete. This paper presents a study on the treatment and utilization of POFA in high volume of up to 50% by weight of cement in self-consolidating high strength concrete (SCHSC. POFA was treated via heat treatment to reduce the content of unburned carbon. Ordinary Portland cement was substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% treated POFA in SCHSC. Tests have been conducted on the fresh properties, such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance, as well as compressive strength, drying shrinkage and acid attack resistance to check the effect of high volume treated POFA on SCHSC. The results revealed that compared to the control concrete mix, the fresh properties, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, and resistance against acid attack have been significantly improved. Conclusively, treated POFA can be used in high volume as a cement replacement to produce SCHSC with an improvement in its properties.

  17. Development of Self-Consolidating High Strength Concrete Incorporating Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    Alsubari, Belal; Shafigh, Payam; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) has previously been used as a partial cement replacement in concrete. However, limited research has been undertaken to utilize POFA in high volume in concrete. This paper presents a study on the treatment and utilization of POFA in high volume of up to 50% by weight of cement in self-consolidating high strength concrete (SCHSC). POFA was treated via heat treatment to reduce the content of unburned carbon. Ordinary Portland cement was substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% treated POFA in SCHSC. Tests have been conducted on the fresh properties, such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance, as well as compressive strength, drying shrinkage and acid attack resistance to check the effect of high volume treated POFA on SCHSC. The results revealed that compared to the control concrete mix, the fresh properties, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, and resistance against acid attack have been significantly improved. Conclusively, treated POFA can be used in high volume as a cement replacement to produce SCHSC with an improvement in its properties.

  18. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) as a source of high quality process heat for sustainable oil sands expansion

    Morris, A.; Kuhr, R.

    2008-01-01

    Bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading consumes large quantities of natural gas for production of steam, hot water and hydrogen. Massive expansion of bitumen production is planned in response to energy demands, oil prices, and the desire for energy security. The PBMR in its Process Heat configuration supports applications that compete in a cost effective and environmentally sustainable way with natural gas fired boilers and steam methane reforming. The PBMR has the benefit of size, passive nuclear safety characteristics (encompassing Generation IV safety principles), high reliability, high temperature process heat (750-950 o C) in a modular design suited to the oil sands industry. (author)

  19. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  20. Ecological assessment of oil-gas producing area in Kazakhstan zone of Caspian sea and using the bioremediation technology for cleaning of high level oil polluted sites

    Bigaliev, A.A.; Ishanova, N.E.; Bijazheva, S.M.; Novikova, A.; Bigaliev, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant part of mineral raw material resources of Kazakhstan placed in the depth of the Caspian region, where more than 90% extracting of oil and natural gas, 100% balance store rare ground, 3.2% uranium, ore 0.3%, 90.5% sawn store concentrated. Last years, it takes intensive works by extraction of carbon raw materials in Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian sea. It brought to exceeding of coastal pollution at the North and middle the Caspian coastal pollution with oil products in average till 0.282 mg/l. Maximum meaning oil product pollution reaches 0.56 mg/l (which means exceeding of limited concentration on 11 times). How much money need to cover cost of remediation in real sites? Develop of assessment and monitoring procedures based on fate mechanisms for most of representative hydrocarbons in polluted soils. Step 1 - Collection of heavily polluted portions of soils, separation of hydrocarbons by cost efficient mechanical procedures and send HC rich material (HC>95%) to prepare of alternative fuel. Return of low HC content sand to project area (HC<5.0%). Step 2 - Development of low cost bioremediation procedures in areas transformed to moderately polluted site (HC<5% after removing of heavily polluted portions) with uniform HC content. We are needed to develop of coast efficiency approach for cleaning of high level oily polluted sites around urban areas in Kazakhstan new methodology to estimate polluted area and recover of pollution history, low cost bioremediation

  1. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells.

    Wang, Yanjun; Li, Haoyu; Liu, Xingbin; Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Ronghua; Huang, Chunhui; Hu, Jinhai; Deng, Gang

    2016-10-14

    First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  2. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    Yanjun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  3. Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil

    Prashant Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Musa Balbisiana Colla Underground Stem (MBCUS catalyst was treated thermally mixing with 5:1 w/w of Strontium Oxide (SrO and the dynamic sites were reformed. The MBCUS-SrO showed sharper crystalline phases as evidence from XRD and TEM analysis. The composition and morphology were characterized from BET, SEM, EDX thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and XRF analysis. The optimization process for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L oil (JCO having high percentage of free fatty acids was carried out using orthogonal arrays adopting the Taguchi method. The linear equation was obtained from the analysis and subsequent biodiesel production (96% FAME was taken away from the JCO under optimal reaction conditions. The biodiesel so prepared had identical characteristics to that with MBCUS alone, but at a lower temperature (200˚C and internal vapour pressure. Metal leaching was much lower while reusability of the catalyst was enhanced. It was also confirmed that the particle size has little impact upon the conversion efficacy, but the basic active sites are more important. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 19th August 2015; Revised: 8th December 2015; Accepted: 1st January 2016 How to Cite: Kumar, P., Sarma, A.K., Bansal, A., Jha, M.K. (2016. Formulation of SrO-MBCUS Agglomerates for Esterification and Transesterification of High FFA Vegetable Oil. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (2: 140-150 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.2.540.140-150

  4. Aplicação de óleo no controle de Zabrotes subfasciatus e na germinação de Phaseolus vulgaris Oil aplication in the control of Zabrotes subfasciatus and in the germination of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Maiene de F. C. de Queiroga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se, com este trabalho, estudar a qualidade de sementes de feijão carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. tratadas com óleos vegetais de mamona, soja e oiticica, durante cinco meses de armazenamento. Mediante os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que os óleos vegetais utilizados no tratamento das sementes de feijão Phaseolus foram eficientes na manutenção da viabilidade e no controle da infestação pelo inseto-praga de armazenamento Zabrotes subfasciatus, nos cinco meses de armazenamento, sendo o óleo de oiticica o que apresentou melhor média de germinação, frente às tratadas com óleo de mamona e soja. O óleo de oiticica também foi o mais eficiente no controle de Z. subfasciatus. Verificou-se, ainda, redução da eficiência dos óleos nas suas menores doses, sendo a dose de 4,5 mL para 500 g de sementes, a mais eficaz para todas as variáveis estudadas.The purpose of this work was to study the quality of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. treated with vegetable oils of castor, soybean and 'oiticica' during five months of storage. From the obtained results it was concluded that vegetable oils used in the treatment of seeds of Phaseolus beans were effective in maintaining the viability and control of storage insect pest infestation Zabrotes subfasciatus during the five months of storage, and the 'oiticica' oil presented the best mean germination, compared to those treated with castor oil and soybeans. 'Oiticica' oil was also the most efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Reduced efficiency of the oils was observed in the small doses and the dose of 4.5 mL for 500 g of seeds was the most effective for all variables.

  5. The Impact of Virgin Coconut Oil and High-Oleic Safflower Oil on Body Composition, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Postmenopausal Women.

    Harris, Margaret; Hutchins, Andrea; Fryda, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    This randomized crossover study compared the impact of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to safflower oil (SO) on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. Twelve postmenopausal women (58.8 ± 3.7 year) consumed 30 mL VCO or SO for 28 days, with a 28-day washout. Anthropometrics included body weight and hip and waist circumference. Fat percent for total body, android and gynoid, fat mass, and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Women maintained their typical diet recording 28 days of food records during the study. Results were analyzed with SPSS v24 with significance at P ≤ .05. Comparisons are reported as paired t-test since no intervention sequence effect was observed. VCO significantly raised total cholesterol, TC (+18.2 ± 22.8 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein (+13.5 ± 16.0 mg/dL), and high-density lipoprotein, HDL (+6.6 ± 7.5 mg/dL). SO did not significantly change lipid values. TC and HDL were significantly different between test oils. The TC/HDL ratio change showed a neutral effect of both VCO and SO. One person had adverse reactions to VCO and increased inflammation. VCO decreased IL-1β for each person who had a detected sample. The impact of VCO and SO on other cytokines varied on an individual basis. This was the first study evaluating the impact of VCO on body composition in Caucasian postmenopausal women living in the United States. Results are suggestive that individuals wishing to use coconut oil in their diets can do so safely, but more studies need to be conducted with larger sample sizes, diverse populations, and more specific clinical markers such as particle size.

  6. Functional genomics reveals increases in cholesterol biosynthetic genes and highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis after dietary substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Bron James E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing drive to replace fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture diets with vegetable oils (VO, driven by the short supply of FO derived from wild fish stocks. However, little is known of the consequences for fish health after such substitution. The effect of dietary VO on hepatic gene expression, lipid composition and growth was determined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, using a combination of cDNA microarray, lipid, and biochemical analysis. FO was replaced with VO, added to diets as rapeseed (RO, soybean (SO or linseed (LO oils. Results Dietary VO had no major effect on growth of the fish, but increased the whole fish protein contents and tended to decrease whole fish lipid content, thus increasing the protein:lipid ratio. Expression levels of genes of the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways were increased in all vegetable oil diets as was SREBP2, a master transcriptional regulator of these pathways. Other genes whose expression was increased by feeding VO included those of NADPH generation, lipid transport, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, a marker of intracellular lipid accumulation, and protein and RNA processing. Consistent with these results, HUFA biosynthesis, hepatic β-oxidation activity and enzymic NADPH production were changed by VO, and there was a trend for increased hepatic lipid in LO and SO diets. Tissue cholesterol levels in VO fed fish were the same as animals fed FO, whereas fatty acid composition of the tissues largely reflected those of the diets and was marked by enrichment of 18 carbon fatty acids and reductions in 20 and 22 carbon HUFA. Conclusion This combined gene expression, compositional and metabolic study demonstrates that major lipid metabolic effects occur after replacing FO with VO in salmon diets. These effects are most likely mediated by SREBP2, which responds to reductions in dietary cholesterol. These changes are sufficient to maintain

  7. Effect of the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the melting and crystallization profiles of high-oleic high-stearic oils

    Bootello, M.A.; Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The composition and distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules are commonly considered as factors that determine the physical properties of a given oil or fat. The distribution of any fatty acid in fats and oils can be described through the α coefficient of asymmetry, which can be calculated from the TAG composition and fatty acid composition of the Sn-2 position of the TAGs determined through lipase hydrolysis. High-oleic high-stearic oils and fats are considered stable and healthy, and they are good substitutes for hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm fractions in many food products, such as spreads and confectionery. Here, different high-oleic high-stearic acid oils were formulated which contained different distributions of saturated fatty acids in their TAGs, while maintaining a similar fatty acid composition. The aim of this work was to discuss the possibility of using the α coefficient to predict the physical properties of fats in function of their chemical composition and their melting and crystallization behavior as examined by differential scanning calorimetry.

  8. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  9. Combinatorial study of NaF addition in CIGSe films for high efficiency solar cells

    Eid, Jessica; Liang, Haifan; Gereige, Issam; Lee, Sang; Van Duren, Jeroen K J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a sodium fluoride (NaF) thickness variation study for the H2Se batch furnace selenization of sputtered Cu(In,Ga) films in a wide range of Cu(In,Ga) film compositions to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) films and solar cells. Literature review indicates lack of consensus on the mechanisms involved in Na altering CIGSe film properties. In this work, for sputtered and batch-selenized CIGSe, NaF addition results in reduced gallium content and an increase in grain size for the top portion of the CIGSe film, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The addition of up to 20nm of NaF resulted in an improvement in all relevant device parameters: open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor. The best results were found for 15nm NaF addition, resulting in solar cells with 16.0% active-area efficiency (without anti-reflective coating) at open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 674mV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Combinatorial study of NaF addition in CIGSe films for high efficiency solar cells

    Eid, Jessica

    2013-12-04

    We report on a sodium fluoride (NaF) thickness variation study for the H2Se batch furnace selenization of sputtered Cu(In,Ga) films in a wide range of Cu(In,Ga) film compositions to form Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) films and solar cells. Literature review indicates lack of consensus on the mechanisms involved in Na altering CIGSe film properties. In this work, for sputtered and batch-selenized CIGSe, NaF addition results in reduced gallium content and an increase in grain size for the top portion of the CIGSe film, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The addition of up to 20nm of NaF resulted in an improvement in all relevant device parameters: open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor. The best results were found for 15nm NaF addition, resulting in solar cells with 16.0% active-area efficiency (without anti-reflective coating) at open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 674mV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Study of crude and plasma-treated heavy oil by low- and high-field 1H NMR

    Honorato, Hercilio D. A.; Silva, Renzo C.; Junior, Valdemar Lacerda; Castro, Eustaquio V. R. de; Freitas, Jair C. C. [Research and Methodology Development Laboratory for Crude Oil Analysis - LabPetro, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Espirito Santo (Brazil)], email: jairccfreitas@yahoo.com.br; Piumbini, Cleiton K.; Cunha, Alfredo G.; Emmerich, Francisco G. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Espirito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Andre A. de; Bonagamba, Tito J. [Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This document is intended to describe the combination of H low-field NMR and thermogravimetry (TG), rheological measurement and H high-field NMR to assess the physical and chemical changes that can occur in a heavy crude oil from treatment in a plasma reactor. This research was done using a heavy crude oil, API gravity of 10.1, which was treated in a double dielectric barrier (DDB) plasma reactor using different plasma gases: natural gas (NG), C02 or H2. The low-field HNMR experiments were conducted in a Maran Ultra spectrometer, from Oxford Instruments, at 27.5? C. After rheological analysis, a reduction in the viscosity of the plasma-treated oils in comparison to that of the crude oil was observed. Finally, it was confirmed that the use of H low-field NMR relaxometry and H high-field NMR spectroscopy allowed a separate analysis of the effects of the plasma treatment on the water and oil fractions to be made.

  12. Selection of High Oil Yielding Trees of Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi, Vegetative Propagation and Growth in the Field

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millettia pinnata (L. Panigrahi is a potential legume tree that produces seed oil for biodiesel feedstock. The initial step for raising a large-scale plantation of the species is selection of high oil yielding trees from the natural habitat. This is followed by vegetative propagation of the selected trees and then testing the growth of the clone in the field.  The aim of the present study was to select high-oil yielding trees of M. pinnata, to propagate the selected trees by budding and to evaluate the survival and growth of budded plants in the field. Pods were collected from 30 trees in Lovina Beach, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Oil was extracted from seeds using soxhlet with hexane as a solvent.  The high oil yielding trees were propagated by budding using root stocks grown from M. pinnata seeds.  Scions were taken from young branches of selected trees. Incision was made on rootstock and the same size of cut was made on a scion containing a single bud.  The scion was inserted to the incision of rootstock then closed tightly using plastic strips.   The plastic was removed when the scion grew into a little green shoot. One month after plastic removal, the scion union grew into a single shoot and then the budded plants were removed to polybags. Budded plants were planted in the field of Bukit Jimbaran, Badung Regency, Bali with 4 × 4 spacing. Results showed all budded plants successfully grow new shoots. Two months after planting the survival of budded plants was 100%. Plant height increased by 22.13 cm, stem diameter increased by 2.43 mm and the number of compound leaf increased by 2.08.  It can be concluded that four high oil yielding trees were selected from Lovina Beach and successfully propagated by budding. Survival of budded plants was 100% with vigorous growth.

  13. Crystal growth and thermoluminescence response of NaZr2(PO4)3 at high gamma radiation doses

    Ordóñez-Regil, E.; Contreras-Ramírez, A.; Fernández-Valverde, S.M.; González-Martínez, P.R.; Carrasco-Ábrego, H.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exposed to gamma doses of 10, 30 and 50 MGy. •Gamma radiation produced growth of the crystal size of the NZP. •Morphology changes were reversible by heating. •Linear relationship between the thermoluminescence and the applied gamma dose. •This property could be useful for high-level gamma dosimetry. -- Abstract: This work describes the synthesis and characterization of NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . The stability of this material under high doses of gamma radiation was investigated in the range of 10–50 MGy. Samples of unaltered and gamma irradiated NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermoluminescence. The results showed that while functional groups were not affected by the gamma irradiation, morphology changes were observed with increasing doses of gamma irradiation. The morphology of the non-irradiated compound is agglomerated flakes; however, irradiation at 10 MGy splits the flakes inducing the formation of well-defined cubes. Gamma irradiation induced the crystal size of the NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 to grow. The heat treatment (973 K) of samples irradiated at 50 MGy resulted in the recovery of the original morphology. Furthermore, the thermoluminescence analysis of the irradiated compound is reported

  14. How does pressure overload cause cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction? High-ouabain affinity cardiac Na+ pumps are crucial.

    Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2017-11-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy is frequently observed in hypertensive patients and is believed to be due to the pressure overload and cardiomyocyte stretch. Three recent reports on mice with genetically engineered Na + pumps, however, have demonstrated that cardiac ouabain-sensitive α 2 -Na + pumps play a key role in the pathogenesis of transaortic constriction-induced hypertrophy. Hypertrophy was delayed/attenuated in mice with mutant, ouabain-resistant α 2 -Na + pumps and in mice with cardiac-selective knockout or transgenic overexpression of α 2 -Na + pumps. The latter, seemingly paradoxical, findings can be explained by comparing the numbers of available (ouabain-free) high-affinity (α 2 ) ouabain-binding sites in wild-type, knockout, and transgenic hearts. Conversely, hypertrophy was accelerated in α 2 -ouabain-resistant (R) mice in which the normally ouabain-resistant α 1 -Na + pumps were mutated to an ouabain-sensitive (S) form (α 1 S/S α 2 R/R or "SWAP" vs. wild-type or α 1 R/R α 2 S/S mice). Furthermore, transaortic constriction-induced hypertrophy in SWAP mice was prevented/reversed by immunoneutralizing circulating endogenous ouabain (EO). These findings show that EO and its receptor, ouabain-sensitive α 2 , are critical factors in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. This complements reports linking elevated plasma EO to hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and failure in humans and elucidates the underappreciated role of the EO-Na + pump pathway in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Growth and physical properties of highly oriented La-doped (K,Na)NbO3 ferroelectric thin films

    Vendrell, X.; Raymond, O.; Ochoa, D.A.; García, J.E.; Mestres, L.

    2015-01-01

    Lead-free (K,Na)NbO 3 (KNN) and La doped (K,Na)NbO 3 (KNN-La) thin films are grown on SrTiO 3 substrates using the chemical solution deposition method. The effect of adding different amounts of Na and K excess (0–20 mol%) is investigated. The results confirm the necessity of adding 20 mol% excess amounts of Na and K precursor solutions in order to avoid the formation of the secondary phase, K 4 Nb 6 O 17 , as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, when adding a 20 mol% of alkaline metal excess, the thin films are highly textured with out-of-plane preferential orientation in the [100] direction of the [100] orientation of the substrate. Doping with lanthanum results in a decrease of the leakage current density at low electric field, and an increase in the dielectric permittivity across the whole temperature range (80–380 K). Although the (100)-oriented KNN and KNN-La films exhibited rounded hysteresis loops, at low temperatures the films show the typical ferroelectric hysteresis loops. - Highlights: • (K 0.5 Na 0.5 )NbO 3 and [(K 0.5 Na 0.5 ) 0.985 La 0.005 ]NbO 3 thin films have been prepared. • The obtained thin films show an excellent (100) preferred orientation. • Doping with lanthanum results in a decrease of the leakage current density. • The dielectric properties are enhanced when doping with lanthanum

  16. High speed analysis of used hydrocarbons, particularly waste oils; Schnellanalyse von gebrauchten Kohlenwasserstoffen, insbesondere Altoelen

    Yacoub-George, E.; Endres, H.E. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    According to a decision of the European Court of Justice material recycling of waste oil must take priority over thermal recycling. The present study investigates the possibilities to classify waste oil samples according to their potential for material recycling on-site at the waste oil producer. The first part of the study surveys the state of the art in chemical analysis of waste oil and in oil quality monitoring with sensing elements in vehicles. It was shown, that the chemical analysis of waste oil is dominated by methods for monitoring the oil quality and by methods for the determination of harmful substances. For sensor-based oil condition monitoring in vehicles different approaches were discussed in literature. Most sensor systems work in a capacitive mode and use the change of the electrical properties of the oil for analysing oil quality. The second part of the study investigates, whether waste oil can be classified according to its potential for material recycling by the following physical parameters: viscosity, density, viscoelastic properties, conductivity and relative permittivity. This was done by performing and evaluating measurements at 26 different waste oil samples with a combi-SAW-/IDK-dipstick sensor. The results showed, that the SAW- und IDK-signals contain only little information permitting to classify waste oil samples according to their potential for material recycling. A classification of waste oil samples with the combi-SAW-/IDK-dipstick sensor was impossible, even when the signal evaluation was done by using modern methods of chemometrics, as e. g. the multivariate statistics. A further series of measurements showed, that since the conductivity of the waste oil samples is too low, cyclovoltammetry is also an unsuitable method to classify waste oil samples on-site. On the other hand, the study showed that the investigated waste oil samples can be classified by IR-spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistics. By evaluating the

  17. Prevention of fatal arrhythmias in high-risk subjects by fish oil n-3 fatty acid intake.

    Leaf, Alexander; Albert, Christine M; Josephson, Mark; Steinhaus, David; Kluger, Jeffrey; Kang, Jing X; Cox, Benjamin; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David

    2005-11-01

    The long-chain n-3 fatty acids in fish have been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in experimental models and to prevent sudden cardiac death in a randomized trial of post-myocardial infarction patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that these n-3 fatty acids might prevent potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias in high-risk patients. Four hundred two patients with implanted cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with either a fish oil or an olive oil daily supplement for 12 months. The primary end point, time to first ICD event for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT or VF) confirmed by stored electrograms or death from any cause, was analyzed by intention to treat. Secondary analyses were performed for "probable" ventricular arrhythmias, "on-treatment" analyses for all subjects who had taken any of their oil supplements, and "on-treatment" analyses only of those subjects who were on treatment for at least 11 months. Compliance with double-blind treatment was similar in the 2 groups; however, the noncompliance rate was high (35% of all enrollees). In the primary analysis, assignment to treatment with the fish oil supplement showed a trend toward a prolonged time to the first ICD event (VT or VF) or of death from any cause (risk reduction of 28%; P=0.057). When therapies for probable episodes of VT or VF were included, the risk reduction became significant at 31%; P=0.033. For those who stayed on protocol for at least 11 months, the antiarrhythmic benefit of fish oil was improved for those with confirmed events (risk reduction of 38%; P=0.034). Although significance was not achieved for the primary end point, this study provides evidence that for individuals at high risk of fatal ventricular arrhythmias, regular daily ingestion of fish oil fatty acids may significantly reduce potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

  18. Self-Assembling of Tetradecylammonium Chain on Swelling High Charge Micas (Na-Mica-3 and Na-Mica-2): Effect of Alkylammonium Concentration and Mica Layer Charge.

    Pazos, M Carolina; Cota, Agustín; Osuna, Francisco J; Pavón, Esperanza; Alba, María D

    2015-04-21

    A family of tetradecylammonium micas is synthesized using synthetic swelling micas with high layer charge (Na(n)Si(8-n)Al(n)Mg6F4O20·XH2O, where n = 2 and 3) exchanged with tetradecylammonium cations. The molecular arrangement of the surfactant is elucidated on the basis of XRD patterns and DTA. The ordering conformation of the surfactant molecules into the interlayer space of micas is investigated by IR/FT, (13)C, (27)Al, and (29)Si MAS NMR. The structural arrangement of the tetradecylammonium cation in the interlayer space of high-charge micas is more sensitive to the effect of the mica layer charge at high concentration. The surfactant arrangement is found to follow the bilayer-paraffin model for all values of layer charge and surfactant concentration. However, at initial concentration below the mica CEC, a lateral monolayer is also observed. The amount of ordered conformation all-trans is directly proportional to the layer charge and surfactant concentration.

  19. Crystallographic characterization of cement pastes hydrated with NaCl; Caracterizacao cristalografica de pastas de cimento hidratadas com NaCl

    Melo, Carina Gabriela de Melo e; Martinelli, Antonio Eduardo; Melo, Dulce Maria Araujo; Melo, Marcus Antonio de Freitas; Melo, Vitor Rodrigo de Melo e [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    One of the major current challenges faced by oil companies is the exploration of pre salt basins. Salt layers deposited upon the evaporation of ocean water and continental separation are mainly formed by NaCl and isolate immense oil reservoirs. The mechanical stability and zonal isolation of oil wells that run through salt layers must be fulfilled by cement sheaths saturated with NaCl to assure chemical compatibility between cement and salt layer. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of NaCl addition on the hydration of oil well cement slurries as well as identifying the nature of crystalline phases present in the hardened cement. To that end, cement slurries containing NaCl were mixed, hardened and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the presence of NaCl affects the formation of hydration products by the presence of Friedel's salt. The intensity of the corresponding peaks increase as the contents of NaCl in the slurry increase. High concentrations of NaCl in Portland slurries increase the setting time of cement and the presence of Friedel's salt decreases the strength of the hardened cement. (author)

  20. A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High oil-field west of India

    Rao, D.G.

    "--"~'~ - "~" FAULT u NO0 7qO0- C LOS U RE i ( After Sahay. 1978) + DRY HOLE DES AREA N kilometers ' OIL WELL • DES IA 1 •, 7~:oo'E , 71-3o' I , 9"~O'E (a) Fig.2. a. Seismic contour map of the Bombay offshore basin and the Bombay High. Contour interval 200 m...

  1. Combination of sodium caseinate and succinylated alginate improved stability of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions

    Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Sodium caseinate (CAS) and commercial sodium alginate (CA), long chain modified alginate (LCMA) or short chain modified alginate (SCMA) were used in combination for emulsifying and stabilizing high fat (50–70%) fish oil-in-water emulsions. Physical (creaming, droplet size, viscosity and protein...

  2. Analysis of High Quality Agar wood Oil Chemical Compounds By Means Of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-Score Technique

    Nurlaila Ismail; Mohd Ali Nor Azah; Mailina Jamil; Saiful Nizam Tajuddin; Mohd Nasir Taib

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the grading of the agar wood oil to the high and low quality is done using manually such as human trained grader. It was performed based on the agar wood oil physical properties such as human experience and perception and the oil colour, odor and long lasting aroma. Several researchers found that chemical profiles of the oil should be utilized to overcome the problem facing by manual techniques for example human nose cannot tolerate with the many oils at the same time, so that accurate result can be obtained in grading the agar wood oil. The analysis involved of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-score techniques have been proposed in this study to analyze the chemical compounds especially from the high quality samples of agar wood oil (Aquilariamalaccensis) from Malaysia. Two SPME fibers were used such as divinylbenzene-carbogen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in extracting the oils compound under three different sampling temperature conditions such as 40, 60 and 80 degree Celsius. The chemical compounds extracted by SPME/ GC-MS were analyzed. The chemical compounds as identified by Z-score as significant compounds were discussed before the conclusion is made. It was found that 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, aromadendrene, β-agar ofuran, α-agar ofuran and γ-eudesmol were highlighted as significant for high quality agar wood oil and can be used as a marker compounds in classifying the agar wood oil. (author)

  3. Regulation of FA and TAG biosynthesis pathway genes in endosperms and embryos of high and low oil content genotypes of Jatropha curcas L.

    Sood, Archit; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2015-09-01

    The rising demand for biofuels has raised concerns about selecting alternate and promising renewable energy crops which do not compete with food supply. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.), a non-edible energy crop of the family euphorbiaceae, has the potential of providing biodiesel feedstock due to the presence of high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (75%) in seed oil which is mainly accumulated in endosperm and embryo. The molecular basis of seed oil biosynthesis machinery has been studied in J. curcas, however, what genetic differences contribute to differential oil biosynthesis and accumulation in genotypes varying for oil content is poorly understood. We investigated expression profile of 18 FA and TAG biosynthetic pathway genes in different developmental stages of embryo and endosperm from high (42%) and low (30%) oil content genotypes grown at two geographical locations. Most of the genes showed relatively higher expression in endosperms of high oil content genotype, whereas no significant difference was observed in endosperms versus embryos of low oil content genotype. The promoter regions of key genes from FA and TAG biosynthetic pathways as well as other genes implicated in oil accumulation were analyzed for regulatory elements and transcription factors specific to oil or lipid accumulation in plants such as Dof, CBF (LEC1), SORLIP, GATA and Skn-1_motif etc. Identification of key genes from oil biosynthesis and regulatory elements specific to oil deposition will be useful not only in dissecting the molecular basis of high oil content but also improving seed oil content through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Y Khademi; MA Azarbayejani; SA Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1) control, (2) training, (3) 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4) 30 mg/kg Flaxse...

  5. High-throughput authentication of edible oils with benchtop Ultrafast 2D NMR.

    Gouilleux, B; Marchand, J; Charrier, B; Remaud, G S; Giraudeau, P

    2018-04-01

    We report the use of an Ultrafast 2D NMR approach applied on a benchtop NMR system (43 MHz) for the authentication of edible oils. Our results demonstrate that a profiling strategy based on fast 2D NMR spectra recorded in 2.4 min is more efficient than the standard 1D experiments to classify oils from different botanical origins, since 1D spectra on the same samples suffer from strong peak overlaps. Six edible oils with different botanical origins (olive, hazelnut, sesame, rapeseed, corn and sunflower) have been clearly discriminated by PCA analysis. Furthermore, we show how this approach combined with a PLS model can detect adulteration processes such as the addition of hazelnut oil into olive oil, a common fraud in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Na2TiGeO5: Crystal structure stability at low temperature and high pressure

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature evolution of the lattice parameters measured from 295 to 125 K exhibits a small instability below T-c approximate to 278 K, indicating ferroelastic properties of Na2TiGeO5. The behavior is related to the specific crystal structure built of polyhedral layers with shared TiO5 pyrami...

  7. Bio-oil production via co-pyrolysis of almond shell as biomass and high density polyethylene

    Önal, Eylem; Uzun, Başak Burcu; Pütün, Ayşe Eren

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate to see the effect of HDPE addition on thermal decomposition of lignocellulosic materials. • Increasing the proportion of HDPE in mixtures increases the oil yields. • After co-pyrolysis applied, obtained oil is more stable due to having lower oxygen content and higher heating value. • The addition of HDPE to aS has a positive effect on fuel properties of obtained oil. - Abstract: Biomass from almond shell (aS) was co-pyrolyzed with high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer to investigate the synergistic effects on the product yields and compositions. The pyrolysis temperature was selected as 500 °C, based on results of TGA-DTG. Co-pyrolysis of HDPE-biomass mixtures were pyrolysed with various proportions such as 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 0:1. The yield of liquids produced during co-pyrolysis enhanced 23%, as the weight ratio of HDPE in the mixture was doubled. Obtained bio-oils were analyzed with using column chromatography, 1 H NMR, GC/MS, and FT-IR. According to analyses results, produced liquids by co-pyrolysis had higher carbon (26% higher) and hydrogen contents (78% higher), lower oxygen content (%86 less) with a higher heating value (38% higher) than those of biomass oil

  8. Numerical Analysis on the Influence of Thermal Effects on Oil Flow Characteristic in High-Pressure Air Injection (HPAI Process

    Hu Jia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous laboratory study, we have shown the thermal behavior of Keke Ya light crude oil (Tarim oilfield, branch of CNPC for high-pressure air injection (HPAI application potential study. To clarify the influences of thermal effects on oil production, in this paper, we derived a mathematical model for calculating oil flow rate, which is based on the heat conduction property in porous media from the combustion tube experiment. Based on remarkably limited knowledge consisting of very global balance arguments and disregarding all the details of the mechanisms in the reaction zone, the local governing equations are formulated in a dimensionless form. We use finite difference method to solve this model and address the study by way of qualitative analysis. The time-space dimensionless oil flow rate (qD profiles are established for comprehensive studies on the oil flow rate characteristic affected by thermal effects. It also discusses how these findings will impact HPAI project performances, and several guidelines are suggested.

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of vanadium in crude oils and cobalt and iron in pharmaceutical preparations

    Khuhawar, M.Y.; Lanjwani, S.N.; Khaskhely, G.Q.

    1993-01-01

    High performance liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) method has ben developed for the determination of vanadium in crude oils, based on acid decomposition of oils, followed by complexation with bis (salicylaldehyde) tetramethyl ethylenediamine (H2SA2Ten). The complex is extracted in organic phase and is separated from copper and nickel using normal phase HPLC column. Detection is achieved using spectrophtmetric detector. The vanadium in oil is obtained at sub microgram/g level. Similarly cobalt(II), cobalt(III) and iron(II) are separated on reversed phase HPLC column. Pre column derivatization is used to develop HPLC method for the determination of cobalt and iron in pharmaceutical preparations. Finally results are compared using atomic absorption spectrometer. (author)

  10. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n–6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P.; DeMichele, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n–6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  11. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective induction of high-ouabain-affinity isoform of Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase by thyroid hormone

    Haber, R.S.; Loeb, J.N. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The administration of thyroid hormone is known to result in an induction of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-adenosinetriphosphatase (Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase) in rat skeletal muscle and other thyroid hormone-responsive tissues. Since the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase in a variety of mammalian tissues has recently been reported to exist in at least two forms distinguishable by differing affinities for the inhibitory cardiac glycoside ouabain. The authors have studied the effects of 3,3{prime},5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T{sub 3}) treatment on these two forms of the enzyme in rat diaphragm. The inhibition of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in a crude membrane fraction by varying concentrations of ouabain conformed to a biphasic pattern consistent with the presence of two distinct isoforms with inhibition constants (K{sub I}s) for ouabain of {approximately}10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}4} M, respectively. Measurement of the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)ouabain to these membranes confirmed the presence of a class of high-affinity ouabain binding sites with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of slightly less than 10{sup {minus}7}M, whose maximal binding capacity was increased by T{sub 3} treatment by 185%. Binding studies in unfractionated homogenates of diaphragm similarly demonstrated the presence of high-affinity sites whose maximal binding capacity was increased by T{sub 3} treatment. Quantitation of both the high- and low-ouabain-affinity forms of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase by ouabain-dependent phosphorylation from ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate confirmed that T{sub 3} treatment markedly increased the number of high-affinity sites while having little effect on the number of low-affinity sites. These observations provide, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that these two forms of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase are subject to selective hormonal induction.

  13. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Levels of licury oil [“Syagrus coronata” (Martius Beccari] in crossbred Boer kids diet Níveis de óleo de licuri ["Syagrus coronata" (Martius Beccari] na dieta de cabritos ¾ Boer

    Felicidade Margarida Macome

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best level of licury oil in the diet, feed intake, digestibility, blood parameters and performance of ¾ Boer goats. 20 male goats were used, with an initial weight of 10.8kg/LW. The animals were fed with hay and concentrated mix supplemented with licury oil. The experiment lasted 70 days. Feed and feces samples were collected for determination of feed intake and digestibility. The intake of dry matter, ether extract, non fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrient presented quadratic effect with the addition of the oil. The plasma parameters were not affected with oil inclusion as well the intake of fiber fractions. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility were increased with the oil inclusion, although ether extract digestibility presented quadratic effect. The average daily gain and feed conversion of dry matter and ether extract showed a quadratic effect of adding oil. Based on performance and nutrient intake using this oil is not advantageous for feeding growing goats. However based on the other parameters, licury oil can be used up to 4.5% of the diet.Objetivou-se determinar o melhor nível de óleo de licuri na dieta de caprinos por intermédio do desempenho, consumo, digestibilidade, e parâmetros sanguíneos. Vinte cabritos, foram alimentados com proporções iguais de volumoso e concentrado e 0; 1,5; 3,0 e 4,5% de óleo de licuri (esses níveis consistiram nos tratamentos. O experimento durou 70 dias. Os animais foram pesados no inicio e no fim do experimento. Foram coletadas amostras do alimento, sobras, e das fezes, para determinação do consumo e digestibilidade. O consumo de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, carboidratos não-fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais, tiveram efeito quadrático com a adição do óleo. Os parâmetros sanguíneos não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, bem como o consumo das frações fibrosas. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca

  15. The effect of information processing technology on its economic indicators in the oil industry. O vliyanii tekhnologii obrabotki informatsii na yeye ekonomicheskiye pokazateli v usloviyakh neftyanoy promyshlennosti

    Obidnov, B I; Maksimova, T N

    1984-01-01

    The issues of the dependence of the economic indicators of information acquisition in the oil industry on its processing technology are examined. Different variants in a technology for processing information are examined and the characteristics for increasing the cost of information within an oil extracting enterprise are analyzed in detail. The economic indicators of information providing it is processed in a computer center are also disclosed.

  16. Induction of embryogenic callus and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high yielding mature oil palm

    Yeedum, I.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus induction and plantlet regeneration from young leaves of high-yielding mature oil palm were carried out using 10-year and 20-year-old trees from Thepa Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources,Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, and Trang Agricultural College, respectively. Culture media used in this experiment were Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Oil Palm supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or 2,4- dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D or dicamba (Di and antioxidants.Young leaves from 6th to 11st frond were excised, sterilized, cut into 5x5 mm pieces and cultured in the dark at 26±4ºC or 28±0.5ºC for 3 months. The results revealed that MS medium with 200 mg/l ascorbic acid (As and 1 mg/l Di (MS-AsDi gave the highest callus induction percentage (7.93 after culture for 3 months at 28±0.5ºC. Leaf segments from 6th - 8th frond yielded callus forming percentage at 10% (averaged from 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/l Di containing MS medium. Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant at concentration of 200 mg/l supplemented in MS medium in the presence of 2.5 mg/l Di produced the highest callus induction percentage (11.2 and number of nodules (7.06. A high percentage of embryogenic callus formation (66.67 was obtained when the calli were transferred to the same medium component supplemented with 0.5 mg/l Di and 1,000 mg/l casein hydrolysate (CH (MS-AsDiCH. Haustorial-staged embryos were observed to be isolated as an individual embryo and germinated on MS medium without plant growth regulator (MS-free. Development of root could be classified into two distinct types, fibrous and tap root.

  17. Unravelling the origin of irreversible capacity loss in NaNiO 2 for high voltage sodium ion batteries

    Wang, Liguang; Wang, Jiajun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Ren, Yang; Zuo, Pengjian; Yin, Geping; Wang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Layered transition metal compounds have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical capacity and energy density for sodium ion batteries. However, this kind of material suffers from serious irreversible capacity decay during the charge and discharge process. Here, using synchrotron-based operando transmission X-ray microscopy and high-energy X-ray diffraction combined with electrochemical measurements, the visualization of the dissymmetric phase transformation and structure evolution mechanism of layered NaNiO2 material during initial charge and discharge cycles are clarified. Phase transformation and deformation of NaNiO2 during the voltage range of below 3.0 V and over 4.0 V are responsible for the irreversible capacity loss during the first cycling, which is also confirmed by the evolution of reaction kinetics behavior obtained by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. These findings reveal the origin of the irreversibility of NaNiO2 and offer valuable insight into the phase transformation mechanism, which will provide underlying guidance for further development of high-performance sodium ion batteries.

  18. High prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance amongst commensal flora of antibiotic naïve neonates: a study from India.

    Saksena, Rushika; Gaind, Rajni; Sinha, Anju; Kothari, Charu; Chellani, Harish; Deb, Manorama

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of resistance amongst commensal flora is a serious threat to the community. However, there is paucity of data regarding antibiotic resistance in commensals in the absence of antibiotic pressure. Altogether, 100 vaginally delivered antibiotic naïve exclusively breastfed neonates were selected. Stool samples collected on day (D)1, D21 and D60 of birth were cultured. Enterobacteriaceae isolates were screened for nalidixic acid (NA) and ciprofloxacin susceptibility as per CLSI guidelines. In 28 randomly selected neonates, isolates (n=92) resistant to NA and ciprofloxacin were characterized for the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnrA, qnrB and qnrS, qepAand aac(6')-Ib-cr) and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC genes by specific primers and confirmed by sequencing. A total of 343 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 100 neonates. On D1, 58 % of neonates were colonized with at least one Enterobacteriaceae predominantly E. coli. Overall resistance to NA was 60 % but ciprofloxacin resistance increased significantly from 15 % (14/96) on D1 to 38 % (50/132) on D60 (P-value flora of antibiotic naïve and exclusively breastfed neonates suggests a rampant rise of resistance in the community. The source of resistance genes on D1 is probably maternal flora acquired at birth. High load of PMQR genes in commensal flora are a potential source of spread to pathogenic organisms.

  19. Two-stage continuous process of methyl ester from high free fatty acid mixed crude palm oil using static mixer coupled with high-intensity of ultrasound

    Somnuk, Krit; Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixed crude palm oil was used in the two-step continuous process. • Two-step continuous process was performed using static mixer coupled with ultrasound. • The maximum obtained yield was 92.5 vol.% after the purification process. • The residence time less than 20 s was achieved in ultrasonic reactors. - Abstract: The two-stage continuous process of methyl ester from high free fatty acid (FFA) mixed crude palm oil (MCPO) was performed by using static mixer coupled with high-intensity of ultrasound. The 2 × 1000 W ultrasonic homogenizers were operated at 18 kHz frequency in the 2 × 100 mL continuous reactors. For the first-step, acid-catalyzed esterification was employed with 18 vol.% of methanol, 2.7 vol.% of sulfuric acid, 60 °C of temperature, and 20 L h −1 of MCPO flow rate, for reducing the acid value from 28 mg KOH g −1 to less than 2 mg KOH g −1 . For the second-step, base-catalyzed transesterification was carried out under 18 vol.% of methanol, 8 g KOH L −1 of oil, and 20 L h −1 of esterified oil flow rate at 30 °C. The high yields of esterified oil and crude biodiesel were attained within the residence time of less than 20 s in the ultrasonic reactors. The yields of each stage process were: 103.3 vol.% of esterified oil, 105.4 vol.% of crude biodiesel, and 92.5 vol.% of biodiesel when compared with 100 vol.% MCPO. The quality of the biodiesel meets the specification of biodiesel standard in Thailand

  20. Removal of Na+ from Ionic Liquids by Zeolite for High Quality Electrolyte Manufacture

    Cho, Wonje; Seo, Yongseong; Jung, Soon Jae; Lee, Won Gil; Kim, Byung Chul; Yu, Kookhyun

    2013-01-01

    This study develops a novel method to remove the free cations created during the synthesis of ionic liquid. The cations are removed from the ionic liquid by size-selective adsorption onto chemically surface-modified Zeolite. The porous crystal nano-structure of Zeolite has several electron-rich Al sites to attract cations. While large cations of an ionic liquid cannot access the Zeolite nano-structure, small cations like Na + have ready access and are adsorbed. This study confirms that: Na + can be removed from ionic liquid effectively using Zeolite; and, in contrast to the conventional and extensively applied ion exchange resin method or solvent extraction methods, this can be done without changing the nature of the ionic liquid

  1. Pion Production Measurement in NA61/SHINE Experiment for High Precision Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    Palczewski, Tomasz Jan

    2009-01-01

    One of physics goals of the NA61/SHINE experiment is a measurement of hadron production cross sections from proton-Carbon interactions at 31GeV/c for the T2K experiment at J-PARC. A precise knowledge of differential cross sections for pion and kaon production is of importance for improving the accuracy of neutrino flux simulations. The NA61 detector has a large angular acceptance, full coverage of the T2K phase space region, and good particle identification. In this work the analyses of negatively charged pion production are presented. Two different methods of negative pion selection and corrections for detector effects are discussed. Finally, preliminary dn/dp distributions of negatively charged pion in p+C interactions at 31 GeV/c are presented.

  2. pH-induced inversion of water-in-oil emulsions to oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) using core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer as interfacial stabilizer.

    Chen, Qijing; Deng, Xiaoyong; An, Zesheng

    2014-06-01

    A pH-responsive core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) arms was used as an interfacial stabilizer for emulsions containing toluene (80 v%) and water (20 v%). In the pH range of 12.1-9.3, ordinary water-in-oil emulsions were formed. Intermediate multiple emulsions of oil-in-water-in-oil and water-in-oil-in-water were formed at pH 8.6 and 7.5, respectively. Further lowering the pH resulted in the formation of gelled high internal phase emulsions of oil-in-water type in the pH range of 6.4-0.6. The emulsion behavior was correlated with interfacial tension, conductivity and configuration of the CCS polymer at different pH. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Portfolio theory in the selection of oil investment projects Teoria de carteiras na seleção de projetos de investimento em petróleo

    Jalimar Guimarães Simplício

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to compare investment project selection using the efficient frontier in the mean-variance space based on optimization models introduced by Markowitz (1952 with the project ranking method according to the profitability index (PI. The selection of real assets by companies did not incorporate the mean-variance optimization procedure in the same way the selection of financial assets in investment portfolios did. The process of selection and formation of portfolios of investment projects for the oil area of a company in the energy industry was analyzed. Project portfolios formed according to the usual company practice of ranking by their PI were compared with those that result from applying mean-variance optimization through Monte Carlo simulation, which allows the computation of mean returns, variances, and covariances for the set of projects considered. The inefficiency of project portfolios obtained by ranking according to the PI compared to those obtained by the method of Markowitz suggests that there are opportunities to improve the process of selecting the set of projects to be implemented by companies.O objetivo deste artigo é comparar a seleção de projetos de investimento segundo a fronteira eficiente no espaço média-variância com base em modelos de otimização introduzidos por Markowitz (1952 com o método do ordenamento de projetos segundo o índice de lucratividade (IL. A seleção de ativos reais pelas empresas não incorporou o procedimento de otimização de média-variância da mesma forma que na seleção de ativos financeiros para carteiras de investimento. O processo de seleção e formação de carteiras de projetos de investimento pela área de petróleo de uma empresa do setor de energia foi analisado. Carteiras de projetos constituídas de acordo com a prática usual da empresa de ordenamento pelo IL foram comparadas com as que resultariam da aplicação da otimização de m

  4. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  5. Separation of free fatty acids from high free fatty acid crude palm oil using short-path distillation

    Japir, Abd Al-Wali; Salimon, Jumat; Derawi, Darfizzi; Bahadi, Murad; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2016-11-01

    The separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) was done by using short-path distillation (SPD). The separation parameters was at their boiling points, a feed amount of 2.3 mL/min, an operating pressure of 10 Torr, a condenser temperature of 60°C, and a rotor speed of 300 rpm. The physicochemical characteristics of oil before and after SPD were determined. The results showed that FFA % of 8.7 ± 0.3 and 0.9 ± 0.1 %, iodine value of 53.1 ± 0.4 and 52.7 ± 0.5 g I2/100 g, hydroxyl value of 32.5 ± 0.6 and 13.9 ± 1.1 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable value of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.20 ± 0.15%, moisture content of 0.31 ± 0.01 and 0.24 ± 0.01 % for high free fatty acid crude palm oil before and after distillation, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) results showed that the major fatty acids in crude palm oil (CPO) were palmitic acid (44.4% - 45%) followed by oleic acid (39.6% - 39.8%). In general, high free fatty acid crude palm oil after molecular distillation (HFFA-CPOAM) showed admirably physicochemical properties.

  6. Food emulsion type oil in water prepared with high-protein from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads flour – SHF

    Yuli Cano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of flour from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads with a high content of protein (SHF to stabilize food emulsions type oil in water (o/w is an alternative to take advantage of the by-products of the shrimp industry. The aim of this work was to prepare food emulsion type oil in water (o/w using the SHF due to the high percentage in proteins; for this procedure a physicochemical and bromatological characterization of flour of shrimps (Penaeus vannamei heads has been done, in which a percentage of protein 51 %, moisture of 11,82 %, fat 8,52 % and 22,23 % of ash has been obtained. The base emulsions may be used in food products such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, spreads, dressings and other products. The different emulsions with adequate rheological and microstructural characteristics were prepared using different concentrations of palm oil (20, 30 and 40%w/w and different concentrate of SHF (0,5, 1 and 2 % w/w. Therefore, we have obtained a food emulsion stable type oil in water (O/W with 2 % w/w of SHF, which presented a behavior non-Newtonian fluid type shear-thinning and homogeneous distribution of droplets.

  7. Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds

    Guangul, F M; Sulaiman, S A; Ramli, A

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

  8. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  9. Variability induced by spaceflight environment on high oil and normal maize lines

    Xu Xiaowei; Xu Li; Dong Xin; Jin Weiwei; Chen Shaojiang

    2011-01-01

    High oil inbred line BY815 and two normal inbred lines 1145 and F349 treated with spaceflight were used for variability analysis. Results showed that the mutation rate of BY815 was 21.61% in SP 1 , while the mutation rates of 1145 and F349 were 2.57% and 3.13% respectively. Only six mutants were found from these three materials in SP 2 , of which two mutants, HT-3 from BY815 exhibiting albino leaf color and HT-5 from 1145 exhibiting stripe-like spots leaves, were worthy of further study. Genetic analysis of the two mutants showed that the segregation ratio of normal and mutant phenotypes was 3 : 1, which was in accordance with Mendel's single gene inheritance law. Cytological observation of all the six mutants showed no chromosome abnormalities. By using SSR (simple sequence repeat) method, 130 pairs of primers were employed and only one mutant originated from inbred line 1145 showed polymorphic and the mutated loci rate of the genome in this mutant was 8.46%. (authors)

  10. Persea schiedeana: A High Oil “Cinderella Species” Fruit with Potential for Tropical Agroforestry Systems

    Jay Bost

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Persea schiedeana, a close relative of avocado (Persea americana, is an important part of agroforestry systems and diets in parts of Mesoamerica, particularly in the coffee growing areas of southeastern Mexico and Guatemala, where it is known as chinene, coyo, and yas. Little research attention has been given to this species, other than as a rootstock for avocado. Research carried out in six villages composing the Comité de Recursos Naturales de la Chinantla Alta (CORENCHI in Oaxaca, Mexico shows that Persea schiedeana has potential as a supplement to avocado production in subsistence systems and as a potential oil crop in more market oriented agroforestry systems. This survey of Persea schiedeana in the Chinantla area reports on the ethnoecology and management of chinene, as well as on the morphological diversity of the fruit in the area. High morphological diversity for fruit characters was noted and it is suggested that artificial selection has occurred and been modestly successful for desired fruit characters. Superior fruiting trees, identified during village level “chinene fairs” were targeted for vegetative propagation as part of a participatory domestication project. Such superior genotypes hold potential for addressing food security and creating marketable products in tropical areas around the globe.

  11. Auxiliary units for refining of high nitrogen content oils: Premium II refinery case

    Nicolato, Paolo Contim; Pinotti, Rafael [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    PETROBRAS is constantly investing on its refining park in order to increase the production of clean and stable fuels and to be capable to process heavier oils with high contaminants content. Sulfur and nitrogen are the main heteroatoms present in petroleum. They are responsible for some undesirable fuels properties like corrosivity and instability, and also emit pollutants when burnt. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are designed to remove these contaminants and adjust other fuel properties, generating, as byproduct, sour gases and sour water streams rich in H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}, which are usually sent to Sour Water Treatment Units and Sulfur Recovery Units. The regeneration of the amine used for the light streams treatment, as fuel gas and LPG, also generates sour gas streams that must be also sent to Sulfur Recovery Units. As the ammonia content in the sour streams increases, some design parameters must be adjusted to avoid increasing the Refinery emissions. Sulfur Recovery Units must provide proper NH3 destruction. Sour Water Treatment must have a proper segregation between H{sub 2}S and ammonia streams, whenever desirable. Amine Regeneration Systems must have an efficient procedure to avoid the ammonia concentration in the amine solution. This paper presents some solutions usually applied to the Petroleum Industry and analyses some aspects related to Premium II Refinery Project and how its design will help the Brazilian refining park to meet future environmental regulation and market demands. (author)

  12. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Amin, Mahasen S. [Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. (author)

  13. Changes in the Characteristics of Water-in-Oil-based High Internal ...

    HP

    Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur 63100, ... and water-in-oil (W/O) systems with internal .... stresses were applied on the samples, and shear rates and .... Curr Opin Colloid Interfac.

  14. High-temperature epoxidation of soybean oil in flow : speeding up elemental reactions wanted and unwanted

    Cortese, B.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Hessel, V.

    2012-01-01

    The soybean oil epoxidation reaction is investigated theoretically through kinetic modeling of temperature effects enabled through flow processing under superheated conditions. Different from previous studies on such processing, here a complex reaction network superimposed by multiphase transport is

  15. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A.; Amin, Mahasen S.

    2010-01-01

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue.

  16. Extraction and characterization of oil bodies from soy beans: a natural source of pre-emulsified soybean oil.

    Iwanaga, Daigo; Gray, David A; Fisk, Ian D; Decker, Eric Andrew; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2007-10-17

    Soybeans contain oil bodies that are coated by a layer of oleosin proteins. In nature, this protein coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and may be utilized by food manufacturers for the same purpose. In this study, oil bodies were extracted from soybean using an aqueous extraction method that involved blending, dispersion (pH 8.6), filtration, and centrifugation steps. The influence of NaCl (0-250 mM), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C, 20 min) and pH (2-8) on the properties and stability of the oil bodies was analyzed using zeta-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. The extracted oil bodies were relatively small ( d 32 approximately 250 nm), and their zeta-potential went from around +12 mV to -20 mV as the pH was increased from 2 to 8, with an isoelectric point around pH 4. The oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at low (pH = 2) and high (pH >/= 6) pH values but were unstable at intermediate values (3 oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at relatively low salt concentrations (NaCl oil bodies were stable to thermal processing from 30 to 90 degrees C (0 mM NaCl, pH 7), but there appeared to be a change in their interfacial properties (decrease in zeta-potential) at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. These results suggest that oil bodies extracted from soybeans have similar or improved stability compared to soybean oil emulsions produced from bulk ingredients and may provide a new way of creating functional soy products for the food industry.

  17. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography studies on the formation and distribution of polar compounds in camellia seed oil during heating*

    Feng, Hong-xia; Sam, Rokayya; Jiang, Lian-zhou; Li, Yang; Cao, Wen-ming

    2016-01-01

    Camellia seed oil (CSO) is rich in oleic acid and has a high number of active components, which give the oil high nutritional value and a variety of biological activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in the content and distribution of total polar compounds (TPC) in CSO during heating. TPC were isolated by means of preparative flash chromatography and further analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The TPC content of CSO increased from 4.74% to 25.29%, showing a significantly lower formation rate as compared to that of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and soybean oil (SBO) during heating. Furthermore, heating also resulted in significant differences (P<0.05) in the distribution of TPC among these oils. Though the content of oxidized triacylglycerol dimers, oxidized triacylglycerol oligomers, and oxidized triacylglycerol monomers significantly increased in all these oils, their increased percentages were much less in CSO than those in EVOO, indicating that CSO has a greater ability to resist oxidation. This work may be useful for the food oil industry and consumers in helping to choose the correct oil and to decide on the useful lifetime of the oil. PMID:27819135

  18. Influência da secagem do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. na qualidade do óleo extraído Influence of pequi drying (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. on the quality of the oil extracted

    Ludmila Pereira Aquino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. tem se destacado por ser um fruto oleaginoso e rico em carotenoides. A secagem é um processo utilizado na extração do óleo por hexano, mas a degradação dos carotenoides e óleo podem ocorrer. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes métodos de secagem (ao sol, estufa ventilada a 40 e a 60 °C e do tempo (4 horas e até peso constante no rendimento e na qualidade do óleo extraído por hexano no extrator Soxhlet. Quando a polpa de pequi foi seca, 3% ou conteúdo menor de umidade e maior rendimento do óleo foi obtido (52 a 59%, base seca. Carotenoides totais foram maiores e índice de peróxido menores para a polpa desidratada a 40 °C em estufa ventilada, quando comparada com a secagem da polpa em estufa a 60 °C e ao sol. Estes resultados indicaram que a secagem em estufa a 40 °C por 19 horas resultou num maior rendimento do óleo e menor degradação térmica.Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb has stood out for being an oleaginous fruit rich in carotenoids. Drying is widely used technique in the oil extraction process using hexane, but the degradation of oil and carotenoids may occur. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different drying methods (sun, air-circulated drier at 40 and 60 °C and time (4 hours and up to constant weight on the yield and quality of the oil extracted using hexane using a soxhlet apparatus. When the pequi pulp was dried up to 3% or even lower, more oil yield was obtained (52-59%, dry basis. The total carotenoids contents obtained were higher and the peroxide index was lower for the pulp dried at 40 °C in an air-circulated drier when compared to drying at 60 °C in an air-ventilated drier and to sun drying technique. These results indicate that drying in an air-circulated drier at 40 °C for 19 hours resulted in higher oil yields with less heat degradation.

  19. Investigation of Technological Operations Affecting the Determination of Concentration of Ionol Additive in Insulating Oil in High-Voltage Equipment

    Korobeynikov S.M.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionol oxidation inhibitor level control is included into normative indicators list for diagnostics of internal insulation condition of any oil-filled high voltage device. Concentration of oxidation inhibitor in dielectric liquid should be from 0,08 % to 0,40 % mass. Power supply network chemistry laboratories use such methods as spectroscopy, spectrometry, chromatography and many others. Russian insulation service specialists use the method of ionol concentration measurement in oils based on gas-liquid chromatography. In the first place it is related to the fact that gas chromatographs are installed for several tasks, including definition of inhibitor’s mass concentration. However, as practice shows, the use of this method for additive analysis, especially in old acidified mineral oils is linked to some difficulties. The aim of this work is identify technologic faults that may occur during definition of ionol inhibitive additive in dielectric liquid with gas-liquid chromatography method, and, as a consequence, may lead to incorrect calculation of ionol additional concentration to oil, necessary for its antioxygenic properties maintenance and high insulation quality provision during high voltage device functioning. The object of the research is insulating oil with more than 35 years’ operating cycle, presenting a complex multiplex matrix of hydrocarbons and oxygenates preventing reliable determination of ionol additive with gas-liquid chromatography method. Executed researches show that the main input into “correct” final result obtention during calculation of additional additive concentration was made by such technological operations as water content in extractant and technology of sample introduction into chromatograph’s evaporation tank

  20. Effects of high-pressure process on kinetics of leaching oil from soybean powder using hexane in batch systems.

    Uhm, Joo Tae; Yoon, Won Byong

    2011-08-01

    Mass transfer models of leaching oil from soybean (Glycine max) flour with hexane after high-pressure process (HPP) treatment were developed. High pressure (450 MPa) was applied to the soybean flour (mean diameter of flour particle: 365 μm) for 30 min before leaching the oil components in the solvent. The ratio of solvent (volume, mL) to soybean flour (mass, g), such as 1:10 and 1:20, was employed to characterize the effect of solvent ratio on the leaching rate in the batch type of extraction process. Ultraviolet absorbance at 300 nm was used to monitor the extraction rate. Saturation solubility (C(AS)) was determined to be 21.73 kg/m³. The mass transfer coefficients (k) were determined based on the 1st- and 2nd-order kinetic models. The 2nd kinetic model showed better fit. The HPP treatment showed a higher extraction rate and yield compared to the control, while the amount of solvent did not affect the extraction rate and yield. The scanning electron microscope showed that HPP-treated soybean particles included more pores than the untreated. The pores observed in the HPP-treated soybean flours might help increase the mass transfer rate of solvent and solute in the solid matrix. High-pressure processing can help increase the extraction rate of oil from the soybean flour operated in batch systems. The conventional solid to solvent ratio (1:20) used to extract oil composition from the plant seed did not help increase the amount of oil extracted from the soybean flour. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. A radiotracer technique for testing a high pressure gas compressor for oil leakage

    Eapen, A.C.; Kirti; Jain, S.K.; Gupta, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    The radiotracer investigations carried out at NOCIL, Bombay, to measure the amount of lubrication oil present in the gas being compressed in a 1000 H.P. centrifugal compressor are described. By injecting a few mCi 131 I labelled glyceryl trioleate tracer and monitoring the radioactivity of the outlet gas for about 20 hours, the extent of the oil present in the gas could be determined. (auth.)

  2. High charge carrier density at the NaTaO3/SrTiO3 hetero-interface

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-08-05

    The formation of a (quasi) two-dimensional electron gas between the band insulators NaTaO3 and SrTiO3 is studied by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method of density functional theory. Optimization of the atomic positions points to only small changes in the chemical bonding at the interface. Both the p-type (NaO)−/(TiO2)0 and n-type (TaO2)+/(SrO)0 interfaces are found to be metallic with high charge carrier densities. The effects of O vacancies are discussed. Spin-polarized calculations point to the formation of isolated O 2pmagnetic moments, located in the metallic region of the p-type interface.

  3. Drying Shrinkage of Mortar Incorporating High Volume Oil Palm Biomass Waste

    Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul; Samadi, Mostafa; Rahman Mohd. Sam, Abdul; Khalid, Nur Hafizah Abd; Nabilah Sarbini, Noor; Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Warid Hussin, Mohd; Ismail, Mohammed A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the drying shrinkage of mortar incorporating oil palm biomass waste including Palm Oil Fuel Ash, Oil Palm Kernel Shell and Oil Palm Fibre. Nano size of palm oil fuel ash was used up to 80 % as cement replacement by weight. The ash has been treated to improve the physical and chemical properties of mortar. The mass ratio of sand to blended ashes was 3:1. The test was carried out using 25 × 25 × 160 mm prism for drying shrinkage tests and 70 × 70 ×70 mm for compressive strength test. The results show that the shrinkage value of biomass mortar is reduced by 31% compared with OPC mortar thus, showing better performance in restraining deformation of the mortar while the compressive strength increased by 24% compared with OPC mortar at later age. The study gives a better understanding of how the biomass waste affect on mortar compressive strength and drying shrinkage behaviour. Overall, the oil palm biomass waste can be used to produce a better performance mortar at later age in terms of compressive strength and drying shrinkage.

  4. Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the "Full City" accident

    G. Broström

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution, the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

  5. The U phase formation in cement-based systems containing high amounts of Na2SO4

    Li, G.; Moranville, M.; Le Bescop, P.

    1996-01-01

    Simulated cemented low level wastes containing high amounts of Na 2 SO 4 (10--15%) were examined with respect to the mineralogy of the solid phases, chemical composition of the interstitial aqueous phase and immersion behavior in water. All results reveal the formation of a mineral called U phase, first observed by Dosch and zur Strassen in 1967, and its deleterious effects on the samples immersed in water. It appears that this phase can form only at very high alkaline concentration, not compatible with traditional cement paste. Two possible degradation mechanisms associated with the U phase are proposed which are to be elucidated in further works

  6. The world energy demand in 2007: How high oil prices impact the global energy demand? June 9, 2008

    2008-01-01

    How high oil prices impact the global energy demand? The growth of energy demand continued to accelerate in 2007 despite soaring prices, to reach 2,8 % (+ 0,3 point compared to 2006). This evolution results from two diverging trends: a shrink in energy consumption in most of OECD countries, except North America, and a strong increase in emerging countries. Within the OECD, two contrasting trends can be reported, that compensate each other partially: the reduction of energy consumption in Japan (-0.8%) and in Europe (-1.2%), particularly significant in the EU-15 (-1.9%); the increase of energy consumption in North America (+2%). Globally, the OECD overall consumption continued to increase slightly (+0.5%), while electricity increased faster (2,1%) and fuels remained stable. Elsewhere, the strong energy demand growth remained very dynamic (+5% for the total demand, 8% for electricity only), driven by China (+7.3%). The world oil demand increased by 1% only, but the demand has focused even more on captive end usages, transports and petrochemistry. The world gasoline and diesel demand increased by around 5,7% in 2007, and represents 53% of the total oil products demand in 2007 (51% in 2006). If gasoline and diesel consumption remained quasi-stable within OECD countries, the growth has been extremely strong in the emerging countries, despite booming oil prices. There are mainly two factors explaining this evolution where both oil demand and oil prices increased: Weak elasticity-prices to the demand in transport and petrochemistry sectors Disconnection of domestic fuel prices in major emerging countries (China, India, Latin America) compared to world oil market prices Another striking point is that world crude oil and condensate production remained almost stable in 2007, hence the entire demand growth was supported by destocking. During the same period, the OPEC production decreased by 1%, mainly due to the production decrease in Saudi Arabia, that is probably more

  7. Influence of feedstock type on heavy coker gas oil quality; A influencia do tipo de carga na qualidade do gasoleo pesado de coque

    Costa, Claudine T.A.S.; Barros, Francisco C.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Over the past few years, the great challenge to the Oil Industry has been the processing of increasingly heavier feedstock seeking to meet the growing demand for medium distillates and, at the same time, the reduction of the production of fuel oils. In this scenario, the Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) appears to be an attractive technology for the processing of heavy and ultra heavy crudes. The addition of Asphaltene Residue produced by the Solvent Deasphalting Unit (SDA) to the Vacuum Residue, traditional feedstock of these units, has been a new tendency in the composition of the feedstock, with the intention of converting the residual fractions into value added liquid oil products. Results obtained in pilot plants show that asphaltene residue alters the yield and the quality of the products of the DCU, especially those of Heavy Coker Gas Oil (HKGO) that is incorporated in the feedstock of the Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU). The alteration in the quality of the HKGO negatively impacts on the conservation of the FCCU. The insertion of DCU in refineries that possess SDA in their refining systems has shown itself to be fundamental for the reduction of the production of fuel oils. However, to define the quantity and quality of asphaltene residue to be incorporated in the feedstock of the UCR, the best operating conditions and the necessary project adaptations to this unit are fundamental and they should be analyzed with the objective of maximizing the profitability of the refineries. (author)

  8. Hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to alkanes using a highly dispersed Pd-Mo catalyst.

    Duan, Haohong; Dong, Juncai; Gu, Xianrui; Peng, Yung-Kang; Chen, Wenxing; Issariyakul, Titipong; Myers, William K; Li, Meng-Jung; Yi, Ni; Kilpatrick, Alexander F R; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xusheng; Ji, Shufang; Wang, Qian; Feng, Junting; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Yadong; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Liu, Haichao; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-09-19

    Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests. Detailed investigations into the nature of the catalyst show that it combines hydrogenation activity of Pd and high density of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; we believe these are key features for efficient catalytic hydrodeoxygenation behavior. Using a wood and bark-derived feedstock, this catalyst performs hydrodeoxygenation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose-derived oligomers into liquid alkanes with high efficiency and yield.Bio-oil is a potential major source of renewable fuels and chemicals. Here, the authors report a palladium-molybdenum mixed catalyst for the selective hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to mixtures of alkanes with high carbon yield.

  9. Characterization and potential application of pataua vegetable oil in apatite flotation; Caracterizacao e potencial aplicacao do oleo vegetal de pataua na floracao de apatita

    Oliveira, P.S. de; Mansur, H.S.; Peres, A.E.C., E-mail: eng.priscila.oliveira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The present research characterizes the Pataua palm (Oenocarpus bataua) oil regarding to its fatty acids profile and acidity index, and evaluates its use for apatite flotation. The Pataua oil evaluated is unsaturated e predominantly composed of cis-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid). The mineral sample characterization revealed a material composed by a fluoroapatite deficient in fluorine, a possibly result of isomorphic substitution, and with quartz and monazite inclusions. The analysis of the mineral after reagent conditioning, by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), pointed to the presence of characteristic bands of carbon chains and carboxylate group, suggesting the collector adsorption through the mechanisms of chemisorption and insoluble calcium salts precipitation. Thus, it is proposed the Pataua oil potential use in flotation systems aiming apatite recovery. (author)

  10. High-yield production of biodiesel by non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification of crude castor oil (Ricinus communis)

    Román-Figueroa, Celián; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar; Paneque, Manuel; Palacios-Nereo, Francisco Javier; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from crude castor oil in a catalyst-free process using supercritical methanol in a batch reactor was investigated, studying the evolution of intermediate products as well as the conversion of triglycerides and the yield of FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) (biodiesel). Experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 250–350 °C (10–43 MPa) at reaction times of 15–90 min for a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 43:1. Maintaining thermal stability of biodiesel is one of the most important concerns in high-yield supercritical biodiesel production. Hence, thermal decomposition degree of FAMEs was also investigated in different reaction conditions. The maximum yield of FAMEs (96.5%) was obtained at 300 °C (21 MPa) and 90 min. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides was complete, the yield of intermediate products was low (3.29 and 1.41% for monoglycerides and diglycerides, respectively), and thermal decomposition of FAMEs did not occur. The maximum degree of thermal decomposition (80.9%) was produced at 350 °C (43 MPa) and 90 min. Methyl ricinoleate, whose fatty acid chain was the most abundant (88.09 mol%) in castor oil, was very unstable above 300 °C and 60 min, leading to low yields of FAMEs under these conditions. - Highlights: • Supercritical synthesis of biodiesel from crude castor oil was investigated. • Supercritical methanolysis of crude castor oil reached a high yield of FAMEs. • Ricinoleic acid methyl ester was very unstable above 300 °C and 60 min reaction.

  11. Magnetization and Hall effect under high pressure in NaV 6O 11

    Naka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Kanke, Y.; Murata, K.

    1995-02-01

    We have investigated the pressure dependences of magnetization and the Hall coefficient in the ferromagnetic vanadium oxide NaV 6O 11 up to 1.2 GPa. Structural transitions (hexagonal-hexagonal-orthorhombic) occur at TH = 245 K and TL = 35 K at ambient pressure. Meanwhile, the susceptibility obeys the Curie-Weiss law X = C/( T - θ) with antiferromagnetic correlation of θ TH, with ferromagnetic correlation of θ TH. The spontaneous magnetization appears below Tc = 64.2 K. With increasing pressure, Tc and magnetization M( T TH increases. The sign of the Hall coefficient changes continuously (negative-positive-negative) at around T ≈ 170 K and 75 K.

  12. Crevice corrosion resistance of high alloyed materials in 3.5 % NaCl solution

    Alar, Vesna; Stojanovic, Ivan; Simunovic, Vinko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applied torque on the corrosion behaviour of W.-Nr. 1.4404 and 1.4462 stainless steels and W.-Nr. 2.4605 and 2.4858 nickel alloys with crevices were investigated using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization method. Crevice corrosion (material-to-polytetrafluoroethylene) was tested in 3.5 % NaCl solution at 22 C. The corroded surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate similar trends in susceptibility to crevice corrosion with increasing torque. Among the four specimens, the W.-Nr. 1.4404 is the most susceptible to crevice corrosion. (orig.)

  13. Chemical and microbiological characterization of mangrove sediments after a large oil-spill in Guanabara Bay - RJ - Brazil Caracterização química e microbiológica de sedimentos de manguezal após um grande derramamento de óleo na Baia de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

    Maria do Carmo Maciel-Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen months after a 1,3 million L oil spill into Guanabara Bay, analyses of mangrove sediments showed that the three sites closest to the spill remain highly polluted (>10 µg-g-1 polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A fourth site was less polluted, from which most hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated.Dezessete meses após um derramamento de 1,3 milhões de litros de óleo na Baía de Guanabara, análises de sedimento do manguezal mostraram que os três pontos de amostragem mais próximos do local do acidente permanecem altamente poluídos (>10 µg-g-1 hidrocarbonetos poliaromáticos. Do quarto ponto de amostragem, o menos poluído, foi isolada a maioria das bactérias degradadoras de hidrocarbonetos.

  14. A highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO3 nanocomposite: Enhanced self-sensitized degradation of colored pollutants under visible light

    Xing, Guanjie; Tang, Changhe; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Lanxiao; Su, Yiguo; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO 3 composite was prepared via simple hydrothermal synthesis. XRD confirmed the composite was constructed by pure cubic phase of NaTaO 3 and hexagonal phase of ZnO. SEM analysis showed that as-prepared ZnO/NaTaO 3 shaped as an irregular ginger with an obviously smaller size than that of pure ZnO without obvious agglomeration. EDS mapping demonstrated that the four elements (Na, Ta, O, Zn) in the composite were very uniformly distributed. The photocatalytic behaviors of as-prepared composites were studied in the degradation of methylene blue both under UV and visible irradiation. The bare ZnO showed the highest activity with 99.8% methylene blue (MB) photodegraded in 70 min under UV light irradiation whereas 94% photodegraded rate was achieved for ZnO/NaTaO 3 . More importantly, the uniform composite of ZnO/NaTaO 3 exhibited effective degradation of methylene blue under visible light which can be attributed to the well dyes adsorption abilities and the high efficiency of electron separation, induced by the synergistic effect between ZnO and NaTaO 3 . It is confirmed the dye rather than a semiconductor is excited under visible light irradiation and a self-sensitized photocatalytic mechanism was then proposed based on the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: Visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnO/NaTaO 3 and proposed schematic of self-sensitization directed photogradation of MB. - Highlights: • Highly uniform ZnO/NaTaO 3 photocatalysts were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • ZnO/NaTaO 3 composite exhibited effective degradation of MB under visible light. • ZnO/NaTaO 3 composite effectively promoted dye adsorption and electrons separation. • A self-sensitized photocatalytic mechanism was proposed for the degradation of dye

  15. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    Kamiran, N.; Sarker, M. L. R.

    2014-02-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach "multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms" was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier "Artificial Neural Network (ANN)". Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm.

  16. Bioaugmentation of soil contaminated with high-level crude oil through inoculation with mixed cultures including Acremonium sp.

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles

    2015-06-01

    Heavy contamination of soil with crude oil has caused significant negative environmental impacts and presents substantial hazards to human health. To explore a highly efficient bioaugmentation strategy for these contaminations, experiments were conducted over 180 days in soil heavily contaminated with crude oil (50,000 mg kg(-1)), with four treatments comprised of Bacillus subtilis inoculation with no further inoculation (I), or reinoculation after 100 days with either B. subtilis (II), Acremonium sp.(III), or a mixture of both organisms (IV). The removal values of total petroleum hydrocarbons were 60.1 ± 2.0, 60.05 ± 3.0, 71.3 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 2.7 % for treatment (I-IV), respectively. Treatments (III-IV) significantly enhanced the soil bioremediation compared with treatments (I-II) (p oil heavy fractions. Dehydrogenase activity in treatment (III-IV) containing Acremonium sp. showed a constant increase until the end of experiments. Therefore reinoculation with pure fungus or fungal-bacterial consortium should be considered as an effective strategy in bioaugmentation for soil heavily contaminated with crude oil.

  17. Exploring the Potential of High Resolution Remote Sensing Data for Mapping Vegetation and the Age Groups of Oil Palm Plantation

    Kamiran, N; Sarker, M L R

    2014-01-01

    The land use/land cover transformation in Malaysia is enormous due to palm oil plantation which has provided huge economical benefits but also created a huge concern for carbon emission and biodiversity. Accurate information about oil palm plantation and the age of plantation is important for a sustainable production, estimation of carbon storage capacity, biodiversity and the climate model. However, the problem is that this information cannot be extracted easily due to the spectral signature for forest and age group of palm oil plantations is similar. Therefore, a noble approach ''multi-scale and multi-texture algorithms'' was used for mapping vegetation and different age groups of palm oil plantation using a high resolution panchromatic image (WorldView-1) considering the fact that pan imagery has a potential for more detailed and accurate mapping with an effective image processing technique. Seven texture algorithms of second-order Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) with different scales (from 3×3 to 39×39) were used for texture generation. All texture parameters were classified step by step using a robust classifier A rtificial Neural Network (ANN) . Results indicate that single spectral band was unable to provide good result (overall accuracy = 34.92%), while higher overall classification accuracies (73.48%, 84.76% and 93.18%) were obtained when textural information from multi-scale and multi-texture approach were used in the classification algorithm

  18. The unitization process in the oil and gas Brazilian sector: regulations analysis; A regulacao no processo de unitizacao na exploracao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Vazquez, Felipe A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Silva, Moises E. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Bone, Rosemarie B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEI/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the withdraw of 41 blocks of the 9th Round of Auctions by ANP rose questions about the possible unitization of oil fields, particularly on the pre-salt areas and the likelihood of future litigation from licensees against the Brazilian Government on the issue. Based on the international experience from Nigeria and East Timor/Australia, we propose improvements to the Brazilian law on the issue (Law 9478/97, article 27). We conclude that a clear and specific regulation on the unitization issue should be passed, so to protect investors and the non-renewable resources at stake (oil and gas). (author)

  19. Characterization of Shrimp Oil from Pandalus borealis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Guangling Jiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, was recovered from the cooking water of shrimp processing facilities. The oil contains significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in triglyceride form, along with substantial long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. It also features natural isomeric forms of astaxanthin, a nutritional carotenoid, which gives the oil a brilliant red color. As part of our efforts in developing value added products from waste streams of the seafood processing industry, we present in this paper a comprehensive characterization of the triacylglycerols (TAGs and astaxanthin esters that predominate in the shrimp oil by using HPLC-HRMS and MS/MS, as well as 13C-NMR. This approach, in combination with FAME analysis, offers direct characterization of fatty acid molecules in their intact forms, including the distribution of regioisomers in TAGs. The information is important for the standardization and quality control, as well as for differentiation of composition features of shrimp oil, which could be sold as an ingredient in health supplements and functional foods.

  20. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Tariq, J.A; Choudhry, M.A.; Hussain, Q.M.

    2008-10-01

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  1. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Quirino, M.R.; Oliveira, M.J.C.; Keyson, D.; Lucena, G.L.; Oliveira, J.B.L.; Gama, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnAl_2O_4 spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT_b15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO_3)_3·9H_2O, Zn(NO_3)_2·6H_2O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl_2O_4 had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m"2 g"−"1) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  2. Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel)

    Quirino, M.R. [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, M.J.C. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratory of study in Science, DME, Federal University of Paraíba, Campus I, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lucena, G.L., E-mail: guilherme_leo1@yahoo.com.br [Chemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Paraiba (LABQUIM), Campus III, 58200-000 Bananeiras, PB (Brazil); Oliveira, J.B.L. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN, Campus I, 59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Gama, L. [Academic Unit of Materials Engineering, UFCG, Campina Grande Campus I, 58429-900 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min. • The powders show high specific surface area. • ZAT{sub b}15 showed activity of 52.22% for the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel. - Abstract: Zinc aluminate is a material with high thermal stability and high mechanical strength that, owing to these properties, is used as a catalyst or support. In this work, zinc aluminate spinel was synthesized by the microwave hydrothermal method in only 15 or 30 min at a low temperature (150 °C) without templates, using only Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O, Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, and urea as precursors and applied in the transesterification of soybean oil. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} had a cubic structure without secondary phases. The nitrogen adsorption measurements (BET) revealed a high surface area (266.57 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) for the nanopowder synthesized in 15 min. This powder showed activity of 52.22% for the catalytic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by transesterification.

  3. Influence of Surfactant Structure on the Stability of Water-in-Oil Emulsions under High-Temperature High-Salinity Conditions

    Abdelhalim I. A. Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emulsified water-in-oil (W/O systems are extensively used in the oil industry for water control and acid stimulation. Emulsifiers are commonly utilized to emulsify a water-soluble material to form W/O emulsion. The selection of a particular surfactant for such jobs is critical and certainly expensive. In this work, the impact of surfactant structure on the stability of W/O emulsions is investigated using the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB of the surfactant. Different commercial surfactants were evaluated for use as emulsifiers for W/O systems at high-temperature (up to 120°C high-salinity (221,673 ppm HTHS conditions. Diverse surfactants were examined including ethoxylates, polyethylene glycols, fluorinated surfactants, and amides. Both commercial Diesel and waste oil are used for the oleic phase to prepare the emulsified system. Waste oil has shown higher stability (less separation in comparison with Diesel. This work has successfully identified stable emulsified W/O systems that can tolerate HTHS environments using HLB approach. Amine Acetate family shows higher stability in comparison with Glycol Ether family and at even lower concentration. New insights into structure-surfactant stability relationship, beyond the HLB approach, are provided for surfactant selection.

  4. Application of molecular sieves in the fractionation of lemongrass oil from high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction

    L. Paviani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous process of high-pressure extraction and fractionation of lemongrass essential oil using molecular sieves. For this purpose, a high-pressure laboratory-scale extraction unit coupled with a column with four different stationary phases for fractionation: ZSM5 zeolite, MCM-41 mesoporous material, alumina and silica was employed. Additionally, the effect of carbon dioxide extraction variables on the global yield and chemical composition of the essential oil was also studied in a temperature range of 293 to 313 K and a pressure range of 100 to 200 bar. The volatile organic compounds of the extracts were identified by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS. The results indicated that the extraction process variables and the stationary phase exerted an effect on both the extraction yield and the chemical composition of the extracts.

  5. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  6. Exchange of Na+ and K+ between water vapor and feldspar phases at high temperature and low vapor pressure

    Fournier, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    In order to determine whether gas (steam) containing a small amount of dissolved alkali chloride is effective in promoting base exchange of Na+ and K+ among alkali feldspars and coexisting brine or brine plus solid salt, experiments were carried out at 400-700??C and steam densities ranging down to less than 0.05. For bulk compositions rich in potassium, the low pressure results are close to previous high-pressure results in composition of the fluid and coexisting solid phase. However, when the bulk composition is more sodic, alkali feldspars are relatively richer in potassium at low pressure than at high pressure. This behaviour corresponds to enrichment of potassium in the gas phase relative to coexisting brine and precipitation of solid NaCl when the brine plus gas composition becomes moderately sodic. The gas phase is very effective in promoting base exchange between coexisting alkali feldspars at high temperature and low water pressure. This suggests that those igneous rocks which contain coexisting alkali feldspars out of chemical equilibrium either remained very dry during the high-temperature part of their cooling history or that the pore fluid was a gas containing very little potassium relative to sodium. ?? 1976.

  7. Melting properties of some structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil

    Dunn, R. O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of structured lipids native to high stearic acid soybean oil were synthesized and their physical properties were determined by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Mettler dropping point and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. 1,3 Distearo-2-olein (SOS, 1,3 distearo-2-linolein (SLS and1,3 distearo-2-linolenin (SlnS were synthesized from pure 1,3 diacylglycerols and the appropriate fatty acid. Pulsed NMR determinations over the temperature range 10-50 ºC showed that the symmetrical triacylglycerols (SUS: where S = stearic, U = oleic, linoleic or linolenic are high and sharply melting materials, all showing substantial amounts of solids at temperatures up to 33.3 ºC, yet are completely melted at only a few degrees higher. Mettler dropping points for SOS, SLS and SlnS were 44.1, 37.9 and 36.5 ºC respectively. The heats of fusion for the structured triacylglycerols were determined by DSC and shown to be of the order 29-32 cal/gm compared to 45 cal/gm for SSS. The heats of fusion were also calculated from Mettler dropping point determinations as admixtures with soybean oil and showed consistent agreement with the DSC data.Se sintetizaron algunos lípidos estructurados procedentes del aceite de soja con alto contenido en ácido esteárico y sus propiedades físicas se determinaron por resonancia magnética nuclear pulsada (NMR, punto de goteo Mettler y calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. Se sintetizaron 1,3 diestearo-2-oleina (SOS, 1,3 diestearo-2-linoleina (SLS y 1,3 diestearo-2-linolenina (SlnS a partir de 1,3 diacilgliceroles y de los ácidos grasos adecuados puros. Las determinaciones de NMR pulsada en el rango de temperaturas 10- 50 ºC mostraron que los triacilgliceroles simétricos (SUS: donde S = esteárico, U = oleico, linoleico o linolénico funden a mayor temperatura y más bruscamente, todos presentan altos contenidos en sólidos a todas las temperaturas hasta los 33.3 ºC, estando completamente fundidos

  8. Diversity of Metabolically Active Bacteria in Water-Flooded High-Temperature Heavy Oil Reservoir

    Tamara N. Nazina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study the overall genomic diversity of microorganisms of the Dagang high-temperature oilfield (PRC and to characterize the metabolically active fraction of these populations. At this water-flooded oilfield, the microbial community of formation water from the near-bottom zone of an injection well where the most active microbial processes of oil degradation occur was investigated using molecular, cultural, radiotracer, and physicochemical techniques. The samples of microbial DNA and RNA from back-flushed water were used to obtain the clone libraries for the 16S rRNA gene and cDNA of 16S rRNA, respectively. The DNA-derived clone libraries were found to contain bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the alkB genes encoding alkane monooxygenases similar to those encoded by alkB-geo1 and alkB-geo6 of geobacilli. The 16S rRNA genes of methanogens (Methanomethylovorans, Methanoculleus, Methanolinea, Methanothrix, and Methanocalculus were predominant in the DNA-derived library of Archaea cloned sequences; among the bacterial sequences, the 16S rRNA genes of members of the genus Geobacillus were the most numerous. The RNA-derived library contained only bacterial cDNA of the 16S rRNA sequences belonging to metabolically active aerobic organotrophic bacteria (Tepidimonas, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, as well as of denitrifying (Azoarcus, Tepidiphilus, Calditerrivibrio, fermenting (Bellilinea, iron-reducing (Geobacter, and sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria (Desulfomicrobium, Desulfuromonas. The presence of the microorganisms of the main functional groups revealed by molecular techniques was confirmed by the results of cultural, radioisotope, and geochemical research. Functioning of the mesophilic and thermophilic branches was shown for the microbial food chain of the near-bottom zone of the injection well, which included the microorganisms of the carbon, sulfur, iron, and nitrogen cycles.

  9. Application of biomass in oil and fat reduction content in aqueous effluent; Aplicacao de biomassa na reducao do teor de oleos e graxas presentes em efluentes aquosos

    Boni, Hevelin Tabata; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have studied the bagasse from sugarcane as an alternative bioadsorbent in the treatment to oils and greases contaminated waters. The synthetic effluent was simulated by a distilled water and decahydronaphthalene dispersion, with initial concentration of 8900 mg . L {sup -1}. Gas chromatography was the analytical operation chosen to quantify the oil residual after the adsorption. The biomass was characterized by moisture analysis, CHNS and SEM. The experiments were carried out in batch process with agitation of 120 rpm, evaluating the equilibrium time of adsorptive process and the influence of pH of aqueous level. Results showed that the adsorption process achieved equilibrium quickly, in just 5 minutes of contact between the dispersion and biomass. No significant influence was noticed in the removal of hydrocarbon with the change in pH. The adsorption isotherm was developed changing by the mass of bioadsorbent, at 25 deg C, pH 6 and 120 rpm of agitation. The experimental results were fitted by Langmuir and Langmuir- Freundlich models. The best fit was obtained with Langmuir-Freundlich, providing a maximum adsorption capacity of 6,65 g hydrocarbon / g biomass. The experiments showed the great potential of the sugarcane bagasse to be used as bioadsorbent in reducing the oil and grease levels in industrial effluents. This alternative presents itself as a sustainable route due to the abundance of sugar cane bagasse in the sugar and alcohol industry, avoided the impact of aqueous sources contamination coming from oil and petrochemical industry. (author)

  10. Listeria monocytogenes - inactivation by essential oils and high pressure, and contribution of genetic variation to stress resistance

    Karatzas, K.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    A variety of non-thermal mild preservation techniques have lately been introduced in food production, or are currently being investigated thoroughly for potential use in food processing. Two of these novel preservation techniques are the use of essential oil compounds isolated from plants and of High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) treatment. Applications of these preservation methods, alone or combined, have shown to reduce the viable numbers of microorganisms occurri...

  11. Quantitative analysis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in soy bean oils by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Zonta, F; Stancher, B

    1985-07-19

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determining phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in soy bean oils is described. Resolution of vitamin K1 from interfering peaks of the matrix was obtained after enzymatic digestion, extraction and liquid-solid chromatography on alumina. An isocratic reversed-phase chromatography with UV detection was used in the final stage. The quantitation was carried out by the standard addition method, and the recovery of the whole procedure was 88.2%.

  12. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand

    Nakpong, Piyanuch; Wootthikanokkhan, Sasiwimol [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Krungthep, 2 Nanglinchee Road, Sathorn, Bangkok 10120 (Thailand)

    2010-08-15

    Coconut oil having 12.8% free fatty acid (FFA) was used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step process. In the first step, FFA level of the coconut oil was reduced to 0.6% by acid-catalyzed esterification. In the second step, triglycerides in product from the first step were transesterified with methanol by using an alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters and glycerol. Effect of parameters related to these processes was studied and optimized, including methanol-to-oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. Methyl ester content of the coconut biodiesel was determined by GC to be 98.4% under the optimum condition. The viscosity of coconut biodiesel product was very close to that of Thai petroleum diesel and other measured properties met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specification. (author)

  13. Molecular design of high performance zwitterionic liquids for enhanced heavy-oil recovery processes.

    Martínez-Magadán, J M; Cartas-Rosado, A R; Oviedo-Roa, R; Cisneros-Dévora, R; Pons-Jiménez, M; Hernández-Altamirano, R; Zamudio-Rivera, L S

    2018-03-01

    Branched gemini zwitterionic liquids, which contain two zwitterionic moieties of linked quaternary-ammonium and carboxylate groups, are proposed as chemicals to be applied in the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The zwitterionic moieties are bridged between them through an alkyl chain containing 12 ether groups, and each zwitterionic moiety has attached a long alkyl tail including a CC double bond. A theoretical molecular mechanism over which EOR could rest, consisting on both the disaggregation of heavy oil and the reservoir-rock wettability alteration, was suggested. Results show that chemicals can both reduce the viscosity and remove heavy-oil molecules from the rock surface. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Production of high-calorie energy briquettes from bark waste, plastic and oil

    Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.; Yuliansyah

    2018-04-01

    Bark is the waste generated from the utilization of plantation timber, while plastics and oil waste are produced from daily human activity. These waste has the potential to be used as energy briquettes raw materials, especially for fuel in power plants. It would be worth very strategic for the environment and the welfare of society, considering that at this time we are not yet fully capable of well managing all three waste types. On the other hands most of the power plants that operate today still use diesel and coal as fuel. Therefore, the best composition of mixing bark, plastic and oil will be studied as well as its influence on the physical and chemical quality of the briquettes produced. The results show that the addition of the oil waste (70%) and used plastic (30%) as additive give effect to the performance of the briquette formation with the highest calorific value of 33.56 MJ/kg.

  15. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    Ashokkumar, Saranya, E-mail: saras@food.dtu.dk [Accoat A/S, Munkegardsvej 16, 3490 Kvistgard (Denmark); Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adler-Nissen, Jens [Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Per [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Plot of cos {theta} versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos {theta} rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cos {theta} of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 Degree-Sign C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos {theta} values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos {theta} values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between

  16. Direct stacking of sequence-specific nuclease-induced mutations to produce high oleic and low linolenic soybean oil.

    Demorest, Zachary L; Coffman, Andrew; Baltes, Nicholas J; Stoddard, Thomas J; Clasen, Benjamin M; Luo, Song; Retterath, Adam; Yabandith, Ann; Gamo, Maria Elena; Bissen, Jeff; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2016-10-13

    The ability to modulate levels of individual fatty acids within soybean oil has potential to increase shelf-life and frying stability and to improve nutritional characteristics. Commodity soybean oil contains high levels of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acid, which contribute to oxidative instability - a problem that has been addressed through partial hydrogenation. However, partial hydrogenation increases levels of trans-fatty acids, which have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Previously, we generated soybean lines with knockout mutations within fatty acid desaturase 2-1A (FAD2-1A) and FAD2-1B genes, resulting in oil with increased levels of monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1) and decreased levels of linoleic (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3). Here, we stack mutations within FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B with mutations in fatty acid desaturase 3A (FAD3A) to further decrease levels of linolenic acid. Mutations were introduced into FAD3A by directly delivering TALENs into fad2-1a fad2-1b soybean plants. Oil from fad2-1a fad2-1b fad3a plants had significantly lower levels of linolenic acid (2.5 %), as compared to fad2-1a fad2-1b plants (4.7 %). Furthermore, oil had significantly lower levels of linoleic acid (2.7 % compared to 5.1 %) and significantly higher levels of oleic acid (82.2 % compared to 77.5 %). Transgene-free fad2-1a fad2-1b fad3a soybean lines were identified. The methods presented here provide an efficient means for using sequence-specific nucleases to stack quality traits in soybean. The resulting product comprised oleic acid levels above 80 % and linoleic and linolenic acid levels below 3 %.

  17. Quantitative chemical analysis for the standardization of copaiba oil by high resolution gas chromatography

    Tappin, Marcelo R.R.; Pereira, Jislaine F.G.; Lima, Lucilene A.; Siani, Antonio C.; Mazzei, Jose L.; Ramos, Monica F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative GC-FID was evaluated for analysis of methylated copaiba oils, using trans-(-)-caryophyllene or methyl copalate as external standards. Analytical curves showed good linearity and reproducibility in terms of correlation coefficients (0.9992 and 0.996, respectively) and relative standard deviation (< 3%). Quantification of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic acids were performed with each standard, separately. When compared with the integrator response normalization, the standardization was statistically similar for the case of methyl copalate, but the response of trans-(-)-caryophyllene was statistically (P < 0.05) different. This method showed to be suitable for classification and quality control of commercial samples of the oils. (author)

  18. High fluorescence emission silver nano particles coated with poly (styrene-g-soybean oil) graft copolymers: Antibacterial activity and polymerization kinetics.

    Hazer, Baki; Kalaycı, Özlem A

    2017-05-01

    Autoxidation of poly unsaturated fatty acids makes negative effect on foods. In this work, this negative effect was turned to a great advantage using autoxidized soybean oil as a macroperoxide nanocomposite initiator containing silver nano particles in free radical polymerization of vinyl monomers. The synthesis of soybean oil macro peroxide was carried out by exposing soybean oil to air oxygen with the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at room temperature. Autoxidized soybean oil macroperoxide containing silver nanoparticles (Agsbox) successfully initiated the free radical polymerization of styrene in order to obtain Polystyrene (PS)-g-soybean oil graft copolymer containing Ag NPs. Both autoxidized soybean oil and PS-g-sbox with Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance and high fluorescence emission. Overall rate constant (K) of styrene polymerization initiated by autoxidized soybean oil macroperoxide with Ag NPs was found to be K=1.95.10 -4 Lmol -1 s -1 at 95°C. Antibacterial efficiency was observed in the PS-g-soybean oil graft copolymer film samples containing Ag NPs. 1 H NMR and GPC techniques were used for the structural analysis of the fractionated polymeric oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and characterization of α-cellulose from blank bunches of palm oil and dry jackfruit leaves with alkaline process NaOH continued with bleaching process H2O2

    Tristantini, Dewi; Dewanti, Dian Purwitasari; Sandra, Cindy

    2017-11-01

    Alpha cellulose is a pure form of cellulose. Cellulose is a natural polymer in the form of carbohydrates (polysaccharides) that has fiber which is white, insoluble in water, renewable, easily decomposes, and non-toxic. Cellulosic sources are abundant in nature even in untapped biomass wastes. In this study, cellulose was isolated from Empty Palm Oil Bunches (EPOB) of 45% and Dry Jackfruit Leaves (DJL) of 21.45%. This study aims to obtain optimum yield of cellulose at NaOH concentration and cellulose characterization with water content, FTIR, and SEM analysis. The optimum α-cellulose yield was determined by alkali process with 8, 10, 12 and 14% (w/v) NaOH variations at 90-100 °C for 3 hours to remove hemicellulose and lignin followed by bleaching process with H2O2 10% (w/v) at 80-90 °C for 1.5 h to obtain pure α-cellulose. The optimum yield of EPOB cellulose was 38,562% in 12% NaOH and DJL was 7.27% in 10% NaOH. The water content in OPB cellulose was 4.38% and DJL was 6.37%. A typical cellulose-forming functional group seen in FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) and morphological results appears in SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) analysis. From FTIR analysis result shows cellulose from EPOB and DJL contains O-H, C-H, and C-O. SEM analysis shows fibers from EPOB and DJL are uniform and have pores. However, DJL fibers have white patches, which suspected to be impurities.

  20. A safflower oil-based high fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria

    2017-01-01

    n-6 PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here we examined how long-term intake of a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil...

  1. Biodegradation of lubricant oil

    M

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... lubricating oil, showed high biodegradation efficiency for different used lubricating oils. Capability of ..... amount after biodegradation showed no difference in the .... products polluted sites in Elele, Rivers State, Ngeria.

  2. Application of Alkaline Waterflooding to a High Acidity Crude Oil Application de l'injection d'eau alcaline au cas d'un pétrole brut à forte acidité

    Abdel-Waly A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to study the enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude by alkaline solutions. Different properties of South Geisum crude oil, namely acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, and temperature viscosity on recovery. South Geisum crude oil is a highly acidic crude (4. 38 mg KOH/g. It was found that the interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until it reaches a minimum, after which it increases again with a further increase in alkaline concentration. Interfacial tension between crude oil and displacement water also decreases with increasing alkaline concentration. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. Displacement floods showed that, at the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until it reaches a maximum at 4 % by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. It was found also that oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until it reaches a maximum at 15 % PV, after which increasing slug size results in decreasing oil recovery (this result has not as yet been reported in the literature. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55°C and decreasing oil viscosity. Cet article traite de la récupération, au moyen de solutions alcalines, d'un pétrole brut à forte acidité (brut de Geisum-Sud. Différentes propri

  3. Avaliação de germoplasma de camomila e densidade de semeadura na produção e composição do óleo essencial Evaluation of germplasm and seeding rate over the production and composition of chamomile essential oil

    Wanderlei do Amaral

    2012-06-01

    essential oil presented by this cultivar, phytosanitary problems have also been observed. The objectives of this work were to compare the genetic materials from the Netherlands, Denmark and Mandirituba and to evaluate the effect of seeding rate on floral heads development and essential oil production, yield and quality. The experiments were carried out at field conditions in Piraquara, Paraná state, Brazil. The essential oil extraction was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and the oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The genetic materials from the Netherlands and Mandirituba presented statistically higher dry mass accumulation than the ones from Denmark. However the material from Mandirituba showed a great essential oil yield (4.7 mL g-1 ms and productivity (2.40 L ha-1. The genetic material from Denmark and Mandirituba showed similar essential oil composition. The density of 1.0 kg ha-1 for cultivar Mandirituba resulted on great plant development and essential oil production. The use of 3.0 kg ha-1 of seeds did not increase plant density due to the high plant competition.

  4. Studies on the Gases Emission under High Temperature Condition from Moulding Sands Bonded by Modified Starch CMS-Na

    Kaczmarska K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission of gases under high temperature after pouring molten metal into moulds, which contain the organic binder or other additives (solvents or curing agent, may be an important factor influencing both on the quality of the produced castings, and on the state of environment. Therefore, a comprehensive study of the emitted gases would allow to determine restrictions on the use of the moulding sands in foundry technologies, eg. the probability of occurrence of casting defects, and identify the gaseous pollutants emitted to the environment. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the amount of gases that are released at high temperatures from moulding sands bonded by biopolymer binder and the quantitative assessment of the emitted pollutants with particular emphasis on chemical compounds: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX. The water-soluble modified potato starch as a sodium carboxymethyl starch with low (CMS-NaL or high (CMS-NaH degree of substitution was a binder in the tested moulding sands. A tests of gases emission level were conducted per the procedure developed at the Faculty of Foundry Engineering (AGH University of Science and Technology involving gas chromatography method (GC. The obtained results of the determination of amount of BTEX compounds generated during the decomposition process of starch binders showed lower emission of aromatic hydrocarbons in comparison with binder based on resin Kaltharz U404 with the acidic curing agent commonly used in the foundries.

  5. Alteration of Na+ and K+ ion composition of microbial consortium isolated from oil reservoir at high salinities

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2010-01-01

    and K+-concentration was also observed. [1] J. Chr. Skou. (1998). The identification of sodium pump. Nobel Lecture. Bioscience Reports, Vol.18, No.4. [2] Apte S.K., Reddy B.R., Thomas J.(1987). Relationship between Sodium Influx and Salt Tolerance of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria. Appl. Environ...

  6. Na+-Dependent High-Affinity Nitrate, Phosphate and Amino Acids Transport in Leaf Cells of the Seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile

    Lourdes Rubio

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile is a seagrass, the only group of vascular plants to colonize the marine environment. Seawater is an extreme yet stable environment characterized by high salinity, alkaline pH and low availability of essential nutrients, such as nitrate and phosphate. Classical depletion experiments, membrane potential and cytosolic sodium measurements were used to characterize the high-affinity NO3−, Pi and amino acids uptake mechanisms in this species. Net uptake rates of both NO3− and Pi were reduced by more than 70% in the absence of Na+. Micromolar concentrations of NO3− depolarized mesophyll leaf cells plasma membrane. Depolarizations showed saturation kinetics (Km = 8.7 ± 1 μM NO3−, which were not observed in the absence of Na+. NO3− induced depolarizations at increasing Na+ also showed saturation kinetics (Km = 7.2 ± 2 mM Na+. Cytosolic Na+ measured in P. oceanica leaf cells (17 ± 2 mM Na+ increased by 0.4 ± 0.2 mM Na+ upon the addition of 100 μM NO3−. Na+-dependence was also observed for high-affinity l-ala and l-cys uptake and high-affinity Pi transport. All together, these results strongly suggest that NO3−, amino acids and Pi uptake in P. oceanica leaf cells are mediated by high-affinity Na+-dependent transport systems. This mechanism seems to be a key step in the process of adaptation of seagrasses to the marine environment.

  7. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and high dynamic pressure on stability and rheological properties of model oil-in-water emulsions

    Bigikocin, Erman; Mert, Behic; Alpas, Hami

    2011-09-01

    Both static and dynamic high pressure applications provide interesting modifications in food structures which lead to new product formulations. In this study, the effects of two different treatments, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and high dynamic pressure (HDP), on oil-in-water emulsions were identified and compared. Microfluidization was selected from among the HDP homogenization techniques. The performance of each process was analyzed in terms of rheological modifications and emulsion stability improvements compared with the coarse emulsions. The stability of the emulsions was determined comparatively by using an analytical photo-centrifuge device employing novel analysis technology. Whey protein isolate (WPI) in combination with a food polysaccharide (xanthan gum, guar gum or locust bean gum) were used as emulsifying and stabilizing ingredients. The effective disruption of oil droplets and the degradation of polysaccharides by the shear forces under high pressure in HDP microfluidization yielded finer emulsions with lower viscosities, leading to distinctive improvements in emulsion stability. On the other hand, improvements in stability obtained with HHP treatment were due to the thickening of the emulsions mainly induced by protein unfolding. The corresponding increases in viscosity were intensified in emulsion formulations containing higher oil content. Apart from these, HHP treatment was found to be relatively more contributive to the enhancements in viscoelastic properties.

  8. Role of H2O2 on the kinetics of low-affinity high-capacity Na+-dependent alanine transport in SHR proximal tubular epithelial cells

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria Joao; Jose, Pedro A.; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → H 2 O 2 in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. → It is suggested that Na + binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells. -- Abstract: The presence of high and low sodium affinity states for the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake in immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells was previously reported (Am. J. Physiol. 293 (2007) R538-R547). This study evaluated the role of H 2 O 2 on the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake of ASCT2 in immortalized renal PTE cells from Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Na + dependence of [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake was investigated replacing NaCl with an equimolar concentration of choline chloride in vehicle- and apocynin-treated cells. Na + removal from the uptake solution abolished transport activity in both WKY and SHR PTE cells. Decreases in H 2 O 2 levels in the extracellular medium significantly reduced Na + -K m and V max values of the low-affinity high-capacity component in SHR PTE cells, with no effect on the high-affinity low-capacity state of the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake. After removal of apocynin from the culture medium, H 2 O 2 levels returned to basal values within 1 to 3 h in both WKY and SHR PTE cells and these were found stable for the next 24 h. Under these experimental conditions, the Na + -K m and V max of the high-affinity low-capacity state were unaffected and the low-affinity high-capacity component remained significantly decreased 1 day but not 4 days after apocynin removal. In conclusion, H 2 O 2 in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na + -dependent [ 14 C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. It is suggested that Na + binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells.

  9. Synthesis and properties of highly branched Jatropha curcas L. oil derivatives

    Daniel, Louis; Ardiyanti, Agnes R.; Schuur, Boelo; Manurung, Robert; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis and properties of a number of novel branched Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) derivatives containing vicinal di-ester units in the fatty acid chains are reported. Both the length (acetyl vs. hexanoyl) and the stereochemistry of the vicinal di-ester units (cis vs. trans) were varied. The

  10. Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Asphaltene Separation from Crude Oil Using Ceramic Membrane Technology

    Rezakazemi Mashallah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on the removal of asphaltenes from an Iranian crude oil (Soroush using a ceramic membrane with pore size of 0.2 µm were investigated. In order to achieve superior asphaltene separation by ultrafiltration, it is essential to make some changes for destabilizing asphaltene in crude oil. The asphaltene destabilization was done using crude oil contact with an acid containing dissolved metal ions. Metal oxide nanoparticles adsorbed asphaltene molecules and increased their molecular size. The nanoparticle of aluminum oxide was applied to alter precipitation and peptization properties of asphaltenes. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS was used to measurement of the asphaltene molecular size dissolved in toluene. Raman spectroscopy and the Tuinstra equation were used to determine the aromatic sheet diameter (La via the integrated intensities of the G and D1 modes. This revealed that the asphaltene particles react with nano aluminum oxide and the average molecular size of asphaltene was raised from 512.754 to 2949.557 nm and La from 5.482 to 13.787. The obtained results showed that using nano aluminum oxides, asphaltene separation increased from 60–85 wt% to 90–97 wt% based on the asphaltene content of crude oil.

  11. Different Diversity and Distribution of Archaeal Community in the Aqueous and Oil Phases of Production Fluid From High-Temperature Petroleum Reservoirs

    Bo Liang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To get a better knowledge on how archaeal communities differ between the oil and aqueous phases and whether environmental factors promote substantial differences on microbial distributions among production wells, we analyzed archaeal communities in oil and aqueous phases from four high-temperature petroleum reservoirs (55–65°C by using 16S rRNA gene based 454 pyrosequencing. Obvious dissimilarity of the archaeal composition between aqueous and oil phases in each independent production wells was observed, especially in production wells with higher water cut, and diversity in the oil phase was much higher than that in the corresponding aqueous phase. Statistical analysis further showed that archaeal communities in oil phases from different petroleum reservoirs tended to be more similar, but those in aqueous phases were the opposite. In the high-temperature ecosystems, temperature as an environmental factor could have significantly affected archaeal distribution, and archaeal diversity raised with the increase of temperature (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that to get a comprehensive understanding of petroleum reservoirs microbial information both in aqueous and oil phases should be taken into consideration. The microscopic habitats of oil phase, technically the dispersed minuscule water droplets in the oil could be a better habitat that containing the indigenous microorganisms.

  12. Formation of carbonaceous nano-layers under high interfacial pressures during lubrication with mineral and bio-based oils

    Baltrus, John P. [U.S. DOE

    2014-01-01

    In order to better protect steel surfaces against wear under high loads, understanding of chemical reactions between lubricants and metal at high interfacial pressures and elevated temperatures needs to be improved. Solutions at 5 to 20 wt. % of zinc di-2-ethylhexyl dithio phosphate (ZDDP) and chlorinated paraffins (CP) in inhibited paraffinic mineral oil (IPMO) and inhibited soy bean oil (ISBO) were compared on a Twist Compression Tribotester (TCT) at 200 MPa. Microscopy of wear tracks after 10 seconds tribotesting showed much smoother surface profiles than those of unworn areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) coupled with Ar-ion sputtering demonstrated that additive solutions in ISBO formed 2–3 times thicker carbon-containing nano-layers compared to IPMO. The amounts of Cl, S or P were unexpectedly low and detectable only on the top surface with less than 5 nm penetration. CP blends in IPMO formed more inorganic chlorides than those in ISBO. It can be concluded that base oils are primarily responsible for the thickness of carbonaceous nano-layers during early stages of severe boundary lubrication, while CP or ZDDP additive contributions are important, but less significant.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the rapid analysis of pheophytins and pyropheophytins in virgin olive oil.

    Li, Xueqi; Woodman, Michael; Wang, Selina C

    2015-08-01

    Pheophytins and pyropheophytin are degradation products of chlorophyll pigments, and their ratios can be used as a sensitive indicator of stress during the manufacturing and storage of olive oil. They increase over time depending on the storage condition and if the oil is exposed to heat treatments during the refining process. The traditional analysis method includes solvent- and time-consuming steps of solid-phase extraction followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. We developed an improved dilute/fluorescence method where multi-step sample preparation was replaced by a simple isopropanol dilution before the high-performance liquid chromatography injection. A quaternary solvent gradient method was used to include a fourth strong solvent wash on a quaternary gradient pump, which avoided the need to premix any solvents and greatly reduced the oil residues on the column from previous analysis. This new method not only reduces analysis cost and time but shows reliability, repeatability, and improved sensitivity, especially important for low-level samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil with high acid value (poor quality as feedstock. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. The results on the lipase enzyme which was subjected to pH tuning and TPP, indicated remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. The optimized enzyme was used for hydrolysis and 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by the lipase. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1:15 and a sulphuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 88% was obtained at 50 °C for an hour reaction time. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil with high acid value as feedstock.

  15. Characterization of the lubricity of bio-oil/diesel fuel blends by high frequency reciprocating test rig

    Xu, Yufu; Wang, Qiongjie; Hu, Xianguo; Li, Chuan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2010-01-01

    The diesel fuel was mixed with the rice husk bio-oil using some emulsifiers based on the theory of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB). The lubricity of the bio-oil/diesel fuel blend was studied on a High Frequency Reciprocating Test Rig (HFRR) according to ASTM D 6079-2004. The microscopic topography and chemical composition on the worn surface were analyzed respectively using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The profile and surface roughness of the rubbed trace were measured using a profilometer. The chemical group and composition were studied by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results showed that the lubrication ability of the present fuel blend was better than that of the Chinese conventional diesel fuel (number zero). However, the anti-corrosion and anti-wear properties of the fuel blend were not satisfactory in comparison with those of conventional diesel fuel.

  16. A comparative study between chemical and enzymatic transesterification of high free fatty acid contained rubber seed oil for biodiesel production

    Jilse Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a paramount method for biodiesel production has significance as the demand of alternative fuels like biodiesel is growing rapidly. In the present study, experimental results from chemical-catalysed as well as enzyme-catalysed methods were compared using common influencing parameters such as oil/alcohol molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction duration. Requirement of certain solvents to enhance the reaction rate was explained in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification reaction. Biodiesel conversion of more than 90% was attained for chemical-catalysed transesterification, whereas the conversion rate was 85% for enzyme-catalysed method. This gives the indication of further refinement in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification process. The influencing parameters and absolute results of the analysis give the impression of superiority of enzymatic transesterification method for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid-contained rubber seed oil.

  17. High-yield oil palm expansion spares land at the expense of forests in the Peruvian Amazon

    Gutiérrez-Vélez, Víctor H; DeFries, Ruth; Uriarte, María; Lim, Yili; Pinedo-Vásquez, Miguel; Padoch, Christine; Baethgen, Walter; Fernandes, Katia

    2011-01-01

    High-yield agriculture potentially reduces pressure on forests by requiring less land to increase production. Using satellite and field data, we assessed the area deforested by industrial-scale high-yield oil palm expansion in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010, finding that 72% of new plantations expanded into forested areas. In a focus area in the Ucayali region, we assessed deforestation for high- and smallholder low-yield oil palm plantations. Low-yield plantations accounted for most expansion overall (80%), but only 30% of their expansion involved forest conversion, contrasting with 75% for high-yield expansion. High-yield expansion minimized the total area required to achieve production but counter-intuitively at higher expense to forests than low-yield plantations. The results show that high-yield agriculture is an important but insufficient strategy to reduce pressure on forests. We suggest that high-yield agriculture can be effective in sparing forests only if coupled with incentives for agricultural expansion into already cleared lands.

  18. Óleo essencial de aroeira-vermelha como aditivo na ração de frangos de corte Essential oil from Brazillian red pepper as an additive in broiler diet

    Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de óleo essencial de aroeira-vermelha (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi como promotor de crescimento nas rações de frangos de corte sobre o desempenho e morfometria intestinal desses animais. Foram utilizados 300 pintos de um dia de vida, tipo corte, machos, linhagem Cobb. As aves foram alojadas em 20 boxes de 2m² (15 aves boxe-1, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em grupos de quatro (4 tratamentos e cinco (5 repetições, com 15 aves cada. Os grupos foram identificados como T1: dieta sem promotor de crescimento e sem óleo de aroeira-vermelha (controle negativo; T2: dieta com promotor de crescimento e sem óleo de aroeira (antimicrobiano e anticoccidiano - controle positivo; T3: dieta contendo somente antimicrobiano (bacitracina de zinco; T4: dieta com 0,4% de óleo de aroeira-vermelha. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho animal (P>0,05. Contudo, quanto aos aspectos morfométricos dos intestinos verificou-se que, aos 21 dias de idade, os animais tratados com promotor de crescimento apresentaram maior relação vilo:cripta, que não diferiu dos tratados com 0,4% de óleo de aroeira-vermelha (P>0,05. As aves arraçoadas com uma dieta sem promotor de crescimento (sem antibiótico e anticoccidiano tiveram a menor relação vilo:cripta (P0,05. Neste estudo, não houve diferença significativa na profundidade das criptas de Lieberkühn e na altura das vilosidades entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Concluiu-se que a adição de 0,4% de óleo de aroeira promoveu uma melhoria na superfície absortiva intestinal das aves, quando comparado com as aves alimentadas sem promotor de crescimento.The aim was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of Brazilian red pepper oil (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, as an additive in feed on performance and intestinal morphometry of broilers. A total of 300 day-old male chicks, Cobb, distributed in a randomized design in groups

  19. Do high oil prices justify an increase in taxation in a mature oil province? The case of the UK continental shelf

    Nakhle, Carole

    2007-01-01

    In response to the structural shift in oil price coupled with greater import dependency, concerns about security of supply have once again emerged as a major policy issue. The UK, the largest producer of oil and natural gas in the European Union, became a net importer of natural gas in 2004, and according to Government estimates will become a net importer of oil by the end of the decade. A weakened North Sea performance means extra reliance, both for the UK and Europe as a whole, on global oil and gas network and imports. In 2002, the UK Government introduced a 10% supplementary charge and in 2005, doubled the charge to 20% in an attempt to capture more revenues from the oil industry as a result of the increase in the price of crude oil. However, higher tax rates do not necessarily generate higher fiscal revenue and in the long term may result in materially lower revenues if investment is discouraged as indeed occurred when the 2007 UK Annual Budget statement showed a shortfall in North Sea oil revenues below forecasts of Pounds 4 billion. It is therefore argued that the increase in the fiscal take came at the wrong time for the UK Continental Shelf and that the UK Government's concern should have been to encourage more oil production from its declining province, especially in the light of the rising concern surrounding the security of supply

  20. The effect of degumming by hydration on the purification of high acidity solvent extracted olive oil

    Thomopoulos, C. D.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The degumming result of the following factors was studied: the temperature of hydration, the percentage of water in oil and the contact time at the hydration temperature. The hydration at 95°C with 2% water for a contact time of 15 min resulted in maximum removal of phosphorus of the oil with minimum oil losses. The same purification result was also attained at 80°G with 2% water and for a contact time of 15 min causing 2.19% greater losses of the oil. Under these conditions the hydration resulted in an about 35-48% removal of the phosphorus in crude oil. The residual phosphorus was removed by subsequent alkali neutralization.

    El resultado del desgomado, controlado por la disminución del contenido en fósforo, fue estudiado según los siguientes factores: temperatura de hidratación, porcentaje de agua en el aceite y tiempo de contacto a la temperatura de hidratación. La hidratación a 95°C con 2% de agua y tiempo de contacto de 15 minutos, dio la máxima eliminación del contenido en fósforo del aceite crudo y el mínimo de pérdidas en aceite. Cambiando la temperatura de 95 a 80°C y manteniendo el contenido en agua al 2% y el tiempo de contacto de 15 minutos, aumentó la pérdida de aceite en un 2.19%. Bajo estas condiciones, y en ambos casos, se consiguió eliminar el 35-48% del contenido en fósforo del aceite crudo, eliminándose el residual mediante la neutralización alcalina.

  1. Artificial lifting supervision: successes solutions apply for 3.000 oil wells; Supervisao na elevacao artificial: uma solucao aplicada com sucesso em 3.000 pocos de petroleo

    Costa, Rutacio O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo B. [RN TECNOLOGIA, Natal, RN (Brazil); Maitelli, Andre L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The gathering of information in industrial automation is essential to maintain and control the industrial processes. In the automation of oil wells, each artificial elevation method has its own variables to be monitored. Thus, several automation companies have developed specific controllers with its own communication protocol and supervisory software. However, in an ideal case, all information about oil elevation should be available in one single application. The SISAL is a SCADA system able to collect processes data and deliver them to the users or other system, regardless of the technique used for artificial elevation, controllers and connecting devices to the wells. This paper is about the application, progress and results using this software in PETROBRAS. (author)

  2. Use of probability methods in prospecting-exploration in looking for oil. Primeneniye veroyatnostnykh metodov v poiskovo-razvedochnykh rabotakh na neft'

    Kharbukh, Dzh U; Davton, Dzh Kh; Devis, Dzh K

    1981-01-01

    The experience of using probability methods in different geological conditions on the US territory is generalized. The efficiency of using systems analysis, imitation modeling of prospecting-exploration process and conditions for arrangement of fields, machine processing of data in plotting different types of structural maps, probability forecasting of the presence of fields is shown. Especial attention is focused on nonstructural traps. A brief dictionary of terms is presented used in the mathematical apparatus and the computer in oil geology.

  3. Fabrication of microlens array with controllable high NA and tailored optical characteristics using confined ink-jetting

    Wang, Li; Luo, Yu; Liu, ZengZeng; Feng, Xueming; Lu, Bingheng

    2018-06-01

    This work presents an economic and controllable fabricating method of high numerical aperture (NA) polymer microlens array (MLA) based on ink-jetting technology. The MLAs are ink-jetted to align on micro platforms patterned flexible PDMS substrate. The shape of a sole lens is constructed by the ink-jetted pre-cured polymer volume confined on a micro platform. In this way, MLAs with targeted geometries-as well as tailored optical characteristics-can be printed, leading to freely designed optical properties. High NA from 0.446 to 0.885 and focal lengths between 99.26 μm and 39.45 μm are demonstrated, confirming theoretical predictions. Particularly, both the simulations and experimental measurements in optical properties are carried out, demonstrating that microlenses with shapes beyond a hemisphere (CA > 90°) exhibits higher light utilization efficiency and wider viewing angle. Meanwhile, the MLAs are fabricated on flexible PDMS substrates and can be attached to other curved surfaces for wider field of view imaging and higher sensitivity.

  4. Analysis of Angola as a new OPEC member (2007) for the world oil market; Analise da entrada de Angola na OPEC (2007) para o mercado mundial do petroleo

    Garcia, Ana Paula Alves S.L.; Almeida, Gabriela Gomes de [Universidade Vila Velha, ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais; Samarco Mineracao S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: anapaula_aslg@hotmail.com, e-mail: gabiptu@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Angola is in the spot light lately as one of the major oil producers in the world, being the second largest oil producer in Africa. Therefore, in 2007, this country became a member of OPEC which brought to table several speculations concerning Angola's position facing the pressures and demands of an international organization. This article comes to analyse Angola's possible strategies when it comes to defending its economic interests and its participation in the price politics implemented by OPEC. All hypotheses considered in this article are analysed according to the Complex Interdependence Theory (Keohane and Nye). This International Affairs Theory is defined by a mutual and multilateral dependence between the nations. This way, we may conclude that even though Angola has a history of non fulfilling its agreements, the cooperation is made necessary because it is the most benefice alternative. The tendency is that when Angola starts fulfilling its quotas on the oil matter it will receive cooperation from OPEC and other nations in other areas where this country needs assistance. (author)

  5. Study of high-energy nucleus-nucleus interactions with the enlarged NA10 dimuon spectrometer

    Dimuon production is studied in $^{16}$0 - $^{238}$U and $^{32}$S - $^{238}$U collisions at the maximum possible luminosity of $\\sim10^{7}$ interactions per pulse using the NA10 spectrometer to which beam counters, an active segmented target and an electromagnetic calorimeter have been added. Thermal dimuons are expected to be emitted from a quark-gluon plasma at a detectable rate in the 1-3 GeV/c$^{2}$ transverse mass range, and to differ from ordinary dimuons by their $P_{T}$ and rapidity distribution. Particular emphasis is put on the $J/\\psi$ meson whose $\\mu\\mu$ decays are studied in detail. It is expected to be suppressed when a quark-gluon plasma is formed (Debye screening of the colour field). The correlations of the dimuon variables with charged multiplicity and neutral energy flow distributions are studied event by event. The energy density is estimated from the measured transverse neutral energy. Also $p$ - $^{228}$U collisions are studied in the same apparatus with the purpose of establishing a da...

  6. High-NA EUV lithography enabling Moore's law in the next decade

    van Schoot, Jan; Troost, Kars; Bornebroek, Frank; van Ballegoij, Rob; Lok, Sjoerd; Krabbendam, Peter; Stoeldraijer, Judon; Loopstra, Erik; Benschop, Jos P.; Finders, Jo; Meiling, Hans; van Setten, Eelco; Kneer, Bernhard; Kuerz, Peter; Kaiser, Winfried; Heil, Tilmann; Migura, Sascha; Neumann, Jens Timo

    2017-10-01

    While EUV systems equipped with a 0.33 Numerical Aperture lenses are readying to start volume manufacturing, ASML and Zeiss are ramping up their activities on a EUV exposure tool with Numerical Aperture of 0.55. The purpose of this scanner, targeting an ultimate resolution of 8nm, is to extend Moore's law throughout the next decade. A novel, anamorphic lens design, capable of providing the required Numerical Aperture has been investigated; This lens will be paired with new, faster stages and more accurate sensors enabling Moore's law economical requirements, as well as the tight focus and overlay control needed for future process nodes. The tighter focus and overlay control budgets, as well as the anamorphic optics, will drive innovations in the imaging and OPC modelling. Furthermore, advances in resist and mask technology will be required to image lithography features with less than 10nm resolution. This paper presents an overview of the target specifications, key technology innovations and imaging simulations demonstrating the advantages as compared to 0.33NA and showing the capabilities of the next generation EUV systems.

  7. Evaluation of garlic oil in nano-emulsified form: Optimization and its efficacy in high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia in Wistar rats.

    Ragavan, Gokulakannan; Muralidaran, Yuvashree; Sridharan, Badrinathan; Nachiappa Ganesh, Rajesh; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2017-07-01

    Garlic oil nanoemulsion was formulated using ultrasonic emulsification and the optimized garlic oil nanoemulsion ratio (1:2) of oil: surfactant showed spherical, with tiny droplet size 24.9 ± 1.11 nm. It was observed that the prepared nanoemulsion has the zeta potential of -42.63 ± 1.58 mV and a low polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.09 with excellent stability. The formulation was subjected to in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity. In acute toxicity study, single oral administration of 18.63 ml of garlic oil nanoemulsion/kg resulted in immediate mortality. However, garlic oil nanoemulsion (0.46 ml/kg) and tween 80 (0.5 ml/kg) administered rats did not exhibit any toxicity and showed no changes in hematological and histological parameters. Further, both preventive and curative studies of garlic oil nanoemulsion were evaluated in high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic Wistar rats. Garlic oil nanoemulsion administered groups showed a significant effect in reducing the levels of lipid profiles (p garlic oil. Evaluation of lipid deposits in hepatic tissues was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, which revealed that garlic oil nanoemulsion administered rats markedly reduced the fat depots. Our findings suggest that garlic oil nano-emulsified form reduced toxicity and improved efficacy in preventing and treating dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory weathering of combusted oil shale

    Essington, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of three combusted oil shales (two Green River Formation and one New Albany) in a laboratory weathering environment using the humidity cell technique. The mineralogy of the combusted western oil shales (Green River Formation) is process dependent. In general, processing resulted in the formation of anhydrite, lime, periclase, and hematite. During the initial stages of weathering, lime, periclase, and hematite. During the initial stages of weathering, lime, periclase, and anhydrite dissolve and ettringite precipitates. The initial leachates are highly alkaline, saline, and dominated by Na, hydroxide, and SO 4 . As weathering continues, ettringite precipitates. The initial leachates are highly alkaline, saline, and dominated by Na, hydroxide, and SO 4 . As weathering continues, ettringite dissolves, gypsum and calcite precipitate, and the leachates are dominated by Mg, SO 4 , and CO 3 . Leachate pH is rapidly reduced to between 8.5 and 9 with leaching. The combusted eastern oil shale (New Albany) is composed of quartz, illite, hematite, and orthoclase. Weathering results in the precipitation of gypsum. The combusted eastern oil shale did not display a potential to produce acid drainage. Leachate chemistry was dominated by Ca and SO 4 . Element concentrations continually decreased with weathering. IN a western disposal environment receiving minimal atmospheric precipitation, spent oil shale will remain in the initial stages of weathering, and highly alkaline and saline conditions will dominate leachate chemistry. In an eastern disposal environment, soluble salts will be rapidly removed from the spent oil shale to potentially affect the surrounding environment

  9. Molecular dynamics studies of fluid/oil interfaces for improved oil recovery processes.

    de Lara, Lucas S; Michelon, Mateus F; Miranda, Caetano R

    2012-12-20

    In our paper, we study the interface wettability, diffusivity, and molecular orientation between crude oil and different fluids for applications in improved oil recovery (IOR) processes through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD). The salt concentration, temperature, and pressure effects on the physical chemistry properties of different interfaces between IOR agents [brine (H(2)O + % NaCl), CO(2), N(2), and CH(4)] and crude oil have been determined. From the interfacial density profiles, an accumulation of aromatic molecules near the interface has been observed. In the case of brine interfaced with crude oil, our calculations indicate an increase in the interfacial tension with increasing pressure and salt concentration, which favors oil displacement. On the other hand, with the other fluids studied (CO(2), N(2), and CH(4)), the interfacial tension decreases with increasing pressure and temperature. With interfacial tension reduction, an increase in fluid diffusivity in the oil phase is observed. We also studied the molecular orientation properties of the hydrocarbon and fluids molecules in the interface region. We perceived that the molecular orientation could be affected by changes in the interfacial tension and diffusivity of the molecules in the interface region with the increased pressure and temperature: pressure (increasing) → interfacial tension (decreasing) → diffusion (increasing) → molecular ordering. From a molecular point of view, the combination of low interfacial tension and high diffusion of molecules in the oil phase gives the CO(2) molecules unique properties as an IOR fluid compared with other fluids studied here.

  10. Chemical composition and resistance to oxidation of high-oleic rapeseed oil pressed from microwave pre-treated intact and de-hulled seeds

    Rękas, A.; Wroniak, M.; Siger, A.; Ścibisz, I.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of a microwave (MV) pre-treatment (3, 6, 9 min, 800W) on the physicochemical properties of high-oleic rapeseed oil prepared from intact (HORO) and de-hulled seeds (DHORO) was investigated in this study. A control DHORO contained higher levels of total tocopherols and carotenoids, while higher concentrations of total phenolic compounds and chlorophylls were detected in the HORO. The MV pre-treatment caused a decrease in the unsaturated fatty acids content that was more evident for the DHOROs. The microwaving time significantly affected phytochemical contents and the color of both types of oils. A vast increase in canolol concentration was noticeable following 9 min of microwaving, which increased 506- and 155-fold in the HORO and DHORO, respectively. At the same time, the antioxidant capacity of oil produced from MV pre-treated seeds for 9 min was nearly 4 times higher than that of the control oil for both types of oils. [es

  11. High-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of the quasi-one dimensional osmium oxide Na2OsO4

    Shi, Y.G.; Guo, Y.F.; Yu, S.; Arai, M.; Belik, A.A.; Sato, A.; Yamaura, K.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Na 2 OsO 4 crystals were grown by a NaCl flux method under high pressure. It crystallizes in the Ca 2 IrO 4 -type structure without having additional elements or metal vacancies, which are usually accommodated. It appears that Na 2 OsO 4 is a metal-stoichiometric Ca 2 IrO 4 -type compound never been synthesized to date. Na 2 OsO 4 has the octahedral environment of Os 6+ O 6 so that the electronic configuration is 5d 2 , suggesting the magnetic S=1 ground state. However, magnetization, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements indicated that the non-magnetic S=0 state is much likely for Na 2 OsO 4 than the S=1 state. Band structure calculations and the structure analysis found that the disagreement is probably due to the statically uniaxial compression of the OsO 6 octahedra, resulting in splitting of the t 2 g band. - Graphical abstract: Na 2 OsO 4 crystals were grown by a NaCl flux method under high pressure. It crystallizes in the Ca 2 IrO 4 -type structure comprising infinite Os 6+ O 6 octahedra (5d 2 ) chains. The crystal growth, the crystal structure, and the magnetic and electrical properties are reported.

  12. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  13. Natural Resource Damage Assessment in highly impacted systems: A case study of the Anacostia River oil spill

    Pinkney, A.E.; Frithsen, J.B.; Burton, W.H.; Scott, L.C.; Siciliano, J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach and case study are presented to assessing natural resource damages due to additional perturbations in highly disturbed systems. The approach involves: (1) defining chemical characteristics unique to the additional perturbation, (2) identifying specific natural resources that may be sensitive to the additional perturbation and the most appropriate sampling period for each, and (3) using existing data to characterize previous conditions. This approach was used to assess the residual effects of a January 1992 spill of 3,400 gallons of number-sign 4 fuel oil in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC. Water quality is poor due to continuing inputs from urban runoff; one upstream tributary (Hickey Run) has a fifty year history of chronic oil spills and stormwater runoff of oil and grease. The challenge was to isolate possible spill impacts from those due to chronic pollutant inputs. GC/FID fingerprinting analyses were used to characterize spill material and hydrocarbons found in the spill area and two adjacent reference areas. Fish larvae (ichthyoplankton) and benthic invertebrates were identified as biological resources most likely to demonstrate residual effects. Results indicated that there were insignificant amounts of the hydrocarbons from the spill in the water, sediments, and biota of the river, and no residual impacts on biological resources could be identified

  14. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  15. Peculiar high temperature corrosion of martensite alloy under impact of Estonian oil shale fly ash

    Tallermo, H; Klevtsov, I [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    The superheaters` surfaces of oil shale steam boiler made of pearlitic and austenitic alloys, are subject to intensive corrosion, mainly due to presence of chlorine in external deposits. The applicability of martensitic alloys X1OCrMoVNb91 and X20CrMoV121 for superheaters is examined here and empirical equations allowing to predict alloys` corrosion resistance in the range of operational temperatures are established. Alloy X1OCrMoVNb91 is found been most perspective for superheaters of boilers firing fossil fuel that contain alkaline metals and chlorine. The abnormal dependence of corrosion resistance of martensitic alloys on temperature is revealed, namely, corrosion at 580 deg C in presence of oil shale fly ash is more intensive than at 620 deg C. (orig.) 2 refs.

  16. Asian oil demand

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  17. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil.

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2012-08-01

    High oleic acid soybeans were produced by combining mutant FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. Despite having a high oleic acid content, the linolenic acid content of these soybeans was in the range of 4-6 %, which may be high enough to cause oxidative instability of the oil. Therefore, a study was conducted to incorporate one or two mutant FAD3 genes into the high oleic acid background to further reduce the linolenic acid content. As a result, soybean lines with high oleic acid and low linolenic acid (HOLL) content