Sample records for high midline areas

  1. Interhemispheric connections between primary visual areas: beyond the midline rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzel J.-C.


    Full Text Available In the last five years, a number of detailed anatomical, electrophysiological, optical imaging and simulation studies performed in a variety of non-human species have revealed that the functional organization of callosal connections between primary visual areas is more elaborate than previously thought. Callosal cell bodies and terminals are clustered in columns whose correspondence to features mapped in the visual cortex, such as orientation and ocularity, are starting to be understood. Callosal connections are not restricted to the vertical midline representation nor do they establish merely point-to-point retinotopic correspondences across the hemispheres, as traditionally believed. In addition, anatomical studies have revealed the existence of an ipsilateral component of callosal axons. The aim of this short review is to propose how these new data can be integrated into an updated scheme of the circuits responsible for assembling the primary visual field map.

  2. Radiation therapy of midline granuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauci, A.S.; Johnson, R.E.; Wolff, S.M.


    During a 15-year period, 10 patients with well-documented midline granuloma were treated with high-dose, deep local irradiation and followed for extended periods of time. Long-term remissions were achieved in 7 patients, with a mean (+- SEM) survival postirradiation of 7.4 (+-1.4) years in the 6 patients still alive. True midline granuloma, which is a localized, destructive, inflammatory process of the upper airways, can be distinguished from Wegener's granulomatosis and neoplasms of the upper respiratory tract by several clinicopathologic criteria. The cause of midline granuloma is unknown, but it most likely represents an abnormal accelerated hypersensitivity reaction to an unknown antigen(s). Although serious complications of high-dose local irradiation to the upper airways can occur, the risk is warranted because of the high, long-term remission rate in this previously uniformly fatal disease.

  3. Zbtb20-Induced CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Development and Area Enlargement in the Cerebral Midline Cortex of Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob V; Blom, Jonas B; Noraberg, Jens


    Expression of the transcriptional repressor Zbtb20 is confined to the hippocampal primordium of the developing dorsal midline cortex in mice. Here, we show that misexpression of Zbtb20 converts projection neurons of the subiculum and postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum) to CA1 pyramidal neurons...... that are innervated by Schaffer collateral projections in ectopic strata oriens and radiatum. The Zbtb20-transformed neurons express Bcl11B, Satb2, and Calbindin-D28k, which are markers of adult CA1 pyramidal neurons. Downregulation of Zbtb20 expression by RNA interference impairs the normal maturation of CA1...... pyramidal neurons resulting in deficiencies in Calbindin-D28k expression and in reduced apical dendritic arborizations in stratum lacunosum moleculare. Overall, the results show that Zbtb20 is required for various aspects of CA1 pyramidal neuron development such as the postnatal extension of apical...

  4. Transcultural perception of maxillary midline diastema. (United States)

    Akinboboye, Bolanle; Umesi, Donna; Ajayi, Yetunde


    Perception of maxillary midline diastema as an esthetic trait varies in relation to culture, age group, and racial background. Although midline diastema is accepted in Africa, there are few reports on interethnic perception of midline diastema among Nigerians. Participants aged 19 to 45 years were selected from six geographical zones of Nigeria; one state was randomly selected from each zone, and a local government area (LGA) selected from each state. A structured questionnaire including a set of color smile photographs with varying sizes of maxillary midline diastema (narrowest=2 mm; widest=6 mm) was administered. Information sought was age, gender, socioeconomic group, tribe, presence of a midline diastema, and grading of attractiveness of smile. This information was evaluated using a Likert scale. A total of 402 subjects aged 19 to 45 years and a mean age of 36.3 years (±0.714) took part in this study. The highest proportion of subjects with midline diastema was aged 21 to 30 years (33.9%), females (29.8%), from the Hausa ethnic group (35%), and from the class II socioeconomic group (31.9%). Among the ethnic groups, Hausa had the highest (65%) preference for midline diastema. Females (58.8%) and those in the class II socioeconomic group (68.1%) also had the highest preference for midline diastema. There was a strong relationship between incidence of and preference for midline diastema (P=0.000). All ethnic groups rated maxillary midline diastema as attractive, especially when the width was within 2 to 3 mm (P=0.02). All ethnic groups perceived maxillary midline diastema to be an esthetic attribute, provided the width was within 2 to 3 mm.

  5. Cervical and high thoracic ligamentum flavum frequently fails to fuse in the midline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, Philipp; Kolbitsch, Christian; Putz, Guenther; Colvin, Joshua; Colvin, Hans Peter; Lorenz, Ingo; Keller, Christian; Kirchmair, Lukas; Rieder, Josef; Moriggl, Bernhard


    Cervical and high thoracic epidural anesthesia and analgesia have gained increasing importance in the treatment of painful conditions and as components of anesthetics for cardiac and breast surgery. In contrast to the hanging-drop technique, the loss-of-resistance technique is thought to rely on the

  6. Midline granuloma in infant. (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, G N


    Midline Granuloma is a very uncommon disease characterised by localised inflamation, destruction and often mutilations of the tissues of the upper respiratory tract and face. This unique case is being reported for its rarity having the complete destruction of the external nose and part of the upper lip.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    MIDLINE LETHAL GRANULOMA COMPLICATING PREGNANCY: CASE REPORT. B.D.O. SAHEEB and M.A. OJO. ABSTRACT. A case of midline lethal granuloma in a 28-year- old female Nigerian patient is reported. Oral, ocular and nasal lesions were present and these preceded a spontaneous abortion of a three.

  8. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy. (United States)

    Koora, Kiran; Muthu, M S; Rathna, Prabhu V


    Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies) and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  9. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koora Kiran


    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  10. Gamma knife radiosurgery for midline lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legat, J.; Mokry, M.; Leber, K.; Schroettner, O.; Pendl, G. [Karl-Franzens Univ., Graz (Austria)


    Surgery of midline lesions is difficult in many cases and often only partial removal is possible. Between May 1992 and April 1997, 81 patients with midline lesions were treated radiosurgically. The lesions were located in the hypothalamic region (25), thalamus (20), third ventricle (2), quadrigeminal plate (9), pons (13), fourth ventricle (4), pineal region (4) and other locations (4). Forty-eight patients were male and 33 were female. Histologically, there were 56 benign cases (13 arteriovenous malformations, 11 low grade gliomas, 20 craniopharyngiomas, 5 meningiomas, 3 hamartomas, 4 miscellaneous) and 25 malignant cases (10 metastases, 10 high grade gliomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 3 miscellaneous). Clinical and radiological follow-up was obtained in 71 patients (88%). In all patients the treatment was well tolerated. Radiographic response could be achieved in 39 of 68 tumor patients (57%). A complete obliteration was seen in 6 arteriovenous malformations (60%) 2 years after radiosurgery. A second radiosurgical procedure was necessary in 2 patients because of incomplete obliteration after 3 years. According to our experience, we can conclude that radiosurgery appears to be effective as adjuvant treatment or midline lesions. (author)

  11. High surface area calcite (United States)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.


    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  12. Disfunção hormonal em lesões não hipofisárias das regiões selar e periselar Hormonal dysfunction of nonpituitary lesions from midline and perisellar area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luíza Vidal Fonseca


    intracranial lesions from midline and parasellar area. METHOD: Forty-four patients were evaluated with nonpituitary intracranial lesions, who had images studies (computed tomography or magnetic resonance and preoperative basal hormonal level; 16 had preoperative hypothalamus-hypophysial function tests (megatests. These patients were divided in two groups. Group I - 34 lesions from midline: 11 craniopharyngiomas, 8 meningiomas, 3 germinomas, 3 tumors of sphenoid sinus, 2 empty sella syndrome, 2 pylocitic astrocytomas, 1 giant aneurysm, 2 mucoceles, 1 III ventricle diverticulum and 1 Rathke's cleft cyst; Group II - 10 lesions from parasellar area: 9 meningiomas and 1 giant aneurysm. RESULTS: In group I, 25/34 (73.5% patients showed laboratorial hormonal deficit (14 without clinical manifestations 18/34 (52.9% hyperprolactinemia (5 with galactorreia and 8 (53.3% showed growth hormone deficiency in 15 megatests avaliable in this group; 3 (8.8 % patients presented central diabetes insipidus (CDI. In group II, 6/10 (60% patients showed laboratorial hormonal deficit (5 without clinical manifestations, 1 (10% hyperprolactinemia and 1 growth hormone deficiency (single megatest realized in this group; no patient had preoperative CID. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of nonspecific or poorly valorized clinical manifestations, does not indicate absence of hormonal dysfunction; in this present serie, 19/38 (50% patients with laboratorial abnormalities, didn't show clinical manifestations. Hormonal dysfunction is frequent in sellar and perisellar nonpituitary lesions, specially involving midline.

  13. Acceptable Deviation between Facial and Dental Midlines in Dentate Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayalakshmi, N S; Ravindra, S; Nagaraj, K R; Rupesh, P L; Harshavardhan, M P


    The success of the dental restorations largely depends on its esthetics, although various literature reviews recommend that anterior teeth midline be placed coinciding the facial midline, the amount...

  14. Experiences in therapy for lethal midline granuloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaka, K.; Ishikawa, T. (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Four cases of the lethal midline granuloma or malignant granuloma of the nose were treated by irradiation and chemotherapy, which are generally prescribed for malignant lymphomas. Clinical, histological and laboratory examination indicated that they were the lethal midline granuloma and clearly differentiated from Wegener's granulomatosis or malignant lymphoma. All of the cases exhibited primary remission. The four cases were observed up to 38, 22, 14, and 10 months since the beginning of the therapy, showing no local or general recurrence.

  15. Revisiting the Factors Underlying Maxillary Midline Diastema

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    Abdullah M. Zakria Jaija


    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to analyze the etiological factors underlying the presence of maxillary midline diastema in a sample of orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods. One hundred patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected from 1355 patients seeking orthodontic treatment. The pretreatment orthodontic records were analyzed. The width of the maxillary midline diastema was measured clinically with a digital caliper at two levels: the mesioincisal angles of the central incisors and five millimeters from the incisal edge. The two measurements were averaged, and patients with diastema of more than 0.5 millimeter in width were enrolled. Results. Diastema is a multifactorial clinical finding with more than one underlying etiological cause. The interrelationship between the familial pattern of midline diastema and the microdontia, macroglossia, labial frenum, and alveolar cleft conforms was clear. The effect of a mesiodens and the upper lateral incisor whether bilaterally missing, unerupted, or peg shaped was minimal. Conclusion. Etiological factors underlying maxillary midline diastema are interconnected. Using a checklist as a guide during handling maxillary midline diastema is important in the different stages of treatment.

  16. Midline abdominal wall closure: a new prophylactic mesh concept. (United States)

    Bellón, Juan M; López-Hervás, Pedro; Rodríguez, Marta; García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Pascual, Gemma; Buján, Julia


    Despite intense research efforts, incisional hernias continue to be a problem in patients who undergo laparotomy. This study was designed to reinforce the midline laparotomy closure by including a new prosthetic design between the edges of the surgical wound. A midline incision was made in New Zealand white rabbits and closed by inserting a polypropylene strip, T-shaped in cross-section, between the incisional borders. The T was placed upside down such that the horizontal arm of the T, whose surface is coated with extra-low pore size expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, made contact with the visceral peritoneum. The mesh was secured by a mass polypropylene 3/0 running suture. Surgery outcomes in these animals were compared with those in which the surgical wound was closed by simple suture and with control, nonoperated animals. The T-mesh induced an increased amount of scar tissue at the midline, where neoformed recipient tissue appeared around the polypropylene mesh filaments. The expanded polytetrafluoroethylene lamina became appropriately mesothelialized. Compared with the simple suture, the T-mesh provided a significant gain in biomechanical strength at postoperative week 6 (43.99+/-4.17 Newtons and 56.96+/-10.94 Newtons, respectively, p abdominal wall (82.25+/-7.60 Newtons versus 79.55+/-11.46 Newtons). Data were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. The use of a nonabsorbable biomaterial for midline laparotomy closure significantly improves its biomechanical resistance. Used in high-risk patients or even prophylactically, this technique could reduce the incidence of incisional hernia.

  17. Midline lethal granuloma complicating pregnancy: case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of midline lethal granuloma in a 28-year- old female Nigerian patient is reported. Oral, ocular and nasal lesions were present and these preceded a spontaneous abortion of a three month old pregnancy. The clinical course of the disease and its similarity to other granulomatous diseases, which are generally ...

  18. Midline and off-midline infratentorial supracerebellar approaches to the pineal gland. (United States)

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Baydin, Serhat; Güngör, Abuzer; Miki, Koichi; Komune, Noritaka; Kurogi, Ryota; Iihara, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L


    OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope. Twenty CT angiograms were examined to measure the depth of the pineal gland, slope of the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, and angle of approach to the pineal gland in each approach. RESULTS The midline supracerebellar route is the shortest and provides direct exposure of the pineal gland, although the culmen and inferior and superior vermian tributaries of the vein of Galen frequently block this exposure. The off-midline routes provide a surgical exposure that, although slightly deeper, may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at both the level of the veins from the superior cerebellar surface entering the tentorial sinuses and at the level of the tributaries of the vein of Galen in the quadrigeminal cistern, and require less cerebellar retraction. Shifting from midline to off-midline exposure also provides a better view of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure, collicular plate, and trochlear nerve than the midline approaches. Endoscopic assistance may aid exposure of the pineal gland while preserving the bridging veins. CONCLUSIONS Understanding the characteristics of different infratentorial routes to the pineal gland will aid in gaining a better view of the pineal gland and cerebellomesencephalic fissure and may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at the level of the tentorial sinuses draining the upper

  19. Posterior midline cervical fetal cystic hygroma.

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    Oak S


    Full Text Available Posterior midline cervical cystic hygromas (PMC are frequently found associated with chromosomal aberrations and usually do not survive. The present report illustrates diagnosis of this condition by sonography in an 18 weeks old fetus and an amniocentesis revealed 45 x0 karyotype and increased concentration of alpha-fetoproteins. Pregnancy was terminated in view of Turner′s syndrome. The etiology and natural history of the condition is reviewed.

  20. Lethal midline granuloma syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Ana Luiza Vianna Sobral de Magalhaes [Resident of Medical Practice, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchon Junior, Joao Luiz [Unit of Computed Tomography, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The rare lethal midline granuloma syndrome is difficult to diagnose because of the wide array of related diseases and lack of knowledge by the majority of physicians. In the present report, the authors describe the case of a patient with this disease, caused by squamous cell carcinoma, drawing attention to differential diagnoses and to clinical and radiological findings that may be useful to define the diagnosis. (author)

  1. Flood Hazard Areas - High Risk (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The S_Fld_Haz_Ar table contains information about the flood hazards within the study area. A spatial file with locational information also corresponds with this data...

  2. Clinical Utilization of M Spring for the Space Closure of Midline Diastema - Clinical Case Reports. (United States)

    Kanyas, S Dhivya; Sankar, Hanumanth; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Arani, Nandakumar; Keerthi, V Naga


    People approach orthodontist mainly for aesthetic purpose, midline diastema is one of the condition which causes aesthetic compromise. The midline diastema can be caused by various reasons such as high frenal attachment, midline pathology, etc. In the field of orthodontics, relapse rate is high while treating midline diastema. This relapse can be reduced only when there is bodily movement of the incisors in mesial direction. In this article, two cases of midline diastema are selected. Both the cases were treated using "M" spring which has three coils; two at periphery and one at the center and each coil was of 3mm diameter. "M" spring was fabricated using round 0.018" AJ Wilcock wire for one case and 0.017 X 0.025 TMA for another case. For both cases the duration of treatment was for six weeks. IOPA was taken after six weeks, the case in which rectangular wire was used; there was bodily movement of the central incisor in mesial direction. Whereas in round wire technique, predominantly tipping type of tooth movement was seen. The rectangular wire has two point contacts, because of which bodily movement was obtained. This technique of using rectangular wire to fabricate "M" spring has less inventory and chair side time.

  3. Clinical Utilization of M Spring for the Space Closure of Midline Diastema – Clinical Case Reports (United States)

    Sankar, Hanumanth; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Arani, Nandakumar; Keerthi, V. Naga


    People approach orthodontist mainly for aesthetic purpose, midline diastema is one of the condition which causes aesthetic compromise. The midline diastema can be caused by various reasons such as high frenal attachment, midline pathology, etc. In the field of orthodontics, relapse rate is high while treating midline diastema. This relapse can be reduced only when there is bodily movement of the incisors in mesial direction. In this article, two cases of midline diastema are selected. Both the cases were treated using “M” spring which has three coils; two at periphery and one at the center and each coil was of 3mm diameter. “M” spring was fabricated using round 0.018” AJ Wilcock wire for one case and 0.017 X 0.025 TMA for another case. For both cases the duration of treatment was for six weeks. IOPA was taken after six weeks, the case in which rectangular wire was used; there was bodily movement of the central incisor in mesial direction. Whereas in round wire technique, predominantly tipping type of tooth movement was seen. The rectangular wire has two point contacts, because of which bodily movement was obtained. This technique of using rectangular wire to fabricate “M” spring has less inventory and chair side time. PMID:27135014

  4. Misleading EEG Lateralization Associated With Midline Shift. (United States)

    Ghearing, Gena R; Abramovici, Sergiu; Popescu, Alexandra; Baldwin, Maria E


    Midline discharges, lateralized periodic discharges, and seizures have been described with ipsilateral lesions that result in midline shift (MLS). Periodic discharges and seizures arising contralateral to a known lesion have not previously been described as a sign of MLS. We present four patients with focal brain lesions, resulting in MLS and epileptiform discharges arising from the contralateral hemisphere. Patient 1 underwent a right anterior temporal lobectomy. On postoperative day 2, computed tomography demonstrated a right to left MLS of 12 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 2 experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was more prominent on the left. Computed tomography after craniotomy demonstrated left to right MLS of 6 mm, and EEG was remarkable for right lateralized periodic discharges. Patient 3 had a right subdural hematoma and underwent craniotomy for evacuation. On postoperative day 3, computed tomography demonstrated a right MLS of 7 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Patient 4 had traumatic brain hemorrhages with maximal left frontotemporal involvement. Six days after the trauma, computed tomography was significant for left to right MLS of 9 mm, and EEG showed right lateralized periodic discharges. Epileptiform discharges and seizures occurring contralateral to a known lesion may be an indicator of MLS.

  5. Prevalence of developmental maxillary midline diastema in Taiwanese children


    Liu, Jeng-Fen; Hsu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Hui-Ling


    Background/purpose: Midline diastema in mixed dentition is a concern for both parents and children; therefore, determining the timing of closure of developmental diastema is essential for clinical practice. Data on midline diastema in Taiwanese children are scant. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of maxillary midline diastema in different age groups of children in Taiwan and to determine the time of closure of the developmental diastema. Materials and methods: Th...

  6. Prevalence of artificially created maxillary midline diastema and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maxillary midline diastema (MMD) is generally regarded as a symbol of beauty in Nigeria. The desperation to look beautiful has caused many individuals to seek the creation of artificial midline diastema and that comes often with undesirable side effects. Aim: To determine the prevalence of artificially created ...

  7. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R


    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  8. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis must be included in the differential diagnosis of midline destructive disease: two case reports. (United States)

    Crovetto-Martínez, R; Aguirre-Urizar, J M; Orte-Aldea, C; Araluce-Iturbe, I; Whyte-Orozco, J; Crovetto-De la Torre, M A


    Midline destructive lesions have multiple possible etiologies, which can be grouped into neoplastic, infectious, or vasculitis-associated. The purpose of these case reports and literature review was to highlight the need to include mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the diagnosis of midfacial lesions in any patient who has lived in Leishmania-endemic areas because this entity meets all of the clinical criteria to be considered a form of midline destructive lesion. We present two cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis that occurred in a Bolivian male immigrant and a European male traveler to Panama, in whom lesions were misdiagnosed as different midline destructive lesions with different causes (Wegener, vasculitis, and natural killer or T-cell lymphoma [NKTL]). The conclusion of our work is that all patients with midline destructive lesions should undergo histologic and molecular studies to be evaluated for mucosal leishmaniasis, particularly patients whose clinical history suggests this possibility. In cases of uvular involvement, biopsy of this region might be a possible alternative to nasal biopsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intrinsic properties and neuropharmacology of midline paraventricular thalamic nucleus neurons.

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    Miloslav eKolaj


    Full Text Available Neurons in the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei are components of an interconnected brainstem, limbic and prefrontal cortex neural network that is engaged during arousal, vigilance, motivated and addictive behaviors, and stress. To better understand the cellular mechanisms underlying these functions, here we review some of the recently characterized electrophysiological and neuropharmacological properties of neurons in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT, derived from whole cell patch clamp recordings in acute rat brain slice preparations. PVT neurons display firing patterns and ionic conductances (IT and IH that exhibit significant diurnal change. Their resting membrane potential is maintained by various ionic conductances that include inward rectifier (Kir, hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation (HCN and TWIK-related acid sensitive (TASK K+ channels. Firing patterns are regulated by high voltage-activated (HVA and low voltage-activated (LVA Ca2+ conductances. Moreover, transient receptor potential (TRP-like nonselective cation channels together with Ca2+- and Na+-activated K+ conductances (KCa; KNa contribute to unique slow afterhyperpolarizing potentials (sAHPs that are generally not detectable in lateral thalamic or reticular thalamic nucleus neurons. We also report on receptor-mediated actions of GABA, glutamate, monoamines and several neuropeptides: arginine vasopressin, gastrin-releasing peptide, thyrotropin releasing hormone and the orexins (hypocretins. This review represents an initial survey of intrinsic and transmitter-sensitive ionic conductances that are deemed to be unique to this population of midline thalamic neurons, information that is fundamental to an appreciation of the role these thalamic neurons may play in normal central nervous system (CNS physiology and in CNS disorders that involve the dorsomedial thalamus.

  10. Perception of maxillary dental midline shift in asymmetric faces. (United States)

    Silva, Bruno Pereira; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Martinez-de-Fuentes, Rafael; Fernandez, Ana Aida Vilches; Chu, Stephen


    The purpose of this article is to determine whether certain facial asymmetries (nose and chin) have an impact on the perception of the maxillary dental midline shift. From a digitally created symmetric facial model (SFM) constructed in a previous study, a new asymmetric facial model (AFM) was created, with nose and chin deviated to the same side. Modifications were made on the AFM for shifts in the maxillary dental midline in both directions, resulting in a total of eight different images. Through a web survey, 112 randomly selected laypersons were asked to evaluate each image according to their own personal beauty and esthetic criteria using a visual Likert scale. 1 mm of dental midline shift to the left of the AFM was not noticed; 1 mm of dental midline shift to the right of the AFM had a negative impact on perception of facial attractiveness; 2 and 3 mm of dental midline shift to left or right of the AFM had a negative impact on perception of facial attractiveness. Facial asymmetries such as nose and chin inclinations have an impact on the perception of maxillary dental midline shift. Direction of dental midline shift can be a major factor in this perception.

  11. Posterior midline activation during symptom provocation in acute stress disorder: An fMRI study

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    Jan Christopher Cwik


    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  12. Personality functioning and the cortical midline structures--an exploratory FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Doering

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent neuroscience studies explored the neuronal mechanisms underlying our sense of self. Thereby the cortical midline structures and their anterior and posterior regions have been shown to be central. What remains unclear though is how both, self and cortical midline structures, are related to the identity of the self which is of central importance in especially personality disorders. METHODS: Conducting an exploratory study with a dimensional approach, we here compared subjects with high and low level of personality functioning and identity integration as measured in a standardized way in fMRI during both, emotion- and reward-related tasks. RESULTS: Low levels of personality functioning and identity integration were predicted by significantly decreased degrees of deactivation in the anterior and posterior cortical midline structures. CONCLUSIONS: Though exploratory our results show for the first time direct relationship between cortical midline structures and personality functioning in terms of identity integration. This does not only contribute to our understanding of the neuronal mechanism underlying self and identity but carries also major implications for the treatment of patients with personality disorders.

  13. Comparison of flank and midline approaches to the ovariohysterectomy of cats. (United States)

    Coe, R J; Grint, N J; Tivers, M S; Hotston Moore, A; Holt, P E


    In a survey of uk veterinary practitioners, 96 per cent indicated that they performed ovariohysterectomy on cats via flank laparatomy rather than a midline coeliotomy. At a veterinary teaching hospital 32 cats were spayed by the midline approach and 34 by the flank approach, by undergraduate students under the continuous supervision of a veterinary surgeon. The duration of each part of the procedures was recorded and information was obtained from the students, the supervisors and the owners of the cats by means of questionnaires. The total duration of the surgery and the students' assessment of the difficulty of the surgery were not significantly different between the two groups. The time taken from the skin incision to entering the peritoneum was significantly longer with the flank approach, but finding the uterus took significantly longer with the midline approach. There was a high incidence of wound complications, in the form of swelling, redness or discharges, but the only statistically significant difference between the groups was a greater incidence of discharges in the cats spayed via the flank (five cases) than in the cats spayed via the midline (one case).

  14. Prevalence of developmental maxillary midline diastema in Taiwanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Fen Liu


    Conclusion: The prevalence of midline diastema decreased with age. It also declined with lateral incisor and canine eruption; it was 14.5 % after canine eruption. Therefore the orthodontic intervention of diastema should be delayed until canine eruption.

  15. Lingual foramina on the mandibular midline revisited: A macroanatomical study


    Liang, Xin; JACOBS, Romain; Lambrichts, Ivo; Vandewalle, Giovani


    The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence, size, location, course, and content of the foramina and bony canals located on the lingual side of the mandibular midline. Fifty dry human mandibles were morphometrically analyzed by measuring the distances of these midline foramina from the mandibular base and the dimensions of these foramina and their bony canals. In addition, macro- and microanatomical dissection was performed on 12 intact cadaver mandibles. The macroanatomic...

  16. Age-related changes of frontal-midline theta is predictive of efficient memory maintenance. (United States)

    Kardos, Z; Tóth, B; Boha, R; File, B; Molnár, M


    Frontal areas are thought to be the coordinators of working memory processes by controlling other brain areas reflected by oscillatory activities like frontal-midline theta (4-7 Hz). With aging substantial changes can be observed in the frontal brain areas, presumably leading to age-associated changes in cortical correlates of cognitive functioning. The present study aimed to test whether altered frontal-midline theta dynamics during working memory maintenance may underlie the capacity deficits observed in older adults. 33-channel EEG was recorded in young (18-26 years, N=20) and old (60-71 years, N=16) adults during the retention period of a visual delayed match-to-sample task, in which they had to maintain arrays of 3 or 5 colored squares. An additional visual odd-ball task was used to be able to measure the electrophysiological indices of sustained attentional processes. Old participants showed reduced frontal theta activity during both tasks compared to the young group. In the young memory maintenance-related frontal-midline theta activity was shown to be sensitive both to the increased memory demands and to efficient subsequent memory performance, whereas the old adults showed no such task-related difference in the frontal theta activity. The decrease of frontal-midline theta activity in the old group indicates that cerebral aging may alter the cortical circuitries of theta dynamics, thereby leading to age-associated decline of working memory maintenance function. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Midline versus transverse incision for cesarean delivery in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels J


    While transverse incision is the recommended entry technique for cesarean delivery in high-income countries, it is our experience that midline incision is still used routinely in many low-income settings. Accordingly, international guidelines lack uniformity on this matter. Although evidence is l...... in guidelines for low-income settings in which resources are limited for treating complications that may be life threatening....

  18. High Surface Area Tunnels in Hexagonal WO₃. (United States)

    Sun, Wanmei; Yeung, Michael T; Lech, Andrew T; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chain; Li, Tianqi; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Jun; Kaner, Richard B


    High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods. The 3.67 Å diameter tunnels are characterized by low-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms with nonlocal density functional theory fitting, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. These open and rigid tunnels absorb H(+) and Li(+), but not Na(+) in aqueous electrolytes without inducing a phase transformation, accessing both internal and external active sites. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3.67 Å diameter tunnels in h-WO3 shows potential applications in electrochemical energy storage, selective ion transfer, and selective gas adsorption.

  19. Ultrasonography of Midline Scalp Masses : A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyo Kyeong; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Kyeong Sook; Jung, Seung Mun; Suh, Dae Chul [Asan Medical Center University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We report our ultrasonographic experiences in the evaluation of small midline scalp masses. Ultrasonography was performed in four patients with midline scalp mass less than 3cm and its connecting tract into the cranialcavity. Ultrasonographic findings were correlated with pathologic results. There were three cephaloceles and one cystic lymph angioma. Two encephalomenin-goceles, located in occipital region, were mixed cystic and solid lesions and one atretic meningocele in parietal region was a solid lesion. Ultrasonogram of all three cases showed calvarial defect and connecting tract into the cranial cavity. On the contrary, a cystic lymph angioma in occipital region was a purely cystic mass without an associated calvarial defect. We suppose that ultrasonography could be a useful screening tool in the evaluation of midline scalp masses

  20. Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamille Barros Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. Methods: An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS. Wilcoxon test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Results: Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05 were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05 when the deviation was 1 mm. Conclusions: Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Lugo Machado


    Full Text Available Congenital nasofrontal lesions of the midline are rare congenital abnormalities such as dermoid cysts, nasal gliomas and encephaloceles, with an occurrence of 1: 20,000 to 40,000 births. Its importance lies in the connection to the central nervous system. The biopsy of the lesions with intracranial communication, produce cerebrospinal fluid leaks or meningitis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of midline nasofrontal lesions in a tertiary hospital of regional referral and it´s relationship with other malformations. Material and Methods: Study Design: Transversal retrospective. Male and female patients aged 1 month to 13 years of age with congenital lesions of the nasofrontal midline, treated at Children's Hospital from 1990 to 2005. Sample: was obtained by a non-probabilistic sample of consecutive cases. Through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 which included descriptive statistics: median as a measure of central tendency and frequency distribution and proportion as a measure of dispersion. Results: a review of clinical records was conducted from 1990 to 2005, finding 38 of 67 records reviewed, 29 files were excluded because they correspond to the diagnosis of occipital encephalocele. Prevalence was 38 cases in 15 years. The gender distribution of nasofrontal midline lesions was slightly higher in females with 22 cases and 16 cases in males. The midline nasofrontal lesions found were midline encephalocele, gliomas and dermoid cysts. In our review most encephaloceles were not associated with the central nervous system and 11 cases did have an associated disorder; 5 cases with hydrocephalus and / or temporal or occipital cysts and 6 cases with nondevelopment of the corpus callosum plus hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Our prevalence was 38 cases in 15 years. Nasofrontal midline lesion disgnosis are usually made in the first months of life. Among the types of midline nasofrontal lesions, the most common type found

  2. Midline-malformations of brain shown by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzka, M.; Wodarz, R.; Soerensen, N.


    The paper is referring to the most frequent and essential exponents of these midline- malformations together with their main features in anatomy, pathomorphology, clinical and radiological signs. The persistent performed cavities especially the cavum septi pellucidi, the cavum Vergae and the cavum veli interpositi, additionally the agenesis of the corpus callosum, the Dandy-Walker-syndrome and the Chiari-malformations are described by typical cases. In conclusion the reliability of diagnosis in all cases of midline-malformations will be mostly sufficient by plain axail computed tomograms due to very clearly definded unmistakable pictures.

  3. High surface area fibrous silica nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek


    Disclosed are high surface area nanoparticles that have a fibrous morphology. The nanoparticles have a plurality of fibers, wherein each fiber is in contact with one other fiber and each fiber has a length of between about 1 nm and about 5000 nm. Also disclosed are applications of the nanoparticles of the present invention, and methods of fabrication of the nanoparticles of the present invention.

  4. Transgelin-expressing myofibroblasts orchestrate ventral midline closure through TGFβ signalling. (United States)

    Aldeiri, Bashar; Roostalu, Urmas; Albertini, Alessandra; Wong, Jason; Morabito, Antonino; Cossu, Giulio


    Ventral body wall (VBW) defects are among the most common congenital malformations, yet their embryonic origin and underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterised. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling is essential for VBW closure, but the responding cells are not known. Here, we identify in mouse a population of migratory myofibroblasts at the leading edge of the closing VBW that express the actin-binding protein transgelin (TAGLN) and TGFβ receptor (TGFβR). These cells respond to a temporally regulated TGFβ2 gradient originating from the epithelium of the primary body wall. Targeted elimination of TGFβR2 in TAGLN(+) cells impairs midline closure and prevents the correct subsequent patterning of the musculature and skeletal components. Remarkably, deletion of Tgfbr2 in myogenic or chondrogenic progenitor cells does not manifest in midline defects. Our results indicate a pivotal significance of VBW myofibroblasts in orchestrating ventral midline closure by mediating the response to the TGFβ gradient. Altogether, our data enable us to distinguish highly regulated epithelial-mesenchymal signalling and successive cellular migration events in VBW closure that explain early morphological changes underlying the development of congenital VBW defects. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. High surface area electrode for high efficient microbial electrosynthesis (United States)

    Nie, Huarong; Cui, Mengmeng; Lu, Haiyun; Zhang, Tian; Russell, Thomas; Lovley, Derek


    Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms directly accept electrons from an electrode to convert carbon dioxide and water into multi carbon organic compounds, affords a novel route for the generation of valuable products from electricity or even wastewater. The surface area of the electrode is critical for high production. A biocompatible, highly conductive, three-dimensional cathode was fabricated from a carbon nanotube textile composite to support the microorganism to produce acetate from carbon dioxide. The high surface area and macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT coated textile ?bers provides easy microbe access. The production of acetate using this cathode is 5 fold larger than that using a planar graphite electrode with the same volume. Nickel-nanowire-modified carbon electrodes, fabricated by microwave welding, increased the surface area greatly, were able to absorb more bacteria and showed a 1.5 fold increase in performance

  6. The outcomes of midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsomchai Chompilas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Episiotomy is the surgical enlargement of the vaginal orifice by an incision of the perineum during the second stage of labor or just before delivery of the baby. During the 1970s, it was common to perform an episiotomy for almost all women having their first delivery, ostensibly for prevention of severe perineum tears and easier subsequent repair. However, there are no data available to indicate if an episiotomy should be midline or medio-lateral. We compared midline versus medio-lateral episiotomy for complication such as extended perineal tears, pain scores, wound infection rates and other complications. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort including 1,302 women, who gave birth vaginally between April 2005 and February 2006 at Srinagarind Hospital – a tertiary care center in Northeast Thailand. All women included had low risk pregnancies and delivered at term. The outcome measures included deep perineal tears (including perineal tears with anal sphincter and/or rectum tears, other complications, and women's satisfaction at 48 hours and 6-weeks postpartum. Results In women with midline episiotomy, deep perineal tears occurred in 14.8%, which is statistically significantly higher compared to 7% in women who underwent a medio-lateral episiotomy (p-value 3,500 g and forceps extraction. Conclusion Midline compared to medio-lateral episiotomy resulted in more deep perineal tears. It is more likely deep perineal tears would occur in cases with additional risk factors.

  7. Diathermy versus Scalpel incision in elective midline laparotomy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two groups with respect to the mean length of hospital stay (p = 0.834). Conclusion: We conclude that diathermy incision in elective midline laparotomy has significant advantages compared with the scalpel because of reduced incision time, less blood loss, reduced early postoperative pain and analgesic requirements.

  8. Incisional hernia after upper abdominal surgery: A randomised controlled trial of midline versus transverse incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Halm (Jens); H. Lip (Harm); P.I.M. Schmitz (Paul); J. Jeekel (Hans)


    textabstractObjectives: To determine whether a transverse incision is an alternative to a midline incision in terms of incisional hernia incidence, surgical site infection, postoperative pain, hospital stay and cosmetics in cholecystectomy. Summary background data: Incisional hernias after midline

  9. Skull base granuloma: an unusual location of idiopathic midline destructive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, A.; Mortele, K.; Kunnen, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Lemmerling, M. [Dienst Radiologie, AZ St. Lucas, Gent (Belgium); Vandekerckhove, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium); Praet, M. [Dept. of Histopathology, University Hospital, Gent (Belgium)


    A rare case of idiopathic midline destructive disease is presented, which is an entity of the so-called midline granuloma syndrome. Differentiation from other granulomas, especially from Wegener's granulomatosis, is important. This report shows the MR findings in a patient with atypical clinical presentation of histopathologically proven idiopathic midline destructive disease. (orig.)

  10. Study of two techniques for midline laparotomy fascial wound closure. (United States)

    Gurjar, Vipul; Halvadia, B M; Bharaney, R P; Ajwani, Vicky; Shah, S M; Rai, Samir; Trivedi, Mitesh


    To study the results of two techniques, simple interrupted closure and continuous with intermittent Aberdeen knot technique for midline laparotomy fascial wound closure. A random selection of 200 midline laparotomy cases was done. In one group (group A) of 100 cases, midline fascial wound closure was done with continuous sutures with intermittent Aberdeen knot technique using Prolene No. 1 suture material. In the other group (group B) of 100 cases, closure was done with the technique of simple interrupted sutures with Prolene No.1 suture material. Comparison of both the techniques regarding preoperative status and postoperative complication such as incisional hernia, wound dehiscence, suture sinus formation, stitch granuloma, and chronic wound pain was done according to clinical examination and recorded in the pro forma prepared. In group A, postoperative complications were incisional hernia 3 %, wound dehiscence 4 %, and suture sinus formation 1 %. In group B, postoperative complication were incisional hernia 5 %, wound dehiscence 4 %, and suture sinus formation 1 %. All these complications were statistically insignificant, in both group comparisons. While the complication such as stitch granuloma 3 %, chronic wound pain 3 %, and wound infection 4 % in group A was significantly less than in group B where the complication of stitch granuloma was 12 %, chronic wound pain 13 %, and wound infection 13 % (P value 0.03, P value 0.018, and P value 0.048, respectively). Both the techniques, simple interrupted suture closure and continuous with intermittent Aberdeen knot closure for midline laparotomy fascial wounds, show a similar rate of postoperative complication such as incisional hernia, wound dehiscence, and suture sinus formation. But the continuous suturing with intermittent Aberdeen knot technique is a better option to prevent complications such as stitch granuloma, chronic wound pain, and wound infection, which are higher in the simple interrupted

  11. Closure of large midline diastema by a "HIV-Spring". (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Pandurangan


    Midline diastema is a common orthodontic problem in mixed dentition caused by various factors like genetic, supernumery teeth, abnormal frenum attachment, habits and microdontia etc. Large diastemas need closure for the eruption of adjacent teeth. I present here a newly designed customized self active HIV-Spring (Hari Inverted 'V' Spring) for closing a large diastema with minimum orthodontic materials and less activation visits. The spring can be modfied for the three dimensional movement of central incisors.

  12. Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation. (United States)

    Timmermans, Lucas; Deerenberg, Eva B; van Dijk, Sven M; Lamme, Bas; Koning, Anton H; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Jeekel, Johannes; Lange, Johan F


    Incisional hernia (IH) can be attributed to multiple factors. The presence of a parastomal hernia has shown to be a risk factor for IH after midline laparotomy. Our hypothesis is that this increased risk of IH may be caused by changes in biomechanical forces, such as midline shift to the contralateral side of the colostomy owing to decreased restraining forces at the site of the colostomy, and left abdominal rectus muscle (ARM) atrophy owing to intercostal nerve damage. Patients were selected if they underwent end-colostomy via open operation between 2004 and 2011. Patients were eligible if computed tomography (CT) had been performed postoperatively. If available, preoperative CTs were collected for case-control analyses. Midline shift was measured using V-scope application in the I-space, a CAVE-like virtual reality system. For the ARM atrophy hypothesis, measurements of ARM were performed at the level of colostomy, and 3 and 8 cm cranial and caudal of the colostomy. Postoperative CT were available for 77 patients; of these patients, 30 also had a preoperative CT. Median follow-up was 19 months. A mean shift to the right side was identified after preoperative and postoperative comparison; from -1.3 ± 4.6 to 2.1 ± 9.3 (P = .043). Furthermore, during rectus muscle measurements, a thinner left ARM was observed below the level of colostomy. Creation of a colostomy alters the abdominal wall. Atrophy of the left ARM was seen caudal to the level of the colostomy, and a midline shift to the right side was evident on CT. These changes may explain the increased rate of IH after colostomy creation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial topographies of unilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation efficacy for ipsilateral, contralateral, midline, and total Parkinson disease motor symptoms. (United States)

    Shenai, Mahesh B; Romeo, Andrew; Walker, Harrison C; Guthrie, Stephanie; Watts, Ray L; Guthrie, Barton L


    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation is a successful intervention for medically refractory Parkinson disease, although its efficacy depends on optimal electrode placement. Even though the predominant effect is observed contralaterally, modest improvements in ipsilateral and midline symptoms are also observed. To elucidate the role of contact location of unilateral deep brain stimulation on contralateral, ipsilateral, and axial subscores of Parkinson disease motor symptoms. Eighty-six patients receiving first deep brain stimulation STN electrode placements were identified, yielding 73 patients with 3-month follow-up. Total preoperative and postoperative Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale Part III scores were obtained and divided into contralateral, ipsilateral, and midline subscores. Contact location was determined on immediate postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. A 3-dimensional ordinary "kriging" algorithm generated spatial interpolations for total, ipsilateral, contralateral, and midline symptom categories. Interpolative reconstructions were performed in the axial planes (z = -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, -3.5, -4.5, -6.0) and a sagittal plane (x = 12.0). Interpolation error and significance were quantified by use of a cross-validation technique and quantile-quantile analysis. There was an overall reduction in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale Part III symptoms: total = 37.0 ± 24.11% (P 0.92) and demonstrated regions of efficacy for each symptom category. Contralateral symptoms demonstrated broad regions of efficacy across the peri-STN area. The ipsilateral and midline regions of efficacy were constrained and located along the dorsal STN and caudal zona incerta. We provide evidence for a unique functional topographic window in which contralateral, ipsilateral, and midline structures may achieve the best efficacy. Although there are overlapping regions, laterality demonstrates distinct topographies. Surgical optimization should target the

  14. Does the maxillary midline diastema close after frenectomy? (United States)

    Suter, Valerie G A; Heinzmann, Annik-Emily; Grossen, Johannes; Sculean, Anton; Bornstein, Michael M


    To analyze the closure, persistence or reopening of the maxillary midline diastema after frenectomy in patients with and without subsequent orthodontic treatment. All patients undergoing frenectomy with a CO2 laser were included in this retrospective study during the period of September 2002 to June 2011. Age and sex, the dimension of the diastema, eruption status of the maxillary canines, and the presence of an orthodontic treatment were recorded at the day of frenectomy and during follow-up. Of the 59 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 31 (52.5%) had an active orthodontic therapy, while 27 (45.8%) had a frenectomy without orthodontic treatment. For one patient, information concerning orthodontic treatment was not available. In the first follow-up (2 to 12 weeks), only four diastemas closed after frenectomy and orthodontic treatment, and none after frenectomy alone. In the second follow-up (4 to 19 months), statistically significantly (P = .002) more diastemas (n = 20) closed with frenectomy and orthodontic treatment than with frenectomy alone (n = 3). At the long-term (21 to 121 months) follow-up, only four patients had a persisting diastema, and in three patients orthodontic treatment was ongoing. Closure of the maxillary midline diastema with a prominent frenum is more predictable with frenectomy and concomitant orthodontic treatment than with frenectomy alone. This study demonstrates the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to treat maxillary midline diastemas, ideally including general practitioners, oral surgeons, periodontists, and orthodontists.

  15. Congenital Midline Nasal Mass: Four Cases with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambhaji Govind Chintale


    Full Text Available Introduction Congenital midline nasal masses include nasal dermoids, gliomas, encephaloceles. Although rare, these disorders are clinically important because of their potential for connection to the central nervous system. Preoperative knowledge of an intracranial connection is a necessity to allow for neurosurgical consultation and possible planning for craniotomy. This study discusses the clinical presentation of congenital midline nasal mass and the role of imaging modalities like CT scan and MRI in diagnosis and the surgical management. Materials and Methods  This prospective study is carried from March 2014 to March 2016, during which 4 cases presented to the Otorhinolaryngology department. Pre-operative evaluation of the patients included endoscopic evaluation along with haematological investigations, CT Scan and MRI. The masses were removed with nasal endoscopic sinus surgery or by external approaches and neurosurgical intervention. Result The age of the patients ranged from 3 years to 25 years. Three of them were male and one female. There was one case of nasoethmoidal encephalocele and the other three were dermoids (intranasal dermoid cyst, nasal dermoid cyst and nasal dermoid sinus cyst. Conclusion Congenital midline nasal masses are rare. These disorders are clinically important because of their intracranial connection which require proper evaluation with radiological imaging like CT scan and/or MRI before FNAC and any surgical intervention.

  16. Episiotomy: What angle do you cut to the midline? (United States)

    Ma, Kenneth; Byrd, Louise


    Although episiotomies are the commonest obstetric procedure performed the technique of performing one varies amongst obstetricians and midwives. The angle of episiotomy to the midline in particular has been shown to influence the risk of developing obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). In order to identify the differences in technique and to identify targets for training we undertook a practice survey of episiotomies to analyse the differences in technique between grades of obstetricians and midwives. A prospective practice survey of staff working on delivery suite in a tertiary referral unit with 9000 deliveries/year was conducted between 01/10/2014 to 01/03/2015. Each participant was provided with a pictoral representation of a perineum and a pair of standard episiotomy scissors and asked to perform an episiotomy as per their usual practice. The profession and grade of each participant was recorded along with information regarding the incision including the angle to the midline, length of incision and lateral starting distance from the midline. One way ANOVA (unrelated) was used to perform statistical analysis using IBM SPSS v23. 101 staff members participated in the practice survey including 63 midwives, 9 junior trainees, 15 senior trainees and 14 consultants. The mean angle of incision to the midline of episiotomies was 47°, 51°, 66° and 77° for midwives, junior trainees, senior trainees and consultants respectively. The mean angle of incision performed by midwives was significantly different to senior trainees (p>0.01) and consultants (p<0.01). 45% of all episiotomies undertaken by midwives were done at an angle <45° to the midline, compared to 7% by senior trainees and none by consultants. This study identified clear deficiencies in the performance of episiotomies amongst obstetric trainees and midwives. Both midwives and obstetric trainees need to improve their technique if episiotomies are going to influence the incidence of OASIS and, more

  17. Idiopathic midline destructive disease (IMDD): a subgroup of patients with the ''midline granuloma'' syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsokos, M.; Fauci, A.S.; Costa, J.


    ''Midline granuloma syndrome'' encompasses a number of specific clinicopathologic entities, such as ''Wegener's granulomatosis, midline malignant reticulosis, lymphoma, nasal carcinoma and a broad spectrum of infectious diseases. In the course of studying a number of patients presenting with destructive lesions of the upper respiratory tract, 11 cases emerged as having unique clinicopathologic features. These are: 1) presence of locally destructive lesions which are always restricted to the upper respiratory tract. 2) Absence of systemic disease during a follow-up period of six months to 18 years (mean 7.3 years). On examination of repeated biopsy specimens the histopathologic picture consisted of acute and chronic inflammation with variable amounts of necrosis. Granulomata were seen in one case. Malignant or atypical cells were invariably absent. Frank vasculitis was not seen, although in five of the patients inflammatory cells in the wall of small vessels were conspicuous 4) Inability to demonstrate an infectious origin by culture or special stains. Radiation therapy has proven effective in patients with this entity, for which the term ''Idiopathic Midline Destructive Disease'' (IMDD) is proposed.

  18. High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors (United States)

    Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao


    Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.

  19. New suture materials for midline laparotomy closure: an experimental study (United States)


    Background Midline laparotomy closure carries a significant risk of incisional hernia. This study examines the behavior of two new suture materials, an elastic material, polyurethane (PUe), and a barbed polydioxanone (PDXb) suture thread in a rabbit model of midline incision closure. Methods Three 2-cm midline incisions were made in 68 New Zealand White rabbits. The incisions were closed by running suture using four 3/0 threads: polypropylene (PP) (Surgipro®, Covidien), PUe (Assuplus®, Assut Europe), PDX (Assufil®, Assut Europe) or PDXb (Filbloc®, Assut Europe). Animals in each suture group were euthanized 3 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Histological sections of the tissue-embedded sutures were subjected to morphological, collagen expression, macrophage response and uniaxial tensiometry studies. Results No signs of wound dehiscence or complications were observed. At 3 weeks, all sutures were surrounded by connective tissue composed mainly of collagen III. PUe showed greater collagen I expression than the other sutures. All sutures elicited a macrophage response that diminished from 3 weeks to 6 months (p sutures (PP and PUe) yet PDXb showed a significantly greater response than the other reabsorbable suture (PDX) at 3 weeks (p  0.05). Conclusion Three weeks after surgery, PUe revealed more collagen I deposition than the remaining materials and this translated to a similar biomechanical behavior to linea alba, that could avoid the appearance of short term dehiscences and thus reduce the incidence of incisional hernia. PDXb provides no additional advantages in their behavior regarding PDX suture. PMID:25231161

  20. Nonseparating High-Area-Ratio Supersonic Nozzles (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.; Kassner, R. R.


    Procedure determines supersonic-nozzle contours that allow higher nozzle-exit wall pressures, reducing chamber pressure without causing wall-flow separation as encountered in optimum large-area-ratio nozzle designs. Procedure applies to chemical-laser nozzles, jet-engine and gas turbines, wind tunnels and rocket nozzles.

  1. Genetic studies in congenital anterior midline cervical cleft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L P; Pfeiffer, P; Andersen, M


    Congenital anterior midline cervical cleft (CAMCC) is a rare anomaly, with less than 100 cases reported. The cause of CAMCC is unknown, but genetic factors must be considered as part of the etiology. Three cases of CAMCC are presented. This is the first genetic study of isolated CAMCC. Conventional...... cytogenetics, array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and whole exome sequencing were performed, including a search of relevant syndromes in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. Array CGH indicated a loss of the PAPPA gene in one of the patients, while exome sequencing showed...

  2. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (with a posterior midline unsegmented bar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaissi, A. Al; Ghachem, M. Ben; Nassib, N.; Chehida, F. Ben [Hospital d' Enfants, Service d' orthopedie infantile, Tunis (Tunisia); Kozlowski, K. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia)


    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is characterised by malsegmentation of the thoracic spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. A unilateral or bilateral unsegmented bar may be present in the thoracic spine. Presenting clinical signs are congenital scoliosis early in life, and shortening of the trunk with scoliosis and/or lordosis in older children. We report a 13-year-old girl with SSS and a midline unsegmented bar running along the spinal processes of T3 to L2 and extending into the posterior vertebral elements. (orig.)

  3. Mining highly stressed areas, part 1.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, R


    Full Text Available The aim of this long-term project has been to focus on the extreme high-stress end of the mining spectrum. Such high stress conditions will prevail in certain ultra-deep mining operation of the near future, and are already being experienced...

  4. Treatment of Maxillary Midline Diastema Using Removable Clear Trays and Elastics: A Case Report


    Sümeyya Şin; Kadir Beycan; Yazgı Ay


    Maxillary midline diastema is a common esthetic problem requiring treatment. This case presentation shows the treatment of a patient with a minor midline diastema using removable clear trays and elastics. A 20-year-old female patient, whose chief complaint was a small diastema between upper central incisors, had a symmetric face and competent lips. Intraoral examination showed class 1 buccal segments relationship with normal overjet and overbite. For the closure of midline diastema, an upper ...

  5. Direct Midline Diastema Closure with Composite Layering Technique: A One-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Korkut


    Full Text Available Objective. Maxillary anterior spacing is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Midline diastema has a multifactorial etiology such as labial frenulum, microdontia, mesiodens, peg-shaped lateral incisors, agenesis, cysts, habits such as finger sucking, tongue thrusting, or lip sucking, dental malformations, genetics, proclinations, dental-skeletal discrepancies, and imperfect coalescence of interdental septum. Appropriate technique and material for effective treatment are based on time, physical, psychological, and economical limitations. Direct composite resins in diastema cases allow dentist and patient complete control of these limitations and formation of natural smile. Clinical Considerations. In this case report a maxillary midline diastema was closed with direct composite resin restorations in one appointment without any preparation. One bottle total etch adhesive was used and translucent/opaque composite resin shades were layered on mesial surfaces of the teeth that were isolated with rubber dam and Teflon bands. Finishing and polishing procedures were achieved by using polishing discs. Patient was informed for recalls for every 6 months. Conclusions. At one-year recall no sensitivities, discolorations, or fractures were detected on teeth and restorations. Direct composite resins seemed to be highly aesthetic and durable restorations that can satisfy patients as under the conditions of case presented.

  6. Direct Midline Diastema Closure with Composite Layering Technique: A One-Year Follow-Up. (United States)

    Korkut, Bora; Yanikoglu, Funda; Tagtekin, Dilek


    Objective. Maxillary anterior spacing is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Midline diastema has a multifactorial etiology such as labial frenulum, microdontia, mesiodens, peg-shaped lateral incisors, agenesis, cysts, habits such as finger sucking, tongue thrusting, or lip sucking, dental malformations, genetics, proclinations, dental-skeletal discrepancies, and imperfect coalescence of interdental septum. Appropriate technique and material for effective treatment are based on time, physical, psychological, and economical limitations. Direct composite resins in diastema cases allow dentist and patient complete control of these limitations and formation of natural smile. Clinical Considerations. In this case report a maxillary midline diastema was closed with direct composite resin restorations in one appointment without any preparation. One bottle total etch adhesive was used and translucent/opaque composite resin shades were layered on mesial surfaces of the teeth that were isolated with rubber dam and Teflon bands. Finishing and polishing procedures were achieved by using polishing discs. Patient was informed for recalls for every 6 months. Conclusions. At one-year recall no sensitivities, discolorations, or fractures were detected on teeth and restorations. Direct composite resins seemed to be highly aesthetic and durable restorations that can satisfy patients as under the conditions of case presented.

  7. Mining highly stressed areas, part 2.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, R


    Full Text Available A questionnaire related to mining at great depth and in very high stress conditions has been completed with the assistance of mine rock mechanics personnel on over twenty mines in all mining districts, and covering all deep level mines...

  8. Direct Midline Diastema Closure with Composite Layering Technique: A One-Year Follow-Up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korkut, Bora; Yanikoglu, Funda; Tagtekin, Dilek


    .... Midline diastema has a multifactorial etiology such as labial frenulum, microdontia, mesiodens, peg-shaped lateral incisors, agenesis, cysts, habits such as finger sucking, tongue thrusting, or lip...

  9. Developmental nasal midline masses in children: neuroradiological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Schneider, Jacques F.L.; Kellenberger, Christian J.; Martin-Fiori, Ernst; Willi, Ulrich V. [Department of Radiology and Magnetic Resonance, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zurich (Switzerland); Holzmann, David [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Developmental nasal midline masses in children are rare lesions. Neuroimaging is essential to characterise these lesions, to determine the exact location of the lesion and most importantly to exclude a possible intracranial extension or connection. Our objective was to evaluate CT and MRI in the diagnosis of developmental nasal midline masses. Eleven patients (mean age 4.5 years) with nasal midline masses were examined by CT and MRI. Neuroimaging was evaluated for (a) lesion location/size, (b) indirect (bifid or deformed crista galli, widened foramen caecum, defect of the cribriform plate) and direct (identification of intracranially located lesion components or signal alterations) imaging signs of intracranial extension, (c) secondary complications and (d) associated malformations. Surgical and histological findings served as gold standard. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts were diagnosed in 9 patients. One patient was diagnosed with an meningocele and another patient with a nasal glioma. Indirect CT and MRI signs correlated with the surgical results in 10 of 11 patients. Direct CT findings correlated with surgery in all patients, whereas the direct MRI signs correlated in 9 of 11 patients. In 2 patients MRI showed an intracranial signal alteration not seen on CT. Neuroimaging corrected the clinical diagnosis in 1 patient. One child presented with a meningitis. In none of the patients was an associated malformation diagnosed. Intracranial extension is equally well detected by CT and MRI using indirect imaging signs. Evaluating the direct imaging signs, MRI suspected intracranial components in 2 patients without a correlate on CT. This could represent an isolated intracranial component that got undetected on CT and surgery. In 9 patients CT and MRI matched the surgical findings. The MRI did not show any false-negative results. These results in combination with the multiplanar MRI capabilities, the different image contrasts that can be generated by MRI and the lack of

  10. Mastermind mutations generate a unique constellation of midline cells within the Drosophila CNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Notch pathway functions repeatedly during the development of the central nervous system in metazoan organisms to control cell fate and regulate cell proliferation and asymmetric cell divisions. Within the Drosophila midline cell lineage, which bisects the two symmetrical halves of the central nervous system, Notch is required for initial cell specification and subsequent differentiation of many midline lineages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we provide the first description of the role of the Notch co-factor, mastermind, in the central nervous system midline of Drosophila. Overall, zygotic mastermind mutations cause an increase in midline cell number and decrease in midline cell diversity. Compared to mutations in other components of the Notch signaling pathway, such as Notch itself and Delta, zygotic mutations in mastermind cause the production of a unique constellation of midline cell types. The major difference is that midline glia form normally in zygotic mastermind mutants, but not in Notch and Delta mutants. Moreover, during late embryogenesis, extra anterior midline glia survive in zygotic mastermind mutants compared to wild type embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is an example of a mutation in a signaling pathway cofactor producing a distinct central nervous system phenotype compared to mutations in major components of the pathway.

  11. Components separation technique combined with a double-mesh repair for large midline incisional hernia repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.E. Bröker (Mirelle); E. Verdaasdonk (Emiel); T.M. Karsten (Thomas)


    textabstractBackground The surgical treatment of large midline incisional hernias remains a challenge. The aim of this report is to present the results of a new technique for large midline incisional hernia repair which combines the components- separation technique with a double-prostheticmesh

  12. Midline 1 directs lytic granule exocytosis and cytotoxicity of mouse killer T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boding, Lasse; Hansen, Ann K; Meroni, Germana


    Midline 1 (MID1) is a microtubule-associated ubiquitin ligase that regulates protein phosphatase 2A activity. Loss-of-function mutations in MID1 lead to the X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome characterized by defective midline development during embryogenesis. Here we show that MID1 is strongly...

  13. Basal sphenoethmoidal encephalocele in association with midline cleft lip and palate: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Maurus Marques de Almeida; Rocha, Artur Bastos; Santos, Rayan Haquim Pinheiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Furtado, Paulo Germano Cavalcanti [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria e Genetica


    Association of basal sphenoethmoidal encephalocele with midline cleft lip and palate is extremely rare. The authors report the case of a nine-year-old girl presenting a midline facial cleft with meningocele that was noticeable through the palatine defect as a medial intranasal pulsatile mass. An analysis of clinical and radiological findings of the present case of cranial dysraphism is carried out. (author)

  14. Treatment of Maxillary Midline Diastema Using Removable Clear Trays and Elastics: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sümeyya Şin


    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is a common esthetic problem requiring treatment. This case presentation shows the treatment of a patient with a minor midline diastema using removable clear trays and elastics. A 20-year-old female patient, whose chief complaint was a small diastema between upper central incisors, had a symmetric face and competent lips. Intraoral examination showed class 1 buccal segments relationship with normal overjet and overbite. For the closure of midline diastema, an upper clear tray was fabricated and it was sectioned at the mesial third of each central incisor to create separate left and right trays with attachments for the elastic wear. Two months later, maxillary midline diastema was totally closed and a bonded maxillary 3-3 retainer was placed for retention. The esthetic problem was resolved. Clear appliance is aesthetic, and sufficient to close maxillary midline diastema.

  15. Comm sorts robo to control axon guidance at the Drosophila midline. (United States)

    Keleman, Krystyna; Rajagopalan, Srikanth; Cleppien, Diana; Teis, David; Paiha, Karin; Huber, Lukas A; Technau, Gerhard M; Dickson, Barry J


    Axon growth across the Drosophila midline requires Comm to downregulate Robo, the receptor for the midline repellent Slit. We show here that comm is required in neurons, not in midline cells as previously thought, and that it is expressed specifically and transiently in commissural neurons. Comm acts as a sorting receptor for Robo, diverting it from the synthetic to the late endocytic pathway. A conserved cytoplasmic LPSY motif is required for endosomal sorting of Comm in vitro and for Comm to downregulate Robo and promote midline crossing in vivo. Axon traffic at the CNS midline is thus controlled by the intracellular trafficking of the Robo guidance receptor, which in turn depends on the precisely regulated expression of the Comm sorting receptor.

  16. Evaluating the Evidence for Midline Catheter Use in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit. (United States)

    Romesberg, Tricia L


    When deciding which vascular access devices (VADs) are appropriate for patients in newborn intensive care units (NICUs), clinical providers may have difficulty reaching consensus because of a lack of evidence-based recommendations. The aim of this literature review is to evaluate current research and practice pertaining to midline catheter (MC) use in NICU patients. Discussion of the literature review includes information pertaining to the historical perspective of MC use, devices currently in use, common sites for placement, average dwell times, associated costs, and acceptable fluids and medications for infusion through MCs. Conclusive findings suggest that MCs are not an appropriate VAD for NICU patients because of insufficient high-level evidence demonstrating safety and efficacy. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate current MC practice in the NICU and the rates of infection and extravasation associated with their use.

  17. Patent odontogenic sinus tract draining to the midline of the submental region: report of a case. (United States)

    Urbani, C E; Tintinelli, R


    We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with a cutaneous sinus tract located on the midline of the submental region secondary to a periapical abscess of the right lateral mandibular incisor. The lesion was nodulocystic and chronically drained purulent fluid. Previous topical and systemic treatments were uneffective. Radiologic examination of the mandible demonstrated diffuse radiolucency involving the apices of four affected incisors. A further radiologic sinogram revealed both the exact origin and the high grade patency of the fistolous tract. Appropriate conservative endodontic therapy led to quick resolution of the sinus tract within sixteen days. In the presence of a single chronic suppurative or nodulocystic lesion of the face, it is always useful to perform a radiologic evaluation of the maxillary and mandibular regions to promptly exclude a possible odontogenic background.

  18. Focal lesion at the midline of the prostate on transrectal ultrasonography: take it or leave it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Woo; Hwang, Sung Il; Lee, Hak Jong; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Choe, Ghee Young [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the detection rate of prostate cancers from targeted biopsy specimens of midline focal lesions and to investigate the ultrasonographic findings to reduce unnecessary additional targeted biopsies. Ninety-eight men with midline focal lesions detected on transrectal ultrasonography were enrolled. Additional targeted biopsies for midline focal lesions were performed after 12-core random systematic biopsies. Correlations between the ultrasonographic characteristics of midline focal lesions and the pathologic results were analyzed. Twenty of 98 targeted biopsy cores (20.4%) were positive for malignancy. In a univariate analysis, midline focal lesions without bulging contours (P=0.023), with involved margins (P=0.001), without hypoechoic perilesional rims (P=0.005), and with longer diameters (P=0.005) were statistically significant for cancer detection. In a multivariate analysis, involved margin (P=0.027), having longer diameter (P=0.011) or absence of hypoechoic perilesional rim (P=0.025) made a statistically significant contribution to cancer detection. Biopsy of midline focal lesions was not always non-significant in the detection of prostate cancer. Additional targeted biopsies should be considered in cases of midline focal lesions with involved margins but without hypoechoic perilesional rims.

  19. Redundant mechanisms for regulation of midline crossing in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio F Gilestro

    Full Text Available During development, all neurons have to decide on whether to cross the longitudinal midline to project on the contralateral side of the body. In vertebrates and invertebrates regulation of crossing is achieved by interfering with Robo signalling either through sorting and degradation of the receptor, in flies, or through silencing of its repulsive activity, in vertebrates. Here I show that in Drosophila a second mechanism of regulation exists that is independent from sorting. Using in vitro and in vivo assays I mapped the region of Robo that is sufficient and required for its interaction with Comm, its sorting receptor. By modifying that region, I generated new forms of Robo that are insensitive to Comm sorting in vitro and in vivo, yet still able to normally translate repulsive activity in vivo. Using gene targeting by homologous recombination I created new conditional alleles of robo that are sorting defective (robo(SD. Surprisingly, expression of these modified proteins results in phenotypically normal flies, unveiling a sorting independent mechanism of regulation.

  20. Prediction of midline dose from entrance ad exit dose using OSLD measurements for total irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Chun, Min Soo; Han, Ji Hye; Cho, Jin Dong; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aims to predict the midline dose based on the entrance and exit doses from optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) measurements for total body irradiation (TBI). For TBI treatment, beam data sets were measured for 6 MV and 15 MV beams. To evaluate the tissue lateral effect of various thicknesses, the midline dose and peak dose were measured using a solid water phantom (SWP) and ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were measured using OSLDs. OSLDs were attached onto the central beam axis at the entrance and exit surfaces of the phantom. The predicted midline dose was evaluated as the sum of the entrance and exit doses by OSLD measurement. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was evaluated at various thicknesses. The ratio of the peak dose to the midline dose was 1.12 for a 30 cm thick SWP at both energies. When the patient thickness is greater than 30 cm, the 15 MV should be used to ensure dose homogeneity. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was less than 1.0 for thicknesses of less than 30 cm and 40 cm at 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively. Therefore, the predicted midline dose can be underestimated for thinner body. At 15 MV, the ratios were approximately 1.06 for a thickness of 50 cm. In cases where adult patients are treated with the 15 MV photon beam, it is possible for the predicted midline dose to be overestimated for parts of the body with a thickness of 50 cm or greater. The predicted midline dose and OSLD-measured midline dose depend on the phantom thickness. For in-vivo dosimetry of TBI, the measurement dose should be corrected in order to accurately predict the midline dose.

  1. Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation as a cause of failure of midline fixation. (United States)

    Goel, Atul; Shah, Abhidha


    We report an 11-year-old girl who had previously undergone an operation for basilar invagination involving a foramen magnum decompression and midline wire fixation. After improving initially, her neurological condition worsened again. Repeated investigations showed a firm midline craniovertebral fixation and bone fusion. However, she was found to have a vertical mobile and reducible atlantoaxial dislocation. Treatment of the vertical dislocation by lateral mass fixation resulted in lasting relief from her symptoms. Vertical instability at the atlantoaxial joints needs to be identified and appropriately treated as it may be a cause of failure of midline fixation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. T2*-based MR imaging (gradient echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging) in midline and off-midline intracranial germ cell tumors: a pilot study. (United States)

    Morana, Giovanni; Alves, Cesar Augusto; Tortora, Domenico; Finlay, Jonathan L; Severino, Mariasavina; Nozza, Paolo; Ravegnani, Marcello; Pavanello, Marco; Milanaccio, Claudia; Maghnie, Mohamad; Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa


    The role of T2*-based MR imaging in intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) or T2* gradient echo (GRE) features of germinomas and non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs) in midline and off-midline locations. We retrospectively evaluated all consecutive pediatric patients referred to our institution between 2005 and 2016, for newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve intracranial GCT, who underwent MRI, including T2*-based MR imaging (T2* GRE sequences or SWI). Standard pre- and post-contrast T1- and T2-weighted imaging characteristics along with T2*-based MR imaging features of all lesions were evaluated. Diagnosis was performed in accordance with the SIOP CNS GCT protocol criteria. Twenty-four subjects met the inclusion criteria (17 males and 7 females). There were 17 patients with germinomas, including 5 basal ganglia primaries, and 7 patients with secreting NGGCT. All off-midline germinomas presented with SWI or GRE hypointensity; among midline GCT, all NGGCTs showed SWI or GRE hypointensity whereas all but one pure germinoma were isointense or hyperintense to normal parenchyma. A significant difference emerged on T2*-based MR imaging among midline germinomas, NGGCTs, and off-midline germinomas (p < 0.001). Assessment of the SWI or GRE characteristics of intracranial GCT may potentially assist in differentiating pure germinomas from NGGCT and in the characterization of basal ganglia involvement. T2*-based MR imaging is recommended in case of suspected intracranial GCT.

  3. Midline lumbar fusion using cortical bone trajectory screws. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Bielecki


    Full Text Available Introduction : Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF using cortical bone trajectory is an alternative method of transpedicular spinal fusion for degenerative disease. The new entry points’ location and screwdriving direction allow the approach-related morbidity to be reduced. Aim: To present our preliminary experience with the MIDLF technique on the first 5 patients with lumbar degenerative disease and with follow-up of at least 6 months. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on the first 5 patients with foraminal (4 or central (1 stenosis operated on between December 2014 and February 2015. Three patients were fused at L4–L5 and two at the L5–S1 level. Results: No intra- or post-operative complications occurred with this approach. An improvement regarding the leading symptom in the early postoperative period (sciatica 4/4, claudication 1/1 was achieved in all patients. The mean improvements in the visual analogue scale for low back and leg pain were 2.2 and 4.8 respectively. The mean Oswestry Disability Index scores were 52% (range: 16–82% before surgery and 33% (range: 12–56% at 3-month follow-up (mean improvement 19%. At the most recent follow-up, 4 patients reported the maintenance of the satisfactory result. The early standing and follow-up X-rays showed satisfactory screw placement in all patients. Conclusions : In our initial experience, the MIDLF technique seems to be an encouraging alternative to traditional transpedicular trajectory screws when short level lumbar fusion is needed. Nevertheless, longer observations on larger groups of patients are needed to reliably evaluate the safety of the method and the sustainability of the results.

  4. The treatment of ventral penile chordee without hypospadias by dorsal midline plication in an adolescent boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Coban


    Full Text Available Herein we report of a case with isolated ventral penile chordee who underwent dorsal midline plication procedure. We aimed to present our experience and to review of the literature on current management.

  5. Software Designation to Assess the Proximity of Different Facial Anatomic Landmarks to Midlines of the Mouth and Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshkelgosha V


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recognition and determination of facial and dental midline is important in dentistry. Currently, there are no verifiable guidelines that direct the choice of specific anatomic landmarks to determine the midline of the face or mouth. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine which of facial anatomic landmarks is closest to the midline of the face as well as that of the mouth. Materials and Methods: Frontal full-face digital images of 92 subjects (men and women age range: 20-30 years in smile were taken under standardized conditions; commonly used anatomic landmarks, nasion, tip of the nose, and tip of the philtrum were digitized on the images of subjects and aesthetic analyzer software used for midline analysis using Esthetic Frame. Deviations from the midlines of the face and mouth were measured for the 3 clinical landmarks; the existing dental midline was considered as the fourth landmark. The entire process of midline analysis was done by a single observer and repeated twice. Reliability analysis and 1-sample t- tests were conducted. Results: The Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs for reliability analysis of RFV and RCV measures made two times revealed that the reliabilities were all acceptable. The results indicated that each of the 4 landmarks deviated uniquely and significantly (P<.001 from the midlines of the face as well as mouth in both males and females. Conclusions: There was a significant difference between the mean ratios of the chosen anatomic landmarks and the midlines of the face and mouth. The hierarchy of anatomic landmarks closest to the midline of the face is: (1 midline of the commissures, (2 nasion , (3 tip of philtrum,(4 dental midline, and (5 tip ofthe nose. The closest anatomic landmarks to the mouth midline are: (1 tip of philtrum, (2 dental midline, (3 tip of nose, and (4 nasion.

  6. Review of stoma site and midline incisional hernias after stoma reversal. (United States)

    Nguyen, Mylan T; Phatak, Uma R; Li, Linda T; Hicks, Stephanie C; Moffett, Jennifer M; Arita, Nestor A; Berger, Rachel L; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K


    The incidence of incisional hernias after stoma reversal is not well reported. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature reporting data on incisional hernias after stoma reversal. We evaluated both the incidence of stoma site and midline incisional hernias. A systematic review identified studies published between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2012, reporting the incidence of incisional hernia after stoma reversal at either the stoma site or at the midline incision (in cases requiring laparotomy). Pediatric studies were excluded. Assessment of risk of bias, detection method, and essential study-specific characteristics (follow-up duration, stoma type, age, body mass index, and so forth) was done. Sixteen studies were included in the analysis; 1613 patients had 1613 stomas formed. Fifteen studies assessed stoma site hernias and five studies assessed midline incisional hernias. The median (range) incidence of stoma site incisional hernias was 8.3% (range 0%-33.9%) and for midline incisional hernias was 44.1% (range 8.7%-58.1%). When evaluating only studies with a low risk of bias, the incidence for stoma site incisional hernias is closer to one in three and for midline incisional hernias is closer to one in two. Stoma site and midline incisional hernias are significant clinical complications of stoma reversals. The quality of studies available is poor and heterogeneous. Future prospective randomized controlled trials or observational studies with standardized follow-up and outcome definitions/measurements are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.


    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device architecture is capable of high performance operation compared to conventional FinFETs with comparatively higher area efficiency and lower chip latency as well as lower power consumption.

  8. Tear Break-up Time in High Altitude Areas. (United States)

    Jha, K N


    In high altitude areas, patients report with irritation, redness and foreign body sensation in their eyes suggesting tear film abnormality due to low humidity and windy environmental conditions. Tear Break- up Time (TBUT) was studied in 100 subjects consisting of local population and those originally from plains residing in high altitude areas in Ladakh. There were 24% individuals with TBUT of 10 seconds. In symptomatic patients with TBUT of <5 seconds, eight cases had irritation of eyes, six foreign body sensation and two cases had pain, watering, irritation and redness of eyes. Pterygium was seen in 12 individuals and inter palpebral congestion in 4 cases. A total of 24% cases showed abnormal (<5 seconds) TBUT. Abnormality of tear film in the presence of low humidity and windy condition with high ultraviolet radiation may lead to ocular discomfort and pterygium in these areas.

  9. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system (United States)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.


    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  10. Genetic differentiation of populations residing in areas of high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 1. Genetic differentiation of populations residing in areas of high malaria endemicity in India. Swapnil Sinha Vandana Arya Sarita Agarwal Indian Genome Variation Consortium Saman Habib.

  11. Mangrove rehabilitation in high erosion areas: Assessment using bioindicators (United States)

    Thornton, Stephen Ryan; Johnstone, Ron William


    This study identifies a potentially effective rehabilitation technique for implementation in high erosion areas through the use of bioindicators. This is significant given that one third of mangroves have been cleared globally with clearing continuing at a rate of 1-2% per annum. There have been various attempts to rehabilitate degraded mangrove forests, however the success or failure of these is mostly unclear due to a lack of assessment. The two rehabilitation techniques assessed in this study were a basic fence system and another more elaborate fence technique designed by the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve Project (KGBRP), Vietnam. The assessment was conducted by comparing vegetation and faunal communities in rehabilitation areas to those in adjacent old-growth areas. The indicators included: tree and understory plant diversity and density; forest cover and the density of crabs, mudskippers and gastropods. The results show the KGBRP rehabilitation fence technique delivered tree diversity, plant diversity, tree density and forest cover that most closely resembled old-growth areas. This suggests that the additional protection provided by the KGBRP fence was instrumental in achieving these results. In terms of total mudskipper, Boleophthalmus spp., Periophthalmodon spp. and ocypodid crab density, the KGBRP rehabilitation was most similar to the old-growth areas. This similarity is thought to be related to the comparable forest cover at these sites. The density of large crab holes was much higher in old-growth areas than in basic or KGBRP rehabilitation areas. The disparity between large crab hole density at KGBRP rehabilitation and old-growth areas, despite similar levels of forest cover, is thought to be linked to the immaturity of the KGBRP rehabilitation sites. As the KGBRP rehabilitation is most similar in terms of vegetation and faunal communities to the old-growth areas, it appears to be the most successful rehabilitation.

  12. Radiation dose and intra-articular access: comparison of the lateral mortise and anterior midline approaches to fluoroscopically guided tibiotalar joint injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ambrose J.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A.; Chang, Connie Y.; Simeone, Frank J.; Palmer, William E. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Balza, Rene [Centro Medico de Occidente, Department of Radiology, Maracaibo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    To compare the lateral mortise and anterior midline approaches to fluoroscopically guided tibiotalar joint injections with respect to successful intra-articular needle placement, fluoroscopy time, radiation dose, and dose area product (DAP). This retrospective study was IRB-approved and HIPAA-compliant. 498 fluoroscopically guided tibiotalar joint injections were performed or supervised by one of nine staff radiologists from 11/1/2010-12/31/2013. The injection approach was determined by operator preference. Images were reviewed on a PACS workstation to determine the injection approach (lateral mortise versus anterior midline) and to confirm intra-articular needle placement. Fluoroscopy time (minutes), radiation dose (mGy), and DAP (μGy-m{sup 2}) were recorded and compared using the student's t-test (fluoroscopy time) or the Wilcoxon rank sum test (radiation dose and DAP). There were 246 lateral mortise injections and 252 anterior midline injections. Two lateral mortise injections were excluded from further analysis because no contrast was administered. Intra-articular location of the needle tip was documented in 242/244 lateral mortise injections and 252/252 anterior midline injections. Mean fluoroscopy time was shorter for the lateral mortise group than the anterior midline group (0.7 ± 0.5 min versus 1.2 ± 0.8 min, P < 0.0001). Mean radiation dose and DAP were less for the lateral mortise group than the anterior midline group (2.1 ± 3.7 mGy versus 2.5 ± 3.5 mGy, P = 0.04; 11.5 ± 15.3 μGy-m{sup 2} versus 13.5 ± 17.3 μGy-m{sup 2}, P = 0.006). Both injection approaches resulted in nearly 100 % rates of intra-articular needle placement, but the lateral mortise approach used approximately 40 % less fluoroscopy time and delivered 15 % lower radiation dose and DAP to the patient. (orig.)

  13. High surface area carbon and process for its production (United States)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen


    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  14. A novel technique of midline mesh repair for umbilical hernia associated with diastasis recti. (United States)

    Matei, Ovidio-Angel; Runkel, Norbert


    Mesh repair has evolved as the gold standard for umbilical hernias. Surgical reconstruction of umbilical hernias in association with diastasis recti has not been discussed in the recent literature. We describe a novel surgical technique of midline mesh repair for this combined lesion. This is a retrospective review of 44 consecutive patients. Forty-four patients underwent surgery for umbilical hernia with diastasis recti between January 2010 and August 2012. All excess skin, subcutaneous tissue, and distracted midline (linea alba) were excised supraumbilically and paraumbilically according to preoperative marking. Surgical repair began with a midline running suture of the posterior rectal sheath. A light prolene mesh was placed retromuscularly into this sheath and anchored in all directions with a distance of about 5 cm from the midline using U-shaped stitches. The anterior rectal fascia was closed with a continuous suture. All information was obtained from the hospital records. The median operative time was 93.3 minutes (28 to 219 minutes). The median length of postoperative hospital stay was 5.9 days (3 to 12 days). There was no major complication. One minimal umbilical skin necrosis was observed. Analgesic medication was required in all patients. Opiods were added in 84.0% of patients on day 1, in 75.0% on day 3, and in 2.3% on day 7. Our novel technique of sublay mesh repair for combined umbilical hernia and diastasis recti is safe and effectively restores the abdominal midline.

  15. Commissureless regulation of axon outgrowth across the midline is independent of Rab function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan M van den Brink

    Full Text Available Nervous system function requires that neurons within neural circuits are connected together precisely. These connections form during the process of axon guidance whereby each neuron extends an axon that migrates, often large distances, through a complex environment to reach its synaptic target. This task can be simplified by utilising intermediate targets to divide the route into smaller sections. This requires that axons adapt their behaviour as they migrate towards and away from intermediate targets. In the central nervous system the midline acts as an intermediate target for commissural axons. In Drosophila commissural axons switch from attraction towards to extension away from the midline by regulating the levels of the Roundabout receptor on their cell surface. This is achieved by Commissureless which directs Roundabout to an intracellular compartment in the soma prior to reaching the midline. Once across the midline Roundabout is allowed to reach the surface and acts as a receptor for the repellent ligand Slit that is secreted by cells at the midline. Here we investigated candidate intracellular mechanisms that may facilitate the intracellular targeting of Commissureless and Roundabout within the soma of commissural neurons. Using modified forms of Commissureless or Rabs we show that neither ubiquitination nor Rab activity are necessary for the intracellular targeting of Commissureless. In addition we reveal that axon outgrowth of many populations of neurons within the Drosophila central nervous system is also independent of Rab activity.

  16. Self-related processing and deactivation of cortical midline regions in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sophia eCrone


    Full Text Available Self-related stimuli activate anterior parts of cortical midline regions, which normally show task-induced deactivation. Deactivation in medial posterior and frontal regions is associated with the ability to focus attention on the demands of the task, and therefore, with consciousness. Studies investigating patients with impaired consciousness, that is, patients in minimally conscious state and patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (formerly vegetative state, demonstrate that these patients show responses to self-related content in the anterior cingulate cortex. However, it remains unclear if these responses are an indication for conscious processing of stimuli or are due to automatic processing. To shed further light on this issue, we investigated responses of cortical midline regions to the own and another name in 27 patients with a disorder of consciousness and compared them to task-induced deactivation. While almost all of the control subjects responding to the own name demonstrated higher activation due to the self-related content in anterior midline regions and additional deactivation, none of the responding patients did so. Differences between groups showed a similar pattern of findings. Despite the relation between behavioral responsiveness in patients and activation in response to the own name, the findings of this study do not provide evidence for a direct association of activation in anterior midline regions and conscious processing. The deficits in processing of self-referential content in anterior midline regions may rather be due to general impairments in cognitive processing and not particularly linked to impaired consciousness.

  17. Automated midline shift and intracranial pressure estimation based on brain CT images. (United States)

    Chen, Wenan; Belle, Ashwin; Cockrell, Charles; Ward, Kevin R; Najarian, Kayvan


    In this paper we present an automated system based mainly on the computed tomography (CT) images consisting of two main components: the midline shift estimation and intracranial pressure (ICP) pre-screening system. To estimate the midline shift, first an estimation of the ideal midline is performed based on the symmetry of the skull and anatomical features in the brain CT scan. Then, segmentation of the ventricles from the CT scan is performed and used as a guide for the identification of the actual midline through shape matching. These processes mimic the measuring process by physicians and have shown promising results in the evaluation. In the second component, more features are extracted related to ICP, such as the texture information, blood amount from CT scans and other recorded features, such as age, injury severity score to estimate the ICP are also incorporated. Machine learning techniques including feature selection and classification, such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs), are employed to build the prediction model using RapidMiner. The evaluation of the prediction shows potential usefulness of the model. The estimated ideal midline shift and predicted ICP levels may be used as a fast pre-screening step for physicians to make decisions, so as to recommend for or against invasive ICP monitoring.

  18. High-capacity transport, floor area ratio and its relationship with urbanization of metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, B.L. de; Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de


    Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)

  19. Oral findings in Midline Syndrome: a case report and literature review. (United States)

    Tallón-Walton, Victòria; Nieminen, Pekka; Arte, Sirpa; Ustrell-Torrent, Josep Maria; Carvalho-Lobato, Patricia; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina


    We describe a female patient with a midline syndrome. The patient presents agenesis of the corpus callosum, encephalocele, iris coloboma, hypertelorism, submucosal cleft palate and dental anomalies. Despite being very characteristic, her phenotypical traits do not coincide exactly with those reported to date in the literature. The karyotype and the molecular cytogenetic study do not show mutations. We identify the presence of dental anomalies in the mother and other family members, not being identified MSX1 and PAX9 mutations that could the related with their etiology. Despite the fact that dental agenesis has been related to a large number of other malformation syndromes and congenital conditions, dental anomalies have only rarely been mentioned when reporting midline syndromes. These dental phenotypical traits, present in the patient and her family, could be considered part of the midline syndrome in carriers as well as in the patients.

  20. Laser-assisted multidisciplinary approach for closure and prevention of relapse of midline diastema. (United States)

    Kamble, Amol; Shah, Preetam; Velani, Priyam Rajesh; Jadhav, Ganesh


    Midline diastema, which occurs as spacing between the upper central incisors, is a common occurrence seen in the pediatric population. In the ugly duckling stage of development; no treatment is generally advocated as the diastema is a transient one. When diastemas occur due to other pathologies, they pose several problems in relation to esthetics and speech in a growing child. With the advent of time, patient's demand for esthetics has greatly increased. Along with this, a less time-consuming treatment option is a favorite. Proper diagnosis of the diastema, unfolding its etiology, helps in devising an adequate treatment plan. This eventually will lead to stability of the final result. The present case report presents a different and unique approach for the esthetic closure of midline diastema following frenectomy procedure. The approach proves to be a quick and simple option for closure of midline diastemas in cases with concomitant incisal edge irregularities.

  1. Laser-assisted multidisciplinary approach for closure and prevention of relapse of midline diastema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Kamble


    Full Text Available Midline diastema, which occurs as spacing between the upper central incisors, is a common occurrence seen in the pediatric population. In the ugly duckling stage of development; no treatment is generally advocated as the diastema is a transient one. When diastemas occur due to other pathologies, they pose several problems in relation to esthetics and speech in a growing child. With the advent of time, patient's demand for esthetics has greatly increased. Along with this, a less time-consuming treatment option is a favorite. Proper diagnosis of the diastema, unfolding its etiology, helps in devising an adequate treatment plan. This eventually will lead to stability of the final result. The present case report presents a different and unique approach for the esthetic closure of midline diastema following frenectomy procedure. The approach proves to be a quick and simple option for closure of midline diastemas in cases with concomitant incisal edge irregularities.

  2. A comparison of midline and tracheal gene regulation during Drosophila development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K R Long

    Full Text Available Within the Drosophila embryo, two related bHLH-PAS proteins, Single-minded and Trachealess, control development of the central nervous system midline and the trachea, respectively. These two proteins are bHLH-PAS transcription factors and independently form heterodimers with another bHLH-PAS protein, Tango. During early embryogenesis, expression of Single-minded is restricted to the midline and Trachealess to the trachea and salivary glands, whereas Tango is ubiquitously expressed. Both Single-minded/Tango and Trachealess/Tango heterodimers bind to the same DNA sequence, called the CNS midline element (CME within cis-regulatory sequences of downstream target genes. While Single-minded/Tango and Trachealess/Tango activate some of the same genes in their respective tissues during embryogenesis, they also activate a number of different genes restricted to only certain tissues. The goal of this research is to understand how these two related heterodimers bind different enhancers to activate different genes, thereby regulating the development of functionally diverse tissues. Existing data indicates that Single-minded and Trachealess may bind to different co-factors restricted to various tissues, causing them to interact with the CME only within certain sequence contexts. This would lead to the activation of different target genes in different cell types. To understand how the context surrounding the CME is recognized by different bHLH-PAS heterodimers and their co-factors, we identified and analyzed novel enhancers that drive midline and/or tracheal expression and compared them to previously characterized enhancers. In addition, we tested expression of synthetic reporter genes containing the CME flanked by different sequences. Taken together, these experiments identify elements overrepresented within midline and tracheal enhancers and suggest that sequences immediately surrounding a CME help dictate whether a gene is expressed in the midline or

  3. [View to surgical treatment of midline hernias considering their biomechanical properties]. (United States)

    Lazarev, S M; Baga, D K


    Biomechanical parameters of the white line in health, in postoperative ventral hernias, in midline hernias and diastasis recti abdominis were studied on a special stand. It was noted that the elasticity modulus of the white line in the transverse direction is more than that in the longitudinal direction. The white line tissue strength in patients with midline hernia was 46.5% less as compared with the normal line. The greatest strength and transfer appeared with the elliptical opening stretched along the white line as compared with the round form of the opening.

  4. Diagnostic considerations and prosthetic rehabilitation of a cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion: A clinical report. (United States)

    Hofstede, Theresa M; Jacob, Rhonda F


    The intranasal inhalation of cocaine has numerous complications. In addition to its systemic effects, cocaine can cause extensive destruction of the osteocartilaginous midline structures of the palate, nose, and sinuses. Without an accurate social and clinical history, a cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion can cause diagnostic difficulties, because its clinical presentation closely mimics other diseases. This clinical report describes an oronasal defect caused by cocaine use, the diagnostic considerations of these lesions, and prosthetic management of the defect. Copyright 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A philosophical perspective on the relation between cortical midline structures and the self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eMusholt


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing evidence that an area in the brain called the cortical midline structures (CMS is implicated in what has been termed self-related processing. This article will discuss recent evidence for the relation between CMS and self-consciousness in light of several important philosophical distinctions. First, we should distinguish between being a self (i.e., being a subject of conscious experience and being aware of being a self (i.e., being able to think about oneself as such. While the former consists in having a first-person perspective on the world, the latter requires the ability to explicitly represent one’s own perspective as such. Further, we should distinguish between being aware of oneself 'as subject' and being aware of oneself 'as object'. The focus of existing studies investigating the relation between CMS and self has been predominantly on the ability to think about oneself (and in particular thinking of oneself 'as object', while the more basic aspects involved in being a self have been neglected. However, it is important to widen the scope of the cognitive neuroscience to include the latter, not least because this might have important implications for a better understanding of disorders of the self, such as those involved in schizophrenia. In order to do so, cognitive neuroscience should work together with philosophy, including phenomenology. Second, we need to distinguish between personal and subpersonal level explanations. It will be argued that although it is important to respect this distinction, in principle, some subpersonal facts can enter into constitutive conditions of personal level phenomena. However, in order for this to be possible, one needs both careful conceptual analysis and knowledge about relevant cognitive mechanisms.

  6. A Philosophical Perspective on the Relation between Cortical Midline Structures and the Self. (United States)

    Musholt, Kristina


    In recent years there has been increasing evidence that an area in the brain called the cortical midline structures (CMSs) is implicated in what has been termed self-related processing. This article will discuss recent evidence for the relation between CMS and self-consciousness in light of several important philosophical distinctions. First, we should distinguish between being a self (i.e., being a subject of conscious experience) and being aware of being a self (i.e., being able to think about oneself as such). While the former consists in having a first-person perspective on the world, the latter requires the ability to explicitly represent one's own perspective as such. Further, we should distinguish between being aware of oneself "as subject" and being aware of oneself "as object." The focus of existing studies investigating the relation between CMS and self has been predominantly on the ability to think about oneself (and in particular thinking of oneself "as object"), while the more basic aspects involved in being a self have been neglected. However, it is important to widen the scope of the cognitive neuroscience to include the latter, not least because this might have important implications for a better understanding of disorders of the self, such as those involved in schizophrenia. In order to do so, cognitive neuroscience should work together with philosophy, including phenomenology. Second, we need to distinguish between personal and subpersonal level explanations. It will be argued that although it is important to respect this distinction, in principle, some subpersonal facts can enter into constitutive conditions of personal-level phenomena. However, in order for this to be possible, one needs both careful conceptual analysis and knowledge about relevant cognitive mechanisms.

  7. Transient Relay Function of Midline Thalamic Nuclei during Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Humans (United States)

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Takashima, Atsuko; Rutters, Femke; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén


    To test the hypothesis that thalamic midline nuclei play a transient role in memory consolidation, we reanalyzed a prospective functional MRI study, contrasting recent and progressively more remote memory retrieval. We revealed a transient thalamic connectivity increase with the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and a…

  8. The hormonal peptide Elabela guides angioblasts to the midline during vasculogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helker, Christian S. M.; Schuermann, Annika; Pollmann, Cathrin; Chng, Serene C.; Kiefer, Friedemann; Reversade, Bruno; Herzog, Wiebke


    A key step in the de novo formation of the embryonic vasculature is the migration of endothelial precursors, the angioblasts, to the position of the future vessels. To form the first axial vessels, angioblasts migrate towards the midline and coalesce underneath the notochord. Vascular endothelial

  9. Cooperation or competition of the two hemispheres in processing characters presented at vertical midline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Verleger

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the hemispheres interact in processing of stimuli presented at vertical midline. Processing might be mutually independent or cooperative. Here we measured target identification and visually evoked EEG potentials while stimulus streams containing two targets, T1 and T2, were either presented at vertical midline above and below fixation, or laterally, left and right. With left and right streams, potentials evoked by filler stimuli and by T2 were earlier at the right than the left visual cortex, and T2 was better identified left than right, confirming earlier results and suggesting better capabilities of the right hemisphere in this task. With streams above and below fixation, EEG potentials evoked by filler stimuli and by T2 were likewise earlier at the right than the left hemisphere, and T2 was generally identified as well as, but not better than left T2, in one target constellation even worse (T2 in lower stream preceded by T1 in upper stream. These results suggest right-hemisphere preference for this task even with stimuli at vertical midline, and no added value through hemispheric cooperation. Lacking asymmetry for T1 amidst asymmetries for filler stimuli and for T2 might indicate alternating access of the hemispheres to midline stimuli as one means of hemispheric division of labor.

  10. Midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control: which factors determine anatomic outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milani, A.L.; Withagen, M.I.J.; Schweitzer, K.J.; Janszen, E.W.; Vierhout, M.E.


    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to report anatomic and functional outcome of midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control and to identify predictors of anatomic failure. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort. Anatomic success defined as POP-Q stage

  11. Maxillary Midline diastema closure after replacement of primary teeth with implant prosthesis. (United States)

    Al-Saqabi, Farah Y; Fenlon, Michael R; Bavisha, Kalpesh A


    This case shows an excellent esthetic treatment outcome using implant-retained crowns replacing maxillary laterals and canines in hypodontia patient with unusual incidence of spontaneous diastema closure after the placement of implants. To our knowledge, this is the first case report showing maxillary midline diastema closure after implant placement.

  12. Maxillary Midline diastema closure after replacement of primary teeth with implant prosthesis


    Al-Saqabi, Farah Y; Michael R Fenlon; Bavisha, Kalpesh A


    Key Clinical Message This case shows an excellent esthetic treatment outcome using implant-retained crowns replacing maxillary laterals and canines in hypodontia patient with unusual incidence of spontaneous diastema closure after the placement of implants. To our knowledge, this is the first case report showing maxillary midline diastema closure after implant placement.

  13. Reply to: Can we avoid rectus abdominis muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Timmermans (Lucas); E.B. Deerenberg (Eva); S.M. van Dijk (Sven); B. Lamme (Bas); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); J. Jeekel (Johannes); J.F. Lange (Johan)


    markdownabstractWe read with interest the letter to the editor by Stephenson et al regarding our article “Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation.” Any attempt to decrease the risk of parastomal herniation should be applauded, because its incidence of greater than

  14. FGF signaling is required for brain left-right asymmetry and brain midline formation. (United States)

    Neugebauer, Judith M; Yost, H Joseph


    Early disruption of FGF signaling alters left-right (LR) asymmetry throughout the embryo. Here we uncover a role for FGF signaling that specifically disrupts brain asymmetry, independent of normal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) asymmetry. When FGF signaling is inhibited during mid-somitogenesis, asymmetrically expressed LPM markers southpaw and lefty2 are not affected. However, asymmetrically expressed brain markers lefty1 and cyclops become bilateral. We show that FGF signaling controls expression of six3b and six7, two transcription factors required for repression of asymmetric lefty1 in the brain. We found that Z0-1, atypical PKC (aPKC) and β-catenin protein distribution revealed a midline structure in the forebrain that is dependent on a balance of FGF signaling. Ectopic activation of FGF signaling leads to overexpression of six3b, loss of organized midline adherins junctions and bilateral loss of lefty1 expression. Reducing FGF signaling leads to a reduction in six3b and six7 expression, an increase in cell boundary formation in the brain midline, and bilateral expression of lefty1. Together, these results suggest a novel role for FGF signaling in the brain to control LR asymmetry, six transcription factor expressions, and a midline barrier structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Germ Cell Tumor Located in the Midline of the Anterior Neck


    Tatyana PIRDOPSKA; Terziev, Ivan; Sv. HRISTOVA; W. MLADENOVSKY; Petkov, R.


    Primary germ cell tumors involving midline of the anterior neck are extremely rare. Here we report a 68-year-old male who was operated due to a mass lesion in the anterior neck with infiltration of the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a germ cell tumor with extragonadal localization in the anterior neck infiltrating the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  16. Posterior fossa midline cryptococcoma in a patient with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rai


    Full Text Available Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL is a rare disorder which is often diagnosed as HIV-negative AIDS in the light of poor immunity and AIDS-defining illnesses. We present a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with a midline posterior fossa tumour with ICL diagnosed as cerebellar cryptococcoma.

  17. Highly Flexible and High-Performance Complementary Inverters of Large-Area Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang


    Complementary inverters constructed from large-area monolayers of WSe2 and MoS2 achieve excellent logic swings and yield an extremely high gain, large total noise margin, low power consumption, and good switching speed. Moreover, the WSe2 complementary-like inverters built on plastic substrates exhibit high mechanical stability. The results provide a path toward large-area flexible electronics. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency (United States)

    Maloney, Ryan Patrick

    ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Symphysis pubis a midline secondary cartilaginous joint has been studied mostly for age estimation in forensic anthropology. Symphysis pubis forms at about the beginning of the third month of gestation. Centre of chondrification starts to develop in the primitive scleroblastema, grow together at the midline forming the precursor of the symphysis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the developmental of symphyseal surface of pubis morphometrically in human fetuses and to analyze whether it is sex dependent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 41 foetuses divided into five groups according to the gestational age with each group having male and female fetuses. The interpubic joint along with the pubis were dissected and a midline incision was given to expose the symphyseal surface. Measurements were taken with the help of Vernier calipers and the data was analyzed using students ‘t’ test. OBSERVATION AND RESULT: Vertical height of midline sectioned pubic symphysis grew at different rates during different periods of intrauterine life. Growth rate was maximum in group II. Anteroposterior growth of midline sectioned pubic symphysis at the upper end showed significant growth in early stage of gestation, while in the middle part significant increase in measurements was noticed in groups II and III and in the lower portion in groups II and V. CONCLUSION: Maximal growth of the symphyseal surface of the pubes occurs vertically as well as antero-posteriorly between 19–22 weeks of gestation. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the vertical growth of the pubic symphysis in group II foetuses

  20. Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas (United States)

    Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Conrad, Olaf; Böhner, Jürgen; Kawohl, Tobias; Kreft, Holger; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo Wilber; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Linder, H. Peter; Kessler, Michael


    High-resolution information on climatic conditions is essential to many applications in environmental and ecological sciences. Here we present the CHELSA (Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas) data of downscaled model output temperature and precipitation estimates of the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The temperature algorithm is based on statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperatures. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors including wind fields, valley exposition, and boundary layer height, with a subsequent bias correction. The resulting data consist of a monthly temperature and precipitation climatology for the years 1979-2013. We compare the data derived from the CHELSA algorithm with other standard gridded products and station data from the Global Historical Climate Network. We compare the performance of the new climatologies in species distribution modelling and show that we can increase the accuracy of species range predictions. We further show that CHELSA climatological data has a similar accuracy as other products for temperature, but that its predictions of precipitation patterns are better.

  1. High-speed interconnection for storage area networks (United States)

    Liu, ZhaoBin; Xie, Changsheng; Wu, Fei; Fu, Xianglin


    The steady and fast increase of data intensive application is violently driving the demand for more data storage capacity and new storage architecture. The server-attached storage approach is being replaced by storage area networks (SANs), whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements or among storage elements, allowing storage devices to be shared among multiple servers. In this paper, we mainly analyze the different characters of Fibre Channel, iSCSI and InfiniBand used within the SANs environment. This paper discusses the issues of protocol performance, protocol scalability, the security mechanism, the interoperability and adaptability with SAN environments, the cost of investment of each architecture and so on. Comparing the performance of traditional direct attached storage, the findings show that all Fibre Channel, InfiniBand and iSCSI are the competent gigabit networking technology for storage area networks. Each protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. Due to the overwhelming benefits of economy, covenience and high performance/cost ratio, more enterprise can deploy iSCSI SAN based on mature and existing TCP/IP infrastructure.

  2. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area. (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A


    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Midline or Retroperitoneal Approach in Operating on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retroperitoneal tumors are rare form of tumors arising from the retroperitoneal space and account for 10-15% of soft tissue sarcoma.1,2 Liposarcoma represent 0.1% of all cancers 3 and arise mostly from the mesenchyme usually located in muscles, fat and connective tissue. 4 It is a high grade tumor with high propensity for ...

  4. Leaf Area Index Retrieval Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Data

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    Michele Rinaldi


    Full Text Available Vegetation indices obtained from remote sensed data can be used to characterize crop canopy on a large scale using a non-destructive method. With the recent launch of the IKONOS satellite, very high spatial resolution (1 meter images are available for the detailed monitoring of ecosystems as well as for precision agriculture. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of leaf area index (LAI retrieval over agricultural area that can be obtained by empirical relationships between different spectral vegetation indices (VI and LAI measured on three different dates over the spring-summer period of 2008, in the Capitanata plain (Southern Italy. All the VIs used (NDVI, RDVI, WDVI, MSAVI and GEMI were related to the LAI through exponential regression functions, either global or crop-dependent. In the first case, LAI was estimated with comparable accuracies for all VIs employed, with a slightly higher accuracy for GEMI, which determination coefficient achieved the value of 0.697. Whereas the LAI regression functions were calculated separately for each crop, the WDVI, GEMI and RDVI vegetation indices provided the highest determination coefficients with values close to 0.90 for wheat and sugar beet, and with values close to 0.70 for tomatoes. A validation of the models was carried out with a selection of independent sampling data. The validation confirmed that WDVI and GEMI were the VIs that provided the highest LAI retrieval accuracies, with RMSE values of about to 1.1 m2 m-2. The exponential functions, calibrated and validated to calculate LAI from GEMI, were used to derive LAI maps from IKONOS high-resolution remote sensing images with good accuracy. These maps can be used as input variables for crop growth models, obtaining relevant information that can be useful in agricultural management strategies (in particular irrigation and fertilization, as well as in the application of precision farming.

  5. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A. (United States)

    Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie


    Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  6. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Neffatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A (HAV and E (HEV viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking.Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA.Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8, HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14, HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%, younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004; 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences.The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  7. Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography (United States)

    Husak, G. J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, D.; Funk, C.; Galu, G.


    Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

  8. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave


    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  9. Identification of areas with high levels of untreated dental caries. (United States)

    Ellwood, R P; O'Mullane, D M


    In order to examine the geographical variation of dental health within 10 county districts in North Wales, 3538 children were examined. The associations between three demographic indicators, based on the 1981 OPCS census, and dental health outcomes were assessed for electoral wards within the county districts. The Townsend and Jarman indices were the first two indicators employed and the third was based on a mathematical model representing the variation in the mean number of untreated decayed surfaces per person for the wards. This model was developed using the children examined in the five most westerly county districts. Using the data derived from the five most easterly county districts, the three indicators were assessed. All three showed strong correlations (r > or = 0.88) with dental health. These results indicate that measures of dental health based on large administrative units may obscure variation within them. It is concluded that geographical methods of this type may be useful for targeting dental resources at small areas with high levels of need.

  10. An investigation on the facial midline distance to some anatomic landmarks of the jaws among people with natural dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosharraf R


    Full Text Available The determination of the dental midline is necessary in most dental procedures."nOne of the methods to fulfill this goal is to determine the facial midline based on the midpoints of the"nforehead, nose, upper lip and chin. However, for various reasons, this method has not always been"nproved successful. In such cases, different techniques, based on the investigations in the edentulous"npatients, have been suggested."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the conformity of some landmarks such as labial"nfrenum, incisive papilla and mid palatal suture with dental and facial midlines among people with natural"ndentition in order to obtain accurate anatomic landmarks for denture replacement."nMaterials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 96 dental students, having all their permanent teeth"nand without any orthognathic problem, were chosen. For each subject, Alginate impressions and dental"ncasts were prepared. Then, centric occlusion was recorded with a biting wax and the facial mid line was"ndetermined on the anterior part of it. The distances from the facial midline to the upper teeth midline,"nincisive papilla, labial frenum and mid palatal suture were determined with a special tool and were"nmeasured by a VERNIEH two times. In order to analyze the results, Chi- Square and t-student tests were"nused."nResults: The average of facial midline distance to the upper teeth midline, the labial frenum, the incisive"npapilla and the mid palatal suture were 0.83±0.60, 0.67±G.54, 0.83±00.63 and 0.81±0.62 mm,"nrespectively. There was no significant difference between males and females. Labial frenum showed the"nminimum distance to the facial midline, while the incisive papilla had the maximum. There was no"nsignificant difference between these anatomic landmarks, in conformity or unconformity with the facial"nmidline"nConclusion: Considering the low percentage of the subjects with complete conformity and the lack of

  11. Midline 1 directs lytic granule exocytosis and cytotoxicity of mouse killer T cells. (United States)

    Boding, Lasse; Hansen, Ann K; Meroni, Germana; Johansen, Bo B; Braunstein, Thomas H; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Kongsbak, Martin; Jensen, Benjamin A H; Woetmann, Anders; Thomsen, Allan R; Odum, Niels; von Essen, Marina R; Geisler, Carsten


    Midline 1 (MID1) is a microtubule-associated ubiquitin ligase that regulates protein phosphatase 2A activity. Loss-of-function mutations in MID1 lead to the X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome characterized by defective midline development during embryogenesis. Here, we show that MID1 is strongly upregulated in murine cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), and that it controls TCR signaling, centrosome trafficking, and exocytosis of lytic granules. In accordance, we find that the killing capacity of MID1(-/-) CTLs is impaired. Transfection of MID1 into MID1(-/-) CTLs completely rescued lytic granule exocytosis, and vice versa, knockdown of MID1 inhibited exocytosis of lytic granules in WT CTLs, cementing a central role for MID1 in the regulation of granule exocytosis. Thus, MID1 orchestrates multiple events in CTL responses, adding a novel level of regulation to CTL activation and cytotoxicity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Closure of a maxillary midline diastema using a modified omega loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvika Gandhi


    Full Text Available A maxillary midline diastema is important from a clinical management standpoint by virtue of its presence, as well as the esthetic concerns it causes to the patient. While seen in many children as a part of normal development in the mixed dentition (only to disappear as the growth progresses, it may persist in situations associated with some or the other etiological factors. These could be tooth size-shape discrepancy, midline cysts, missing lateral incisors, habits (thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, etc., familial tendencies, abnormal labial frenum, etc., Treatment planning should seek to manage not only the diastemata in question but also the cause behind it. Possible therapeutic approaches include orthodontic treatment, restorative dentistry, surgery, and its various combinations. This article describes a modified form of loop mechanics used to close diastemata.

  13. ′M′ Mechanics for the Management of Maxillary Midline Diastema

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    Anand Pramod Sondankar


    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is commonly occurring malocclusion. Variety of treatment modalities are suggested for the management of diastema. This article presents a case report in which 14-year-old female patient was treated for the maxillary midline diastema of size 3 mm after extraction of supernumerary tooth between upper central incisors. The index of orthodontic treatment was mild (Grade 2. MBT 0.022′′ brackets were bonded on the maxillary central incisors. M spring was fabricated, activated and ligated initially with round archwire followed by rectangular archwire. Successful closure of diastema was seen with total treatment duration of 4 months. This method is efficient, effective, require less inventory. This saves precious chairside time of orthodontics and reduces treatment duration as well.

  14. Mandibular Symphyseal L-Inverted Midline Osteotomy to Correct Mild Laterognathia and Malocclusion. (United States)

    Collantes, Carlos; Solano, Nicolás; Romero, Luis; Molina, César; Gómez-Delgado, Andrés


    The aim of this study was to present the authors' experience with a new surgical technique to correct mild laterognathia and malocclusion by means of an L-inverted midline osteotomy. The patient was a 26-year-old woman diagnosed with left laterognathia and ipsilateral posterior crossbite. She was operated by using this novel technique in November 2009 at Hogar Clínica San Rafael, Maracaibo, Venezuela. Bicortical midline symphyseal vertical osteotomy was executed, followed by block removal of the central right inferior incisor and its surrounding alveolar bone. The mandibular segmentation was completed by means of a right hemimentoplasty. After this, a 4-mm right mandibular rotation was made, and titanium plates and monocortical screws of the 2.0 system were used to achieve the rigid fixation. The patient showed outstanding aesthetic and functional results after 5 years. This technique provides a new treatment option for the correction of mild laterognathia cases associated with dental malocclusion.

  15. Midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control: which factors determine anatomic outcome? (United States)

    Milani, Alfredo L; Withagen, Mariella I J; Schweitzer, Karlijn J; Janszen, Erica W M; Vierhout, Mark E


    The aim of the study was to report anatomic and functional outcome of midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control and to identify predictors of anatomic failure. Prospective observational cohort. Anatomic success defined as POP-Q stage or= II underwent midline fascial plication under continuous digital transrectal control. Median follow-up was 14 months (12-35 months), and anatomic success was 80.3% (95% CI 75-86). Independent predictors of failure were posterior compartment POP stage >or= III [OR 8.7 (95% CI 2.7-28.1)] and prior colposuspension [OR 5.6 (95% CI 1.1-27.8)]. Sixty-three percent of patients bothered by obstructed defaecation experienced relief after surgery. Anatomic and functional outcomes were good. Risk factors for anatomic failure were initial size of posterior POP (stage >or= III) and prior colposuspension.

  16. Frontal Midline Theta Oscillations during Working Memory Maintenance and Episodic Encoding and Retrieval


    Hsieh, Liang-Tien; Ranganath, Charan


    Neural oscillations in the theta band (4-8 Hz) are prominent in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), and many recent electrophysiological studies in animals and humans have implicated scalp-recorded frontal midline theta (FMT) in working memory and episodic memory encoding and retrieval processes. However, the functional significance of theta oscillations in human memory processes remains largely unknown. Here, we review studies in human and animals examining how scalp-recorded FMT relates t...

  17. Does midline coincidence of upper and lower teeth affect smile aesthetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Jajoo


    Full Text Available The extraction of single mandibular incisor has always led to debate regarding midline and smile esthetics. The current case report describes the effect of mesiodens in worsening the Class II Division 1 malocclusion and its correction by extraction of mesiodens, upper first premolars, and single mandibular incisor. Satisfactory functional and esthetic results were achieved with well-settled Class II molar, Class I canine relationship, ideal overjet, and overbite. Two years postretention records show stable results.

  18. Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft: Diagnosis, Pathologic Findings, and Early Stage Treatment

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    Xenophon Sinopidis


    Full Text Available Congenital midline cervical cleft is a very uncommon malformation of the anterior neck, with less than 100 cases reported in medical literature. Herein we present a case of a female neonate with this anomaly. A detailed description of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics is performed. As it is derived from the natural history of the lesion, prompt clinical diagnosis, and operative treatment during early infancy predispose to a better aesthetic and functional prognosis.

  19. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of a maxillary midline diastema: A clinical report. (United States)

    Romero, Mario F; Babb, Courtney S; Brenes, Christian; Haddock, Fernando J


    A maxillary midline diastema (MMD) is a common complaint of dental patients. An MMD can be closed with treatment from different disciplines, including operative dentistry and orthodontics. A comprehensive smile analysis is also a necessity before beginning treatment. This article highlights the closure of a 3-mm MMD by using a combination of orthodontics and direct composite resin restorations. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Frontal Midline Theta Reflects Anxiety and Cognitive Control: Meta-Analytic Evidence


    Cavanagh, James F.; Shackman, Alexander J.


    Evidence from imaging and anatomical studies suggests that the midcingulate cortex (MCC) is a dynamic hub lying at the interface of affect and cognition. In particular, this neural system appears to integrate information about conflict and punishment in order to optimize behavior in the face of action-outcome uncertainty. In a series of meta-analyses, we show how recent human electrophysiological research provides compelling evidence that frontal-midline theta signals reflecting MCC activity ...

  1. RabGDI controls axonal midline crossing by regulating Robo1 surface expression

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    Philipp Melanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axons navigate to their future synaptic targets with the help of choice points, intermediate targets that express axon guidance cues. Once they reach a choice point, axons need to switch their response from attraction to repulsion in order to move on with the next stage of their journey. The mechanisms underlying the change in axonal responsiveness are poorly understood. Commissural axons become sensitive to the repulsive activity of Slits when they cross the ventral midline of the CNS. Responsiveness to Slits depends on surface expression of Robo receptors. In Drosophila, Commissureless (Comm plays a crucial regulatory role in midline crossing by keeping Robo levels low on precommissural axons. Interestingly, to date no vertebrate homolog of comm has been identified. Robo3/Rig1 has been shown to control Slit sensitivity before the midline, but without affecting Robo1 surface expression. Results We had identified RabGDI, a gene linked to human mental retardation and an essential component of the vesicle fusion machinery, in a screen for differentially expressed floor-plate genes. Downregulation of RabGDI by in ovo RNAi caused commissural axons to stall in the floor plate, phenocopying the effect observed after downregulation of Robo1. Conversely, premature expression of RabGDI prevented commissural axons from entering the floor plate. Furthermore, RabGDI triggered Robo1 surface expression in cultured commissural neurons. Taken together, our results identify RabGDI as a component of the switching mechanism that is required for commissural axons to change their response from attraction to repulsion at the intermediate target. Conclusion RabGDI takes over the functional role of fly Comm by regulating the surface expression of Robo1 on commissural axons in vertebrates. This in turn allows commissural axons to switch from attraction to repulsion at the midline of the spinal cord.

  2. Repair of large midline abdominal-wall hernias by a running strip of abdominal skin. (United States)

    Marchac, D; Kaddoura, R


    Our experience with a full-thickness running strip of abdominal skin for the treatment of large midline abdominal hernias has been very positive. The mechanical properties of the skin strip allow one to reestablish a normal anatomy by bringing the rectus muscle in contact. Clinical and histologic studies have shown that the full-thickness skin rapidly loses its epidermal components and appears to transform itself into a dense connective tissue very similar to normal aponeurosis.

  3. Midline mandibular deformation during nonmasticatory functional movements in edentulous subjects with dental implants. (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Ali M; Abdel-Latif, Hind H; Howell, Peter G; Hobkirk, John A


    Mandibular deformation during function in patients with implant-supported prostheses is associated with increased strain at the bone-implant interface when dental implants are connected by a relatively rigid superstructure. Whilst there is a body of evidence concerning deformation as measured between the corpora, there are little data on its effects in the midline. This study measured 3 types of midline mandibular deformation during nonmasticatory functional mandibular movements in edentulous subjects with dental implants. A range of custom displacement transducers was fabricated for 5 edentulous subjects who had been treated with dental implants in the anterior mandible. These transducers were mounted on contralateral implant abutments adjacent to the midline to measure medial convergence, corporal rotation, and anteroposterior shear. Their output was recorded for offline analysis by a personal computer. The values of medial convergence ranged from 15 to 42 microm during opening, from 10 to 21 microm during lateral excursions, and from 18 to 53 microm during protrusion. Corporal rotation varied from 0.05 to 0.11 degrees during opening, from 0.03 to 0.08 degrees during lateral excursions, and from 0.03 to 0.15 degrees during protrusion. Anteroposterior shear varied from 38 to 93 pm during opening, from 28 to 56 microm during lateral excursions, and from 52 to 103 pm during protrusion. Nonmasticatory physiological mandibular movements cause the jaw to deform about the midline in at least 3 directions. It is important for the clinician to be aware of the phenomenon of mandibular deformation, which should be taken into consideration in the design and monitoring of mandibular prostheses.

  4. tACS phase locking of frontal midline theta oscillations disrupts working memory performance

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    Bankim Subhash Chander


    Full Text Available Frontal midline theta (FMT oscillations (4-8Hz are strongly related to cognitive and executive control during mental tasks such as memory processing, arithmetic problem solving or sustained attention. While maintenance of temporal order information during a working memory (WM task was recently linked to FMT phase, a positive correlation between FMT power, WM demand and WM performance was shown. However, the relationship between these measures is not well understood, and it is unknown whether purposeful FMT phase manipulation during a WM task impacts FMT power and WM performance. Here we present evidence that FMT phase manipulation mediated by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS can block WM demand-related FMT power increase and disrupt normal WM performance. Methods: 20 healthy volunteers were assigned to one of two groups (group A, group B and performed a 2-back task across a baseline block (block 1 and an intervention block (block 2 while 275-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG was recorded. After no stimulation was applied during block 1, participants in group A received tACS oscillating at their individual FMT frequency over the prefrontal cortex (PFC while group B received sham stimulation during block 2. After assessing and mapping phase locking values (PLV between the tACS signal and brain oscillatory activity across the whole brain, FMT power and WM performance were assessed and compared between blocks and groups. Results: During block 2 of group A but not B, FMT oscillations showed increased PLV across task-related cortical areas underneath the frontal tACS electrode. While WM task-related FMT power increase (FMTpower and WM performance were comparable across groups in block 1, tACS resulted in lower FMTpower and WM performance compared to sham stimulation in block 2. Conclusion: tACS-related manipulation of FMT phase can disrupt WM performance and influence WM task-related FMT power increase. This finding may have

  5. Level of participation in robotic-assisted treadmill walking modulates midline sensorimotor EEG rhythms in able-bodied subjects. (United States)

    Wagner, Johanna; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Grieshofer, Peter; Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot; Scherer, Reinhold


    In robot assisted gait training, a pattern of human locomotion is executed repetitively with the intention to restore the motor programs associated with walking. Several studies showed that active contribution to the movement is critical for the encoding of motor memory. We propose to use brain monitoring techniques during gait training to encourage active participation in the movement. We investigated the spectral patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that are related to active and passive robot assisted gait. Fourteen healthy participants were considered. Infomax independent component analysis separated the EEG into independent components representing brain, muscle, and eye movement activity, as well as other artifacts. An equivalent current dipole was calculated for each independent component. Independent components were clustered across participants based on their anatomical position and frequency spectra. Four clusters were identified in the sensorimotor cortices that accounted for differences between active and passive walking or showed activity related to the gait cycle. We show that in central midline areas the mu (8-12 Hz) and beta (18-21 Hz) rhythms are suppressed during active compared to passive walking. These changes are statistically significant: mu (F(1, 13)=11.2 p ≤ 0.01) and beta (F(1, 13)=7.7, p ≤ 0.05). We also show that these differences depend on the gait cycle phases. We provide first evidence of modulations of the gamma rhythm in the band 25 to 40 Hz, localized in central midline areas related to the phases of the gait cycle. We observed a trend (F(1, 8)=11.03, p ≤ 0.06) for suppressed low gamma rhythm when comparing active and passive walking. Additionally we found significant suppressions of the mu (F(1, 11)=20.1 p ≤ 0.01), beta (F(1, 11)=11.3 p ≤ 0.05) and gamma (F(1, 11)=4.9 p ≤ 0.05) rhythms near C3 (in the right hand area of the primary motor cortex) during phases of active vs. passive robot assisted walking. To our

  6. Parametrial boost using midline shielding results in an unpredictable dose to tumor and organs at risk in combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. (United States)

    Fenkell, Louis; Assenholt, Marianne; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Haie-Meder, Christine; Pötter, Richard; Lindegaard, Jacob; Tanderup, Kari


    Midline-blocked boost (MBB) fields are frequently used in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose contribution from MBBs to tumor and organs at risk. Six patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (IIB-IIIB) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy were analyzed. A three-phase plan was modeled: 45 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) four-field box, 9 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) MBB (midline-shielded anteroposterior/posteroanterior fields), and intracavitary MRI-guided brachytherapy boost of 28 Gy (7 Gy per fraction). Midline shields 3, 4, and 5 cm wide were simulated for each patient. Brachytherapy and MBB plans were volumetrically summed. The rectum, sigmoid, and bladder minimum dose in the most exposed 2 cm(3) of an organ at risk (D(2 cc)) and high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and intermediate-risk clinical target volume (IR-CTV) D90 and D100 were evaluated. The intended HR-CTV D90 was 85 Gy or greater, and the intended IR-CTV D90 was greater than 60 Gy. After a 4-cm MBB, HR-CTV D90 remained lower than 85 Gy in all cases (mean, 74 Gy; range, 64-82 Gy). High-risk clinical target volume (85 Gy) coverage increased slightly from 73% (range, 64-82%) to 78% (range, 69-88%). Mean IR-CTV D90 increased from 56 Gy (range, 53-64 Gy) to 62 Gy (range, 59-67 Gy). Intermediate-risk clinical target volume 60-Gy dose coverage increased from 81% (range, 72-96%) to 96% (range, 90-100%). The mean volume irradiated to 85 Gy increased by 14 cm(3) (range, 10-22 cm(3)), whereas the volume irradiated to 60 Gy increased from 276 cm(3) (range, 185-417 cm(3)) to 592 cm(3) (range, 385-807 cm(3)). Bladder, rectum, or sigmoid D(2 cc) increased by more than 50% of the boost dose in 4 of 6 patients. Midline-blocked boosts contribute substantial dose to rectum, sigmoid, and bladder D(2 cc). HR-CTV dose and 85-Gy coverage remain compromised in large tumors despite MBB. IR-CTV 60

  7. Identification and prioritization of areas with high environmental risk in Mediterranean coastal areas: A flexible approach. (United States)

    Marignani, Michela; Bruschi, Daniele; Astiaso Garcia, Davide; Frondoni, Raffaella; Carli, Emanuela; Pinna, Maria Silvia; Cumo, Fabrizio; Gugliermetti, Franco; Saatkamp, Arne; Doxa, Aggeliki; Queller, Emi Martín; Chaieb, Mohamed; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; El Zein, Rana; El Jeitani, Sarah; Khater, Carla; Mansour, Sophie; Al-Shami, Anwar; Harik, Ghinwa; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Blasi, Carlo


    Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity are the cornerstone for the future management of coastal ecosystems with many vulnerability and hazard indexes developed for this purpose, especially in the engineering literature, but with limited studies that considered ecological implications within a risk assessment. Similarly, the concept of prioritization of sites has been widely examined in biodiversity conservation studies, but only recently as an instrument for territory management. Considering coastal plant diversity at the species and community levels, and their vulnerability to three main potential hazards threatening coastal areas (oil spills, Hazardous and Noxious Substances pollution, fragmentation of natural habitats), the objective of this paper is to define an easy-to-use approach to locate and prioritize the areas more susceptible to those stressors, in order to have a practical instrument for risk management in the ordinary and extra-ordinary management of the coastline. The procedure has been applied at pilot areas in four Mediterranean countries (Italy, France, Lebanon and Tunisia). This approach can provide policy planners, decision makers and local communities an easy-to-use instrument able to facilitate the implementation of the ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) process in their territory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in midline fascial forces exist following laparoscopic and open transversus abdominis release in a porcine model. (United States)

    Winder, Joshua S; Lyn-Sue, Jerome; Kunselman, Allen R; Pauli, Eric M


    Posterior component separation herniorrhaphy via transversus abdominis release (TAR) permits midline reapproximation of large fascial defects. To date, no report delineates the reduction in tensile force to reapproximate midline fascia following TAR. We hypothesized that open and laparoscopic TAR would provide similar reductions in midline reapproximation forces in a porcine model. Under general anesthesia, a 20-cm midline laparotomy was created and bilateral lipocutaneous flaps were raised to expose the anterior rectus sheath. Five stainless steel hooks were placed at 1-cm intervals lateral to the midline at three locations: 5 cm above, at, and 5 cm below the umbilicus bilaterally. Baseline force measurements were taken by pulling each lateral point to midline. Laparoscopic TAR was performed unilaterally by incising the parietal peritoneum and transversus muscle lateral to the linea semilunaris. Open TAR was performed contralaterally, and force measurements were repeated. Comparisons were made to baseline and between the groups. Following laparoscopic TAR, 87 % (13/15) of points showed significant reduction compared to baseline forces, whereas only 20 % (3/15) of open TAR points had significant force reductions. Compared to open TAR, three locations favored the laparoscopic approach [1 cm lateral to midline, 5 cm above the umbilicus (p = 0.04; 95 % CI 0.78-1.00), 2 cm lateral to midline at the umbilicus (p = 0.04; 95 % CI 0.80-1.00), and 1 cm lateral to midline 5 cm below the umbilicus (p = 0.05; 95 % CI 0.79-1.00)]. The mean length of TAR was longer for laparoscopic than open at 27.29 versus 19.55 cm (p force at few locations, suggesting that the mechanism by which TAR facilitates herniorraphy may not solely be through reductions in linea alba tensile forces. At specific locations, laparoscopic TAR provides superior reduction in midline closure force compared to open TAR, likely as a result of a longer muscle release.

  9. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (United States)

    Hays, Elizabeth


    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  10. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons (United States)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.


    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  11. Virtual transplantation in designing a facial prosthesis for extensive maxillofacial defects that cross the facial midline using computer-assisted technology. (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-hong; Dong, Yan; Bai, Shi-zhu; Wu, Guo-feng; Bi, Yun-peng; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Yi-min


    The aim of this article was to demonstrate a novel approach to designing facial prostheses using the transplantation concept and computer-assisted technology for extensive, large, maxillofacial defects that cross the facial midline. The three-dimensional (3D) facial surface images of a patient and his relative were reconstructed using data obtained through optical scanning. Based on these images, the corresponding portion of the relative's face was transplanted to the patient's where the defect was located, which could not be rehabilitated using mirror projection, to design the virtual facial prosthesis without the eye. A 3D model of an artificial eye that mimicked the patient's remaining one was developed, transplanted, and fit onto the virtual prosthesis. A personalized retention structure for the artificial eye was designed on the virtual facial prosthesis. The wax prosthesis was manufactured through rapid prototyping, and the definitive silicone prosthesis was completed. The size, shape, and cosmetic appearance of the prosthesis were satisfactory and matched the defect area well. The patient's facial appearance was recovered perfectly with the prosthesis, as determined through clinical evaluation. The optical 3D imaging and computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing system used in this study can design and fabricate facial prostheses more precisely than conventional manual sculpturing techniques. The discomfort generally associated with such conventional methods was decreased greatly. The virtual transplantation used to design the facial prosthesis for the maxillofacial defect, which crossed the facial midline, and the development of the retention structure for the eye were both feasible.

  12. 76 FR 82212 - Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO01 Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... to ``RIN 2900-AO01, Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas.'' Copies of comments... award grants to eligible entities to assist veterans in highly rural areas to travel to VA medical...

  13. Prevalence of artificially created maxillary midline diastema and its complications in a selected nigerian population. (United States)

    Umanah, Ayama; Omogbai, Abdul-Azeez; Osagbemiro, Babatope


    Maxillary midline diastema (MMD) is generally regarded as a symbol of beauty in Nigeria. The desperation to look beautiful has caused many individuals to seek the creation of artificial midline diastema and that comes often with undesirable side effects. To determine the prevalence of artificially created maxillary midline diastema (MMD) and its complications in a selected Nigerian population. A cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire as the instrument for data collection was done among patients attending a private clinic in Owerri the capital of Imo state in Nigeria over a period of 18 months. The data were retrieved from the questionnaires and analyzed using the SPSS version 20. There were 141 respondents comprising 58(41.1%) males and 83(58.9%) females, giving a male to female ratio of 1:1.4. The prevalence of artificially created MMD was 34.0% with increased frequency in: the 21-30 years age group; among the females and in respondents with tertiary level of education. Majority of the respondents (69.5%) desire MMD and 20.8% of those without it wanted it created through cosmetic dentistry. Twenty of the 48 respondents with artificial MMD had it done to enhance personal beauty and aesthetics. The commonest complication was tooth sensitivity (44.8%), followed by toothache (41.4%). The prevalence of artificially created MMD was 34.0% in this study; and it is commoner in females and younger age group .The commonest complication was tooth sensitivity. Enhancement of personal beauty and aesthetic was the major reason for having it done.

  14. NUT midline carcinoma of the larynx: an international series and review of the literature. (United States)

    Hellquist, Henrik; French, Christopher A; Bishop, Justin A; Coca-Pelaz, Andrés; Propst, Evan J; Paiva Correia, António; Ngan, Bo-Yee; Grant, Ronald; Cipriani, Nicole A; Vokes, David; Henrique, Rui; Pardal, Fernando; Vizcaino, Jose Ramon; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio


    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare undifferentiated and aggressive carcinoma that locates characteristically to the midline of the head and neck, and mediastinum. NMC is characterized by chromosomal rearrangements of the gene NUT, at 15q14. The BRD4 gene on 19q13 is the most common translocation partner forming a fusion oncogene, BRD4-NUT. By the end of 2014, the International NUT Midline Carcinoma Registry had 48 patients treated for NMC. Laryngeal NMC are exceedingly rare, and we report a case series of seven cases. We searched for cases in files of different hospitals as well as a thorough search of the English language literature. The diagnosis of NMC is made by demonstration of NUT rearrangement either by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found three previously published cases, and in this series add four cases of our own. NMC consists of monomorphic, often discohesive, cells with an epithelioid appearance and distinct nucleoli. The tumours typically show abrupt squamous differentiation. The mean age of the patients was 34 years, hence significantly lower than that for conventional laryngeal carcinoma. All tumours were located in the supraglottis and five patients died of the disease after 3, 7, 8, 9 and 11 months. Laryngeal NMC may be underdiagnosed, and an increased awareness among pathologists is warranted. NMC has characteristic morphological features, and positive immunostaining with the NUT antibody is diagnostic. Its aggressive behaviour demands a very intense treatment strategy and the need for its recognition is emphasized further by new promising treatment strategies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Long-term bonded retention after closure of maxillary midline diastema. (United States)

    Moffitt, Allen H; Raina, Jasleen


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate fixed bonded palatal surface retainers between the maxillary central incisors that were placed to maintain midline diastema closure and record their longevity, proclivity for damage, and periodontal health of the central incisors in patients 5 or more years after treatment. Twenty-nine subjects were contacted and interviewed by phone concerning the status of their bonded retainer and midline diastema. Eleven subjects with intact retainers came for a periodontal health evaluation of the maxillary central incisors. The measures used were the plaque index, the periodontal screening and recording score, and the gingival index. A split-mouth design was used. Statistical analyses of retainer duration, damage probability, and gingival health were performed. Of the 29 subjects, 52% of the initial retainers were in place for an average of 23 years. For the total of 34 bonded retainers, the mean longevity was 17 years. The risk of breakage for any particular year the retainer was in place was 2%. The mean differences in scores between the maxillary central incisors and the control teeth were -0.06 for the plaque index, -0.14 for the periodontal screening and recording score, and -0.11 for the gingival index. Statistical tests on the differences indicated no evidence that the long-term presence of the bonded palatal surface retainer adversely affected the periodontal health of the maxillary central incisors. The study's sample demonstrated that a bonded retainer for maintaining closure of a maxillary midline diastema can last an average of 17 years or more, with a yearly 2% chance of breakage and with no expected adverse effects on the periodontal health of the maxillary central incisors. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superior interhemispheric approach for midline meningioma from the anterior cranial base. (United States)

    Lévêque, S; Derrey, S; Martinaud, O; Gérardin, E; Langlois, O; Fréger, P; Hannequin, D; Castel, H; Proust, F


    For suprasellar meningioma, the fronto-basal exposure is considered the standard approach. The superior interhemispheric (IH) approach is less described in the literature. To assess the surgical complications, functional outcome (visual, olfaction), morbidity and mortality rates and late recurrence, after resection by superior IH approach of midline skull base meningioma. Between 1998 and 2008, 52 consecutive patients with midline meningioma on the anterior portion of the skull base (mean age: 63.8 ± 13.1; sex ratio F/M: 3.7) were operated on via the superior IH approach. After a mean follow-up of 56.9 ± 32.9 months, an independent neurosurgeon proposed a prospective examination of functional outcome to each patient, as well as a visual and olfactory function assessment. Fifty-two patients were divided into a group with olfactory groove meningioma (n=34) and another with tuberculum sellae meningioma (n=18). The outcome was characterized by postoperative complications in 13 patients (25%), mortality rate in two (3.8%) and long-term morbidity at in 17 (37%) of 50 surviving patients. Based on multivariate analysis, no prognosis factor was significant as regards the favorable outcome. The mean postoperative KPS score (86.6 ± 9.4) was significantly improved. However, dysexecutive syndrome was observed in four patients (8%), hyposmia-anosmia in 34 (68%) and visual acuity deteriorated in one (2%). The superior IH approach could be considered a safe anteriorly orientated midline approach for removal OGM and TSM meningioma. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Midline body actions and leftward spatial Aiming in patients with spatial neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eChaudhari


    Full Text Available Spatial motor-intentional Aiming bias is a dysfunction in initiation/execution of motor intentional behavior, resulting in hypokinetic and hypometric leftward movements. Aiming bias may contribute to posture, balance and movement problems and uniquely account for disability in post-stroke spatial neglect. Body movement may modify and even worsen Aiming errors, but therapy techniques such as visual scanning training do not take this into account. Here, we evaluated 1 whether instructing neglect patients to move midline body parts improves their ability to explore left space, and 2 whether this has a different impact on different patients. A 68-year-old woman with spatial neglect after a right basal ganglia infarct had difficulty orienting to and identifying left-sided objects. She was prompted with four instructions: look to the left, point with your nose to the left, point with your [right] hand to the left, and stick out your tongue and point it to the left. She oriented leftward dramatically better when pointing with the tongue/nose, than she did when pointing with the hand. We then tested 9 more consecutive patients with spatial neglect using the same instructions. Only four of them made any orienting errors. Only one patient made >50% errors when pointing with the hand, and she did not benefit from pointing with the tongue/nose. We observed that pointing with the tongue could facilitate left-sided orientation in a stroke survivor with spatial neglect. If midline structures are represented more bilaterally, they may be less affected by Aiming bias. Alternatively, moving the body midline may be more permissive for leftward orienting than moving right body parts. We were not able to replicate this effect in another patient; we suspect that the magnitude of this effect may depend upon the degree to which patients have directional akinesia, spatial Where deficits, or cerebellar/frontal cortical lesions. Future research could examine these

  18. Frontal midline theta rhythm and gamma power changes during focused attention on mental calculation: an MEG beamformer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryouhei eIshii


    Full Text Available Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fmθ appears widely distributed over medial prefrontal areas in EEG recordings, indicating focused attention. Although mental calculation is often used as an attention-demanding task, little has been reported on calculation-related activation in Fmθ experiments. In this study we used spatially filtered MEG and permutation analysis to precisely localize cortical generators of the magnetic counterpart of Fmθ, as well as other sources of oscillatory activity associated with mental calculation processing (i.e., arithmetic subtraction. Our results confirmed and extended earlier EEG/MEG studies indicating that Fmθ during mental calculation is generated in the dorsal anterior cingulate and adjacent medial prefrontal cortex. Mental subtraction was also associated with gamma event-related synchronization, as an index of activation, in right parietal regions subserving basic numerical processing and number-based spatial attention. Gamma event-related desynchronization appeared in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, likely representing a mechanism to interrupt neural activity that can interfere with the ongoing cognitive task.

  19. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng


    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  20. High Resolution Orthoimagery = Orthorectified Metro Areas: 2000 - Present (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution orthorectified images combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An orthoimage is a...

  1. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir R. Brunetto


    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  2. Body schema and midline sensation influenced by unilateral manual stimulation of lower extremity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Barth, Lasse; Skeie, Sindre

    healthy young people has an effect on the weight distribution between the two legs in a standing position. Even though a general effect of massage has been observed, the more local and specific effects on postural control are not as evident. In the present study, however, a local effect on the postural...... alignment was seen as a response to unilateral massage. It may be suggested, that the manipulated midline sensation and weight distribution reflects a state in which the participant's attention to a greater extent has been directed towards a specific body part due to the manual sensory stimulation. Impact...

  3. Condyloma-like squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: report of two midline cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma SB


    Full Text Available Shyam B Verma,1 Uwe Wollina21Nirvana Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, GermanyAbstract: Vulvar cancer is uncommon and may be confused with genital condylomata. We report two cases of middle-aged women presenting with exophytic vulvar tumors of the midline for which diagnosis of a vulvar squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed by histopathology. Risk factors, staging, and treatment options are discussed.Keywords: condyloma, human papillomavirus (HPV, squamous cell carcinoma, surgery, vulva

  4. Hypohyperdontia: Agenesis of three third molars and mandibular centrals associated with midline supernumerary tooth in mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula


    Full Text Available Agenesis of teeth in a patient who also presents with a supernumerary tooth is one of the rare numerical anomalies in human dentition. Agenesis of third molars was shown to be associated with other missing permanent teeth. A review of literature on hypodontia including third molar agenesis, hyperdontia and a concomitant presence of these two conditions which is termed as hypohyperdontia is presented along with a case showing agenesis of three third molars, both mandibular central incisors and a midline supernumerary tooth.

  5. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Sharvit


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection andaccurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. Thesystem comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installedon a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition wepresent the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a townsituated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primarypurpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960.A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid was created revealing theanomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a correspondingferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of thecrashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of theactual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  6. Data sources on landscape structure in a highly industrialized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Kinga


    Full Text Available Landscape may be described as a part of space characterized by a certain physiognomy, which is a dynamic system subject to evolution. An important factor influencing the type and condition of the landscape is human activity which shapes or rebuilds its structure. Interesting results may be obtained on comparison of archival cartographic materials with contemporary studies and zoning plans. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is a region with a clearly transformed landscape. The determinant of the geographical environment transformation here is the anthropogenic factor. The study area includes the upper part of the Kłodnica catchment (229.6 sq km. The study is a review, and its aim is to systematize data sources used in the research on the transformation of landscape structure of a heavily industrialized area. In the first half of the nineteenth century created the "Urmesstischblätter" in the scale of 1:25 000. Afterwards preparations began to take new topographic images of the country (the "Messtischblätter". In the 1990s initiated the development of a new topographic map (in the scale of 1:10 000. Recent data source is for example the project CORINE Land Cover 2006. There are many of various sources of data on land cover. An important aspect is the proper selection of documents and maps, and their proper interpretation.

  7. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)


    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Spherical Silica-titania Aerogel Beads with High Surface Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yu-xi


    Full Text Available The silica-titania aerogel beads were synthesized through sol-gel reaction followed by supercritical drying, in which TEOS and TBT as co-precursors, EtOH as solvents, HAC and NH3·H2O as catalysts. The as-prepared aerogel beads were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,FT-IR,TG-DTA and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The results indicate that the diameter distribution of beads are between 1-8mm, the average diameter of beads is 3.5mm. The aerogel beads have nanoporous network structure with high specific surface area of 914.5m2/g, and the TiO2 particles are distributed in the aerogel uniformly, which keep the anatase crystal under high temperature.

  9. Cultivation of microalgae in a high irradiance area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.


    Microalgae are a promising source of high-value products (i.e. carotenoids, ω-3 fatty acids), as well as feedstocks for food, bulk chemicals and biofuels. Industrial production is, however, still limited because the technology needs further development. One of the main bottlenecks is

  10. Line Laser as an Assistance for Facial and Dental Midlines Evaluation in Single-Splint Orthognathic Surgery. (United States)

    Yu, Chung-Chih; Chen, Yu-Ray; Lin, James Cheng-Yi


    Coincidence of facial and dental midlines is one of the important goals in orthognathic-orthodontic treatment to achieve optimum facial aesthetics and good occlusal functions. Tools assisting diagnosis of facial midline are usually ruler or dental floss. These tools are usually hand held and hinder the global sight required in facial evaluation. Line laser device projects a steady narrow laser line and is commonly used in construction and carpentry to replace traditional chalk line tool. The authors take the advantages of line laser and incorporate it into facial evaluation in the authors' practice of single-splint orthognathic surgery.During June 2013 to May 2015, the authors used line laser device to evaluate facial and dental midlines in 28 patients of facial asymmetry requiring orthognathic surgery during consultation in office and intraoperative evaluation. The details of integrating this device to practice are described. All the patients showed improved facial symmetry and coincidence of facial and dental midlines after operation. Postoperative orthodontics were finished smoothly.Line laser is available from general utility stores and is safe to use according to laser safety regulation. From the authors' experiences, it is burden free to apply in facial and dental midlines evaluation and improves the practice.

  11. Facial morphology and growth following surgery for congenital midline cervical cleft patients. (United States)

    Fan, Y; Matthews, H; Kilpatrick, N; Claes, P; Clement, J; Penington, A


    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare condition that consists of a cutaneous midline neck lesion with a sinus extending inferiorly towards the sternum. A fibrous band that extends superiorly to the mandible is a consistent feature of the condition. Restriction of growth of the mandible, possibly due to incomplete removal of the band, is the most significant long-term problem. It remains unclear whether early removal of the fibrous band might allow catch-up growth of the mandible. This study utilized non-invasive three-dimensional photographs to objectively evaluate the facial growth of six CMCC patients. The growth of these CMCC patients was compared to the average growth of age- and sex-matched controls from a database of three-dimensional facial photographs of clinically normal subjects. After surgical removal of the fibrous cord, CMCC patients experience growth in the chin at the same rate as in the normal population; no evidence was found for catch-up growth. As a result, individuals with CMCC are likely to require further surgical intervention to correct the residual retrognathia on completion of facial growth. Early excision of the lesion including aggressive resection of the fibrous band is still recommended, as this should optimize the early growth of the mandible in infancy. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical evaluation of direct composite restoration done for midline diastema closure – long-term study (United States)

    Prabhu, R.; Bhaskaran, S.; Geetha Prabhu, K. R.; Eswaran, M. A.; Phanikrishna, G.; Deepthi, B.


    Purpose of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically the performance of composite resin used to restore midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Methodology: Direct composite restorations were done for 45 patients with midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Standard protocols were followed for the placement of composite resin for the diastema closure, and recall visits were made for every 6 months for a period of 60 months for evaluation of the success of these restorations made. Qualified dental personnel examined the restorations made. Results: Clinical evaluations were done after the restorations had been in place for an average of 6 months. Results indicate that none of the restorations were totally lost, and resulting in a 91% overall retention rate for the period of 60 months. About 62% of the restorations made had no noticeable color difference with that of the adjacent tooth, and gingival health indicated 73% of the sample was without any signs of inflammation. Conclusions: Composites restored for diastemas exhibit satisfactory survival rates placed with recommended placement protocols and without occlusal loading. PMID:26538917

  13. Clinical evaluation of direct composite restoration done for midline diastema closure - long-term study. (United States)

    Prabhu, R; Bhaskaran, S; Geetha Prabhu, K R; Eswaran, M A; Phanikrishna, G; Deepthi, B


    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically the performance of composite resin used to restore midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Direct composite restorations were done for 45 patients with midline diastema between the maxillary and mandibular central incisors. Standard protocols were followed for the placement of composite resin for the diastema closure, and recall visits were made for every 6 months for a period of 60 months for evaluation of the success of these restorations made. Qualified dental personnel examined the restorations made. Clinical evaluations were done after the restorations had been in place for an average of 6 months. Results indicate that none of the restorations were totally lost, and resulting in a 91% overall retention rate for the period of 60 months. About 62% of the restorations made had no noticeable color difference with that of the adjacent tooth, and gingival health indicated 73% of the sample was without any signs of inflammation. Composites restored for diastemas exhibit satisfactory survival rates placed with recommended placement protocols and without occlusal loading.

  14. The safe zone for blinded sternal interventions based on CT evaluation of midline congenital sternal foramina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boruah, Deb K.; Dhingani, Dhaval D.; Achar, Shashidhar; Augustine, Antony; Mahanta, Kangkana [Assam Medical College and Hospital, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Dibrugarh, Assam (India); Prakash, Arjun [NIMHANS, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Yadav, Rajnikant R. [Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute and Medical Sciences, Department of Radio-diagnosis, Lucknow (India)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safe zone for performing blind sternal procedures based on computed tomography (CT) evaluation of congenital midline sternal foramina using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). This retrospective study was carried out on 1,180 patients who underwent MDCT of the thorax from March 2015 to February 2016. The MDCT images were evaluated in axial and reformatted planes. Morphometry and prevalence of midline congenital sternal foramina (SF) and manubrio-foraminal distance (MFD) were evaluated. The safe zone was defined for a blinded intervention, based on palpable anatomical landmarks. Data were presented in terms of percentage, mean ± standard deviation and calculations were carried out using Microsoft Excel. The prevalence of SF in our study sample was 11.6 %. The majority of SF were located in a typical position in the lower sternal body at the level of fifth costo-chondral junction (CCJ) in 108 patients (78.8 %). The structure directly beneath the SF was mediastinal fat in 73 patients (53.3 %), followed by anterior pericardium in 44 patients (32.1 %) and lung parenchyma in 20 patients (14.6 %). The mean MFD in our study population was 11.90 ± 1.31 cm. Sternal interventions should be avoided at the level of fourth to sixth CCJ, which is considered the danger zone. An intervention at the fourth to sixth CCJ may lead to disastrous consequences in patients who have SF. (orig.)

  15. Zebrafish Rfx4 controls dorsal and ventral midline formation in the neural tube. (United States)

    Sedykh, Irina; Keller, Abigail N; Yoon, Baul; Roberson, Laura; Moskvin, Oleg V; Grinblat, Yevgenya


    Rfx winged-helix transcription factors, best known as key regulators of core ciliogenesis, also play ciliogenesis-independent roles during neural development. Mammalian Rfx4 controls neural tube morphogenesis via both mechanisms. We set out to identify conserved aspects of rfx4 gene function during vertebrate development and to establish a new genetic model in which to analyze these mechanisms further. To this end, we have generated frame-shift alleles in the zebrafish rfx4 locus using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis. Using RNAseq-based transcriptome analysis, in situ hybridization and immunostaining we identified a requirement for zebrafish rfx4 in the forming midlines of the caudal neural tube. These functions are mediated, least in part, through transcriptional regulation of several zic genes in the dorsal hindbrain and of foxa2 in the ventral hindbrain and spinal cord (floor plate). The midline patterning functions of rfx4 are conserved, since rfx4 regulates transcription of foxa2 and zic2 in zebrafish and in mouse. In contrast, zebrafish rfx4 function is dispensable for forebrain morphogenesis, while mouse rfx4 is required for normal formation of forebrain ventricles in a ciliogenesis-dependent manner. Collectively, this report identifies conserved aspects of rfx4 function and establishes a robust new genetic model for in-depth dissection of these mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Outcomes and Complications of the Midline Anterior Approach 3 Years after Lumbar Spine Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charla R. Fischer


    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new questionnaire to assess outcomes related to the midline anterior lumbar approach and to identify risk factors for negative patient responses. Methods. A retrospective review of 58 patients who underwent anterior lumbar surgery at a single institution for either degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis in 2009 was performed. The outcome measures included our newly developed Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire (ALSQ, ODI, and EQ-5D. Results. There were 58 patients available for followup, 27 women and 31 men. The average age at surgery was 50.8 years, with an average followup of 2.92 years. The average change in ODI was 34.94 (22.7 and EQ-5D was 0.28 (0.29. The rate of complications with the anterior approach was 10.3% and there was one male patient (3.2% with retrograde ejaculation. Determination of the effectiveness of the new ALSQ revealed that it significantly correlated to the EQ-5D and ODI (P<0.05. Smoking was associated with a negative response on thirteen questions. BMP use was not associated with a negative response on any sexual function questions. Conclusions. Our new Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire determines patient perceived complications related to the midline anterior lumbar surgical approach.

  17. High-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) with a fibrous morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek


    Fibrous nanosilica: A new family of high-surface-area silica nanospheres (KCC-1) have been prepared (see picture). KCC-1 features excellent physical properties, including high surface area, unprecedented fibrous surface morphology, high thermal (up to 950 °C) and hydrothermal stabilities, and high mechanical stability. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High and far: biases in the location of protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas N Joppa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: About an eighth of the earth's land surface is in protected areas (hereafter "PAs", most created during the 20(th century. Natural landscapes are critical for species persistence and PAs can play a major role in conservation and in climate policy. Such contributions may be harder than expected to implement if new PAs are constrained to the same kinds of locations that PAs currently occupy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitatively extending the perception that PAs occupy "rock and ice", we show that across 147 nations PA networks are biased towards places that are unlikely to face land conversion pressures even in the absence of protection. We test each country's PA network for bias in elevation, slope, distances to roads and cities, and suitability for agriculture. Further, within each country's set of PAs, we also ask if the level of protection is biased in these ways. We find that the significant majority of national PA networks are biased to higher elevations, steeper slopes and greater distances to roads and cities. Also, within a country, PAs with higher protection status are more biased than are the PAs with lower protection statuses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In sum, PAs are biased towards where they can least prevent land conversion (even if they offer perfect protection. These globally comprehensive results extend findings from nation-level analyses. They imply that siting rules such as the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Target [to protect 10% of all ecoregions] might raise PA impacts if applied at the country level. In light of the potential for global carbon-based payments for avoided deforestation or REDD, these results suggest that attention to threat could improve outcomes from the creation and management of PAs.

  19. Maxillary Expansion and Midline Correction by Asymmetric Transverse Distraction Osteogenesis in a Patient With Unilateral Cleft Lip/Palate: A Case Report. (United States)

    Shintaku, Yuko; Tanikawa, Chihiro; Iida, Seiji; Aikawa, Tomonao; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamashiro, Takashi


    This case report presents the management of a female patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate presenting with skeletal Class III malocclusion and a narrow upper dental arch with a midline deviation. The treatment plan involved asymmetric transverse distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla to make the upper dental midline coincident with the facial midline. After the treatment, a good facial profile and a close intercuspation of teeth were achieved. Occlusion remained stable with normal overjet and overbite after 2-year retention.

  20. Anterior midline point stop device (AMPS) in the treatment of myogenous TMDs: comparison with the stabilization splint and control group. (United States)

    Al Quran, Firas A M; Kamal, Mudar S


    Two occlusal splints, the full-arch stabilization splint and the anterior midline point stop (AMPS) device, were evaluated for their efficiency in relieving myogenous temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and fourteen patients with myogenous TMD were distributed into 3 groups. The first group was treated with the AMPS device, the second with the stabilization splint, and the third group was the control group. Pain intensity was scored using the visual analogue scale before treatment and 1 month and 3 months after treatment. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Chicago, Ill) and multiple comparisons tests were used to compare results before and after treatment and to compare the groups. The use of AMPS device in the first group resulted in a significant improvement after 1 month and 3 months (P < or = .001) and showed a 56.66% pain reduction. A significant improvement was also noticed in the second group (P = .001) with a 47.71% pain reduction. Although pain reduction percentage appeared more in the first group, this was not statistically significant. There was a highly significant difference between groups treated with both kinds of splints and the control group. It was concluded that both types of occlusal splints are beneficial to patients with myogenous TMD.

  1. Dendritic targeting in the leg neuropil of Drosophila: the role of midline signalling molecules in generating a myotopic map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Brierley


    Full Text Available Neural maps are emergent, highly ordered structures that are essential for organizing and presenting synaptic information. Within the embryonic nervous system of Drosophila motoneuron dendrites are organized topographically as a myotopic map that reflects their pattern of innervation in the muscle field. Here we reveal that this fundamental organizational principle exists in adult Drosophila, where the dendrites of leg motoneurons also generate a myotopic map. A single postembryonic neuroblast sequentially generates different leg motoneuron subtypes, starting with those innervating proximal targets and medial neuropil regions and producing progeny that innervate distal muscle targets and lateral neuropil later in the lineage. Thus the cellular distinctions in peripheral targets and central dendritic domains, which make up the myotopic map, are linked to the birth-order of these motoneurons. Our developmental analysis of dendrite growth reveals that this myotopic map is generated by targeting. We demonstrate that the medio-lateral positioning of motoneuron dendrites in the leg neuropil is controlled by the midline signalling systems Slit-Robo and Netrin-Fra. These results reveal that dendritic targeting plays a major role in the formation of myotopic maps and suggests that the coordinate spatial control of both pre- and postsynaptic elements by global neuropilar signals may be an important mechanism for establishing the specificity of synaptic connections.

  2. Modulators of axonal growth and guidance at the brain midline with special reference to glial heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bilaterally symmetric organisms need to exchange information between the left and right sides of their bodies to integrate sensory input and to coordinate motor control. Thus, an important choice point for developing axons is the Central Nervous System (CNS midline. Crossing of this choice point is influenced by highly conserved, soluble or membrane-bound molecules such as the L1 subfamily, laminin, netrins, slits, semaphorins, Eph-receptors and ephrins, etc. Furthermore, there is much circumstantial evidence for a role of proteoglycans (PGs or their glycosaminoglycan (GAG moieties on axonal growth and guidance, most of which was derived from simplified models. A model of intermediate complexity is that of cocultures of young neurons and astroglial carpets (confluent cultures obtained from medial and lateral sectors of the embryonic rodent midbrain soon after formation of its commissures. Neurite production in these cocultures reveals that, irrespective of the previous location of neurons in the midbrain, medial astrocytes exerted an inhibitory or non-permissive effect on neuritic growth that was correlated to a higher content of both heparan and chondroitin sulfates (HS and CS. Treatment with GAG lyases shows minor effects of CS and discloses a major inhibitory or non-permissive role for HS. The results are discussed in terms of available knowledge on the binding of HSPGs to interative proteins and underscore the importance of understanding glial polysaccharide arrays in addition to its protein complement for a better understanding of neuron-glial interactions.

  3. Antagonistic interactions in the zebrafish midline prior to the emergence of asymmetric gene expression are important for left–right patterning (United States)

    Grimes, Daniel T.


    Left–right (L-R) asymmetry of the internal organs of vertebrates is presaged by domains of asymmetric gene expression in the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) during somitogenesis. Ciliated L-R coordinators (LRCs) are critical for biasing the initiation of asymmetrically expressed genes, such as nodal and pitx2, to the left LPM. Other midline structures, including the notochord and floorplate, are then required to maintain these asymmetries. Here we report an unexpected role for the zebrafish EGF-CFC gene one-eyed pinhead (oep) in the midline to promote pitx2 expression in the LPM. Late zygotic oep (LZoep) mutants have strongly reduced or absent pitx2 expression in the LPM, but this expression can be rescued to strong levels by restoring oep in midline structures only. Furthermore, removing midline structures from LZoep embryos can rescue pitx2 expression in the LPM, suggesting the midline is a source of an LPM pitx2 repressor that is itself inhibited by oep. Reducing lefty1 activity in LZoep embryos mimics removal of the midline, implicating lefty1 in the midline-derived repression. Together, this suggests a model where Oep in the midline functions to overcome a midline-derived repressor, involving lefty1, to allow for the expression of left side-specific genes in the LPM. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821532

  4. Change in frequency of the maxillary midline diastema appearing in photographs of Caucasian females in two fashion magazines from 2003 to 2012. (United States)

    Lewis, Kylie C; Sherriff, Martyn; Stewart Denize, E


    To ascertain if there has been a change in the frequency of appearance of maxillary midline diastema in two leading women's fashion magazines over a decade. Two observers counted the frequency of maxillary midline diastema that appeared in Caucasian female models featured in British Vogue and Glamour (UK). An increase in the frequency of maxillary midline diastema appearing in both publications was observed between 2003 and 2012. This change may indicate an increase in the acceptance of the maxillary midline diastema, which may in turn, influence orthodontic and aesthetic dentistry treatment planning. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  5. Cigarette availability and price in low and high socioeconomic areas. (United States)

    Dalglish, Emma; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Dobson, Annette; Gartner, Coral


    To determine whether tobacco retailer density and cigarette prices differ between low and high socioeconomic status suburbs in South-East Queensland. A survey of retail outlets selling cigarettes was conducted in selected suburbs over a two-day period. The suburbs were identified by geographical cluster sampling based on their Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage score and size of retail complex within the suburb. All retail outlets within the suburb were visited and the retail prices for the highest ranking Australian brands were recorded at each outlet. A significant relationship was found between Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage score (in deciles) and the number of tobacco retail outlets (r=0.93, p=0.003), with the most disadvantaged suburbs having a greater number of tobacco retailers. Results also demonstrate that cigarettes were sold in a broader range of outlets in suburbs of low SES. The average price of the packs studied was significantly lower in the most disadvantaged suburbs compared to the most advantaged. While cigarettes were still generally cheaper in the most disadvantaged suburbs, the difference was no longer statistically significant when the average price of cigarette packs was compared according to outlet type (supermarket, newsagent, etc). In South-East Queensland, cigarettes are more widely available in the most disadvantaged suburbs and at lower prices than in the most advantaged suburbs. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. 78 FR 41195 - Fund Availability Under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Fund Availability Under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... announcing the availability of funds under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas. This Notice contains information concerning the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural...

  7. Transoral robotic surgery vs. endoscopic partial midline glossectomy for obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Folk


    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sleep-related outcomes in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS patients following base of tongue resection via robotic surgery and endoscopic midline glossectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective study. A total of 114 robotic and 37 endoscopic midline glossectomy surgeries were performed between July 2010 and April 2015 as part of single or multilevel surgery. Patients were excluded for indications other than sleep apnea or if complete sleep studies were not obtained. Thus, 45 robotic and 16 endoscopic surgeries were included in the analysis. Results: In the robotic surgery group there were statistically significant improvements in AHI [(44.4 ± 22.6 events/h–(14.0 ± 3.0 events/h, P < 0.001] Epworth Sleepiness Scale (12.3 ± 4.6 to 4.5 ± 2.9, P < 0.001, and O2 nadir (82.0% ± 6.1% to 85.0% ± 5.4%, P < 0.001. In the endoscopic group there were also improvements in AHI (48.7 ± 30.2 to 27.4 ± 31.9, P = 0.06, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (12.6 ± 5.5 to 8.3 ± 4.5, P = 0.08, and O2 nadir (80.2% ± 8.6% to 82.7% ± 6.5%, P = 0.4. Surgical success rate was 75.6% and 56.3% in the robotic and endoscopic groups, respectively. Greater volume of tissue removed was predictive of surgical success in the robotic cases (10.3 vs. 8.6 ml, P = 0.02. Conclusions: Both robotic surgery and endoscopic techniques for tongue base reduction improve objective measures of sleep apnea. Greater success rates may be achieved with robotic surgery compared to traditional methods. Keywords: Sleep surgery, Transoral robotic surgery, TORS, Midline glossectomy, Partial glossectomy, Posterior glossectomy

  8. [Diencephalic cyst--in relation to other midline dysraphism (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Osaka, K; Sato, N; Ohbora, Y; Tamaki, N; Matsumoto, S


    The abnormal midline cyst of diencephalic origin was termed "diencephalic cyst" by Brocklehurst in 1973. Since then, several case reports of so-called "diencephalic cyst" have appeared, but its clinical picture, especially its relation to other midline dysraphisms, does not seem to be well understood. Our experience with four cases of so-called "diencephalic cyst" were reported and their relation to holoprosencephaly as well as simple agenesis of corpus callosum was discussed. (1) In all of these cases, there was an abnormal space in the midline which freely communicated with the lateral ventricle. In the first two cases, their clinical pictures as well as the features of contrast studies were typical of alobar holoprosencephaly. In the third case, the absence of the olfactory tract, the incompletely separated cerebrum, and the monoventricle were confirmed at autopsy. In the last case, the ventricle was also incompletely separated. From these observations, such a malformation should better be considered as a variant of holoprosencephaly, and it would not be appropriate to classify this malformation, as Brocklehurst claimed, as "a maldevelopment lying between the group associated with anterior neuropore closure and prosencephalization (anterior encephaloceles and holoprosencephaly) and the group associated with maldevelopment of the hind brain (cerebellar and fourth ventricle encephaloceles and Dandy-Walker cyst of the rhombencephalon)." (2) This malformation is apparently formed before the 40 mm stage of the embryo, since by this time the diencephalic roof has already sunk to the level of the adult form. This maldevelopment should be clearly differenciated from simple agenesis of the corpus callosum which is formed after the 60 mm stage of the embryo. In simple agenesis of the corpus callosum, the deep venous system might take an abnormal course, but is well formed, whereas in holoprosencephaly or so-called "diencephalic cyst", the internal cerebral vein as well as

  9. Intensive treatment and survival outcomes in NUT midline carcinoma of the head and neck. (United States)

    Chau, Nicole G; Hurwitz, Shelley; Mitchell, Chelsey M; Aserlind, Alexandra; Grunfeld, Noam; Kaplan, Leah; Hsi, Peter; Bauer, Daniel E; Lathan, Christopher S; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Tishler, Roy B; Haddad, Robert I; Sallan, Stephen E; Bradner, James E; French, Christopher A


    NUT midline carcinoma is a rare and aggressive genetically characterized subtype of squamous cell carcinoma frequently arising from the head and neck. The characteristics and optimal management of head and neck NUT midline carcinoma (HNNMC) are unclear. A retrospective review of all known cases of HNNMC in the International NUT Midline Carcinoma Registry as of December 31, 2014, was performed. Forty-eight consecutive patients were treated from 1993 to 2014, and clinicopathologic variables and outcomes for 40 patients were available for analyses; they composed the largest HNNMC cohort studied to date. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) according to patient characteristics and treatment were analyzed. This study identified a 5-fold increase in the diagnosis of HNNMC from 2011 to 2014. The median age was 21.9 years (range, 0.1-81.7 years); the male and female proportions were 40% and 60%, respectively; and 86% had bromodomain containing 4-nuclear protein in testis (BRD4-NUT) fusion. The initial treatment was initial surgery with or without adjuvant chemoradiation or adjuvant radiation (56%), initial radiation with or without chemotherapy (15%), or initial chemotherapy with or without surgery or radiation (28%). The median PFS was 6.6 months (range, 4.7-8.4 months). The median OS was 9.7 months (range, 6.6-15.6 months). The 2-year PFS rate was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-40%). The 2-year OS rate was 30% (95% CI, 16%-46%). Initial surgery with or without postoperative chemoradiation or radiation (P = .04) and complete resection with negative margins (P = .01) were significant predictors of improved OS even after adjustments for age, tumor size, and neck lymphadenopathy. Initial radiation or chemotherapy and the NUT translocation type were not associated with outcomes. HNNMC portends a poor prognosis. Aggressive initial surgical resection with or without postoperative chemoradiation or radiation is associated with significantly

  10. Midline dural filum of the sellar floor: Its relationship to the septum attachment to the sellar floor and the ossification in the sphenoid sinus. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Iwato, Masayuki; Fukui, Issei; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi


    It is important to identify and maintain a midline orientation during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) for sellar lesions to prevent critical injury to the internal carotid artery. Therefore, the preoperative neuroradiological assessment of the bony structures in the sphenoid sinus, including the septum attachment to the sellar floor and its surrounding structures, is essential. It has been reported that the midline filum of the sellar dura can function as a useful intraoperative orientation guide during ETSS. However, the relationship between the midline dural filum and the intrasinus bony structures, such as the sellar floor, the intrasinus septation and the ossification, remains unclear and the mechanisms underlying development of the midline dural filum have also not yet been explored. This retrospective study included 160 patients undergoing ETSS to assess both the midline dural filum and the intrasinus bony structures, using video recording reviews. The intrasinus septum and the ossification in the sphenoid sinus were evaluated on the computed tomography images of the bone window. A midline dural filum was identified in 66 (41.3%) of 160 patients. Attachment of the septum to the sellar midline was found in 61 (39.4%) of 155 patients, after excluding 5 patients with the conchal type of sphenoid sinus, 55 (90.2%) of 61 patients with a septum on the midline and only 6 (6.4%) of the remaining 94 patients without a septum on the midline had a midline dural filum. The relationship between a midline dural filum and a septum on midline was statistically significant (possification extended over the midline filum. In patients with the sellar type of sphenoid sinus, 49 (36.0%) of 136 had a midline dural filum, meanwhile, 16 (84.2%) of 19 patients with the pre-sellar type (p=0.039) and all 5 patients (100%) with the choncal type harbored a midline dural filum (possification in both the pre-sellar and the conchal type of sphenoid sinus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. Local tissue interactions across the dorsal midline of the forebrain establish CNS laterality. (United States)

    Concha, Miguel L; Russell, Claire; Regan, Jennifer C; Tawk, Marcel; Sidi, Samuel; Gilmour, Darren T; Kapsimali, Marika; Sumoy, Lauro; Goldstone, Kim; Amaya, Enrique; Kimelman, David; Nicolson, Teresa; Gründer, Stefan; Gomperts, Miranda; Clarke, Jonathan D W; Wilson, Stephen W


    The mechanisms that establish behavioral, cognitive, and neuroanatomical asymmetries are poorly understood. In this study, we analyze the events that regulate development of asymmetric nuclei in the dorsal forebrain. The unilateral parapineal organ has a bilateral origin, and some parapineal precursors migrate across the midline to form this left-sided nucleus. The parapineal subsequently innervates the left habenula, which derives from ventral epithalamic cells adjacent to the parapineal precursors. Ablation of cells in the left ventral epithalamus can reverse laterality in wild-type embryos and impose the direction of CNS asymmetry in embryos in which laterality is usually randomized. Unilateral modulation of Nodal activity by Lefty1 can also impose the direction of CNS laterality in embryos with bilateral expression of Nodal pathway genes. From these data, we propose that laterality is determined by a competitive interaction between the left and right epithalamus and that Nodal signaling biases the outcome of this competition.

  12. Oral subcutaneous midline leiomyomatous hamartoma presenting as congenital incisive papilla overgrowth in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Loomba


    Full Text Available Congenital soft-tissue tumors of oral cavity are mostly hyperplastic and benign in nature. This article presents an unusual case of congenital subcutaneous hamartoma of incisive papilla in a 2-year-old female child causing feeding and breathing difficulty. Total excisional biopsy was done under local anesthesia. Histopathology of tissue in reticulin-stained slide showed the presence of immature muscle fibers whereas Masson's trichrome stain revealed collagen fibers and smooth muscles confirming the diagnosis of oral midline subcutaneous smooth muscle (leiomyomatous hamartoma of incisive papilla. It is important for dental professionals to be aware of this oral lesion present from birth mimicking overgrowth of incisive papilla, by its presentation, differential diagnosis, histopathology, and management.

  13. Sectional porcelain veneers for a maxillary midline diastema closure: a case report. (United States)

    Signore, Antonio; Kaitsas, Vassilios; Tonoli, Alessandra; Angiero, Francesca; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Benedicenti, Stefano


    Diastema closure is a frequently requested, technique-sensitive cosmetic procedure. There are many techniques and materials that can be employed to close diastemas. While direct composite techniques can be economical and successful, they do present challenges in achieving satisfactory clinical and esthetic results. Traditional porcelain veneer placement may offer an excellent esthetic result, but typically requires the removal of tooth structure; as such, this is an irreversible procedure. The present article reports the case of a maxillary midline diastema closure in a healthy dentition by means of sectional porcelain veneers simply cemented onto the natural teeth and without tooth preparation. A step-bystep procedure is proposed for illustrating the proper implementation of an additive-only and noninvasive indirect technique that yields a satisfactory clinical and esthetic outcome for clinician and patient.

  14. Snorting the clivus away: an extreme case of cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion. (United States)

    Molteni, Marco; Saibene, Alberto Maria; Luciano, Ketty; Maccari, Alberto


    Cocaine is a drug with relevant socioeconomic and clinical implications, which is usually recreationally used for its stimulant effects. It is widely known that the habit of snorting cocaine is associated with a peculiar type of drug-induced chronic rhinitis, which leads to inflammation of the sinonasal mucosa, slowly progressing to a destruction of nasal, palatal and pharyngeal tissues. These characteristic lesions due to cocaine abuse are commonly called cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions (CIMDL). Diagnosis is not always straightforward, since various conditions, mainly vasculitis, might mimic this acquired condition. The extent of pharyngeal involvement varies, although often a prolonged abuse can trigger a progressive destruction of oral and nasal tissues, with development of infections and recurrent inflammation. Our article focuses on cocaine as a world health problem with important ear, nose and throat implications and discusses the difficulties in diagnosing and treating CIMDL, through a case report. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Lumbar total disc arthroplasty: coronal midline definition and optimal TDA placement. (United States)

    Marshman, Laurence A G; Friesem, Tai; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Le Huec, Jean-Charles; Krishna, Manoj; Reddy, Guru R


    It is a general principle with arthroplasty insertion that precise implant centering is critical for long term function and outcome. Whilst some authors have proclaimed that lumbar total disc arthroplasty (TDA) may be different, and that off -centre placement may be functionally well tolerated, these claims are premature: significantly worse clinical results have already been reported with poorly placed TDA at 2 years. Accurate TDA placement requires a precise and consistent definition of the desired coronal midline target (which is currently lacking), as well as a procedural mechanism to optimize placement at that target. We summarize our experience, as well as others', in achieving these two requirements. Long-term outcomes after lumbar TDA insertion should only be compared with results from fusion where TDAs have been implanted accurately.

  16. Self-regulation of frontal-midline theta facilitates memory updating and mental set shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert


    Full Text Available Frontal-midline (fm theta oscillations as measured via the electroencephalogram (EEG have been suggested as neural working language of executive functioning. Their power has been shown to increase when cognitive processing or task performance is enhanced. Thus, the question arises whether learning to increase fm-theta amplitudes would functionally impact the behavioral performance in tasks probing executive functions (EFs. Here, the effects of neurofeedback, a learning method to self-up-regulate fm-theta over frontal-midline electrodes, on the four most representative EFs, memory updating, set shifting, conflict monitoring, and motor inhibition are presented. Before beginning and after completing an individualized, eight-session gap-spaced neurofeedback intervention, the three-back, letter/number task-switching, Stroop, and stop-signal tasks were tested while measuring the EEG. Self-determined up-regulation of fm-theta and its putative role for executive functioning were compared to an active control group, the so-called pseudo-neurofeedback group. Task-related fm-theta activity after training differed significantly between groups. More importantly, though, after neurofeedback significantly enhanced behavioral performance was observed. The training group showed higher accuracy scores in the three-back task and reduced mixing and shifting costs in letter/number task-switching. However, this specific protocol type did not affect performance in tasks probing conflict monitoring and motor inhibition. Thus, our results suggest a modulation of proactive but not reactive mechanisms of cognitive control. In sum, the modulation of fm-theta via neurofeedback may serve as potent treatment approach for executive dysfunctions.

  17. Teaching Reading in High School: Improving Reading in Content Areas. Third Edition. (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Designed for prospective and practicing secondary school teachers, this volume examines several aspects of reading in the content areas: the general reading problem in high schools, the development of programs for reading in specific subject areas, the psychology of reading instruction in the content areas, the improvement of diagnostic teaching,…



    J. Brauchle; D. Hein; R. Berger


    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glacie...

  19. Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng


    Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

  20. A forkhead Transcription Factor Is Wound-Induced at the Planarian Midline and Required for Anterior Pole Regeneration (United States)

    Scimone, M. Lucila; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Reddien, Peter W.


    Planarian regeneration requires positional information to specify the identity of tissues to be replaced as well as pluripotent neoblasts capable of differentiating into new cell types. We found that wounding elicits rapid expression of a gene encoding a Forkhead-family transcription factor, FoxD. Wound-induced FoxD expression is specific to the ventral midline, is regulated by Hedgehog signaling, and is neoblast-independent. FoxD is subsequently expressed within a medial subpopulation of neoblasts at wounds involving head regeneration. Ultimately, FoxD is co-expressed with multiple anterior markers at the anterior pole. Inhibition of FoxD with RNA interference (RNAi) results in the failure to specify neoblasts expressing anterior markers (notum and prep) and in anterior pole formation defects. FoxD(RNAi) animals fail to regenerate a new midline and to properly pattern the anterior blastema, consistent with a role for the anterior pole in organizing pattern of the regenerating head. Our results suggest that wound signaling activates a forkhead transcription factor at the midline and, if the head is absent, FoxD promotes specification of neoblasts at the prior midline for anterior pole regeneration. PMID:24415944

  1. Facts and myths regarding the maxillary midline frenum and its treatment : a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Sculean, Anton; Katsaros, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M.

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the current literature on the maxillary midline frenum and associated conditions and complications, as well as the recommended treatment options. METHOD AND MATERIALS: A detailed MEDLINE database search was carried out to provide evidence about the epidemiology,

  2. A forkhead transcription factor is wound-induced at the planarian midline and required for anterior pole regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lucila Scimone


    Full Text Available Planarian regeneration requires positional information to specify the identity of tissues to be replaced as well as pluripotent neoblasts capable of differentiating into new cell types. We found that wounding elicits rapid expression of a gene encoding a Forkhead-family transcription factor, FoxD. Wound-induced FoxD expression is specific to the ventral midline, is regulated by Hedgehog signaling, and is neoblast-independent. FoxD is subsequently expressed within a medial subpopulation of neoblasts at wounds involving head regeneration. Ultimately, FoxD is co-expressed with multiple anterior markers at the anterior pole. Inhibition of FoxD with RNA interference (RNAi results in the failure to specify neoblasts expressing anterior markers (notum and prep and in anterior pole formation defects. FoxD(RNAi animals fail to regenerate a new midline and to properly pattern the anterior blastema, consistent with a role for the anterior pole in organizing pattern of the regenerating head. Our results suggest that wound signaling activates a forkhead transcription factor at the midline and, if the head is absent, FoxD promotes specification of neoblasts at the prior midline for anterior pole regeneration.

  3. Midline submental orotracheal intubation in maxillofacial injuries: A substitute to tracheostomy where postoperative mechanical ventilation is not required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malti Agrawal


    Conclusion: There were no significant operative or postoperative complications. Postoperative submental scarring was acceptable [6] . We conclude that midline submental intubation is a simple and useful technique with low morbidity. It can be chosen in selected cases of maxillofacial trauma and is an excellent substitute to tracheostomy where postoperative mechanical ventilation is not required.

  4. Incisional hernia recurrence following 'vest-over-pants' or vertical mayo repair of primary hernias of the midline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Luijendijk; M.H.M. Lemmen (M. H M); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.C.J. Wereldsma


    textabstractA series of 68 primary midline incisional hernias with a vertical Mayo repair was evaluated retrospectively. Patients without documented hernia recurrence following this repair were invited for physical examination. Life- table methods were used for statistical analysis. The 1-, 3-, 5-,

  5. Freeze and Thaw States Detection in High Latitude Inundated Areas Using High Resolution ALOS PALSAR Observations (United States)

    Azarderakhsh, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Prakash, S.


    Inundated surfaces in Northern latitudes experience freeze and thaw (FT) cycles seasonally. These surfaces are among the important sources of positive carbon and methane (CH4) feedback to the atmosphere as well as their crucial role in biogeochemical transitions, hydrology and prediction of boreal-arctic ecosystem. Wetlands, in particular, are the regions that contribute mostly as a CH4 source. In the past, remote sensing observations from satellites have shown a great potential capability in detecting freeze and thaw states of the surfaces especially in remote areas. Active and passive microwave observations are shown to be more sensitive to the change of surface state and are more promissing than other observations because they are less affected by the atmosphere. Active microwave measurements such as the Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array L-Band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) can provide a viable higher resolution estimates of the inundated surfaces and their states than those from passive microwave brightness temperatures with coarser and higher temporal observations. Therefore, the link between active and passive estimates may potentially enhance our understanding with the advantages of higher spatial and temporal predictions. In this study, we utilize PALSAR ScanSAR mode data with more frequent temporal coverage of up to 40 days along with the static map dervied from Fine Beam Data to study the timing of the inundation for wetland classes as well as their FT states using data from year 2007 to 2010 period. A pixel-based and object oriented-based classification methods to derive freeze/thaw maps is applied. The dynamic inundation maps then are developed at 100 m resolution. JERS and PALSAR Fine Beam mode based static wetlands map and Landsat Based land cover data (NLCD) are used to train and assess the classification at high resolution along with other ancillary data sets. The developed thresholds are employed for the FT detection. Comparison of the results

  6. Role of dispersants of oil on copepods in high arctic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Kim; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Møller, Eva Friis


    The purpose of the project is to increase the knowledge on the effects of using dispersants on oil spills in high arctic areas: more precisely, to investigate accumulation in and effects on high arctic copepods. Such knowledge is crucial for performing a robust net environmental benefit analysis...... prior to making a decision as to whether or not dispersant may be allowed as an operational oil spill response in high arctic sea areas....

  7. Shape change in the atlas with congenital midline non-union of its posterior arch: a morphometric geometric study. (United States)

    Ríos, Luis; Palancar, Carlos; Pastor, Francisco; Llidó, Susana; Sanchís-Gimeno, Juan Alberto; Bastir, Markus


    The congenital midline non-union of the posterior arch of the atlas is a developmental variant present at a frequency ranging from 0.7% to 3.9%. Most of the reported cases correspond to incidental findings during routine medical examination. In cases of posterior non-union, hypertrophy of the anterior arch and cortical bone thickening of the posterior arches have been observed and interpreted as adaptive responses of the atlas to increased mechanical stress. We sought to determine if the congenital non-union of the posterior arch results in a change in the shape of the atlas. This study is an analysis of the first cervical vertebrae from osteological collections through morphometric geometric techniques. A total of 21 vertebrae were scanned with a high-resolution three-dimensional scanner (Artec Space Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg). To capture vertebral shape, 19 landmarks and 100 semilandmarks were placed on the vertebrae. Procrustes superimposition was applied to obtain size and shape data (MorphoJ 1.02; Klingenberg, 2011), which were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and mean shape comparisons. The PCA resulted in two components explaining 22.32% and 18.8% of the total shape variance. The graphic plotting of both components indicates a clear shape difference between the control atlas and the atlas with posterior non-union. This observation was supported by statistically significant differences in mean shape comparisons between both types of vertebra (patlas is associated with significant changes in the shape of the vertebra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Lead exposure of people living in a lead high exposure area from local diet]. (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; He, Liping; Huang, Xiao; He, Junshan


    To study the lead exposure of people living in a lead high exposure area from local diet, and to assess its health risks. Thirty five subjects were selected by random from a mining area and another 30 subjects were selected from a non-polluted area. The exposure of lead was estimated by the content of lead in drinking water and vegetables, and health risks was estimated by the levels of lead in blood and urine. The content of lead in drinking water and vegetables in the mining area was 20.6 microg/L and 1.61mg/kg (geometric mean) respectively, which were higher than that in the unpolluted area (6.0 microg/L and 0.56 mg/kg, geometric mean) (P area from diet was 16.88 microg/kg and 16.09 microg/kg respectively, which was higher than that in the unpolluted area (P 0.05). Blood lead and urine lead of inhabitants in the mining-area were higher than those in the unpolluted area. The health risks for male and female inhabitants in the mining area were 4.73 and 4.51. The health risks of lead exposure caused by diet (drinking water and food) were relatively high in the mining area.

  9. Reducing microbial contamination in storm runoff from high use areas on California coastal dairies. (United States)

    Lewis, D J; Atwill, E R; Lennox, M S; Pereira, M D G; Miller, W A; Conrad, P A; Tate, K W


    High use areas are a fundamental part of California coastal dairies and grazing livestock ranches as feeding areas, nurseries, and sick pens. High stocking densities and daily use in these areas lead to soil surfaces devoid of vegetation and covered in manure, with high potential for manure transport during winter rains to receiving waters regulated for shellfish harvesting and recreation. We characterized the association between California's Mediterranean climate and a series of existing and proposed management practices on fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) transport from high use areas on dairies and ranches. Results from 351 storm runoff samples collected below 35 high-use areas indicate that removal of cattle during winter, locating high use areas on level ground, application of straw and seeding, and vegetative buffer strip implementation were significantly associated with FCB concentration and load reductions. These results complement our findings for reductions of specific pathogens in runoff from these areas. These findings have practical significance because they document surface water quality benefits that the studied management practices provide in application on working farms and ranches. This direction is critical and timely for on-farm management efforts seeking to reduce microbial pollution in runoff and comply with indicator bacteria water quality criteria.

  10. Determining high touch areas in the operating room with levels of contamination. (United States)

    Link, Terri; Kleiner, Catherine; Mancuso, Mary P; Dziadkowiec, Oliwier; Halverson-Carpenter, Katherine


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention put forth the recommendation to clean areas considered high touch more frequently than minimal touch surfaces. The operating room was not included in these recommendations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently touched surfaces in the operating room and their level of contamination. Phase 1 was a descriptive study to identify high touch areas in the operating room. In phase 2, high touch areas determined in phase 1 were cultured to determine if high touch areas observed were also highly contaminated and if they were more contaminated than a low touch surface. The 5 primary high touch surfaces in order were the anesthesia computer mouse, OR bed, nurse computer mouse, OR door, and anesthesia medical cart. Using the OR light as a control, this study demonstrated that a low touch area was less contaminated than the high touch areas with the exception of the OR bed. Based on information and data collected in this study, it is recommended that an enhanced cleaning protocol be established based on the most frequently touched surfaces in the operating room. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kalam's visit to cement Indo-Swiss ties in high tech area

    CERN Multimedia

    Sumir, Paul


    Seeking to boost Indo-Swiss cooperation in high tech areas, President APJ Abdul Kalam arrived in Geneva on a four-day visit to Switzerland aimed at firming up plans for future cooperation with the CERN

  12. Calcareous plankton high resolution bio-magnetostratigraphy for the Langhian of the mediterranean area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stefano, A.; Foresi, L.M.; Lirer, F.; Iaccarino, S.M.; Turco, E.; Amore, F.O.; Mazzei, R.; Morabito, S.; Salvatorini, G.; Aziz, H.A.


    High-resolution quantitative and qualitative analyses of the planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannofossil content have been carried out on three Middle Miocene sections, from the Mediterranean area. Such sections (Cretaccio section, Tremiti Islands, Southern Italy; Moria section, Marche Region,

  13. Cell lineage of the midline cells in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana (Crustacea, Malacostraca) during formation and separation of the germ band. (United States)

    Gerberding, M; Scholtz, G


    Cell lineages of identified midline cells were traced in the amphipod Orchestia cavimana (Crustacea, Malacostraca) by in vivo labelling. Midline cells are a common phenomenon in the germ band of crustaceans and insects. Studies in midline cells of Drosophila showed an origin from separate, paired anlagen and a differentiation into three types of cells. The in vivo labelling of midline cells of Orchestia demonstrates that they originate from the same material as the neural and epidermal ectoderm, divide in a stereotyped cell division pattern and give rise to at least two different types of cells. During the following evolutionarily derived mode of germ band elongation in Orchestia, a morphogenetic process is intercalated that separates germ band halves. On the level of single cells, it can be shown that midline cells are the only ectodermal cells that bridge the large distance between the separated parts. The cells are stretched extensively but do not proliferate. Comparing the midline cells of Orchestia with non-malacostracan crustaceans and insects, the results favour the hypothesis that midline cells are a distinct population of cells homologous in crustaceans and insects.

  14. Effects of a transdermal lidocaine patch on indicators of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing midline ovariohysterectomy. (United States)

    Merema, Danielle K; Schoenrock, Emily K; Le Boedec, Kevin; McMichael, Maureen A


    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of a transdermal lidocaine patch (TLP) on indicators of postoperative pain in healthy dogs following ovariohysterectomy. DESIGN Randomized, blinded controlled trial. ANIMALS 40 healthy shelter-owned female dogs admitted to a student surgery program for ovariohysterectomy. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive after ovariohysterectomy a 5-cm-wide strip of TLP applied topically on both sides of the incision, for the full length of the incision and a wound dressing (n = 19) or a placebo patch (nonmedicated wound dressing; 21). All dogs underwent midline ovariohysterectomy. Immediately afterward, dogs received 2 IM morphine injections, carprofen (SC, q 12 h for 2 days), and the assigned patch (left in place for 18 hours). Postoperative comfort was evaluated by use of the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measures Pain Scale and serum cortisol concentrations measured prior to premedication and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 hours after surgery. RESULTS No significant difference in pain scores or serum cortisol concentrations was identified between dogs that received the TLP and dogs that received a placebo patch after ovariohysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The TLP provided no additional analgesic benefit to dogs treated concurrently with recommended doses of morphine and carprofen following ovariohysterectomy. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether similar results might be achieved in dogs treated concurrently with other analgesics. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:1140-1147).

  15. Systematic Kinase Inhibitor Profiling Identifies CDK9 as a Synthetic Lethal Target in NUT Midline Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Brägelmann


    Full Text Available Kinase inhibitors represent the backbone of targeted cancer therapy, yet only a limited number of oncogenic drivers are directly druggable. By interrogating the activity of 1,505 kinase inhibitors, we found that BRD4-NUT-rearranged NUT midline carcinoma (NMC cells are specifically killed by CDK9 inhibition (CDK9i and depend on CDK9 and Cyclin-T1 expression. We show that CDK9i leads to robust induction of apoptosis and of markers of DNA damage response in NMC cells. While both CDK9i and bromodomain inhibition over time result in reduced Myc protein expression, only bromodomain inhibition induces cell differentiation and a p21-induced cell-cycle arrest in these cells. Finally, RNA-seq and ChIP-based analyses reveal a BRD4-NUT-specific CDK9i-induced perturbation of transcriptional elongation. Thus, our data provide a mechanistic basis for the genotype-dependent vulnerability of NMC cells to CDK9i that may be of relevance for the development of targeted therapies for NMC patients.

  16. Negative affectivity, self-referential processing and the cortical midline structures. (United States)

    Lemogne, Cédric; Gorwood, Philip; Bergouignan, Loretxu; Pélissolo, Antoine; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Fossati, Philippe


    The neural bases of the association between negative affectivity and self-focus remain unknown in healthy subjects. Building on the role of the cortical midline structures (CMS) in self-referential processing, we hypothesized that negative affectivity in healthy subjects would be associated with an increased activation of the CMS during self-referential processing. We presented positive and negative pictures to 45 healthy subjects during fMRI and asked them to judge whether the pictures were related to themselves or not (self condition), or whether the pictures were positive or negative (general condition). Negative affectivity was measured by the level of harm avoidance (HA) with the Temperament and Character Inventory. Self-referential processing activated the CMS, including the dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). A higher HA score was associated with a greater activation of the dorsal MPFC and PCC during self-referential processing, this greater activation being more pronounced for negative pictures in the dorsal MPFC. This increased activation of the CMS may embody the association between negative affectivity and self-focus in healthy subjects, as previously observed in major depression. Within the CMS, the dorsal MPFC may play a key role in negative affectivity, integrating an increased attention to negative stimuli with an increased attention to the self.

  17. The morphology of midcingulate cortex predicts frontal-midline theta neurofeedback success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eEnriquez-Geppert


    Full Text Available Humans differ in their ability to learn how to control their own brain activity by neurofeedback. However, neural mechanisms underlying these inter-individual differences, which may determine training success and associated cognitive enhancement, are not well understood. Here, it is asked whether neurofeedback success of frontal-midline (fm theta, an oscillation related to higher cognitive functions, could be predicted by the morphology of brain structures known to be critically involved in fm-theta generation. Nineteen young, right-handed participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of T1-weighted brain images, and took part in an individualized, eight-session neurofeedback training in order to learn how to enhance activity in their fm-theta frequency band. Initial training success, measured at the second training session, was correlated with the final outcome measure. We found that the inferior, superior and middle frontal cortices were not associated with training success. However, volume of the midcingulate cortex as well as volume and concentration of the underlying white matter structures act as predictor variables for the general responsiveness to training. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical foundation for the ability to learn to control one’s own brain activity.

  18. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation (United States)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.


    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical

  19. High-Temperature-Short-Time Annealing Process for High-Performance Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells. (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Oh, Kyoung Suk; Jo, Yimhyun; Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Ka-Hyun; Lee, Heon; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Suk


    Organic-inorganic hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are attracting tremendous research interest due to their high solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency with a high possibility of cost-effective fabrication and certified power conversion efficiency now exceeding 22%. Although many effective methods for their application have been developed over the past decade, their practical transition to large-size devices has been restricted by difficulties in achieving high performance. Here we report on the development of a simple and cost-effective production method with high-temperature and short-time annealing processing to obtain uniform, smooth, and large-size grain domains of perovskite films over large areas. With high-temperature short-time annealing at 400 °C for 4 s, the perovskite film with an average domain size of 1 μm was obtained, which resulted in fast solvent evaporation. Solar cells fabricated using this processing technique had a maximum power conversion efficiency exceeding 20% over a 0.1 cm2 active area and 18% over a 1 cm2 active area. We believe our approach will enable the realization of highly efficient large-area PCSs for practical development with a very simple and short-time procedure. This simple method should lead the field toward the fabrication of uniform large-scale perovskite films, which are necessary for the production of high-efficiency solar cells that may also be applicable to several other material systems for more widespread practical deployment.

  20. Relationship Model Between Nightlight Data and Floor Area Ratio from High Resolution Images (United States)

    Yan, M.; Xu, L.


    It is a hotpot that extraction the floor area ratio from high resolution remote sensing images. It is a development trend of using nightlight data to survey the urban social and economic information. This document aims to provide a conference relationship model for VIIRS/NPP nightlight data and floor Area Ratio from High Resolution ZY-3 Images. It shows that there is a lineal relationship between the shadow and the floor area ratio, and the R2 is 0.98. It shows that there is a quadratic polynomial relationship between the floor area ratio and the nightlight, and the R2 is 0.611. We can get a conclusion that, VIIRS/NPP nightlights data may show the floor area ratio in an extent at level of administrative street.

  1. Complex Multiplexing of Reward-Cue- and Licking-Movement-Related Activity in Single Midline Thalamus Neurons. (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; Lindemann, Christoph; Goddard, Matthew J; Hyland, Brian I


    Midline thalamus is implicated in linking visceral and exteroceptive sensory information with behavior. However, whether neuronal activity is modulated with temporal precision by cues and actions in real time is unknown. Using single-neuron recording and a Pavlovian visual-cue/liquid-reward association task in rats, we discovered phasic responses to sensory cues, appropriately timed to modify information processing in output targets, as well as tonic modulations within and between trials that were differentially reward modulated, which may have distinct arousal functions. Many of the cue-responsive neurons also responded to repetitive licks, consistent with sensorimotor integration. Further, some lick-related neurons were activated only by the first rewarded lick and only if that lick were also part of a conditioned response sequence initiated earlier, consistent with binding action decisions to their ensuing outcome. This rich repertoire of responses provides electrophysiological evidence for midline thalamus as a site of complex information integration for reward-mediated behavior. Disparate brain circuits are involved in sensation, movement, and reward information. These must interact in order for the relationships between cues, actions, and outcomes to be learned. We found that responses of single neurons in midline thalamus to sensory cues are increased when associated with reward. This output may amplify similar signals generated in parallel by the dopamine system. In addition, some neurons coded a three-factor decision in which the neuron fired only if there was a movement, if it was the first one after the reward becoming available, and if it was part of a sequence triggered in response to a preceding cue. These data highlight midline thalamus as an important node integrating multiple types of information for linking sensation, actions, and rewards. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363567-12$15.00/0.

  2. Ephrin-B reverse signaling controls septation events at the embryonic midline through separate tyrosine phosphorylation-independent signaling avenues. (United States)

    Dravis, Christopher; Henkemeyer, Mark


    We report that the disruption of bidirectional signaling between ephrin-B2 and EphB receptors impairs morphogenetic cell-cell septation and closure events during development of the embryonic midline. A novel role for reverse signaling is identified in tracheoesophageal foregut septation, as animals lacking the cytoplasmic domain of ephrin-B2 present with laryngotracheoesophageal cleft (LTEC), while both EphB2/EphB3 forward signaling and ephrin-B2 reverse signaling are shown to be required for midline fusion of the palate. In a third midline event, EphB2/EphB3 are shown to mediate ventral abdominal wall closure by acting principally as ligands to stimulate ephrin-B reverse signaling. Analysis of new ephrin-B2(6YFΔV) and ephrin-B2(ΔV) mutants that specifically ablate ephrin-B2 tyrosine phosphorylation- and/or PDZ domain-mediated signaling indicates there are at least two distinct phosphorylation-independent components of reverse signaling. These involve both PDZ domain interactions and a non-canonical SH2/PDZ-independent form of reverse signaling that may utilize associations with claudin family tetraspan molecules, as EphB2 and activated ephrin-B2 molecules are specifically co-localized with claudins in epithelia at the point of septation. Finally, the developmental phenotypes described here mirror common human midline birth defects found with the VACTERL association, suggesting a molecular link to bidirectional signaling through B-subclass Ephs and ephrins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chick CFC controls Lefty1 expression in the embryonic midline and nodal expression in the lateral plate. (United States)

    Schlange, T; Schnipkoweit, I; Andrée, B; Ebert, A; Zile, M H; Arnold, H H; Brand, T


    Members of the EGF-CFC family of proteins have recently been implicated as essential cofactors for Nodal signaling. Here we report the isolation of chick CFC and describe its expression pattern, which appears to be similar to Cfc1 in mouse. During early gastrulation, chick CFC was asymmetrically expressed on the left side of Hensen's node as well as in the emerging notochord, prechordal plate, and lateral plate mesoderm. Subsequently, its expression became confined to the heart fields, notochord, and posterior mesoderm. Implantation experiments suggest that chick CFC expression in the lateral plate mesoderm is dependent on BMP signaling, while in the midline its expression depends on an Activin-like signal. The asymmetric expression domain within Hensen's node was not affected by application of FGF8, Noggin, or Shh antibody. Implantation of cells expressing human or mouse CFC2, or chick CFC on the right side of Hensen's node randomized heart looping without affecting expression of genes involved in left-right axis formation, including SnR, Nodal, Car, or Pitx2. Application of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to the midline of Hamburger-Hamilton stage 4-5 embryos also randomized heart looping, but in contrast to the overexpression experiments, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment resulted in bilateral expression of Nodal, Car, Pitx2, and NKX3.2, whereas Lefty1 expression in the midline was transiently lost. Application of the antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to the lateral plate mesoderm abolished Nodal expression. Thus, chick CFC seems to have a dual function in left-right axis formation by maintaining Nodal expression in the lateral plate mesoderm and controlling expression of Lefty1 expression in the midline territory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. The midline protein regulates axon guidance by blocking the reiteration of neuroblast rows within the Drosophila ventral nerve cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ann Manavalan

    Full Text Available Guiding axon growth cones towards their targets is a fundamental process that occurs in a developing nervous system. Several major signaling systems are involved in axon-guidance, and disruption of these systems causes axon-guidance defects. However, the specific role of the environment in which axons navigate in regulating axon-guidance has not been examined in detail. In Drosophila, the ventral nerve cord is divided into segments, and half-segments and the precursor neuroblasts are formed in rows and columns in individual half-segments. The row-wise expression of segment-polarity genes within the neuroectoderm provides the initial row-wise identity to neuroblasts. Here, we show that in embryos mutant for the gene midline, which encodes a T-box DNA binding protein, row-2 neuroblasts and their neuroectoderm adopt a row-5 identity. This reiteration of row-5 ultimately creates a non-permissive zone or a barrier, which prevents the extension of interneuronal longitudinal tracts along their normal anterior-posterior path. While we do not know the nature of the barrier, the axon tracts either stall when they reach this region or project across the midline or towards the periphery along this zone. Previously, we had shown that midline ensures ancestry-dependent fate specification in a neuronal lineage. These results provide the molecular basis for the axon guidance defects in midline mutants and the significance of proper specification of the environment to axon-guidance. These results also reveal the importance of segmental polarity in guiding axons from one segment to the next, and a link between establishment of broad segmental identity and axon guidance.

  5. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection for unilateral cervical radiculopathy: Comparison of midline and paramedian approaches for efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Young; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoon, Young Cheol [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Seok [School of Business Administration, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of the cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) for unilateral radiculopathy by the midline or paramedian approaches and to determine the prognostic factors of CIESI. We retrospectively analyzed 182 patients who underwent CIESI from January 2009 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were no previous spinal steroid injection, presence of a cross-sectional image, and presence of follow-up records. Exclusion criteria were patients with bilateral cervical radiculopathy and/or dominant cervical axial pain, combined peripheral neuropathy, and previous cervical spine surgery. Short-term clinical outcomes were evaluated at the first follow-up after CIESI. We compared the clinical outcomes between the midline and paramedian approaches. Possible prognostic factors for the outcome, such as age, gender, duration of radiculopathy, and cause of radiculopathy were also analyzed. Cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections were effective in 124 of 182 patients (68.1%) at the first follow-up. There was no significant difference in the clinical outcomes of CIESI, between midline (69.6%) and paramedian (63.7%) approaches (p = 0.723). Cause of radiculopathy was the only significant factor affecting the efficacy of CIESI. Patients with disc herniation had significantly better results than patients with neural foraminal stenosis (82.9% vs. 56.0%) (p < 0.001). There is no significant difference in treatment efficacy between the midline and paramedian approaches in CIESI, for unilateral radiculopathy. The cause of the radiculopathy is significantly associated with the treatment efficacy; patients with disc herniation experience better pain relief than those with neural foraminal stenosis.

  6. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform (United States)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.


    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  7. Covariation between midline cranial base, lateral basicranium, and face in modern humans and chimpanzees: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis. (United States)

    Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Ducrocq, Stéphane


    Previous studies showed that in modern humans the basicranium is formed of two modules: the midline cranial base and the lateral basicranium which are integrated with the face in very different ways. The study of the relationship between these structures is of prime interest in the context of hominids craniofacial evolutionary history. In this study, we aim to test if the relationship between the midline cranial base and the face on one hand and the lateral basicranium and the face on the other hand are qualitatively and quantitatively different in modern humans and chimpanzees: two phylogenetically close but morphologically different hominids. This work is performed using three-dimensional (3D) landmarks to take into account the face and basicranium 3D shape. Modern humans and chimpanzees both exhibit a significant relationship between lateral basicranium and face, and a nonsignificant relationship between midline cranial base and face. However, the patterns of integration are different for the two species. These results underscore the essential role of the lateral basicranial shape in the setting of the facial morphology in modern humans and chimpanzees. The important differences in the patterns of integration may be related to the genetic, developmental, and functional requirements of each taxon, acquired along their respective evolution. From a common, tight, relationship between lateral basicranium, and face, each taxon may develop different patterns of integration in order to adapt to particular functions and morphologies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Totally endoscopic surgery on diastasis recti associated with midline hernias. The advantages of a minimally invasive approach. Prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Bellido Luque, Juan; Bellido Luque, A; Valdivia, J; Suarez Gráu, J M; Gomez Menchero, J; García Moreno, J; Guadalajara Jurado, J


    To evaluate prospectively the feasibility and the duration of the plication of both aponeurosis through a totally endoscopic approach to the diastasis recti associated with midline hernias, correcting both pathologies simultaneously and objectively looking at their advantages and complications. The prospective cohort study included patients suffering from midline hernias equal to or bigger than 2 cm size and associated diastasis recti, from April 2011 to October 2012. Full endoscopic subcutaneous approach is used to perform the surgery. An ultrasound scan was carried out to identify inter-rectus distances and recurrences in xiphoid, 3 cm supraumbilical and 2 cm subumbilical locations. A total of 21 patients were included in the study, with a mean follow-up of 20 months. The main complication was seroma. A significant reduction in the average distance between the rectus muscles was shown before surgery and at 1 month postoperative measures in all three locations (p diastasis recti is surgically corrected. Totally endoscopic approach to diastasis recti associated with midline hernias is a feasible and reproducible method. It brings considerable esthetic advantages. Diastasis or hernia recurrences in medium term follow-up have not been observed. Diastasis greater than 6-7 cm or associated with severe musculoaponeurotic laxity of the abdominal wall could benefit from the use of reinforced prosthesis.

  9. Remotely sensed high resolution irrigated area mapping in India for 2000 to 2015 (United States)

    Ambika, Anukesh Krishnankutty; Wardlow, Brian; Mishra, Vimal


    India is among the countries that uses a significant fraction of available water for irrigation. Irrigated area in India has increased substantially after the Green revolution and both surface and groundwater have been extensively used. Under warming climate projections, irrigation frequency may increase leading to increased irrigation water demands. Water resources planning and management in agriculture need spatially-explicit irrigated area information for different crops and different crop growing seasons. However, annual, high-resolution irrigated area maps for India for an extended historical record that can be used for water resources planning and management are unavailable. Using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and 56 m land use/land cover data, high-resolution irrigated area maps are developed for all the agroecological zones in India for the period of 2000-2015. The irrigated area maps were evaluated using the agricultural statistics data from ground surveys and were compared with the previously developed irrigation maps. High resolution (250 m) irrigated area maps showed satisfactory accuracy (R2=0.95) and can be used to understand interannual variability in irrigated area at various spatial scales.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-T. Hsieh


    Full Text Available The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40 is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  11. Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Mejia, Jorge [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira de; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Fazan, Rubens Jr.; Salgado, Hélio Cesar [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth [Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Simões, Marcus Vinícius, E-mail: [Divisão de Cardiologia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)


    Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

  12. Very high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran: preliminary biological studies. (United States)

    Ghiassi-nejad, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Cameron, J R; Niroomand-rad, A; Karam, P A


    People in some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, receive an annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation that is up to 260 mSv y(-1), substantially higher than the 20 mSv y(-1) that is permitted for radiation workers. Inhabitants of Ramsar have lived for many generations in these high background areas. Cytogenetic studies show no significant differences between people in the high background compared to people in normal background areas. An in vitro challenge dose of 1.5 Gy of gamma rays was administered to the lymphocytes, which showed significantly reduced frequency for chromosome aberrations of people living in high background compared to those in normal background areas in and near Ramsar. Specifically, inhabitants of high background radiation areas had about 56% the average number of induced chromosomal abnormalities of normal background radiation area inhabitants following this exposure. This suggests that adaptive response might be induced by chronic exposure to natural background radiation as opposed to acute exposure to higher (tens of mGy) levels of radiation in the laboratory. There were no differences in laboratory tests of the immune systems, and no noted differences in hematological alterations between these two groups of people.

  13. Structural alterations in lateral prefrontal, parietal and posterior midline regions of men with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Eckart, Cindy; Stoppel, Christian; Kaufmann, Jörn; Tempelmann, Claus; Hinrichs, Hermann; Elbert, Thomas; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana


    So far, the neural network associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been suggested to mainly involve the amygdala, hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. However, increasing evidence indicates that cortical regions extending beyond this network might also be implicated in the pathophysiology of PTSD. We aimed to investigate PTSD-related structural alterations in some of these regions. We enrolled highly traumatized refugees with and without (traumatized controls) PTSD and nontraumatized controls in the study. To increase the validity of our results, we combined an automatic cortical parcellation technique and voxel-based morphometry. In all, 39 refugees (20 with and 19 without PTSD) and 13 controls participated in the study. Participants were middle-aged men who were free of psychoactive substances and consumed little to no alcohol. Patients with PTSD (and to a lesser extent traumatized controls) showed reduced volumes in the right inferior parietal cortex, the left rostral middle frontal cortex, the bilateral lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the bilateral isthmus of the cingulate. An influence of cumulative traumatic stress on the isthmus of the cingulate and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex indicated that, at least in these regions, structural alterations might be associated with repeated stress experiences. Voxel-based morphometry analyses produced largely consistent results, but because of a poorer signal-to-noise ratio, conventional statistics did not reach significance. Although we controlled for several important confounding variables (e.g., sex, alcohol abuse) with our particular sample, this might limit the generalizibility of our data. Moreover, high comorbidity of PTSD and major depression hinders a definite separation of these conditions in our findings. Finally, the results concerning the lateral orbito frontal cortex should be interpreted with caution, as magnetic resonance imaging acquisition in this region is affected by a general

  14. Intraperitoneal mesh devices for small midline hernias: mesh behavior in a porcine model. (United States)

    Reynvoet, E; Chiers, K; Van Overbeke, I; Troisi, R; Berrevoet, F


    Although clinical data on long-term efficacy are lacking, the use of self-expanding devices for intraperitoneal placement in the management of small midline hernias has been popularized. In the present experimental study, two different devices were investigated regarding tissue ingrowth, adhesion formation and solid mesh placement. Two devices of 4.3 cm diameter, one ePTFE-containing small pore polypropylene mesh (PP/ePTFE) and a multi-layered large-pore polypropylene patch with an oxidized cellulose anti-adhesive barrier (PP/ORC), both containing a self-deployment system, were placed intraperitoneally at the linea alba of 24 female pigs. A first laparoscopy was performed to evaluate mesh positioning against the abdominal wall. 1 (n = 6), 2 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6) and 12 weeks (n = 6) later, mesh appearance was inspected and adhesion formation was assessed. All meshes were excised for histological evaluation. Folding of the patch was more frequently observed at PP/ePTFE, yet no excessive cupping was noticed. Adhesions predominantly presented at short-term evaluation. Overall adhesion formation at all samples was significantly more extensive for PP/ORC (p = 0.048). Massive shrinkage was observed for PP/ORC: after a 12-week period 22% residual surface was preserved, compared to 83% for PP/ePTFE (p < 0.001). While at short-term inflammatory reaction was comparable, at long-term PP/ORC induced a significant more pronounced inflammatory and foreign body reaction. Although a strong deployment system provides adequate initial placement, shrinkage and excessive adhesion formation are much more prominent in the large-pore multi-layered restorbable devices compared to the ePTFE patch. This might influence long-term clinical outcome and caution seems warranted.

  15. Microbial Carbon Substrate Utilization Differences among High- and Average-Yield Soybean Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Adams


    Full Text Available Since soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr. yields greater than 6719 kg ha−1 have only recently and infrequently been achieved, little is known about the soil microbiological environment related to high-yield soybean production. Soil microbiological properties are often overlooked when assessing agronomic practices for optimal production. Therefore, a greater understanding is needed regarding how soil biological properties may differ between high- and average-yielding areas within fields. The objectives of this study were to (i evaluate the effects of region on soil microbial carbon substrate utilization differences between high- (HY and average-yield (AY areas and (ii assess the effect of yield area on selected microbiological property differences. Replicate soil samples were collected from the 0–10 cm depth from yield-contest-entered fields in close proximity that had both a HY and an AY area. Samples were collected immediately prior to or just after soybean harvest in 2014 and 2015 from each of seven geographic regions within Arkansas. Averaged across yield area, community-level carbon substrate utilization and Shannon’s and Simpson’s functional diversity and evenness were greater (p < 0.05 in Region 7 than all other regions. Averaged across regions, Shannon’s functional diversity and evenness were greater (p < 0.05 in HY than in AY areas. Principal component analysis demonstrated that a greater variety of carbon substrates were used in HY than AY areas. These results may help producers understand the soil microbiological environment in their own fields that contribute to or hinder achieving high-yielding soybeans; however, additional parameters may need to be assessed for a more comprehensive understanding of the soil environment that is associated with high-yielding soybean.

  16. The Identification of Technology Platforms and Innovation Areas with High Regional Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Urbančíková


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the process of identification of the technological platforms and innovation areas with high regional impact. The aim is to discover future fields of technological innovation which are having a high qualitative and quantitative demand of high potentials. The research has been undertaken within project Innovative Development of European Areas by fostering transnational Knowledge Development – IDEA/ 2CE1175P1 funded by Central Europe Programme. The aim of IDEA project is the development of an adequate strategy which enables the small and medium sized enterprises in the regions of Central Europe to face the increasing demand of high potentials with tested methods and instruments. The target group of IDEA project are so called “high potentials” in the engineering and scientific sector where future-oriented technologies are one of the main sources of innovation.

  17. LTE Micro-cell Deployment for High-Density Railway Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José


    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro......-cell radio deployments reach overload, especially in high-density areas, such as major train stations. In this paper, an LTE micro-cell deployment is investigated in high-density railway areas. Copenhagen Main Station is considered as a realistic deployment study case, with a set of relevant railway...

  18. The investigation of ground temperatures in high mountain areas using IButtons (United States)

    Fiddes, Joel; Gubler, Stefanie; Gruber, Stephan; Hungerbühler, Guido; Knecht, Oliver; Sheikh, Suhel; Keller, Matthias; Beutel, Jan


    Mountain areas are characterized by extreme variability in elevation, exposure to solar radiation and ground material. Many physical processes, that control ground temperatures and thereby permafrost, are highly affected by this variability. An improved understanding of permafrost and related processes in mountain areas therefore requires investigation at high spatial resolutions. The aim of this project is to investigate ground surface temperatures in high mountain areas. We focus on the effects of topography and local ground properties on surface temperatures at high spatial and temporal resolutions. We distributed 390 mini temperature logger IButtons ( at Corvatsch in the Upper Engadin (Switzerland) logging surface temperatures at a 3 hour time step. This distributed network of temperature loggers is planned to operate for 3 years. The programming, distribution and recovery of many IButton devices in high mountain areas is very time-consuming. It requires a systematic recording and storage of relevant metadata such as the geographic coordinates of each IButton as well as other topographic characteristics. To easily handle these requirements and to stream-line field work, we developed an effective working procedure and supporting software to program and read-out IButtons (precision, time resolution, etc.) and to store the temperature measurements in a database together with the relevant metadata. The possibility to connect a GPS device and digital camera to this system makes the recording of meta-data and the reclamation of loggers very efficient. We present the project together with the main tools of the developed software.

  19. Synthesis of Large Area Graphene for High Performance in Flexible Optoelectronic Devices (United States)

    Polat, Emre O.; Balci, Osman; Kakenov, Nurbek; Uzlu, Hasan Burkay; Kocabas, Coskun; Dahiya, Ravinder


    This work demonstrates an attractive low-cost route to obtain large area and high-quality graphene films by using the ultra-smooth copper foils which are typically used as the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. We first compared the electronic transport properties of our new graphene film with the one synthesized by using commonly used standard copper foils in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We observed a stark improvement in the electrical performance of the transistors realized on our graphene films. To study the optical properties on large area, we transferred CVD based graphene to transparent flexible substrates using hot lamination method and performed large area optical scanning. We demonstrate the promise of our high quality graphene films for large areas with ~400 cm2 flexible optical modulators. We obtained a profound light modulation over a broad spectrum by using the fabricated large area transparent graphene supercapacitors and we compared the performance of our devices with the one based on graphene from standard copper. We propose that the copper foils used in the lithium-ion batteries could be used to obtain high-quality graphene at much lower-cost, with the improved performance of electrical transport and optical properties in the devices made from them.

  20. Respiratory allergy in immigrants to a highly industrialised area in Italy according to area of origin and time period. (United States)

    Minetti, S; Raffetti, E; Lodi-Rizzini, F; Facchetti, S; Schlanser, E; Colombo, E; Cinquini, M; Donato, F; Tosoni, C


    Migrants from developing to Western countries tend to become more sensitised to host than to origin country allergens, although substantial changes in migration patterns have occurred in recent decades. We investigated adult immigrants with respiratory allergy, first tested for allergic sensitisation between 1985 and 2012 in a highly industrialised area in Italy. A comparison was made of the sensitisation pattern between immigrants and a random sample of native-born subjects affected by a respiratory allergy, and among immigrants according to macro-region of origin and time period. Between 1985 and 2012, 480 immigrants with respiratory allergy had a first positive allergy test. Immigrants were sensitised mainly to grass (67.1%), house dust mites (HDM) (38.5%) and birch (27.5%), with a pattern of sensitisation very similar to that observed in Italians (native-born). An increase in the proportion of subjects with asthma and of subjects with polysensitisation was observed from the first (1985-2002) to the middle (2003-2007) and the most recent period (2008-2012). In recent years, the proportion of subjects with polysensitisation in immigrants is higher than in Italians (native-born) (53.3% vs. 40.1%). Among immigrants, the risk of sensitisation to grass was higher in those from Sub-Saharan Africa (odds ratio, OR=2.76) and Latin America (OR=2.49), whereas risk of sensitisation to HDM was higher among immigrants from South Asia (OR=2.71), compared to immigrants from Eastern Europe. Immigrants develop multiple sensitisations more frequently than native-born people, and are especially sensitised to local allergens; the country of origin seems to play a role. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. High-Surface-Area Porous Platinum Electrodes for Enhanced Charge Transfer


    Hu Yelin; Yella Aswani; Guldin Stefan; Schreier Marcel; Stellacci Francesco; Grätzel Michael; Stefik Morgan


    Cobalt based electrolytes are highly tunable and have pushed the limits of dye sensitized solar cells enabling higher open circuit voltages and new record effi ciencies. However the performance of these electrolytes and a range of other electrolytes suffer from slow electron transfer at platinum counter electrodes. High surface area platinum would enhance catalysis but pure platinum structures are too expensive in practice. Here a material effi cient host guest architecture is developed that ...

  2. Environmental risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis among cattle in high-risk areas. (United States)

    Winkler, B; Mathews, F


    Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case-control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. COPD prevalence in nonsmokers in high and low photochemical air pollution areas. (United States)

    Hodgkin, J E; Abbey, D E; Euler, G L; Magie, A R


    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms, as ascertained by questionnaire, was evaluated in 6,666 nonsmokers who had lived for at least 11 years in either a high photochemical pollution area (4,379 individuals) or a low photochemical pollution area (2,287 individuals). Of these, 5,178 had never smoked, and none was currently smoking. The risk estimate for "definite" COPD, as defined in this study, was 15 percent higher in the high pollution area (p = 0.03), after adjusting for sex, age, race, education, occupational exposure, and past smoking history. Past smokers had a risk estimate 22 percent higher than never smokers (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed a significant effect of air pollution on the prevalence of "definite" COPD which univariate analysis failed to demonstrate.

  4. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H. [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  5. Utilization of Screw Piles in High Seismicity Areas of Cold and Warm Permafrost (United States)


    This work was performed in support of the AUTC project Utilization of Screw Piles in : High Seismicity Areas of Cold and Warm Permafrost under the direction of PI Dr. Kenan : Hazirbaba. Surface wave testing was performed at 30 sites in the City...

  6. Baseline climatic and hydrologic relationships for the high ridge evaluation area. (United States)

    W. B. Fowler; J. D. Helvey; C. Johnson


    This report summarizes the climatic and hydrologic measurements taken in the High Ridge evaluation area, a four-watershed complex within the Umatilla barometer watershed of eastern Oregon. The information—measurements of water yield; air, soil, and water temperatures; snow depth and density; and wind—is presented to identify the pretreatment condition...

  7. Marine protected areas in the high seas and their impact on international fishing agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.J.; Weikard, H.P.; Ierland, van E.C.


    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are gaining momentum as tools within fisheries management. Although many studies have been conducted to their use and potential, only few authors have considered their use in the High Seas. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fish growth enhancing MPAs on the

  8. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas. (United States)


    ... failure would affect the high consequence area, such as location of the water intake. (h) What actions...). (B) A dent located on the bottom of the pipeline that has any indication of metal loss, cracking or a... than NPS 12). (C) A dent located on the bottom of the pipeline with a depth greater than 6% of the...

  9. Turbostratic boron nitride coated on high-surface area metal oxide templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Brorson, M.


    Boron nitride coatings on high-surface area MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 have been synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction. The metal oxide templates were coated with boron nitride using a simple nitridation in a flow of ammonia starting from ammonium...

  10. B4G local area: high level requirements and system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben; Pajukoski, Kari; Raaf, Bernhard


    A next generation Beyond 4G (B4G) radio access technology is expected to become available around 2020 in order to cope with the exponential increase of mobile data traffic. In this paper, research motivations and high level requirements for a B4G local area concept are discussed. Our suggestions ...

  11. Assessment of hypoxia right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high different altitude areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jin LAI


    Full Text Available Objective To assess hypoxic right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high altitude area. Methods One hundred volunteers who came to Tibet from the low-altitude areas by plane were randomly selected to serve as control group, and another 100 servicemen, who were dispatched from low altitude area to a station in Tibet area 3000m above sea level and got acclimatized to serve as altitude group. The altitude group was divided into altitude group 1 (3000-4000m above sea level, n=67 and altitude group 2 (4000-5500m above sea level, n=33 according to the altitude of the campsite, and also into migration-time group 1 (entered and stationed in Xizang for 1-2 years, n=72 and migration-time group 2 (entered and stationed in Xizang for over 2 years, n=28. The structure and function of the right heart were measured using a portable multi-functional composite echocardiography in a quiescent state, and hypoxic right heart remodeling after high-altitude acclimatization was comprehensively analyzed and assessed. Results Compared with control group, the main manifestations of the subjects in the altitude group were right ventricular and right atrial enlargement, right ventricular wall thickening, aggravation of tricuspid regurgitation, and broadening of pulmonary trunk and branch (P 4000m above sea level than in those who were in the area 2 years, particularly in those for > 5 years, than those who lived there for < 2 years (P < 0.01. Conclusions The altitude and living time in high-altitude are main factors for hypoxic right heart remodeling. Altitude acclimatization is only the adjustment of human body to hypoxic environment. A portable multi-functional composite echocardiography can early and timely assess hypoxic right heart remodeling and it is of important significance for ensuring the health of the serviceman in high-altitude area.

  12. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Groundwater Highly Polluted with Nitrate in an Agricultural Area of Hongseong, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-su Kim


    Full Text Available The hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater, in an area where widespread contamination by nitrate ( NO 3 − was anticipated, were studied using traditional geochemical investigation and multivariate statistical analysis. Widespread NO 3 − contamination as high as 67.2 mg/L as NO3–N was observed, and positively correlated with that for chemicals ( Cl − , major cations with surface origin. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that three processes affected groundwater chemistry of the area: (1 leaching of pollutants from the ground surface; (2 reduction of NO 3 − in areas with low dissolved oxygen (DO; and (3 ingress of low NO 3 − deep groundwater. Five sample groups were identified from cluster analysis, and analysis of land use patterns around each group showed that fate and distribution of NO 3 − contamination were mainly controlled by surface topography and predominant land use type. The highest NO 3 − concentrations were associated with confined livestock feeding operations in hilly terrain areas, where infiltrating water also had high DO. Lower NO 3 − concentrations found in the lowland flat areas were thought to be due to either reducing conditions in rice paddies leading to N attenuation or drawing in of deep groundwater by pumping to meet agricultural needs during periods of low rainfall.

  13. Ambient pressure dried tetrapropoxysilane-based silica aerogels with high specific surface area (United States)

    Parale, Vinayak G.; Han, Wooje; Jung, Hae-Noo-Ree; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Park, Hyung-Ho


    In the present paper, we report the synthesis of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS)-based silica aerogels with high surface area and large pore volume. The silica aerogels were prepared by a two-step sol-gel process followed by surface modification via a simple ambient pressure drying approach. In order to minimize drying shrinkage and obtain hydrophobic aerogels, the surface of the alcogels was modified using trichloromethylsilane as a silylating agent. The effect of the sol-gel compositional parameters on the polymerization of aerogels prepared by TPOS, one of the precursors belonging to the Si(OR)4 family, was reported for the first time. The oxalic acid and NH4OH concentrations were adjusted to achieve good-quality aerogels with high surface area, low density, and high transparency. Controlling the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of the TPOS precursor turned out to be the most important factor to determine the pore characteristics of the aerogel. Highly transparent aerogels with high specific surface area (938 m2/g) and low density (0.047 g/cm3) could be obtained using an optimized TPOS/MeOH molar ratio with appropriate concentrations of oxalic acid and NH4OH.

  14. Health conditions in rural areas with high livestock density: Analysis of seven consecutive years. (United States)

    van Dijk, Christel E; Zock, Jan-Paul; Baliatsas, Christos; Smit, Lidwien A M; Borlée, Floor; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Heederik, Dick; Yzermans, C Joris


    Previous studies investigating health conditions of individuals living near livestock farms generally assessed short time windows. We aimed to take time-specific differences into account and to compare the prevalence of various health conditions over seven consecutive years. The sample consisted of 156,690 individuals registered in 33 general practices in a (rural) area with a high livestock density and 101,015 patients from 23 practices in other (control) areas in the Netherlands. Prevalence of health conditions were assessed using 2007-2013 electronic health record (EHR) data. Two methods were employed to assess exposure: 1) Comparisons between the study and control areas in relation to health problems, 2) Use of individual estimates of livestock exposure (in the study area) based on Geographic Information System (GIS) data. A higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis/bronchiectasis, lower respiratory tract infections and vertiginous syndrome and lower prevalence of respiratory symptoms and emphysema/COPD was found in the study area compared with the control area. A shorter distance to the nearest farm was associated with a lower prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections, respiratory symptoms, asthma, COPD/emphysema, allergic rhinitis, depression, eczema, vertiginous syndrome, dizziness and gastrointestinal infections. Especially exposure to cattle was associated with less health conditions. Living within 500m of mink farms was associated with increased chronic enteritis/ulcerative colitis. Livestock-related exposures did not seem to be an environmental risk factor for the occurrence of health conditions. Nevertheless, lower respiratory tract infections, chronic bronchitis and vertiginous syndrome were more common in the area with a high livestock density. The association between exposure to minks and chronic enteritis/ulcerative colitis remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of high-energy-density supercapacitors from pine-cone-derived high-surface-area carbons. (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Kaliyappan; Amaresh, Samuthirapandiyan; Lee, Sol Nip; Sun, Xueliang; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Young-Gi; Lee, Yun Sung


    Very high surface area activated carbons (AC) are synthesized from pine cone petals by a chemical activation process and subsequently evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications in a nonaqueous medium. The maximum specific surface area of ∼3950 m(2)  g(-1) is noted for the material treated with a 1:5 ratio of KOH to pine cone petals (PCC5), which is much higher than that reported for carbonaceous materials derived from various other biomass precursors. A symmetric supercapacitor is fabricated with PCC5 electrodes, and the results showed enhanced supercapacitive behavior with the highest energy density of ∼61 Wh kg(-1). Furthermore, outstanding cycling ability is evidenced for such a configuration, and ∼90 % of the initial specific capacitance after 20,000 cycles under harsh conditions was observed. This result revealed that the pine-cone-derived high-surface-area AC can be used effectively as a promising electrode material to construct high-energy-density supercapacitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A small subset of protected areas are a highly significant source of carbon emissions (United States)

    Collins, Murray B.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.


    Protected areas (PAs) aim to protect multiple ecosystem services. However, not all are well protected. For the first time, using published carbon and forest loss maps, we estimate carbon emissions in large forest PAs in tropical countries (N = 2018). We found 36 ± 16 Pg C stored in PA trees, representing 14.5% of all tropical forest biomass carbon. However the PAs lost forest at a mean rate of 0.18% yr-1 from 2000-2012. Lower protection status areas experienced higher forest losses (e.g. 0.39% yr-1 in IUCN cat III), yet even highest status areas lost 0.13% yr-1 (IUCN Cat I). Emissions were not evenly distributed: 80% of emissions derived from 8.3% of PAs (112 ± 49.5 Tg CO2 yr-1 n = 171). Unsurprisingly the largest emissions derived from PAs that started with the greatest total forest area; accounting for starting forest area and relating that to carbon lost using a linear model (r2 = 0.41), we found 1.1% outlying PAs (residuals >2σ N = 23), representing 1.3% of the total PA forest area, yet causing 27.3% of all PA emissions. These results suggest PAs have been a successful means of protecting biomass carbon, yet a subset causing a disproportionately high share of emissions should be an urgent priority for management interventions.

  17. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area. (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella


    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  18. Overhead high-voltage lines - a electromagnetic environment restrictions on use areas

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    Jacek Paś


    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of exploitation of high voltage overhead lines in the vicinity of the lands that are intended for built-up areas. Near distribution stations and high voltage overhead lines can be present some physical and chemical factors which under certain conditions and at their high levels will be inconvenient to the environment. The environmental impacts of these factors are complex problems which are analysed both in technical and biological-medical aspects. [b]Keywords[/b]: overhead lines, electric field and magnetic, lines of force

  19. Optimal point of insertion of the needle in neuraxial blockade using a midline approach: study in a geometrical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt M


    Full Text Available Mark Vogt,1 Dennis J van Gerwen,2 John J van den Dobbelsteen,2 Martin Hagenaars,3 1Department of Anesthesiology, Erasmus MC Sophia Children Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Canisius Wilhelmina Ziekenhuis, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: Performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach can be technically difficult. It is therefore important to optimize factors that are under the influence of the clinician performing the procedure. One of these factors might be the chosen point of insertion of the needle. Surprisingly few data exist on where between the tips of two adjacent spinous processes the needle should be introduced. A geometrical model was adopted to gain more insight into this issue. Spinous processes were represented by parallelograms. The length, the steepness relative to the skin, and the distance between the parallelograms were varied. The influence of the chosen point of insertion of the needle on the range of angles at which the epidural and subarachnoid space could be reached was studied. The optimal point of insertion was defined as the point where this range is the widest. The geometrical model clearly demonstrated, that the range of angles at which the epidural or subarachnoid space can be reached, is dependent on the point of insertion between the tips of the adjacent spinous processes. The steeper the spinous processes run, the more cranial the point of insertion should be. Assuming that the model is representative for patients, the performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach might be improved by choosing the optimal point of insertion. Keywords: neuraxial blockade, midline approach, optimal point of insertion, geometrical model

  20. Demarcation of Prime Farmland Protection Areas around a Metropolis Based on High-Resolution Satellite Imagery. (United States)

    Xia, Nan; Wang, YaJun; Xu, Hao; Sun, YueFan; Yuan, Yi; Cheng, Liang; Jiang, PengHui; Li, ManChun


    Prime farmland (PF) is defined as high-quality farmland and a prime farmland protection area (PFPA, including related roads, waters and facilities) is a region designated for the special protection of PF. However, rapid urbanization in China has led to a tremendous farmland loss and to the degradation of farmland quality. Based on remote sensing and geographic information system technology, this study developed a semiautomatic procedure for designating PFPAs using high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI), which involved object-based image analysis, farmland composite evaluation, and spatial analysis. It was found that the HRSIs can provide elaborate land-use information, and the PFPA demarcation showed strong correlation with the farmland area and patch distance. For the benefit of spatial planning and management, different demarcation rules should be applied for suburban and exurban areas around a metropolis. Finally, the overall accuracy of HRSI classification was about 80% for the study area, and high-quality farmlands from evaluation results were selected as PFs. About 95% of the PFs were demarcated within the PFPAs. The results of this study will be useful for PFPA planning and the methods outlined could help in the automatic designation of PFPAs from the perspective of the spatial science.

  1. High resolution tsunami modelling for the evaluation of potential risk areas in Setúbal (Portugal

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    J. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The use of high resolution hydrodynamic modelling to simulate the potential effects of tsunami events can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas. Moreover, the consideration of complementary data such as the type of buildings, location of priority equipment, type of roads, enables mapping of the most vulnerable zones, computing of the expected damage on man-made structures, constrain of the definition of rescue areas and escape routes, adaptation of emergency plans and proper evaluation of the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipment.

    Such an approach was used to evaluate the specific risks associated with a potential occurrence of a tsunami event in the region of Setúbal (Portugal, which was one of the areas most seriously affected by the 1755 tsunami.

    In order to perform an evaluation of the hazard associated with the occurrence of a similar event, high resolution wave propagation simulations were performed considering different potential earthquake sources with different magnitudes. Based on these simulations, detailed inundation maps associated with the different events were produced. These results were combined with the available information on the vulnerability of the local infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, priority buildings in order to impose restrictions in the production of high-scale potential damage maps, escape routes and emergency routes maps.

  2. High Resolution TomoSAR & PS-InSAR Analysis in Urban Areas (United States)

    Wei, Lianhuan; Liao, Mingsheng; Balz, Timo; Liu, Kang; Jendryke, Michael


    The surveillance of urban infrastructures is of great importance. Urban infrastructure monitoring benefits from the launch of the new generation of high-resolution SAR satellites. With high-resolution SAR stacks, even deformation details of different building parts can be observed. The PS-InSAR technique has become a favorable tool for urban area subsidence monitoring, and it has been demonstrated that millimeter accuracy can be achieved. However, high-rise building areas suffer severely from layover effects, which can cause serious phase unwrapping errors. SAR tomography provides a method of overcoming layover effects in urban areas. With tomographic techniques, the 3D distribution of multiple scatterers and their position can be reconstructed. In this paper, the PS-InSAR method is briefly described first, followed by PS-InSAR analysis results in Shanghai. Then, we will describe SAR tomography and why we need TomoSAR, especially in dense cities like Shanghai. Finally, preliminary tomographic results about Shanghai are presented. By combining PS-InSAR and TomoSAR, a 4D dynamic mapping of urban areas could be executed.

  3. Highly segmented large-area hybrid photodiodes with bialkali photocathodes and enclosed VLSI readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Filthaut, Frank; Go, A; Joram, C; Weilhammer, Peter; Wicht, P; Dulinski, W; Séguinot, Jacques; Wenzel, H; Ypsilantis, Thomas


    We report on the principles, design, fabrication, and operation of a highly segmented, large-area hybrid photodiode, which is being developed in the framework of the LHCb RICH project. The device consists of a cylindrical, 127 mm diameter vacuum envelope capped with a spherical borosilicate UV-glass entrance window, with an active-to-total-area fraction of 81A fountain-focusing electron optics is used to demagnify the image onto a 50 mm diameter silicon sensor, containing 2048 pads of size 1*1 mm/sup 2/. (10 refs).

  4. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

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    Pavuluri Srinivasu


    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  5. Perceptions of High School Principals about Teacher Motivation in in the Metropolitan Area of Medellin, 2015

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    Hernán López-Arellano


    Full Text Available This study is an exploratory research with the purpose of measuring perceptions High School principals have about teachers’ motivation in four specific areas: facilities and institutional resources, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and social impacts. In this article, perceptions of principals working in public and private schools are compared. The authors designed and applied a five Likert-scale questionnaire to determine the perceptions of principals about motivation in their teacher staffs; the tool was implemented in fifty-one schools of the Metropolitan Area of Medellín, Colombia. Data show a higher favorability (i.e., categories with a better score in private schools than in public ones.

  6. Development of Analytical Method for Finding the High Risk Collision Areas


    Gen Fukuda; Ruri Shoji


    The traffic condition has been analyzed by models that are based on Gas model and Obstacle Zone by Target (OZT) by using 1 year AIS data for Tsunami measure. By applying Gas model based method, it is possible to analyze the area in terms of ships’ relative angle, size, speed and density. The OZT is originally developed to show the collision zone on the target ship’s course. By using this method to the marine traffic analysis, high possibility of collision areas are estimated. Moreover, ships ...

  7. Development of Analytical Method for Finding the High Risk Collision Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Fukuda


    Full Text Available The traffic condition has been analyzed by models that are based on Gas model and Obstacle Zone by Target (OZT by using 1 year AIS data for Tsunami measure. By applying Gas model based method, it is possible to analyze the area in terms of ships’ relative angle, size, speed and density. The OZT is originally developed to show the collision zone on the target ship’s course. By using this method to the marine traffic analysis, high possibility of collision areas are estimated. Moreover, ships that courses are heading to OZT are identified and studied their position and how long they proceed course heading to OZT.

  8. Head midline position for preventing the occurrence or extension of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. (United States)

    Romantsik, Olga; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Bruschettini, Matteo


    Preterm birth is known to constitute the major risk factor for development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH). Head position may affect cerebral hemodynamics and thus may be involved indirectly in development of GM-IVH. Turning the head toward one side may functionally occlude jugular venous drainage on the ipsilateral side while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. Thus, it has been suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the patient is in supine midline position with the bed tilted 30°. The midline position might be achieved in the supine position and, with the use of physical aids, in the lateral position as well. Midline position should be kept, at least when the incidence of GM-IVH is greatest, that is, during the first two to three days of life. Primary objective To assess whether head midline position is more effective than any other head position for preventing or extending germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage in infants born at ≤ 32 weeks' gestational age. Secondary objectives To perform subgroup analyses regarding gestational age, birth weight, intubated versus not intubated, and with or without GM-IVH at trial entry. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to September 19, 2016), Embase (1980 to September 19,.2016), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to September 19, 2016). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. Randomized clinical controlled trials, quasi-randomized trials, and cluster-randomized controlled trials comparing placing very preterm infants in a head midline position versus placing them in a prone or lateral decubitus

  9. Assessing the feasibility of high-density subsurface heat extraction in urban areas (United States)

    Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan


    The subsurface is increasingly utilized as a heat source (sink) for use in heating (and cooling) applications. This is driven by the need to increase the amount of heat generated from renewable sources to meet the EU renewable energy target of 12% by 2020. This study explores the feasibility, performance and long-term sustainability of high density, closed-loop GSHP installations in urban areas. Specifically, it employs a 2D, finite element, heat transport model to assess the impact of high density heat extraction in a residential area in Reading. A block of semi-detached houses is modelled, assuming that separate GSHP systems are installed in every property. The model considers conductive and advective heat transport. Uncertainties are explored through varying thermal properties and groundwater gradients across the site. Different heat demand scenarios are evaluated and the impact on the subsurface temperature distribution and on heat pump efficiency is assessed. The scenarios are selected to represent variations in inter-annual weather pattern, heating pattern and building insulation standards. Results indicate that high density heat extraction for domestic heating can be sustainable over the lifespan expected for GSHP systems (of around 20 years), in particular where heat demand is reduced by home improvement measures. Based on the results, recommendations are being presented for the sustainable deployment of high density GSHP installation in urban areas.

  10. [Preconditions for a stay in high altitude areas in the case of existing health problems]. (United States)

    Willems, J H B M


    Various symptoms can arise during a stay in high altitude areas (above 2500 m), such as tissue hypoxia and in particular pulmonary and brain oedema. Patients with existing health problems can expect to develop more complaints or more severe complaints at an earlier stage. For a number of these patients a stay in high altitude areas should be advised against or should only take place if certain measures are taken. The advising physician should have knowledge about the reactions of the human body on hypoxy, and about (derailments of) the acclimatisation proces in high altitude areas. Every patient with a disease that can interfere with hypoxia should be assessed on an individual basis. The most important absolute and relative contraindications are cardiac and pulmonary conditions, haemoglobin abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, epilepsy, severe obesity, kidney diseases and pregnancy. In the case of an existing health problem, a stay in high altitude should only be considered if medical care can be quickly and adequately provided on the spot.

  11. Identifying areas of high herpetofauna diversity that are threatened by planned infrastructure projects in Spain. (United States)

    Benayas, José M Rey; Montaña, Enrique De La; Belliure, Josabel; Eekhout, Xavier R


    A major task related to conservation is to predict if planned infrastructure projects are likely to threaten biodiversity. In this study we investigated the potential impact of planned infrastructure in Spain on amphibian and reptile species, two highly vulnerable groups given their limited dispersal and current situation of population decline. We used distribution data of both groups to identify areas of high herpetofauna diversity, and compared the locations of these areas with the locations of the planned road, high-speed train railway and water reservoir network. Four criteria were used for this identification: species richness, rarity, vulnerability, and a combined index of the three criteria. From a total of 1441 cells of 20 x 20 km, areas of high diversity were defined as those cells whose ranked values for the different criteria included either all species or all threatened species. The combined index provided the smallest number of cells needed to retain all threatened species (1.7 and 2.6% of the cells for amphibian and reptile species, respectively). Coincidences between these high diversity areas and cells including planned infrastructures-denominated 'alert planning units'-were 35.4% for amphibians and 31.2% for reptiles. Mitigation of the potential impacts would include actions such as barriers to animal access to roads and railways and ecoducts under these constructions. Our approach provides conservation authorities information that can be used to make decisions on habitat protection. A technique that identifies threats to herpetofauna before they occur is also likely to improve the chance of herpetofauna being protected.

  12. High Sensitivity Terahertz Detection through Large-Area Plasmonic Nano-Antenna Arrays (United States)

    Yardimci, Nezih Tolga; Jarrahi, Mona


    Plasmonic photoconductive antennas have great promise for increasing responsivity and detection sensitivity of conventional photoconductive detectors in time-domain terahertz imaging and spectroscopy systems. However, operation bandwidth of previously demonstrated plasmonic photoconductive antennas has been limited by bandwidth constraints of their antennas and photoconductor parasitics. Here, we present a powerful technique for realizing broadband terahertz detectors through large-area plasmonic photoconductive nano-antenna arrays. A key novelty that makes the presented terahertz detector superior to the state-of-the art is a specific large-area device geometry that offers a strong interaction between the incident terahertz beam and optical pump at the nanoscale, while maintaining a broad operation bandwidth. The large device active area allows robust operation against optical and terahertz beam misalignments. We demonstrate broadband terahertz detection with signal-to-noise ratio levels as high as 107 dB. PMID:28205615

  13. Dirrofilariasis in Shepherd Dogs of High Altitudes Areas in West Azerbaijan-Iran

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    Mojtaba Hadian


    Full Text Available Although the biology and ecology of the arthropod vectors are different, some factors, such as global warming, the increasing abundance of mosquitoes, the movement of domestic hosts, and the abundance of wild reservoirs, can act as favourable factors for the distribution of infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shepherd dogs living in the high altitude of mountainous area (i.e.1200 meters above the sea level. The study group was comprised of 160 shepherd dogs living in 4 mountainous regions (Targavar, Margavar, Kolshin and Hovarchin of west Azerbaijan where continuous movement of sheep and goat flocks resulted to have a little information about shepherd dogs in these regions. Additionally, arduous pathways have made impossible any access by car to some territories of these areas. The dogs were mostly mixed raced with different ages (from 1 to 10 years and sexes (male = 136, female = 24. Blood samples were collected from cephalic vein. Direct thin and thick blood smears and modified knott’s technique were used for detecting D.immitis microfilariae and other blood parasites. The results indicated that 40 (25 % of dogs were infected with D. immitis microfilariae. In examination of the dogs, no severe life threatening feature of the disease was diagnosed. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05 of Dirrofilaria infection among gender, age groups and geographical areas. High prevalence of asymptomatic Dirrofilariasis in shepherd dogs in this area highlights the need of controlling and preventive programs.

  14. A Monitoring Network to Map and Assess Landslide Activity in a Highly Anthropized Area

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    Giulia Bossi


    Full Text Available Mapping landslide activity in a highly anthropized area entails specific problems. The integration of different monitoring techniques in order to measure the displacements rate within the slope is mandatory. We describe our activity for the Mortisa landslide which is located on the western flank of the Cortina d’Ampezzo valley (northeastern Italy in a highly anthropized area in the heart of the Dolomites, a UNESCO world heritage site. The mass movement threatens some houses, an important national road, and part of the area that will be the venue for the upcoming 2021 Alpine Skiing World Championship. The hazardous context along with its prestigious location makes the construction of new settlements and infrastructure very challenging. Owing to that, precise mapping and assessment of the activity of the Mortisa landslide is extremely important. To achieve this task, multitemporal aerial photo interpretation, A-DInSAR analysis, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS surveys, and inclinometric measurements were performed. Through the integration of the monitoring data and geomorphological interpretation, a hazard map of the Mortisa area was produced with the intent to assist the local authorities in the definition of the new urban development plan.

  15. Green Roof for Stormwater Management in a Highly Urbanized Area: The Case of Seoul, Korea

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    Muhammad Shafique


    Full Text Available Urbanization changes natural pervious surfaces to hard, impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings and roofs. These modifications significantly affect the natural hydrologic cycle by increasing stormwater runoff rates and volume. Under these circumstances, green roofs offer multiple benefits including on-site stormwater management that mimics the natural hydrologic conditions in an urban area. It can retain a large amount of rainwater for a longer time and delay the peak discharge. However, there is very limited research that has been carried out on the retrofitted green roof for stormwater management for South Korean conditions. This study has investigated the performance of retrofitted green roofs for stormwater management in a highly urbanized area of Seoul, the capital city of Korea. In this study, various storm events were monitored and the research results were analyzed to check the performance of the green roof with controlling the runoff in urban areas. Results also allowed us to conclude that the retention mainly depends on the intensity and duration of the rain events. From the analysis, average runoff retention on the green roof was 10% to 60% in different rain events. The application of an extensive green roof provides promising results for stormwater management in the highly urbanized area of Seoul.

  16. Advanced pond system: performance with high rate ponds of different depths and areas. (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Davies-Colley, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P


    Many domestic Wastewater Stabilisation Ponds (WSPs) or oxidation ponds in New Zealand require upgrading to reduce pollution of receiving waters. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) consisting of an Advanced Facultative Pond, High Rate Pond, Algae Settling Pond and Maturation Pond may provide a cost effective upgrade option. This paper presents the results of a 2-year study of the performance of two pilot APS systems with High Rate Ponds of different depths and areas. The HRPs of the APS systems both had the same flow rate (5 m3 d(-1)), volume (37.5 m3) and thus hydraulic retention time (7.5 d). However, the East HRP had an operating depth of 0.30 m and a surface area of 128 m2, and the West HRP had an operating depth of 0.45 m and a surface area of 85 m2. APS system performance was compared in terms of improvement of water quality. For nearly all parameters measured, there was little difference in performance between the two systems suggesting that the system with the smaller area could be used without affecting treatment. Comparison of final effluent with typical effluent of New Zealand WSPs showed that APS effluent was of higher quality and much less variable over time.

  17. High background radiation areas: the case of Villar de la Yegua village (Spain). (United States)

    Sáinz, C; Quindós, L S; Fernández, P L; Gómez, J; Fuente, I; Quindós, L; Matarranz, J L


    The starting point of the Spanish experience in the study of High Background Radiation Areas is the development of a nationwide indoor radon survey carried out in 1988. This campaign, belonging to the first Spanish Radon Framework, consisted of approximately 2000 indoor radon measurements which represented a valuable basis to face rigorously the radon issue in Spain. Together but indepently from this survey, since 1991 the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, the National Uranium Company and several Universities have developed the so-called MARNA project with the aim of estimating potential radon emission from external gamma dose rates, radium concentrations in soil and geological parameters. During the last decade, several regional surveys have also been conducted to determine exposure to natural sources of radiation in different highly populated background radiation areas. Among them, the surroundings of the village of Villar de la Yegua Town, located in the western province of Salamanca, is the most important area of Spain from a radiological point of view, with the highest indoor radon concentrations, of up to 15,000 Bq m(-3) being found there. Until now, the main result of the study in this area showed a geometric mean radon concentration of 818 Bq m(-3), which is 18 times higher than the national average. In this article, the results of the last survey, carried out in Villar de la Yegua during 2004 are summarised. A geometric mean radon concentration of 1356 Bq m(-3) was found. Dose estimation coming from radon inhalation is also shown.

  18. Simple room-temperature preparation of high-yield large-area graphene oxide. (United States)

    Huang, N M; Lim, H N; Chia, C H; Yarmo, M A; Muhamad, M R


    Graphene has attracted much attention from researchers due to its interesting mechanical, electrochemical, and electronic properties. It has many potential applications such as polymer filler, sensor, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Graphene-based nanocomposites are under an intense spotlight amongst researchers. A large amount of graphene is required for preparation of such samples. Lately, graphene-based materials have been the target for fundamental life science investigations. Despite graphene being a much sought-after raw material, the drawbacks in the preparation of graphene are that it is a challenge amongst researchers to produce this material in a scalable quantity and that there is a concern about its safety. Thus, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is greatly desired to address these problems. In this work, one-pot chemical oxidation of graphite was carried out at room temperature for the preparation of large-area GO with ~100% conversion. This high-conversion preparation of large-area GO was achieved using a simplified Hummer's method from large graphite flakes (an average flake size of 500 μm). It was found that a high degree of oxidation of graphite could be realized by stirring graphite in a mixture of acids and potassium permanganate, resulting in GO with large lateral dimension and area, which could reach up to 120 μm and ~8000 μm(2), respectively. The simplified Hummer's method provides a facile approach for the preparation of large-area GO.

  19. Mortality patterns in geographical areas with a high vs. low Sami population density in Arctic Norway. (United States)

    Brustad, Magritt; Pettersen, Torunn; Melhus, Marita; Lund, Eiliv


    The aim of this study was to study mortality patterns in the population in different geographical locations in northern Norway on the basis of Sami population density. Mortality statistics by sex and age from 1991 to 2006 were obtained from Statistics Norway. Mortality rates, including infant mortality rates, were compared across geographical locations. The data material was divided into within and outside the the geographical areas of the Sami Development Fund (SUF) and into coastal and inland residence. Differences in mortality rates were tested by chi-quadrate tests. Overall, no pronounced difference in mortality rate was found in the population between geographical areas. For men, mortality rates differed only between geographical residence in the time intervals 1991-95 and 1996-2000 for the age groups 45-59 years and 60-74 years, respectively, with outside SUF area, inland having the lowest rate. For women, there were no differences between geographical areas except for the age group 60-74 years in the time period 1991-95, where SUF coast had the highest mortality rate. For the SUF area, men had the lowest probabilities for surviving the age of 74 years and women had among the highest. No geographical difference was found in infant mortality. During the time period 1991-2006, the outside SUF area, inland had an average infant mortality rate of 1.8/1000 per year, and for SUF coast it was 6.2/1000 per year. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.08). Overall, mortality rates were similar across geographical areas with low and with high Sami population density. However, indications of geographical differences in infant mortality should be investigated further.

  20. Zonation of High Disaster Potential Communities for Remote Mountainous Areas in Southern Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chang, Chwen-Ming; Chen, Jing-Wen; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Lu, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hui-Wen


    About three-quarters of Taiwan are covered by hillside areas. Most of the hillside regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. In recent years, human development coupled with the global impact of extreme weather, typhoons and heavy rains have caused the landslide disasters and leaded to human causalities and properties loss. The landslides also endanger the major public works and almost make the overall industrial economic development and transport path overshadowed by disasters. Therefore, this research assesses the exploration of landslide potential analysis and zonation of high disaster potential communities for remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan. In this study, the time series of disaster records and land change of remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan are collected using techniques of interpretation from satellite images corresponding to multi-year and multi-rainfall events. To quantify the slope hazards, we adopt statistical analysis model to analyze massive data of slope disasters and explore the variance, difference and trend of influence factors of hillside disaster; establish the disaster potential analysis model under the climate change and construct the threshold of disaster. Through analysis results of disaster potential assessment, the settlement distribution with high-risk hazard potential of study area is drawn with geographic information system. Results of image classification show that the values of coefficient of agreement for different time periods are at high level. Compared with the historical disaster records of research areas, the accuracy of predicted landslide potential is in reasonable confidence level. The spatial distribution of landslide depends on the interaction of rainfall patterns, slope and elevation of the research area. The results also show that the number and scale of secondary landslide sites are much larger than those of new landslide sites after rainfall

  1. 980 nm high brightness external cavity broad area diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte


    We demonstrate of-axis spectral beam combining applied to a 980 nm high power broad area diode laser bar. The experiments yielded 9 W of optical power at 30 A of operating current and the measured M2 values of the combined beam from 12 emitters were 1.9 and 6.4 for the fast and the slow axis......, respectively. The slow axis beam quality was 5-6 times better than the value obtained from a single emitter in free running mode. A high brightness of 79 MW/cm2-str was achieved using this configuration. To our knowledge, this is the highest brightness level ever achieved from a broad area diode laser bar....

  2. Review of self-focusing of high power lasers in large-mode-area optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Chujun; Li Ying; Lei Dajun; Yang Hua; Wen Shuangchun; Fan Dianyuan; Wen Jianguo, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Computer and Communication, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)


    The main progress about the self-focusing of high power lasers in large-mode-area optical fiber has been reviewed. The theoretical models including the self-focusing effects have been discussed. Some different views on the whole beam self focusing and small scale self-focusing effects in optical fiber have been introduced. Moreover, the possible methods exceeding the bulk-media self-focusing threshold have been discussed and explored.

  3. The Theater High Altitude Area Defense program: an interim examination of its acquisition strategy


    Atkinson, James W.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis is an examination of the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) program's implementation of the User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) acquisition strategy. The Missile Defense Act of 1991 imposed significant schedule risk on THAAD's development, necessitating the UOES strategy. The UOES risk management issues are analyzed using DOD's risk management guidance. This guidance incorporates some current methods, applica...

  4. 75 FR 21368 - Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (United States)


    ...The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated five additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The new counties are (1) Rock and Brown Counties in Wisconsin as additions to the Milwaukee HIDTA, (2) Lane County and Warm Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon as additions to the Oregon HIDTA, and (3) Travis County, Texas as an addition to the Southwest Border HIDTA, South Texas Region.

  5. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl2O4 nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 1. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl 2 O 4 nanoparticles by [Al(sal) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2 [Mg(dipic) 2 ] and [Mg(H 2 O) 6 ][Al(ox) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2 ·5H 2 O: influence of inorganic precursor type. Volume 40 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 45-53 ...

  6. Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystem Services in High Mountain Areas: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Palomo


    Full Text Available High mountain areas are experiencing some of the earliest and greatest impacts of climate change. However, knowledge on how climate change impacts multiple ecosystem services that benefit different stakeholder groups remains scattered in the literature. This article presents a review of the literature on climate change impacts on ecosystem services benefiting local communities and tourists in high mountain areas. Results show a lack of studies focused on the global South, especially where there are tropical glaciers, which are likely to be the first to disappear. Climate change impacts can be classified as impacts on food and feed, water availability, natural hazards regulation, spirituality and cultural identity, aesthetics, and recreation. In turn, climate change impacts on infrastructure and accessibility also affect ecosystem services. Several of these impacts are a direct threat to the lives of mountain peoples, their livelihoods and their culture. Mountain tourism is experiencing abrupt changes too. The magnitude of impacts make it necessary to strengthen measures to adapt to climate change in high mountain areas.

  7. High-Resolution TomoSAR & PS-InSAR Analysis in Urban Areas (United States)

    Wei, Lianhuan; Liao, Mingsheng; Balz, Timo; Liu, Kang; Jendryke, Michael


    The surveillance of urban infrastructures is of great importance. Urban infrastructure monitoring benefits from the launch of the new generation of high-resolution SAR satellites. With high-resolution SAR stacks, even deformation details of different building parts can be observed by PS-InSAR technique. However, high-rise building areas suffer severely from layover effects, which can cause serious phase unwrapping errors in PS-InSAR processing. SAR tomography (TomoSAR) provides a method of overcoming layover effects in urban areas. With tomographic techniques, the 3D distribution of multiple scatterers and their position can be reconstructed. In this poster, the PS-InSAR method is illustrated first, followed with PS-InSAR analysis results in Shanghai. Then, we will describe SAR tomography and why we need TomoSAR, especially in dense cities like Shanghai. Finally, preliminary tomographic results are presented. By combining PS-InSAR and TomoSAR, a 4D dynamic mapping of urban areas could be executed.

  8. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.


    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  9. Porous boron nitride with a high surface area: hydrogen storage and water treatment. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xuewen; Zhang, Xinghua; Xue, Yanming; Mi, Jiao; Mo, Zhaojun; Fan, Ying; Hu, Long; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Fanbin; Yuan, Songdong; Tang, Chengchun


    We report on the synthesis of high-quality microporous/mesoporous BN material via a facile two-step approach. An extremely high surface area of 1687 m(2) g(-1) and a large pore volume of 0.99 cm(3) g(-1) have been observed in the synthesized BN porous whiskers. The formation of the porous structure was attributed to the group elimination of organic species in a BN precursor, melamine diborate molecular crystal. This elimination method maintained the ordered pore structure and numerous structural defects. The features including high surface area, pore volume and structural defects make the BN whiskers highly suitable for hydrogen storage and wastewater treatment applications. We demonstrate excellent hydrogen uptake capacity of the BN whiskers with high weight adsorption up to 5.6% at room temperature and at the relatively low pressure of 3 MPa. Furthermore, the BN whiskers also exhibit excellent adsorption capacity of methyl orange and copper ions, with the maximum removal capacity of 298.3 and 373 mg g(-1) at 298 K, respectively.

  10. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China (United States)

    Zhang, J.


    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  11. Midline dose verification with diode in vivo dosimetry for external photon therapy of head and neck and pelvis cancers during initial large-field treatments. (United States)

    Tung, Chuan-Jong; Yu, Pei-Chieh; Chiu, Min-Chi; Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Chung-Chi; Chao, Tsi-Chian


    During radiotherapy treatments, quality assurance/control is essential, particularly dose delivery to patients. This study was designed to verify midline doses with diode in vivo dosimetry. Dosimetry was studied for 6-MV bilateral fields in head and neck cancer treatments and 10-MV bilateral and anteroposterior/posteroanterior (AP/PA) fields in pelvic cancer treatments. Calibrations with corrections of diodes were performed using plastic water phantoms; 190 and 100 portals were studied for head and neck and pelvis treatments, respectively. Calculations of midline doses were made using the midline transmission, arithmetic mean, and geometric mean algorithms. These midline doses were compared with the treatment planning system target doses for lateral or AP (PA) portals and paired opposed portals. For head and neck treatments, all 3 algorithms were satisfactory, although the geometric mean algorithm was less accurate and more uncertain. For pelvis treatments, the arithmetic mean algorithm seemed unacceptable, whereas the other algorithms were satisfactory. The random error was reduced by using averaged midline doses of paired opposed portals because the asymmetric effect was averaged out. Considering the simplicity of in vivo dosimetry, the arithmetic mean and geometric mean algorithm should be adopted for head/neck and pelvis treatments, respectively. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimal point of insertion of the needle in neuraxial blockade using a midline approach: study in a geometrical model. (United States)

    Vogt, Mark; van Gerwen, Dennis J; van den Dobbelsteen, John J; Hagenaars, Martin


    Performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach can be technically difficult. It is therefore important to optimize factors that are under the influence of the clinician performing the procedure. One of these factors might be the chosen point of insertion of the needle. Surprisingly few data exist on where between the tips of two adjacent spinous processes the needle should be introduced. A geometrical model was adopted to gain more insight into this issue. Spinous processes were represented by parallelograms. The length, the steepness relative to the skin, and the distance between the parallelograms were varied. The influence of the chosen point of insertion of the needle on the range of angles at which the epidural and subarachnoid space could be reached was studied. The optimal point of insertion was defined as the point where this range is the widest. The geometrical model clearly demonstrated, that the range of angles at which the epidural or subarachnoid space can be reached, is dependent on the point of insertion between the tips of the adjacent spinous processes. The steeper the spinous processes run, the more cranial the point of insertion should be. Assuming that the model is representative for patients, the performance of neuraxial blockade using a midline approach might be improved by choosing the optimal point of insertion.

  13. High surface area stainless steel brushes as cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells. (United States)

    Call, Douglas F; Merrill, Matthew D; Logan, Bruce E


    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are an efficient technology for generating hydrogen gas from organic matter, but alternatives to precious metals are needed for cathode catalysts. We show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates and efficiencies similar to those achieved with platinum-catalyzed carbon cloth cathodes in single-chamber MECs. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2/m3, hydrogen was produced at a rate of 1.7 +/- 0.1 m3-H2/m3-d (current density of 188 +/- 10 A/m3) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V. The energy efficiency relative to the electrical energy input was 221 +/- 8%, and the overall energy efficiency was 78 +/- 5% based on both electrical energy and substrate utilization. These values compare well to previous results obtained using platinum on flat carbon cathodes in a similar system. Reducing the cathode surface area by 75% decreased performance from 91 +/- 3 A/m3 to 78 +/- 4 A/m3. A brush cathode with graphite instead of stainless steel and a specific surface area of 4600 m2/m3 generated substantially less current (1.7 +/- 0.0 A/m3), and a flat stainless steel cathode (25 m2/m3) produced 64 +/- 1 A/m3, demonstrating that both the stainless steel and the large surface area contributed to high current densities. Linear sweep voltammetry showed that the stainless steel brush cathodes both reduced the overpotential needed for hydrogen evolution and exhibited a decrease in overpotential over time as a result of activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that hydrogen production can be achieved at rates comparable to those with precious metal catalysts in MECs without the need for expensive cathodes.

  14. Impact of single-dose application of TGF-β, copper peptide, stanozolol and ascorbic acid in hydrogel on midline laparatomy wound healing in a diabetic mouse model. (United States)

    Konerding, Moritz A; Ziebart, Thomas; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Wellmann, Axel; Ackermann, Maximilian


    Despite numerous advances and improvements in surgical techniques the incidence of incisional hernias after laparotomy remains high. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of single application of ascorbic acid, stanozolol, a synthetic anabolic steroid, copper peptide and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on laparotomy wound healing in an incisional wound model in diabetic mice. After diabetes induction with streptozotozin in Balb-c mice, midline laparatomies were carried out. Closure of the linea alba was followed by single-dose application of the agents dissolved in a hydrogel before skin closure. The functional outcome was assessed in terms of maximum tensile strength. In addition, vessel densities, collagen contents and proliferation, were measured. The breaking strength of the skin 14 days after surgery was significantly higher in ascorbic acid (ΑΑ)-treated incisional wounds, whereas the other agents did not show a significantly better functional outcome. No significant differences were seen in vessel densities. Collagen type III contents was higher in the ΑΑ-treated animals, whereas the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei was lower compared to the other groups. These data underline the positive effect of topically applied ascorbic acid in wound healing.

  15. Frontal midline theta rhythm and eyeblinking activity during a VDT task and a video game: useful tools for psychophysiology in ergonomics. (United States)

    Yamada, F


    The necessity of psychophysiological research in ergonomics has gradually been recognized in Japan. In this paper, frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm-theta) and eyeblinking are recommended as tools in this field, especially for assessing workers' attention concentration, mental workload, fatigue, and interest during VDT work at the workplace and playing video games at home. In experiment 1, Fm-theta and eyeblink rates were measured in 10 Japanese abacus experts (Group E) and 10 normal students (Group C) during a visual search task with VDT. Memory load affected all measures. The amount of Fm-theta appeared more in Group E than Group C, but blink rate was lower in Group E than in Group C. As abacus experts have such highly developed skills in concentration, the result indicates that the amount of Fm-theta would be a good index of attention concentration in VDT workers. The second experiment was done with 10 school-aged children as subjects during three visual tasks: video game, mental test and animation. Amounts of Fm-theta and the degree of blink inhibition were maximum while playing the video game, which all subjects reported they most preferred, and minimum while watching animation, which eight subjects reported to be most boring. An interesting task would seem to provoke Fm-theta and inhibit eyeblink activity. From these two experiments, Fm-theta and eyeblink rate would appear to be good indices of attention concentration and task pleasantness of a mental task using VDT.

  16. High Performance Large Mode-Area Ytterbium-doped Photonic Crystal Fiber for Fiber Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei; Lu Peixiang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Li Shiyu; Wang Dongxiang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Technologies and Networks, Fiberhome Telecommunication Technologies Co. Ltd, 430074 (China)


    In this letter, large-mode-area double-cladding ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber was designed in theory and fabricated in practice. This fiber we have fabricated successfully has endless single mode operation performance and large inner-cladding numerical aperture of more than 0.75. The struts width between large air-holes in the outer-cladding is about 0.22 {mu}m. The photonic crystal fiber has a mode-area about 1465.7{mu}m{sup 2}. Due to the material being pure silica and air, such structures have excellent capacity to with-stand high temperature. The laser light can have very good beam quality, even diffraction-limited beam quality because of the single-mode core. This fabrication technical breakthrough of novelty high performance double-cladding ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fibers will give contributions to the high power fiber lasers and promote the progress of technology in the fields of high power lasers.

  17. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors. (United States)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum


    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH3 gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007 m(2)  g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (1532 S m(-1) ), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt %) for electrical double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) , and a capacitance of 261 F g(-1) was retained at 50 A g(-1) , which indicated a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability and preserved 96 % of the initial specific capacitance after 100 000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy results provided evidenced for the recovery of π conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook


    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  19. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguo Yao

    Full Text Available Irreversible electroporation (IRE produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis - Sholihah


    Full Text Available This study is aimed to: (1 find out the differences on reading comprehension between students of junior high school in city and rural area, (2 to find out factors that causes differences on reading comprehension between students in city and rural area. This resarch was carried out in SMPN 1 Serang, SMPN 1 Cilegon, SMPN 1 Picung and SMPN 1 Banjarsari. The method used was quantitative method in the form of comparative study. The writer used Ex Post Facto Design in this research. The population of the research was all the third year students of those four schools. The sampling technique was purposive sampling. The writer took 80 students for the sample. The instruments for collecting data were questionnaire, interview, test and also unstructured observation. The technique used to analyze data was T-Test separated variance and polled variance. The result of the study showed that there was a significant difference of students reading comprehension between students in city and rural area. It can be seen from the result of the test. Based on questionnaire which were given to the students and interview for the teacher, the researcher could find out the factors that cause differences on reading comprehension between students in city and rural area, such as the students’ interest, motivation of students, teaching methodology, reading material, vocabulary mastery, and culture.

  1. Wavy channel Thin Film Transistor for area efficient, high performance and low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir


    We report a new Thin Film Transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using wavy (continuous without separation) fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.4x increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, similar to 100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers a pragmatic opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications without any limitation any TFT materials.

  2. Wavy channel thin film transistor architecture for area efficient, high performance and low power displays

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir


    We demonstrate a new thin film transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using continuous fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.5× increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, ~100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers an interesting opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Large area/high rate sputtering of materials for electro-chromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, R.P. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics


    The preparation of any large area system is going to require a deposition system for the thin film elements of the device which not only have the properties required but also can be made in the large areas, and for the low cost, that will be needed for any device which is to have any large-scale applicability. Techniques for the large-scale production of multi-layer optical filters for use in windows for buildings and cars have appeared over the last few years, and it has been demonstrated that planner magnetron sputtering can give the large area uniformity, low cost and high rate required for such a system. Part of this process includes the reactive deposition of an oxide. The properties of this oxide are not critical, but research is proceeding into the techniques that need to be used to manufacture oxides with much better control of their properties while maintaining the advantages of large area availability and low cost. It is the intention of this contribution to consider this process--d.c. reactive planar magnetron sputtering--and assess the likely use of it to prepare electro-chromic devices for large-scale applications.

  4. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses. (United States)

    Yao, Chenguo; Lv, Yanpeng; Dong, Shoulong; Zhao, Yajun; Liu, Hongmei


    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs) to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs) to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP) or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs) treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.

  5. Evaluation of High Level Environmental Background Radiation Areas and its Variation in Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah


    Full Text Available Introduction The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. For most individuals, this exposure exceeds that from all man-made sources combined. Materials and Methods In this study, the annual effective dose in high level environmental background radiation areas (HLEBRAs of northern city of Ramsar in Iran was determined. For dosimetry, a gamma radiation dosimeter was used. Measurements were performed in more than 90 points in five districts with HLEBR around and near hot springs. Results In some areas, the annual effective dose from outdoor external gamma radiation in HLEBRAs (30 mSv/y exceeded the annual effective dose limit for radiation workers. Our results are evident that the population dose from normal background radiation in HLEBRAs is 200 times higher than corresponding values in Ramsar sea shore. To estimate the cosmic ray contribution, dose measurements were performed on the sea surface one km off the sea shore. Conclusion The observed differences over locations and measured doses between this study and the others revealed the dynamic nature of this phenomenon, and necessitate performing the periodic studies in these areas. Moreover, cytogenetic and immunologic researches for studying the long term effects of these high level environmental radiations on the residents of these HLEBRAs are necessary.

  6. Fundamental research in the area of high temperature fuel cells in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyomin, A.K.


    Research in the area of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells has been conducted in Russia since the late 60`s. Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry is the lead organisation in this area. Research in the area of materials used in fuel cells has allowed us to identify compositions of electrolytes, electrodes, current paths and transmitting, sealing and structural materials appropriate for long-term fuel cell applications. Studies of electrode processes resulted in better understanding of basic patterns of electrode reactions and in the development of a foundation for electrode structure optimization. We have developed methods to increase electrode activity levels that allowed us to reach current density levels of up to 1 amper/cm{sup 2}. Development of mathematical models of processes in high temperature fuel cells has allowed us to optimize their structure. The results of fundamental studies have been tested on laboratory mockups. MCFC mockups with up to 100 W capacity and SOFC mockups with up to 1 kW capacity have been manufactured and tested at IHTE. There are three SOFC structural options: tube, plate and modular.

  7. Hierarchical porous carbon with ultrahigh surface area from corn leaf for high-performance supercapacitors application (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Li, Chengfei; Chen, Yue


    A new class of hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) with ultrahigh surface area is successfully fabricated by carefully selecting biomass carbon precursors and activation reagent, through which corn leaf (CL) with natural well-defined macropore channels is used as the carbon precursor, and H3PO4 is used as the active agent by virtue of its pore-widening effect. The as-prepared CL-based HPC (CLHPC) with a H3PO4/semi-carbonized CL mass ratio of 2 (CLHPC-2) demonstrates the highest specific surface area of 2507 m2 g-1 donated by 28.3% of micropore and 71.6% of mesopore, while maintaining the channel-like macroporous structure derived from the well-defined natural structure in CL. The combination of the hierarchical porous structure and ultrahigh surface area enables rapid electrolyte diffusion and sufficient active sites for charge accumulation. As a result, CLHPC-2 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, such as high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, excellent high-rate capability (retention of 91% from 0.1 to 5 A g-1), and good cycling stability (99% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles).

  8. High tributyltin and imposex levels in the commercial muricid Thais chocolata from two Peruvian harbor areas. (United States)

    Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto


    The first appraisal of butyltin (BT) contamination linked with imposex incidence in Peruvian coastal areas was performed in the present study. Imposex occurrence and BT levels in female bodies were analyzed in the rock snail Thais chocolata distributed along 10 sites in areas under the influence of Callao and Chimbote Harbors. Imposex levels associated to high tributyltin (TBT) concentrations were observed in six of 10 studied sites, and the highest imposex levels were seen in gastropods collected near the harbor terminals. Tributyltin concentrations were the highest reported for gastropod mollusks (up to 662 ng Sn g(-1)) in recent studies. Although TBT-based antifouling paints have been banned globally (International Maritime Organization, 2008), the combination of high imposex and TBTs level with butyltin degradation index values indicated fresh TBT inputs in these Peruvian coastal areas. Thus, the need to implement local regulatory strategies related to the use of TBT-free antifouling paints is urgent, as is a thorough assessment of the effectiveness of the TBT global ban. Moreover, the wide distribution of T. chocolata combined with its capability to elicit imposex and bioaccumulate BTs renders this a good sentinel species for TBT contamination along the western South American coast. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Determination of Destructed and Infracted Forest Areas with Multi-temporal High Resolution Satellite Images (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Unal, A.; Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.


    Migration from rural areas to city centers and their surroundings is an important problem of not only our country but also the countries that under development stage. This uncontrolled and huge amount of migration brings out urbanization and socio - economic problems. The demand on settling the industrial areas and commercial activities nearby the city centers results with a negative change in natural land cover on cities. Negative impacts of human induced activities on natural resources and land cover has been continuously increasing for decades. The main human activities that resulted with destruction and infraction of forest areas can be defined as mining activities, agricultural activities, industrial / commercial activities and urbanization. Temporal monitoring of the changes in spatial distribution of forest areas is significantly important for effective management and planning progress. Changes can occur as spatially large destructions or small infractions. Therefore there is a need for reliable, fast and accurate data sources. At this point, satellite images proved to be a good data source for determination of the land use /cover changes with their capability of monitoring large areas with reasonable temporal resolutions. Spectral information derived from images provides discrimination of land use/cover types from each other. Developments in remote sensing technology in the last decade improved the spatial resolution of satellites and high resolution images were started to be used to detect even small changes in the land surface. As being the megacity of Turkey, Istanbul has been facing a huge migration for the last 20 years and effects of urbanization and other human based activities over forest areas are significant. Main focus of this study is to determine the destructions and infractions in forest areas of Istanbul, Turkey with 2.5m resolution SPOT 5 multi-temporal satellite imagery. Analysis was mainly constructed on threshold based classification of

  10. Highly efficient removal of arsenic metal ions with high superficial area hollow magnetite nanoparticles synthetized by AACVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monárrez-Cordero, B.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Leyva-Porras, C.; Pizá-Ruiz, P. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S.C., and Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnología, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. C.P. 31109 (Mexico)


    Highlights: ► Fast and high arsenic removal efficiency, almost 100% in one minute. ► Successful synthesis of high purity magnetite hollow nanoparticles is reported. ► They were synthesized by one step aerosol assisted CVD technique. ► Detailed microstructural characterization by electron microscopy was performed. -- Abstract: New nanotechnology alternatives and methodologies have been developed in order to overcome the limitations of conventional techniques for metal ions removal from water. Currently, the removal of heavy metals requires multiple steps which include the separation and post-treatment of the generated sludge. Usually, this sludge is composed of dangerous environmental pollutants mixed with the material used for removing the metal ion. Thus, the removal of these metals becomes a challenging task. Herein we report the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles with high specific area by the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition method. Deposition temperature were fixed at 450 °C and a mixture of Ar–air were used as a carrier gas, a flow of 1.0 and 0.015 L min{sup −1} were used for Ar and air, respectively. The precursor solution was a dilution of Fe (II) chloride in methanol, with different concentration 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mol dm{sup −3}. The crystalline structure of the nanoparticles was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Morphology and microstructure were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were evaluated with a vibrating sample magnetometer and specific area was measured by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method. To determine the removal efficiency of arsenic ion from water, several tests were carried out at six exposition times 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. Results showed high removal efficiency, more than 99%, in less than 1 min.

  11. Assessment of Atmospheric Algorithms to Retrieve Vegetation in Natural Protected Areas Using Multispectral High Resolution Imagery. (United States)

    Marcello, Javier; Eugenio, Francisco; Perdomo, Ulises; Medina, Anabella


    The precise mapping of vegetation covers in semi-arid areas is a complex task as this type of environment consists of sparse vegetation mainly composed of small shrubs. The launch of high resolution satellites, with additional spectral bands and the ability to alter the viewing angle, offers a useful technology to focus on this objective. In this context, atmospheric correction is a fundamental step in the pre-processing of such remote sensing imagery and, consequently, different algorithms have been developed for this purpose over the years. They are commonly categorized as imaged-based methods as well as in more advanced physical models based on the radiative transfer theory. Despite the relevance of this topic, a few comparative studies covering several methods have been carried out using high resolution data or which are specifically applied to vegetation covers. In this work, the performance of five representative atmospheric correction algorithms (DOS, QUAC, FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S) has been assessed, using high resolution Worldview-2 imagery and field spectroradiometer data collected simultaneously, with the goal of identifying the most appropriate techniques. The study also included a detailed analysis of the parameterization influence on the final results of the correction, the aerosol model and its optical thickness being important parameters to be properly adjusted. The effects of corrections were studied in vegetation and soil sites belonging to different protected semi-arid ecosystems (high mountain and coastal areas). In summary, the superior performance of model-based algorithms, 6S in particular, has been demonstrated, achieving reflectance estimations very close to the in-situ measurements (RMSE of between 2% and 3%). Finally, an example of the importance of the atmospheric correction in the vegetation estimation in these natural areas is presented, allowing the robust mapping of species and the analysis of multitemporal variations related to the

  12. The effects of residence duration in high background radiation areas on immune surveillance. (United States)

    Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Abediankenari, Saeid; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Khosravifarsani, Meysam


    The effective dose received by humans from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv y(-1), but this is 10.2 mSv y(-1) for inhabitants of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation, especially in high doses. Nonetheless carcinogenesis of low doses is uncertain. A recent epidemiological study in high background radiation areas of Ramsar showed that the cancer incidence in this era is lower than neighbors. The reason of this different behavior is under study yet. NK cells, helper, and Cytotoxic T cells are most important components of the tumor immune surveillance. The counts and activities of these cells and also leukocytes, lymphocyte, neutrophil cells, and other important parameters were studied in the residents of Ramsar with different duration of exposure to chronic low dose radiation. Fifty residents of high background radiation areas, who were between 25 and 35 years and fully healthy, were selected randomly and their consent was obtained. Then, 2 cc fresh peripheral bloods were taken in sterile conditions. Complete blood cell counts were performed by an automatic hematology analyzer and CD4+, CD8+, NK, and CD107a+ cell counts were determined by monoclonal antibodies and flowcytometry. CD4+ and CD8+ percentages and the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16. The percentages of CD4+ cells increase, but the counts of CD107a+ cells decline in higher exposure durations. The other parameters did not have significant regression with exposure duration. These confirm that living in high background radiation areas may induce changes in the immune system gradually and address more investigations.

  13. The High Performance and Wide Area Analysis and Mining of Scientific & Engineering Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, R.


    This final report summarizes our accomplishments and findings and includes recent publications occurring in the final period of this award. One of our research goals was to develop algorithms and services for remote data analysis and distributed data mining which scaled from the commodity internet to high performance networks. When we began the project there was no effective mechanisms to achieve high end to end performance for data intensive applications over wide area, high bandwidth networks. For this reason, we developed algorithms and services for Layers 2,3, and 4 in the simple data web application stack below. We describe our research accomplishments for each of these layers in turn: Layer 4--Data Web Applications; Layer 3--Data Web Services; Layer 2--Network Protocol Services; Layer 1--IP.

  14. Large-area, high-intensity PV arrays for systems using dish concentrating optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Zweibel, K.; Coutts, T.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    In this paper, the authors report on efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

  15. High-resolution texture imaging with hard synchrotron radiation in the moving area detector technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Klein, H; Garbe, U; Schneider, J R


    The orientation distribution of crystallites in polycrystalline materials (called texture) is usually measured by polycrystal X-ray diffraction by 'step-scanning' the sample in angular intervals in the order of 1 deg. This technique is not suited to fully exploit the low angular divergence of hard synchrotron radiation in the order of 'milliradian'. Hence, step-scanning was replaced by a continuous 'sweeping' technique using a continuously shifted area detector. In order to avoid overlapping from different reflections (hkl) a Bragg-angle slit was introduced. The 'moving-detector' technique can be applied to obtain images of orientation as well as of location distributions of crystallites in polycrystalline samples. It is suitable for imaging continuous 'orientation density' distribution functions as well as of 'grain-resolved' textures. The excellent features of high-energy synchrotron radiation combined with the moving area detector technique will be illustrated with several examples including very sharp def...

  16. Provision of 3G Mobile Services in Sparsely Populated Areas Using High Altitude Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holis


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of High Altitude Platforms for the provision of third generation mobile services in sparsely-populated areas or in developing countries. It focuses on the behavior of large cells provided via a multiple HAP deployment and shows the possibilities of using small cells located inside these large cells to serve hot-spot areas. The impact of the different types of HAP antenna masks and their adjustment on cell capacity and the quality of coverage is presented. The main parameter of the antenna radiation pattern under investigation is the power roll-off at the cell edge. Optimal values of this parameter are presented for different scenarios. Simulations of system level parameters were based on an iteration loops approach.

  17. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.


    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. A facility for the test of large area muon chambers at high rates

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Belli, G; Bonifas, A; Carabelli, V; Gatignon, L; Hessey, N P; Maggi, M; Peigneux, J P; Reithler, H; Silari, Marco; Vitulo, P; Wegner, M


    Operation of large area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz/\\scm. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate.

  19. Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea


    Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land

  20. Simple room-temperature preparation of high-yield large-area graphene oxide (United States)

    Huang, NM; Lim, HN; Chia, CH; Yarmo, MA; Muhamad, MR


    Graphene has attracted much attention from researchers due to its interesting mechanical, electrochemical, and electronic properties. It has many potential applications such as polymer filler, sensor, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Graphene-based nanocomposites are under an intense spotlight amongst researchers. A large amount of graphene is required for preparation of such samples. Lately, graphene-based materials have been the target for fundamental life science investigations. Despite graphene being a much sought-after raw material, the drawbacks in the preparation of graphene are that it is a challenge amongst researchers to produce this material in a scalable quantity and that there is a concern about its safety. Thus, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is greatly desired to address these problems. In this work, one-pot chemical oxidation of graphite was carried out at room temperature for the preparation of large-area GO with ~100% conversion. This high-conversion preparation of large-area GO was achieved using a simplified Hummer’s method from large graphite flakes (an average flake size of 500 μm). It was found that a high degree of oxidation of graphite could be realized by stirring graphite in a mixture of acids and potassium permanganate, resulting in GO with large lateral dimension and area, which could reach up to 120 μm and ~8000 μm2, respectively. The simplified Hummer’s method provides a facile approach for the preparation of large-area GO. PMID:22267928

  1. A screening on Specific Learning Disorders in an Italian speaking high genetic homogeneity area. (United States)

    Cappa, Claudia; Giulivi, Sara; Schilirò, Antonino; Bastiani, Luca; Muzio, Carlo; Meloni, Fabrizio


    The aim of the present research is to investigate the prevalence of Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) in Ogliastra, an area of the island of Sardinia, Italy. Having experienced centuries of isolation, Ogliastra has become a high genetic homogeneity area, and is considered particularly interesting for studies on different kinds of pathologies. Here we are going to describe the results of a screening carried out throughout 2 consecutive years in 49 second grade classes (24 considered in the first year and 25 in the second year of the study) of the Ogliastra region. A total of 610 pupils (average age 7.54 years; 293 female, 317 male) corresponding to 68.69% of all pupils who were attending second grade in the area, took part in the study. The tool used for the screening was "RSR-DSA. Questionnaire for the detection of learning difficulties and disorders", which allowed the identification of 83 subjects at risk (13.61% of the whole sample involved in the study). These subjects took part in an enhancement training program of about 6 months. After the program, pupils underwent assessment for reading, writing and calculation abilities, as well as cognitive assessment. According to the results of the assessment, the prevalence of SLDs is 6.06%. For what concerns dyslexia, 4.75% of the total sample manifested this disorder either in isolation or in comorbidity with other disorders. According to the first national epidemiological investigation carried out in Italy, the prevalence of dyslexia is 3.1-3.2%, which is lower than the prevalence obtained in the present study. Given the genetic basis of SLDs, this result, together with the presence of several cases of SLD in isolation (17.14%) and with a 3:1 ratio of males to females diagnosed with a SLD, was to be expected in a sample coming from a high genetic homogeneity area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis (United States)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.


    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600?C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form? process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  3. Prevalence of age-related cataract in high-selenium areas of China. (United States)

    Li, Tuo; He, Tao; Tan, Xiaodong; Yang, Shurong; Li, Jiazhang; Peng, Zuoquan; Li, Hongyan; Song, Xiusheng; Wu, Qingsong; Yang, Fanglie; Xing, Yiqiao


    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of age-related cataract in high-selenium areas of China. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,522 persons aged 50 years and more who were selected as a representative sample from the Enshi prefecture in Hubei province. All lenses were graded and classified for opacities by slit lamp after papillary dilation, using the Lens Opacification Classification System II. The age-related cataract patients were 418 cases (33.28%). The prevalence of age-related cataract was 37.2% in women and 26.0% in men. The prevalence of nuclear cataract was 23.7%; cortical cataract was 22.4% and posterior subcapsule cataract was 5.2%. The prevalence of cataract of the 50-59 group was 13.41%; 60-69 group was 42.15%; 70 and over group was 61.9%. The prevalence of age-related cataract in high-selenium areas has not significantly increased; to some extent, the high selenium intake will not become a risk factor for the increase of cataract incidence.

  4. High-surface-area nanoporous boron carbon nitrides for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portehault, David; Giordano, Cristina; Antonietti, Markus [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Colloid Chemistry Research, Potsdam (Germany); Gervais, Christel; Sanchez, Clement [UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7574 Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, College de France, Paris (France); Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)


    Nano- and mesoporous boron carbon nitrides with very high surface areas up to 1560 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} are obtained by pyrolysis of a graphitic carbon nitride mpg-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} infiltrated with a borane complex. This reactive hard-templating approach provides easy composition and texture tuning by temperature adjustment between 800 and 1400 C. The process yields B{sub x}C{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub v}H{sub w} materials as direct copies of the initial template with controlled compositions of 0.15{<=}x{<=}0.36, 0.10{<=}y{<=}0.12, 0.14{<=}z{<=}0.32, and 0.11{<=}v{<=}0.28. The nano and mesoporosities can also be tuned in order to provide hierarchical materials with specific surface areas ranging from 610 to 1560 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Such high values, coupled with resistance against air oxidation up to 700 C, suggest potential materials for gas storage and as catalyst supports. Indeed, it is demonstrated that these compounds exhibit high and tunable H{sub 2} uptakes from 0.55 to 1.07 wt.% at 77 K and 1 bar, thus guiding further search of materials for hydrogen storage. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. On the use of CCD area detectors for high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity. (United States)

    Fenter, P; Catalano, J G; Park, C; Zhang, Z


    The use and application of charge coupled device (CCD) area detectors for high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity is discussed. Direct comparison of high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity data measured with CCD area detectors and traditional X-ray scintillator ('point') detectors demonstrates that the use of CCD detectors leads to a substantial (approximately 30-fold) reduction in data acquisition rates because of the elimination of the need to scan the sample to distinguish signal from background. The angular resolution with a CCD detector is also improved by a factor of approximately 3. The ability to probe the large dynamic range inherent to high-resolution X-ray reflectivity data in the specular reflection geometry was demonstrated with measurements of the orthoclase (001)- and alpha-Al2O3 (012)-water interfaces, with measured reflectivity signals varying by a factor of approximately 10(6) without the use of any beam attenuators. Statistical errors in the reflectivity signal are also derived and directly compared with the repeatability of the measurements.

  6. Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Rubín


    Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.

  7. The triazine-based porous organic polymer: Novel synthetic strategy for high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kuen [Dept. of Chemistry, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    A new type of microporous polymer has been successively synthesized via a simple polycondensation reaction with the 2,4-diaminotriazine moiety and dianhydride monomer. Diaminotriazine moieties in M1 especially can provide effective branching sites, resulting in high surface areas up to 1150 m{sup 2} /g. In addition, the specific pore structure of the polyimide POP in its solid state can be modified by the surface activation method. Therefore, it can be expected that the resulting material will be a promising candidate for gas storage, and with this synthetic strategy, various type of derivatives will also be optimized.

  8. C-ITS as Multidisciplinary Area with High Demand on Telecommunications Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka


    Full Text Available Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS are concentrated on transportation systems with goal to improve usability, efficiency and safety of the existing as well as newly constructed transportation infrastructure. These concepts are associated with high society expectations that C-ITS will principally participate in resolving of continuously growing transportation challenges. C-ITS represents typical multidisciplinary area where effective cooperation of wide range of different disciplines is the key condition of the success. Possible approach to treatment of requirements on telecommunication services in C-ITS applications is presented.

  9. Prevalence of dermatologic diseases in school children of a high altitude tribunal area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N L Sharma


    Full Text Available A total of 201 school children,belonging to a high altitude tribal area were examined for various dermatologic lesions including nevi. All the children were found to have one or more type of diseases/lesions. Pediculosis ea tis was the comtnonest disease (74.1%, followed by pityriasis simplex (33.3%, warts (20.4%, scabies (12.9%, pyoderma (8.5% and papular urticaria (7.5%, Nevi were observed in 73.1% children. An acral erythfma associated with cold hands and feet was seen in 7.5% children.

  10. Grants for transportation of veterans in highly rural areas. Final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations to establish a new program to provide grants to eligible entities to assist veterans in highly rural areas through innovative transportation services to travel to VA medical centers, and to otherwise assist in providing transportation services in connection with the provision of VA medical care to these veterans, in compliance with section 307 of title III of the Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010. This final rule establishes procedures for evaluating grant applications under the new grant program, and otherwise administering the new grant program.

  11. Microfabrication of large-area circular high-stress silicon nitride membranes for optomechanical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Serra


    Full Text Available In view of the integration of membrane resonators with more complex MEMS structures, we developed a general fabrication procedure for circular shape SiNx membranes using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE. Large area and high-stress SiNx membranes were fabricated and used as optomechanical resonators in a Michelson interferometer, where Q values up to 1.3 × 106 were measured at cryogenic temperatures, and in a Fabry-Pérot cavity, where an optical finesse up to 50000 has been observed.

  12. 75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (United States)


    ...The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The new counties are (1) Shelby County in Tennessee as part of the Gulf Coast HIDTA, (2) Navajo County in Arizona as part of the Southwest Border HIDTA--Arizona Region, (3) Jefferson County in New York as part of the New York/New Jersey HIDTA, (4) Mecklenburg, Gaston, Union Buncombe, Henderson, and McDowell Counties in North Carolina as part of the Atlanta HIDTA.

  13. Area and energy efficient high-performance ZnO wavy channel thin-film transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir


    Increased output current while maintaining low power consumption in thin-film transistors (TFTs) is essential for future generation large-area high-resolution displays. Here, we show wavy channel (WC) architecture in TFT that allows the expansion of the transistor width in the direction perpendicular to the substrate through integrating continuous fin features on the underlying substrate. This architecture enables expanding the TFT width without consuming any additional chip area, thus enabling increased performance while maintaining the real estate integrity. The experimental WCTFTs show a linear increase in output current as a function of number of fins per device resulting in (3.5×) increase in output current when compared with planar counterparts that consume the same chip area. The new architecture also allows tuning the threshold voltage as a function of the number of fin features included in the device, as threshold voltage linearly decreased from 6.8 V for planar device to 2.6 V for WC devices with 32 fins. This makes the new architecture more power efficient as lower operation voltages could be used for WC devices compared with planar counterparts. It was also found that field effect mobility linearly increases with the number of fins included in the device, showing almost \\\\(1.8×) enhancements in the field effect mobility than that of the planar counterparts. This can be attributed to higher electric field in the channel due to the fin architecture and threshold voltage shift. © 2014 IEEE.

  14. Large-area synthesis of high-quality monolayer 1T’-WTe2 flakes (United States)

    Naylor, Carl H.; Parkin, William M.; Gao, Zhaoli; Kang, Hojin; Noyan, Mehmet; Wexler, Robert B.; Tan, Liang Z.; Kim, Youngkuk; Kehayias, Christopher E.; Streller, Frank; Zhou, Yu Ren; Carpick, Robert; Luo, Zhengtang; Park, Yung Woo; Rappe, Andrew M.; Drndić, Marija; Kikkawa, James M.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie


    Large-area growth of monolayer films of the transition metal dichalcogenides is of the utmost importance in this rapidly advancing research area. The mechanical exfoliation method offers high quality monolayer material but it is a problematic approach when applied to materials that are not air stable. One important example is 1T’-WTe2, which in multilayer form is reported to possess a large non saturating magnetoresistance, pressure induced superconductivity, and a weak antilocalization effect, but electrical data for the monolayer is yet to be reported due to its rapid degradation in air. Here we report a reliable and reproducible large-area growth process for obtaining many monolayer 1T’-WTe2 flakes. We confirmed the composition and structure of monolayer 1T’-WTe2 flakes using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. We studied the time dependent degradation of monolayer 1T’-WTe2 under ambient conditions, and we used first-principles calculations to identify reaction with oxygen as the degradation mechanism. Finally we investigated the electrical properties of monolayer 1T’-WTe2 and found metallic conduction at low temperature along with a weak antilocalization effect that is evidence for strong spin-orbit coupling.

  15. High-pressure metamorphism in the Chinshuichi area, Yuli belt, eastern Taiwan (United States)

    Keyser, William; Tsai, Chin-Ho; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Oberhänsli, Roland; Ernst, W. G.


    Tectonic blocks and slabs of mafic-ultramafic rocks are distributed discontinuously in the Yuli metamorphic belt of Taiwan. The blocks include rare omphacite metagabbros and garnet-epidote blueschists in the Wanjung and Juisui (Tamayen) areas, respectively. Such high-pressure (HP) mineral assemblages have been attributed to a mid-Miocene subduction event. However, the surrounding psammitic, pelitic and chloritic schists are the dominant greenschist-facies lithologies of the Yuli belt. In the Chinshuichi area, tectonic blocks are enclosed in garnet-bearing metapelites, suggesting elevated pressures. In this area, we recently discovered meta-plagiogranite containing the assemblage glaucophane + omphacite (XJd up to 0.39) + rutile + quartz, indicating P-T conditions near 13 kbar/550 °C. New equilibrium phase modeling of a garnet-paragonite mica schist and compositional isopleths for peak assemblage minerals garnet and phengite (Si = 3.33-3.37 pfu) indicate metamorphic conditions of 15.5-17 kbar/530-550 °C. These P-T estimates are higher than previously reported in the Yuli belt and suggest that both tectonic blocks and host metapelites underwent HP metamorphism. The juxtaposition of tectonic blocks and metapelites apparently occurred during the formation of a subduction-accretionary complex, followed by exhumation facilitated by a collisional event. These new findings imply that HP metamorphism was not limited to tectonic blocks, and instead played a significant role attending orogenesis in eastern Taiwan.

  16. Hypothetical high-surface-area carbons with exceptional hydrogen storage capacities: open carbon frameworks. (United States)

    Kuchta, Bogdan; Firlej, Lucyna; Mohammadhosseini, Ali; Boulet, Pascal; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Pfeifer, Peter


    A class of high-surface-area carbon hypothetical structures has been investigated that goes beyond the traditional model of parallel graphene sheets hosting layers of physisorbed hydrogen in slit-shaped pores of variable width. The investigation focuses on structures with locally planar units (unbounded or bounded fragments of graphene sheets), and variable ratios of in-plane to edge atoms. Adsorption of molecular hydrogen on these structures was studied by performing grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations with appropriately chosen adsorbent-adsorbate interaction potentials. The interaction models were tested by comparing simulated adsorption isotherms with experimental isotherms on a high-performance activated carbon with well-defined pore structure (approximately bimodal pore-size distribution), and remarkable agreement between computed and experimental isotherms was obtained, both for gravimetric excess adsorption and for gravimetric storage capacity. From this analysis and the simulations performed on the new structures, a rich spectrum of relationships between structural characteristics of carbons and ensuing hydrogen adsorption (structure-function relationships) emerges: (i) Storage capacities higher than in slit-shaped pores can be obtained by fragmentation/truncation of graphene sheets, which creates surface areas exceeding of 2600 m(2)/g, the maximum surface area for infinite graphene sheets, carried mainly by edge sites; we call the resulting structures open carbon frameworks (OCF). (ii) For OCFs with a ratio of in-plane to edge sites ≈1 and surface areas 3800-6500 m(2)/g, we found record maximum excess adsorption of 75-85 g of H(2)/kg of C at 77 K and record storage capacity of 100-260 g of H(2)/kg of C at 77 K and 100 bar. (iii) The adsorption in structures having large specific surface area built from small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cannot be further increased because their energy of adsorption is low. (iv) Additional increase of hydrogen

  17. Cross-cutting High Surface Area Graphene-based Frameworks with Controlled Pore Structure/Dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The goal of this project is to enhance the performance of graphene-based materials by manufacturing specific 3D architectures. The materials have global applications regarding fuel cell catalysts, gas adsorbents, supercapacitor/battery electrodes, ion (e.g., actinide) capture, gas separation, oil adsorption, and catalysis. This research focuses on hydrogen storage for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles with a potential transformational impact on hydrogen adsorbents that exhibit high gravimetric and volumetric density, a clean energy application sought by the Department of Energy. The development of an adsorbent material would enable broad commercial opportunities in hydrogen-fueled vehicles, promote new advanced nanomanufacturing scale-up, and open other opportunities at Savannah River National Laboratory to utilize a high surface area material that is robust, chemically stable, and radiation resistant.

  18. Controlled growth of large-area and high-quality molybdenum disulfide (United States)

    Kim, Ja-Yeon; Kim, Doo-Hyung; Kwon, Min-Ki


    We describe a method of synthesizing large-area and uniform molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films with control over the size and layer number at predetermined locations, using a step-edge mediated growth technique with simple lithography. Controlling various growth parameters such as temperature and pressure enables the synthesis of high quality, crystalline, monolayer MoS2, with electrical and optical properties that are comparable to those of exfoliated MoS2. This approach to the precise control of the size and orientation of MoS2 atomic layers can open a path toward the scalable production of high-quality devices based on MoS2 for applications in flexible displays.

  19. High resolution wireless body area network with statistically synchronized sensor data for tracking pulse wave velocity. (United States)

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve


    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) will take on more diverse forms in terms of their sensor combinations and communication protocols as their presence is extended to a greater number of monitoring scenarios. This paper presents an application layer protocol that solves issues caused by sensor nodes that must compete for high speed, real-time communication with the receiver. Such applications emphasize the delivery of large amounts of raw data from different sensor nodes in a time-synchronized manner, rather than channels that experience intermittent operation. An example of tracking pulse wave velocity (PWV) is introduced in this paper, where high-precision PWVs are estimated with the help of timeline recovery and feature extraction processes in MATLAB.

  20. AIDS awareness and attitudes among Yemeni young people living in high-risk areas. (United States)

    Al-Serouri, A W; Anaam, M; Al-Iryani, B; Al Deram, A; Ramaroson, S


    Despite te low rate of infection in Yemen, there are concerns about the possible spread of HIV among high-risk and vulnerable groups. A community-based study was made in 2005 of AIDS awareness and attitudes among 601 young people aged 15-24 years from low-income, high-risk neighbourhoods in Aden. Young people lacked proper information about HIV/AIDS. Although 89% had heard of AIDS, fewer (46%) could name 3 ways of transmission or 3 ways to avoid infection (28%). Misconceptions about modes of transmissions were prevalent and many young people believed that they faced little or no risk. There were intolerant attitudes towards AIDS patients. About half the young people knew that prostitution and homosexuality existed in their area.

  1. High Resolution Tsunami Modelling for the Evaluation of Potential Risk Areas in Setubal (United States)

    Ribeiro, João.; Silva, Adélio; Leitão, Paulo


    Modeling has a relevant role in today's natural hazards mitigation planning as it can cover a wide range of natural phenomena. This is also the case for an event like a tsunami. In order to support the urban planning or prepare emergency response plans it is of major importance to be able to properly evaluate the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipments. The use of high resolution models can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas which complemented with other data such as the type of buildings, location of prioritary equipments, etc., may effectively contribute to better identify the most vulnerable zones, define rescue and escape routes and adequate the emergency plans to the constraints associated to these type of events. In the framework of FP6 SCHEMA project these concepts are being applied to different test sites and a detailed evaluation of the vulnerability of buildings and people to a tsunami event is being evaluated. One of the sites selected it is located in Portugal, in the Atlantic coast, and it refers to Setúbal area which is located about 40 km south of Lisbon. Within this site two specific locations are being evaluated: one is the city of Setúbal (in the Sado estuary right margin) and the other is the Tróia peninsula (in the Sado estuary left margin). Setúbal city is a medium size town with about 114,000 inhabitants while Tróia is a touristic resort located in a shallow area with a high seasonal occupation and has the river Sado as one of the main sources of income to the city. Setúbal was one of the Portuguese villages that was seriously damaged by the of 1755 earthquake event. The 1755 earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, took place on 1 November 1755, the catholic holiday of All Saints, around 09:30 AM. The earthquake was followed by a tsunami and fires which caused a huge destruction of Lisboa and Setúbal In the framework of the present study, a detailed evaluation of

  2. Role of High Augmentation Index in Spontaneous Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Keong Lee


    Conclusion: Admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, total leukocyte count and haematoma volume were significant predictors for 3-month poor outcome; high AI and midline shift were significant predictors for 3-month mortality.

  3. Large area thinned planar sensors for future high-luminosity-LHC upgrades (United States)

    Wittig, T.; Lawerenz, A.; Röder, R.


    Planar hybrid silicon sensors are a well proven technology for past and current particle tracking detectors in HEP experiments. However, the future high-luminosity upgrades of the inner trackers at the LHC experiments pose big challenges to the detectors. A first challenge is an expected radiation damage level of up to 2ṡ 1016 neq/cm2. For planar sensors, one way to counteract the charge loss and thus increase the radiation hardness is to decrease the thickness of their active area. A second challenge is the large detector area which has to be built as cost-efficient as possible. The CiS research institute has accomplished a proof-of-principle run with n-in-p ATLAS-Pixel sensors in which a cavity is etched to the sensor's back side to reduce its thickness. One advantage of this technology is the fact that thick frames remain at the sensor edges and guarantee mechanical stability on wafer level while the sensor is left on the resulting thin membrane. For this cavity etching technique, no handling wafers are required which represents a benefit in terms of process effort and cost savings. The membranes with areas of up to ~ 4 × 4 cm2 and thicknesses of 100 and 150 μm feature a sufficiently good homogeneity across the whole wafer area. The processed pixel sensors show good electrical behaviour with an excellent yield for a suchlike prototype run. First sensors with electroless Ni- and Pt-UBM are already successfully assembled with read-out chips.

  4. Indoor residual spraying of insecticide and malaria morbidity in a high transmission intensity area of Uganda. (United States)

    Kigozi, Ruth; Baxi, Sanjiv M; Gasasira, Anne; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kakeeto, Stella; Nasr, Sussann; Rubahika, Denis; Dissanayake, Gunawardena; Kamya, Moses R; Filler, Scott; Dorsey, Grant


    Recently the use of indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) has greatly increased in Africa; however, limited data exist on the quantitative impacts of IRS on health outcomes in highly malaria endemic areas. Routine data were collected on more than 90,000 patient visits at a single health facility over a 56 month period covering five rounds of IRS using three different insecticides. Temporal associations between the timing of IRS and the probability of a patient referred for microscopy having laboratory confirmed malaria were estimated controlling for seasonality and age. Considering patients less than five years of age there was a modest decrease in the odds of malaria following the 1(st) round of IRS using DDT (OR = 0.76, p<0.001) and the 2(nd) round using alpha-cypermethrin (OR = 0.83, p = 0.002). Following rounds 3-5 using bendiocarb there was a much greater decrease in the odds of malaria (ORs 0.34, 0.16, 0.17 respectively, p<0.001 for all comparisons). Overall, the impact of IRS was less pronounced among patients 5 years or older. IRS was associated with a reduction in malaria morbidity in an area of high transmission intensity in Uganda and the benefits appeared to be greatest after switching to a carbamate class of insecticide.

  5. Indoor residual spraying of insecticide and malaria morbidity in a high transmission intensity area of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kigozi

    Full Text Available Recently the use of indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS has greatly increased in Africa; however, limited data exist on the quantitative impacts of IRS on health outcomes in highly malaria endemic areas.Routine data were collected on more than 90,000 patient visits at a single health facility over a 56 month period covering five rounds of IRS using three different insecticides. Temporal associations between the timing of IRS and the probability of a patient referred for microscopy having laboratory confirmed malaria were estimated controlling for seasonality and age. Considering patients less than five years of age there was a modest decrease in the odds of malaria following the 1(st round of IRS using DDT (OR = 0.76, p<0.001 and the 2(nd round using alpha-cypermethrin (OR = 0.83, p = 0.002. Following rounds 3-5 using bendiocarb there was a much greater decrease in the odds of malaria (ORs 0.34, 0.16, 0.17 respectively, p<0.001 for all comparisons. Overall, the impact of IRS was less pronounced among patients 5 years or older.IRS was associated with a reduction in malaria morbidity in an area of high transmission intensity in Uganda and the benefits appeared to be greatest after switching to a carbamate class of insecticide.

  6. Structural Impediments to Condom Access in a High HIV/STI-Risk Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Rizkalla


    Full Text Available As embarrassment is a known obstacle to condom acquisition, selling condoms from physically inaccessible places that require personnel assistance constitutes a barrier to access. This study investigates the extent of this barrier in the Bronx, a high HIV/STI prevalence county of New York. 75 of 320 listed Bronx pharmacies were sampled via computer randomization. Investigators coded condom placement and physical accessibility within these pharmacies and 140 surrounding stores. 91% of sites sold condoms. In 82%, condoms could not be accessed without assistance. Condoms were physically inaccessible in venues most encountered in the community: grocery stores versus pharmacies (OR=15; 95% CI, 5–48, independent versus chain pharmacies (OR=32; 95% CI, 6–235. They were physically inaccessible more in the lowest SES/highest HIV prevalence areas versus the highest SES/lowest HIV prevalence areas (OR = 4.3, 95% CI, 1.1–17. Findings can inform efforts to increase accessibility of condoms, distribute condoms in alternative settings, and prompt similar investigations in other high-risk communities.

  7. Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazny, Miroslaw, E-mail: [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Department of Hydrology, 7 Gronostajowa Str., 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Astel, Aleksander, E-mail: [Environmental Chemistry Research Unit, Biology and Environmental Protection Institute, Pomeranian Academy, 22a Arciszewskiego Str., Slupsk, 76-200 (Poland); Wolanin, Anna [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Department of Hydrology, 7 Gronostajowa Str., 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Malek, Stanislaw, E-mail: [Department of Forest Ecology, Forest Faculty, Agricultural University of Cracow, 46 29 Listopada Ave., Cracow, 31-425 (Poland)


    The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocholowski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocholowski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. - Highlights: > We use SOM approach to explore physiochemical data for mountain waters. > Geologic structure and hydrological events impact water chemistry. > Limited leaching, typical of crystalline core, reflects in low water mineralization. > Sedimentary rocks are susceptible for leaching. > Eutrophication has not been shown to be a threat in the Chocholowska Valley. - Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in unique high-mountain area was evaluated by the self-organizing map technique.

  8. High-resolution and large-area nanoparticle arrays using EUV interference lithography. (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Tschupp, Simon Andreas; Oezaslan, Mehtap; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Ekinci, Yasin


    Well-defined model systems are needed for better understanding of the relationship between optical, electronic, magnetic, and catalytic properties of nanoparticles and their structure. Chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles results in large size and shape dispersion and lack of lateral order. In contrast, conventional top-down lithography techniques provide control over the lateral order and dimensions. However, they are either limited in resolution or have low throughput and therefore do not enable the large patterning area needed to obtain good signal-to-noise ratio in common analytical and characterization techniques. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has the throughput and simplicity advantages of photolithography as well as high resolution due to its wavelength. Using EUV achromatic Talbot lithography, we have obtained 15 nm particle arrays with a periodicity of about 100 nm over an area of several square centimeters with high-throughput enabling the use of nanotechnology for fabrication of model systems to study large ensembles of well-defined identical nanoparticles with a density of 10(10) particles cm(-2).

  9. Forecasting and analyzing high O3 time series in educational area through an improved chaotic approach (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Zila Abd; Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md


    Forecasting and analyzing the ozone (O3) concentration time series is important because the pollutant is harmful to health. This study is a pilot study for forecasting and analyzing the O3 time series in one of Malaysian educational area namely Shah Alam using chaotic approach. Through this approach, the observed hourly scalar time series is reconstructed into a multi-dimensional phase space, which is then used to forecast the future time series through the local linear approximation method. The main purpose is to forecast the high O3 concentrations. The original method performed poorly but the improved method addressed the weakness thereby enabling the high concentrations to be successfully forecast. The correlation coefficient between the observed and forecasted time series through the improved method is 0.9159 and both the mean absolute error and root mean squared error are low. Thus, the improved method is advantageous. The time series analysis by means of the phase space plot and Cao method identified the presence of low-dimensional chaotic dynamics in the observed O3 time series. Results showed that at least seven factors affect the studied O3 time series, which is consistent with the listed factors from the diurnal variations investigation and the sensitivity analysis from past studies. In conclusion, chaotic approach has been successfully forecast and analyzes the O3 time series in educational area of Shah Alam. These findings are expected to help stakeholders such as Ministry of Education and Department of Environment in having a better air pollution management.

  10. Non-activated high surface area expanded graphite oxide for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermisoglou, E.C.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Romanos, G.E.; Boukos, N.; Giannouri, M. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology “Demokritos”, 153 43 Ag. Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece); Lei, C.; Lekakou, C. [Division of Mechanical, Medical, and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Trapalis, C., E-mail: [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology “Demokritos”, 153 43 Ag. Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One-step exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide via microwave irradiation. • Effect of pristine graphite (type, flake size) on the microwave expanded material. • Effect of pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the produced expanded material. • Expanded graphene materials with high BET surface areas (940 m{sup 2}/g–2490 m{sup 2}/g). • Non-activated graphene based materials suitable for supercapacitors. - Abstract: Microwave irradiation of graphite oxide constitutes a facile route toward production of reduced graphene oxide, since during this treatment both exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide occurs. In this work, the effect of pristine graphite (type, size of flakes), pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the finally produced expanded material was examined. All the types of graphite that were tested afforded materials with high BET surface areas ranging from 940 m{sup 2}/g to 2490 m{sup 2}/g, without intervening an activation stage at elevated temperature. SEM and TEM images displayed exfoliated structures, where the flakes were significantly detached and curved. The quality of the reduced graphene oxide sheets was evidenced both by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrode material capacitance was determined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The materials with PEDOT binder had better performance (∼97 F/g) at low operation rates while those with PVDF binder performed better (∼20 F/g) at higher rates, opening up perspectives for their application in supercapacitors.

  11. Seasonal Local Allergic Rhinitis in Areas With High Concentrations of Grass Pollen. (United States)

    Blanca-Lopez, N; Campo, P; Salas, M; García Rodríguez, C; Palomares, F; Blanca, M; Canto, G; Feo Brito, F; Rondon, C


    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a phenotype of allergic rhinitis characterized by the presence of a localized immune response in the nasal mucosa of patients with negative skin prick test (SPT) results and undetectable serum specific IgE (sIgE). It unknown whether LAR is limited to areas with low or moderate aeroallergen exposure. To explore the presence of LAR and the clinical and immunological characteristics of this entity in geographic areas with high grass pollen loads. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in 2 hospitals in central Spain (Madrid and Ciudad Real). Sixty-one patients with seasonal rhinitis and negative SPT results and undetectable serum sIgE were evaluated using a clinical questionnaire, determination of serum total IgE, and a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) with Phleum species. The response to NAPT was monitored using assessment of nasal symptoms, acoustic rhinometry, and determination of sIgE, tryptase, and eosinophil cationic protein in the nasal cavity. Seasonal LAR was detected in 37 patients (61%) using the techniques described above. Eleven percent of patients with LAR were adolescents or children, and 14% reported onset of rhinitis in childhood. Most patients reported persistent-moderate seasonal nasal symptoms, and 41% reported worsening of the disease during the last 2 years. Conjunctivitis was the most common comorbidity, affecting 95% of cases. LAR to grass pollen is relevant in patients with seasonal symptoms indicative of allergic rhinitis but with a negative skin test result who live in areas with high allergenic pollen loads. This entity should be included the differential diagnosis of rhinitis.

  12. Formula and scale for body surface area estimation in high-risk infants. (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmee


    Advances in medical technology and the health sciences have lead to a rapid increase in the prevalence and morbidity of high-risk infants with chronic or permanent sequels such as the birth of early preterm infants. A suitable formula is therefore needed for body surface area (BSA) estimation for high-risk infants to more accurately devise therapeutic regimes in clinical practice. A cohort study involving 5014 high-risk infants was conducted to develop a suitable formula for estimating BSA using four of the existing formulas in the literature. BSA of high-risk infants was calculated using the four BSA equations (Boyd-BSA, Dubois-BSA, Meban-BSA, Mosteller-BSA), from which a new calculation, Mean-BSA, was arithmetically derived as a reference BSA measure. Multiple-regression was performed using nonlinear least squares curve fitting corresponding to the trend line and the new equation, Neo-BSA, developed using Excel and SPSS 17.0. The Neo-BSA equation was constructed as follows: Neo-BSA = 5.520 x W(0.5526) x L(0.300). With the assumption of the least square root relation between weight and length, a BSA scale using only weight was fabricated specifically for clinical applications where weight is more available in high-risk infant populations than is length. The validity of Neo-BSA was evaluated against Meban-BSA, the best of the four equations for high-risk infants, as there is a similarity of subjects in the two studies. The other formulas revealed substantial variances in BSA compared to Neo-BSA. This study developed a new surface area equation, Neo-BSA, as the most suitable formula for BSA measurement of high-risk infants in modern-day societies, where an emerging population of newborns with shorten gestational ages are becoming more prevalent as a result of new advances in the health sciences and new development of reproductive technologies. In particular, a scale for 400-7000 g body weight babies derived from the Neo-BSA equation has the clinical advantage of

  13. Large-Scale Deletions and SMADIP1 Truncating Mutations in Syndromic Hirschsprung Disease with Involvement of Midline Structures (United States)

    Amiel, Jeanne; Espinosa-Parrilla, Yolanda; Steffann, Julie; Gosset, Philippe; Pelet, Anna; Prieur, Marguerite; Boute, Odile; Choiset, Agnès; Lacombe, Didier; Philip, Nicole; Le Merrer, Martine; Tanaka, Hajime; Till, Marianne; Touraine, Renaud; Toutain, Annick; Vekemans, Michel; Munnich, Arnold; Lyonnet, Stanislas


    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a common malformation of neural-crest–derived enteric neurons that is frequently associated with other congenital abnormalities. The SMADIP1 gene recently has been recognized as disease causing in some patients with 2q22 chromosomal rearrangement, resulting in syndromic HSCR with mental retardation, with microcephaly, and with facial dysmorphism. We screened 19 patients with HSCR and mental retardation and eventually identified large-scale SMADIP1 deletions or truncating mutations in 8 of 19 patients. These results allow further delineation of the spectrum of malformations ascribed to SMADIP1 haploinsufficiency, which includes frequent features such as hypospadias and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Thus, SMADIP1, which encodes a transcriptional corepressor of Smad target genes, may play a role not only in the patterning of neural-crest–derived cells and of CNS but also in the development of midline structures in humans. PMID:11595972

  14. Large area scanning probe microscope in ultra-high vacuum demonstrated for electrostatic force measurements on high-voltage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Gysin


    Full Text Available Background: The resolution in electrostatic force microscopy (EFM, a descendant of atomic force microscopy (AFM, has reached nanometre dimensions, necessary to investigate integrated circuits in modern electronic devices. However, the characterization of conducting or semiconducting power devices with EFM methods requires an accurate and reliable technique from the nanometre up to the micrometre scale. For high force sensitivity it is indispensable to operate the microscope under high to ultra-high vacuum (UHV conditions to suppress viscous damping of the sensor. Furthermore, UHV environment allows for the analysis of clean surfaces under controlled environmental conditions. Because of these requirements we built a large area scanning probe microscope operating under UHV conditions at room temperature allowing to perform various electrical measurements, such as Kelvin probe force microscopy, scanning capacitance force microscopy, scanning spreading resistance microscopy, and also electrostatic force microscopy at higher harmonics. The instrument incorporates beside a standard beam deflection detection system a closed loop scanner with a scan range of 100 μm in lateral and 25 μm in vertical direction as well as an additional fibre optics. This enables the illumination of the tip–sample interface for optically excited measurements such as local surface photo voltage detection.Results: We present Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM measurements before and after sputtering of a copper alloy with chromium grains used as electrical contact surface in ultra-high power switches. In addition, we discuss KPFM measurements on cross sections of cleaved silicon carbide structures: a calibration layer sample and a power rectifier. To demonstrate the benefit of surface photo voltage measurements, we analysed the contact potential difference of a silicon carbide p/n-junction under illumination.

  15. The ciliogenic transcription factor RFX3 regulates early midline distribution of guidepost neurons required for corpus callosum development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Benadiba

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum (CC is the major commissure that bridges the cerebral hemispheres. Agenesis of the CC is associated with human ciliopathies, but the origin of this default is unclear. Regulatory Factor X3 (RFX3 is a transcription factor involved in the control of ciliogenesis, and Rfx3-deficient mice show several hallmarks of ciliopathies including left-right asymmetry defects and hydrocephalus. Here we show that Rfx3-deficient mice suffer from CC agenesis associated with a marked disorganisation of guidepost neurons required for axon pathfinding across the midline. Using transplantation assays, we demonstrate that abnormalities of the mutant midline region are primarily responsible for the CC malformation. Conditional genetic inactivation shows that RFX3 is not required in guidepost cells for proper CC formation, but is required before E12.5 for proper patterning of the cortical septal boundary and hence accurate distribution of guidepost neurons at later stages. We observe focused but consistent ectopic expression of Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8 at the rostro commissural plate associated with a reduced ratio of GLIoma-associated oncogene family zinc finger 3 (GLI3 repressor to activator forms. We demonstrate on brain explant cultures that ectopic FGF8 reproduces the guidepost neuronal defects observed in Rfx3 mutants. This study unravels a crucial role of RFX3 during early brain development by indirectly regulating GLI3 activity, which leads to FGF8 upregulation and ultimately to disturbed distribution of guidepost neurons required for CC morphogenesis. Hence, the RFX3 mutant mouse model brings novel understandings of the mechanisms that underlie CC agenesis in ciliopathies.

  16. A dynamic aerodynamic resistance approach to calculate high resolution sensible heat fluxes in urban areas (United States)

    Crawford, Ben; Grimmond, Sue; Kent, Christoph; Gabey, Andrew; Ward, Helen; Sun, Ting; Morrison, William


    Remotely sensed data from satellites have potential to enable high-resolution, automated calculation of urban surface energy balance terms and inform decisions about urban adaptations to environmental change. However, aerodynamic resistance methods to estimate sensible heat flux (QH) in cities using satellite-derived observations of surface temperature are difficult in part due to spatial and temporal variability of the thermal aerodynamic resistance term (rah). In this work, we extend an empirical function to estimate rah using observational data from several cities with a broad range of surface vegetation land cover properties. We then use this function to calculate spatially and temporally variable rah in London based on high-resolution (100 m) land cover datasets and in situ meteorological observations. In order to calculate high-resolution QH based on satellite-observed land surface temperatures, we also develop and employ novel methods to i) apply source area-weighted averaging of surface and meteorological variables across the study spatial domain, ii) calculate spatially variable, high-resolution meteorological variables (wind speed, friction velocity, and Obukhov length), iii) incorporate spatially interpolated urban air temperatures from a distributed sensor network, and iv) apply a modified Monte Carlo approach to assess uncertainties with our results, methods, and input variables. Modeled QH using the aerodynamic resistance method is then compared to in situ observations in central London from a unique network of scintillometers and eddy-covariance measurements.

  17. 78 FR 72753 - Notice of Funds Availability for Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Notice of Funds Availability for Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas; Extension of Application Deadline AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice; extension of NOFA... deadline for funds available under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas program...

  18. Averaged Solar Radiation Pressure Modeling for High Area-to-Mass Ratio Objects in Geostationary Space (United States)

    Eapen, Roshan Thomas

    Space Situational Awareness is aimed at providing timely and accurate information of the space environment. This was originally done by maintaining a catalog of space objects states (position and velocity). Traditionally, a cannonball model would be used to propagate the dynamics. This can be acceptable for an active satellite since its attitude motion can be stabilized. However, for non-functional space debris, the cannonball model would disappoint because it is attitude independent and the debris is prone to tumbling. Furthermore, high area-to-mass ratio objects are sensitive to very small changes in perturbations, particularly those of the non-conservative kind. This renders the cannonball model imprecise in propagating the orbital motion of such objects. With the ever-increasing population of man-made space debris, in-orbit explosions, collisions and potential impacts of near Earth objects, it has become imperative to modify the traditional approach to a more predictive, tactical and exact rendition. Hence, a more precise orbit propagation model needs to be developed which warrants a better understanding of the perturbations in the near Earth space. The attitude dependency of some perturbations renders the orbit-attitude motion to be coupled. In this work, a coupled orbit-attitude model is developed taking both conservative and non-conservative forces and torques into account. A high area-to-mass ratio multi-layer insulation in geostationary space is simulated using the coupled dynamics model. However, the high fidelity model developed is computationally expensive. This work aims at developing a model to average the short-term solar radiation pressure force to perform computationally better than the cannonball model and concurrently have a comparable fidelity to the coupled orbit-attitude model.

  19. High-resolution shallow seismic tomography of a hydrothermal area: application to the Solfatara, Pozzuoli (United States)

    Letort, J.; Roux, P.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Coutant, O.; Cros, E.; Wathelet, M.; Cardellini, C.; Avino, R.


    The Solfatara is one of the major volcanoes of the Phlegrean Fields (Campi Flegrei) volcanic complex, and it is located in a densely populated area a few kilometres west of the city of Naples. It is an active resurgent caldera that has been characterized by a rich history of surface-ground deformation and soil diffuse degassing and fumarolic emissions, which are indications of the top of a hydrothermal plume. A seismic survey was completed in May 2009 for the characterization of the main subsurface features of the Solfatara. Using the complete data set, we have carried out surface wave inversion with high spatial resolution. A classical minimization of a least-squares objective function was first computed to retrieve the dispersion curves of the surface waves. Then, the fitting procedure between the data and a three-sediment-layer forward model was carried out (to a depth of 7 m), using an improved version of the neighbourhood algorithm. The inversion results indicate a NE-SW fault, which is not visible at the surface. This was confirmed by a temperature survey conducted in 2010. A passive seismic experiment localized the ambient noise sources that correlate well with the areas of high CO2 flux and high soil temperatures. Finally, considering that the intrinsic attenuation is proportional to the frequency, a centroid analysis provides an overview of the attenuation of the seismic waves, which is closely linked to the petrophysical properties of the rock. These different approaches that merge complete active and passive seismic data with soil temperature and CO2 flux maps confirm the presence of the hydrothermal system plume. Some properties of the top of the plume are indicated and localized.

  20. Aging changes of cerebral high intensity areas on T[sub 2]-weighted MRI. A study in medical checkup patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Taniguchi, Katsumi; Takada, Soshun; Furuse, Masahiro


    To determine normal aging process of the brain, cerebral T[sub 2]-weighted MRI was evaluated in 400 healthy individuals who visited our hospital for routine medical checkups. High intensity areas (measuring 2 mm x 2mm or more) were observed most frequently in the cerebral white matter including the corona radiata (CR). The incidence of these areas increased linearly with age, and approached about 50% in the patients of the seventh decade. High intensity areas in the basal ganglia (BG) were the second commonest. High intensity areas were rarely seen in the thalamus (TH) and pontine base (PO). High intensity areas were confined to the CR (66.9%) in the majority of the cases, while there were few cases having these areas restricted to the BG, TH and PO, that is, most of them were accompanied by additional high intensity areas in the CR. Periventricular hyperintensity areas increased in size with age, and were prominent in those who had multiple or large high intensity areas in the CR, or those who had signal hyperintensity in the BG, TH or PO. (author).

  1. Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt A. Bijker


    Full Text Available The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbeing. We provide empirical evidence for this urban–rural interconnection, using results from a survey in the Netherlands. In addition to their attachment to local and regional green places, survey results show that residents of the capital city of Amsterdam have a high appreciation of a wide range of natural, rural places throughout the country. We argue that these (until now invisible urban–rural ties should be made more visible because these natural areas enjoyed by urban residents can no longer be taken for granted. Financial and other support for nature conservation are therefore needed. However, to organise support for nature can often be problematic because nature is a public good and collective action is often difficult to launch. The invisible and distant ties of urban dwellers for rural areas complicate the task even more. Nevertheless, it is increasingly recognised that the Internet opens many doors for community building and may help to overcome the “illogic” of collective action. In the research project “Sympathy for the Commons”, we aim to investigate the possibilities provided by the internet by building online communities around nature areas and enquiring into the available support and funding that these communities can provide.

  2. Gender differences in low and high pain palpation thresholds in the TMJ and neck areas. (United States)

    Widmalm, Sven E; McKay, Duane C; Radke, John C; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaorui; Wang, Meiqing


    The null hypothesis was that pain pressure thresholds are the same for young healthy males and females and do not differ between the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and muscle sites. The aim of the current study was to compare pain pressure threshold levels using an algometer with a convex-formed contact piece and pressure increase rates similar to those in conventional finger palpation, making the conditions more like clinical examination of painful spots with commonly used physiotherapeutic methods. Healthy subjects, 12 male, mean age 22.5 +/- 1.62 (SD), and 12 female, 22.4 +/- 2.19 (SD), were enrolled. A transducer with a calibrated load range, 0 to 25 pounds, was used to measure pressure threshold levels for low (T1), VAS to approximately 2, and high (T2), VAS to approximately 8, pain levels bilaterally in the occipital (OC), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), upper trapezius (TU), transverse process of first vertebra (C1), and lateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) areas. The null hypothesis was rejected. Levels T1 and T2 were significantly lower in the females in all tested areas. The range of the mean for T1 levels was 4.9-8.0 pounds for males and 3.2-5.1 pounds for females. For T2 levels, the range was 8.9-15.6 pounds for males and 6.2-10.3 pounds for females. Significant differences were found between muscle sites. These results support the use of different threshold levels: a) for males and females; and b) for different muscle areas.

  3. Large-Area Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Pree, Elias


    During the so-called Phase-2 Upgrade, the CMS experiment at CERN will undergo significant improvements to cope with the 10-fold luminosity increase of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era. Especially the forward calorimetry will suffer from very high radiation levels and intensified pileup in the detectors. For this reason, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (CE-E) and hadronic (CE-H) compartments. The CE-E and a large fraction of CE-H will consist of a sandwich structure with silicon as active detector material. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing sensor development for the HGCAL and highlights important design features and measurement techniques. The design and layout of an 8-inch silicon sensor prototype is shown. The hexagonal sensors consist of 235 pads, each with an area of about \\mbox{1~cm$^{2}$}. Furthermore, Synopsys...

  4. High performance PtSi linear and area focal plane arrays (United States)

    Maddoux, Bob; Burt, Steve


    The operation, performance, and applications are set forth for linear and area focal plane arrays which use PtSi Schottky barrier diodes to image in the 1 to 5.5 micron spectral range. Two linear FPAs, with pixels spaced on 25 micron centers, are considered. A digital scan readout is used in these arrays. A discussion of a 128 by 128 element PtSi FPA follows, where a MOS/CTD readout structure is employed. The digital shift register addresses diode rows one by one due to the parallel connection of the MOS multiplexer switches in this device. Two bucket brigade charge transfer registers are utilized for signal readout. Lastly, a high fill factor, low noise 512 by 512 PtSi FPA is discussed, which uses a new line-addressed charge-accumulation (LACA) CCD in an interline transfer configuration and a multiple-readout horizontal register. The digital scan readout allows high sensitivity and signal levels. The second device and the LACA structure permit a high fill factor and charge handling capacity. The lower cost and higher resolution of the latter devices are underscored, and applications for all the FPAs are listed.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of high surface area ZIF-8 with minimal use of TEA (United States)

    Butova, V. V.; Budnyk, A. P.; Bulanova, E. A.; Lamberti, C.; Soldatov, A. V.


    In this paper we present, for the first time, a simple hydrothermal recipe for the synthesis of ZIF-8 Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) with a large specific surface area (1340 m2/g by BET). An important feature of the method is that the product forms in aqueous medium under standard hydrothermal conditions without DMF and great excess of linker with the use of TEA as structure directing agent. The ZIF-8 crystal phase of the product was confirmed by XRD; this technique has been also exploited to check the crystallinity and to follow the changes in the MOF structure induced by heating. TGA and temperature dependent XRD testify the high thermal stability of the material (470 °C in N2 and at 400 °C in air). The IR spectral profile of the material provides a complete picture of vibrations assigned to the linker and the metal center. The systematic investigation of the products obtained by increasing the TEA amount in the reacting medium from 0 to 25.5 mol equivalent Zn2+, allowed us to understand its role and to find 2.6 mol equivalent Zn2+ as the minimum amount needed to obtain a single phase ZIF-8 material with the high standard reported above. The stability of the material under severe basic conditions makes it a promising candidate in heterogeneous catalysis. The material has shown high capacity in I2 uptake, making it interesting also for selective molecular adsorption.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parent, D.; Abdo, A. A. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Kerr, M.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Romani, R. W.; Watters, K.; Craig, H. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baring, M. G. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); DeCesar, M. E.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Espinoza, C. M.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Johnston, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Kaspi, V. M.; Livingstone, M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Burgay, M. [INAF-Cagliari Astronomical Observatory, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Freire, P. C. C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); and others


    We report the detection of {gamma}-ray pulsations from the high-magnetic-field rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119-6127 using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The {gamma}-ray light curve of PSR J1119-6127 shows a single, wide peak offset from the radio peak by 0.43 {+-} 0.02 in phase. Spectral analysis suggests a power law of index 1.0 {+-} 0.3{sup +0.4}{sub -0.2} with an energy cutoff at 0.8 {+-} 0.2{sup +2.0}{sub -0.5} GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We discuss the emission models of PSR J1119-6127 and demonstrate that despite the object's high surface magnetic field-near that of magnetars-the field strength and structure in the {gamma}-ray emitting zone are apparently similar to those of typical young pulsars. Additionally, we present upper limits on the {gamma}-ray pulsed emission for the magnetically active PSR J1846-0258 in the supernova remnant Kesteven 75 and two other energetic high-B pulsars, PSRs J1718-3718 and J1734-3333. We explore possible explanations for the non-detection of these three objects, including peculiarities in their emission geometry.

  7. Transforaminal lumbar interbody graft placement using an articulating delivery arm facilitates increased segmental lordosis with superior anterior and midline graft placement. (United States)

    Shau, David N; Parker, Scott L; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Zuckerman, Scott L; Godil, Saniya S; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J


    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a frequently performed method of lumbar arthrodesis in patients failing medical management of back and leg pain. Accurate placement of the interbody graft and restoration of lordosis has been shown to be crucial when performing lumbar fusion procedures. We performed a single-surgeon, prospective, randomized study to determine whether a novel articulating versus traditional straight graft delivery arm system allows for superior graft placement and increased lordosis for single-level TLIF. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing single-level TLIF were included and prospectively randomized to one of the 2 groups (articulated vs. straight delivery arm system). Three radiographic characteristics were evaluated at 6-week follow-up: (1) degree of segmental lumbar lordosis at the fused level; (2) the percent anterior location of the interbody graft in disk space; and (3) the distance (mm) off midline of the interbody graft placement. Randomization yielded 16 patients in the articulated delivery arm cohort and 14 in the straight delivery arm cohort. The articulating delivery arm system yielded an average of 14.7-degree segmental lordosis at fused level, 35% anterior location, and 3.6 mm off midline. The straight delivery arm system yielded an average of 10.7-degree segmental lordosis at fused level, 46% anterior location, and 7.0 mm off midline. All 3 comparisons were statistically significant (Particulating delivery arm system facilitates superior anterior and midline TLIF graft placement allowing for increased segmental lordosis compared with a traditional straight delivery arm system.

  8. New physical examination tests for lumbar spondylolisthesis and instability: low midline sill sign and interspinous gap change during lumbar flexion-extension motion. (United States)

    Ahn, Kang; Jhun, Hyung-Joon


    Lumbar spondylolisthesis (LS) and lumbar instability (LI) are common disorders in patients with low back or lumbar radicular pain. However, few physical examination tests for LS and LI have been reported. In the study described herein, new physical examination tests for LS and LI were devised and evaluated for their validity. The test for LS was designated "low midline sill sign", and that for LI was designated "interspinous gap change" during lumbar flexion-extension motion. The validity of the low midline sill sign was evaluated in 96 patients with low back or lumbar radicular pain. Validity of the interspinous gap change during lumbar flexion-extension motion was evaluated in 73 patients with low back or lumbar radicular pain. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the two tests were also investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the low midline sill sign for LS were 81.3% and 89.1%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values of the test were 78.8% and 90.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the interspinous gap change test for LI were 82.2% and 60.7%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values of the test were 77.1% and 68.0%, respectively. The low midline sill sign and interspinous gap change tests are effective for the detection of LS and LI, and can be performed easily in an outpatient setting.

  9. Snow measurement system for airborne snow surveys (GPR system from helicopter) in high mountian areas. (United States)

    Sorteberg, Hilleborg K.


    In the hydropower industry, it is important to have precise information about snow deposits at all times, to allow for effective planning and optimal use of the water. In Norway, it is common to measure snow density using a manual method, i.e. the depth and weight of the snow is measured. In recent years, radar measurements have been taken from snowmobiles; however, few energy supply companies use this method operatively - it has mostly been used in connection with research projects. Agder Energi is the first Norwegian power producer in using radar tecnology from helicopter in monitoring mountain snow levels. Measurement accuracy is crucial when obtaining input data for snow reservoir estimates. Radar screening by helicopter makes remote areas more easily accessible and provides larger quantities of data than traditional ground level measurement methods. In order to draw up a snow survey system, it is assumed as a basis that the snow distribution is influenced by vegetation, climate and topography. In order to take these factors into consideration, a snow survey system for fields in high mountain areas has been designed in which the data collection is carried out by following the lines of a grid system. The lines of this grid system is placed in order to effectively capture the distribution of elevation, x-coordinates, y-coordinates, aspect, slope and curvature in the field. Variation in climatic conditions are also captured better when using a grid, and dominant weather patterns will largely be captured in this measurement system.

  10. Synthesize and characterization of graphene nanosheets with high surface area and nano-porous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabari Seresht, Razieh [Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanshahi, Mohsen, E-mail: [Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Alimorad [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar [Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A few-layer graphene was obtained by the expansion and exfoliation of water-intercalated graphene oxide via heat treatment in nitrogen environment in the temperature range of 200–1000 °C. Graphene which was synthesized at 800 °C (GT800) had a higher quality than other temperatures. This graphene has a high specific surface area (560.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and nano-porous structure. However, as for the purpose of comparison, graphene was synthesized with a colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets in water with hydrazine hydrate in various reaction times (12, 24 and 36 h). This method has obtained a six-layer graphene and graphene that was synthesized during 24 h reaction with hydrazine hydrate (GC24) had a higher quality in comparison with the other products. The GC24 had 195.97 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} specific surface area and nano-porous structure. The as-synthesized graphene were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as BET measurements. The results demonstrated that this low-cost method for few-layer grapheme, e.g. three-layers, fabrication is reliable and promising.

  11. Geomechanical Studies on Granite Intrusions in Alxa Area for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng


    Full Text Available Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa area of China. Surface investigation in the field and RQD analyses on the drill cores are carried out to evaluate the rock mass quality. Laboratory uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests on the samples prepared from the drill cores are conducted to estimate the strength properties of the host rock. It is found that the NRG sub-area has massive granite intrusions, and NRG01 cored granite samples show the best rock quality and higher peak strength under various confinements (0–30 MPa. NRG01 granite samples are applied for more detailed laboratory studies considering the effects of strain rate and temperature. It is observed that the increasing strain rate from 1.0 × 10−5–0.6 × 10−2·s−1 can lead to a limited increase on peak strength, but a much more violent failure under uniaxial compressive tests on the NRG01 granite samples, and the temperature increasing from 20 °C–200 °C may result in a slight increase of UCS, as well as more ductile post-peak behavior in the triaxial compressive tests.

  12. Large-area thermoelectric high-aspect-ratio nanostructures by atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Ruoho, Mikko; Juntunen, Taneli; Tittonen, Ilkka


    We report on the thermoelectric properties of large-area high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. We fabricate the structures by atomic layer deposition of conformal ZnO thin films on track-etched polycarbonate substrate. The resulting structure consists of ZnO tubules which continue through the full thickness of the substrate. The electrical and thermal properties of the structures are studied both in-plane and out-of-plane. They exhibit very low out-of-plane thermal conductivity down to 0.15 W m-1 K-1 while the in-plane sheet resistance of the films was found to be half that of the same film on glass substrate, allowing material-independent doubling of output power of any planar thin-film thermoelectric generator. The wall thickness of the fabricated nanotubes was varied within a range of up to 100 nm. The samples show polycrystalline nature with (002) preferred crystal orientation.

  13. High surface area graphite as alternative support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Folgado, M.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica (CSIC), C/Marie Curie, 2 Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    The suitability of a high surface area graphite (HSAG) as proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalyst support has been evaluated and compared with that of the most popular carbon black: the Vulcan XC72. It has been observed that Pt is arranged on the graphite surface resulting in different structures which depend on the catalysts synthesis conditions. The influence that the metal particle size and the metal-support interaction exert on the catalysts degradation rate is analyzed. Temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) under oxygen containing streams has been shown to be a useful method to assess the resistance of PEMFC catalysts to carbon corrosion. The synthesized Pt/HSAG catalysts have been evaluated in single cell tests in the cathode catalytic layer. The obtained results show that HSAG can be a promising alternative to the traditionally used Vulcan XC72 carbon black when suitable catalysts synthesis conditions are used. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. A.


    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  15. Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico. (United States)

    Morales-Espinoza, Emma Marianela; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; García-Gil, María del Mar; Vargas-Morales, Guadalupe; Méndez-Sánchez, José Domingo; Pérez-Ramírez, Margarita


    To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. From March to September 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the community to the nearest health care unit (indigenous language were significantly associated with the presence of E histolytical E dispar and Giardia lamblia. Source of water and lacking a refrigerator and electricity were associated with the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides. Measures should be taken to improve water quality, sewage disposal, and domestic hygiene. Furthermore, health programs should be established to promote breast-feeding, and education policies aimed at reinforcing the use of indigenous languages by physicians in the health services.

  16. Landslide hazard and land management in high-density urban areas of Campania region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Martire


    Full Text Available Results deriving from a research focused on the interplay between landslides and urban development are presented here, with reference to two densely populated settings located in the Campania region, Italy: the city of Naples and the island of Ischia. Both areas suffer adverse consequences from various types of landslides since at least 2000 yr. Our study evidences that, despite the long history of slope instabilities, the urban evolution, often illegal, disregarded the high landslide propensity of the hillsides; thus, unsafe lands have been occupied, even in recent years, when proper and strict rules have been enacted to downgrade the landslide risk. It is finally argued that future guidelines should not be entirely based upon physical countermeasures against mass movements. On the contrary, national and local authorities should enforce the territorial control, obliging citizens to respect the existing regulations and emphasizing the role of alternative, non-structural solutions.

  17. Growth of Hierarchically Structured High-Surface Area Alumina on FeCrAl Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Rallan


    Full Text Available The formation of metastable alumina phases due to the oxidation of commercial FeCrAl alloy wires (0.5 mm thickness at various temperatures and time periods has been examined. Samples were isothermally oxidised in air using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA. The morphology of the oxidised samples was analyzed using an Electronic Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM and X-ray on the surface analysis was done using an Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX analyzer. The technique of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD was used to characterize the phase of the oxide growth. The entire study showed that it was possible to grow high-surface area gamma alumina on the FeCrAl alloy wire surfaces when isothermally oxidised above 800°C over several hours.

  18. 76 FR 44613 - Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (United States)


    ...The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy has designated eight additional counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The new counties are (1) Orange County in New York as part of the New York/New Jersey HIDTA; (2) Medocino County in California as part of the Northern California HIDTA; (3) Porter County in Indiana as part of the Lake County HIDTA; (4) Lexington and Richland Counties in South Carolina as part of the Atlanta HIDTA; (5) Harford County in Maryland as part of the Washington/Baltimore HIDTA; (6) Putnam and Mercer Counties in West Virginia as part of the Appalachia HIDTA.

  19. Application of electrical and electromagnetic methods to study sedimentary covers in high mountain areas (United States)

    Tomecka-Suchoń, Sylwia; Żogała, Bogdan; Gołębiowski, Tomisław; Dzik, Grażyna; Dzik, Tomasz; Jochymczyk, Krzysztof


    The results of geophysical studies conducted with selected electrical and electromagnetic methods in the Kondratowa Valley in the Tatra Mountains (the Carpathian Mountains, Poland) are presented in the article. The surveys were performed with the following methods: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), georadar (GPR) and conductivity meter (CM). The objective of the noninvasive geophysical measurements was to determine the thickness of the Quaternary postglacial sediments that fill the bottom of the valley and to designate the accumulation of boulders deposited on Quaternary sediments. The results of ERT surveys conducted along the axis of the valley allowed to determine the changeability of the thickness of the postglacial sediments and allowed to designate a few areas of occurrence of boulders. The ERT, GPR and CM surveys conducted across the valley allowed to designate with high accuracy the thickness of the accumulation of boulders sliding down the valley bottom from the couloirs surrounding the valley.

  20. The Effect of Shadow Area on Sgm Algorithm and Disparity Map Refinement from High Resolution Satellite Stereo Images (United States)

    Tatar, N.; Saadatseresht, M.; Arefi, H.


    Semi Global Matching (SGM) algorithm is known as a high performance and reliable stereo matching algorithm in photogrammetry community. However, there are some challenges using this algorithm especially for high resolution satellite stereo images over urban areas and images with shadow areas. As it can be seen, unfortunately the SGM algorithm computes highly noisy disparity values for shadow areas around the tall neighborhood buildings due to mismatching in these lower entropy areas. In this paper, a new method is developed to refine the disparity map in shadow areas. The method is based on the integration of potential of panchromatic and multispectral image data to detect shadow areas in object level. In addition, a RANSAC plane fitting and morphological filtering are employed to refine the disparity map. The results on a stereo pair of GeoEye-1 captured over Qom city in Iran, shows a significant increase in the rate of matched pixels compared to standard SGM algorithm.

  1. Large-Area, Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Neutron Detector for Vehicle-Mounted Operation (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Martin, Christopher S.; Athanasiades, Athanasios; Regmi, Murari; Vazquez-Flores, Gerson J.; Davenport, Stephen; King, Nicholas S.; Lyons, Tom


    We have developed a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency neutron detector for vehicle-mounted operation. The detector, which has overall dimensions 12.7 cm x 91.4 cm x 102 cm (5”x36”x40”), a sensitive area equal to 0.85 m2 (1320 in2), and weight of 110 kg (242 lbs), employs an array of 90 boron-coated straw (BCS) detectors. PTI has also developed electronics to minimize cost and space while providing low-noise signal conditioning for both neutron and gamma detection channels, as well as low energy Bluetooth communication with handheld devices. Extremely low power consumption allows continuous use for 225 hours (-.10 days) using three AAA lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. We present radiological, mechanical, and environmental tests, collected from four full-scale prototypes. Outdoor neutron-counting tests with a moderated 252Cf source 2 m away from the center of the detector face showed an average detection rate of 5.5 cps/ng with a standard deviation of 0.09 cps/ng over the four individual detector measurements. Measurements showed a gamma rejection ratio of 1.0 x 10-8, and gamma absolute rejection ratio (GARRn) of 0.93. The prototypes were also operated successfully onboard a moving vehicle for high-speed tests and a long-range 1433-mile, two-day road trip from Houston, TX, USA, to Laurel, MD, USA. Using auxiliary DARPA SIGMA equipment, the GPS, timestamp, gamma and neutron data were transmitted over the cellular network with 10 Hz resolution to a server and real-time tracking website. Mechanical impact and electrostatic discharge testing produced no spurious counts in either the neutron or gamma channels. Ambient environmental temperature testing showed less than ±1% response variation over the range from -30°C to +55°C.

  2. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area (United States)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Guojun; Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Peng


    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m × 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s-1 and 0.1494 m s-2, respectively.

  3. Anatomical distribution of peptic ulcer in high incidence gastric cancer area

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    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano


    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer makes reference to the solution of continuity of gastric or duodenal wall beyond muscularis mucosae. Previously, duodenal location was more common than gastric, in a ratio ranging from 2:1 to 4:1. Despite this, after the discovery of the association between peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori, relationship between gastric and duodenal ulcer has spread to the equality. However, in areas with high incidence of gastric cancer, peptic ulcer seems to have a different behavior, existing predominance of gastric ulcer. Department of Cauca is have the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Colombia, with an annual rate of 42.5 /100,000 for males and 28.6 / 100,000 for women; however, it is unknown how peptic ulcer anatomically are distributed. Objective: To determine the anatomical distribution of peptic ulcer at endoscopy service of San José University Hospital of Popayán-Cauca, Colombia 2006-2012. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was realized. Database of endoscopy service of San José University Hospital of Popayán was reviewed and reports with diagnosis of peptic ulcer were studied. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15. Results: Gastric ulcer was more common than duodenal ulcer. Gastric ulcer was more common in men (gastric and duodenal ulcer 1:1. In women duodenal ulcer is 1:1. Conclusion: At endoscopy service of San José University Hospital, gastric ulcer is more common than duodenal ulcer, with differences in gender, as in other areas with high incidence of gastric cancer. That fact are suggests in current literature could be related with the presence of stumps of Helicobacter pylori with combined virulence for cancer and ulcer at gastric level seems to be related to the presence in the medium of common virulence strains of Helicobacter pylori for stomach cancer and ulcer gastric, although the current literature is unclear about it, and still needs more validations.

  4. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

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    A. F. Drago

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle.

    The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by

  5. High resolution numerical wave propagation in coastal area : benefits in assessment of the marine submersion (United States)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Cayol, Claude; Palany, Philippe


    Many numerical models based on equation of action conservation (N = E/σ) enables the simulation of sea states (WAM, WW3,...). They allow through parametric equations to define sources and sinks of wave energy (E(f,σ)) in spectral form. Statistics of the sea states can be predicted at medium or long term as the significant wave height, the wave pic direction, mean wave period, etc. Those predictions are better if initials and boundaries conditions together with 10m wind field are well defined. Basically the more homogeneous the marine area bathymetry is the more accurate the prediction will be. Météo-France for French West Indies and French Guiana (MF-DIRAG) is in charge of the safety of persons and goods tries to improve knowledge and capacity to evaluate the sea state at the coast and the marine submersion height using among other statistical methods (as return periods) and numerical simulations. The area of responsibility is large and includes different territory, type of coast and sea wave climate. Up today most part of the daily simulations were done for large areas and with large meshes (10km). The needs of more accurate values in the assessment of the marine submersion pushed to develop new strategies to estimate the level of the sea water on the coast line and therefore characterize the marine submersion hazard. Since 2013 new data are available to enhance the capacity to simulate the mechanical process at the coast. High resolution DEM Litto 3D for Guadeloupe and Martinique coasts with grid-spacing of 5m up to 5km of the coast are free of use. The study presents the methodology applied at MF-DIRAG in study mode to evaluate effects of wave breaking on coastline. The method is based on wave simulation downscaling form the Atlantic basin to the coastal area using MF-WAM to an sub kilometric unstructured WW3 or SWAN depending to the domain studied. At the final step a non-hydrostatic wave flow as SWASH is used on the coast completed by an analytical method

  6. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago


    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle. The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by internal dynamics, to be followed in

  7. Does greater specific leaf area plasticity help plants to maintain a high performance when shaded? (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Dawson, Wayne; Prati, Daniel; Haeuser, Emily; Feng, Yanhao; van Kleunen, Mark


    It is frequently assumed that phenotypic plasticity can be very advantageous for plants, because it may increase environmental tolerance (fitness homeostasis). This should, however, only hold for plastic responses that are adaptive, i.e. increase fitness. Numerous studies have shown shade-induced increases in specific leaf area (SLA), and there is wide consensus that this plastic response optimizes light capture and thus has to be adaptive. However, it has rarely been tested whether this is really the case. In order to identify whether SLA plasticity does contribute to the maintenance of high biomass of plant species under shaded conditions, a meta-analytical approach was employed. The data set included 280 species and 467 individual studies from 32 publications and two unpublished experiments. Plants increased their SLA by 55·4 % on average when shaded, while they decreased their biomass by 59·9 %. Species with a high SLA under high-light control conditions showed a significantly greater ability to maintain biomass production under shade overall. However, in contrast to the expectation of a positive relationship between SLA plasticity and maintenance of plant biomass, the results indicated that species with greater SLA plasticity were less able to maintain biomass under shade. Although a high SLA per se contributes to biomass homeostasis, there was no evidence that plasticity in SLA contributes to this. Therefore, it is argued that some of the plastic changes that are frequently thought to be adaptive might simply reflect passive responses to the environment, or result as by-products of adaptive plastic responses in other traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. Alu elements in primates are preferentially lost from areas of high GC content (United States)

    Brookfield, John FY


    The currently-accepted dogma when analysing human Alu transposable elements is that ‘young’ Alu elements are found in low GC regions and ‘old’ Alus in high GC regions. The correlation between high GC regions and high gene frequency regions make this observation particularly difficult to explain. Although a number of studies have tackled the problem, no analysis has definitively explained the reason for this trend. These observations have been made by relying on the subfamily as a proxy for age of an element. In this study, we suggest that this is a misleading assumption and instead analyse the relationship between the taxonomic distribution of an individual element and its surrounding GC environment. An analysis of 103906 Alu elements across 6 human chromosomes was carried out, using the presence of orthologous Alu elements in other primate species as a proxy for age. We show that the previously-reported effect of GC content correlating with subfamily age is not reflected by the ages of the individual elements. Instead, elements are preferentially lost from areas of high GC content over time. The correlation between GC content and subfamily may be due to a change in insertion bias in the young subfamilies. The link between Alu subfamily age and GC region was made due to an over-simplification of the data and is incorrect. We suggest that use of subfamilies as a proxy for age is inappropriate and that the analysis of ortholog presence in other primate species provides a deeper insight into the data. PMID:23717800

  9. Additional Midline Biopsies of the Peripheral Zone Associated with the First Endorectal Standard Sextant Pattern Improves the Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Detection in Japanese Patients. (United States)

    Soga, Norihito; Yatabe, Yasushi; Ogura, Yuji; Hayashi, Norio


    This study was designed to estimate the improved accuracy of prostate cancer (PCa) detection resulting from additional midline biopsies of the peripheral zone in first standard biopsy. Patients were classified into 3 groups: 402 cases of sextant biopsies (1995-2002), 488 cases of 8-core biopsies with 2 additional midline biopsies (2003-2006), and 391 cases of 10-core biopsies with 4 additional midline biopsies (2007-2012). The positive rate of each number of biopsies and changes in positive rates associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) ranges were estimated. The positive rate of core biopsy significantly improved with increasing numbers of core biopsies (30.1% for sextant, 43.4% for 8-core biopsies, and 53.1% for 10-core biopsies). The accuracy of biopsies for each PSA range also significantly improved (22.3% for sextant, 30.0% for 8-core biopsies, and 43.2% for 10-core biopsies in the PSA gray zone [4.01-10 ng/ml]; and 26.5% for sextant, 52.9% for 8-core biopsies, and 71.8% for 10-core biopsies in the intermediate PSA range [10.1-20 ng/ml]). In the 208 cases with positive results using the 10-core biopsy method, the distribution of Gleason scores did not differ between the sextant only group and the midline site only group. Additional midline biopsy was associated with improved accuracy of positive core biopsies in Japanese patients with a PSA range of 4.01-20 ng/ml. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


    Oliphant, Bonnie J; Barnes Heller, Heidi L; White, Jennifer M


    Difficulty has been encountered when trying to identify ante mortem prognostic indicators for dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (MUE). Identifying MRI imaging parameters associated with prognosis may impact treatment decision-making for clinician and owner. Our hypotheses for this retrospective cohort study are that dogs diagnosed with MUE that had midline shift on brain MRI would have a poorer survival compared to dogs without midline shift; and that younger age, lower weight, and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count would be correlated with improved survival. Medical records were reviewed from two institutions. Inclusion criteria included: clinical signs referable to intracranial disease, brain MRI at presentation, abnormal CSF analysis, and negative infectious disease testing. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated for midline shift using the T2-weighted transverse image at the interthalamic adhesion and at the site of maximal deviation. Fifty-two dogs met the inclusion criteria. Median midline deviation was 0.12 cm. Median survival for dogs with no shift was 906 days and with shift was 84 days. Survival was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.11). This remained true when correcting for age (P = 0.22) and CSF TNCC (total nucleated cell count) (P = 0.12). Age at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.02) and CSF TNCC (P = 0.03) were significantly associated with survival. Cerebrospinal fluid protein value (P = 0.84) and weight (P = 0.82) were not significantly associated with survival. In this study of 52 dogs with MUE, MRI evidence of midline brain shift between 0.04 and 0.3 cm at the level of the interthalamic adhesion was not associated with shorter survival. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Permeability surface area product analysis in malignant brain edema prediction - A pilot study. (United States)

    Volny, O; Cimflova, P; Lee, T-Y; Menon, B K; d'Esterre, C D


    Using an extended CT perfusion acquisition (150s), we sought to determine the association between perfusion parameters and malignant edema after ischemic stroke. Patients (from prospective study PROVE-IT, NCT02184936) with terminal internal carotid artery±proximal middle cerebral occlusion were involved. CTA was assessed for clot location and status of leptomeningeal collaterals. The following CTP parameters were calculated within the ischemic territory and contralaterally: permeability surface area product (PS), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV). PS was calculated using the adiabatic approximation to the Johnson and Wilson model. Outcome was evaluated by midline shift and infarction volume on follow-up imaging. Of 200 patients enrolled, 7 patients (3.5%) had midline shift≥5mm (2 excluded for poor-quality scans). Five patients with midline shift and 5 matched controls were analysed. There was no significant difference in mean PS, CBF and CBV within the ischemic territory between the two groups. A CBV threshold of 1.7ml/100g had the highest AUC=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.90 for early midline shift prediction, sensitivity and specificity were 0.83 and 0.67 respectively. Our preliminary results did not show significant differences in permeability surface area analysis if analysed for complete ischemic region. CBV parameter had the highest accuracy and there was a trend for the mean PS values for midline shift prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Air quality high resolution simulations of Italian urban areas with WRF-CHIMERE (United States)

    Falasca, Serena; Curci, Gabriele


    The new European Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC) encourages the use of modeling techniques to support the observations in the assessment and forecasting of air quality. The modelling system based on the combination of the WRF meteorological model and the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model is used to perform simulations at high resolution over the main Italian cities (e.g. Milan, Rome). Three domains covering Europe, Italy and the urban areas are nested with a decreasing grid size up to 1 km. Numerical results are produced for a winter month and a summer month of the year 2010 and are validated using ground-based observations (e.g. from the European air quality database AirBase). A sensitivity study is performed using different physics options, domain resolution and grid ratio; different urban parameterization schemes are tested using also characteristic morphology parameters for the cities considered. A spatial reallocation of anthropogenic emissions derived from international (e.g. EMEP, TNO, HTAP) and national (e.g. CTN-ACE) emissions inventories and based on the land cover datasets (Global Land Cover Facility and GlobCover) and the OpenStreetMap tool is also included. Preliminary results indicate that the introduction of the spatial redistribution at high-resolution allows a more realistic reproduction of the distribution of the emission flows and thus the concentrations of the pollutants, with significant advantages especially for the urban environments.

  13. Error characteristics of high resolution regional climate models over the Alpine area

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    Suklitsch, Martin; Gobiet, Andreas; Truhetz, Heimo; Khurshid Awan, Nauman [University of Graz, Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change and Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology, Institute of Physics, Graz (Austria); Goettel, Holger [German Emissions Trading Authority at the Federal Environment Agency, Berlin (Germany); Jacob, Daniela [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)


    This study describes typical error ranges of high resolution regional climate models operated over complex orography and investigates the scale-dependence of these error ranges. The results are valid primarily for the European Alpine region, but to some extent they can also be transferred to other orographically complex regions of the world. We investigate the model errors by evaluating a set of 62 one-year hindcast experiments for the year 1999 with four different regional climate models. The analysis is conducted for the parameters mean sea level pressure, air temperature (mean, minimum and maximum) and precipitation (mean, frequency and intensity), both as an area average over the whole modeled domain (the ''Greater Alpine Region'', GAR) and in six subregions. The subregional seasonal error ranges, defined as the interval between the 2.5th percentile and the 97.5th percentile, lie between -3.2 and +2.0 K for temperature and between -2.0 and +3.1 mm/day (-45.7 and +94.7%) for precipitation, respectively. While the temperature error ranges are hardly broadened at smaller scales, the precipitation error ranges increase by 28%. These results demonstrate that high resolution RCMs are applicable in relatively small scale climate impact studies with a comparable quality as on well investigated larger scales as far as temperature is concerned. For precipitation, which is a much more demanding parameter, the quality is moderately degraded on smaller scales. (orig.)

  14. Ozone formation in relation with combustion processes in highly populated urban areas

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    Pasquale Avino


    Full Text Available The complex chain of photochemical reactions is one of the most important tasks in the air quality evaluation, expecially in urban areas. In fact, in this case there are high emission levels of NOx and no-methane hydrocarbons by combustion processes such as autovehicular traffic, domestic heating and industrial plants. Ozone is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but it is formed from a complex series of reactions between emitted nitrogen oxides (NOx and reactive organic compounds (ROC. The high ozone concentrations, which occur during photochemical episodes, are usually accompanied by elevated concentrations of other photochemical oxidants such as nitric acid (HNO3, peroxyacylnitrates (PANs, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, etc. The complex series of these reactions constitutes the most important issue to the degradation of air quality. Further, the NMHCs play a key role in the formation of photochemical air pollution: they are considered as precursors for ozone production at the ground level when the sunlight and nitrogen oxides are present. From a practically point of view defining a quality standard or a limit is substantially correct but it is no sufficient to solve the problem. So it should become necessary to acquire knowledge on the different formation mechanisms of the photochemical pollution phenomena. In this paper there will be shown the results of a long-term study performed in Rome for evaluating the ozone formation in relationship with the autovehicular traffic density.

  15. Invasive Salmonella infections in areas of high and low malaria transmission intensity in Tanzania. (United States)

    Biggs, Holly M; Lester, Rebecca; Nadjm, Behzad; Mtove, George; Todd, Jim E; Kinabo, Grace D; Philemon, Rune; Amos, Ben; Morrissey, Anne B; Reyburn, Hugh; Crump, John A


     The epidemiology of Salmonella Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) differs, and prevalence of these pathogens among children in sub-Saharan Africa may vary in relation to malaria transmission intensity.  We compared the prevalence of bacteremia among febrile pediatric inpatients aged 2 months to 13 years recruited at sites of high and low malaria endemicity in Tanzania. Enrollment at Teule Hospital, the high malaria transmission site, was from June 2006 through May 2007, and at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), the low malaria transmission site, from September 2007 through August 2008. Automated blood culture, malaria microscopy with Giemsa-stained blood films, and human immunodeficiency virus testing were performed.  At Teule, 3639 children were enrolled compared to 467 at KCMC. Smear-positive malaria was detected in 2195 of 3639 (60.3%) children at Teule and 11 of 460 (2.4%) at KCMC (P Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 11 (0.3%) children at Teule and 6 (1.3%) at KCMC (P = .008). With NTS excluded, the prevalence of bacteremia at Teule was 5.0% and at KCMC 4.1% (P = .391).  Where malaria transmission was intense, invasive NTS was common and Salmonella Typhi was uncommon, whereas the inverse was observed at a low malaria transmission site. The relationship between these pathogens, the environment, and the host is a compelling area for further research.

  16. Frequent EGFR Positivity and Overexpression in High-Grade Areas of Human MPNSTs

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    Séverine Tabone-Eglinger


    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs are highly malignant and resistant. Transformation might implicate up regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Fifty-two MPNST samples were studied for EGFR, Ki-67, p53, and survivin expression by immunohistochemistry and for EGFR amplification by in situ hybridization. Results were correlated with clinical data. EGFR RNA was also quantified by RT-PCR in 20 other MPNSTs and 14 dermal neurofibromas. Half of the patients had a neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. EGFR expression, detected in 86% of MPNSTs, was more frequent in NF1 specimens and closely associated with high-grade and p53-positive areas. MPNSTs expressed more EGFR transcripts than neurofibromas. No amplification of EGFR locus was observed. NF1 status was the only prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, with median survivals of 18 and 43 months for patients with or without NF1. Finally, EGFR might become a new target for MPNSTs treatment, especially in NF1-associated MPNSTs.

  17. Random-Forest Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images and Ndsm Over Urban Areas (United States)

    Sun, X. F.; Lin, X. G.


    As an intermediate step between raw remote sensing data and digital urban maps, remote sensing data classification has been a challenging and long-standing research problem in the community of remote sensing. In this work, an effective classification method is proposed for classifying high-resolution remote sensing data over urban areas. Starting from high resolution multi-spectral images and 3D geometry data, our method proceeds in three main stages: feature extraction, classification, and classified result refinement. First, we extract color, vegetation index and texture features from the multi-spectral image and compute the height, elevation texture and differential morphological profile (DMP) features from the 3D geometry data. Then in the classification stage, multiple random forest (RF) classifiers are trained separately, then combined to form a RF ensemble to estimate each sample's category probabilities. Finally the probabilities along with the feature importance indicator outputted by RF ensemble are used to construct a fully connected conditional random field (FCCRF) graph model, by which the classification results are refined through mean-field based statistical inference. Experiments on the ISPRS Semantic Labeling Contest dataset show that our proposed 3-stage method achieves 86.9% overall accuracy on the test data.

  18. Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso

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    Alphonse Ouédraogo


    Full Text Available Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4% contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum. Out of the 369 (28.2% women with peripheral positive parasitemia, 211 (57.2% had placental malaria and 14 (3.8% had malaria parasites in their umbilical cord blood. The umbilical cord parasitemia levels were statistically associated with the presence of maternal peripheral parasitemia (OR=9.24, ≪0.001, placental parasitemia (OR=10.74, ≪0.001, high-density peripheral parasitemia (OR=9.62, ≪0.001, and high-density placental parasitemia (OR=4.91, =0.03. In Burkina Faso, the mother-to-child transmission rate of malaria appears to be low.

  19. Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred B.; Diarra, Amidou; Bougouma, Edith C. Christiane; Nébié, Issa; Konaté, Amadou T.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.


    Malaria congenital infection constitutes a major risk in malaria endemic areas. In this study, we report the prevalence of transplacental malaria in Burkina Faso. In labour and delivery units, thick and thin blood films were made from maternal, placental, and umbilical cord blood to determine malaria infection. A total of 1,309 mother/baby pairs were recruited. Eighteen cord blood samples (1.4%) contained malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum). Out of the 369 (28.2%) women with peripheral positive parasitemia, 211 (57.2%) had placental malaria and 14 (3.8%) had malaria parasites in their umbilical cord blood. The umbilical cord parasitemia levels were statistically associated with the presence of maternal peripheral parasitemia (OR = 9.24, P ≪ 0.001), placental parasitemia (OR = 10.74, P ≪ 0.001), high-density peripheral parasitemia (OR = 9.62, P ≪ 0.001), and high-density placental parasitemia (OR = 4.91, P = 0.03). In Burkina Faso, the mother-to-child transmission rate of malaria appears to be low. PMID:22174725

  20. Hydrophobic high surface area zeolites derived from fly ash for oil spill remediation. (United States)

    Sakthivel, Tamilselvan; Reid, David L; Goldstein, Ian; Hench, Larry; Seal, Sudipta


    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct with a predominantly aluminosilicate composition, is modified to develop an inexpensive sorbent for oil spill remediation. The as-produced fly ash is a hydrophilic material with poor sorption capacity. A simple two-step chemical modification process is designed to improve the oil sorption capacity. First, the fly ash was transformed to a zeolitic material via an alkali treatment, which increased the specific surface area up to 404 m(2) g(-1). Then, the material was surface functionalized to form a hydrophobic material with high contact angle up to 147° that floats on the surface of an oil-water mixture. The reported oil sorption capacities of X-type zeolite sorbent with different surface functionalization (propyl-, octyl-, octadecyl-trimethoxysilane and esterification) were estimated to 1.10, 1.02, 0.86, and 1.15 g g(-1), respectively. Oil sorption was about five times higher than the as-received fly ash (0.19 g g(-1)) and also had high buoyancy critical for economic cleanup of oil over water.

  1. Malaria morbidity in high and seasonal malaria transmission area of Burkina Faso.

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    Alphonse Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available Malariometric parameters are often primary endpoints of efficacy trials of malaria vaccine candidates. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of malaria prior to the conduct of a series of drug and vaccine trials in a rural area of Burkina Faso.Malaria incidence was prospectively evaluated over one year follow-up among two cohorts of children aged 0-5 years living in the Saponé health district. The parents of 1089 children comprising a passive case detection cohort were encouraged to seek care from the local health clinic at any time their child felt sick. Among this cohort, 555 children were randomly selected for inclusion in an active surveillance sub-cohort evaluated for clinical malaria during twice weekly home visits. Malaria prevalence was evaluated by cross-sectional survey during the low and high transmission seasons.Number of episodes per child ranged from 0 to 6 per year. Cumulative incidence was 67.4% in the passive and 86.2% in the active cohort and was highest among children 0-1 years. Clinical malaria prevalence was 9.8% in the low and 13.0% in the high season (p>0.05. Median days to first malaria episode ranged from 187 (95% CI 180-193 among children 0-1 years to 228 (95% CI 212, 242 among children 4-5 years. The alternative parasite thresholds for the malaria case definition that achieved optimal sensitivity and specificity (70-80% were 3150 parasites/µl in the high and 1350 parasites/µl in the low season.Clinical malaria burden was highest among the youngest age group children, who may represent the most appropriate target population for malaria vaccine candidate development. The pyrogenic threshold of parasitaemia varied markedly by season, suggesting a value for alternative parasitaemia levels in the malaria case defintion. Regional epidemiology of malaria described, Sapone area field centers are positioned for future conduct of malaria vaccine trials.

  2. Midline submental intubation might be the preferred alternative to oral and nasal intubation in elective oral and craniomaxillofacial surgery when indicated. (United States)

    Jin, Huijun; Patil, Pavan Manohar


    No consensus exists to date regarding the best method of controlling the airway for oral or craniomaxillofacial surgery when orotracheal and nasotracheal intubations are unsuccessful or contraindicated. The most commonly used method of tracheostomy has been associated with a high degree of morbidity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the indications, safety, efficacy, time required, drawbacks, complications, and costs of the midline submental intubation (SMI) approach in elective oral and craniomaxillofacial surgical procedures. A retrospective case series study was used to evaluate the surgical, financial, and photographic records of all patients who had undergone oral or craniomaxillofacial operations at Sharda University School of Dental Sciences, Greater Noida, from April 2006 to March 2014. The indications, drawbacks, time required for the procedure, ability to provide a secure airway, intra- and postoperative complications, and additional costs associated with SMI were analyzed. Of the 2,823 patients treated, the present study included 120 patients (97 men and 23 women, aged 19 to 60 years). The average time required for SMI was 10 ± 2 minutes. No episode of intraoperative oxygen desaturation was noted. One intraoperative complication, an injury to the ventral surface of the tongue, was encountered. Two patients developed infection at the skin incision site. No significant additional cost was incurred with the use of SMI. SMI has been successfully used in elective oral and craniomaxillofacial surgical procedures for which oral and nasal intubations were either not indicated or not possible. The advantages include a quick procedure, insignificant complications, the ability to provide a stable airway, and no added costs, making SMI a quick, safe, efficient, and cost-effective alternative in such cases. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the illite group the cause of high electrical conductivityin certain lithospheric areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muschietti


    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of the mineralogical-petrographic interpretation of the "anomalous" conductive layer inside the lithosphere, which has resulted from electromagnetic deep soundings. Three situations can be found: 1 a resistivity of less than 1 ? ·m in the Very High Conductivity Layer (VHCL; 2 a resistivity of 1÷100 ? ·m in the High Conductivity Layer (HCL; 3 a resistivity of 102 ÷ 103 ? ·m in the Continental Lower Crust (CLC. We have focused our attention on the HCL because of its widespread distribution. Most authors attribute HCL conductivity to the presence of salt water or graphitic materials, that are uniformly and continuously distributed inside rocks. Other hypotheses from the literature are the presence of oxides and/or sulphides, rock melting, and brine-bearing rocks. Each one of these elements can cause high electrical conductivity, depending on the petrophysical conditions, but much discussion involves the necessary physical continuity of the conductive elements. We forward one more hypothesis as follows. By means of experiments on rock samples from different geographical and deep areas, under simulated in situ physical conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, saturation, we have found resistivity values similar to the in situ ones. Chemical, mineralogical, and petrographic analyses have shown the presence of large amounts of phyllosilicate minerals, such as illite. These minerals act in two ways: they produce the physical continuity of associated conductive minerals, and they decrease the resistivity of rocks. This second hypothesis is consistent with both the very widespread diffusion of illite inside the Earth's crust, and with the good conductivity found in depth.

  4. Genetic heterogeneity of oesophageal cancer in high-incidence areas of southern and northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Guohong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oesophageal cancer is one of the most common and deadliest cancers worldwide. Our previous population-based study reported a high prevalence of oesophageal cancer in Chaoshan, Guangdong Province, China. Ancestors of the Chaoshan population migrated from the Taihang Mountain region of north-central China, which is another high-incidence area for oesophageal cancer. The purpose of the present study was to obtain evidence of inherited susceptibility to oesophageal cancer in the Chaoshan population, with reference to the Taihang Mountain population, with the eventual goal of molecular identification of the disease genes. METHODS: We conducted familial correlation, commingling, and complex segregation analyses of 224 families from the Chaoshan population and 403 families from the Taihang population using the FPMM program of S.A.G.E. version 5.3.0. A second analysis focused on specific families having large numbers of affected individuals or early onset of the disease. RESULTS: For the general population, moderate sib-sib correlation was noticed for esophageal cancer. Additionally, brother-brother correlation was even higher. Commingling analyses indicated that a three-component distribution model best accounts for the variation in age of onset of oesophageal cancer, and that a multifactorial model provides the best fit to the general population data. An autosomal dominant mode and a dominant or recessive major gene with polygenic inheritance were found to be the best models of inherited susceptibility to oesophageal cancer in some large families. CONCLUSIONS: The current results provide evidence for inherited susceptibility to oesophageal cancer in certain high-risk groups in China, and support efforts to identify the susceptibility genes.

  5. A high performance finite element model for wind farm modeling in forested areas (United States)

    Owen, Herbert; Avila, Matias; Folch, Arnau; Cosculluela, Luis; Prieto, Luis


    Wind energy has grown significantly during the past decade and is expected to continue growing in the fight against climate change. In the search for new land where the impact of the wind turbines is small several wind farms are currently being installed in forested areas. In order to optimize the distribution of the wind turbines within the wind farm the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved over the domain of interest using either commercial or in house codes. The existence of a canopy alters the Atmospheric Boundary Layer wind profile close to the ground. Therefore in order to obtain a more accurate representation of the flow in forested areas modification to both the Navier Stokes and turbulence variables equations need to be introduced. Several existing canopy models have been tested in an academic problem showing that the one proposed by Sogachev et. al gives the best results. This model has been implemented in an in house CFD solver named Alya. It is a high performance unstructured finite element code that has been designed from scratch to be able to run in the world's biggest supercomputers. Its scalabililty has recently been tested up to 100000 processors in both American and European supercomputers. During the past three years the code has been tuned and tested for wind energy problems. Recent efforts have focused on the canopy model following industry needs. In this work we shall benchmark our results in a wind farm that is currently being designed by Scottish Power and Iberdrola in Scotland. This is a very interesting real case with extensive experimental data from five different masts with anemometers at several heights. It is used to benchmark both the wind profiles and the speed up obtained between different masts. Sixteen different wind directions are simulated. The numerical model provides very satisfactory results for both the masts that are affected by the canopy and those that are not influenced by it.

  6. Model Accuracy Comparison for High Resolution Insar Coherence Statistics Over Urban Areas (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Fu, Kun; Sun, Xian; Xu, Guangluan; Wang, Hongqi


    The interferometric coherence map derived from the cross-correlation of two complex registered synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is the reflection of imaged targets. In many applications, it can act as an independent information source, or give additional information complementary to the intensity image. Specially, the statistical properties of the coherence are of great importance in land cover classification, segmentation and change detection. However, compared to the amount of work on the statistical characters of SAR intensity, there are quite fewer researches on interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence statistics. And to our knowledge, all of the existing work that focuses on InSAR coherence statistics, models the coherence with Gaussian distribution with no discrimination on data resolutions or scene types. But the properties of coherence may be different for different data resolutions and scene types. In this paper, we investigate on the coherence statistics for high resolution data over urban areas, by making a comparison of the accuracy of several typical statistical models. Four typical land classes including buildings, trees, shadow and roads are selected as the representatives of urban areas. Firstly, several regions are selected from the coherence map manually and labelled with their corresponding classes respectively. Then we try to model the statistics of the pixel coherence for each type of region, with different models including Gaussian, Rayleigh, Weibull, Beta and Nakagami. Finally, we evaluate the model accuracy for each type of region. The experiments on TanDEM-X data show that the Beta model has a better performance than other distributions.

  7. Mesoporous high surface area Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 synthesized by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Mats; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Blennow Tullmar, Peter


    Mesoporous gadolinium doped cerium dioxide with high surface area was produced by spray drying using Pluronic 123 as surfactant. The powder, when calcined at 400 °C, had a BET surface area of 136 m2 g−1 and was polycrystalline as confirmed by XRD and TEM. XEDS confirmed Ce, Gd and O, as the only ...

  8. Rockfall hazard in high mountain areas increased by the current atmospheric warming (United States)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip


    The study of rockfall (volume > 100 m3) in high mountains is essential to understand landscape evolution and to evaluate natural hazard. The number of rockfalls seems actually to rise in the European Alps, while vulnerability is increasing from high elevation areas (e.g. cable cars, huts) to valley floors (e.g. urbanization, transport). Recent rockfalls from high-Alpine steep rockwalls are hypothesized to be a consequence of the climate change through the warming of the permafrost. Given the lack of systematic data on rockfall, this relationship has however remained difficult to assess despite few evidences including laboratory tests and temperature measurements indicating permafrost degradation, while the increase of rockfall frequency and magnitude remained conjectural. Here we analyse several inventories of rockfalls acquired in the Mont Blanc massif (France and Italy) by innovative methods in order to characterize the rockfall triggering conditions and to emphasize the role of permafrost: (i) In two sectors of the massif (Drus and Aiguilles de Chamonix), a comparison of photographs from the end of the Little Ice Age to 2011, combined with field geomorphological data, allowed the identification of more than 50 rockfalls during this period, ranging in volume from 500 to 265,000 m3. (ii) A network of local observers (guides, hut keepers, mountaineers) allowed the documentation of all rockfalls occurred in 2007 (n = 45), 2008 (22), 2009 (72), 2010 (47) and 2011 (65) in the central part of the Mont Blanc massif, ranging in volume from 100 to 43,000 m3. Furthermore, 182 rockfalls were identified at the end of the 2003 Summer heatwave through the analysis of a satellite image of the whole massif. A strong correlation between the rockfall occurrences and the hottest periods at the time scales of the century and the year strengthens the hypothesis of the relationship between permafrost degradation and rockfall at high elevation. Moreover, (i) modelling suggests the

  9. Sedimentation of particulate material in stratified and nonstratified water columns in the Bombay high area of the Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sawant, S.S.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Sedimentation of particulate material at 22, 42 and 62 m was recorded at a station in the Bombay High area of the Arabian Sea from September 1985 to March 1986. Diatom numbers and physical structure, especially thermal stratification, played...

  10. 3D-CT of the temporal bone area with high-speed processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Taku [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Branch Hospital


    Three-dimentional (3D)-CT was introduced to represent abnormal findings in the temporal bone area utilizing a SOMATOM DRH CT scanner with accessory 3D reconstruction software and an exclusive high-speed 3D processing system, VOXEL FLINGER. In a patient with eosinophilic granuloma, a defect in the squamous part of the temporal bone was demonstrated suggesting exposure of the dura mater during surgery. In a patient with a normal ear, well-developed mastoid cavity, a part of the handle and the head of the malleus, the incudomalleal joint, the short limb, body and a part of the long limb of the incus and the round window niche were demonstrated. In a case of chronic otitis media, poorly developed mastoid cavity and a possible defect of the tip of the long limb of the incus were demonstrated, in contrast to the patient with the normal ear. 3D-CT yields objective and solid images which are useful for diagnosis, treatment planning and explanation of the pathology to patients and their family. To obtain convincing 3D images, physicians themselves have to choose exact rotation angles. It is not adequate to reconstruct original CT data using a CT computer with accessory 3D software whose processing capability is not good enough for this purpose. The conclusion is as follows: (1) it is necessary and effective to transfer original CT data into the memory of the exclusive high-speed 3D processing system and (2) process the data by the voxel memory method to establish a clinically valuable 3D-CT imaging system. (author).

  11. Massive Endoscopic Screening for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers in a High-Risk Area of China (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Lü, Lingshuang; Peng, Xianzhen; Wang, Min; Xu, Guisheng; Hua, Zhaolai; Wang, Jianping; Xue, Hengchuan; Wang, Jianming; Lu, Cheng


    Objective This study aims to describe the findings from a massive endoscopic screening program in a high-risk area of China and to evaluate the prognosis of patients diagnosed through endoscopic screening compared with those diagnosed at usual hospital visits because of illness. Methods In 2006, an early detection and treatment program was initiated in Yangzhong county, China. Local residents aged 40–69 years were eligible for free endoscopic screening. Endoscopic examination was performed with Lugol’s iodine staining, followed by biopsies. Patients diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancer were referred for treatment and followed to assess their long-term survival status. Results From 2006 through 2012, we screened 12453 participants, including 5334 (42.8%) men and 7119 (57.2%) women. The average age was 52.8±8.0 years. We detected 166 patients with upper digestive tract cancers, including 106 cancers in the esophagus (detection rate: 0.85%) and 60 cancers in the stomach (detection rate: 0.48%). Of these patients, 98.11% with esophageal cancer and 100% with gastric cancer were defined as at the early stage. In the process of follow-up, 17 patients died from cancer-related causes, and the median survival time was greater than 85 months. The overall survival rates for 1, 3 and 5 years were 98.0%, 90.0% and 89.0%, respectively. A significant positive effect was observed for the long-term survival of patients diagnosed through massive endoscopic screening. Conclusions In a high-risk population, massive endoscopic screening can identify early stage carcinoma of esophageal and gastric cancers and improve patients’ prognosis through early detection and treatment. PMID:26699332

  12. Novel Large Area High Resolution Neutron Detector for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L


    Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that is critically important for materials science and structural biology applications. The knowledge gained from past developments has resulted in far-reaching advances in engineering, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, to name a few. New facilities for neutron generation at much higher flux, such as the SNS at Oak Ridge, TN, will greatly enhance the capabilities of neutron scattering, with benefits that extend to many fields and include, for example, development of improved drug therapies and materials that are stronger, longer-lasting, and more impact-resistant. In order to fully realize this enhanced potential, however, higher neutron rates must be met with improved detection capabilities, particularly higher count rate capability in large size detectors, while maintaining practicality. We have developed a neutron detector with the technical and economic advantages to accomplish this goal. This new detector has a large sensitive area, offers 3D spatial resolution, high sensitivity and high count rate capability, and it is economical and practical to produce. The proposed detector technology is based on B-10 thin film conversion of neutrons in long straw-like gas detectors. A stack of many such detectors, each 1 meter in length, and 4 mm in diameter, has a stopping power that exceeds that of He-3 gas, contained at practical pressures within an area detector. With simple electronic readout methods, straw detector arrays can provide spatial resolution of 4 mm FWHM or better, and since an array detector of such form consists of several thousand individual elements per square meter, count rates in a 1 m^2 detector can reach 2?10^7 cps. Moreover, each individual event can be timetagged with a time resolution of less than 0.1 ?sec, allowing accurate identification of neutron energy by time of flight. Considering basic elemental cost, this novel neutron imaging detector can be commercially produced economically

  13. Geothermal concept for energy efficient improvement of space heating and cooling in highly urbanized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranjes Ana


    Full Text Available New Belgrade is a highly urbanized commercial and residential district of Belgrade lying on the alluvial plane of the Sava and the Danube rivers. The groundwater of the area is a geothermal resource that is usable through geothermal heat pumps (GHP. The research has shown that the “heat island effect” affects part of the alluvial groundwater with the average groundwater temperature of about 15.5°C, i.e. 2°C higher than the one in less urbanized surroundings. Based on the measured groundwater temperatures as well as the appraisal of the sustainable aquifer yield, the available thermal power of the resource is estimated to about 29MWt. The increasing urbanization trend of the New Belgrade district implies the growing energy demands that may partly be met by the available groundwater thermal power. Taking into consideration the average apartment consumption of 80 Wm-2, it is possible to heat about 360,000 m2 and with the consumption efficiency of 50 Wm-2, it would be possible to heat over 570,000 m2. Environmental and financial aspects were considered through the substitution of conventional fuels and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission as well as through the optimization of the resource use.

  14. Ecophysiological responses of Pinus leucodermis at high elevation in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR


    Full Text Available Pinus leucodermis Antoine (= Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis is a species of the Balkan flora which in Italy grows in a small area between the Regions of Basilicata and Calabria, in the Pollino National Park. A relict of the oro-Mediterranean Tertiary forests, it is found from the lower vegetation belt, where it is mixed with evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation, up to the alpine vegetation belt beyond the closed formations of Fagus sylvatica, where it makes up stands with very old, isolated and big trees growing in open spaces between rocks. The ecophysiological and dendrochronolgy features of the P. leucodermis stands growing on the west slope of Serra di Crispo (Monte Pollino, between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l., have been studied during recent years and some of the results are presented in this work. Ecophysiological measurements in situ show that reduced atmospheric vapour pressure deficit conditions, due to humid currents from the western Tyrrhenian Sea, allow the trees to escape from summer drought. When day summer weather conditions are optimal P. leucodermis exhibits a remarkable photosynthetic activity and adaptation to high irradiance. The tree ring width chronology documents a marked reduction of radial growth from 1950 to 1985, followed by a strong recovery, still continuing. In the same period differences between the annual minimum and maximum temperatures tend to increase. Anthropic and grazing pressure is reduced markedly after the institution of the National Park of Pollino.

  15. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  16. [Estimation of chloramphenicol in the working area air by high performance liquid chromatography]. (United States)

    Kristova-Bagdasarian, V L; Chokhadzhieva, D


    Chloramphenicol (levomycetin) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. At present, it is manufactured via organic synthesis. Working place air becomes polluted during the manufacture and use of medicines containing chloramphenicol. In the working place air, chloramphenicol is present as a disintegration aerosol and may provoke occupational diseases of varying severity in the exposed persons. A procedure has been determined to measure air chloramphenicol, by using high performance liquid chromatography. Aspiration through an AFA FPP-15 aerosol filter is a suitable device for air chloramphenicol sampling. The selected chloramphenicol is removed from the filter via triple methanol extraction in an ultrasound bath. The pooled extract is evaporated to dryness in a current of nitrogen and the dry residue is dissolved in the mobile phase containing acetonitrile : buffer (pH 4.8) = 30:70. The chloramphenicol determination procedure using reverse-phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at a wavelength of 275 nm has been developed and completely validated. Chromatographic conditions are given. The retention time of chloramphenicol is 6.5 min. The detection limit is 0.1 microg/cm3. The method is noted for a linear relationship between the concentration of chloramphenicol (microg/cm3) and the peak area (mm2) in the range of 1 to 20 microg/cm3.

  17. High-surface-area carbon molecular sieves for selective CO(2) adsorption. (United States)

    Wahby, Anass; Ramos-Fernández, José M; Martínez-Escandell, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco


    A series of carbon molecular sieves (CMSs) has been prepared, either as powders or monoliths, from petroleum pitch using potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. The CMS monoliths are prepared without the use of a binder based on the self-sintering ability of the mesophase pitch. Characterization results show that these CMSs combine a large apparent surface area (up to ca. 3100 m(2) g(-1)) together with a well-developed narrow microporosity (V(n) up to ca. 1.4 cm(3) g(-1)). The materials exhibit high adsorption capacities for CO(2) at 1 bar and 273 K (up to ca. 380 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1)). To our knowledge, this is the best result obtained for CO(2) adsorption using carbon-based materials. Furthermore, although the CO(2) adsorption capacity for activated carbons has usually been considered lower than that of zeolites, the reported values exceed the total amount adsorbed on traditional 13X and 5A zeolites (ca. 230 mg and 180 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1), respectively), under identical experimental conditions. Additionally, the narrow pore openings found in the CMS samples (ca. 0.4 nm) allows for the selective adsorption of CO(2) from molecules of similar dimensions (e.g., CH(4) and N(2)).

  18. Quartz in ash, and air in a high lung cancer incidence area in China. (United States)

    Downward, George S; Hu, Wei; Rothman, Nat; Reiss, Boris; Tromp, Peter; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Xu, Jun; Seow, Wei Jie; Chapman, Robert S; Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel


    Exposure to crystalline silica (quartz) has been implicated as a potential cause of the high lung cancer rates in the neighbouring counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, where the domestic combustion of locally sourced "smoky" coal (a bituminous coal) is responsible for some of the highest lung cancer rates in the nation, irrespective of gender or smoking status. Previous studies have shown that smoky coal contains approximately twice as much quartz when compared to alternative fuels in the area, although it is unclear how the quartz in coal relates to household air pollution. Samples of ash and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) were collected from 163 households and analysed for quartz content by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Additionally, air samples from 12 further households, were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate particle structure and silica content. The majority (89%) of household air samples had undetectable quartz levels (quartz in smoky coal went on to form part of the ash. These findings indicate that the quartz within smoky coal does not become adequately airborne during the combustion process to cause significant lung cancer risk, instead going on to form part of the ash. The identification of fibre-like particles in air samples is an interesting finding, although the clinical relevance of this finding remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Particle Acceleration in High-Energy Solar Flares Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (United States)

    Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Liu, W.; Rubio da Costa, F.


    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the most sensitive instrument ever deployed in space for observing gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV. LAT observations of the active Sun have increased the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. We will present an overview of these observations, which include detections of impulsive and sustained emission, extending up to 20 hours in the case of the X-class flare occurred on 2012 March 7. Of particular interest is the first detection of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from three solar flares whose positions behind the limb were confirmed by the STEREO spacecrafts. These observations sample flares from active regions originating from behind both the eastern and western limbs and present a unique opportunity to diagnose the mechanisms of high-energy emission and particle acceleration in solar flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss how these observations provide constrains on different emission mechanisms.

  20. High-resolution MEG source imaging approach to accurately localize Broca's area in patients with brain tumor or epilepsy. (United States)

    Huang, Charles W; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Ji, Zhengwei; Swan, Ashley Robb; Angeles, Anne Marie; Song, Tao; Huang, Jeffrey W; Lee, Roland R


    Localizing expressive language function has been challenging using the conventional magnetoencephalography (MEG) source modeling methods. The present MEG study presents a new accurate and precise approach in localizing the language areas using a high-resolution MEG source imaging method. In 32 patients with brain tumors and/or epilepsies, an object-naming task was used to evoke MEG responses. Our Fast-VESTAL source imaging method was then applied to the MEG data in order to localize the brain areas evoked by the object-naming task. The Fast-VESTAL results showed that Broca's area was accurately localized to the pars opercularis (BA 44) and/or the pars triangularis (BA 45) in all patients. Fast-VESTAL also accurately localized Wernicke's area to the posterior aspect of the superior temporal gyri in BA 22, as well as several additional brain areas. Furthermore, we found that the latency of the main peak of the response in Wernicke's area was significantly earlier than that of Broca's area. In all patients, Fast-VESTAL analysis established accurate and precise localizations of Broca's area, as well as other language areas. The responses in Wernicke's area were also shown to significantly precede those of Broca's area. The present study demonstrates that using Fast-VESTAL, MEG can serve as an accurate and reliable functional imaging tool for presurgical mapping of language functions in patients with brain tumors and/or epilepsies. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Schistosoma mattheei Veglia & LE Roux, 1929, egg output from cattle in a highly endemic area in the eastern Transvaal. (United States)

    Pitchford, R J; Visser, P S


    The results of 6-month estimations of S. mattheei faecal egg counts on 513 cattle in a highly endemic area of the eastern Transvaal over a 2-year period are given. After an initial high egg output of short duration the egg counts stabilized at a low level. The frequency of high egg counts in young cattle which died naturally was more than twice that of all other cattle, suggesting that S. mattheei egg counts in highly endemic areas is debatable, and it is suggested that egg counts in man might follow a similar pattern.

  2. Controlling Structure and Properties of High Surface Area Nonwoven Materials via Hydroentangling (United States)

    Luzius, Dennis

    Hydroentangling describes a technique using a series of high-velocity water jets to mechanically interlock and entangle fibers. Over the last decades researchers worked on a fundamental understanding of the process and the factors influencing the properties of the final nonwoven material. Recent studies discovered hydroentangling to be capable to create unique, knot-like structures characterized by high- and low density regions, which are believed to have interesting properties for filtration applications. However, just little is known about the impact of hydroentangling parameters on the properties of filtration media to this day. In this study we report on the effect of various hydroentangling parameters, such as jet spacing, manifold pressure, number of manifolds but also specific energy on the structure and properties of high surface area nonwoven materials. Latter was achieved by different bicomponent fiber technologies and subsequent treatments removing the sacrificial compound from the structure. The highest BET surface area was measured to be 3.5 m2 g-1 and the smallest mean fiber size about 0.5 mum. Hydroentangling with large jet spacing was found to be a parameter significantly enhancing the filtration properties of caustic-treated island-in-the-sea nonwoven materials. Moreover, improved capture efficiencies and reduced pressure drops were achieved by reducing the manifold pressure and therefore specific energy during hydroentangling. Jet spacing but not island count was found to be the dominant factor influencing the structure and properties of island-in-the-sea nonwovens. Contrary to our initial expectations increasing the island count and thus decreasing the fiber size did not result in better filtration properties. Mixed media nonwoven structures made from homocomponent and island-in-the-sea fibers were found to have lower densities, higher air permeabilities and better quality factors compared to island-in-the-sea structures hydroentangled under the

  3. Relict Mountain Permafrost Area (Loess Plateau, China) Exhibits High Ecosystem Respiration Rates and Accelerating Rates in Response to Warming (United States)

    Mu, Cuicui; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qian; Smoak, Joseph M.; Yang, Yulong; Hu, Lian; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Guimin; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tingjun


    Relict permafrost regions are characterized by thin permafrost and relatively high temperatures. Understanding the ecosystem respiration rate (ERR) and its relationship with soil hydrothermal conditions in these areas can provide knowledge regarding the permafrost carbon cycle in a warming world. In this study, we examined a permafrost area, a boundary area, and a seasonally frozen ground area within a relict permafrost region on the east edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Measurements from July 2015 to September 2016 showed that the mean annual ecosystem CO2 emissions for the boundary area were greater than the permafrost area. The Q10 value of the ERRs in the seasonally frozen ground area was greater than the permafrost area, indicating that the carbon emissions in the nonpermafrost areas were more sensitive to warming. The 1 year open-top chamber (OTC) warming increased soil temperatures in both the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas throughout the year, and the warming increased the ERRs by 1.18 (0.99-1.38, with interquartile range) and 1.13 (0.75-1.54, with interquartile range) μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas, respectively. The OTC warming increased annual ERRs by approximately 50% for both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas with half the increase occurring during the nongrowing seasons. These results suggest that the ERRs in relict permafrost are high in comparison with arctic regions, and the carbon balance in relict permafrost areas could be greatly changed by climate warming.

  4. Regional-scale Predictions of Agricultural N Losses in an Area with a High Livestock Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Grignani


    Full Text Available The quantification of the N losses in territories characterised by intensive animal stocking is of primary importance. The development of simulation models coupled to a GIS, or of simple environmental indicators, is strategic to suggest the best specific management practices. The aims of this work were: a to couple a GIS to a simulation model in order to predict N losses; b to estimate leaching and gaseous N losses from a territory with intensive livestock farming; c to derive a simplified empirical metamodel from the model output that could be used to rank the relative importance of the variables which influence N losses and to extend the results to homogeneous situations. The work was carried out in a 7773 ha area in the Western Po plain in Italy. This area was chosen because it is characterised by intensive animal husbandry and might soon be included in the nitrate vulnerable zones. The high N load, the shallow water table and the coarse type of sub-soil sediments contribute to the vulnerability to N leaching. A CropSyst simulation model was coupled to a GIS, to account for the soil surface N budget. A linear multiple regression approach was used to describe the influence of a series of independent variables on the N leaching, the N gaseous losses (including volatilisation and denitrification and on the sum of the two. Despite the fact that the available GIS was very detailed, a great deal of information necessary to run the model was lacking. Further soil measurements concerning soil hydrology, soil nitrate content and water table depth proved very valuable to integrate the data contained in the GIS in order to produce reliable input for the model. The results showed that the soils influence both the quantity and the pathways of the N losses to a great extent. The ratio between the N losses and the N supplied varied between 20 and 38%. The metamodel shows that manure input always played the most important role in determining the N losses

  5. Floor plate-derived neuropilin-2 functions as a secreted semaphorin sink to facilitate commissural axon midline crossing. (United States)

    Hernandez-Enriquez, Berenice; Wu, Zhuhao; Martinez, Edward; Olsen, Olav; Kaprielian, Zaven; Maness, Patricia F; Yoshida, Yutaka; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Tran, Tracy S


    Commissural axon guidance depends on a myriad of cues expressed by intermediate targets. Secreted semaphorins signal through neuropilin-2/plexin-A1 receptor complexes on post-crossing commissural axons to mediate floor plate repulsion in the mouse spinal cord. Here, we show that neuropilin-2/plexin-A1 are also coexpressed on commissural axons prior to midline crossing and can mediate precrossing semaphorin-induced repulsion in vitro. How premature semaphorin-induced repulsion of precrossing axons is suppressed in vivo is not known. We discovered that a novel source of floor plate-derived, but not axon-derived, neuropilin-2 is required for precrossing axon pathfinding. Floor plate-specific deletion of neuropilin-2 significantly reduces the presence of precrossing axons in the ventral spinal cord, which can be rescued by inhibiting plexin-A1 signaling in vivo. Our results show that floor plate-derived neuropilin-2 is developmentally regulated, functioning as a molecular sink to sequester semaphorins, preventing premature repulsion of precrossing axons prior to subsequent down-regulation, and allowing for semaphorin-mediated repulsion of post-crossing axons. © 2015 Hernandez-Enriquez et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Slit-Dependent Endocytic Trafficking of the Robo Receptor Is Required for Son of Sevenless Recruitment and Midline Axon Repulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Chance


    Full Text Available Understanding how axon guidance receptors are activated by their extracellular ligands to regulate growth cone motility is critical to learning how proper wiring is established during development. Roundabout (Robo is one such guidance receptor that mediates repulsion from its ligand Slit in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we show that endocytic trafficking of the Robo receptor in response to Slit-binding is necessary for its repulsive signaling output. Dose-dependent genetic interactions and in vitro Robo activation assays support a role for Clathrin-dependent endocytosis, and entry into both the early and late endosomes as positive regulators of Slit-Robo signaling. We identify two conserved motifs in Robo's cytoplasmic domain that are required for its Clathrin-dependent endocytosis and activation in vitro; gain of function and genetic rescue experiments provide strong evidence that these trafficking events are required for Robo repulsive guidance activity in vivo. Our data support a model in which Robo's ligand-dependent internalization from the cell surface to the late endosome is essential for receptor activation and proper repulsive guidance at the midline by allowing recruitment of the downstream effector Son of Sevenless in a spatially constrained endocytic trafficking compartment.

  7. Cortical midline structures and autobiographical-self processes: an activation-likelihood estimation (ALE meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Filipe Araujo


    Full Text Available The autobiographical self refers to a mental state derived from the retrieval and assembly of memories regarding one’s biography. The process of retrieval and assembly, which can focus on biographical facts or personality traits or some combination thereof, is likely to vary according to the domain chosen for an experiment. To date, the investigation of the neural basis of this process has largely focused on the domain of personality traits using paradigms that contrasted the evaluation of one’s traits (self-traits with those of another person’s (other-traits. This has led to the suggestion that cortical midline structures (CMSs are specifically related to self states. Here, with the goal of testing this suggestion, we conducted activation-likelihood-estimation (ALE meta-analyses based on data from 28 neuroimaging studies. The ALE results show that both self-traits and other-traits engage CMSs; however, the engagement of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC is greater for self-traits than for other-traits, while the posteromedial cortex (PMC is more engaged for other-traits than for self-traits. These findings suggest that the involvement CMSs is not specific to the evaluation of one’s own traits, but also occurs during the evaluation of another person’s traits.

  8. Neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells require Wnt signaling for their development and drive invagination of the telencephalic midline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshik Choe

    Full Text Available Embryonic neural crest cells contribute to the development of the craniofacial mesenchyme, forebrain meninges and perivascular cells. In this study, we investigated the function of ß-catenin signaling in neural crest cells abutting the dorsal forebrain during development. In the absence of ß-catenin signaling, neural crest cells failed to expand in the interhemispheric region and produced ectopic smooth muscle cells instead of generating dermal and calvarial mesenchyme. In contrast, constitutive expression of stabilized ß-catenin in neural crest cells increased the number of mesenchymal lineage precursors suggesting that ß-catenin signaling is necessary for the expansion of neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, the loss of neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs leads to failure of telencephalic midline invagination and causes ventricular system defects. This study shows that ß-catenin signaling is required for the switch of neural crest cells to MSCs and mediates the expansion of MSCs to drive the formation of mesenchymal structures of the head. Furthermore, loss of these structures causes striking defects in forebrain morphogenesis.

  9. Mineral resources of the East Fork High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Washoe and Humboldt counties, Nevada (United States)

    Ach, Jay A.; Plouff, Donald; Turner, R.L.; Schmauch, S.W.


    The part of the East Fork High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area (CA-020-914/NV-020-006A) included in this study encompasses 33,460 acres in the northwestern part of Nevada. Throughout this report, "wilderness study area" and "study area" refertothe 33,460 acres for which mineral surveys were requested. The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted geological, geophysical, and geochemical surveys to assess the mineral resources (known) and the mineral resource potential (undiscovered) of the study area. Fieldwork for this report was carried out in 1985 and 1986. No mines, significant prospects, or mining claims are located inside the study area, and no identified resources were found. The wilderness study area has moderate mineral resource potential for gold, silver, and mercury and for zeolite minerals. A low potential also exists for geothermal energy resources, and potential for oil and gas is unknown.

  10. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai


    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  11. Lithospheric Thickness Variations from Gravity and Topography in Areas of High Crustal Remanent Magnetization on Mars (United States)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.


    Large regions of intense crustal re- manent magnetization were fortuitously discovered on Mars by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. Gravity and topography admittance studies are used to examine lithospheric structure in the areas of intense magnetization. Areas with positively magnetized crust appear to have thinner crust and elastic lithosphere than negatively magnetized crust. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Mass of weaned elephant seal pups in areas of low and high human presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, GH; van den Hoff, J; Broekman, M; Baarspul, ANJ; Field, [No Value; Burton, HR; Reijnders, PJH

    On sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, we examined pup weaning mass of southern elephant seals in relation to human presence. Pup weaning mass was previously found to be positively associated with 1st-year survivorship. Weaned pups were weighed in a remote area, Middle Beach, and in an area of

  13. Mass of weaned elephant seal pups in areas of low and high human presence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Hoff, van den J.; Broekman, M.; Baarspul, A.N.J.; Field, I.; Burton, H.R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.


    On sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, we examined pup weaning mass of southern elephant seals in relation to human presence. Pup weaning mass was previously found to be positively associated with 1st-year survivorship. Weaned pups were weighed in a remote area, Middle Beach, and in an area of

  14. An area-efficient path memory structure for VLSI Implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Pedersen, Steen; Sparsø, Jens


    area savings compared to the REA and the TBA are achieved. Furthermore, the relative area savings increase for larger decoding depths, which might be desirable for punctured codes.Based on the new algorithm a test chip has been designed and fabricated in a 2 micron CMOS process using MOSIS like...

  15. Individual Differences in Speech and Language Ability Profiles in Areas of High Deprivation (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; Coulter, Lorraine


    Speech and language ability is not a unitary concept; rather, it is made up of multiple abilities such as grammar, articulation and vocabulary. Young children from socio-economically deprived areas are more likely to experience language difficulties than those living in more affluent areas. However, less is known about individual differences in…

  16. Relaxation of Summer Gasoline Volatility Standard for Florida and the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Area (Triangle Area) and the Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point Area (Triad Area) in North Carolina Additional Resources (United States)

    Federal Registers and fact sheets about EPA approving a request from Florida to relax the federal Reid Vapor Pressure standard applicable to gasoline introduced into commerce in the Miami, Tampa and Jacksonville areas.

  17. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Yarmoshenko, I.V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail:; Kelleher, K. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Paridaens, J. [SCK.CEN Mol (Belgium); Mc Laughlin, J.P. [School of Physics, University College Dublin (Ireland); Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Onischenko, A.D. [Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Jovanovic, S.; Demajo, A. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Belgrade (Serbia); Birovljev, A. [Radonlab Ltd., Oslo (Norway); Bochicchio, F. [Italian National Institute of Health, Rome (Italy)


    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped {sup 210}Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted {sup 210}Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test > 0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m{sup -3}, whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods.

  18. Intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in high transmission areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massougbodji Achille


    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp. IPTp consists in the administration of a single curative dose of an efficacious anti-malarial drug at least twice during pregnancy – regardless of whether the woman is infected or not. The drug is administered under supervision during antenatal care visits. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is the drug currently recommended by the WHO. While SP-IPTp seems an adequate strategy, there are many issues still to be explored to optimize it. This paper reviewed data on IPTp efficacy and discussed how to improve it. In particular, the determination of both the optimal number of doses and time of administration of the drug is essential, and this has not yet been done. As both foetal growth and deleterious effects of malaria are maximum in late pregnancy women should particularly be protected during this period. Monitoring of IPTp efficacy should be applied to all women, and not only to primi- and secondigravidae, as it has not been definitively established that multigravidae are not at risk for malaria morbidity and mortality. In HIV-positive women, there is an urgent need for specific information on drug administration patterns (need for higher doses, possible interference with sulpha-based prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. Because of the growing level of resistance of parasites to SP, alternative drugs for IPTp are urgently needed. Mefloquine is presently one of the most attractive options because of its long half life, high efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa and safety during pregnancy. Also, efforts should be made to increase IPTp coverage by improving the practices of health care workers, the motivation of women and their perception of malaria complications in pregnancy. Because IPTp

  19. Pathogenetic effects of salted pork in an area of China with high-risk for stomach cancer


    Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Hui-Zhi; Zhang, Yin-Chang; Wang, Xuan-Jie; Wu, Yie-Qiu; Gao, Hua; Wang, Lan; Liu, Yan-Hou; Lu, Fang; Lou, Su-Qing


    AIM: To study the pathogenetic effects of salted pork (SP) (a special food in Zhuanghe City, a region of northern China that is a high-risk area for stomach cancer) on stomach cancer, and a provide scientific basis for the primary prevention of stomach cancer in this high-risk region.

  20. High-Attenuation Areas on Chest Computed Tomography and Clinical Respiratory Outcomes in Community-Dwelling Adults. (United States)

    Podolanczuk, Anna J; Oelsner, Elizabeth C; Barr, R Graham; Bernstein, Elana J; Hoffman, Eric A; Easthausen, Imaani J; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Michos, Erin D; Raghu, Ganesh; Kawut, Steven M; Lederer, David J


    Areas of increased lung attenuation visualized by computed tomography are associated with all-cause mortality in the general population. It is uncertain whether this association is attributable to interstitial lung disease (ILD). To determine whether high-attenuation areas are associated with the risk of ILD hospitalization and mortality in the general population. We performed a cohort study of 6,808 adults aged 45-84 years sampled from six communities in the United States. High-attenuation areas were defined as the percentage of imaged lung volume with attenuation values between -600 and -250 Hounsfield units. An adjudication panel determined ILD hospitalization and death. After adjudication, 52 participants had a diagnosis of ILD during 75,232 person-years (median, 12.2 yr) of follow-up. There were 48 hospitalizations attributable to ILD (crude rate, 6.4 per 10,000 person-years). Twenty participants died as a result of ILD (crude rate, 2.7 per 10,000 person-years). High-attenuation areas were associated with an increased rate of ILD hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.6 per 1-SD increment in high-attenuation areas; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-3.5; P areas were also associated with an increased rate of ILD-specific death (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.0; P Areas of increased lung attenuation are a novel risk factor for ILD hospitalization and mortality. Measurement of high-attenuation areas by screening and diagnostic computed tomography may be warranted in at-risk adults.

  1. 75 FR 53877 - Proposed Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area (United States)


    ... Period (65 to 136 million years ago), the Jurassic Period (136 to 190 million years ago), and the Triassic Period (190 to 225 million years ago). Plutonic rocks are predominant in the mountainous areas...

  2. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L; Tirado, A.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Rios, O.; Post, B.; Kunc, V.; Lowden, R.R.; Lara-Curzio, E.; Fredette, R.; Ormerod, J.; Lograsso, T.A.; Paranthaman, M.P.


    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing

  3. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) Areas - High Resolution - NHD_AK_PR_VI_Hydrography (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NHD is a national framework for assigning reach addresses to water-related entities, such as industrial discharges, drinking water supplies, fish habitat areas,...

  4. High-surface-area, dual-function oxygen electrocatalysts for space power applications (United States)

    Ham, David O.; Moniz, Gary; Taylor, E. Jennings


    The processes of hydration/dehydration and carbonation/decarbonation are investigated as an approach to provide higher surface area mixed metal oxides that are more active electrochemically. These materials are candidates for use as electrocatalysts and electrocatalyst supports for alkaline electrolyzers and fuel cells. For the case of the perovskite, LaCoO3 , higher surface areas were achieved with no change in structure and a more active oxygen electrocatalyst.

  5. Role of radiotherapy in the treatment of granuloma gangraenescens (lethal midline granuloma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sack, H.; Horch, H.H.; Schaefer, H.E.; Wustrow, F.


    The granuloma gangraenescens in the oral, maxillary and facial region is a rare disease. It is a destroying process in the region of palate, nose, paranasal sinuses, cheeks and orbit with characteristic signs of granulomatosis, infection and malignancy. The disease shows often a lethal development with cachexia or sepsis. Besides local inflammations and tumors, the granulomatosis of Wegener, and the so-called necrotizing sialometaplasia are above all to be excluded by differential diagnosis. Five cases are presented in order to describe the diagnostic and therapeutic problems. In literature, the greatest efficacy is attributed to radiotherapy, however, a detailed definition of the most efficient irradiation conditions cannot be given yet because of the small number of cases. Good long-term results or recoveries can be achieved in 75 to 80% of cases by a relatively high radiation dose of 40 to 50 Gy administered within four to five weeks. During the observation time of two to six years, no one of the five patients treated here only by megavoltage therapy showed a recurrence.

  6. Multiple causes of an unexpected malaria outbreak in a high-transmission area in Madagascar. (United States)

    Kesteman, Thomas; Rafalimanantsoa, Solofoniaina A; Razafimandimby, Harimahefa; Rasamimanana, Heriniaina H; Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsene; Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Elissa, Nohal; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Finlay, Alyssa; Rogier, Christophe; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona


    The malaria burden in Madagascar dropped down last decade, largely due to scale-up of control measures. Nevertheless, a significant rise of malaria cases occurred in 2011-2012 in two regions of the rainy South-Eastern Madagascar, where malaria is considered as mesoendemic and the population is supposed to be protected by its acquired immunity against Plasmodium. A multidisciplinary investigation was conducted in order to identify the causes of the outbreak. In March 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 randomly selected clusters, involving the rapid diagnostic testing of all ≥6 month-old members of households and a questionnaire about socio-demographic data and exposure to malaria control interventions. Changes in environmental conditions were evaluated by qualitative interview of local authorities, climatic conditions were evaluated by remote-sensing, and stock outs of malaria supplies in health facilities were evaluated by quantitative means. Two long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were sampled in each cluster in order to evaluate their condition and the remanence of their insecticidal activity. The entomological investigation also encompassed the collection Anopheles vectors in two sites, and the measure of their sensitivity to deltamethrin. The cross-sectional survey included 1615 members of 440 households. The mean Plasmodium infection rate was 25.6 % and the mean bed net use on the day before survey was 71.1 %. The prevalence of Plasmodium infections was higher in 6-14 year-old children (odds ratio (OR) 7.73 [95 % CI 3.58-16.68]), in rural areas (OR 6.25 [4.46-8.76]), in poorest socio-economic tercile (OR 1.54 [1.13-2.08]), and it was lower in individuals sleeping regularly under the bed net (OR 0.51 [0.32-0.82]). Stock outs of anti-malarial drugs in the last 6 months have been reported in two third of health facilities. Rainfalls were increased as compared with the three previous rainy seasons. Vectors collected were sensitive to

  7. [Anorexic behavior in a population of high-school students of a health area]. (United States)

    Martínez Martínez, A; Menéndez Martínez, D; Sánchez Trapiello, M J; Seoane Vicente, M; Suárez Gil, P


    To calculate the prevalence of eating attitudes which determine eating disorders and their relationship to social, personal and cultural variables. Prevalence study. Centres of secondary education. Gijón Health Area (Asturias). Secondary school students (n = 17,000) selected by multi-stage stratified sampling. The self-filled questionnaire included: social and personal variables, and Eating Attitudes Test 26 (anorexic conduct defined as scores = 20). Women also filled in the "Questionnaire on Influences on the Aesthetic Model of the Body" (CIMEC-26). There were 860 valid questionnaires, with 50% women. There was 12.8% prevalence of anorexic attitudes among women (95% CI, 9-16.5), and 1.8% among men (CI, 0.8-2.8). In the group with anorexic attitudes, 87.3% were women, with mean age 16.4; 88.3% lived in a city; 84% were in middle and middle-to-low social classes; 92% were studying their bachillerato; 28.5% attended private schools; 27% undertook activities related to having a thin body; 18.3% had separated parents; 27% had mothers working outside the home; 39.7% saw themselves as fat; and 81% wished to slim. The following variables showed statistically significant differences with the normal population: sex (OR = 7.7; 95% CI, 4.5-13.4), separated parents (OR = 1.9; CI, 1.4-2.8), undertaking activities relating to having a thin body (OR = 3.7; CI, 2.7-5.2); thinking oneself fat (OR = 4.7; CI, 3.1-7.1) and wishing to slim (OR = 7.2; CI, 4.6-11.2). 94.5% of women with disordered conduct showed a disorder on the CIMEC-26. There is a high prevalence of eating habits similar to those of patients with anorexia nervosa, which are related to the following variables: being a woman, having separated parents, seeing oneself as fat, desiring to slim and undertaking activities related to having a thin body. We observed no significant differences with the normal population in other social and personal variables. The socially imposed aesthetic model of the body determines anorexic

  8. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area (United States)

    Agam, Nurit; Evett, Steven R.; Tolk, Judy A.; Kustas, William P.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; McKee, Lynn G.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.; Chávez, Jose L.


    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to seek alternative practices that can increase water use efficiency (WUE) through more careful management of water. One potential way of improving WUE is by reducing soil evaporation (E), thus reducing overall evapotranspiration (ET). Before searching for ways to reduce E, it is first important to quantify E and understand the factors that determine its magnitude. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify E throughout part of the growing season for irrigated cotton in a strongly advective semi-arid region; (2) to study the effects of LAI, days after irrigation, and measurement location within the row on the E/ET fraction; and (3) to study the ability of microlysimeter (ML) measures of E combined with sap flow gage measures of transpiration (T) to accurately estimate ET when compared with weighing lysimeter ET data and to assess the E/T ratio. The research was conducted in an irrigated cotton field at the Conservation & Production Research Laboratory of the USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX. ET was measured by a large weighing lysimeter, and E was measured by 10 microlysimeters that were deployed in two sets of 5 across the interrow. In addition, 10 heat balance sap flow gages were used to determine T. A moderately good agreement was found between the sum E + T and ET (SE = 1 mm or ˜10% of ET). It was found that E may account for >50% of ET during early stages of the growing season (LAI < 0.2), significantly decreasing with increase in LAI to values near 20% at peak LAI of three. Measurement location within the north-south interrows had a distinct effect on the diurnal pattern of E, with a shift in time of peak E from west to east, a pattern that was governed by the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. However, total

  9. The wrapper: a surface optimization algorithm that preserves highly curved areas (United States)

    Gueziec, Andre P.; Dean, David


    Software to construct polygonal models of anatomical structures embedded as isosurfaces in 3D medical images has been available since the mid 1970s. Such models are used for visualization, simulation, measurements (single and multi-modality image registration), and statistics. When working with standard MR- or CT-scans, the surface obtained can contain several million triangles. These models contain data an order of magnitude larger than that which can be efficiently handled by current workstations or transmitted through networks. These algorithms generally ignore efficient combinations that would produce fewer, well shaped triangles. An efficient algorithm must not create a larger data structure than present in the raw data. Recently, much research has been done on the simplification and optimization of surfaces ([Moore and Warren, 1991]); [Schroeder et al., 1992]; [Turk, 1992]; [Hoppe et al., 1993]; [Kalvin and Taylor, 1994]). All of these algorithms satisfy two criteria, consistency and accuracy, to some degree. Consistent simplification occurs via predictable patterns. Accuracy is measured in terms of fidelity to the original surface, and is a prerequisite for collecting reliable measurements from the simplified surface. We describe the 'Wrapper' algorithm that simplifies triangulated surfaces while preserving the same topological characteristics. We employ the same simplification operation in all cases. However, simplification is restricted but not forbidden in high curvature areas. This hierarchy of operations results in homogeneous triangle aspect and size. Images undergoing compression ratios between 10 and 20:1 are visually identical to full resolution images. More importantly, the metric accuracy of the simplified surfaces appears to be unimpaired. Measurements based upon 'ridge curves; (sensu [Cutting et al., 1993]) extracted on polygonal models were recently introduced [Ayache et al., 1993]. We compared ridge curves digitized from full resolution

  10. Fluoride intake in children living in a high-fluoride area in Ethiopia - intake through beverages. (United States)

    Malde, M K; Zerihun, L; Julshamn, K; Bjorvatn, K


    The present study was conducted in Wonji Shoa, a sugar estate in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Drinking water in the area is provided either by the Awash River or by high-fluoride ground water wells. Defluoridation plants have been installed, but are not in regular use, and fluorosis, dental as well as skeletal, is endemic. The aim of this study was to assess daily fluoride intake from drinking water and beverages in children from neighbouring villages with varying fluoride concentration in the drinking water. Thirty families were selected from two of the plantation villages (A and K). The criterion for being included in the project was the presence in the household of at least one child, fully weaned and below the age of 5 years. For sampling of beverages, the duplicate portion technique was used. The fluoride concentration in the beverage samples was determined using standard methods, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Ten of the selected households in Village A fetched water from the Awash River (1.8 mg F-/L) while five relied upon water from a local well (2.1 mg F-/L). All 15 households in Village K used water from a local well with fluoride concentration of 14.4 mg/L. The mean daily fluoride intake from drinking water and beverages during the four days, varied from 1.2 to 1.5 mg and 5.9 to 8.8 mg in Village A and K, respectively. Low variety in types of beverages consumed was reported both during the study period and through the questionnaire. Only local water was used for beverage preparation. Children who consumed milk had a reduced fluoride intake. Tea, which was part of the children's diet, was not found to be a main source of fluoride. A2n effective defluoridation of the drinking water or a change of water source would seem to be the only options for avoidance of dental and possibly skeletal fluorosis.

  11. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  12. Urban renewal based wind environment at pedestrian level in high-density and high-rise urban areas in Sai Ying Pun, Hong Kong (United States)

    Yao, J. W.; Zheng, J. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Shao, Y. H.; Yuan, F.


    In high-density and high-rise urban areas, pedestrian level winds contribute to improve comfort, safety and diffusion of heat in urban areas. Outdoor wind study is extremely vital and a prerequisite in high-density cities considering that the immediate pedestrian level wind environment is fundamentally impacted by the presence of a series of high-rise buildings. In this paper, the research site of Sai Ying Pun in Hong Kong will be analysed in terms of geography, climate and urban morphology, while the surrounding natural ventilation has also been simulated by the wind tunnel experiment Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has found that, the existing problems in this district are the contradiction between planning control and commercial interests, which means some areas around tall buildings are not benefit to the residents because of the unhealthy wind environment. Therefore, some recommendation of urban renewal strategy has been provided.

  13. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph


    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  14. Radiation dose due to radon and thoron progeny inhalation in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India. (United States)

    Omori, Yasutaka; Tokonami, Shinji; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kudo, Hiromi; Pornnumpa, Chanis; Nair, Raghu Ram K; Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori


    In order to evaluate internal exposure to radon and thoron, concentrations for radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were measured for 259 dwellings located in high background radiation areas (HBRAs, outdoor external dose: 3-5 mGy y(-1)) and low background radiation areas (control areas, outdoor external dose: 1 mGy y(-1)) in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India. The measurements were conducted using passive-type radon-thoron detectors and thoron progeny detectors over two six-month measurement periods from June 2010 to June 2011. The results showed no major differences in radon and thoron progeny concentrations between the HBRAs and the control areas. The geometric mean of the annual effective dose due to radon and thoron was calculated as 0.10 and 0.44 mSv, respectively. The doses were small, but not negligible compared with the external dose in the two areas.

  15. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad


    Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.

  16. Paramedian epidural with midline spinal in the same intervertebral space: An alternative technique for combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Saigal


    Full Text Available Background: Although different techniques have been developed for administering combined spinal epidural (CSE anaesthesia, none can be described as an ideal one. Objectives: We performed a study to compare two popular CSE techniques: Double segment technique (DST and single segment (needle through needle technique (SST with another alternative technique: Paramedian epidural and midline spinal in the same intervertebral space (single space dual needle technique: SDT. Methods: After institutional ethical clearance, 90 consenting patients undergoing elective lower limb orthopaedic surgery were allocated to receive CSE into one of the three groups (n=30 each: Group I: SST, Group II: SDT, Group III: DST using computerized randomization. The time for technique performance, surgical readiness, technical aspects of epidural and subarachnoid block (SAB and morbidity were compared. Results: SDT is comparable with SST and DST in time for technique performance (13.42±2.848 min, 12.18±6.092 min, 11.63±3.243 min respectively; P=0.268, time to surgical readiness (18.28±3.624 min, 17.64±5.877 min, 16.87±3.137 min respectively; P=0.42 and incidence of technically perfect block (70%, 66.66%, 76.66%; respectively P=0.757. Use of paramedian route for epidural catheterization in SDT group decreases complications and facilitates catheter insertion. There was a significant number of cases with lack of dural puncture appreciation (SST=ten, none in SDT and DST; P=0.001 and delayed cerebrospinal fluid reflux (SST=five, none in SDT and DST; P=0.005 while performance of SAB in SST group. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, post-operative backache and headache was comparable between the three groups. Conclusion: SDT is an acceptable alternative to DST and SST.

  17. Reconstruction of the symphysis pubis to repair a complex midline hernia in the setting of congenital bladder exstrophy. (United States)

    Kohler, J E; Friedstat, J S; Jacobs, M A; Voelzke, B B; Foy, H M; Grady, R W; Gruss, J S; Evans, H L


    A 40-year-old man with congenital midline defect and wide pubic symphysis diastasis secondary to bladder exstrophy presented with a massive incisional hernia resulting from complications of multiple prior abdominal repairs. Using a multi-disciplinary team of general, plastic, and urologic surgeons, we performed a complex hernia repair including creation of a pubic symphysis with rib graft for inferior fixation of mesh. The skin graft overlying the peritoneum was excised, and the posterior rectus sheath mobilized, then re-approximated. The previously augmented bladder and urethra were mobilized into the pelvis, after which a rib graft was constructed from the 7th rib and used to create a symphysis pubis using a mortise joint. This rib graft was used to fix the inferior portion of a 20 × 25 cm porcine xenograft mesh in a retro-rectus position. With the defect closed, prior skin scars were excised and the wound closed over multiple drains. The patient tolerated the procedure well. His post-operative course was complicated by a vesico-cutaneous fistula and associated urinary tract and wound infections. This resolved by drainage with a urethral catheter and bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies. The patient has subsequently healed well with an intact hernia repair. The increased intra-abdominal pressure from his intact abdominal wall has been associated with increased stress urinary incontinence. Although a difficult operation prone to serious complications, reconstruction of the symphysis pubis is an effective means for creating an inferior border to affix mesh in complex hernia repairs associated with bladder exstrophy.

  18. Low Power, Area- Efficient and High Speed Fast Adder for Processing Element


    J.Ponmalar; T.R.Sureshkumar; T.Kowsalya


    In electronics, adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. To perform fast arithmetic operations, carry select adder (CSLA) is one of the fastest adders used in many data- processing processors. The structure of CSLA is such that there is further scope of reducing the area, delay and power consumption. Simple and efficient gate – level modification is used in order to reduce the area, delay and power of CSLA. Based on the modifications, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bit arch...

  19. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data (United States)

    Bailey, Brian N.; Mahaffee, Walter F.


    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field.

  20. Periodontal health status among permanent residents of low, optimum and high fluoride areas in Kolar District, India. (United States)

    Megalamanegowdru, Jayachandra; Ankola, Anil V; Vathar, Jagadishchandra; Vishwakarma, Prashanthkumar; Dhanappa, Kirankumar B; Balappanavar, Aswini Y


    To assess and compare the periodontal health status among permanent residents of low, optimum and high fluoride areas in Kolar District, India. A house-to-house survey was conducted in a population consisting of 925 permanent residents aged 35 to 44 years in three villages having different levels of fluoride concentrations in the drinking water. The fluoride concentrations in selected villages were 0.48 ppm (low), 1.03 ppm (optimum) and 3.21 ppm (high). The ion selective electrode method was used to estimate the fluoride concentration in the drinking water. Periodontal status was assessed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA). Results were analysed using the chi-square test and logistic regression. The chi-square test was used to find the group differences and logistic regression to find association between the variables. The overall prevalence of periodontitis was 72.9%; specifically, prevalences were 95.4%, 76.3% and 45.7% in low, optimum and high fluoride areas, respectively. The number of sextants with shallow or deep pockets decreased (shallow pockets: 525, 438, 217; deep pockets: 183, 81, 34) from low to high fluoride areas (odds ratio: 71.3). The low fluoride area had a 7.9-fold higher risk of periodontitis than the optimum fluoride area and a 30-fold higher risk than the high fluoride area, which was highly significant (χ2 = 53.5, P periodontal disease is inversely associated with the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. This relation can provide an approach to fluoride treatments to reduce the prevalence or incidence of this disease.

  1. Highly Integrated, Reconfigurable, Large-Area, Flexible Radar Antenna Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Highly-integrated, reconfigurable radar antenna arrays fabricated on flexible substrates offer high functionality in a portable package that can be rolled up and...

  2. High Surface Area Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Electrodes Templated by Graft Copolymerization. Applications in Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanlin; Fang, Zhen; Song, Na; Garvey, Timothy; Lopez, Rene; Meyer, Thomas J.


    Mesoporous ATO nanocrystalline electrodes of micrometer thicknesses have been prepared from ATO nanocrystals and the grafted copolymer templating agents poly vinyl chloride-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate). As-obtained electrodes have high interfacial surface areas, large pore volumes, and rapid intraoxide electron transfer. The resulting high surface area materials are useful substrates for electrochemically catalyzed water oxidation. With thin added shells of TiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a surface-bound Ru(II) polypyridyl chromophore, they become photoanodes for hydrogen generation in the presence of a reductive scavenger.

  3. Approaches to teaching high school students about environmental protection in the Greater Bielsko-Biała Metropolitan Area (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczewska-Popowycz Natalia


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to assess the level of knowledge about local environmental protection among high school students in Bielsko-Biała and the surrounding areas. This sort of knowledge is part of the curriculum and is covered in various natural science school courses, such as geography, biology, chemistry, and social sciences. Various laws and regulations mandate that ecology is part of the secondary education curriculum – “Podstawa programowa kształcenia ogólnego” (2002, 2008 a, b. The Bielsko-Biała area is known for its valuable natural resources and natural attractions. It is home to twelve protected natural areas, including: two sanctuaries, two scenic landscape parks, four nature and landscape complexes, two unique endangered ecosystems, and two protected Natura 2000 areas, as well as 62 natural landmarks. The present paper presents results of a study that was conducted by means of a survey of Bielsko-Biała’s high school students with respect to their knowledge about these protected natural areas. The results of the study revealed that the vast majority of the students do not take an interest in environmental protection issues. Moreover, the high school students displayed unsatisfactory knowledge about the protected natural areas around their city. The survey revealed that the study subjects were unable to identify the types of natural protected areas surrounding their city, let alone list or name the specific sanctuaries or natural landmarks. These disappointing findings generalize for both the students who live in Bielsko-Biała, and those who live in the distant northern provinces of the region. The results of the study stress the need for field trips and other programs aimed at advancing students’ knowledge in this area. The need to incentivize teachers to organize field trips and other events of this kind is also highlited.

  4. Local spread of classical swine fever upon virus introduction into The Netherlands: mapping of areas at high risk. (United States)

    Boender, Gert Jan; Nodelijk, Gonnie; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Elbers, Armin R W; de Jong, Mart C M


    In the recent past, the introduction of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) followed by between-herd spread has given rise to a number of large epidemics in The Netherlands and Belgium. Both these countries are pork-exporting countries. Particularly important in these epidemics has been the occurrence of substantial "neighborhood transmission" from herd to herd in the presence of base-line control measures prescribed by EU legislation. Here we propose a calculation procedure to map out "high-risk areas" for local between-herd spread of CSFV as a tool to support decision making on prevention and control of CSFV outbreaks. In this procedure the identification of such areas is based on an estimated inter-herd distance dependent probability of neighborhood transmission or "local transmission". Using this distance-dependent probability, we derive a threshold value for the local density of herds. In areas with local herd density above threshold, local transmission alone can already lead to epidemic spread, whereas in below-threshold areas this is not the case. The first type of area is termed 'high-risk' for spread of CSFV, while the latter type is termed 'low-risk'. As we show for the case of The Netherlands, once the distance-dependent probability of local transmission has been estimated from CSFV outbreak data, it is possible to produce a map of the country in which areas of high-risk herds and of low-risk herds are identified. We made these maps even more informative by estimating border zones between the two types of areas. In these border zones the risk of local transmission of infection to a nearby high-risk area exceeds a certain level. The risk maps provide an easily understandable visualization of the spatial heterogeneities in transmission risk. They serve as a tool for area-specific designs of control strategies, and possibly also for spatial planning of areas where livestock farming is allowed. Similar risk maps can in principle be constructed for other

  5. Local spread of classical swine fever upon virus introduction into The Netherlands: Mapping of areas at high risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagenaars Thomas J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the recent past, the introduction of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV followed by between-herd spread has given rise to a number of large epidemics in The Netherlands and Belgium. Both these countries are pork-exporting countries. Particularly important in these epidemics has been the occurrence of substantial "neighborhood transmission" from herd to herd in the presence of base-line control measures prescribed by EU legislation. Here we propose a calculation procedure to map out "high-risk areas" for local between-herd spread of CSFV as a tool to support decision making on prevention and control of CSFV outbreaks. In this procedure the identification of such areas is based on an estimated inter-herd distance dependent probability of neighborhood transmission or "local transmission". Using this distance-dependent probability, we derive a threshold value for the local density of herds. In areas with local herd density above threshold, local transmission alone can already lead to epidemic spread, whereas in below-threshold areas this is not the case. The first type of area is termed 'high-risk' for spread of CSFV, while the latter type is termed 'low-risk'. Results As we show for the case of The Netherlands, once the distance-dependent probability of local transmission has been estimated from CSFV outbreak data, it is possible to produce a map of the country in which areas of high-risk herds and of low-risk herds are identified. We made these maps even more informative by estimating border zones between the two types of areas. In these border zones the risk of local transmission of infection to a nearby high-risk area exceeds a certain level. Conclusion The risk maps provide an easily understandable visualization of the spatial heterogeneities in transmission risk. They serve as a tool for area-specific designs of control strategies, and possibly also for spatial planning of areas where livestock farming is allowed. Similar

  6. Avian influenza a virus in wild birds in highly urbanized areas. (United States)

    Verhagen, Josanne H; Munster, Vincent J; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Stumpel, Job B G; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Schutten, Martin; Slaterus, Roy; Fouchier, Ron A M


    Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. Viral prevalence varied with the level of urbanization, with highest prevalence in low urbanized areas. Within cities virus was detected in 0.5% of birds, while seroprevalence exceeded 50%. Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses.

  7. A CCD area detector for X-ray diffraction under high pressure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Details of a two-dimensional X-ray area detector developed using a charge coupled device, a image intensifier and a fibre optic taper are given. The detector system is especially optimized for angle dispersive X-ray diffraction set up using rotating anode generator as X-ray source. The performance of this detector was ...

  8. A CCD area detector for X-ray diffraction under high pressure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Details of a two-dimensional X-ray area detector developed using a charge coupled device, a image intensifier and a fibre optic taper are given. The detector system is especially optimized for angle dispersive X-ray diffraction set up using rotating anode generator as X-ray source. The performance of this detector ...

  9. The etiology of esophageal cancer in high- and low- risk areas of Jiangsu province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.


        [Background]Esophageal cancer (EC) remains one of the most common and fatal malignancies worldwide. The geographic variation in EC occurrence is striking, and China is an area with one of the highest incidences of EC. A number of epidemiological studies

  10. High resolution regional crustal models from irregularly distributed data: application to Asia and adjacent areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, W.; Kaban, M.K.; Beekman, F.; Tesauro, M.; Mooney, W.D.; Cloetingh, S.


    We propose a new methodology to obtain crustal models in areas where data is sparse and data spreading is heterogeneous. This new method involves both interpolating the depth to the Moho discontinuity between observations and estimating a velocity–depth curve for the crust at each interpolation

  11. High performance poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) composite parts fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Kishore, Vidya [ORNL; Chen, Xun [ORNL; Ajinjeru, Christine [ORNL; Duty, Chad [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hassen, Ahmed A [ORNL


    ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.

  12. High-grade metamorphic rocks of the Mellid area, Galicia, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubregtse, J.J.M.W.


    This study concerns the petrology of the Mellid area, the SE portion of the outer zone of the Ordenes Complex which is one of the upthrusted Precambrian complexes in the axial zone of the Hercynian orogen in Galicia, NW Spain. An eugeosynclinal rock sequence is found containing units with different

  13. High temporal resolution photography for observing riparian area use and grazing behavior (United States)

    In 2014, a 2.4 hectare site within the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in northeastern Arizona, USA was selected to characterize temporal and spatial patterns of riparian area use. Three consecutive 30, 8, and 46 day time periods representing 1) unrestricted access, 2) prescribed cattle use, and 3...

  14. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area (United States)

    Mech, L. David


    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  15. Sulfur-doped nanoporous carbon spheres with ultrahigh specific surface area and high electrochemical activity for supercapacitor (United States)

    Liu, Simin; Cai, Yijin; Zhao, Xiao; Liang, Yeru; Zheng, Mingtao; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Jiang, Sanping; Liu, Yingliang; Xiao, Yong


    Development of facile and scalable synthesis process for the fabrication of nanoporous carbon materials with large specific surface areas, well-defined nanostructure, and high electrochemical activity is critical for the high performance energy storage applications. The key issue is the dedicated balance between the ultrahigh surface area and highly porous but interconnected nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of new sulfur doped nanoporous carbon sphere (S-NCS) with the ultrahigh surface area up to 3357 m2 g-1 via a high-temperature hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent KOH activation process. The as-prepared S-NCS which integrates the advantages of ultrahigh porous structure, well-defined nanospherical and modification of heteroatom displays excellent electrochemical performance. The best performance is obtained on S-NCS prepared by the hydrothermal carbonization of sublimed sulfur and glucose, S-NCS-4, reaching a high specific capacitance (405 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1) and outstanding cycle stability. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitor is assembled by S-NCS-4 displays a superior energy density of 53.5 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 74.2 W kg-1 in 1.0 M LiPF6 EC/DEC. The synthesis method is simple and scalable, providing a new route to prepare highly porous and heteroatom-doped nanoporous carbon spheres for high performance energy storage applications.

  16. Peculiar features of boron distribution in high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant nickel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulga, A. V., E-mail: [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)


    This article comprises the results of comprehensive study of the structure and distribution in the high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant superalloy of grade EP741NP after tensile tests. The structure and boron distribution in the fracture area are studied in detail by means of direct track autoradiography in combination with metallography of macro- and microstructure. A rather extensive region of microcracks generation and intensive boron redistribution is detected in the high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched nickel superalloy of grade EP741NP. A significant decrease in boron content in the fracture area and formation of elliptically arranged boride precipitates are revealed. The mechanism of intense boron migration and stability violation of the structural and phase state in the fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant nickel superalloy of grade EP741NP is proposed on the basis of accounting for deformation occurring in the fracture area and analysis of the stressed state near a crack.

  17. Influence of Siberian High on temperature variability over northern areas of South Asia (United States)

    Riaz, Syed Muhammad Fahad; Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed; Baig, Mirza Jawwad


    Siberian High pressure plays a significant role in wintertime climate variability over South Asia. It brings coldest air masses in the region. The available literature has linked Siberian High with climate of East Asia, central Asia, and Eurasia. This paper examines the linkage between Siberian High pressure and inter-annual variations in temperature over the region of South Asia during winters. The methods employed in this study are that of centers of action approach, maximum covariance, and canonical correlation analyses. The wintertime temperature is not only significantly influenced by the intensity of Siberian High pressure, but it is also significantly correlated with zonal movement of Indian Ocean High. The intensity of Siberian High pressure explains more variance of the temperature during winters over the South Asian region than that of large-scale circulation phenomena, namely, Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and El-Nino-Southern Oscillation. A linear model of wintertime temperature has also been constructed using the Siberian High pressure index and the Indian Ocean High longitudinal index, which explains 28% variability of wintertime temperature for the Northern part of South Asia. We have also presented the justification that this statistical evidence is supported by the circulations and changes in the atmosphere. The modes having maximum possible covariance between the regional wintertime temperature and sea-level pressure of Siberian High have been isolated using the method of maximum covariance analysis and the modes having maximum possible correlations between the two fields have been isolated using canonical correlation analysis.

  18. Large-Area and High-Throughput PDMS Microfluidic Chip Fabrication Assisted by Vacuum Airbag Laminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuting Xie


    Full Text Available One of the key fabrication steps of large-area microfluidic devices is the flexible-to-hard sheet alignment and pre-bonding. In this work, the vacuum airbag laminator (VAL which is commonly used for liquid crystal display (LCD production has been applied for large-area microfluidic device fabrication. A straightforward, efficient, and low-cost method has been achieved for 400 × 500 mm2 microfluidic device fabrication. VAL provides the advantages of precise alignment and lamination without bubbles. Thermal treatment has been applied to achieve strong PDMS–glass and PDMS–PDMS bonding with maximum breakup pressure of 739 kPa, which is comparable to interference-assisted thermal bonding method. The fabricated 152 × 152 mm2 microfluidic chip has been successfully applied for droplet generation and splitting.

  19. Large-area imaging micro-well detectors for high-energy astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Hunter, S D; Jahoda, K; Owens, S M


    Micro-well detectors are pixelized imaging sensors that can be inexpensively fabricated in very large arrays. Owing to their intrinsic gain and operation at room temperature, they can be instrumented at very low power, per unit area, making them valuable for a variety of space-flight applications where wide-angle X-ray imaging or large-area particle tracking is required. For example, micro-well detectors have been chosen as the focal plane imager for Lobster-ISS, a proposed soft X-ray all-sky monitor. We have fabricated detectors which image X-rays with 200 mu m FWHM resolution at 3 keV. In agreement with other groups using similar geometries, we find nominal proportional counter energy resolution (20% at 6 keV in P-10), and stable operation at gas gains up to 30,000.

  20. A template-free, ultra-adsorbing, high surface area carbonate nanostructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Forsgren

    Full Text Available We report the template-free, low-temperature synthesis of a stable, amorphous, and anhydrous magnesium carbonate nanostructure with pore sizes below 6 nm and a specific surface area of ∼ 800 m(2 g(-1, substantially surpassing the surface area of all previously described alkali earth metal carbonates. The moisture sorption of the novel nanostructure is featured by a unique set of properties including an adsorption capacity ∼50% larger than that of the hygroscopic zeolite-Y at low relative humidities and with the ability to retain more than 75% of the adsorbed water when the humidity is decreased from 95% to 5% at room temperature. These properties can be regenerated by heat treatment at temperatures below 100°C.The structure is foreseen to become useful in applications such as humidity control, as industrial adsorbents and filters, in drug delivery and catalysis.

  1. High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters. Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS.

  2. High crash areas resulting in injuries and deaths in Tehran traffic areas from november 2011 through february 2012: a geographic information system analysis. (United States)

    Salamati, Payman; Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Amiri, Mousa; Soltani, Majid


    Evaluation of intra-city roads in terms of environmental factors of motor vehicle injuries can help us to better identify these factors and the share of each of the factors in injuries. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the high injury areas and the risk factors of motor vehicle crashes resulting in injury and death in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, from November 2011 through February 2012. In this cross sectional study, the locations of the motor vehicle injuries resulting in injuries and deaths were obtained from police stations in Tehran. The coordinates of the injuries locations were extracted and entered into the Arc-GIS software to overlay the different layers of geographical data and extract the risk map. A total of 4257 motor vehicle injuries were evaluated in this study. Forty-two injuries (1%) resulted in death and 4215 injuries (99%) resulted in injury. The traffic districts 5 and 21 had the highest frequency of injuries resulting in death. The type of the motor vehicle resulting in injury or death was motorcycle in 2330 injuries (54.73%). The frequency of traffic injuries is more in the west and northwest areas of Tehran, and it is caused more by motorcycles in terms of traffic and motor injuries resulting in injury and death. It is useful to conduct more studies to better identify these factors considering their importance in traffic injuries.

  3. n-Alkylamine-assisted preparation of a high surface area vanadyl phosphate/tetraethylorthosilicate nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, João Paulo L., E-mail: [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Zampronio, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Herenilton P. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil)


    Graphical abstract: CuK{sub α} X-ray diffraction patterns of the VP, VPOc, VPOcT, VPOcT200 and VPOcT500. Highlights: ► TEOS and octylamine incorporation into the VP was achieved by expanding the lamellar. ► The specific surface area increased from 15 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VP to 237 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VPOcT. ► The VPOcT exhibited thermal resistance up to 200 °C in air. ► Upon thermal treatment up to 500 °C, the surface area increased to 838 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: We have developed a vanadyl phosphate/tetraethylorthosilicate (VPO/TEOS) nanocomposite comprised of silicate chains interleaved with VPO layers, prepared by using an n-alkylamines such as octylamine as the structure directing agent. The nanocomposites were synthesized by reacting amine-intercalated vanadyl phosphate with tetraethylorthosilicate via the soft chemistry approach. The synthetic procedure encompassed the exfoliation of the layered vanadyl phosphate as well as the reorganization of this exfoliated solid into a mesostructured lamellar phase with the same V–P–O connectivity as in the original matrix. TEOS incorporation into the vanadyl phosphate was achieved by expanding the lamellar structure with n-alkylamine (Δd = 13 Å with n-octylamine). The specific surface area increased from 15 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in the vanadyl phosphate matrix to 237 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VPOcT, and the isotherm curves revealed the characteristic hysteresis of mesoporous materials. Upon thermal treatment up to 500 °C, the surface area increased to 837 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which is suitable for catalytic purposes.

  4. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets


    Ling Li; Angelica Tirado; I. C. Nlebedim; Orlando Rios; Brian Post; Vlastimil Kunc; Lowden, R.R.; Edgar Lara-Curzio; Robert Fredette; John Ormerod; Lograsso, Thomas A.; M. Parans Paranthaman


    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer...

  5. Do repeated wildfires change homebuyers' demand for homes in high-risk areas? (United States)

    Julie M. Mueller; John D. Loomis; Armando González-Cabán


    Unlike most hedonic studies that analyze the effects of a one-time event, this paper analyzes the effects of forest fires that are several years apart in a small geographical area. We find that repeated forest fires cause house prices to decrease for houses located near the fires. We test and reject the hypothesis that the house price reduction from the first fire is...

  6. High resolution regional crustal models from irregularly distributed data: Application to Asia and adjacent areas


    Stolk, W; Mikhail Kaban; F. Beekman; Magdala Tesauro; Mooney, W.D.; Cloetingh, S.


    We propose a new methodology to obtain crustal models in areas where data is sparse and data spreading is heterogeneous. This new method involves both interpolating the depth to the Moho discontinuity between observations and estimating a velocity–depth curve for the crust at each interpolation location. The Moho observations are interpolated using a remove–compute–restore technique, used in for instance geodesy. Observations are corrected first for Airy type isostasy. The residual observatio...

  7. High concentration of childhood deaths in the low-lying areas of Chakaria HDSS, Bangladesh: Findings from a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi


    Full Text Available Background: Despite significant reduction of childhood mortality in Bangladesh, large spatial variations persist. Identification of lower level spatial units with higher concentrations of deaths can be useful for strengthening services in these areas. This paper reports findings from a spatial analysis of deaths in Chakaria, a rural subdistrict, where a Health and Demographic Surveillance System has been in place since 1999. Chakaria is an INDEPTH member site. Methods: An analysis was done of 339 deaths among nearly 24,500 children under the age of five during 2005–2008. One ward, the lowest level of administrative units, was the unit of spatial analysis. Data from 24 wards were analyzed. The Discrete Poisson Probability Model was used to identify the clustering of deaths. Results: Deaths were concentrated within 12 wards located in the low-lying deltaic flood plains of the Chakaria HDSS area. The risk of death in the low-lying areas was statistically, significantly higher, 1.5 times, than the non-low-lying areas (p<0.02. Conclusion: Spatial analysis can be a useful tool for identifying high-risk mortality areas. An understanding of the risk factors prevalent in the low-lying areas can help design effective interventions to reduce mortality in these areas.

  8. Large area crystallization of amorphous Si with overlapping high repetition rate laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Sang-Gil


    This paper presents a pulsed laser crystallization technique, enabling large area crystallization of amorphous Si to produce grains having well-defined size and orientation. The method is developed by first determining the parameters influencing crystallization induced by single laser pulses of circular cross-sectional profile. In a second step, crystallization by overlapping round spots is examined. The experiments reveal three zones characterized by distinctly different crystallized morphologies following the laser irradiation. One of these zones corresponds to the regime of lateral crystal growth, wherein grains are driven towards the center of the spot by the radial temperature gradient. These findings are then applied to processing via line beam profiles that facilitate large area crystallization upon rapid translation of the specimen. Crystallization of extended areas hinges on the determination of the crystal growth length for a single spot. The pitch between successive pulses is then set on the basis of this information. It is shown that the pulse energy has only a weak effect on the crystal growth length. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Identification of high-risk areas for harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena bycatch using remote electronic monitoring and satellite telemetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Tougaard, J.


    The bycatch of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena is an issue of major concern for fisheries management and for porpoise conservation. We used high-resolution spatial and temporal data on porpoise abundance and fishing effort from the Danish Skagerrak Sea to identify areas with potentially higher...

  10. High proportion of subclinical Plasmodium falciparum infections in an area of seasonal and unstable malaria in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhassan, I M; Hviid, L; Jakobsen, P H


    In the present longitudinal study, a cohort (n = 98) of children and adults 5-30 years of age living in an area of highly seasonal and unstable malaria transmission were followed for malaria morbidity during several successive transmission seasons. Based on morbidity surveillance during 1993 and ...

  11. Metal-assisted salphen organic frameworks (MaSOFs) with high surface areas and narrow pore-size distribution. (United States)

    Mastalerz, Michael; Hauswald, Hans-Jochen S; Stoll, Raphael


    The one-pot three component synthesis of metal containing microporous organic polymers with high BET surface areas is presented. The metal salphen units were built during the formation of the porous polymers. Selective gas adsorption depending on the metal ions is discussed. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  12. Intelligence and High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA’s): A Critical Evaluation of the HIDTA Investigative Support Center (ISC) (United States)


    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate critically the ongoing reform of the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Investigative Support...or Fusion Center for information sharing between agencies investigating crimes relating to drug trafficking , terrorism, and money laundering.

  13. Mapping the organization of axis of motion selective features in human area MT using high-field fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at high magnetic fields has made it possible to investigate the columnar organization of the human brain in vivo with high degrees of accuracy and sensitivity. Until now, these results have been limited to the organization principles of early visual cortex (V1. While the middle temporal area (MT has been the first identified extra-striate visual area shown to exhibit a columnar organization in monkeys, evidence of MT's columnar response properties and topographic layout in humans has remained elusive. Research using various approaches suggests similar response properties as in monkeys but failed to provide direct evidence for direction or axis of motion selectivity in human area MT. By combining state of the art pulse sequence design, high spatial resolution in all three dimensions (0.8 mm isotropic, optimized coil design, ultrahigh field magnets (7 Tesla and novel high resolution cortical grid sampling analysis tools, we provide the first direct evidence for large-scale axis of motion selective feature organization in human area MT closely matching predictions from topographic columnar-level simulations.

  14. A low cost Mobile Network System for monitoring climate and air quality of urban areas at high resolution: a preliminary application in Florence (IT) metropolitan area (United States)

    Dibari, Camilla; Moriondo, Marco; Matese, Alessandro; Sabatini, Francesco; Trombi, Giacomo; Zaldei, Alessandro; Bindi, Marco


    specifically for buses or tramways and four MWSs were then installed on Florence public transport means (tramways and buses); the system is designed either to log further pollution parameters (i.e. fine particles) and to be extended to other Florence mobile vectors in order to get high resolution maps (in space and time) of meteo/environmental variables in the urban area. Coupling spatial distribution of the extreme events with information regarding those areas frequented by individuals more sensitive to climate extremes (e.g. elder people and children), prompt countermeasures (e.g. pre-warning of the nearest sanitary structures) could be timely taken. References: Pascal M, Laaidi K, Ledrans M, Baffert E, Caserio-Schönemann C, Le Tertre A, Manach J, Medina S, Rudant J, Empereur-Bissonnet P (2006) France's heat health watch warning system. Int.J.Biometeorol 50:144-153. Petralli M, Massetti L, Orlandini S (2010) Five years of thermal intra-urban monitoring in Florence (Italy) and application of climatological indices. Theor.Appl.Climatol 104:349-356. Schär C, Vidale PL, Lüthi, D, Frei C, Häberli C, Liniger MA, Appenzeller C (2004) The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves. Nature 427:332-336.

  15. Risk factors associated with Chagas disease in pregnant women in Santander, a highly endemic Colombian area. (United States)

    Castellanos-Domínguez, Yeny Z; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Orozco, Luis C; Valencia-Hernández, Carlos A; León, Cielo M; Florez, Astrid C; Muñoz, Lyda; Pavía, Paula; Montilla, Marleny; Uribe, Luz Marina; García, Carlos; Ardila, William; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Puerta, Concepción J


    To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chagas disease in pregnant women in an endemic area of Santander, Colombia. Cross-sectional study included 23 municipalities of Santander, Colombia. Serological IFAT and ELISA tests were undertaken to detect IgG anti- Trypanosoma cruzi. A questionnaire was conducted for assessing the risk factors of each participant. Newborns were evaluated at birth and followed up to 1 year of age to determine congenital infection. An overall prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI 2.4-4.2) among 1518 pregnant women was detected. Prevalences by provinces were as follows: Guanentina: 6.0% (95% CI 4.1-8.5), García Rovira: 2.9% (95% CI: 1.5-4.8) and Comunera: 0.4% (0.4-2.3). The main risk factors identified were age >32 years old (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-3.9); currently having a thatched roof (OR: 11.8; CI95% 2.2-63.2) and a thatched roof during childhood (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.4-6.6); having below primary school education level (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 2.2-9.5); and a history of a close contact with the vector (triatomine bugs) at least once during their lifetime (OR: 6.9; 95% CI: 3.7-12.9). No congenital cases were detected by parasitological or serological techniques. Prevalence of Chagas disease in pregnant women is a potential source of infection in this Colombian endemic area. The main risk factors associated with seropositivity were related to conditions favouring the contact with the vector. The results show that it is necessary to continue an active surveillance in order to offer diagnosis and treatment to mothers and their newborns in addition to screening to pregnant women from endemic areas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Highly religious participants recruit areas of social cognition in personal prayer. (United States)

    Schjoedt, Uffe; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Geertz, Armin W; Roepstorff, Andreas


    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how performing formalized and improvised forms of praying changed the evoked BOLD response in a group of Danish Christians. Distinct from formalized praying and secular controls, improvised praying activated a strong response in the temporopolar region, the medial prefrontal cortex, the temporo-parietal junction and precuneus. This finding supports our hypothesis that religious subjects, who consider their God to be 'real' and capable of reciprocating requests, recruit areas of social cognition when they pray. We argue that praying to God is an intersubjective experience comparable to 'normal' interpersonal interaction.

  17. Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir


    We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

  18. Synthesis of rose-like boron nitride particles with a high specific surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hongming; Huang, Xiaoxiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wen, Guangwu, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Hongwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)


    Novel rose-like BN nanostructures were synthesized on a large scale via a two-step procedure. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and nitrogen porosimetry. The results show that the obtained rose-like nanostructures are composed of a large amount of h-BN crystalline flakes and have a surface area of 90.31 m{sup 2}/g. A mechanism was proposed to explain the formation process of the rose-like BN nanostructures.

  19. Low vitamin C intake increases risk of pre-eclampsia in high pesticide exposure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifatul Masrikhiyah


    Low vitamin C intake played the most important role toward pre-eclampsia. Greater caution is needed when issuing recommendations regarding the consumption of vitamin supplements in pregnancy, as high doses of some vitamins may be deleterious.

  20. High and low gamma EEG oscillations in central sensorimotor areas are conversely modulated during the human gait cycle. (United States)

    Seeber, Martin; Scherer, Reinhold; Wagner, Johanna; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Müller-Putz, Gernot R


    Investigating human brain function is essential to develop models of cortical involvement during walking. Such models could advance the analysis of motor impairments following brain injuries (e.g., stroke) and may lead to novel rehabilitation approaches. In this work, we applied high-density EEG source imaging based on individual anatomy to enable neuroimaging during walking. To minimize the impact of muscular influence on EEG recordings we introduce a novel artifact correction method based on spectral decomposition. High γ oscillations (>60Hz) were previously reported to play an important role in motor control. Here, we investigate high γ amplitudes while focusing on two different aspects of a walking experiment, namely the fact that a person walks and the rhythmicity of walking. We found that high γ amplitudes (60-80Hz), located focally in central sensorimotor areas, were significantly increased during walking compared to standing. Moreover, high γ (70-90Hz) amplitudes in the same areas are modulated in relation to the gait cycle. Since the spectral peaks of high γ amplitude increase and modulation do not match, it is plausible that these two high γ elements represent different frequency-specific network interactions. Interestingly, we found high γ (70-90Hz) amplitudes to be coupled to low γ (24-40Hz) amplitudes, which both are modulated in relation to the gait cycle but conversely to each other. In summary, our work is a further step towards modeling cortical involvement during human upright walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.