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Sample records for high intensity ribs

  1. Focusing of high intensity ultrasound through the rib cage using a therapeutic random phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, Svetlana; Gavrilov, Leonid; Khokhlova, Vera; Shaw, Adam; Hand, Jeffrey; #, ||

    2010-01-01

    A method for focusing high intensity ultrasound through a rib cage that aims to minimize heating of the ribs whilst maintaining high intensities at the focus (or foci) is proposed and tested theoretically and experimentally. Two approaches, one based on geometric acoustics and the other accounting for diffraction effects associated with propagation through the rib cage, are investigated theoretically for idealized source conditions. It is shown that for an idealized radiator the diffraction approach provides a 23% gain in peak intensity and results in significantly less power losses on the ribs (1% versus 7.5% of the irradiated power) compared with the geometric one. A 2D 1-MHz phased array with 254 randomly distributed elements, tissue mimicking phantoms, and samples of porcine rib cages are used in experiments; the geometric approach is used to configure how the array is driven. Intensity distributions are measured in the plane of the ribs and in the focal plane using an infra-red camera. Theoretical and experimental results show that it is possible to provide adequate focusing through the ribs without overheating them for a single focus and several foci, including steering at ± 10–15 mm off and ± 20 mm along the array axis. Focus splitting due to the periodic spatial structure of ribs is demonstrated both in simulations and experiments; the parameters of splitting are quantified. The ability to produce thermal lesions with a split focal pattern in ex vivo porcine tissue placed beyond the rib phantom is also demonstrated. The results suggest that the method is potentially useful for clinical applications of HIFU for which the rib cage lies between the transducer(s) and the targeted tissue. PMID:20510186

  2. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for local treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: Role of partial rib resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hui; Zhou Kun; Zhang Lian; Jin Chengbin; Peng Song; Yang Wei; Li Kequan; Su Haibing; Chen Wenzhi; Bai Jin; Wu Feng; Wang, Zhibiao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: It has long been known that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can kill tissue through coagulative necrosis. However, it is only in recent years that practical clinical applications are becoming possible. Since the ribs have strong reflections to ultrasonic beams, they may affect the deposition of ultrasound energy, decreasing the efficacy of HIFU treatment and increasing the chance of adverse events when the intra-abdominal tumours concealed by ribs are treated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of partial rib resection on the efficacy and safety of HIFU treatment. Methods: This prospective study was approved by the ethics committee at Chongqing University of Medical Sciences. An informed consent form was obtained from each patient and family member. A total of 16 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), consisting of 13 males and 3 females, were studied. All patients had the successful HIFU treatment. To create a better acoustic pathway for HIFU treatment, all of the 16 patients had the ribs that shield the tumour mass to be removed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate the efficacy of HIFU treatment. Results: Sixteen cases had 23 nodules, including 12 cases with a single nodule, 1 case with 2 nodules, 3 cases with 3 nodules. The mean diameter of tumours was 7.0 ± 2.1 cm (5-10 cm). According to TNM classification, 9 patients were diagnosed as stage II, 4 patients were stage III, and 3 patients were stage IV. Follow-up imaging showed an absence of tumour blood supply and shrinkage of all treated lesions. The survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 100%, 83.3%, 69.4%, 55.6%, and 55.6%, respectively. No serious complications were observed in the patients treated with HIFU. Conclusion: Partial rib resection can create a better acoustic pathway of HIFU therapy. Even though it is an invasive treatment, this measure offers patients an improved prospect of complete tumour ablation when no other treatment is

  3. The role of acoustic nonlinearity in tissue heating behind a rib cage using a high-intensity focused ultrasound phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldashev, Petr V.; Shmeleva, Svetlana M.; Ilyin, Sergey A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Gavrilov, Leonid R.; Khokhlova, Vera A.

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate theoretically the effects of nonlinear propagation in a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) field produced by a therapeutic phased array and the resultant heating of tissue behind a rib cage. Three configurations of focusing were simulated: in water, in water with ribs in the beam path and in water with ribs backed by a layer of soft tissue. The Westervelt equation was used to model the nonlinear HIFU field, and a 1 MHz phased array consisting of 254 circular elements was used as a boundary condition to the model. The temperature rise in tissue was modelled using the bioheat equation, and thermally necrosed volumes were calculated using the thermal dose formulation. The shapes of lesions predicted by the modelling were compared with those previously obtained in in vitro experiments at low-power sonications. Intensity levels at the face of the array elements that corresponded to the formation of high-amplitude shock fronts in the focal region were determined as 10 W cm-2 in the free field in water and 40 W cm-2 in the presence of ribs. It was shown that exposures with shocks provided a substantial increase in tissue heating, and its better spatial localization in the main focal region only. The relative effects of overheating ribs and splitting of the focus due to the periodic structure of the ribs were therefore reduced. These results suggest that utilizing nonlinear propagation and shock formation effects can be beneficial for inducing confined HIFU lesions when irradiating through obstructions such as ribs. Design of compact therapeutic arrays to provide maximum power outputs with lower intensity levels at the elements is necessary to achieve shock wave regimes for clinically relevant sonication depths in tissue.

  4. STRESS FRACTURE OF THE FIRST RIB IN A HIGH SCHOOL WEIGHT LIFTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Fujioka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy, who played a weight lifting in high school, sustained stress fracture of the first rib without any causes. We successfully treated first rib stress fracture with limitation of using the upper extremity and with using low-intensity pulsed ultrasound

  5. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. Ketamine as an Analgesic Adjuvant in Adult Trauma Intensive Care Unit Patients With Rib Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mary K; Farhat, Joseph; Bischoff, James; Foss, Mary; Evans, Cory

    2018-03-01

    Rib fracture associated pain is difficult to control. There are no published studies that use ketamine as a therapeutic modality to reduce the amount of opioid to control rib fracture pain. To examine the analgesic effects of adjuvant ketamine on pain scale scores in trauma intensive care unit (ICU) rib fracture. This retrospective, case-control cohort chart review evaluated ICU adult patients with a diagnosis of ≥1 rib fracture and an Injury Severity Score >15 during 2016. Patients received standard-of-care pain management with the physician's choice analgesics with or without ketamine as a continuous, fixed, intravenous infusion at 0.1 mg/kg/h. A total of 15 ketamine treatment patients were matched with 15 control standard-of-care patients. Efficacy was measured via Numeric Pain Scale (NPS)/Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) scores, opioid use, and ICU and hospital length of stay. Safety of ketamine was measured by changes in vital signs, adverse effects, and mortality. Average NPS/BPS, severest NPS/BPS, and opioid use were lower in the ketamine group than in controls (NPS: 4.1 vs 5.8, P rib fracture.

  7. Heat transfer augmentation for high heat flux removal in rib-roughened narrow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Sudo, Yukio; Monde, Masanori.

    1997-03-01

    Heat transfer augmentation in narrow rectangular channels in a target system is a very important method to remove high heat flux up to 12 MW/m 2 generated at target plates of a high-intensity proton accelerator of 1.5 GeV and 1 mA with a proton beam power of 1.5 MW. In this report, heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in narrow rectangular channels with one-sided rib-roughened surface were evaluated for fully developed flows in the range of the Reynolds number from 6,000 to 1,00,000; the rib pitch-to-height ratios (p/k) were 10,20 and 30; the rib height-to-equivalent diameter ratios (k/De) were 0.025, 0.03 and 0.1 by means of previous existing experimental correlations. The rib-roughened surface augmented heat transfer coefficients approximately 4 times higher than the smooth surface at Re=10,000, p/k=10 and k/De=0.1; friction factors increase around 22 times higher. In this case, higher heat flux up to 12 MW/m 2 could be removed from the rib-roughened surface without flow boiling which induces flow instability; but pressure drop reaches about 1.8 MPa. Correlations obtained by air-flow experiments have showed lower heat transfer performance with the water-flow conditions. The experimental apparatus was proposed for further investigation on heat transfer augmentation in very narrow channels under water-flow conditions. This report presents the evaluation results and an outline of the test apparatus. (author)

  8. Conditions of rib design for polycarbonate resin with high glossy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seong Won [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Much attention has been being given to the importance of product surfaces in the field of plastic parts, as industrial design has become one of the key elements of product success. These plastic parts incorporate rib-like geometries on the non-appearance surfaces of plastic in order to increase the stiffness of rigidity of the section, but they often cause appearance problems of the product's surface overall by making a sink mark on that surface. The thickness, height and draft-angle of the rib are generally known as major parameters influencing the sink mark on the appearance surface. Therefore, designers of plastic parts must determine the variables of reinforcing ribs. The goal of this study is to find the optimum design variables in the mixing conditions of the thickness, the height and the draft angle of reinforcing ribs so that designers of plastic parts can easily determine the conditions of the reinforcing ribs as the part's section thickness varies within an objective limit in polycarbonate plastic resin and a high glossy surface that are widely applied in the creation of plastic products. We investigated the actual depths of sink marks on the surface of a specimen that was manufactured with an injection mold specifically for this study. Response surface methodology with the Box-Behnken design was used to analyze the regression curve of real depths with combinations of the thickness, height and draft angle of the ribs. The result shows that the most influential factor to increase the shrinkage is the thickness of ribs and that the optimum value of the rib thickness is a range from multiple of 0.25 to 0.34 of the section thickness. Also, the rib height and rib draft angle are not major factors that can change the sink amount.

  9. Conditions of rib design for polycarbonate resin with high glossy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seong Won

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been being given to the importance of product surfaces in the field of plastic parts, as industrial design has become one of the key elements of product success. These plastic parts incorporate rib-like geometries on the non-appearance surfaces of plastic in order to increase the stiffness of rigidity of the section, but they often cause appearance problems of the product's surface overall by making a sink mark on that surface. The thickness, height and draft-angle of the rib are generally known as major parameters influencing the sink mark on the appearance surface. Therefore, designers of plastic parts must determine the variables of reinforcing ribs. The goal of this study is to find the optimum design variables in the mixing conditions of the thickness, the height and the draft angle of reinforcing ribs so that designers of plastic parts can easily determine the conditions of the reinforcing ribs as the part's section thickness varies within an objective limit in polycarbonate plastic resin and a high glossy surface that are widely applied in the creation of plastic products. We investigated the actual depths of sink marks on the surface of a specimen that was manufactured with an injection mold specifically for this study. Response surface methodology with the Box-Behnken design was used to analyze the regression curve of real depths with combinations of the thickness, height and draft angle of the ribs. The result shows that the most influential factor to increase the shrinkage is the thickness of ribs and that the optimum value of the rib thickness is a range from multiple of 0.25 to 0.34 of the section thickness. Also, the rib height and rib draft angle are not major factors that can change the sink amount.

  10. Experimental study on heat transfer augmentation for high heat flux removal in rib-roughened narrow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.S.; Monde, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Sudo, Yukio.

    1997-07-01

    Frictional pressure drop and heat transfer performance in a very narrow rectangular channel having one-sided constant heat flux and repeated-ribs for turbulent flow have been investigated experimentally, and their experimental correlations were obtained using the least square method. The rib pitch-to-height ratios(p/k) were 10 and 20 while holding the rib height constant at 0.2mm, the Reynolds number(Re) from 2,414 to 98,458 under different channel heights of 1.2mm, 2.97mm, and 3.24mm, the rib height-to-channel equivalent diameter(k/De) of 0.03, 0.04, and 0.09 respectively. The results show that the rib-roughened surface augments heat transfer 2-3 times higher than that of the smooth surface with the expense of 2.8-4 times higher frictional pressure drop under Re=5000-10 5 , p/k=10, and H=1.2mm. Experimental results obtained by channel height, H=1.2mm shows a little bit higher heat transfer and friction factor performance than the higher channel height, H=3.24mm. The effect of fin and consequently higher turbulence intensity are responsible for producing higher heat transfer rates. The obtained correlations could be used to design the cooling passages between the target plates to remove high heat flux up to 12MW/m 2 generated at target plates in a high-intensity proton accelerator system. (author). 54 refs

  11. Experimental study on heat transfer augmentation for high heat flux removal in rib-roughened narrow channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.S.; Monde, Masanori [Saga Univ. (Japan); Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Sudo, Yukio

    1997-07-01

    Frictional pressure drop and heat transfer performance in a very narrow rectangular channel having one-sided constant heat flux and repeated-ribs for turbulent flow have been investigated experimentally, and their experimental correlations were obtained using the least square method. The rib pitch-to-height ratios(p/k) were 10 and 20 while holding the rib height constant at 0.2mm, the Reynolds number(Re) from 2,414 to 98,458 under different channel heights of 1.2mm, 2.97mm, and 3.24mm, the rib height-to-channel equivalent diameter(k/De) of 0.03, 0.04, and 0.09 respectively. The results show that the rib-roughened surface augments heat transfer 2-3 times higher than that of the smooth surface with the expense of 2.8-4 times higher frictional pressure drop under Re=5000-10{sup 5}, p/k=10, and H=1.2mm. Experimental results obtained by channel height, H=1.2mm shows a little bit higher heat transfer and friction factor performance than the higher channel height, H=3.24mm. The effect of fin and consequently higher turbulence intensity are responsible for producing higher heat transfer rates. The obtained correlations could be used to design the cooling passages between the target plates to remove high heat flux up to 12MW/m{sup 2} generated at target plates in a high-intensity proton accelerator system. (author). 54 refs.

  12. Conductive cooling of high-power RIB targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L.; Drake, D.M.; Wilson, M.T.; Lenz, J.W.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2002-01-01

    A short review is presented of target cooling approaches suggested for targets irradiated by intense high-energy proton beams to produce radioactive species for use in a broad range of physics studies. This work reports on conductive cooling approaches for operation at temperatures lower than effective for radiative cooling. The possibilities for conductive cooling are discussed, and a prototype test target is described. This target was constructed for an experiment, designed to validate the numerical analysis approaches, at the TRIUMF/ISAC facility. Fabrication issues and the results of the experiment are presented, followed by a discussion of the implications of the experiment outcome for future development of targets to produce intense beams of radioactive ions

  13. [Comparison of clinical effectiveness of thoracic epidural and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for the treatment of rib fractures pain in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Ismet; Ekici, Zeynep; Sakarya, Melek

    2007-07-01

    The results of thoracic epidural and systemic patient controlled analgesia practice were evaluated retrospectively in patients with thoracic trauma. Patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit between 1997 and 2003, with a diagnosis of multiple rib fractures related to thoracic trauma were evaluated retrospectively. Data were recorded from 49 patients who met the following criteria; three or more rib fractures, initiation of PCA with I.V. phentanyl or thoracic epidural analgesia with phentanyl and bupivacaine. There were no significant differences between the groups concerning injury severity score. APACHE II score (8.1+/-1.6 and 9.2+/-1.7) and the number of rib fractures (4+/-1.1 and 6.8+/-2.7) were higher in thoracic epidural analgesia group (pPain scores of patients who received thoracic epidural analgesia were significantly lower as from 6th hour during whole therapy (prib fractures who require intensive care.

  14. Rib Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Achilles Tendon Tear Additional Content Medical News Rib Fractures By Thomas G. Weiser, MD, MPH, Associate Professor, ... Tamponade Hemothorax Injury to the Aorta Pulmonary Contusion Rib Fractures Tension Pneumothorax Traumatic Pneumothorax (See also Introduction to ...

  15. Frictional pressure drop of high pressure steam-water two-phase flow in internally helical ribbed tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingkuan, C.; Xuanzheng, C.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the internally helical ribbed tubes are effective in suppressing the dry-out in boiling tubes at high pressures, so they are widely used as furnace water wall tubes in modern large steam power boilers. Design of the boilers requires the data on frictional pressure drop characteristics of the ribbed tubes, but they are not sufficient now. This paper describes the experimental results on the adiabatic frictional pressure drop in both horizontal ribbed tubes with measured mean inside diameter of 11.69 mm and 35.42 mm at high pressure from 10 to 21 MPa, mass flow rate from 350 to 3800 kg/m/sup 2/s and steam quality from 0 to 1 in our high pressure electrically heated water loop. Simultaneously, both smooth tubes under the same conditions for comparison. Based on the tests the correlation for determining the frictional pressure drop of internally ribbed tubes are proposed

  16. Design and Characterization of High Power Targets for RIB Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, thermal modeling techniques are used to simulate ISOL targets irradiated with high power proton beams. Beam scattering effects, nuclear reactions and beam power deposition distributions in the target were computed with the Monte Carlo simulation code, GEANT4. The power density information was subsequently used as input to the finite element thermal analysis code, ANSYS, for extracting temperature distribution information for a variety of target materials. The principal objective of the studies was to evaluate techniques for more uniformly distributing beam deposited heat over the volumes of targets to levels compatible with their irradiation with the highest practical primary-beam power, and to use the preferred technique to design high power ISOL targets. The results suggest that radiation cooling, in combination, with primary beam manipulation, can be used to control temperatures in practically sized targets, to levels commensurate with irradiation with 1 GeV, 100 kW proton beams

  17. High intensity hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-05-01

    This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics

  18. A Multidisciplinary Clinical Pathway Decreases Rib Fracture-Associated Infectious Morbidity and Mortality in High-Risk Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    RT respiratory therapy ; PT physical therapy ; OT occupational therapy ; GCS Glasgow Coma Scale. 808 S.R. Todd et al. / The American Journal of...Morbidity form rib fractures increases after age 45. J Am Coll Surg 2003;196:549–55. [14] Pierson DJ, Kacmarek R. Foundations of Respiratory Care. New...Papers presented A multidisciplinary clinical pathway decreases rib fracture –associated infectious morbidity and mortality in high-risk trauma

  19. Ribbing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukkada, Philson J; Franklin, Teenu; Rajeswaran, Rangasami; Joseph, Santhosh

    2010-01-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc

  20. High prevalence of simultaneous rib and vertebral fractures in patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong-Gun; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Dam; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Hunchul; Kim, Yeesuk

    2017-02-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture using bone scans in patients with hip fracture and to determine the risk factors associated with simultaneous fracture. One hundred eighty two patients with hip fracture were reviewed for this study. Clinical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were investigated. To identify acute simultaneous fracture, a bone scan was performed at 15.4±4.1days after hip fracture. The prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture were evaluated, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. Simultaneous fracture was observed in 102 of 182 patients, a prevalence of 56.0%. Rib fracture was the most common type of simultaneous fracture followed by rib with vertebral fracture. The BMD of the lumbar vertebra was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture (p=0.044) and was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio: OR 0.05, 95% confidence interval: CI 0.01-0.57). The prevalence of simultaneous fracture was relatively high among patients with hip fracture, and BMD was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture than in patients without it. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of simultaneous fracture in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  2. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  3. Action of the isolated canine diaphragm on the lower ribs at high lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troyer, André; Wilson, Theodore A

    2014-10-15

    The normal diaphragm has an inspiratory action on the lower ribs, but subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease commonly have an inward displacement of the lateral portions of the lower rib cage during inspiration. This paradoxical displacement, conventionally called 'Hoover's sign', has traditionally been attributed to the direct action of radially oriented diaphragmatic muscle fibres. In the present study, the inspiratory intercostal muscles in all interspaces in anaesthetized dogs were severed so that the diaphragm was the only muscle active during inspiration. The displacements of the lower ribs along the craniocaudal and laterolateral axes and the changes in pleural pressure (∆Ppl) and transdiaphragmatic pressure were measured during occluded breaths and mechanical ventilation at different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity. From these data, the separate effects on rib displacement of ∆Ppl and of the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs were determined. Isolated spontaneous diaphragm contraction at FRC displaced the lower ribs cranially and outward, but this motion was progressively reversed into a caudal and inward motion as lung volume increased. However, although the force exerted by the diaphragm on the ribs decreased with increasing volume, it continued to displace the ribs cranially and outward. These observations suggest that Hoover's sign is usually caused by the decrease in the zone of apposition and, thus, by the dominant effect of ∆Ppl on the lower ribs, rather than an inward pull from the diaphragm. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  4. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Flavin binding to the high affinity riboflavin transporter RibU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duurkens, Hinderika; Tol, Menno B.; Geertsma, Eric R.; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    The first biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of a purified membrane transporter for riboflavin ( vitamin B-2) is presented. The riboflavin transporter RibU from the bacterium Lactococcus lactis was overexpressed, solubilized, and purified. The purified transporter was bright yellow when

  6. High-intensity laser physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohideen, U.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a study of the effect of high intensity lasers on atoms, free electrons and the generation of X-rays from solid density plasmas. The laser produced 50 milli Joule 180 femto sec pulses at 5 Hz. This translates to a maximum intensity of 5 x 10 18 W/cm 2 . At such high fields the AC stark shifts of atoms placed at the focus is much greater than the ionization energy. The characteristics of multiphoton ionization of atoms in intense laser fields was studied by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Free electrons placed in high intensity laser fields lead to harmonic generation. This phenomenon of Nonlinear Compton Scattering was theoretically investigated. Also, when these high intensity pulses are focused on solids a hot plasma is created. This plasma is a bright source of a short X-ray pulse. The pulse-width of X-rays from these solid density plasmas was measured by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy

  7. Novel classification system of rib fractures observed in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Pinto, Deborrah C; Greeley, Christopher; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Bista, Bibek

    2013-03-01

    Rib fractures are considered highly suspicious for nonaccidental injury in the pediatric clinical literature; however, a rib fracture classification system has not been developed. As an aid and impetus for rib fracture research, we developed a concise schema for classifying rib fracture types and fracture location that is applicable to infants. The system defined four fracture types (sternal end, buckle, transverse, and oblique) and four regions of the rib (posterior, posterolateral, anterolateral, and anterior). It was applied to all rib fractures observed during 85 consecutive infant autopsies. Rib fractures were found in 24 (28%) of the cases. A total of 158 rib fractures were identified. The proposed schema was adequate to classify 153 (97%) of the observed fractures. The results indicate that the classification system is sufficiently robust to classify rib fractures typically observed in infants and should be used by researchers investigating infant rib fractures. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Numerical prediction on turbulent heat transfer of a spacer ribbed fuel rod for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki

    1994-11-01

    The turbulent heat transfer of a fuel rod with three-dimensional trapezoidal spacer ribs for high temperature gas-cooled reactors was analyzed numerically using the k-ε turbulence model, and investigated experimentally using a simulated fuel rod under the helium gas condition of a maximum outlet temperature of 1000degC and pressure of 4MPa. From the experimental results, it found that the turbulent heat transfer coefficients of the fuel rod were 18 to 80% higher than those of a concentric smooth annulus at a region of Reynolds number exceeding 2000. On the other hand, the predicted average Nusselt number of the fuel rod agreed well with the heat transfer correlation obtained from the experimental data within a relative error of 10% with Reynolds number of more than 5000. It was verified that the numerical analysis results had sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, the numerical prediction could clarify quantitatively the effects of the heat transfer augmentation by the spacer rib and the axial velocity increase due to a reduction in the annular channel cross-section. (author)

  9. High Intensity Source Laboratory (HISL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The High Intensity Source Laboratory (HISL) is a laboratory facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by EG ampersand G, Energy Measurements (EG ampersand G/EM). This document is intended as an overview -- primarily for external users -- of the general purposes and capabilities of HISL; numerous technical details are beyond its scope. Moreover, systems at HISL are added, deleted, and modified to suit current needs, and upgraded with continuing development. Consequently, interested parties are invited to contact the HISL manager for detailed, current, technical, and administrative information. The HISL develops and operates pulsed radiation sources with energies, intensities, and pulse widths appropriate for several applications. Principal among these are development, characterization, and calibration of various high-bandwidth radiation detectors and diagnostic systems. Hardness/vulnerability of electronic or other sensitive components to radiation is also tested. In this connection, source development generally focuses on attending (1) the highest possible intensities with (2) reasonably short pulse widths and (3) comprehensive output characterization

  10. Giant cell tumor of the rib: Two cases of F-18 FDG PET/CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Lim; Yoo, Le Ryung; Lee, Yeong Joo; Jung, Chan Kwon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of MedicineThe Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sonya Young Ju [Molecular Imaging Program, Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report two cases of giant cell tumor arising from the rib and their F-18 FDG PET/CT findings. The two patients complained of chest wall pain, and large lobulated soft tissue masses with intense FDG uptake were seen on F-18 FDG PET/CT. A malignant tumor such as osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma was suspected due to the large size of the mass, bony destruction, and intense FDG uptake. En bloc resection was performed and final pathologic results revealed giant cell tumor of the rib. Giant cell tumor of the rib is very rare, and larger lesions with high FDG uptake can be misdiagnosed as an intrathoracic malignancy arising from the rib, pleura, or chest wall.

  11. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  12. Traumatic Vertebral Fractures and Concomitant Fractures of the Rib in Southwest China, 2001 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Zhou, Yue; Ou, Lan; Li, Changqing; Liu, Jun; Xiang, Liangbi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To our knowledge, the clinical characteristics of traumatic vertebral fractures and concomitant fractures of the rib (TVF-RF) have not been described in previous studies. To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients managed for TVF-RF. A retrospective study of 3142 patients who presented with traumatic vertebral fractures was performed. Two hundred twenty-six patients (7.2%) suffered from TVF-RF. Incidence rate ratios were then calculated with respect to the level of injury to the spine, the ASIA classification of neurological deficits and age. There were 171 male (75.7%) and 55 female (24.3%) patients with a mean age of 43.8 years. The most common mechanisms were falls from high heights in 81 cases and road traffic crashes in 67 cases. Right-sided rib injury occurred in 106 cases, left-sided injury occurred in 76 cases, and bilateral injury occurred in 44 cases. The most frequent location of the rib fractures was from the fourth rib to the ninth rib (70.3%, 510/725). Initial pulmonary complications (IPC) after trauma occurred in 116 cases (51.3%). The mortality rate for the entire group was 1.3% (3/226). The patients with thoracic vertebral fractures and neurological deficits had a higher frequency of multiple rib fractures and IPC than the other patients (P rib fractures, the frequency of IPC and mean intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay also increased. The rates of complications for patients with rib fractures were significantly different from those without rib fractures. We should pay much attention to the patients who presented with thoracic vertebral fractures and neurological deficits for minimizing further complications and mortality in such patients who had a higher frequency of multiple rib fractures and IPC than the other patients. PMID:26554809

  13. [Rib cage ostheosynthesis. Literature review and case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quijano, Andrés; Varón-Cotés, Juan Carlos; García-Herreros-Hellal, Luis Gerardo; Espinosa-Moya, Beatriz; Rivero-Rapalino, Oscar; Salazar-Marulanda, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the chest wall include sternum and rib fractures. Traditionally they are managed conservatively due to the anatomy of the rib cage that allows most of them to remain stable and to form a callus that unites the fractured segments. In spite of this management, some patients present with chronic pain or instability of the wall which makes them require some type of fixation. The present article performs a literature review based on 4 cases. The first case was a 61 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, with a great deformity of the chest wall associated with subcutaneous emphysema, and pneumothorax. The second case was a 51 year-old man with blunt chest trauma, initially managed at another institution, who despite treatment, had persistent pain and dyspnoea. The third case was a 30 year-old man that suffered a motor vehicle accident, with resulting pain and crepitation of the rib cage and with diagnostic images showing multiple rib fractures. The last case is a 62 year-old man that fell down the stairs, with blunt chest trauma with high intensity pain, dyspnoea and basal ipsilateral hypoventilation. Rib fracture fixation offers a good alternative in selected patients to decrease associated morbidity, leading to a patient's fast return to his or her working life. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Rib fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000539.htm Rib fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A rib fracture is a crack or break in one or ...

  15. Atraumatic First Rib Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Koray Aydogdu

    2014-01-01

    Rib fractures are usually seen after a trauma, while atraumatic spontaneous rib fractures are quite rare. A first rib fracture identified in our 17 years old female patient who had not a history of trauma except lifting a heavy weight was examined in details in terms of the potential complications and followed-up for a long time. We presented our experience on this case with atraumatic first rib fracture that has different views for the etiology in light of the literature.

  16. Surgical rib fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Marasco, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic rib fracture injuries are being seen with increasing frequency in the hospital setting. They are often associated with other severe injuries and frequently require admission. The most severe form of rib fracture injury, flail chest, has a mortality of up to 33%. Rib fracture injuries have also been associated with chronic pain, malunion, deformity, disability and poor quality of life. Despite this, the standard of management for rib fracture injuries was, and in most ...

  17. Characteristic Uptake Pattern of Bone Scintigraphy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Treatment with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Waihan; Ho, Waiyin; Lai, Andrew S. H.; Wong, Kwongkuen; Law, Martin [Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2013-12-15

    This study retrospectively reviews the characteristic bone scintigraphic findings in 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A potential complication of HIFU is damage to the tissues along the path of the ultrasound beam and structures superficial to the lesion of interest. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a bone scan between 1st December 2005 and 31st December 2011 were considered for this study. Among these patients, only those who had bone scans after the HIFU treatment were included. The time between HIFU treatment and bone scans, HIFU energy, HCC sites, tumour sizes and related radiological findings were evaluated. In total, 20 bone scans of 18 patients were reviewed. Of these scans, two patients were normal; three patients showed decreased uptake, four patients showed increased uptake and nine patients showed mixed uptakes of the bony tracer in their rib cages. The defects were located in the anterior, lateral, anterolateral or posterolateral aspects of the rib cage. The majority of those cold defects were in the right anterior rib cages. SPECT/CT was used to localise the decreased uptake in ribs. The magnetic resonance imaging in individual patients invariably showed ill-defined rim enhancement along the right chest wall, signifying chest wall injury. The results showed that tissue ablation using HIFU caused tissue injury along the pathway of high-intensity ultrasound beams. The harm to tissues is presented as photopenic area on the rib cages due to necrosis or hot spots due to rib fractures in the bone scan. Since these cold defects are subtle, they are easily overlooked or mistaken as aggressive bony metastasis.

  18. Intercostal high intensity focused ultrasound for liver ablation: The influence of beam shaping on sonication efficacy and near-field risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greef, M. de, E-mail: m.degreef@umcutrecht.nl; Wijlemans, J. W.; Bartels, L. W.; Moonen, C. T. W.; Ries, M. [Imaging Division, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht 3508GA (Netherlands); Schubert, G.; Koskela, J. [Philips Healthcare, Vantaa FI-01511 (Finland)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: One of the major issues in high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of abdominal lesions is obstruction of the ultrasound beam by the thoracic cage. Beam shaping strategies have been shown by several authors to increase focal point intensity while limiting rib exposure. However, as rib obstruction leaves only part of the aperture available for energy transmission, conserving total emitted acoustic power, the intensity in the near-field tissues inherently increases after beam shaping. Despite of effective rib sparing, those tissues are therefore subjected to increased risk of thermal damage. In this study, for a number of clinically representative intercostal sonication geometries, modeling clinically available hardware, the effect of beam shaping on both the exposure of the ribs and near-field to acoustic energy was evaluated and the implications for the volumetric ablation rate were addressed. Methods: A relationship between rib temperature rise and acoustic energy density was established by means of in vivo MR thermometry and simulations of the incident acoustic energy for the corresponding anatomies. This relationship was used for interpretation of rib exposure in subsequent numerical simulations in which rib spacing, focal point placement, and the focal point trajectory were varied. The time required to heat a targeted region to 65 °C was determined without and with the application of beam shaping. The required sonication time was used to calculate the acoustic energy density at the fat–muscle interface and at the surface of the ribs. At the fat–muscle interface, exposure was compared to available literature data and rib exposure was interpreted based on the earlier obtained relation between measured temperature rise and simulated acoustic energy density. To estimate the volumetric ablation rate, the cool-down time between periods of energy exposure was estimated using a time-averaged power limit of 100 kJ/h. Results: At the level of the ribs

  19. High-frequency, high-intensity photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, H. R.

    1996-02-01

    Two analytical methods for computing ionization by high-frequency fields are compared. Predicted ionization rates compare well, but energy predictions for the onset of ionization differ radically. The difference is shown to arise from the use of a transformation in one of the methods that alters the zero from which energy is measured. This alteration leads to an apparent energy threshold for ionization that can, especially in the stabilization regime, differ strongly from the laboratory measurement. It is concluded that channel closings in intense-field ionization can occur at high as well as low frequencies. It is also found that the stabilization phenomenon at high frequencies, very prominent for hydrogen, is absent in a short-range potential.

  20. Rib Fracture Fixation: Indications and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senekjian, Lara; Nirula, Raminder

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are a frequently identified injury in the trauma population. Not only are multiple rib fractures painful, but they are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Pneumonia in particular can be devastating, especially to an elderly patient, but other complications such as prolonged ventilation and increased intensive care and hospital durations of stay have a negative impact on the patient. Computed tomography scan is the best modality to diagnosis rib fractures but the treatment of fractures is still evolving. Currently patient care involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes pain control, aggressive pulmonary therapy, and possibly surgical fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The contribution of rib fractures to chronic pain and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, Stephanie; Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to chronic pain and disability is not well described. Two hundred three patients with rib fractures were followed for 6 months. Chronic pain was assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire Pain Rating Index and Present Pain Intensity (PPI) scales. Disability was defined as a decrease in work or functional status. The prevalence of chronic pain was 22% and disability was 53%. Acute PPI predicted chronic pain. Associated injuries, bilateral rib fractures, injury severity score, and number of rib fractures were not predictive of chronic pain. No acute injury characteristics were predictive of disability. Among 89 patients with isolated rib fractures, the prevalence of chronic pain was 28% and of disability was 40%. No injury characteristics predicted chronic pain. Bilateral rib fractures and acute PPI predicted disability. The contribution of rib fractures to chronic pain and disability is significant but unpredictable with conventional injury descriptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation Induced Rib Fractures on Bone Scan after Breast Cancer Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil; Kim, Jin Hee

    2009-01-01

    This study is to evaluate rib fractures on bone scan in breast cancer patients treated with breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy and to evaluate its relation with radiation therapy and operation modality. Two hundred seventy cases that underwent serial bone scan after breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy were enrolled. Bone scan and chest CT findings of rib fracture were analyzed. The rib uptake was seen in 74 of 270 cases (27.4%) on bone scan and 50 cases (18.5%) were confirmed to have rib fracture by chest CT. The rate of modified radical mastectomy in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (66.0% vs. 27.0%, p=0.000). The rate of additional radiation therapy to axillar or supraclavicular regions in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (62.0% vs. 28.6%, p=0.000). Rib fracture was seen most frequently at 1-2 years after radiation therapy (51.9%) and single rib fracture was seen most frequently (55.2%). Of total 106 rib fractures, focal rib uptake was seen in 94 ribs (88.7%) and diffuse rib uptake was seen in 12 ribs (11.3%). On one year follow-up bone scan, complete resolution of rib uptake was seen in 15 ribs (14.2%). On chest CT, the rate of fracture line in ribs with intense uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with mild or moderate uptake (p=0.000). The rate of presence of fracture line in ribs with focal uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with diffuse uptake (p=0.001). Rib fracture in breast cancer patients after radiation therapy was related to radiation portal and operation modality. It should be interpreted carefully as a differential diagnosis of bone metastasis

  3. Radiation Induced Rib Fractures on Bone Scan after Breast Cancer Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil; Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University, School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    This study is to evaluate rib fractures on bone scan in breast cancer patients treated with breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy and to evaluate its relation with radiation therapy and operation modality. Two hundred seventy cases that underwent serial bone scan after breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy were enrolled. Bone scan and chest CT findings of rib fracture were analyzed. The rib uptake was seen in 74 of 270 cases (27.4%) on bone scan and 50 cases (18.5%) were confirmed to have rib fracture by chest CT. The rate of modified radical mastectomy in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (66.0% vs. 27.0%, p=0.000). The rate of additional radiation therapy to axillar or supraclavicular regions in patients with rib fracture was significantly higher than that in patients without rib fracture (62.0% vs. 28.6%, p=0.000). Rib fracture was seen most frequently at 1-2 years after radiation therapy (51.9%) and single rib fracture was seen most frequently (55.2%). Of total 106 rib fractures, focal rib uptake was seen in 94 ribs (88.7%) and diffuse rib uptake was seen in 12 ribs (11.3%). On one year follow-up bone scan, complete resolution of rib uptake was seen in 15 ribs (14.2%). On chest CT, the rate of fracture line in ribs with intense uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with mild or moderate uptake (p=0.000). The rate of presence of fracture line in ribs with focal uptake was significantly higher than that in ribs with diffuse uptake (p=0.001). Rib fracture in breast cancer patients after radiation therapy was related to radiation portal and operation modality. It should be interpreted carefully as a differential diagnosis of bone metastasis.

  4. Atraumatic First Rib Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Aydogdu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rib fractures are usually seen after a trauma, while atraumatic spontaneous rib fractures are quite rare. A first rib fracture identified in our 17 years old female patient who had not a history of trauma except lifting a heavy weight was examined in details in terms of the potential complications and followed-up for a long time. We presented our experience on this case with atraumatic first rib fracture that has different views for the etiology in light of the literature.

  5. Objective method to report planner-independent skin/rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: An objective method was proposed and compared with a manual selection method to determine planner-independent skin and rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning. Methods: The maximal dose to skin and rib was objectively extracted from a dose volume histogram (DVH) of skin and rib volumes. A virtual skin volume was produced by expanding the skin surface in three dimensions (3D) external to the breast with a certain thickness in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Therefore, the maximal dose to this volume occurs on the skin surface the same with a conventional manual selection method. The rib was also delineated in the planning CT images and its maximal dose was extracted from its DVH. The absolute (Abdiff=|D max Man -D max DVH |) and relative (Rediff[%]=100x(|D max Man -D max DVH |)/D max DVH ) maximal skin and rib dose differences between the manual selection method (D max Man ) and the objective method (D max DVH ) were measured for 50 balloon-based HDR (25 MammoSite and 25 Contura) patients. Results: The average±standard deviation of maximal dose difference was 1.67%±1.69% of the prescribed dose (PD). No statistical difference was observed between MammoSite and Contura patients for both Abdiff and Rediff[%] values. However, a statistically significant difference (p value max >90%) compared with lower dose range (D max <90%): 2.16%±1.93% vs 1.19%±1.25% with p value of 0.0049. However, the Rediff[%] analysis eliminated the inverse square factor and there was no statistically significant difference (p value=0.8931) between high and low dose ranges. Conclusions: The objective method using volumetric information of skin and rib can determine the planner-independent maximal dose compared with the manual selection method. However, the difference was <2% of PD, on average, if appropriate attention is paid to selecting a manual dose point in 3D planning CT images.

  6. Traumatic Vertebral Fractures and Concomitant Fractures of the Rib in Southwest China, 2001 to 2010: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Zhou, Yue; Ou, Lan; Li, Changqing; Liu, Jun; Xiang, Liangbi

    2015-11-01

    To our knowledge, the clinical characteristics of traumatic vertebral fractures and concomitant fractures of the rib (TVF-RF) have not been described in previous studies.To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients managed for TVF-RF. A retrospective study of 3142 patients who presented with traumatic vertebral fractures was performed. Two hundred twenty-six patients (7.2%) suffered from TVF-RF.Incidence rate ratios were then calculated with respect to the level of injury to the spine, the ASIA classification of neurological deficits and age.There were 171 male (75.7%) and 55 female (24.3%) patients with a mean age of 43.8 years. The most common mechanisms were falls from high heights in 81 cases and road traffic crashes in 67 cases. Right-sided rib injury occurred in 106 cases, left-sided injury occurred in 76 cases, and bilateral injury occurred in 44 cases. The most frequent location of the rib fractures was from the fourth rib to the ninth rib (70.3%, 510/725). Initial pulmonary complications (IPC) after trauma occurred in 116 cases (51.3%). The mortality rate for the entire group was 1.3% (3/226). The patients with thoracic vertebral fractures and neurological deficits had a higher frequency of multiple rib fractures and IPC than the other patients (P the increased number of rib fractures, the frequency of IPC and mean intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay also increased.The rates of complications for patients with rib fractures were significantly different from those without rib fractures. We should pay much attention to the patients who presented with thoracic vertebral fractures and neurological deficits for minimizing further complications and mortality in such patients who had a higher frequency of multiple rib fractures and IPC than the other patients.

  7. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  8. Static, Fire and Fatigue Tests of Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete and Ribbed Bars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard; Heshe, Gert

    2001-01-01

    A new building system has been developed during the last 10 years. This new system consists of a column / slab system with 6 x 6 m distance between the columns. The slabs are precast concrete elements of size 2.9 x 5.9 m connected through joints of ultra high strength fibre reinforced concrete...... - Densit Joint Cast ®. Also the connections between the columns and the slabs are made of this very strong concrete material. The paper describes some of the static tests carried out as well as some fire tests. Further, 2 chapters deal with some fatigue tests of the reinforcing bars as well as some fatigue...

  9. High intensity radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear imaging system is described for mapping a spatially distributed source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound in which the nuclear energy is spatially coded by a zone plate positioned between the source and a spatial detector, and a half tone screen is positioned between the source and the zone plate to increase the definition of the image

  10. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...... composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type...

  11. High intensity proton accelerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Nishida, Takahiko

    1991-06-01

    Industrial applications of proton accelerators to the incineration of the long-lived nuclides contained in the spent fuels have long been investigated. Department of Reactor Engineering of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has formulated the Accelerator Program through the investigations on the required performances of the accelerator and its development strategies and also the research plan using the accelerator. Outline of the Program is described in the present report. The target of the Program is the construction of the Engineering Test Accelerators (ETA) of the type of a linear accelerator with the energy 1.5 GeV and the proton current ∼10 mA. It is decided that the construction of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA) is necessary as an intermediate step, aiming at obtaining the required technical basis and human resources. The Basic Technology Accelerator with the energy of 10 MeV and with the current of ∼10 mA is composed of the ion source, RFQ and DTL, of which system forms the mock-up of the injector of ETA. Development of the high-β structure which constitutes the main acceleration part of ETA is also scheduled. This report covers the basic parameters of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA), development steps of the element and system technologies of the high current accelerators and rough sketch of ETA which can be prospected at present. (J.P.N.)

  12. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, Benard; Adderley, Philip; Brittian, Joshua; Clark, J.; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; McCarter, James; Stutzman, Marcy; Suleiman, Riad; Surles-law, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive RandD devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source RandD. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular?Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model?requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlate

  13. Nonepiphyseal Giant Cell Tumor of the Rib: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hippocrates Moschouris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a 32-year-old female patient with a giant cell tumor originating in the middle part of the left 10th rib is presented. On X-rays and CT, the tumor caused a well-defined osteolysis with nonsclerotic borders. On MRI, it exhibited intermediate signal intensity on T1 sequences and central high signal and peripheral intermediate signal on T2 sequences. On contrast-enhanced MR images both central and peripheral-periosteal enhancement was noted. Thanks to its small size ( cm, the lesion was easily resected en bloc with a part of the affected rib. The patient is free of recurrence for 3 years after the operation.

  14. Rib cage pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of the following: Bruised, cracked, or fractured rib Inflammation of cartilage near the ... the best cures for a ribcage fracture . Follow your health care provider's instructions for treating ...

  15. Cough-induced rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Viktor; Hartman, Thomas E; Ryu, Jay H

    2005-07-01

    To define the demographic, clinical, and radiological features of patients with cough-induced rib fractures and to assess potential risk factors. For this retrospective, single-center study, we identified all cases of cough-induced rib fractures diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn, over a 9-year period between January 1, 1996, and January 31, 2005. Bone densitometry data from patients' medical records were analyzed, and T scores were used to classify patients into bone density categories. The mean +/- SD age of the 54 study patients at presentation was 55+/-17 years, and 42 patients (78%) were female. Patients presented with chest wall pain after onset of cough. Rib fracture was associated with chronic cough (> or =3 weeks' duration) in 85% of patients. Rib fractures were documented by chest radiography, rib radiography, computed tomography, or bone scan. Chest radiography had been performed in 52 patients and revealed rib fracture in 30 (58%). There were 112 fractured ribs in 54 patients. One half of patients had more than one fractured rib. Right-sided rib fractures alone were present in 17 patients (26 fractured ribs), left-sided in 23 patients (35 fractured ribs), and bilateral in 14 patients (51 fractured ribs). The most commonly fractured rib on both sides was rib 6. The fractures were most common at the lateral aspect of the rib cage. Bone densitometry was done in 26 patients and revealed osteopenia or osteoporosis in 17 (65%). Cough-induced rib fractures occur primarily in women with chronic cough. Middle ribs along the lateral aspect of the rib cage are affected most commonly. Although reduced bone density is likely a risk factor, cough-induced rib fractures can occur in the presence of normal bone density.

  16. Sonographic analysis of the intercostal spaces for the application of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sun; Park, Min Jung; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the widths of the intercostal spaces of the right inferior human rib cage through which high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy would be applied for treating liver cancer and to elucidate the demographic factors associated with intercostal space width. From March 2013 to June 2013, the widths of the intercostal spaces and the ribs at six areas of the right inferior rib cage (area 1, lowest intercostal space on anterior axillary line and the adjacent upper rib; area 2, second-lowest intercostal space on anterior axillary line and the adjacent upper rib; areas 3 and 4, lowest and second-lowest spaces on midaxillary line; areas 5 and 6, lowest and second-lowest spaces on posterior axillary line) were sonographically measured in 466 patients (214 men, 252 women; mean age, 53.0 years) after an abdominal sonographic examination. Demographic factors and the presence or absence of chronic liver disease were evaluated by multivariate analysis to investigate which factors influence intercostal width. The width of the intercostal space was 19.7 ± 3.7 mm (range, 9-33 mm) at area 1, 18.3 ± 3.4 mm (range, 9-33 mm) at area 2, 17.4 ± 4.0 mm (range, 7-33 mm) at area 3, 15.4 ± 3.5 mm (range, 5-26 mm) at area 4, 17.2 ± 3.7 mm (range, 7-28 mm) at area 5, and 14.5 ± 3.6 mm (range, 4-26 mm) at area 6. The corresponding widths of the ribs were 15.2 ± 2.3 mm (range, 8-22 mm), 14.5 ± 2.3 mm (range, 9-22 mm), 13.2 ± 2.0 mm (range, 9-20), 14.3 ± 2.2 mm (range, 9-20 mm), 15.0 ± 2.2 mm (range, 10-22 mm), and 15.1 ± 2.3 mm (range, 8-21 mm). Only female sex was significantly associated with the narrower intercostal width at areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 (regression coefficient, 1.124-1.885; p = 0.01-0.04). There was substantial variation in the widths of the intercostal spaces of the right inferior rib cage such that the anterior and inferior aspects of the intercostal space were relatively wider. Women had significantly narrower intercostal spaces

  17. Model based rib-cage unfolding for trauma CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Berg, Jens; Klinder, Tobias; Lorenz, Cristian

    2018-03-01

    A CT rib-cage unfolding method is proposed that does not require to determine rib centerlines but determines the visceral cavity surface by model base segmentation. Image intensities are sampled across this surface that is flattened using a model based 3D thin-plate-spline registration. An average rib centerline model projected onto this surface serves as a reference system for registration. The flattening registration is designed so that ribs similar to the centerline model are mapped onto parallel lines preserving their relative length. Ribs deviating from this model appear deviating from straight parallel ribs in the unfolded view, accordingly. As the mapping is continuous also the details in intercostal space and those adjacent to the ribs are rendered well. The most beneficial application area is Trauma CT where a fast detection of rib fractures is a crucial task. Specifically in trauma, automatic rib centerline detection may not be guaranteed due to fractures and dislocations. The application by visual assessment on the large public LIDC data base of lung CT proved general feasibility of this early work.

  18. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  19. Isolated rib fractures in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmistekawy Elsayed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term outcomes in patients older than 60 years with isolated rib fractures and admitted to emergency hospital. Materials and Methods: This study included patients who were 60 years old or more and sustained blunt chest injury and had isolated rib fractures. The following data were obtained from the medical records: age, gender, number of fracture ribs, side of fracture ribs, mechanism and nature of injury, preexisting medical conditions, complications, admission to intensive care unit (ICU, need for mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality. Results: For the study, 39 patients who were 60 years old or more and admitted to the hospital because of isolated rib fractures were enrolled. There were 28 males (71.7% and 11 females (28.3% with mean age of (66.84 ± 4.7 years. No correlation was found between comorbidities and hospital outcomes except in those who were diabetic (P-value = 0.005 and those with chronic lung disease (P-value = 0.006. Pulmonary complications were the most frequent complications encountered in those patients. Pulmonary complications were: lung contusion in 8 patients (20.5% and pulmonary infection in 6 patients (15.8%. Conclusion: Elderly patients sustaining blunt chest trauma had significant morbidity and potential for mortality.

  20. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M M [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A; Jovanovic, M

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  1. Clinical Utility of Chest Computed Tomography in Patients with Rib Fractures CT Chest and Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Brandon C; Overbey, Douglas M; Tesfalidet, Feven; Schramm, Kristofer; Stovall, Robert T; French, Andrew; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Burlew, Clay C; Barnett, Carlton; Moore, Ernest E; Pieracci, Fredric M

    2016-12-01

    Chest CT is more sensitive than a chest X-ray (CXR) in diagnosing rib fractures; however, the clinical significance of these fractures remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the added diagnostic use of chest CT performed after CXR in patients with either known or suspected rib fractures secondary to blunt trauma. Retrospective cohort study of blunt trauma patients with rib fractures at a level I trauma center that had both a CXR and a CT chest. The CT finding of ≥ 3 additional fractures in patients with ≤ 3 rib fractures on CXR was considered clinically meaningful. Student's t-test and chi-square analysis were used for comparison. We identified 499 patients with rib fractures: 93 (18.6%) had CXR only, 7 (1.4%) had chest CT only, and 399 (79.9%) had both CXR and chest CT. Among these 399 patients, a total of 1,969 rib fractures were identified: 1,467 (74.5%) were missed by CXR. The median number of additional fractures identified by CT was 3 (range, 4 - 15). Of 212 (53.1%) patients with a clinically meaningful increase in the number of fractures, 68 patients underwent one or more clinical interventions: 36 SICU admissions, 20 pain catheter placements, 23 epidural placements, and 3 SSRF. Additionally, 70 patients had a chest tube placed for retained hemothorax or occult pneumothorax. Overall, 138 patients (34.5%) had a change in clinical management based upon CT chest. The chest X-ray missed ~75% of rib fractures seen on chest CT. Although patients with a clinical meaningful increase in the number of rib fractures were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit, there was no associated improvement in pulmonary outcomes.

  2. Evaluation of the Rib Lesions by Bone Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyung Gun; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Youn; Koh, Chang Soon

    1983-01-01

    In order to establish criteria for distinguishing between occult fracture and metastases, we have reviewed 52 records of cancer patients and 24 of rib fracture patients referred for bone scanning. In 52 patients with biopsy-proven malignancy, multiple linear increased uptake of the ribs was found in 32 cases(61.5%), and was the most common finding. In 24 patients with rib fracture, all but 1 had fecal increased uptake of the ribs, and lesions almost always aligned in a row. By analyzing the appearance of rib lesions in total 76 patients, it was concluded that there is a high probability that rib lesions detected by bone scanning are bony metastases if 1) they are multiple linear as opposed to fecal, and 2) they are not aligned in the same location

  3. Bifid rib: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Krishnan Rathinasabapathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of the bifid rib was found during routine bone study. The distal part of the osseous rib bifurcated into two divisions with an angle of 60°. Both divisions had their own costal cartilage. Bifid rib is a congenital abnormality of the rib cage and usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.

  4. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  5. Optimal transcostal high-intensity focused ultrasound with combined real-time 3D movement tracking and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, F; Aubry, J F; Pernot, M; Fink, M; Tanter, M

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of transcostal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment in liver. However, two factors limit thermal necrosis of the liver through the ribs: the energy deposition at focus is decreased by the respiratory movement of the liver and the energy deposition on the skin is increased by the presence of highly absorbing bone structures. Ex vivo ablations were conducted to validate the feasibility of a transcostal real-time 3D movement tracking and correction mode. Experiments were conducted through a chest phantom made of three human ribs immersed in water and were placed in front of a 300 element array working at 1 MHz. A binarized apodization law introduced recently in order to spare the rib cage during treatment has been extended here with real-time electronic steering of the beam. Thermal simulations have been conducted to determine the steering limits. In vivo 3D-movement detection was performed on pigs using an ultrasonic sequence. The maximum error on the transcostal motion detection was measured to be 0.09 ± 0.097 mm on the anterior–posterior axis. Finally, a complete sequence was developed combining real-time 3D transcostal movement correction and spiral trajectory of the HIFU beam, allowing the system to treat larger areas with optimized efficiency. Lesions as large as 1 cm in diameter have been produced at focus in excised liver, whereas no necroses could be obtained with the same emitted power without correcting the movement of the tissue sample.

  6. Rib fracture following stereotactic body radiotherapy: a potential pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Sinisa; Boike, Thomas P; Rule, William G; Timmerman, Robert D

    2011-11-01

    Although the incidence of rib fractures after conventional radiotherapy is generally low (rib fractures are a relatively common complication of stereotactic body radiotherapy. For malignancy adjacent to the chest wall, the incidence of rib fractures after stereotactic body radiotherapy is as high as 10%. Unrecognized bone fractures can mimic bone metastases on bone scintigraphy, can lead to extensive workup, and can even lead to consideration of unnecessary systemic chemotherapy, as treatment decisions can be based on imaging findings alone. Nuclear medicine physicians and diagnostic radiologists should always consider rib fracture in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Very high intensity reaction chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, J.J.

    1975-09-01

    The problem of achieving very high intensity irradiation by light in minimal regions was studied. Three types of irradiation chamber are suggested: the common laser-reaction chamber, the folded concentric or near-concentric resonator, and the asymmetric confocal resonator. In all designs the ratio of high-intensity illuminated volume to other volume is highly dependent (to the 3 / 2 power) on the power and fluence tolerances of optical elements, primarily mirrors. Optimization of energy coupling is discussed for the common cavity. For the concentric cavities, optimization for both coherent and incoherent beams is treated. Formulae and numerical examples give the size of chambers, aspect ratios, maximum pass number, image sizes, fluences, and the like. Similarly for the asymmetric confocal chamber, formulae and numerical examples for fluences, dimensions, losses, and totally contained pass numbers are given

  8. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  10. Cough-induced rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi; Tashiro, Ken; Fukuda, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    Occasionally, patients who complain of chest pain after the onset of coughing are diagnosed with rib fractures. We investigated the characteristics of cough-induced rib fractures. Between April 2008 and December 2013, 17 patients were referred to our hospital with chest pain after the onset of coughing. Rib radiography was performed, focusing on the location of the chest pain. When the patient had other signs and symptoms such as fever or persistent cough, computed tomography of the chest was carried out. We analyzed the data retrospectively. Rib fractures were found in 14 of the 17 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 86 years (median 39.5 years). Ten patients were female and 4 were male. Three patients had chronic lung disease. There was a single rib fracture in 9 patients, and 5 had two or more fractures. The middle and lower ribs were the most commonly involved; the 10th rib was fractured most frequently. Cough-induced rib fractures occur in every age group regardless of the presence or absence of underlying disease. Since rib fractures often occur in the lower and middle ribs, rib radiography is useful for diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Fixation of a human rib by an intramedullary telescoping splint anchored by bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liovic, Petar; Šutalo, Ilija D; Marasco, Silvana F

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept for rib fixation is presented that involves the use of a bioresorbable polymer intramedullary telescoping splint. Bone cement is used to anchor each end of the splint inside the medullary canal on each side of the fracture site. In this manner, rib fixation is achieved without fixation device protrusion from the rib, making the splint completely intramedullary. Finite element analysis is used to demonstrate that such a splint/cement composite can preserve rib fixation subjected to cough-intensity force loadings. Computational fluid dynamics and porcine rib experiments were used to study the anchor formation process required to complete the fixation.

  12. Development of a high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Touchi, Yutaka; Mukugi, Ken; Ino, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with a beam power of 15 MW has been proposed for various engineering tests for the nuclear waste transmutation system as one of the research plans in the Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) in JAERI. High intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beam generated from the proton spallation reaction will be utilized at these facilities in each research field. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end part of the proton accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. In the beam test, the current of 70 mA with a duty factor of 7% has been accelerated from the RFQ at the energy of 2 MeV. A hot test model of the DTL for the high power and high duty operation was fabricated and tested. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting accelerating cavity is studied as a main option. The superconducting linac is expected to have several favourable characteristics for high intensity accelerator such as short accelerator length, large bore radius resulting in low beam losses and cost effectiveness for construction and operation. A test stand with equipment of cryogenics system, vacuum system, RF system and cavity processing and cleaning is prepared to test the physics issues and fabrication process. The proposed plan for accelerator design and construction will compose of two consecutive stages. The first stage will be completed in about 7 years with the beam power of 1.5 MW. As the second stage gradual upgrading of the beam power will be made up to 15 MW. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  13. The utilization of high-intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, E.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory for the Utilization of High-Intensity Lasers (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research program is focused on the laser-plasma physics, on the generation of high pressures by means of laser shock heating, on the laser spectroscopy and on the laser implosions. Numerical simulation codes are developed. Concerning the atomic physics, the investigations on dense plasmas and the x-laser research developments are carried out. The research activities of the laboratory teams, the published papers, the national and international cooperations, are given [fr

  14. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  15. Nineth Rib Syndrome after 10(th) Rib Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Yu Sub; Lee, Dong Hoon; Yim, Kyoung Hoon

    2016-07-01

    The 12(th) rib syndrome is a disease that causes pain between the upper abdomen and the lower chest. It is assumed that the impinging on the nerves between the ribs causes pain in the lower chest, upper abdomen, and flank. A 74-year-old female patient visited a pain clinic complaining of pain in her back, and left chest wall at a 7 on the 0-10 Numeric Rating scale (NRS). She had a lateral fixation at T12-L2, 6 years earlier. After the operation, she had multiple osteoporotic compression fractures. When the spine was bent, the patient complained about a sharp pain in the left mid-axillary line and radiating pain toward the abdomen. On physical examination, the 10(th) rib was not felt, and an image of the rib-cage confirmed that the left 10(th) rib was severed. When applying pressure from the legs to the 9(th) rib of the patient, pain was reproduced. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with 9(th) rib syndrome, and ultrasound-guided 9(th) and 10(th) intercostal nerve blocks were performed around the tips of the severed 10(th) rib. In addition, local anesthetics with triamcinolone were administered into the muscles beneath the 9(th) rib at the point of the greatest tenderness. The patient's pain was reduced to NRS 2 point. In this case, it is suspected that the patient had a partial resection of the left 10(th) rib in the past, and subsequent compression fractures at T8 and T9 led to the deformation of the rib cage, causing the tip of the remaining 10(th) rib to impinge on the 9(th) intercostal nerves, causing pain.

  16. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for pasteurisation are high intensity pulsed electric fields aiming for minimal heat load, with an electric field strength (E) in the range of 15 − 20 kV/cm and pulse width (τ) between 2 − 20 μs. Alternativel...

  17. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  18. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook [Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah [Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  19. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook; Kim, Kyeong Ah

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  20. Surgical Stabilization of Rib Fractures in a 6-Year-Old Child After Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Ishitani, Michael B; Kim, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    When identified, rib fractures in children are associated with high-energy trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or both. Traditionally, the optimal management of rib fractures in children is supportive care. In this case report, we present a 6-year-old boy who underwent surgical rib fixation for multiple displaced and comminuted rib fractures after being stepped on by a horse. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  2. Acute rib fracture diagnosis in an infant by US: a matter of child protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelloff, Jennifer; Spivey, Maria; Hulett, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Rib fractures in infants and children are highly specific for inflicted injury in the absence of a major accidental injury or underlying bone disorder. We present a 9-week-old infant diagnosed with an acute rib fracture by US at the site where physicians palpated chest wall crepitus when no rib fractures had been visualized on the skeletal survey, including oblique views of the ribs. Based on the US diagnosis of the acute rib fracture the infant was taken into protective custody. Follow-up skeletal survey 2 weeks later revealed healing fractures of the left 6th and 7th posterolateral ribs and right 7th, 8th and 9th anterolateral ribs. We were unable to locate previous reports describing the diagnosis of rib fractures in infants by US. (orig.)

  3. Acute rib fracture diagnosis in an infant by US: a matter of child protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelloff, Jennifer; Spivey, Maria [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section on Child Abuse and Neglect, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, One Children' s Place, Box 8116, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hulett, Rebecca [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Rib fractures in infants and children are highly specific for inflicted injury in the absence of a major accidental injury or underlying bone disorder. We present a 9-week-old infant diagnosed with an acute rib fracture by US at the site where physicians palpated chest wall crepitus when no rib fractures had been visualized on the skeletal survey, including oblique views of the ribs. Based on the US diagnosis of the acute rib fracture the infant was taken into protective custody. Follow-up skeletal survey 2 weeks later revealed healing fractures of the left 6th and 7th posterolateral ribs and right 7th, 8th and 9th anterolateral ribs. We were unable to locate previous reports describing the diagnosis of rib fractures in infants by US. (orig.)

  4. Rib fractures in chronic alcoholic men: Relationship with feeding habits, social problems, malnutrition, bone alterations, and liver dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; García-Valdecasas-Campelo, Elena; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Milena-Abril, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Eva; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Pérez-Ramírez, Alina; Alemán-Valls, María Remedios

    2005-10-01

    Rib fractures are common in alcoholics. This high prevalence might be due to ethanol-associated malnutrition, bone disease, liver dysfunction, or the peculiar lifestyle of the alcoholic with frequent trauma and altercations. In this study we try to discern the role of these factors on rib fracture (assessed on a plain thoracic X-ray film) in 81 consecutive alcoholic patients, 25 of them cirrhotics. Serum albumin, prothrombin aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, insulin growth factor 1, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, estradiol, free testosterone, and corticosterone were measured, and the patients also underwent assessment of bone mineral density by a HOLOGIC QDR-2000 bone densitometer (Waltham, MA, USA). Body mass index, triceps skinfold, and brachial perimeter were also determined, and the patients and their families were asked about tobacco consumption, social and familial links, consumption of ethanol by other members of the family, kind of job, and feeding habits. Forty-two male nondrinker sanitary workers of similar age served as controls. Forty of the 81 patients showed rib fractures. There was a statistically significant association between rib fractures and disruption of social and familial links, irregular feeding habits (in bars or pubs, not at home), ethanol consumption by close relatives, and intensity of tobacco consumption, but not between rib fractures and liver function tests, nutritional parameters, or bone mineral density, besides a nearly significant trend (p = .053) with the presence of osteopenia at the femoral neck. Patients with major withdrawal symptoms at admission also presented more frequent rib fractures. We conclude that rib fractures in alcoholics are related to the peculiar lifestyle of these patients rather than to bone alterations, liver dysfunction, or nutritional status.

  5. A combined thermal dissociation and electron impact ionization source for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1995-01-01

    The probability for simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecular feed materials with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources is low and consequently, the ion beams from these sources often appear as mixtures of several molecular sideband beams. This fragmentation process leads to dilution of the intensity of the species of interest for RIB applications where beam intensity is at a premium. We have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high ionization efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source that will, in principle, overcome this handicap. The source concept will be evaluated as a potential candidate for use for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article

  6. High-intensity deuteron linear accelerator (FMIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    For fusion reactors to become operational, one of the many problems to be solved is to find materials able to withstand the intense bombardment of 14-MeV neutrons released by the fusion process. The development of alloys less likely to become damaged by this neutron bombardment will require years of work, making it desirable to begin studies in parallel with other aspects of fusion power generators. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, to be built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, will provide a high neutron flux and a neutron energy spectrum representative of fusion reactor conditions in volumes adequate to screen and qualify samples of candidate fusion reactor materials. FMIT's design goal is to provide an irradiation test volume of 10 cm 3 at a neutron flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s, and 500 cm 3 at a flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -s. This will not allow testing of actual components, but samples in the most intense flux region can be subjected to accelerated life testing, accumulating in one year the total number of neutrons seen by a fusion reactor in 10 to 20 years of operation

  7. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of ∼10 39 cm -2 s -1 , which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10 11 s -1 . 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  8. A High Intensity Hadron Facility, AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    We have present one of several possibilities for the evolution of the AGS complex into a high intensity hadron facility. One could consider other alternatives, such as using the AGS as the Collector and constructing a new 9-30 GeV machine. We believe the most responsible scenario must minimize the cost and downtime to the ongoing physics program. With a stepwise approach, starting with the Booster, the physics program can evolve without a single major commitment in funds. At each step an evaluation of the funds versus physics merit can be made. As a final aside, each upgrade at the AGS and Booster is presently being implemented to support an interleaved operation of both protons and ions. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  9. High intensity proton accelerator controls network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempaska, R.; Bertrand, A.; Lendzian, F.; Lutz, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) control system network is spread through a vast area in PSI and it was grown historically in an unorganized way. The miscellaneous network hardware infrastructure and the lack of the documentation and components overview could no longer guarantee the reliability of the control system and the facility operation. Therefore, a new network, based on modern network topology, PSI standard hardware with monitoring and detailed documentation and overview was needed. The number of active components has been reduced from 25 to 9 Cisco Catalyst 24- or 48-port switches. They are the same type as other PSI switches, thus a replacement emergency stock is not an issue anymore. We would like to present how we successfully achieved this goal and the advantages of the clean and well documented network infrastructure. (authors)

  10. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  11. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  12. Operative Fixation of Rib Fractures Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, David; Taylor, Benjamin; McLaurin, Toni

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are extremely common injuries and vary in there severity from single nondisplaced fractures to multiple segmental fractures resulting in flail chest and respiratory compromise. Historically, rib fractures have been treated conservatively with pain control and respiratory therapy. However this method may not be the best treatment modality in all situations. Operative fixation of select rib fractures has been increasing in popularity especially in patients with flail chest and respiratory compromise. Newer techniques use muscle sparing approaches and precontoured locking plate technology to obtain stable fixation and allow improved respiration. Current reports shows that rib fracture fixation offers the benefits of improved respiratory mechanics and improved pain control in the severe chest wall injury with resultant improvement in patient outcomes by decreasing time on the ventilator, time in the intensive care unit, and overall hospital length of stay.

  13. Chondroblastoma of rib : case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Kyung Rae; Ryu, Sang Wan

    2004-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon, benign, cartilaginous neoplasm originating in an epiphysis or apophysis of a long tubular bone. The rib is an unusual site for chondroblastoma. The authors describe a case of chondroblastoma of the rib and present a brief review of the literature

  14. Chondroblastoma of rib : case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Kyung Rae; Ryu, Sang Wan [Kwangju Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon, benign, cartilaginous neoplasm originating in an epiphysis or apophysis of a long tubular bone. The rib is an unusual site for chondroblastoma. The authors describe a case of chondroblastoma of the rib and present a brief review of the literature.

  15. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity (ζ = ΔQ/(Δp/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  16. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, T.R.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo-Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrzycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T.Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López-Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L.J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J.J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J.S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

  17. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  18. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  19. 'J-KAREN' - high intensity, high contrast laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Mori, Michiaki; Nakai, Yoshiki; Okada, Hajime; Sasao, Hajime; Sagisaka, Akito; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Momoko; Kondo, Kiminori; Tateno, Ryo; Sugiyama, Akira; Daido, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masato; Kawanishi, Syunichi; Shimomura, Takuya; Tanoue, Manabu; Wakai, Daisuke; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei

    2010-01-01

    We report on the high intensity, high contrast double chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system (named J-KAREN). By use of an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier that is seeded by a cleaned high-energy pulse, a background amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) level of 10 -10 relative to the peak main femtosecond pulse on the picosecond timescales demonstrated with an output energy of 1.7 J and a pulse duration of 30 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 60TW at a 10 Hz repetition rate. This system which uses a cryogenically-cooled Ti:sapphire final amplifier generates focused peak intensity in excess of 10 20 W/cm 2 at a 10 Hz repetition rate. (author)

  20. HIFU scattering by the ribs: constrained optimisation with a complex surface impedance boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2014-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enables highly localised, non-invasive tissue ablation and its efficacy has been demonstrated in the treatment of a range of cancers, including those of the kidney, prostate and breast. HIFU offers the ability to treat deep-seated tumours locally, and potentially bears fewer side effects than more established treatment modalities such as resection, chemotherapy and ionising radiation. There remains however a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to ablate tissue at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. This sometimes results in overheating of bone and overlying tissue during treatment, leading to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy is deposited. Previously, a boundary element (BE) approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data [1]. Dissipative mechanisms inside the propagating medium have since been implemented, together with a complex surface impedance condition at the surface of the ribs. A reformulation of the boundary element equations as a constrained optimisation problem was carried out to determine the complex surface velocities of a multi-element HIFU array which generated the acoustic pressure field that best fitted a required acoustic pressure distribution in a least-squares sense. This was done whilst ensuring that an acoustic dose rate parameter at the surface of the ribs was kept below a specified threshold. The methodology was tested at an

  1. High-intensity laser application in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Franzotti Sant’Anna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In dental practice, low-level laser therapy (LLLT and high-intensity laser therapy (HILT are mainly used for dental surgery and biostimulation therapy. Within the Orthodontic specialty, while LLLT has been widely used to treat pain associated with orthodontic movement, accelerate bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion, and enhance orthodontic tooth movement, HILT, in turn, has been seen as an alternative for addressing soft tissue complications associated to orthodontic treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to discuss HILT applications in orthodontic treatment. Methods: This study describes the use of HILT in surgical treatments such as gingivectomy, ulotomy, ulectomy, fiberotomy, labial and lingual frenectomies, as well as hard tissue and other dental restorative materials applications. Conclusion: Despite the many applications for lasers in Orthodontics, they are still underused by Brazilian practitioners. However, it is quite likely that this demand will increase over the next years - following the trend in the USA, where laser therapies are more widely used.

  2. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  3. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  4. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Edgecock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ^{+} and μ^{-} beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  5. Single crystalline silicon solar cells with rib structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Yoshiba

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the conversion efficiency of Si solar cells, we have developed a thin Si wafer-based solar cell that uses a rib structure. The open-circuit voltage of a solar cell is known to increase with deceasing wafer thickness if the cell is adequately passivated. However, it is not easy to handle very thin wafers because they are brittle and are subject to warpage. We fabricated a lattice-shaped rib structure on the rear side of a thin Si wafer to improve the wafer’s strength. A silicon nitride film was deposited on the Si wafer surface and patterned to form a mask to fabricate the lattice-shaped rib, and the wafer was then etched using KOH to reduce the thickness of the active area, except for the rib region. Using this structure in a Si heterojunction cell, we demonstrated that a high open-circuit voltage (VOC could be obtained by thinning the wafer without sacrificing its strength. A wafer with thickness of 30 μm was prepared easily using this structure. We then fabricated Si heterojunction solar cells using these rib wafers, and measured their implied VOC as a function of wafer thickness. The measured values were compared with device simulation results, and we found that the measured VOC agrees well with the simulated results. To optimize the rib and cell design, we also performed device simulations using various wafer thicknesses and rib dimensions.

  6. Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, Pierre; ter Haar, Gail; Saffari, Nader

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.

  7. Modelling of the acoustic field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelat, Pierre [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Ter Haar, Gail [Therapeutic Ultrasound Group, Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Saffari, Nader, E-mail: Pierre.Gelat@npl.co.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-07

    The efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of a range of different cancers, including those of the liver, prostate and breast, has been demonstrated. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection in terms of reduced risk of harmful side effects. Despite this, there are a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the rib cage to induce tissue necrosis in the required volume whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random-phased arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successful treatment of a patient with liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the rib cage. In order to address this, a boundary element approach based on a generalized minimal residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array behind human ribs at locations requiring intercostal and transcostal treatment. Simulations were carried out on a 3D mesh of quadratic pressure patches generated using CT scan anatomical data for adult ribs 9-12 on the right side. The methodology was validated on spherical and cylindrical scatterers. Field calculations were also carried out for idealized ribs, consisting of arrays of strip-like scatterers, demonstrating effects of splitting at the focus. This method has the advantage of fully accounting for the effect of scattering and diffraction in 3D under continuous wave excitation.

  8. Accessory caudal axial and pelvic ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutova, J.; Kolar, J.; Vitovec, J.; Vyhnanek, L.

    1980-01-01

    Accessory caudal ribs are reported as an extremely curious anomaly in five patients. Once the fracture of this rib was a source of pains after injury. The different shapes of the ribs are documented in this clinical survey which is the most extensive in the present literature. Anomalous ribs arise due to inappropriate segmentation during the embryonal development of the axial skeleton. (orig.) [de

  9. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.; Shanks, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Miscellaneous laboratory tests (most of them on cyanide residues) were undertaken to supplement on-site pilot-plant work on wet high intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS). Initially, the main concern was with blockage of the matrix, and consideration was given to the use of a reverse-flushing system. The laboratory tests on this system were encouraging, but they were not of sufficiently long duration to be conclusive. The velocity of the pulp through the matrix is important, because it determines the capacity of the separator and the recovery obtainable. Of almost equal importance is the magnetic load, which affects the velocity of the pulp and the recovery. Typically, a recovery of 51 per cent of the uranium was reduced to one of 40 per cent as the magnetic load was increased from 25 to 100 g/l, while the pulp velocity decreased from 62 to 36 mm/s. There was some indication that, for the same pulp velocity, lower recoveries are obtained when free-fall feeding is used. Some benefit was observed in the application of WHIMS to coarsely ground ore; from a Blyvooruitzicht rod-mill product, 25 per cent of the total uranium was recovered when only 29 per cent of the rod-mill product (the finest portion) was treated. A similar recovery was made from 43 per cent of the rod-mill product from Stilfontein; a second stage of treatment after regrinding raised the overall recovery of uranium to 76,4 per cent. Recoveries of 55 and 42 per cent of the uranium were obtained in tests on two flotation tailings from Free State Geduld. In a determination of the mass magnetic susceptibilities of the constituents in a typical concentrate obtained by WHIMS, it was found that some 20 per cent of the magnetic product had a susceptibility of less than 5,4 X 10 -6 e.m.u. but contained 38 per cent of the uranium recovered by WHIMS. A few tests were conducted on different types of matrix. A matrix of spaced horizontal rods is recommended for possible future consideration [af

  10. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 x 10 13 ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented

  11. Physics design of a 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron, CYCIAE-70

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; An Shizhong; Wang Chuan; Yin Zhiguo; Wei Sumin; Li Ming; Yang Jianjun; Ji Bin; Jia Xianlu; Zhong Junqing; Yang Fang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the physics design of a 70 MeV high intensity cyclotron at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), which is aimed for multiple uses including radioactive ion-beam (RIB) production. The machine adopts a compact structure of four straight sectors, capable of accelerating two kinds of beams, i.e. H − and D − . The proton and deuteron beam will be extracted in dual opposite directions by charge exchange stripping devices. The energy of the extracted proton beam is in the range 35–70 MeV with an intensity up to 700 μA. The corresponding values for the deuteron beam are 18–33 MeV and 40 μA. This paper will present the main characteristics and parameters in the design of the 70 MeV cyclotron, the results of the basic beam dynamics study, as well as the physics in the design of the different systems, including the main magnet, RF, injection and extraction systems, etc.

  12. Vital capacity helps predict pulmonary complications after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Thomas W; Milia, David J; Somberg, Chloe; Brasel, Karen; Paul, Jasmeet

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic rib fractures are associated with significant morbidity. Vital capacity (VC) assesses pulmonary function; however, limited data link VC to patient outcomes. Our objective was to determine if VC predicted complications and disposition in patients with rib fractures. This is a retrospective chart review of all patients with fractured ribs admitted to a Level 1 trauma center during a 4-year period. Patients were excluded if no VC was performed within 48 hours of admission. Data collected included demographics, hospital/intensive care unit length of stay, epidural, discharge to home versus extended care facility, mortality, chest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), number of rib fractures, hemothorax/pneumothorax, presence of pulmonary contusion, presence of chest tube, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and average daily VC (percentage of predicted). Pulmonary complication was defined as pneumonia, need for intubation, new home O2 requirement, readmission for pulmonary issue, or intensive care unit transfer. Statistical analysis was performed using χ and multivariate logistic regression. Of 801 patients with rib fractures, 683 had VC performed within 48 hours. Average age was 53 years, median ISS was 13 (interquartile range, 9-18), and median length of stay was 5 days. Most (72%) were discharged home, and 26% went to extended care facility. Ten percent developed a pulmonary complication, and there were nine deaths. Every 10% increase in VC was associated with 36% decrease in likelihood of pulmonary complication. Patients with a VC greater than 50% had a significantly lower association of pulmonary complication (p = 0.017), and a VC of less than 30% was independently associated with pulmonary complication (odds ratio, 2.36). Patients with fractured ribs and VC of less than 30% have significant association for pulmonary complication. Higher VC is associated with lower likelihood of pulmonary complication. VC may help

  13. Pulsed ultrasounds accelerate healing of rib fractures in an experimental animal model: an effective new thoracic therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Rodríguez, Norberto; Clavo, Bernardino; Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Rivero, José C; Travieso, María M; Fiuza, María D; Villar, Jesús; García-Castellano, José M; Hernández-Pérez, Octavio; Déniz, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Rib fractures are a frequent traumatic injury associated with a relatively high morbidity. Currently, the treatment of rib fractures is symptomatic. Since it has been reported that pulsed ultrasounds accelerates repair of limb fractures, we hypothesized that the application of pulsed ultrasounds will modify the course of healing in an animal model of rib fracture. We studied 136 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were randomly assigned to different groups of doses (none, 50, 100, and 250 mW/cm(2) of intensity for 3 minutes per day) and durations (2, 10, 20, and 28 days) of treatment with pulsed ultrasounds. In every subgroup, we analyzed radiologic and histologic changes in the bone callus. In addition, we examined changes in gene expression of relevant genes involved in wound repair in both control and treated animals. Histologic and radiologic consolidation was significantly increased by pulsed ultrasound treatment when applied for more than 10 days. The application of 50 mW/cm(2) was the most effective dose. Only the 100 and 250 mW/cm(2) doses were able to significantly increase messenger RNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 and -3, and vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and collagen type II-alpha 1. Our findings indicate that pulsed ultrasound accelerates the consolidation of rib fractures. This study is the first to show that pulsed ultrasound promotes the healing of rib fractures. From a translational point of view, this easy, cheap technique could serve as an effective new therapeutic modality in patients with rib fractures. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rib fractures in coronary bypass patients: radionuclide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, L.V.; Baisden, C.E.; Symbas, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Sternal retraction can cause the first rib to be fractured posteriorly, injuring the brachial plexus. The authors conducted bone scans of 24 consecutive open-heart surgery patients and found an unexpectedly high number of rib fractures which in all but one case had not been seen on the chest radiograph. Bone scans are recommended whenever there is unexplained non-incisional pain in a patient who has undergone sternal retraction

  15. Fluid dynamics of Ribbed Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, G. E.; Pink, R. J.; Condie, K. G.; McEligot, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Typical advanced gas-cooled reactor designs use periodic spacer ribs to center rods in circular cooling channels, e.g., as for control rods (General Atomics and others) and fuel rods (HTTR). In contrast to classical studies of axisymmetric annuli, the flow becomes three-dimensional but is typically periodic in the circumferential direction and - in some cases - in the streamwise direction. Fundamental measurements have been obtained for two idealizations of these complex geometries: an annulus with three ribs circumferentially and one with four. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was employed with INEEL's unique Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) flow facility to determine the velocity and turbulence fields. The initial experiment was aimed at obtaining benchmark data to test the capabilities of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes to handle ribbed annular geometries without the complications of turbulent transport. The Reynolds number was about 1120. These conditions correspond to some stages during a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) event. Power spectral densities were obtained to determine the eddy shedding frequency downstream of the ribs. For the second experiment LDV measurements were obtained in another ribbed-annular model at a higher flow rate. For this nominally turbulent flow, evidence of laminarization appears in the flow converging to pass between ribs. The measurements indicated flow details which could be useful for assessment of CFD codes

  16. High intensity hadron facility, AGS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1989-01-01

    There is a large and growing community of particle and nuclear physicists around the world who are actively lobbying for the construction of an accelerator that could provide 1-2 orders of magnitude increase in proton intensity above that of the present AGS. There have been a series of proposals from Canada, Europe, Japan, and the USA. They can all be characterized as machines varying in energy from 12-60 GeV and intensities of 30-100 μA. The community of physicists using the AGS are in a unique position however. The AGS is the only machine available that can provide the beams to execute the physics program that this large international community is interested in. The BNL approach to the communities interests involves a stepwise intensity upgrade program. At present the AGS slow extracted beam current is 1 μA. With the completion of the Booster in 1990 and the associated AGS modifications, the current will rise to 4-5 μA. With the subsequent addition of the Stretcher which is under design, the current will rise to 8-10 μA and approximately 100% duty factor. The possibility of a further enhancement to a current level of 40-50 μA CW is now being examined. 2 figures, 6 tables

  17. Exploring high-intensity QED at ELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, T. [Plymouth Univ., School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Ilderton, A. [School of Mathematics, Hamilton Building, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    We give a non-technical overview of quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects arising in the presence of ultra-strong electromagnetic fields highlighting the new prospects provided by a realisation of the ELI laser facility. Vacuum polarization is a genuine QED process describing the probability amplitude of a propagating photon fluctuating into a virtual electron-positron pair. It has measurable effects such as the Lamb shift and charge screening at short distances. Nonlinear Compton scattering that consists of processes of the type: e + ngamma{sub L} -> e' + gamma (where n counting the number of laser photons involved) is an intensity dependent effect that is accessible to experimental observation

  18. High-intensity-laser-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of an intense laser, photon-electron scattering becomes nonlinear when the oscillatory energy of the electron approaches its rest mass. The electron wave function is dressed by the field with a concomitant increase in the effective electron mass. When the photon energy in the electron rest frame is comparable to the electron rest mass, multiphoton Compton scattering occurs. When the photon energy is significantly lower than the electron rest mass, the electron acquires momentum from the photon field and emits harmonics. This paper reviews nonlinear photon-electron scattering processes and results from two recent experiments where they have been observed

  19. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility.

  20. Prolonged pain and disability are common after rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2013-05-01

    The contribution of rib fractures to prolonged pain and disability may be underappreciated and undertreated. Clinicians are traditionally taught that the pain and disability of rib fractures resolves in 6 to 8 weeks. This study was a prospective observation of 203 patients with rib fractures at a level 1 trauma center. Chest wall pain was evaluated by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain rating index (PRI) and present pain intensity (PPI). Prolonged pain was defined as a PRI of 8 or more at 2 months after injury. Prolonged disability was defined as a decrease in 1 or more levels of work or functional status at 2 months after injury. Predictors of prolonged pain and disability were determined by multivariate analysis. One hundred forty-five male patients and 58 female patients with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 20 (range, 1 to 59) had a mean of 5.4 rib fractures (range, 1 to 29). Forty-four (22%) patients had bilateral fractures, 15 (7%) had flail chest, and 92 (45%) had associated injury. One hundred eighty-seven patients were followed 2 months or more. One hundred ten (59%) patients had prolonged chest wall pain and 142 (76%) had prolonged disability. Among 111 patients with isolated rib fractures, 67 (64%) had prolonged chest wall pain and 69 (66%) had prolonged disability. MPQ PPI was predictive of prolonged pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 2.5), and prolonged disability (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.4). The presence of significant associated injuries was predictive of prolonged disability (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.4 to 29). Prolonged chest wall pain is common, and the contribution of rib fractures to disability is greater than traditionally expected. Further investigation into more effective therapies that prevent prolonged pain and disability after rib fractures is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Shielding for high energy, high intensity electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warawas, C.; Chongkum, S.

    1997-03-01

    The utilization of electron accelerators (eBA) is gradually increased in Thailand. For instance, a 30-40 MeV eBA are used for tumor and cancer therapy in the hospitals, and a high current eBA in for gemstone colonization. In the near future, an application of eBA in industries will be grown up in a few directions, e.g., flue gases treatment from the coal fire-power plants, plastic processing, rubber vulcanization and food preservation. It is the major roles of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to regulate the public safety and protection of the environment. By taking into account of radiation safety aspect, high energy electrons are not only harmful to human bodies, but the radioactive nuclides can be occurred. This report presents a literature review by following the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report No.31. This reviews for parametric calculation and shielding design of the high energy (up to 100 MeV), high intensity electron accelerator installation

  2. Sternoplasty and rib distraction in neonatal Jeune syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conroy, Eimear

    2010-09-01

    A 12-week-old boy with Jeune syndrome (asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy) was referred to the orthopaedic unit with progressive respiratory failure, recurrent respiratory tract infections, and recurrent admissions to the intensive care unit for ventilatory support. His chest x-ray revealed a small and narrow thoracic cage with short broad ribs and abnormal costal cartilages. His chest expansion was impaired by the short, horizontally positioned ribs resulting in alveolar hypoventilation. Without surgical intervention to expand his thoracic cage, he would die of respiratory failure.

  3. Comparative evaluation of continuous intercostal nerve block or epidural analgesia on the rate of respiratory complications, intensive care unit, and hospital stay following traumatic rib fractures: a retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Todd Britt, Ryan Sturm, Rick Ricardi, Virginia Labond Department of Emergency Medicine, Genesys Regional Medical Center, Grand Blanc, MI, USA Background: Thoracic trauma accounts for 10%–15% of all trauma admissions. Rib fractures are the most common injury following blunt thoracic trauma. Epidural analgesia improves patient outcomes but is not without problems. The use of continuous intercostal nerve blockade (CINB may offer superior pain control with fewer side effects. This study's objective was to compare the rate of pulmonary complications when traumatic rib fractures were treated with CINB vs epidurals. Methods: A hospital trauma registry provided retrospective data from 2008 to 2013 for patients with 2 or more traumatic rib fractures. All subjects were admitted and were treated with either an epidural or a subcutaneously placed catheter for continuous intercostal nerve blockade. Our primary outcome was a composite of either pneumonia or respiratory failure. Secondary outcomes included total hospital days, total ICU days, and days on the ventilator. Results: 12.5% (N=8 of the CINB group developed pneumonia or had respiratory failure compared to 16.3% (N=7 in the epidural group. No statistical difference (P=0.58 in the incidence of pneumonia or vent dependent respiratory failure was observed. There was a significant reduction (P=0.05 in hospital days from 9.72 (SD 9.98 in the epidural compared to 6.98 (SD 4.67 in the CINB group. The rest of our secondary outcomes showed no significant difference. Conclusion: This study did not show a difference in the rate of pneumonia or ventilator-dependent respiratory failure in the CINB vs epidural groups. It was not sufficiently powered. Our data supports a reduction in hospital days when CINB is used vs epidural. CINB may have advantages over epidurals such as fewer complications, fewer contraindications, and a shorter time to placement. Further studies are needed to confirm these statements

  4. Development of high intensity beam handling system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Minakawa, Michifumi

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed the new counter experimental hall at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (KEK-PS) in order to handle high intensity primary proton beams of up to 1x10 3 pps (protons per second), which is one order of magnitude greater than the present beam intensity of the KEK-PS, 1x10 12 pps. New technologies for handling high-intensity beams have, then, been developed and employed in the construction of the new hall. A part of our R/D work on handling high intensity beams will be reported. (author)

  5. Skull and Posterior Rib Fractures with Respiratory Failure caused by Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulfikar Djalil Lukmanul Hakim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presence of multiple fractures suggests child abuse. Skull fractures rarely occurred but posterior rib fractures are commonly found and have high specificity as a radiological finding in child abuse. A respiratory failure can occur as a result of the damage to the osseous structure of the thorax that destabilizes the rib cage and impairs spontaneous breathing mechanism. Methods: A case report of a 6-month-old boy who presented with respiratory failure, multiple bilateral parietal and occipital bone fractures, and also fractures of right rib 5–8. The patient required ventilatory support for 9 days in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Dr.HasanSadikin General Hospital. Results: The patient was on ventilatory support for 9 days, and was given antibiotics for 2 weeks. Next, the patient was referred to the High Care Unit (HCU after the condition was stabilized, and then referred to the ward, for treatment by the Social Pediatric Division. The patient was still having issues about his foster care. Conclusions: Recognition of presence of fractures is important in early diagnosis and treatment of child abuse.

  6. Nineth Rib Syndrome after 10th Rib Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Yu Sub; Lee, Dong Hoon; Yim, Kyoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The 12th rib syndrome is a disease that causes pain between the upper abdomen and the lower chest. It is assumed that the impinging on the nerves between the ribs causes pain in the lower chest, upper abdomen, and flank. A 74-year-old female patient visited a pain clinic complaining of pain in her back, and left chest wall at a 7 on the 0-10 Numeric Rating scale (NRS). She had a lateral fixation at T12-L2, 6 years earlier. After the operation, she had multiple osteoporotic compression fractur...

  7. Influence of wall ribs on the thermal stratification and self-pressurization in a cryogenic liquid tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Juan; Sunden, Bengt; Chen, Xiaoqian

    2014-01-01

    Self-pressurization in a cylindrical ribbed tank which is partially filled with liquid hydrogen is investigated numerically under different rib spacing-to-height ratios. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is employed as well as a phase change model. Appropriate models are incorporated into the Ansys Fluent by the user-defined functions to carry out the computations. The ribbed surface is modeled as a finned surface and a conjugate transient heat transfer problem is formulated for predicting fluid flow currents and heat transfer. The effect of rib material and shapes is also studied. Numerical results indicate that the pressure rise can be reduced by ribs mounted on the tank wall. This phenomenon is more pronounced as the rib spacing-to-height ratio is reduced. A vortex is observed in the downstream region of each rib when the spacing-to-height has a relatively high value. Evaporation occurs as time elapses due to heat accumulation at the rib surfaces. Pressure starts to rise later with high thermal conductivity ribs and becomes higher with low thermal conductivity ribs when the ribs are of identical configuration in geometry. The final pressure rise seems to be monotonically versus increasing time. The semicircular ribs perform better than rectangular ones in control of the pressure rise and thermal stratification for identical cross sectional area and if the locations are kept the same

  8. Plating versus wiring for fixation of traumatic rib and sternal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kamel Abd-Elnaim

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Plating of rib and sternal fractures had better outcome than wiring, regarding better chest wall stability and restoration of chest contour; also it had shorter intensive care unit, hospital and ventilator days.

  9. Epidural Analgesia after Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Andrea A; Murry, Jason; Hoang, David; Chen, Kevin; Louy, Charles; Bloom, Matthew B; Melo, Nicolas; Alban, Rodrigo F; Margulies, Daniel R; Ley, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Pain associated with rib fractures impairs respiratory function and increases pulmonary morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine how epidural catheters alter mortality and complications in trauma patients. We performed a retrospective study involving adult blunt trauma patients with moderate-to-severe injuries from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013. During the 10-year period, 526 patients met the inclusion criteria; 43/526 (8%) patients had a catheter placed. Mean age of patients with epidural catheter (CATH) was higher compared with patients without epidural catheter (NOCATH) (54 vs 48 years, P = 0.021), Injury Severity Score was similar (26 CATH vs 27 NOCATH, P = 0.84), and CATH had higher mean rib fractures (7.4 vs 4.1, P ribs fractured. The epidural cohort had longer hospital LOS and decreased mortality. In contrast to other studies, DVT rates were increased in patients who received epidural catheters.

  10. High-intensity sources for light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H + and H - beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented

  11. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.; Stoeffl, W.; Carter, D.

    1999-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectroscopy

  12. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.H.; Stoeffl, W.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world's highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectra

  13. High intensity TOF spectrometer for cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.; Abd El-Kawy, A.; Habib, N.; Adib, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents a neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer developed specially for total neutron cross-section measurements at neutron energies below 5 MeV and sample's temperature varying from the liquid nitrogen one and up to 500 0 K. The spectrometer is equipped by remote control unit, designed especially, in order to move the sample in and out of the beam during the experimental measurements. The spectrometer has proved to be useful for transmission measurements at neutron energies below 5 MeV. It has a reasonable energy resolution (4.4%) and high effect to background ratio (11.1) at 5 MeV

  14. High intensity positron program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Howell, R.; Stoeffl, W.; Carter, D.

    1999-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of the world close-quote s highest current beam of keV positrons. The potential for establishing a national center for materials analysis using positron annihilation techniques around this capability is being actively pursued. The high LLNL beam current will enable investigations in several new areas. We are developing a positron microprobe that will produce a pulsed, focused positron beam for 3-dimensional scans of defect size and concentration with submicron resolution. Below we summarize the important design features of this microprobe. Several experimental end stations will be available that can utilize the high current beam with a time distribution determined by the electron linac pulse structure, quasi-continuous, or bunched at 20 MHz, and can operate in an electrostatic or (and) magnetostatic environment. Some of the planned early experiments are: two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation of thin films and buried interfaces, positron diffraction holography, positron induced desorption, and positron induced Auger spectroscopy. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  15. X-ray diagnosis of rib chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakova, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on X-ray images of 24 patients, suffering from rib chondrosarcoma with relapses. X-ray symptoms of rib chondrosarcoma, depending on process localization were improved. Chondrosarcoma of rib cartilage is characterized by soft-tissue component with calcareous inclusions or without them. Chondrosarcoma of rib bone is characterized by destruction and soft-tissue component. Chondrosarcoma relapses were localized in soft tissues

  16. Isolated rib fractures in geriatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed M.; Hammad, Abd Almohsen M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term outcomes in patients older than 60 years with isolated rib fractures and admitted to emergency hospital. Materials and Methods: This study included patients who were 60 years old or more and sustained blunt chest injury and had isolated rib fractures. The following data were obtained from the medical records: age, gender, number of fracture ribs, side of fracture ribs, mechanism and nature of injury, preexisting medical...

  17. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  18. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-04-28

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  19. Comparative evaluation of continuous intercostal nerve block or epidural analgesia on the rate of respiratory complications, intensive care unit, and hospital stay following traumatic rib fractures: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Todd; Sturm, Ryan; Ricardi, Rick; Labond, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma accounts for 10%-15% of all trauma admissions. Rib fractures are the most common injury following blunt thoracic trauma. Epidural analgesia improves patient outcomes but is not without problems. The use of continuous intercostal nerve blockade (CINB) may offer superior pain control with fewer side effects. This study's objective was to compare the rate of pulmonary complications when traumatic rib fractures were treated with CINB vs epidurals. A hospital trauma registry provided retrospective data from 2008 to 2013 for patients with 2 or more traumatic rib fractures. All subjects were admitted and were treated with either an epidural or a subcutaneously placed catheter for continuous intercostal nerve blockade. Our primary outcome was a composite of either pneumonia or respiratory failure. Secondary outcomes included total hospital days, total ICU days, and days on the ventilator. 12.5% (N=8) of the CINB group developed pneumonia or had respiratory failure compared to 16.3% (N=7) in the epidural group. No statistical difference (P=0.58) in the incidence of pneumonia or vent dependent respiratory failure was observed. There was a significant reduction (P=0.05) in hospital days from 9.72 (SD 9.98) in the epidural compared to 6.98 (SD 4.67) in the CINB group. The rest of our secondary outcomes showed no significant difference. This study did not show a difference in the rate of pneumonia or ventilator-dependent respiratory failure in the CINB vs epidural groups. It was not sufficiently powered. Our data supports a reduction in hospital days when CINB is used vs epidural. CINB may have advantages over epidurals such as fewer complications, fewer contraindications, and a shorter time to placement. Further studies are needed to confirm these statements.

  20. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  1. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  2. XROMM analysis of rib kinematics during lung ventilation in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Moritz, Sabine; Ritter, Dale A

    2016-02-01

    The three-dimensional rotations of ribs during breathing are typically described as bucket-handle rotation about a dorsoventrally oriented axis, pump-handle rotation about a mediolateral axis, and caliper rotation about a rostrocaudal axis. In amniotes with double-headed ribs, rib motion is constrained primarily to one degree-of-freedom (DOF) rotation about an axis connecting the two rib articulations. However, in Squamata, the ribs are single headed and the hemispherical costovertebral joints permit rotations with three DOF. In this study, we used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM ) to quantify rib rotation during deep breathing in four green iguanas. We found that rib rotation was strongly dominated by bucket-handle rotation, thus exhibiting nearly hinge-like motion, despite the potential for more complex motions. The vertebral and sternal segments of each rib did not deform measurably during breathing, but they did move relative to each other at a thin, cartilaginous intracostal joint. While standing still and breathing deeply, four individual iguanas showed variability in their rib postures, with two breathing around a highly inflated posture, and two breathing around a posture with the ribs folded halfway back. Bucket-handle rotations showed clear rostrocaudal gradients, with rotation increasing from the third cervical to the first or second dorsal rib, and then decreasing again caudally, a pattern that is consistent with the intercostal muscles in the rostral intercostal spaces being the primary drivers of inspiration. The constrained, primarily bucket-handle rotations observed here during breathing do not help to explain the evolution of permissive, hemispherical costovertebral joints in squamates from the more constrained, double-headed rib articulations of other amniotes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Stephen E; Done, Stephen L; Friedman, Seth D; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2014-10-01

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility.

  4. Apparatus for controlled mixing in a high intensity mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocker, Z.; Gupta, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for controlled mixing of a mixable material in a high intensity mixer. The system enables instantaneous, precise and continual monitoring of a batch in a high intensity mixer which heretofore could not be achieved. The process comprises the steps of feeding a batch of material into a high intensity mixer, agitating the batch in the mixer, monitoring batch temperature separately from mixer temperature and discharging the batch from the mixer when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level. The apparatus includes means for monitoring batch temperature in a high intensity mixer separately from mixer temperature, and means responsive to the batch temperature to discharge the batch when the batch temperature reaches a final predetermined level

  5. Feasibility of high-intensity training in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Sørensen, E D; Hostrup, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training is an effective and popular training regime but its feasibility in untrained adults with asthma is insufficiently described. Objective: The randomized controlled trial 'EFFORT Asthma' explored the effects of behavioural interventions including high......-intensity interval training on clinical outcomes in nonobese sedentary adults with asthma. In this article we present a sub analysis of data aiming to evaluate if patients' pre-intervention levels of asthma control, FEV1, airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) predicted their training response...... to the high-intensity interval training program, measured as increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Design: We used data from the EFFORT Asthma Study. Of the 36 patients randomized to the 8-week exercise intervention consisting of high-intensity training three times per week, 29 patients (45...

  6. Rib fractures: comparison of associated injuries between pediatric and adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Boris; Dagan, Jasmin; Swaid, Forat; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Olsha, Oded; Peleg, Kobi; Givon, Adi; Alfici, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Rib fractures are considered a marker of exposure to significant traumatic energy. In children, because of high elasticity of the chest wall, higher energy levels are necessary for ribs to fracture. The purpose of this study was to analyze patterns of associated injuries in children as compared with adults, all of whom presented with rib fractures. A retrospective cohort study involving blunt trauma patients with rib fractures registered in the National Trauma Registry was conducted. Of 6,995 trauma victims who were found to suffer from rib fractures, 328 were children and 6,627 were adults. Isolated rib fractures without associated injuries occurred in 19 children (5.8%) and 731 adults (11%). More adults had 4 or more fractured ribs compared with children (P pneumothorax (P = .006), spleen, and liver injury (P < .001). Mortality rate was 5% in both groups. The incidence of associated head, thoracic, and abdominal solid organ injuries in children was significantly higher than in adults suffering from rib fractures. In spite of a higher Injury Severity Score and incidence of associated injuries, mortality rate was similar. Mortality of rib fracture patients was mostly affected by the presence of extrathoracic injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidural analgesia for traumatic rib fractures is associated with worse outcomes: a matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendy, Katherine M; Lee, Lawrence F; Boulva, Kerianne; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Mulder, David S; Razek, Tarek S; Grushka, Jeremy R

    2017-06-15

    The optimal method of pain control for patients with traumatic rib fractures is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of epidural analgesia on respiratory complications and in-hospital mortality in patients with rib fractures. Adult patients at a level I trauma center with ≥1 rib fracture from blunt trauma were included (2004-2013). Those with a blunt-penetrating mechanism, traumatic brain injury, or underwent a laparotomy or thoracotomy were excluded. Patients who were treated with epidural analgesia (EPI) were compared with those were not treated with epidural analgesia (NEPI) using coarsened exact matching. Primary outcomes were respiratory complications (pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus, and respiratory failure) and 30-d in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were total hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, and duration of ventilator support. About 1360 patients (EPI: 329 and NEPI: 1031) met inclusion criteria (mean age: 54.2 y; standard deviation [SD]: 19.7; 68% male). The mean number of rib fractures was 4.8 (SD: 3.3; 21% bilateral) with a high total burden of injury (mean Injury Severity Score: 19.9 [SD: 8.9]). The overall incidence of respiratory complications was 13% and mortality was 4%. After matching, 204 EPI patients were compared with 204 NEPI patients, with no differences in baseline characteristics. EPI patients experienced more respiratory complications (19% versus 10%, P = 0.009), but no differences in 30-d mortality (5% versus 2%, P = 0.159), duration of mechanical ventilation (EPI: 148 h [SD: 167] versus NEPI: 117 h [SD: 187], P = 0.434), or duration of intensive care unit length of stay (6.5 d [SD: 7.6] versus 5.8 d [SD: 9.1], P = 0.626). Hospital stay was higher in the EPI group (16.6 d [SD: 19.6] vs 12.7 d [SD: 15.2], P = 0.026). Epidural analgesia is associated with increased respiratory complications without providing mortality benefit after traumatic rib fractures

  8. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Rib-pillar mining at Sigma Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, J J.S.; Hunter, F; Neethling, A F [Sigma Colliery, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    1991-06-01

    The paper describes the rib-pillar extraction method now used at Sigma Colliery in the Orange Free State. In this method, access roadways (with a high safety factor) are developed into a block of coal suitable for total extraction; pillars that have a low safety factor are then formed and extracted immediately. The method, together with the current practices of labour management, has resulted in better utilization of the coal resources and capital, increased production and labour productivity, and improved safety. 11 figs.

  10. Case Study on Justification: High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps produce bright white light of a high intensity in an energy efficient manner. These lamps are typically used in large numbers in public and professional settings such as shops, warehouses, hotels and offices. They are also used in outdoor applications to illuminate streets, buildings, statues, flags and gardens and further as architectural lighting. They also have applications associated with film projection in cinemas, manufacture of semiconductors, fluorescence endoscopy and microscopy, schlieren photography, hologram projection, ultraviolet curing, sky beamers and car headlights. Some types of high intensity discharge lamp, as well as certain other consumer products for lighting, contain radioactive substances for functional reasons. The radionuclides that are typically incorporated into high intensity discharge lamps are 85 Kr and 232 Th. Given the wide range of uses, specific decisions on justification may be required for different applications. A small number of safety assessments for high intensity discharge lamps have been carried out and published. No published decisions at the national level specifically addressing the justification of the use of high intensity discharge lamps have been identified

  11. Rib Fracture Diagnosis in the Panscan Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Charles E; Raja, Ali S; Baumann, Brigitte M; Medak, Anthony J; Langdorf, Mark I; Nishijima, Daniel K; Hendey, Gregory W; Mower, William R; Rodriguez, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    With increased use of chest computed tomography (CT) in trauma evaluation, traditional teachings in regard to rib fracture morbidity and mortality may no longer be accurate. We seek to determine rates of rib fracture observed on chest CT only; admission and mortality of patients with isolated rib fractures, rib fractures observed on CT only, and first or second rib fractures; and first or second rib fracture-associated great vessel injury. We conducted a planned secondary analysis of 2 prospectively enrolled cohorts of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study chest studies, which evaluated patients with blunt trauma who were older than 14 years and received chest imaging in the emergency department. We defined rib fractures and other thoracic injuries according to CT reports and followed patients through their hospital course to determine outcomes. Of 8,661 patients who had both chest radiograph and chest CT, 2,071 (23.9%) had rib fractures, and rib fractures were observed on chest CT only in 1,368 cases (66.1%). Rib fracture patients had higher admission rates (88.7% versus 45.8%; mean difference 42.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.4% to 44.4%) and mortality (5.6% versus 2.7%; mean difference 2.9%; 95% CI 1.8% to 4.0%) than patients without rib fracture. The mortality of patients with rib fracture observed on chest CT only was not statistically significantly different from that of patients with fractures also observed on chest radiograph (4.8% versus 5.7%; mean difference -0.9%; 95% CI -3.1% to 1.1%). Patients with first or second rib fractures had significantly higher mortality (7.4% versus 4.1%; mean difference 3.3%; 95% CI 0.2% to 7.1%) and prevalence of concomitant great vessel injury (2.8% versus 0.6%; mean difference 2.2%; 95% CI 0.6% to 4.9%) than patients with fractures of ribs 3 to 12, and the odds ratio of great vessel injury with first or second rib fracture was 4.4 (95% CI 1.8 to 10.4). Under trauma imaging protocols that commonly

  12. Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-05-01

    This Letter presents for the first time a scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, the high-order harmonics of the high-order vortex mode is generated in both reflected and transmitted light beams when a linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The azimuthal mode of the harmonics scales with its order. The intensity of the high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, with the pulse duration down to attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. In addition to the application in high-resolution detection in both spatial and temporal scales, it also presents new opportunities in the intense vortex required fields, such as the inner shell ionization process and high energy twisted photons generation by Thomson scattering of such an intense vortex beam off relativistic electrons.

  13. Number of rib fractures thresholds independently predict worse outcomes in older patients with blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulzhenko, Nikita O; Zens, Tiffany J; Beems, Megan V; Jung, Hee Soo; O'Rourke, Ann P; Liepert, Amy E; Scarborough, John E; Agarwal, Suresh K

    2017-04-01

    There have been conflicting reports regarding whether the number of rib fractures sustained in blunt trauma is associated independently with worse patient outcomes. We sought to investigate this risk-adjusted relationship among the lesser-studied population of older adults. A retrospective review of the National Trauma Data Bank was performed for patients with blunt trauma who were ≥65 years old and had rib fractures between 2009 and 2012 (N = 67,695). Control data were collected for age, sex, injury severity score, injury mechanism, 24 comorbidities, and number of rib fractures. Outcome data included hospital mortality, hospital and intensive care unit durations of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and the occurrence of pneumonia. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Sustaining ≥5 rib fractures was associated with increased intensive care unit admission (odds ratio: 1.14, P rib fractures was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia (odds ratio: 1.32, P rib fractures was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio: 1.51, P rib fractures is a significant predictor of worse outcomes independent of patient characteristics, comorbidities, and trauma burden. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:Sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse-mode broadband fluorescence sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grivas, C.; Shepherd, D.P.; May-Smith, T.C.; Eason, R.W.; Pollnau, Markus; Crunteanu, A.; Jelinek, M.

    2003-01-01

    Rib waveguides have been fabricated in pulsed-laser-deposited Ti:sapphire layers using photolithographic patterning and subsequent Ar+-beam milling. Fluorescence output powers up to 300 W have been observed from the ribs following excitation by a 3-W multiline argon laser. Mode intensity profiles

  15. Pulsed system for obtaining microdosimetric data with high intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Dicello, J.F.; Hiebert, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The use of heavy particle accelerators for radiation therapy requires high intensity beams in order to produce useful dose rates. The 800-MeV proton beam at LAMPF passes through different production targets to generate secondary pion beams. Conventional microdosimetric techniques are not applicable under these conditions because exceedingly high count rates result in detector damage, gas breakdown, and saturation effects in the electronics. We describe a new microdosimetric system developed at the Pion Biomedical Channel of LAMPF. The accelerator provides a variable low intensity pulse once every ten high intensity macropulses. The voltage on the detector is pulsed in coincidence with the low intensity pulse so that we were able to operate the detector under optimum data-taking conditions. A low noise two-stage preamplifier was built in connection with the pulsed mode operation. A comparison is made between data obtained in pulsed (high intensity beam) and unpulsed (low intensity beam) modes. The spectra obtained by the two methods agree within the experimental uncertainties

  16. High-Power, High-Intensity Laser Propagation and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-10

    intensity as the weighting function. The full refractive index associated with the laser plasma interaction having a parabolic density variation ...radiation in turn enhances the electron density wave further amplifying the radiation. Considering spatial variations in the z direction only the FEL...effL/ at the entrance to the wiggler where effL is the effective interaction length. This requirement can be expressed by the following inequality

  17. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  18. P-West High Intensity Secondary Beam Area Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.; Currier, R.; Eartly, D.; Guthke, A.; Johnson, G.; Lee, D.; Dram, R.; Villegas, E.; Rest, J.; Tilles, E.; Vander Arend, P.

    1977-03-01

    This report gives the initial design parameters of a 1000 GeV High Intensity Superconducting Secondary Beam Laboratory to be situated in the Proton Area downstream of the existing Proton West experimental station. The area will provide Fermilab with a major capability for experimentation with pion and antiproton beams of intensities and of energies available at no other laboratory and with an electron beam with excellent spot size, intensity, and purity at energies far above that available at electron machines. Detailed beam design, area layouts, and cost estimates are presented, along with the design considerations.

  19. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses

  20. Measurements of acoustic pressure at high amplitudes and intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, L A; Bailey, M R; Kaczkowski, P; McAteer, J A; Pishchalnikov, Y A; Sapozhnikov, O A

    2004-01-01

    In our research group, we desire measurements of the large pressure amplitudes generated by the shock waves used in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and the large acoustic intensities used in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Conventional piezoelectric or PVDF hydrophones can not be used for such measurements as they are damaged either by cavitation, in SWL applications, or heat, in HIFU applications. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we have utilized optical fiber hydrophones in SWL that do not cavitate, and small glass probes and a scattering technique for measurements of large HIFU intensities. Descriptions of these techniques will be given as well as some typical data

  1. Photon-photon scattering at the high-intensity frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Kohlfürst, Christian; Seegert, Nico

    2018-04-01

    The tremendous progress in high-intensity laser technology and the establishment of dedicated high-field laboratories in recent years have paved the way towards a first observation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities at the high-intensity frontier. We advocate a particularly prospective scenario, where three synchronized high-intensity laser pulses are brought into collision, giving rise to signal photons, whose frequency and propagation direction differ from the driving laser pulses, thus providing various means to achieve an excellent signal to background separation. Based on the theoretical concept of vacuum emission, we employ an efficient numerical algorithm which allows us to model the collision of focused high-intensity laser pulses in unprecedented detail. We provide accurate predictions for the numbers of signal photons accessible in experiment. Our study is the first to predict the precise angular spread of the signal photons, and paves the way for a first verification of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in a well-controlled laboratory experiment at one of the many high-intensity laser facilities currently coming online.

  2. [Internal fixation treatment of multiple rib fractures with absorbable rib-connecting-pins under epidural anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinliang; Li, Keyao; Ju, Zhenlong; Bai, Yan

    2011-03-01

    To study the indications, methods and experience of absorbable rib-connecting-pins fixation in the treatment of multiple rib fractures. 52 cases with multiple rib fractures were performed internal fixation with absorbable rib-connecting-pins under epidural anesthesia. All cases were followed up for 1 to 12 months, with an average of 5 months. All fractures were achieved healing in 3 to 6 months after the operation and were not found chest wall deformity. Absorbable rib-connecting-pins fixation is a simple and effective method and worthies recommending to perform operation for the appropriate cases with multiple rib fractures.

  3. Golfer's fracture of the ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Golfer's fracture is stress fracture of the posterior portion of left 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7th ribs of golfer's, usually beginners,and it is considered due to exposure to unaccustomed severe exercise of this fascinating sport. Healing is usually uneventful, but possible complication may occur, because symptom is mild and golfers continue the exercise with physical therapy such as massage. Author report 4 cases of golfer's fracture, including 1 case complicated by platelike at electasis of lung.

  4. Golfer's fracture of the ribs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J H [Seoul District Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-06-15

    Golfer's fracture is stress fracture of the posterior portion of left 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7th ribs of golfer's, usually beginners,and it is considered due to exposure to unaccustomed severe exercise of this fascinating sport. Healing is usually uneventful, but possible complication may occur, because symptom is mild and golfers continue the exercise with physical therapy such as massage. Author report 4 cases of golfer's fracture, including 1 case complicated by platelike at electasis of lung.

  5. Rib forming tool for tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, James P.; Lewandowski, Edward F.; Groh, Edward F.

    1976-01-01

    Three cylindrical rollers are rotatably mounted equidistant from the center of a hollow tool head on radii spaced 120.degree. apart. Each roller has a thin flange; the three flanges lie in a single plane to form an internal circumferential rib in a rotating tubular workpiece. The tool head has two complementary parts with two rollers in one part of the head and one roller in the other part; the two parts are joined by a hinge. A second hinge, located so the rollers are between the two hinges, connects one of the parts to a tool bar mounted in a lathe tool holder. The axes of rotation of both hinges and all three rollers are parallel. A hole exposing equal portions of the three roller flanges is located in the center of the tool head. The two hinges permit the tool head to be opened and rotated slightly downward, taking the roller flanges out of the path of the workpiece which is supported on both ends and rotated by the lathe. The parts of the tool head are then closed on the workpiece so that the flanges are applied to the workpiece and form the rib. The tool is then relocated for forming of the next rib.

  6. Improving vertebra segmentation through joint vertebra-rib atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinong; Yao, Jianhua; Roth, Holger R.; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate spine segmentation allows for improved identification and quantitative characterization of abnormalities of the vertebra, such as vertebral fractures. However, in existing automated vertebra segmentation methods on computed tomography (CT) images, leakage into nearby bones such as ribs occurs due to the close proximity of these visibly intense structures in a 3D CT volume. To reduce this error, we propose the use of joint vertebra-rib atlases to improve the segmentation of vertebrae via multi-atlas joint label fusion. Segmentation was performed and evaluated on CTs containing 106 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 10 pathological and traumatic spine patients on an individual vertebra level basis. Vertebra atlases produced errors where the segmentation leaked into the ribs. The use of joint vertebra-rib atlases produced a statistically significant increase in the Dice coefficient from 92.5 +/- 3.1% to 93.8 +/- 2.1% for the left and right transverse processes and a decrease in the mean and max surface distance from 0.75 +/- 0.60mm and 8.63 +/- 4.44mm to 0.30 +/- 0.27mm and 3.65 +/- 2.87mm, respectively.

  7. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  8. Anatomical variation of human thoracic rib in dry bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nalini Konkani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Ribs are essential structure of osseous thorax and provide information that aids in the interpretation of radiologic images. The purpose of this study to investigate variations in thoracic rib and its morphological & clinical importance. So, In present study attempted to find out additional intercostal spaces due to bifurcation of ribs, less intercostal space due to fusion of ribs, variation of the normal ribs like, gap in the rib, fusion of one rib to another at a shaft of rib. Congenital abnormalities of the ribs are usually asymptomatic, often discovered incidentally on chest X-ray. Effects of this neuroskeletal anomaly can include respiratory difficulties and neurological limitations.Material & Method: The study was carried out in Bone Store of Department of Anatomy, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Study was carried out on 500 human dried ribs. And the variations in the ribs are studied. We got variation in the human ribs and studied. Result : Variations were seen like out of 500 ribs, Bifid rib having two ends 9(1.8%, rib having bifid space 2(0.4%, fusion rib at the level of shaft 1(0.2%, fusion of first rib and second rib 1(0.2%,first rib having two ends 1(0.2%. Conclusion: Bifid rib is an anatomical variant where the sternal end of the rib is cleaved into two. So we can rule out mesodermal abnormalities, parenchymal lung disease, chest wall tumor or costal fracture.

  9. Benefits of High-Intensity Intensive Care Unit Physician Staffing under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Logani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform.

  10. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator. (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting– receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few ...

  11. Simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we report the results of simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector. The aim of the simulation study is to transport high bunch charge with low emittance evolution. The simulation result shows that 7nC bunch with rms emittance 22.3 {pi} mm mrad can be outputted at the exit of photoinjector. (author)

  12. Simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiongwei; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of simulation study of the high intensity S-Band photoinjector. The aim of the simulation study is to transport high bunch charge with low emittance evolution. The simulation result shows that 7nC bunch with rms emittance 22.3 π mm mrad can be outputted at the exit of photoinjector. (author)

  13. Risk Factors for Pneumonia in Ventilated Trauma Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyun Oh; Kang, Dong Hoon; Moon, Seong Ho; Yang, Jun Ho; Kim, Sung Hwan; Byun, Joung Hun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common disease that may contribute to morbidity and mortality among trauma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study evaluated the associations between trauma factors and the development of VAP in ventilated patients with multiple rib fractures. Methods: We retrospectively and consecutively evaluated 101 patients with multiple rib fractures who were ventilated and managed at our hospital between January 2010 and De...

  14. Morbidity, mortality, associated injuries, and management of traumatic rib fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Cheau-Feng Lin; Ruei-Yun Li; Yung-Wei Tung; Kee-Ching Jeng; Stella Chin-Shaw Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thoracic trauma is responsible for approximately 25% of trauma deaths, and rib fractures are present in as many as 40–80% of patients, and intensive care and/or ventilator support are frequently required for these patients. To identify their risk factors would improve treatment strategies for these patients. Methods: Between March 2005 and December 2013, consecutive patients with blunt thoracic trauma, who were admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery at Tungs' Taichung M...

  15. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Effect of Channel Orientation and Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio on Pressure Drop in a Rotating Square Channel with Ribs on Two Opposite Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu S. V.

    2005-01-01

    among all the rib pitch-to-height ratios covered in this study with the maximum increase in the overall pressure drop being as high as five times the corresponding no-rotation case at the highest rotation number of 0.38 and 90 ∘ orientation angle.

  17. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  18. Plastic bowing of the ribs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, P.A.; Borden, S. IV

    1988-06-01

    Four cases of plastic bowing of the ribs are presented. In three patients with Werdnig-Hoffman disease, plastic curvatures were associated with chronic pneumonia and atelectasis. We postulate that intrapulmonary retractive forces can deform ribs thinned by muscular atrophy. In turn, thoracic collapse can perpetuate lobar and segmental atelectasis. In one case of osteogenesis imperfecta without pneumonia, we believe normal muscle forces bent ribs weakened by deficiency of normal cortical architecture.

  19. Plastic bowing of the ribs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, P.A.; Borden, S. IV

    1988-01-01

    Four cases of plastic bowing of the ribs are presented. In three patients with Werdnig-Hoffman disease, plastic curvatures were associated with chronic pneumonia and atelectasis. We postulate that intrapulmonary retractive forces can deform ribs thinned by muscular atrophy. In turn, thoracic collapse can perpetuate lobar and segmental atelectasis. In one case of osteogenesis imperfecta without pneumonia, we believe normal muscle forces bent ribs weakened by deficiency of normal cortical architecture. (orig.)

  20. Use of a 90° drill and screwdriver for rib fracture stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Terry P; Kim, Brian D; Zielinski, Martin D; Jenkins, Donald; Schiller, Henry J

    2015-03-01

    Rib fracture stabilization has become a more accepted practice although stabilization of the most cephalad ribs presents a unique challenge. We present our experience with use of a 90° drill and screwdriver to bridge these difficult rib fractures. This retrospective review included patients who underwent rib fracture stabilization from August 1, 2009, through September 30, 2012. Patients were divided into two groups: those whose procedure used the 90° device and those that did not. Data were compared using standard statistical analysis and reported as percentages and medians [interquartile ranges]. P values rib stabilized was different between the 2 groups (3 [2-5] vs. 5 [2-9]; P = 0.001), with more third rib stabilizations in the 90° group (38 vs. 20%; P = 0.04) as well as more total number of ribs fixed (5 vs. 4; P = 0.001). There was no difference in operative time between the 2 groups. The surgical reach for rib fracture stabilization has been extended with use of a 90° drill and screwdriver. High fractures under the scapula where access is technically challenging can be stabilized without prolonging operative times.

  1. Half-integer resonance crossing in high-intensity rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotov

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the influence of space charge on the crossing of second-order resonances is presented and associated with the space-charge limit of high-intensity rings. Two-dimensional simulation studies are compared with envelope models, which agree in the finding of an increased intensity limit due to the coherent frequency shift. This result is also found for realistic bunched beams with multiturn injection painting. Characteristic features such as the influence of tune splitting, structure resonances, and the role of envelope instabilities are discussed in detail. The theoretical limits are found to be in good agreement with the performance of high-intensity proton machines.

  2. Bilateral first rib fractures: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Amonkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From the time first rib fractures were first described in 1869, they have been a source of anxiety to attendant trauma surgeons working in the accident and emergency department of major hospitals. First rib fractures are associated with major thoracic trauma and may involve injury to subclavian vessels, brachial plexus, and mediastinal structures. But these complications are more often seen following unilateral first rib fractures. In contrast, bilateral first rib fractures may follow insignificant trauma, suggesting a different mechanism involved. Serious vascular injuries and brachial plexus injuries are rare and angiograms for evaluation of these patients aren′t routinely warranted. The case that we report illustrates this very point.

  3. Search for the maximum efficiency of a ribbed-surfaces device, providing a tight seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, Jeanne.

    1977-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the geometrical characteristics of ribbed surfaces used to equip devices in translation or slow rotation motion and having to form an acceptable seal between slightly viscous fluids. It systematically studies the pressure loss coefficient lambda in function of the different parameters setting the form of ribs and their relative position on the opposite sides. It shows that the passages with two ribbed surfaces lead to highly better results than those with only one, the maximum value of lambda, equal to 0.5, being obtained with the ratios: pitch/clearance = 5, depth of groove/clearance = 1,2, and with their teeth face to face on the two opposite ribbed surfaces. With certain shapes, alternate position of ribs can lead to the maximum of lambda yet lower than 0.5 [fr

  4. High signal intensity of fat on fast spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Akio; Yamazaki, Masaru; Hongoh, Takaharu; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ishikuro, Akihiro

    2000-01-01

    The fast spin echo (FSE) technique of producing T 2 -weighted images in greatly reduced imaging times has recently been used for routine clinical study. FSE images show contrast that is very similar in most tissues to that of conventional SE images. However, fat shows a high signal intensity that is influenced by j-coupling and the magnetization transfer effect. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the higher signal intensity of fat is different among MRI systems and to examine the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer on the high signal intensity of fat on FSE. The contrast in signal intensity between fat and water was measured for various echo train lengths (ETL) with and without multislicing on FSE using a contrast phantom. Measurements were obtained with four different MRI systems. In addition, the effective T 2 values of fat were calculated for the above conditions. Results indicated that contrast for fat and water was reduced with increased ETL and by using multislicing and was different among the four MRI systems. The effective T 2 values of fat were extended for increased ETL and were not dependent on multislicing. They also differed among the four MRI systems. The extent of effective T 2 values was affected by j-coupling. In this study, it was indicated that the degree of the high signal intensity of fat on FSE differed for different MRI systems. In addition, the reasons for the high signal intensity of fat on FSE were related to the effects of j-coupling and magnetization transfer. (author)

  5. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  6. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-06-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the simulations and in the experiments.

  7. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  8. Intense neutron source: high-voltage power supply specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, A.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report explains the need for and sets forth the electrical, mechanical and safety specifications for a high-voltage power supply to be used with the intense neutron source. It contains sufficient information for a supplier to bid on such a power supply

  9. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  10. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  11. The high intensity approximation applied to multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1980-08-01

    It is shown that the most commonly used high intensity approximations as applied to ionization by strong electromagnetic fields are related. The applicability of the steepest descent method in these approximations, and the relation between them and first-order perturbation theory, are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.; Frank, J.A.; Liska, D.J.; Potter, R.C.; Schamaun, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder

  13. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases

  14. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to power athletes and other individuals wishing to improve performance in ... effect of creatine supplementation on physical performance. It has been reported that ... high-intensity work performance.1,2,5,16,31,36 Such activities as resistance ...

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  16. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  17. Nonlinear behavior in high-intensity discharge lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The light flicker problem of high intensity discharge lamps is studied numerically and experimentally. It is shown that in some respects the systems behave very similar to the forced Duffing oscillator with a softening spring. In particular, the jump phenomenon and hysteresis are observed in the

  18. Tolerable Beam Loss at High-Intensity Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivosheev, Oleg E.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.

    2000-01-01

    Tolerable beam losses are estimated for high-intensity ring accelerators with proton energy of 3 to 16 GeV. Dependence on beam energy, lattice and magnet geometry is studied via full Monte Carlo MARS14 simulations in lattice elements, shielding, tunnel and surrounding dirt with realistic geometry, materials and magnetic fields

  19. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  20. High-intensity exercise and recovery during short-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of short-term creatine supplementation plus a protein-carbohydrate formula on high-intensity exercise performance and recovery. Design. A repeated-measures, experimental study, employing a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, group comparison design was used.

  1. High resolution beam line of the U400M cyclotron and RIB accumulation and cooling in the K4 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, A.M.; Sidorchuk, S.I.; Stepantsov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The high resolution beam line ACCULINNA put into operation on a primary beam line of the JINR U400M cyclotron is discussed in the framework of the TREBLE project. The capability of the beam line for producing radioactive ion beams is demonstrated by means of nuclear fragmentation of the primary 14 N beam, with the energy of 51 MeV · A, on the 170 mg/cm 2 carbon target. Characteristics of the obtained 6 He, 8 He and 8 B radioactive beams are presented. A scheme of accumulation and cooling on the orbit of the storage ring K4 is proposed for a low intensity radioactive beam obtained from this beam line. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. X-ray absorption intensity at high-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically discuss X-ray absorption intensity in high-energy region far from the deepest core threshold to explain the morphology-dependent mass attenuation coefficient of some carbon systems, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and fullerenes (C 60 ). The present theoretical approach is based on the many-body X-ray absorption theory including the intrinsic losses (shake-up losses). In the high-energy region the absorption coefficient has correction term dependent on the solid state effects given in terms of the polarization part of the screened Coulomb interaction W p . We also discuss the tail of the valence band X-ray absorption intensity. In the carbon systems C 2s contribution has some influence on the attenuation coefficient even in the high energy region at 20 keV.

  3. Nuclear diagnostics of high intensity laser plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushelnick, K.; Santala, M.I.K.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Tatarakis, M.; Watts, I.; Wei, M.S.; Zepf, M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; McCanny, T.; Spencer, I.; Clarke, R.J.; Norreys, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear activation has been observed in materials exposed to energetic protons and heavy ions generated from high intensity laser-solid interactions (at focused intensities up to 5x10 19 W/cm 2 ). The energy spectrum of the protons is determined through the use of these nuclear activation techniques and is found to be consistent with other ion diagnostics. Heavy ion fusion reactions and large neutron fluxes from the (p, n) reactions were also observed. The reduction of proton emission and increase in heavy ion energy using heated targets was also observed

  4. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-01-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition open-quotes jumpclose quotes, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle

  5. Applications of super - high intensity lasers in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, R.; Hakola, A.; Santala, M.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-plasma interactions arising when a super intense ultrashort laser pulse impinges a solid target creates intense partly collimated and energy resolved photons, high energy electron and protons and neutrons. In addition the plasma plume can generate huge magnetic and electric fields. Also ultra short X-ray pulses are created. We have participated in some of such experiments at Rutherford and Max-Planck Institute and assessed the applications of such kind as laser-driven accelerators. This paper discusses applications in nuclear engineering (neutron sources, isotope separation, fast ignition and transmutation, etc). In particular the potential for extreme time resolution and to partial energy resolution are assessed

  6. rf coaxial couplers for high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, J.J.; Knapp, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Two rf coaxial couplers that are particularly suitable for intertank connection of the disk-and-washer accelerating structure for use in high-intensity linear accelerators have been developed. These devices have very high coupling to the accelerating structure and very low rf power loss at the operating frequency, and they can be designed for any relative particle velocity β > 0.4. Focusing and monitoring devices can be located inside these couplers

  7. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  8. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS)...

  9. Rib Radiography versus Chest Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

     The accurate diagnosis of rib fractures is important in chest trauma. Diagnostic images following chest trauma are usually obtained via chest X-ray, chest computed tomography, or rib radiography. This study evaluated the diagnostic characteristics of rib radiography and chest computed tomography.  Seventy-five rib fracture patients who underwent both chest computed tomography and rib radiography between April 2008 and December 2013 were included. Rib radiographs, centered on the site of pain, were taken from two directions. Chest computed tomography was performed using a 16-row multidetector scanner with 5-mm slice-pitch without overlap, and axial images were visualized in a bone window.  In total, 217 rib fractures were diagnosed in 75 patients. Rib radiography missed 43 rib fractures in 24 patients. The causes were overlap with organs in 15 cases, trivial fractures in 21 cases, and injury outside the imaging range in 7 cases. Left lower rib fractures were often missed due to overlap with the heart, while middle and lower rib fractures were frequently not diagnosed due to overlap with abdominal organs. Computed tomography missed 21 rib fractures in 17 patients. The causes were horizontal fractures in 10 cases, trivial fractures in 9 cases, and insufficient breath holding in 1 case.  In rib radiography, overlap with organs and fractures outside the imaging range were characteristic reasons for missed diagnoses. In chest computed tomography, horizontal rib fractures and insufficient breath holding were often responsible. We should take these challenges into account when diagnosing rib fractures. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. High intensity surface plasma waves, theory and PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, M.; Héron, A.; Adam, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    With the development of intense (>1019 W cm-2) short pulses (≤25 fs) laser with very high contrast, surface plasma wave (SPW) can be explored in the relativistic regime. As the SPW propagates with a phase velocity close to the speed of light it may results in a strong acceleration of electron bunches along the surface permitting them to reach relativistic energies. This may be important e.g. for applications in the field of plasma-based accelerators. We investigate in this work the excitation of SPWs on grating preformed over-dense plasmas for laser intensities ranging from 1019 up to 1021 W cm-2. We discuss the nature of the interaction with respect to the solid case in which surface plasmon can be resonantly excited with weak laser intensity. In particular, we show the importance of the pulse duration and focalization of the laser beam on the amplitude of the SPW.

  11. High energy high intensity coherent photon beam for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    What is proposed for the 20 TeV protons hitting a fixed target is to make a tertiary electron beam similar to that which is the basis of the tagged photon beam at Fermilab. Briefly, a zero degree neutral beam is formed by sweeping out the primary proton beam and any secondary charged particles. Then the photons, from the decay of π 0 in the neutral beam, are converted to e + e - pairs in a lead converter and a high quality electron beam is formed. This beam is brought to the target area where it is converted to a photon beam by Bremsstrahlung in a radiator

  12. Numerical simulations of heat transfer distribution of a two-pass square channel with V-rib turbulator and bleed holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sourabh; Amano, R. S.; Lucci, Jose Martinez

    2013-08-01

    The blade tip region in gas turbine encounters high thermal loads due to temperature difference and hence efforts for high durability and safe operations are essential. Improved and robust methods of cooling are required to downgrade heat transfer rate to turbine blades. The blade tip regions, which are exposed to high gas flow, suffers high local thermal load which are due to external tip leakage. Jet impingement, pin cooling etc. are techniques used for cooling blades. A more usual way is to use serpentine passage with 180-degree turn. In this study, numerical simulation of heat transfer distribution of a two-pass square channel with rib turbulators and bleed holes were done. Periodical rib turbulators and bleed holes were used in the channel. The ribs arrangement were 60 degree V rib, 60 degree inverted V ribs, combination of 60 degree V rib at inlet and 60 inverted V rib at outlet section and combination of Inverted V at inlet and V rib at the outlet. The results were numerically computed using Fluent with Reynolds number of 12,500 and 28,500. Turbulence models used for computations were k-ω-SST and RSM. Temperature based and shear stress based techniques were used for heat transfer distribution prediction. The results for 60 degree V rib, 60 degree inverted V ribs were compared with the experimental results for validation of the results obtained. Detailed distribution shows distinctive peaks in heat transfer around bleed holes and rib turbulator. Comparisons of the overall performance of the models with different orientation of rib turbulator are presented. It is found that due to the combination of 60 degree inverted V rib in inlet and 60 V rib in outlet with bleed holes provides better heat treatment. It is suggested that the use of rib turbulator with bleed holes provides suitable for augmenting blade cooling to achieve an optimal balance between thermal and mechanical design requirements.

  13. PICTORIAL INTERLUDE Beware the bifid rib!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be associated with Gorlin-Goltz basal cell nevus syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant condition characterised by multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts and bifid ribs. Further features include other rib anomalies, deficiency of the lateral clavicle, mandibular hypoplasia, macrocephaly and mental retardation.1.

  14. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  15. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.; Salcman, M.; Salazar, O.M.

    1987-01-01

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent 192 Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various 192 Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from 192 Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable

  16. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  17. Generation of Ultra-high Intensity Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Malkin, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Mainly due to the method of chirped pulse amplification, laser intensities have grown remarkably during recent years. However, the attaining of very much higher powers is limited by the material properties of gratings. These limitations might be overcome through the use of plasma, which is an ideal medium for processing very high power and very high total energy. A plasma can be irradiated by a long pump laser pulse, carrying significant energy, which is then quickly depleted in the plasma by a short counterpropagating pulse. This counterpropagating wave effect has already been employed in Raman amplifiers using gases or plasmas at low laser power. Of particular interest here are the new effects which enter in high power regimes. These new effects can be employed so that one high-energy optical system can be used like a flashlamp in what amounts to pumping the plasma, and a second low-power optical system can be used to extract quickly the energy from the plasma and focus it precisely. The combined system can be very compact. Thus, focused intensities more than 10 25 W/cm 2 can be contemplated using existing optical elements. These intensities are several orders of magnitude higher than what is currently available through chirped pump amplifiers

  18. Nozzle airfoil having movable nozzle ribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane or airfoil structure is provided in which the nozzle ribs are connected to the side walls of the vane or airfoil in such a way that the ribs provide the requisite mechanical support between the concave side and convex side of the airfoil but are not locked in the radial direction of the assembly, longitudinally of the airfoil. The ribs may be bi-cast onto a preformed airfoil side wall structure or fastened to the airfoil by an interlocking slide connection and/or welding. By attaching the nozzle ribs to the nozzle airfoil metal in such a way that allows play longitudinally of the airfoil, the temperature difference induced radial thermal stresses at the nozzle airfoil/rib joint area are reduced while maintaining proper mechanical support of the nozzle side walls.

  19. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  20. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-01-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented

  1. A high intensity positron beam at the Brookhaven reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Lynn, K.G.; Roellig, L.O.; Mills, A.P. Jr.; Moodenbaugh, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a high intensity, low energy positron beam utilizing high specific activity /sup 64/Cu sources (870 Ci/g) produced in a reactor with high thermal neutron flux. Fast-to-slow moderation can be performed in a self moderation mode or with a transmission moderator. Slow positron rates up to 1.6 x 10/sup 8/ e/sup +//s with a half life of 12.8 h are calculated. Up to 1.0 x 10/sup 8/ e/sup +//s have been observed. New developments including a Ne moderator and an on-line isotope separation process are discussed. 21 refs., 9 figs

  2. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, T.E.; Broholm, C.; Fultz, B.

    1998-01-01

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,ω). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating

  3. HELIOS: A high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fultz, B. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science] [and others

    1998-12-31

    A proposal to construct a high intensity chopper spectrometer at LANSCE as part of the SPSS upgrade project is discussed. HELIOS will be optimized for science requiring high sensitivity neutron spectroscopy. This includes studies of phonon density of states in small polycrystalline samples, magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and highly correlated electron systems, as well as parametric studies (as a function of pressure, temperature, or magnetic field) of S(Q,{omega}). By employing a compact design together with the use of supermirror guide in the incident flight path the neutron flux at HELIOS will be significantly higher than any other comparable instrument now operating.

  4. Compressive rib fracture: peri-mortem and post-mortem trauma patterns in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A; Weller, Sarah; Swain, Michael V; Neil Waddell, J; Das, Raj

    2013-07-01

    Despite numerous studies on high impact fractures of ribs, little is known about compressive rib injuries. We studied rib fractures from a biomechanical and morphological perspective using 15, 5th ribs of domestic pigs Sus scrofa, divided into two groups, desiccated (representing post-mortem trauma) and fresh ribs with intact periosteum (representing peri-mortem trauma). Ribs were axially compressed and subjected to four-point bending in an Instron 3339 fitted with custom jigs. Morphoscopic analysis of resultant fractures consisted of standard optical methods, micro-CT (μCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). During axial compression, fresh ribs had slightly higher strength because of energy absorption capabilities of their soft and fluidic components. In flexure tests, dry ribs showed typical elastic-brittle behaviour with long linear load-extension curves, followed by relatively short non-linear elastic (hyperelastic) behaviour and brittle fracture. Fresh ribs showed initial linear-elastic behaviour, followed by strain softening, visco-plastic responses. During the course of loading, dry bone showed minimal observable damage prior to the onset of unstable fracture. In contrast, fresh bone showed buckling-like damage features on the compressive surface and cracking parallel to the axis of the bone. Morphologically, all dry ribs fractured precipitously, whereas all but one of the fresh ribs showed incomplete fracture. The mode of fracture, however, was remarkably similar for both groups, with butterfly fractures predominating (7/15, 46.6% dry and wet). Our study highlights the fact that under controlled loading, despite seemingly similar butterfly fracture morphology, fresh ribs (representing perimortem trauma) show a non-catastrophic response. While extensive strain softening observed for the fresh bone does show some additional micro-cracking damage, it appears that the periosteum may play a key role in imparting the observed pseudo-ductility to the ribs

  5. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  6. Chrome tannage using high-intensity ultrasonic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysalo, E; Marjoniemi, M; Kilpeläinen, M

    1997-04-01

    The process time in chrome tannage in leather making, using an elastic compression cycle followed by irradiation by high-intensity ultrasound, is quite short lasting only a few minutes, compared with a process time of several hours in modern chrome tannage. After ultrasonic irradiation, samples were basified in 17 h in chrome liquor at a pH of 4.0 and the shrinkage temperature was measured. The determination of the efficiency for the chrome liquor penetrating into the hides can be based on the steepness of the shrinkage temperature-processing time curve. An approximate value of 20 degrees C min(-1) can be evaluated for the initial slope of the curve when elastic compression and high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation is used, and a processing time of 2 min is required in chrome liquor (plus 17 h basification and 24 h storage time) to obtain leather stable to boiling. Usually, hides are kept in chrome liquor for 2 h.

  7. Entrepreneurship in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Patrizia V.; Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle

    development of new enterprises in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors are analysed in relation to the educational and professional background of the entrepreneur/entrepreneurial team, as well as the personal and professional social networks of the entrepreneurs. The analysis is based on a theoretical...... framework combining theories of human and social capital. Secondary aspects addressed in the research project are questions of male vs. female entrepreneurship, internationalisation-globalisation, and business success/failure.......The paper investigates key factors influencing the establishment and early growth of high-tech and knowledge-intensive new firms in Denmark. Particular attention is paid to the human and social variables affecting the creation, survival, and growth of such firms. The establishment and subsequent...

  8. High-intensity, subkilovolt x-ray calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckuck, R.W.; Gaines, J.L.; Ernst, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A high-intensity subkilovolt x-ray calibration source utilizing proton-induced inner-shell atomic fluorescence of low-Z elements is described. The high photon yields and low bremsstrahlung background associated with this phenomenon are ideally suited to provide intense, nearly monoenergetic x-ray beams. The proton accelerator is a 3 mA, 300 kV Cockroft-Walton using a conventional rf hydrogen ion source. Seven remotely-selectable targets capable of heat dissipation of 5 kW/cm 2 are used to provide characteristic x-rays with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. Source strengths are of the order of 10 13 to 10 14 photons/sec. Methods of reducing spectral contamination due to hydrocarbon build-up on the target are discussed. Typical x-ray spectra (Cu-L, C-K and B-K) are shown

  9. Light and Light Sources High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Flesch, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    Light and Light Sources gives an introduction to the working principles of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps and points out challenges and problems associated with the development and operation of HID lamps. The state-of-the-art in electrode and plasma diagnostics as well as numerical methods used for the understanding of HID lamps are described. This volume addresses students as well as scientists and researchers at universities and in industry.

  10. Silicone rubber curing by high intensity infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Tsai, J.; Cherng, C.; Chen, J.

    1994-01-01

    A high-intensity (12 kW) and compact (80 cm) infrared heating oven for fast curing (12 seconds) of tube-like silicone rubber curing studies is reported. Quality inspection by DSC and DMA and results from pilot-scale curing oven all suggest that infrared heating provides a better way of vulcanization regarding to curing time, quality, cost, and spacing over conventional hot air heating. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUCCIO, A.; D' IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.

    2005-09-12

    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.

  12. Pulsed Power Applications in High Intensity Proton Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Ducimetière, Laurent; Fowler, Tony; Kawakubo, Tadamichi; Mertens, Volker; Sandberg, Jon; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa

    2005-01-01

    The pulsed power technology has been applied in particle accelerators and storage rings for over four decades. It is most commonly used in injection, extraction, beam manipulation, source, and focusing systems. These systems belong to the class of repetitive pulsed power. In this presentation, we review and discuss the history, present status, and future challenge of pulsed power applications in high intensity proton accelerators and storage rings.

  13. Proton induction linacs as high-intensity neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Hoyer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induction linacs are explored as high intensity neutron sources. The induction linac - concept, properties, experience with electrons, and possibilities - and its limitations for accelerating ions are reviewed. A number of proton induction linac designs are examined with the LIACEP program and general conclusions are given. Results suggest that a proton induction accelerator of the lowest voltage, consistent with good neutron flux, is preferred and could well be cost competitive with the usual rf linac/storage ring designs. (orig.)

  14. Shanidar 3 Neandertal rib puncture wound and paleolithic weaponry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Steven E; Franciscus, Robert G; McKean-Peraza, Hilary A; Daniel, Julie A; Warren, Brittany R

    2009-08-01

    Since its discovery and initial description in the 1960s, the penetrating lesion to the left ninth rib of the Shanidar 3 Neandertal has been a focus for discussion about interpersonal violence and weapon technology in the Middle Paleolithic. Recent experimental studies using lithic points on animal targets suggest that aspects of weapon system dynamics can be inferred from the form of the bony lesions they produce. Thus, to better understand the circumstances surrounding the traumatic injury suffered by Shanidar 3, we conducted controlled stabbing experiments with replicas of Mousterian and Levallois points directed against the thoraces of pig carcasses. Stabs were conducted under both high and low kinetic energy conditions, in an effort to replicate the usual impact forces associated with thrusting spear vs. long-range projectile weapon systems, respectively. Analysis of the lesions produced in the pig ribs, along with examination of goat ribs subjected primarily to high kinetic energy stabs from an independent experiment, revealed consistent differences in damage patterns between the two conditions. In the case of Shanidar 3, the lack of major involvement of more than one rib, the lack of fracturing of the affected and adjacent ribs, and the lack of bony defects associated with the lesion (such as wastage, hinging, and radiating fracture lines) suggests that the weapon that wounded him was carrying relatively low kinetic energy. While accidental injury or attack with a thrusting spear or knife cannot absolutely be ruled out, the position, angulation, and morphology of the lesion is most consistent with injury by a low-mass, low-kinetic energy projectile weapon. Given the potential temporal overlap of Shanidar 3 with early modern humans in western Asia, and the possibility that the latter were armed with projectile weapon systems, this case carries more than simple paleoforensic interest.

  15. Gaussian representation of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Joshua E; Myers, Matthew R

    2007-11-01

    A method for fast numerical simulation of high-intensity focused ultrasound beams is derived. The method is based on the frequency-domain representation of the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation, and assumes for each harmonic a Gaussian transverse pressure distribution at all distances from the transducer face. The beamwidths of the harmonics are constrained to vary inversely with the square root of the harmonic number, and as such this method may be viewed as an extension of a quasilinear approximation. The technique is capable of determining pressure or intensity fields of moderately nonlinear high-intensity focused ultrasound beams in water or biological tissue, usually requiring less than a minute of computer time on a modern workstation. Moreover, this method is particularly well suited to high-gain simulations since, unlike traditional finite-difference methods, it is not subject to resolution limitations in the transverse direction. Results are shown to be in reasonable agreement with numerical solutions of the full KZK equation in both tissue and water for moderately nonlinear beams.

  16. Rib necrosis after postoperative irradiation with 6MeV x-ray to breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, H; Watarai, J; Otawa, H [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    In order to examine quality of rays in radiation injury in the rib by high energy x-ray, radiation injury in the rib was roentgenologically followed up in the subjects that received postoperative irradiation only with 6 MeV x-ray to breast cancer. The subjects consisted of 79 patients with the age of 30 to 78 and were irradiated with 200 rads of 6 MeV x-ray 5 times a week delivered in 5 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Two fields were irradiated in a day and the total dose reached more than 5,000 rads. Roentgenologic follow up for more than 12 months revealed that rib necrosis occurred in 9 (11%) of 79 patients and that there was no relation to the age of patient. The necrosis was most likely to develop in the right second rib 10 to 23 months after the irradiation and the mean was 16 months. To the rib region where necrosis occurred, 1,880 to 2,230 ret were irradiated and the mean was 2,014 ret. There found no relation between the irradiation dose and occurrence of rib necrosis in the extent of 4,000 to 6,000 rads for tumor doses. Radiation injury in the lung was complicated in 8 (89%) of 9 patients with rib necrosis, indicating high incidence.

  17. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  18. Targets for ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is based on the use of the well-known on-line isotope separator (ISOL) technique in which radioactive nuclei are produced by fusion type reactions in selectively chosen target materials by high-energy proton, deuteron, or He ion beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of radioactive ion beams (RIBs), selection of the most appropriate target material for production of the species of interest is, perhaps, the most difficult. In this report, we briefly review present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect maximum diffusion release rates of the short-lived species that can be realized at the temperature limits of specific target materials. We also describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the HRIBF as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications

  19. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  20. How different are the Kebara 2 ribs to modern humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Tara; Beyer, Benoît; Sholukha, Victor; Semal, Patrick; Feipel, Veronique; Louryan, Stéphane; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2017-12-30

    This study analyses rib geometric parameters of individual ribs of 14 modern human subjects (7 males and 7 females) in comparison to the reconstructed ribs of the Kebara 2 skeleton which was taken from the reconstruction of a Neandertal thorax by Sawyer & Maley (2005). Three-dimensional (3D) models were segmented from CT scans and each rib vertex cloud was placed into a local coordinate system defined from the rib principal axes. Rib clouds were then analysed using best fitting ellipses of the external contours of the cross-section areas. The centroid of each ellipse was then used to measure the centroidal pathway between each slice (rib midline). Curvature of the ribs was measured from the mid-line of the ribs as the sum of angles between successive centroids in adjacent cross sections. Distinct common patterns were noted in all rib geometric parameters for modern humans. The Kebara 2 reconstructed ribs also followed the same patterns. This study demonstrated that there are differences between the sexes in rib geometrical parameters, with females showing smaller rib width, chord length and arc length, but greater curvature (rib torsion, rib axial curvature, rib anterior-posterior bending) than males. The Kebara 2 reconstructed ribs were within the modern human range for the majority of geometrical parameters.

  1. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  2. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  3. JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK) are promoting the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This paper describes the joint project prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  4. Performance of GEM detectors in high intensity particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Ketzer, B; Deutel, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Buzulutskov, A F; Shekhtman, L I; Sokolov, A; Tatarinov, A A; Vasilev, A; Kappler, S; Schulte, E C

    2001-01-01

    We describe extensive tests of Double GEM and Triple GEM detectors, including full size prototypes for the COMPASS experiment, exposed to high intensity muon, proton and pion beams at the Paul~Scherrer Institute and at CERN. The measurements aim at detecting problems possible under these operation conditions, the main concern being the occurrence of discharges induced by beam particles. Results on the dependence of the probability for induced discharges on the experimental environment are presented and discussed. Implications for the application of GEM~detectors in experiments at high luminosity colliders are illustrated.

  5. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 μ x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10 4 ) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail

  6. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  7. Removing Known SPS Intensity Limitations for High Luminosity LHC Goals

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Bohl, Thomas; Cruikshank, Paul; Goddard, Brennan; Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Lasheen, Alexandre; Perez Espinos, Jaime; Repond, Joël; Salvant, Benoit; Vollinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In preparation of the SPS as an LHC injector its impedance was significantly reduced in 1999 - 2000. A new SPS impedance reduction campaign is planned now for the High Luminosity (HL)-LHC project, which requires bunch intensities twice as high as the nominal one. One of the known intensity limitations is a longitudinal multi-bunch instability with a threshold 3 times below this operational intensity. The instability is presently cured using the 4th harmonic RF system and controlled emittance blow-up, but reaching the HL-LHC parameters cannot be assured without improving the machine impedance. Recently the impedance sources responsible for this instability were identified and implementation of their shielding and damping is foreseen during the next long shutdown (2019 - 2020) in synergy with two other important upgrades: amorphous carbon coating of (part of) the vacuum chamber against the e-cloud effect and rearrangement of the 200 MHz RF system. In this paper the strategy of impedance reduction is presented t...

  8. High intensity accelerator for a wide range of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    When looking at commercial applications of accelerators from a market point of view, it appears that a common accelerator design could meet different users' needs. This would benefit both the manufacturer and the user by multiplying the number of machines sold, thus lowering their cost and improving their quality. These applications include: radioisotope production for medical imaging (positron emission tomography), industrial imaging and non-destructive testing (e.g. neutron radiography, explosive and drug detection in luggage or freight). This paper investigates the needs of the various applications and defines their common denominator to establish suitable specifications (type of particles, energy, intensity). Different accelerator types (cyclotrons, linear accelerators and electrostatic machines) are reviewed and compared on performance and estimated costs. A high intensity tandem accelerator design is studied in more detail as it seems the most appropriate candidate. ((orig.))

  9. The effect of rib and lung heterogeneities on the computed dose to lung in Ir-192 High-Dose-Rate breast brachytherapy: Monte Carlo versus a treatment planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salehi Yazdi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Taking into account the ribs and entering the actual data for breasts, ribs, and lungs, revealed an average overestimation of the dose by a factor of 8% in the lung for TPS calculations. Therefore, the accuracy of the TPS results may be limited to regions near the implants where the treatment is planned, and is a more conservative approach for regions at boundaries with curvatures or tissues with a different material than that in the breast.

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Travis S; Kirsch, Jacobo; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Chung, Jonathan H; Donnelly, Edwin F; Ginsburg, Mark E; Heitkamp, Darel E; Kazerooni, Ella A; Ketai, Loren H; McComb, Barbara L; Parker, J Anthony; Ravenel, James G; Restrepo, Carlos Santiago; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Suh, Robert D; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

    2014-11-01

    Rib fracture is the most common thoracic injury, present in 10% of all traumatic injuries and almost 40% of patients who sustain severe nonpenetrating trauma. Although rib fractures can produce significant morbidity, the diagnosis of associated complications (such as pneumothorax, hemothorax, pulmonary contusion, atelectasis, flail chest, cardiovascular injury, and injuries to solid and hollow abdominal organs) may have a more significant clinical impact. When isolated, rib fractures have a relatively low morbidity and mortality, and failure to detect isolated rib fractures does not necessarily alter patient management or outcome in uncomplicated cases. A standard posteroanterior chest radiograph should be the initial, and often the only, imaging test required in patients with suspected rib fracture after minor trauma. Detailed radiographs of the ribs rarely add additional information that would change treatment, and, although other imaging tests (eg, computed tomography, bone scan) have increased sensitivity for detection of rib fractures, there are little data to support their use. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review process include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  11. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  12. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, Stephen E.; Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D.; Feldman, Kenneth W.

    2014-01-01

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  13. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Stephen E. [Kapiolani Children' s Hospital, The Department of Radiology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Done, Stephen L.; Friedman, Seth D. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, The Department' s of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Feldman, Kenneth W. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Seattle Children' s Protection Program, Children' s Protection Program, M/S M2-10, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Research documents that among children admitted to trauma intensive care units the number of rib fractures sustained indicates the child's likelihood of having and severity of intrathoracic injury. This has been misused in court to argue that children with multiple rib fractures who lack intrathoracic injury have abnormal bone fragility rather than inflicted injury. To determine frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures in cases of child abuse and accidental trauma. We conducted a retrospective review of rib fractures caused by documented abuse or accidents from 2003 to 2010 in children treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and Harborview Medical Center. A senior pediatric radiologist and radiology fellow independently reviewed the imaging. Children with bone demineralization were excluded. Descriptive and simple comparative statistics were used. Seventy-two percent (47/65) of infants and toddlers with rib fractures were abused. Abused children had more rib fractures than accidentally injured children (5.55 vs. 3.11, P = 0.012). However intrathoracic injuries as a whole (55.6% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001) and individual types of intrathoracic injuries were more common with accidents. Rates of other thoracic cage injuries did not differ substantially (27.8% accidents vs. 12.8% abuse, P = 0.064). Intracranial and intra-abdominal injuries and skull fractures were equally frequent, but other extrathoracic fractures were more common with abuse (70.2% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001). Abused infants and toddlers have fewer intrathoracic injuries but more rib fractures than accidentally injured peers. This likely reflects different injury mechanics. Lack of intrathoracic injuries in abused children with rib fractures does not imply bone fragility. (orig.)

  14. High intensity region segmentation in MR imaging of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, F; Filipuzzi, M; Graffigna, J P; Isoardi, R; Noceti, M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathologies are often manifest in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as hyperintense or bright regions as compared to normal tissue. It is of particular interest to develop an algorithm to detect, identify and define those Regions of Interest (ROI) when analyzing MRI studies, particularly for lesions of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study is to analyze those parameters which optimize segmentation of the areas of interest. To establish which areas should be considered as hyperintense regions, we developed a database (DB), with studies of patients diagnosed with MS. This disease causes axonal demyelination and it is expressed as bright regions in PD, T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences. Thus, with more than 4300 hyperintense regions validated by an expert physician, an algorithm was developed to detect such spots, approximating the results the expert obtained. Alongside these hyperintense lesion regions, it also detected bone regions with high intensity levels, similar to the intensity of the lesions, but with other features that allow a good differentiation.The algorithm will then detect ROIs with similar intensity levels and performs classification through data mining techniques

  15. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  16. RIB production with photofission of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts. E-mail: oganessian@flnr.jinr.ru; Dmitriev, S.N.; Kliman, J.; Maslov, O.A.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Belov, A.G.; Tretiakova, S.P

    2002-04-22

    The process of uranium photofission with electron beams of 20-50 MeV is considered in terms of the production of fission fragments. It is shown that in the interaction between an electron beam (25 MeV in energy and 20 {mu}A in intensity), produced by a compact accelerator of the microtron type, and a uranium target of about 40 g/cm{sup 2} in thickness, an average of 1.5x10{sup 11} fission events per second is generated. According to the calculations and test experiments, this corresponds to the yield of {sup 132}Sn and {sup 142}Xe isotopes of approximately 2x10{sup 9}/s. The results of experiments on the optimal design of the U-target are presented. Problems are discussed connected with the separation of isotopes and isobars for their further acceleration up to energies of 5-18 MeV A. The photofission reactions of a heavy nucleus are compared with other methods of RIB production of medium mass nuclei.

  17. Scattering of the field of a multi-element phased array by human ribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the non-invasive treatment of cancer has been demonstrated for a range of different cancers including those of the liver, kidney, prostate and breast. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over other techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, in terms of invasiveness and risk of harmful side effects. Despite its advantages, however, there are a number of significant challenges currently hindering its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to induce tissue necrosis at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes. Multielement random arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successfully treating a patient for liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the ribcage. A mesh of quadratic pressure patches was generated using CT scan data for ribs nine to twelve on the right side. A boundary element approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used, in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array past the ribs at both intercostal and transcostal treatment locations. This method has the advantage of accounting for full effects of scattering and diffraction in three dimensions under continuous wave excitation.

  18. Flow Structure and Heat Transfer of Jet Impingement on a Rib-Roughened Flat Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman H. Alenezi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The jet impingement technique is an effective method to achieve a high heat transfer rate and is widely used in industry. Enhancing the heat transfer rate even minimally will improve the performance of many engineering systems and applications. In this numerical study, the convective heat transfer process between orthogonal air jet impingement on a smooth, horizontal surface and a roughened uniformly heated flat plate is studied. The roughness element takes the form of a circular rib of square cross-section positioned at different radii around the stagnation point. At each location, the effect of the roughness element on heat transfer rate was simulated for six different heights and the optimum rib location and rib dimension determined. The average Nusselt number has been evaluated within and beyond the stagnation region to better quantify the heat transfer advantages of ribbed surfaces over smooth surfaces. The results showed both flow and heat transfer features vary significantly with rib dimension and location on the heated surface. This variation in the streamwise direction included both augmentation and decrease in heat transfer rate when compared to the baseline no-rib case. The enhancement in normalized averaged Nusselt number obtained by placing the rib at the most optimum radial location R/D = 2 was 15.6% compared to the baseline case. It was also found that the maximum average Nusselt number for each location was achieved when the rib height was close to the corresponding boundary layer thickness of the smooth surface at the same rib position.

  19. Summary for the WG4: physics with high intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.

    2006-01-01

    There are many physics opportunities in laser-beam interactions and innovations in the laser- and the beam technologies expand them or even open new window in the field. Therefore, physics with high intense lasers is an attractive application of nanobeam technologies. The topics in the working group 4 covers fundamental physics based on technique related with nanobeam development aiming to encourage communication between physics and accelerator communities. Due to the limited time for the preparation, we did not try comprehensive coverage of the field but invited topics which are planed near future or can be studied at the ILC test facilities. (author)

  20. KEK/JAERI joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within six years. In this article I will describe a) the project itself, b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and c) the present status and future plans of the project. (author)

  1. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Torrisi, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 109-113 ISSN 0029-5922. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : high-intensity laser * implantation * material modification Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  2. Overview of high intensity proton accelerator facility, J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The J-PARC project of high intensity proton accelerator research complex, conducted jointly by JAERI and KEK, has been completed with demonstration of all beam productions in 2009 as the facility construction phase, and the operation started to offer the secondary beams of neutron, muon, kaon, and neutrino, to the advanced scientific experimental research aiming at making breakthroughs in materials and life science, nuclear and elementary physics, etc. This text describes the overview of the J-PARC present status with emphasis of a performance toward to 1MW power as user facilities. (author)

  3. Turbulent flow in a ribbed channel: Flow structures in the vicinity of a rib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    PIV measurements are performed in a channel with periodic ribs on one wall. The emphasis of this study is to investigate the flow structures in the vicinity of a rib in terms of mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, probability density functions (PDF), and two-point correlations. The PDF distribution......-based visualization is applied to the separation bubble upstream of the rib. Salient critical points and limit cycles are extracted, which gives clues to the physical processes occurring in the flow....

  4. Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) by Bade et al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a paper entitled "Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial" was published in Arthritis Care Res by Bade et al. (1). We have read the paper with great interest and noted that the study shows essentially no diffe......Recently, a paper entitled "Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial" was published in Arthritis Care Res by Bade et al. (1). We have read the paper with great interest and noted that the study shows essentially...

  5. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  7. Multifunctional pulse generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can achieve high spatial resolution for the treatment of diseases. A major technical challenge in implementing a HIFU therapeutic system is to generate high-voltage high-current signals for effectively exciting a multichannel HIFU transducer at high efficiencies. In this paper, we present the development of a multifunctional multichannel generator/driver. The generator can produce a long burst as well as an extremely high-voltage short pulse of pseudosinusoidal waves (trigger HIFU) and second-harmonic superimposed waves for HIFU transmission. The transmission timing, waveform, and frequency can be controlled using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via a universal serial bus (USB) microcontroller. The hardware is implemented in a compact printed circuit board. The test results of trigger HIFU reveal that the power consumption and the temperature rise of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors were reduced by 19.9% and 38.2 °C, respectively, from the previous design. The highly flexible performance of the novel generator/driver is demonstrated in the generation of second-harmonic superimposed waves, which is useful for cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment, although the previous design exhibited difficulty in generating it.

  8. Pulmonary embolism developing after rib fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Nemoto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we wanted to show that acute pulmonary embolism may be observed as a complication in patients with traumatic rib fracture and to emphasize on the importance the early diagnosis examinations in suspicious cases.

  9. RIBBED DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER: ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUSSAIN H. AL-KAYIEM

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings obtained by modeling a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (DPHE equipped with repeated ribs from the inside for artificial roughing. An analytical procedure was developed to analyze the thermal and hydraulic performance of the DPHE with and without ribbing. The procedure was verified by comparing with experimental reported results and they are in good agreement. Several parameters were investigated in this study including the effect of ribs pitch to height ratios, P/e= 5, 10, 15, and 20, and ribs to hydraulic diameter ratios, e/Dh= 0.0595, 0.0765, and 0.107. These parameters were studied at various operating Reynolds number ranging from 2500 to 150000. Different installation configurations were investigated, too. An enhan-cement of 4 times in the heat transfer in terms of Stanton number was achieved at the expense of 38 times increase of pressure drop across the flow in terms of friction facto values.

  10. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  11. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  12. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  13. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  14. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, E.D.; Donets, E.E.; Syresin, E.M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5x10 9 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production

  15. ORBIT : BEAM DYNAMICS CALCULATIONS FOR HIGH - INTENSITY RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLMES, J.A.; DANILOV, V.; GALAMBOS, J.; SHISHLO, A.; COUSINEAU, S.; CHOU, W.; MICHELOTTI, L.; OSTIGUY, F.; WEI, J.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a computer code, ORBIT, specifically for beam dynamics calculations in high-intensity rings. Our approach allows detailed simulation of realistic accelerator problems. ORBIT is a particle-in-cell tracking code that transports bunches of interacting particles through a series of nodes representing elements, effects, or diagnostics that occur in the accelerator lattice. At present, ORBIT contains detailed models for strip-foil injection including painting and foil scattering; rf focusing and acceleration; transport through various magnetic elements; longitudinal and transverse impedances; longitudinal, transverse, and three-dimensional space charge forces; collimation and limiting apertures; and the calculation of many useful diagnostic quantities. ORBIT is an object-oriented code, written in C++ and utilizing a scripting interface for the convenience of the user. Ongoing improvements include the addition of a library of accelerator maps, BEAMLINE/MXYZPTLK the introduction of a treatment magnet errors and fringe fields; the conversion of the scripting interface to the standard scripting language, Python; and the parallelization of the computations using MPI. The ORBIT code is an open source, powerful, and convenient tool for studying beam dynamics in high-intensity rings

  16. Injection and capture simulations for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Lessner, E.; Symon, K.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    1994-01-01

    The injection and capture processes in a high intensity, rapid cycling, proton synchrotron are simulated by numerical integration. The equations of motion suitable for rapid numerical simulation are derived so as to maintain symplecticity and second-order accuracy. By careful bookkeeping, the authors can, for each particle that is lost, determine its initial phase space coordinates. They use this information as a guide for different injection schemes and rf voltage programming, so that a minimum of particle losses and dilution are attained. A fairly accurate estimate of the space charge fields is required, as they influence considerably the particle distribution and reduce the capture efficiency. Since the beam is represented by a relatively coarse ensemble of macro particles, the authors study several methods of reducing the statistical fluctuations while retaining the fine structure (high intensity modulations) of the beam distribution. A pre-smoothing of the data is accomplished by the cloud-in-cell method. The program is checked by making sure that it gives correct answers in the absence of space charge, and that it reproduces the negative mass instability properly. Results of simulations for stationary distributions are compared to their analytical predictions. The capture efficiency for the rapid-cycling synchrotron is analyzed with respect to variations in the injected beam energy spread, bunch length, and rf programming

  17. Analysis of technology and seminar on economic trends about High-intensity LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This is divided into two parts. Contents of this report in the first part are technical trends on high-intensity LED which reports introduction of LED as compound semiconductor, white LED? patent issues, review on technology of High-intensity LED and Reliability of High-intensity LED. The second part deals with economic tends about High-intensity LED. This seminar was held to report analysis and economical trends about High-intensity LED by Korea Industrial Education Institute in 2003.

  18. Reports on various anomalies of the ribs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, G.; Brix, F.

    1988-02-01

    Three patients are presented who were suffering from different anomalies of the ribs: There was one each plus and minus variant and a female patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (basal cell nevus syndrome) demonstrating several changes in the ribs as an expression of a genetically determined segmentation disturbance. These presentations are followed by a detailed discussion on the types and causes of such anomalies.

  19. Reports on various anomalies of the ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, G.; Brix, F.

    1988-01-01

    Three patients are presented who were suffering from different anomalies of the ribs: There was one each plus and minus variant and a female patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (basal cell nevus syndrome) demonstrating several changes in the ribs as an expression of a genetically determined segmentation disturbance. These presentations are followed by a detailed discussion on the types and causes of such anomalies. (orig.) [de

  20. Overview of High Intensity Linac Programs in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have seen a boost in the support by the European Union (EU) of accelerator research in Europe. Provided they coordinate their efforts and define common goals and strategies, laboratories and institutions from the member states can receive a financial support reaching 50% of the total project cost. In the field of High Intensity Linacs, the EU has already supported the EURISOL initiative for nuclear physics, which this year is applying for funding of a Design Study, and the development of linacs for Waste Transmutation. More recently, an initiative for high-energy physics has been approved, which includes a programme for the development of pulsed linac technologies. The coordination and synergy imposed by the EU rules increase the benefit of the allocated resources. Combined with the ongoing internal projects in the partner laboratories, these European initiatives represent a strong effort focussed towards the development of linac technologies. This paper summarises the requests from the various E...

  1. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered.

  2. Effect of Aspect Ratio, Channel Orientation, Rib Pitch-to-Height Ratio, and Number of Ribbed Walls on Pressure Drop Characteristics in a Rotating Channel with Detached Ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work involves experimental investigation of the effects of aspect ratio, channel orientation angle, rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e, and number of ribbed walls on friction factor in orthogonally rotating channel with detached ribs. The ribs are separated from the base wall to provide a small region of flow between the base wall and the ribs. Experiments have been conducted at Reynolds number ranging from 10000–17000 with rotation numbers varying from 0–0.38. Pitch-to-rib height ratios (P/e of 5 and 10 at constant rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D of 0.1 and a clearance ratio (C/e of 0.38 are considered. The rib angle of attack with respect to mainstream flow is 90∘. The channel orientation at which the ribbed wall becomes trailing surface (pressure side on which the Coriolis force acts is considered as the 0∘ orientation angle. For one-wall ribbed case, channel is oriented from 0∘ to 180∘ about its axis in steps of 30∘ to change the orientation angle. For two-wall ribbed case, the orientation angle is changed from 0∘ to 90∘ in steps of 30∘. Friction factors for the detached ribbed channels are compared with the corresponding attached ribbed channel. It is found that in one-wall detached ribbed channel, increase in the friction factor ratio with the orientation angle is lower for rectangular channel compared to that of square channel for both the pitch-to-rib height ratios of 5 and 10 at a given Reynolds number and rotation number. Friction factor ratios of two-wall detached ribbed rectangular channel are comparable with corresponding two-wall detached ribbed square channel both under stationary and rotating conditions.

  3. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  4. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ 2 , where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  5. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ{sup 2}, where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  6. High intensive short laser pulse interaction with submicron clusters media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A. Ya

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of short intense laser pulses with structured targets, such as clusters, exhibits unique features, stemming from the enhanced absorption of the incident laser light compared to solid targets. Due to the increased absorption, these targets are heated significantly, leading to enhanced emission of x rays in the keV range and generation of electrons and multiple charged ions with kinetic energies from tens of keV to tens of MeV. Possible applications of these targets can be an electron/ion source for a table top accelerator, a neutron source for a material damage study, or an x ray source for microscopy or lithography. The overview of recent results, obtained by the high intensive short laser pulse interaction with different submicron clusters media will be presented. High resolution K and L shell spectra of plasma generated by superintense laser irradiation of micron sized Ar, Kr and Xe clusters have been measured with intensity 10"17"-10"19"W/cm"2"and a pulse duration of 30-1000fs. It is found that hot electrons produced by high contrast laser pulses allow the isochoric heating of clusters and shift the ion balance toward the higher charge states, which enhances both the X ray line yield and the ion kinetic energy. Irradiation of clusters, produced from such gas mixture, by a fs Ti:Sa laser pulses allows to enhance the soft X ray radiation of Heβ(665.7eV)and Lyα(653.7eV)of Oxygen in 2-8 times compare with the case of using as targets pure CO"2"or N"2"O clusters and reach values 2.8x10"10"(∼3μJ)and 2.7x10"10"(∼2.9μJ)ph/(sr·pulse), respectively. Nanostructure conventional soft X ray images of 100nm thick Mo and Zr foils in a wide field of view (cm"2"scale)with high spatial resolution (700nm)are obtained using the LiF crystals as soft X ray imaging detectors. When the target used for the ion acceleration studies consists of solid density clusters embedded into the background gas, its irradiation by high intensity laser light makes the target

  7. High-Intensity Events in International Women's Team Handball Matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Spencer, Matt

    2017-01-01

    International women's team handball is a physically demanding sport and is intermittent in nature. The aim of the study was to profile high-intensity events (HIEs) in international women's team handball matches with regard to playing positions. Twenty female national-team handball players were equipped with inertial movement units (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) in 9 official international matches. Players were categorized in 4 different playing positions: backs, wings, pivots, and goalkeepers (GKs). PlayerLoad™, accelerations (Acc), changes of direction (CoD), decelerations (Dec), and the sum of the latter 3, HIEs, were extracted from raw-data files using the manufacturer's software. All Acc, Dec, CoD, and HIEs >2.5 m/s were included. Data were log-transformed and differences were standardized for interpretation of magnitudes and reported with effect-size statistics. Mean numbers of events were 0.7 ± 0.4 Acc/min, 2.3 ± 0.9 Dec/min, and 1.0 ± 0.4 CoD/min. Substantial differences between playing positions, ranging from small to very large, were found in the 3 parameters. Backs showed a most likely greater frequency for HIE/min (5.0 ± 1.1 HIE/min) than all other playing positions. Differences between playing positions were also apparent in PlayerLoad/min. HIEs in international women's team handball are position specific, and the overall intensity depends on the positional role within a team. Specific HIE and intensity profiles from match play provide useful information for a better understanding of the overall game demands and for each playing position.

  8. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. Primary multifocal tuberculous osteomyelitis with involvement of the ribs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, D.S. [New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Rafii, M.; McGuinness, G. [Department of Radiology, NYU Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Jagirdar, J.S. [Department of Pathology, NYU Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Two cases of primary multifocal tuberculous osteomyelitis with involvement of the rib cage are presented. The lungs were normal and the appearance of the skeletal lesions did not suggest tuberculosis. These lesions were predominantly lytic, with minimal soft tissue involvement. Tuberculosis should be high in the differential diagnosis of multiple destructive bone lesions, especially in patients from regions where tuberculosis is endemic. (orig.) With 5 figs., 21 refs.

  10. Proceedings of the third ICFA mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1997-01-01

    The third mini-workshop on high intensity, high brightness hadron accelerators was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on May 7-9, 1997 and had about 30 participants. The workshop focussed on rf and longitudinal dynamics issues relevant to intense and/or bright hadron synchrotrons. A plenary session was followed by four sessions on particular topics. This document contains copies of the viewgraphs used as well as summaries written by the session chairs

  11. High Intensity Effects in the SNS Accumulator Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A.; Shishlo, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  12. Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D; Nicholas, C W; Williams, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running on soreness and markers of muscle damage. Sixteen males took part in the study, half of whom were assigned to a running group and half to a resting control group. The exercise protocol involved 90 min of intermittent shuttle running and walking (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: LIST), reflecting the activity pattern found in multiple-sprint sports such as soccer. Immediately after exercise, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, and values remained above baseline for 48 h (P < 0.05). Median peak activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase occurred 24 h post-exercise and were 774 and 43 U x l(-1), respectively. The intensity of general muscle soreness, and in the specific muscles investigated, was greater than baseline for 72 h after the shuttle test (P < 0.05), peaking 24-48 h post-exercise (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness was not correlated with either creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activity. Soreness was most frequently reported in the hamstrings. Neither soreness nor serum enzyme activity changed in the controls over the 4 day observation period. It appears that unaccustomed performance of prolonged intermittent shuttle running produces a significant increase in both soreness and markers of muscle damage.

  13. High-intensity lower limb endurance training in chronic respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takako; Arizono, Shinichi; Hanada, Masatoshi; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity endurance training is mainly undertaken during pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic respiratory disease. High-intensity endurance training is recommended in many clinical management guidelines. High-intensity endurance training involves training generally at an intensity of at 60-80% of the patient’s peak work capacity or higher. The effects of high-intensity lower limb endurance training have mostly been investigated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD...

  14. High intensity laser interactions with sub-micron droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    A high-density source of liquid ethanol droplets has been developed, characterised and used in laser interaction studies for the first time. Mie Scattering and attenuation measurements show that droplets with a radius of (0.5 ± 0.1) μm and atomic densities of 10 19 atoms/cm 3 can be produced, bridging the gap between clusters and macroscopic solids. Lower density (10 16 cm -3 ) sprays can also be produced and these are electrostatically split into smaller droplets with a radius of (0.3 ± 0.1) μm. This work has been accepted for publication in Review of Scientific Instruments. A range of high intensity interaction experiments have been carried out with this unique sub-micron source. The absolute yield of keV x-rays, generated using 527 nm, 2 ps pulses focused to ∼10 17 W/cm 2 , was measured for the first time. ∼7 μJ of x-rays with photon energies above 1 keV were produced, comparable to yields obtained from much higher Z Xenon clusters. At intensities ≤10 16 W/cm 2 the yield from droplets exceeds that from solid targets of similar Z. The droplet medium is debris free and self-renewing, providing a suitable x-ray source for lithographic techniques. Due to the spacing between the droplets, it was expected that the droplet plasma temperature would exceed that of a solid target plasma, which is typically limited by rapid heat conduction to <1 keV. Analysis of the x-ray data shows this to be true with a mean droplet plasma temperature of (2 ± 0.8) keV, and a number of measurements exceeding 5 keV (to appear in Applied Physics Letters). The absorption of high intensity laser pulses in the dense spray has been measured for the first time and this was found to be wavelength and polarisation independent and in excess of 60%. These first interaction measurements clearly indicate that there are significant differences between the laser heating of droplet, solid and cluster targets. (author)

  15. A new concept Tandem thermal dissociator/electron impact ion source for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1995-01-01

    An innovative thermal dissociation/electron impact ionization positive ion source is presently under design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for potential use for generating RIBs at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). Because of the low probability of simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources, the ion beams extracted from these sources often appear as a mixture of several molecular sideband beams. In this way, the intensity of the species of interest is diluted. We have conceived an Ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source. If the concept proves to be a viable option, the source will be used as a complement to the electron beam plasma ion sources already in use at the HRIBF. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article

  16. Perinatally lethal short rib-polydactyly syndromes. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillence, D.; Kozlowski, K.; Bar-ziv, J.; Fuhrmann-Rieger, A.; Fuhrmann, W.; Pascu, F.

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen newborns with lethal short rib-polydactyly (SRP) have been reviewed, 11 with SRP type 3 (Verma-Naumoff) and 2 with SRP tye 2 (Majewski). In the former group there were three sets of siblings. The excess of males with SRP type III (Verma-Naumoff) is confirmed in this present study. A high frequency of phenotypic females including sex-reversed constitutional males with SRP type 1 (Saldino-Noonan) is in marked contrast to these findings in SRP type 3. Possible hypotheses include variable expressivity in non-Majewski short rib-polydactyly syndromes with sex-reversed and constitutional female cases tending to show more severe phenotypic expression both in terms of major anomalies and skeletal dysplastic effects. (orig.)

  17. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  18. High intensity neutrino source superconducting solenoid cyrostat design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, T.M.; Nicol, T.H.; Feher, S.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is involved in the development of a 100 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. The solenoid cryostat will house the helium vessel, suspension system, thermal shield, multilayer insulation, power leads, instrumentation, a vacuum vessel and cryogenic distribution lines. This paper discusses the requirements and detailed design of these superconducting solenoid cryostats.

  19. An outline of research facilities of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  20. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  1. Simplified shielding calculation system for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masumura, Tomomi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A simplified shielding calculation system is developed for applying conceptual shielding design of facilities in the joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators. The system is composed of neutron transmission calculation part for bulk shielding using simplified formulas: Moyer model and Tesch's formula, and neutron skyshine calculation part using an empirical formula: Stapleton's formula. The system is made with the Microsoft Excel software for user's convenience. This report provides a manual for the system as well as calculation conditions used in the calculation such as Moyer model's parameters. In this report preliminary results based on data at December 8, 1999, are also shown as an example. (author)

  2. Calculated intensity of high-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Back, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    The flux, energy and angular distributions of high-energy neutrons produced by in-flight spallation and fission of a 400 MeV/A 238 U beam and by the break-up of a 400 MeV/A deuteron beam are calculated. In both cases very intense secondary neutron beams are produced, peaking at zero degrees, with a relatively narrow energy spread. Such secondary neutron beams can be produced with the primary beams from the proposed rare isotope accelerator driver linac. The break-up of a 400 kW deuteron beam on a liquid-lithium target can produce a neutron flux of >10 10 neutrons/cm 2 /s at a distance of 10 m from the target

  3. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables......, and endurance time at W90 with FCPR-25, FCPR, and FCPR+25. Power reserve was calculated as the difference between applied power output at a given pedalling rate and peak crank power at this same pedalling rate. W90 was 325 (47) W. FCPR at W90 was 78 (11) rpm, resulting in FCPR-25 being 59 (8) rpm and FCPR+25...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables...

  4. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Variale

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  5. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M.A.; Gary, C.K.; Harris, J.L.; Fuller, M.J.; Cremer, J.T.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Kwan, J.W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1E10 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  6. Rib fractures after reirradiation plus hyperthermia for recurrent breast cancer. Predictive factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenborg, Sabine; Valk, Christel; Os, Rob van; Voerde Sive Voerding, Paul zum; Crezee, Hans; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Rasch, Coen; Oei, Bing; Venselaar, Jack; Randen, Adrienne van

    2016-01-01

    Combining reirradiation (reRT) and hyperthermia (HT) has shown high therapeutic value for patients with locoregional recurrent breast cancer (LR). However, additional toxicity of reirradiation (e.g., rib fractures) may occur. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of potential risk factors on the occurrence of rib fractures. From 1982-2005, 234 patients were treated with adjuvant reRT + HT after surgery for LR. ReRT consisted typically of 8 fractions of 4 Gy twice a week, or 12 fractions of 3 Gy four times a week. A total of 118 patients were irradiated with abutted photon and electron fields. In all, 60 patients were irradiated using either one or alternating combinations of abutted AP electron fields. Hyperthermia was given once or twice a week. The 5-year infield local control (LC) rate was 70 %. Rib fractures were detected in 16 of 234 patients (actuarial risk: 7 % at 5 years). All rib fractures occurred in patients treated with a combination of photon and abutted electron fields (p = 0.000); in 15 of 16 patients fractures were located in the abutment regions. The other significant predictive factors for rib fractures were a higher fraction dose (p = 0.040), large RT fields, and treatment before the year 2000. ReRT + HT results in long-term LC. The majority of rib fractures were located in the photon/electron abutment area, emphasizing the disadvantage of field overlap. Large abutted photon/electron fields combined with 4 Gy fractions increase the number of rib fractures in this study group. However, as these factors were highly correlated no relative importance of the individual factors could be estimated. Increasing the number of HT sessions a week does not increase the risk of rib fractures. (orig.) [de

  7. What IAPT CBT High-Intensity Trainees Do After Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liness, Sheena; Lea, Susan; Nestler, Steffen; Parker, Hannah; Clark, David M

    2017-01-01

    The UK Department of Health Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative set out to train a large number of therapists in cognitive behaviour therapies (CBT) for depression and anxiety disorders. Little is currently known about the retention of IAPT CBT trainees, or the use of CBT skills acquired on the course in the workplace after training has finished. This study set out to conduct a follow-up survey of past CBT trainees on the IAPT High Intensity CBT Course at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London (KCL), one of the largest IAPT High Intensity courses in the UK. Past trainees (n = 212) across 6 cohorts (2008-2014 intakes) were contacted and invited to participate in a follow-up survey. A response rate of 92.5% (n = 196) was achieved. The vast majority of IAPT trainees continue to work in IAPT services posttraining (79%) and to practise CBT as their main therapy modality (94%); 61% have become CBT supervisors. A minority (23%) have progressed to other senior roles in the services. Shortcomings are reported in the use of out-of-office CBT interventions, the use of disorder-specific outcome measures and therapy recordings to inform therapy and supervision. Past trainees stay working in IAPT services and continue to use CBT methods taught on the course. Some NICE recommended treatment procedures that are likely to facilitate patients' recovery are not being routinely implemented across IAPT services. The results have implications for the continued roll out of the IAPT programme, and other future large scale training initiatives.

  8. Material studies for pulsed high-intensity proton beam targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; Thieberger, P.; Weng, W-T.; McDonald, K.; Yoshimura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intense beams for muon colliders and neutrino facilities require high-performance target stations of 1-4 MW proton beams. The physics requirements for such a system push the envelope of our current knowledge as to how materials behave under high-power beams for both short and long exposure. The success of an adopted scheme that generates, captures and guides secondary particles depends on the useful life expectancy of this critical system. This paper presents an overview of what has been achieved during the various phases of the experimental effort including a tentative plan to continue the effort by expanding the material matrix. The first phase of the project was to study the changes after irradiation in mechanical properties and specially in thermal expansion coefficient of various materials. During phase-I the study attention was primarily focused on Super-invar and in a lesser degree on Inconel-718. Invar is a metal alloy which predominantly consists of 62% Fe, 32% Ni and 5% Co. It is showed that this metal, whose non-irradiated properties held such promise, can only be considered a serious target candidate for an intense proton beam only if one can anneal the atomic displacements followed by the appropriate heat treatment to restore its favorable expansion coefficient. New materials that have been developed for various industrial needs by optimizing key properties, might be of value for the accelerator community. These materials like carbon-carbon composites, titanium alloys, the Toyota 'gum metal', the Vascomax material and the AlBeMet alloy will be explored and tested in the second phase of the project. (A.C.)

  9. Frequency conversion of high-intensity, femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, P S

    1997-06-01

    Almost since the invention of the laser, frequency conversion of optical pulses via non- linear processes has been an area of active interest. However, third harmonic generation using ~(~1 (THG) in solids is an area that has not received much attention because of ma- terial damage limits. Recently, the short, high-intensity pulses possible with chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems allow the use of intensities on the order of 1 TW/cm2 in thin solids without damage. As a light source to examine single-crystal THG in solids and other high field inter- actions, the design and construction of a Ti:sapphire-based CPA laser system capable of ultimately producing peak powers of 100 TW is presented. Of special interest is a novel, all-reflective pulse stretcher design which can stretch a pulse temporally by a factor of 20,000. The stretcher design can also compensate for the added material dispersion due to propagation through the amplifier chain and produce transform-limited 45 fs pulses upon compression. A series of laser-pumped amplifiers brings the peak power up to the terawatt level at 10 Hz, and the design calls for additional amplifiers to bring the power level to the 100 TW level for single shot operation. The theory for frequency conversion of these short pulses is presented, focusing on conversion to the third harmonic in single crystals of BBO, KD*P, and d-LAP (deuterated I-arginine phosphate). Conversion efficiencies of up to 6% are obtained with 500 fs pulses at 1053 nm in a 3 mm thick BBO crystal at 200 GW/cm 2. Contributions to this process by unphasematched, cascaded second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are shown to be very significant. The angular relationship between the two orders is used to measure the tensor elements of C = xt3)/4 with Crs = -1.8 x 1O-23 m2/V2 and .15Cri + .54Crs = 4.0 x 1O-23 m2/V2. Conversion efficiency in d-LAP is about 20% that in BBO and conversion efficiency in KD*P is 1% that of BBO. It is calculated

  10. Trial of Injected Liposomal Bupivacaine vs Bupivacaine Infusion After Surgical Stabilization of Rib Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-06

    Drug Effect; Rib Fractures; Rib Trauma; Surgical Procedure, Unspecified; Pain; Catheter (Other); Nerve Pain; Local Infiltration; Anesthesia, Local; Intercostal Rib; Opioid Dependence; Chest Injury Trauma; Pneumonia

  11. Clinical Utility of Chest Computed Tomography in Patients with Rib Fractures CT Chest and Rib Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Brandon C.; Overbey, Douglas M.; Tesfalidet, Feven; Schramm, Kristofer; Stovall, Robert T.; French, Andrew; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Burlew, Clay C.; Barnett, Carlton; Moore, Ernest E.; Pieracci, Fredric M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chest CT is more sensitive than a chest X-ray (CXR) in diagnosing rib fractures; however, the clinical significance of these fractures remains unclear. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the added diagnostic use of chest CT performed after CXR in patients with either known or suspected rib fractures secondary to blunt trauma. Methods Retrospective coho...

  12. Rib fixation for severe chest deformity due to multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igai, Hitoshi; Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Ohtaki, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    The operative indications for rib fracture repair have been a matter of debate. However, several reports have suggested that flail chest, pain on respiration, and chest deformity/defect are potential conditions for rib fracture repair. We describe our experience of rib fixation in a patient with severe chest deformity due to multiple rib fractures. A 70-year-old woman was admitted with right-sided multiple rib fractures (2nd to 7th) and marked chest wall deformity without flailing caused by an automobile accident. Collapse of the chest wall was observed along the middle anterior axillary line. At 11 days after the injury, surgery was performed to repair the chest deformity, as it was considered to pose a risk of restrictive impairment of pulmonary function or chronic intercostal pain in the future. Operative findings revealed marked displacement of the superior 4 ribs, from the 2nd to the 5th, and collapse of the osseous chest wall towards the thoracic cavity. After exposure of the fracture regions, ribs fixations were performed using rib staplers. The total operation time was 90 minutes, and the collapsed portion of the chest wall along the middle anterior axillary line was reconstructed successfully.

  13. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...... or a mixture of gases (500) flow in contact with said solid object (100) is thinned or destructed for at least a part of said surface (314). In this way, the plasma can more efficiently access and influence the surface of the solid object to be treated by the plasma, which speeds the process time up...

  14. High intensity proton linear accelerator for Neutron Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP) which will be composed of a high intensity proton accelerator and various research facilities. With an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW, the accelerator is required for basic research fields and nuclear waste transmutation studies. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the accelerator. In the low energy accelerator part, a beam test with an ion source and an RFQ has been performed with a current of 80 mA and a duty factor of 10% at an energy of 2 MeV. A 1 m long high power test model of DTL has been fabricated and tested with a duty factor of 20%. In the high energy accelerator part, a superconducting (SC) linac has been selected as a main option from 100 MeV to 1.5 GeV. A test stand for SC linac cavity with equipment of cryogenics, vacuum, RF source and cavity processing and cleaning system has been prepared to test the fabrication process and physics issues. The vertical tests of β = 0.5 (145 MeV) and β = 0.89 (1.1 GeV) single cell SC cavities have been made resulting in a maximum electric field strength of 44 MV/m and 47 MV/m at 2 K, respectively. (author)

  15. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He + and mixed p, H 2+ , H 3+ beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was designed to perform

  16. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  17. First rib fractures: not always a hallmark of severe trauma-a report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal Atin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】According to medical literature, fracture of the first rib is quite rare and the bilateral condition is especially rare. This type of fracture is usually associated with severe intrathoracic trauma and other bony or neurovascular injuries, thus can be considered as a harbinger of major trauma. However here we present three cases of low velocity first rib fractures without any major trauma or multisystem injuries. All the three patients were treated conservatively and did well on simple analgesics and rest and had no early or late complications. It can be seen that not all the first rib fractures are associated with major trauma or multisystem injuries. There is a variant of first rib fracture with low velocity injuries which is not associated with any major complications in contrast to majority of first rib fractures associated with high velocity injuries. Causative factor of such injuries may be violent muscular contraction of scalenus anterior or serratus anterior, but not direct trauma. Key words: Rib fractures; Wounds and injuries; Multiple trauma

  18. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1993-02-01

    The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program

  19. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  20. Pulmonary Vein Isolation by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Antz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI using radiofrequency current (RFC ablation is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. The shortcomings of the RFC technology (technically challenging, long procedure times, complications steadily kindle the interest in new energy sources and catheter designs. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU has the ability to precisely focus ultrasound waves in a defined area with a high energy density. HIFU balloon catheters (BC positioned at the PV ostia appear to be an ideal tool to transmit the ablation energy in a circumferential manner to the PV ostia and may therefore bear substantial advantage over conventional ablation catheters in PVI procedures. In clinical trials the HIFU BC has shown promising success rates similar to RFC catheter ablation for PVI in patients with AF. However, procedure times are still long and serious complications have been observed. Therefore, it may be a valuable alternative to the conventional techniques in selected patients but further clinical trials have to be initiated.

  1. Production and Studies of Photocathodes for High Intensity Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H

    2000-01-01

    For short, high-intensity electron bunches, alkali-tellurides have proved to be a reliable photo-cathode material. Measurements of lifetimes in an rf gun of the CLIC Test Facility II at field strengths greater than 100 MV/m are presented. Before and after using them in this gun, the spectral response of the CS-Te and Rb-Te cathodes were determined with the help of an optical parametric oscillator. The behaviour of both materials can be described by Spicer's 3-step model. Whereas during the use the threshold for photo-emission in Cs-Te was shifted to higher proton energies, that of Rb-Te did not change. Our latest investigations on the stoichiometric ratio of the components are shown. The preparation of the photo-cathodes was monitored with 320 nm wavelength light , with the aim of improving the measurement sensitivity. The latest results on the protection of Cs-Te cathode surfaces with CsBr against pollution are summarized. New investigations on high mean current production are presented.,

  2. Surgical plate fixation of multiple rib fractures: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Konstantin; Neziri, Dashurie; Stoicovski, Emil; Mitrev, Zan

    2018-05-29

    The healthcare system in developing countries is limited; particularly, medical specialties such as emergency and trauma medicine are underdeveloped. Consequently, trauma injuries sustained in traffic accidents result in chronic morbidity more often than similar cases in developed countries. Multiple rib fractures induce significant patient morbidity. Current international guidelines recommend a multidisciplinary, surgery-based treatment approach to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We admitted a 41-year-old Albanian man to our emergency department following a pedestrian-vehicle accident 5 days earlier. He presented with severe upper thoracic pain, chest deformity, dyspnea, tachycardia, subcutaneous emphysema, and hematoma. Chest radiography pointed to hypoventilated lung fields and a minor pleural effusion. Computed tomographic scans indicated displaced fractures of right lateral ribs 5 -11, hyperdensity regions from bone fragments, and pulmonary contusion. The treatment consisted of surgical fixation of ribs 7-10 using titanium reconstruction plates and cortical locking screws. The patient's clinical condition rapidly improved postoperatively. Follow-up at 6 weeks confirmed a full return to preoperative daily activities and a high quality of life. In this case report, we present a novel and promising development in the field of trauma medicine in the Republic of Macedonia. Trauma injuries can be treated via advanced multidisciplinary medical care according to international standards, allowing optimal health recovery.

  3. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation around the tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jun Yang; Liu, Chenhui; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been emerging as an effective and noninvasive modality in cancer treatment with very promising clinical results. However, a small vessel in the focal region could be ruptured, which is an important concern for the safety of HIFU ablation. In this study, lesion formation in the polyacrylamide gel phantom embedded with different tubing (inner diameters of 0.76 mm and 3 mm) at varied flow speeds (17-339 cm/s) by HIFU ablation was photographically recorded. Produced lesions have decreased length (~30%) but slightly increased width (~6%) in comparison to that without the embedded tubing. Meanwhile, bubble activities during the exposures were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) at the varied pulse repetition frequency (PRF, 10-30 Hz) and duty cycle (DC, 10%-20%) of the HIFU bursts. High DC and low flow speed were found to produce stronger bubble cavitation whereas no significant influence of the PRF. In addition, high-speed photography illustrated that the rupture of tubing was produced consistently after the first HIFU burst within 20 ms and then multiple bubbles would penetrate into the intraluminal space of tubing through the rupture site by the acoustic radiation force. Alignment of HIFU focus to the anterior surface, middle, and posterior surface of tubing led to different characteristics of vessel rupture and bubble introduction. In summary, HIFU-induced vessel rupture is possible as shown in this phantom study; produced lesion sizes and shapes are dependent on the focus alignment to the tubing, flow speed, and tubing properties; and bubble cavitation and the formation liquid jet may be one of the major mechanisms of tubing rupture as shown in the high-speed photography.

  4. Determinants of rib motion in flail chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, M; Legrand, A; De Troyer, A

    1999-03-01

    We have previously developed a canine model of isolated flail chest to assess the effects of this condition on the mechanics of breathing, and these studies have led to the conclusion that the respiratory displacement of the fractured ribs is primarily determined by the fall in pleural pressure (Delta Ppl) and the action of the parasternal intercostal muscles. The present studies were designed to test the validity of this conclusion. A flail was induced in six supine anesthetized animals by fracturing both dorsally and ventrally the second to fifth ribs on the right side of the chest, after which the phrenic nerve roots were bilaterally sectioned in the neck. Sectioning the phrenic nerves caused a 34% decrease in Delta Ppl, associated with a 39% increase in parasternal intercostal inspiratory EMG activity (p Delta Ppl during the subsequent inspiration, all animals again showed a clear-cut inward rib displacement. These observations therefore confirm that in dogs with flail chest, the inspiratory displacement of the fractured ribs is set by the balance between the force related to pleural pressure and that generated by the parasternal intercostals. These observations also point to the critical importance of the pattern of inspiratory muscle activation in determining the magnitude of rib cage paradox in such patients.

  5. Rainfall intensity characteristics at coastal and high altitude stations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a given amount of rain occurs is important because heavier rainfall leads to greater runoff, greater soil erosion and less infiltration into the water table. A knowledge of rainfall intensity therefore becomes. Keywords. Rainfall intensity; Kerala; cumulative distribution. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 116, No. 5, October 2007, pp. 451–463.

  6. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  7. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  8. Chondroblastoma of rib in situs inversus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwa R Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumour accounting for approximately 1% of all bone tumours. It commonly arises from epiphysis of a long bone, particularly the humerus, tibia and femur. Rib is an extremely rare site for this tumour with a few cases reported in the literature. It is commonly seen in children and adults between the ages of 10 - 20 years. Although roentgenographic findings are quite common characteristic of this tumour, it can sometimes be misdiagnosed as giant cell tumour, osteogenic sarcoma and myeloma on histopathology. We report a 26-year-old male patient with situs inversus and chondroblastoma of rib. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of chondroblastoma of the rib in a patient of situs inversus. Segmental resection is the treatment of choice. It usually behaves in a benign fashion, but few cases have shown local recurrences and distant metastasis; hence, follow-up of the patient is essential.

  9. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, David P.; Friedman, Alex; Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving

    2005-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand

  10. High-intensity interval training improves obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Nes, Bjarne Martens; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Engstrøm, Morten; Støylen, Asbjørn; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Three hours per week of vigorous physical activity is found to be associated with reduced odds of sleep-disordered breathing. To investigate whether 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) reduced the apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) in obese subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea. In a prospective randomised controlled exercise study, 30 (body mass index 37±6 kg/m 2 , age 51±9 years) patients with sleep apnoea (AHI 41.5±25.3 events/hour) were randomised 1:1 to control or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (4×4 min of treadmill running or walking at 90%-95% of maximal heart rate two times per week). In the HIIT group, the AHI was reduced by 7.5±11.6 events/hour (within-group pHIIT improved the AHI and self-reported daytime sleepiness in subjects with obese sleep apnoea without any change in the desaturation index and body weight.

  11. The WARP Code: Modeling High Intensity Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D P; Friedman, A; Vay, J L; Haber, I

    2004-01-01

    The Warp code, developed for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy studies, is used to model high intensity ion (and electron) beams. Significant capability has been incorporated in Warp, allowing nearly all sections of an accelerator to be modeled, beginning with the source. Warp has as its core an explicit, three-dimensional, particle-in-cell model. Alongside this is a rich set of tools for describing the applied fields of the accelerator lattice, and embedded conducting surfaces (which are captured at sub-grid resolution). Also incorporated are models with reduced dimensionality: an axisymmetric model and a transverse ''slice'' model. The code takes advantage of modern programming techniques, including object orientation, parallelism, and scripting (via Python). It is at the forefront in the use of the computational technique of adaptive mesh refinement, which has been particularly successful in the area of diode and injector modeling, both steady-state and time-dependent. In the presentation, some of the major aspects of Warp will be overviewed, especially those that could be useful in modeling ECR sources. Warp has been benchmarked against both theory and experiment. Recent results will be presented showing good agreement of Warp with experimental results from the STS500 injector test stand. Additional information can be found on the web page http://hif.lbl.gov/theory/WARP( ) summary.html

  12. A modified space charge routine for high intensity bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapostolle, P.; Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991 a space charge calculation for bunched beam with a three-dimensional ellipsoid was proposed, replacing the usual SCHEFF routines. It removes the cylindrical symmetry required in SCHEFF and avoids the point to point interaction computation, whose number of simulation points is limited. This routine has now been improved with the introduction of two or three ellipsoids giving a good representation of the complex non-symmetrical form of the bunch (unlike the 3-d ellipsoidal assumption). The ellipsoidal density distributions are computed with a new method, avoiding the difficulty encountered near the centre (the axis in 2-d problems) by the previous method. It also provides a check of the ellipsoidal symmetry for each part of the distribution. Finally, the Fourier analysis reported in 1991 has been replaced by a very convenient Hermite expansion, which gives a simple but accurate representation of practical distributions. Comparisons with other space charge routines have been made, particularly with the ones applying other techniques such as SCHEFF. Introduced in the versatile beam dynamics code DYNAC, it should provide a good tool for the study of the various parameters responsible for the halo formation in high intensity linacs. (orig.)

  13. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  14. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Telis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months’ follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon.

  15. Rib fracture after stereotactic radiotherapy for primary lung cancer: prevalence, degree of clinical symptoms, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Atsushi; Onishi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shinichi; Tominaga, Licht; Kuriyama, Kengo; Araya, Masayuki; Saito, Ryoh; Maehata, Yoshiyasu; Komiyama, Takafumi; Marino, Kan; Koshiishi, Tsuyota; Sawada, Eiichi; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-02-07

    As stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a highly dose-dense radiotherapy, adverse events of neighboring normal tissues are a major concern. This study thus aimed to clarify the frequency and degree of clinical symptoms in patients with rib fractures after SBRT for primary lung cancer and to reveal risk factors for rib fracture. Appropriate α/β ratios for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture groups were also investigated. Between November 2001 and April 2009, 177 patients who had undergone SBRT were evaluated for clinical symptoms and underwent follow-up thin-section computed tomography (CT). The time of rib fracture appearance was also assessed. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to identify risk factors for rib fracture, using independent variables of age, sex, maximum tumor diameter, radiotherapeutic method and tumor-chest wall distance. Dosimetric details were analyzed for 26 patients with and 22 randomly-sampled patients without rib fracture. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated with a range of α/β ratios (1-10 Gy). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to define the most appropriate α/β ratio. Rib fracture was found on follow-up thin-section CT in 41 patients. The frequency of chest wall pain in patients with rib fracture was 34.1% (14/41), and was classified as Grade 1 or 2. Significant risk factors for rib fracture were smaller tumor-chest wall distance and female sex. Area under the curve was maximal for BED at an α/β ratio of 8 Gy. Rib fracture is frequently seen on CT after SBRT for lung cancer. Small tumor-chest wall distance and female sex are risk factors for rib fracture. However, clinical symptoms are infrequent and generally mild. When using BED analysis, an α/β ratio of 8 Gy appears most effective for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture patients.

  16. Rib fracture after stereotactic radiotherapy for primary lung cancer: prevalence, degree of clinical symptoms, and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Atsushi; Marino, Kan; Koshiishi, Tsuyota; Sawada, Eiichi; Araki, Tsutomu; Onishi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shinichi; Tominaga, Licht; Kuriyama, Kengo; Araya, Masayuki; Saito, Ryoh; Maehata, Yoshiyasu; Komiyama, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    As stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a highly dose-dense radiotherapy, adverse events of neighboring normal tissues are a major concern. This study thus aimed to clarify the frequency and degree of clinical symptoms in patients with rib fractures after SBRT for primary lung cancer and to reveal risk factors for rib fracture. Appropriate α/β ratios for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture groups were also investigated. Between November 2001 and April 2009, 177 patients who had undergone SBRT were evaluated for clinical symptoms and underwent follow-up thin-section computed tomography (CT). The time of rib fracture appearance was also assessed. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to identify risk factors for rib fracture, using independent variables of age, sex, maximum tumor diameter, radiotherapeutic method and tumor-chest wall distance. Dosimetric details were analyzed for 26 patients with and 22 randomly-sampled patients without rib fracture. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated with a range of α/β ratios (1–10 Gy). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to define the most appropriate α/β ratio. Rib fracture was found on follow-up thin-section CT in 41 patients. The frequency of chest wall pain in patients with rib fracture was 34.1% (14/41), and was classified as Grade 1 or 2. Significant risk factors for rib fracture were smaller tumor-chest wall distance and female sex. Area under the curve was maximal for BED at an α/β ratio of 8 Gy. Rib fracture is frequently seen on CT after SBRT for lung cancer. Small tumor-chest wall distance and female sex are risk factors for rib fracture. However, clinical symptoms are infrequent and generally mild. When using BED analysis, an α/β ratio of 8 Gy appears most effective for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture patients

  17. Rib fracture after stereotactic radiotherapy for primary lung cancer: prevalence, degree of clinical symptoms, and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambu Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT is a highly dose-dense radiotherapy, adverse events of neighboring normal tissues are a major concern. This study thus aimed to clarify the frequency and degree of clinical symptoms in patients with rib fractures after SBRT for primary lung cancer and to reveal risk factors for rib fracture. Appropriate α/β ratios for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture groups were also investigated. Methods Between November 2001 and April 2009, 177 patients who had undergone SBRT were evaluated for clinical symptoms and underwent follow-up thin-section computed tomography (CT. The time of rib fracture appearance was also assessed. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to identify risk factors for rib fracture, using independent variables of age, sex, maximum tumor diameter, radiotherapeutic method and tumor-chest wall distance. Dosimetric details were analyzed for 26 patients with and 22 randomly-sampled patients without rib fracture. Biologically effective dose (BED was calculated with a range of α/β ratios (1–10 Gy. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to define the most appropriate α/β ratio. Results Rib fracture was found on follow-up thin-section CT in 41 patients. The frequency of chest wall pain in patients with rib fracture was 34.1% (14/41, and was classified as Grade 1 or 2. Significant risk factors for rib fracture were smaller tumor-chest wall distance and female sex. Area under the curve was maximal for BED at an α/β ratio of 8 Gy. Conclusions Rib fracture is frequently seen on CT after SBRT for lung cancer. Small tumor-chest wall distance and female sex are risk factors for rib fracture. However, clinical symptoms are infrequent and generally mild. When using BED analysis, an α/β ratio of 8 Gy appears most effective for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture patients.

  18. Rib fracture after stereotactic radiotherapy for primary lung cancer: prevalence, degree of clinical symptoms, and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a highly dose-dense radiotherapy, adverse events of neighboring normal tissues are a major concern. This study thus aimed to clarify the frequency and degree of clinical symptoms in patients with rib fractures after SBRT for primary lung cancer and to reveal risk factors for rib fracture. Appropriate α/β ratios for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture groups were also investigated. Methods Between November 2001 and April 2009, 177 patients who had undergone SBRT were evaluated for clinical symptoms and underwent follow-up thin-section computed tomography (CT). The time of rib fracture appearance was also assessed. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to identify risk factors for rib fracture, using independent variables of age, sex, maximum tumor diameter, radiotherapeutic method and tumor-chest wall distance. Dosimetric details were analyzed for 26 patients with and 22 randomly-sampled patients without rib fracture. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated with a range of α/β ratios (1–10 Gy). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to define the most appropriate α/β ratio. Results Rib fracture was found on follow-up thin-section CT in 41 patients. The frequency of chest wall pain in patients with rib fracture was 34.1% (14/41), and was classified as Grade 1 or 2. Significant risk factors for rib fracture were smaller tumor-chest wall distance and female sex. Area under the curve was maximal for BED at an α/β ratio of 8 Gy. Conclusions Rib fracture is frequently seen on CT after SBRT for lung cancer. Small tumor-chest wall distance and female sex are risk factors for rib fracture. However, clinical symptoms are infrequent and generally mild. When using BED analysis, an α/β ratio of 8 Gy appears most effective for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture patients. PMID:23391264

  19. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, S; Macaluso, A; Pearson, S

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged into the clinical environment has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superi...

  20. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state

  1. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  2. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  3. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1991-05-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is not fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using Bragg scattering filters to suppress unwanted radiation. These have led to a Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to make a novel independent determination of interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na metal and the charge density wave satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. Using a specially constructed sample cell which enables us to vary temperatures from -10 C to 110 C, we have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. Included are the temperature and Q dependence of the scattering in pentadecane and diffusion in glycerol

  4. Morbidity, mortality, associated injuries, and management of traumatic rib fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Cheau-Feng Lin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The severity of traumatic rib fractures was identified in this study. Therefore, a trauma team needs better preparation to provide effective treatment strategies when encountering thoracic trauma patients, especially patients who are older and have rib fractures.

  5. Post-accelerator LINAC design for the VECC RIB project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acclerator type of RIB facility. The scheme utilises the existing = 130 room temperature variable energy cyclotron machine as the primary accelerator for the production of RIBs and radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and LINAC modules for ...

  6. Rib fractures and their association With solid organ injury: higher rib fractures have greater significance for solid organ injury screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostas, Jack W; Lively, Timothy B; Brevard, Sidney B; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammad A; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patients with rib injuries who were at risk for solid organ injury. A retrospective chart review was performed of all blunt trauma patients with rib fractures during the period from July 2007 to July 2012. Data were analyzed for association of rib fractures and solid organ injury. In all, 1,103 rib fracture patients were identified; 142 patients had liver injuries with 109 (77%) associated right rib fractures. Right-sided rib fractures with highest sensitivity for liver injury were middle rib segment (5 to 8) and lower segment (9 to 12) with liver injury sensitivities of 68% and 43%, respectively (P rib fractures. Left middle segment rib fractures and lower segment rib fractures had sensitivities of 80% and 63% for splenic injury, respectively (P Rib fractures higher in the thoracic cage have significant association with solid organ injury. Using rib fractures from middle plus lower segments as indication for abdominal screening will significantly improve rib fracture sensitivity for identification of solid organ injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comprehensive approach to the management of the patient with multiple rib fractures: a review and introduction of a bundled rib fracture management protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Cordelie E; Bulger, Eileen M

    2017-01-01

    Rib fractures are common among patients sustaining blunt trauma, and are markers of severe bodily and solid organ injury. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality, including multiple pulmonary complications, and can lead to chronic pain and disability. Clinical and radiographic scoring systems have been developed at several institutions to predict risk of complications. Clinical strategies to reduce morbidity have been studied, including multimodal pain management, catheter-based analgesia, pulmonary hygiene, and operative stabilization. In this article, we review risk factors for morbidity and complications, intervention strategies, and discuss experience with bundled clinical pathways for rib fractures. In addition, we introduce the multidisciplinary rib fracture management protocol used at our level I trauma center.

  8. Replacing conventional or brown-mid rib corn silage with brown-mid rib sudangrass silage in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forages that use less water, but are high in digestibility, are sought as alternatives to traditional forages such as corn silage. Brown mid-rib (BMR) sudangrass is a possible alternative that can provide high-quality forage as a replacement for corn silage. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  9. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  10. Comparison of ultrasonography and radiography in diagnosis of rib fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Foogardi, Molood; Salehi, Maryam; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Rib fractures are the most common skeletal thoracic injuries resulting from blunt chest trauma. Half of the rib fractures are not detected upon a precise physical evaluation and radiographs. Recently ultrasonography (USG) has been investigated to detect rib fractures. But based on literature the usefulness of USG varies widely. This study was conducted to investigate the role of USG in the detection of possible rib fractures in comparison with radiography. Methods: In this cross-s...

  11. Anatomically contoured plates for fixation of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlang, Michael; Helzel, Inga; Long, William B; Madey, Steven

    2010-03-01

    : Intraoperative contouring of long bridging plates for stabilization of flail chest injuries is difficult and time consuming. This study implemented for the first time biometric parameters to derive anatomically contoured rib plates. These plates were tested on a range of cadaveric ribs to quantify plate fit and to extract a best-fit plating configuration. : Three left and three right rib plates were designed, which accounted for anatomic parameters required when conforming a plate to the rib surface. The length lP over which each plate could trace the rib surface was evaluated on 109 cadaveric ribs. For each rib level 3-9, the plate design with the highest lP value was extracted to determine a best-fit plating configuration. Furthermore, the characteristic twist of rib surfaces was measured on 49 ribs to determine the surface congruency of anatomic plates with a constant twist. : The tracing length lP of the best-fit plating configuration ranged from 12.5 cm to 14.7 cm for ribs 3-9. The corresponding range for standard plates was 7.1-13.7 cm. The average twist of ribs over 8-cm, 12-cm, and 16-cm segments was 8.3 degrees, 20.6 degrees, and 32.7 degrees, respectively. The constant twist of anatomic rib plates was not significantly different from the average rib twist. : A small set of anatomic rib plates can minimize the need for intraoperative plate contouring for fixation of ribs 3-9. Anatomic rib plates can therefore reduce the time and complexity of flail chest stabilization and facilitate spanning of flail segments with long plates.

  12. Development of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hydrophone System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, Mark E.; Gessert, James

    2009-01-01

    The growing clinical use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has driven a need for reliable, reproducible measurements of HIFU acoustic fields. We have previously presented data on a reflective scatterer approach, incorporating several novel features for improved bandwidth, reliability, and reproducibility [Proc. 2005 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1739-1742]. We now report on several design improvements which have increase the signal to noise ratio of the system, and potentially reduced the cost of implementation. For the scattering element, we now use an artificial sapphire material to provide a more uniform radiating surface. The receiver is a segmented, truncated spherical structure with a 10 cm radius; the scattering element is positioned at the center of the sphere. The receiver is made from 25 micron thick, biaxially stretched PVDF, with a Pt-Au electrode on the front surface. In the new design, a specialized backing material provides the stiffness required to maintain structural stability, while at the same time providing both electrical shielding and ultrasonic absorption. Compared with the previous version, the new receiver design has improved the noise performance by 8-12 dB; the new scattering sphere has reduced the scattering loss by another 14 dB, producing an effective sensitivity of -298 dB re 1 microVolt/Pa. The design trade-off still involves receiver sensitivity with effective spot size, and signal distortion from the scatter structure. However, the reduced cost and improved repeatability of the new scatter approach makes the overall design more robust for routine waveform measurements of HIFU systems.

  13. Topics in high-intensity laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with pre-formed and laser-produced plasmas is studied. Through experiments and simulations we have investigated stimulated Compton scattering in preformed plasmas and the plasma physics aspects of tunnel-ionized gases. A theoretical study is presented on the nonlinear dynamics of relativistic plasma waves driven by colinear optical mixing. The electron density-fluctuation spectra induced by stimulated Compton scattering have been directly observed for the first time. A CO2 laser was focused into pre-formed plasmas with densities n(e) varied from 0.4-6 x 10(exp 16) cu cm. The fluctuations corresponding to backscatter were probed using Thomson scattering. At low n(e), the scattered spectra peak at a frequency shift Delta omega is approximately kv e and appears to be in a linear regime. At the highest n(e), a nonlinear saturation of the SCS instability is observed due to a self-induced perturbation of the electron distribution function. Tunnel-ionized plasmas have been studied through experiments and particle simulations. Experimentally, qualitative evidence for plasma temperature control by varying the laser polarization was obtained by the measurement of stimulated Compton scattering fluctuation spectra and x-ray emission from such plasmas. A higher parallel temperature than expected from the single-particle tunneling model was observed. Simulations indicate that stochastic heating and the Weibel instability play an important role in plasma heating in all directions and isotropization. The non-linear dynamics associated with beatwave (Delta omega, Delta k) excited long wavelength plasma waves in the presence of strong, short wavelength density ripple have been examined, using the relativistic Lagrangian oscillator model. This model shows period doubling that roughly follows Feigenbaum scaling, and a transition to chaos

  14. Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, H.-P.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, C.; Cascade, Philip N.; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Wei, J.

    2007-01-01

    An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the

  15. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C 6+ and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C 6+ spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times increase in

  16. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  17. Biosorbable poly-L-lactide rib-connecting pins may reduce acute pain after thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A; Hamatake, D; Shirakusa, T

    2004-02-01

    Conventional thoracotomy is currently used as a standard procedure, and is often required to treat numerous diseases. Additionally, rib resections are occasionally required to maintain an adequate field of view for surgery. The benefits of using rib pins for chest closure following such procedures have not yet been established. This study sought to evaluate the usefulness of rib pins in reducing acute postoperative pain. Thirty-three consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent lobectomies using the posterolateral approach. The patients were rib-resected and reconstructed with two techniques: 21 patients with absorbable rib pins (ARP group) and 12 patients by ligation with absorbable sutures (LAS group). Intensity of pain was assessed during the 3 days immediately following surgery. The two groups were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) as a pain scale, amounts consumed of patient-controlled analgesics (PCA), and additional chest x-rays. On the first day following surgery, the mean VAS intensity of the ARP group for patient motion was 2.71 +/- 2.14, compared to 5.33 +/- 2.99 in the LAS group. After three days, the mean score for the ARP group was 1.98 +/- 1.89, compared to 4.60 +/- 1.97 in the LAS group. Scores in the ARP group were significantly lower than in the LAS group one day and three days following thoracotomy. The LAS group (55.0 +/- 15.9 times) made more frequent requests than the ARP group (16.1 +/- 10.3 times). The PCA requirement was also significantly lower in the ARP group. Excessive derangement of the rib (grade 2) was found in one case (4.7 %) in the ARP group compared to five cases (41.6 %) in the LAS group. Rib shifts were seen in numerous cases in the LAS group compared to the ARP group as measured by chest x-rays. Use of absorbable rib pins reduced postoperative pain and may improve long-term prospects for the post-thoracotomy course.

  18. The High Luminosity Challenge: potential and limitations of High Intensity High Brightness in the LHC and its injectors

    CERN Document Server

    De Maria, R; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Bartosik, H; Benedetto, E; Bruce, R; Brüning, O; Calaga, R; Cerutti, F; Damerau, H; Esposito, L; Fartoukh, S; Fitterer, M; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gorini, B; Hanke, K; Iadarola, G; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Métral, E; Mikulec, B; Mounet, N; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Redaelli, S; Rossi, L; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Sterbini, G; Todesco, E; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F; Valishev, A

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity and high-brightness beams are key ingredients to maximize the LHC integrated luminosity and to exploit its full potential. This contribution describes the optimization of beam and machine parameters to maximize the integrated luminosity as seen by the LHC experiments, by taking into account the expected intensity and brightness reach of LHC itself and its injector chain as well as the capabilities of the detectors for next run and foreseen upgrade scenarios.

  19. High-Intensity Femtosecond Laser Interaction with Rare Gas Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林亚风; 钟钦; 曾淳; 陈哲

    2001-01-01

    With a 45 fs multiterawatt 790 nm laser system and jets of argon and krypton atomic clusters, a study of the interaction of fs intense laser pulses with large size rare gas dusters was conducted. The maximum laser intensity of about 7 × 1016 W/cm2 and dusters composed of thousands of atoms which were determined through Rayleigh scattering measurements were involved inthe experiments. On the one hand, the results indicate that the interaction is strongly cluster size dependent. The stronger the interaction, the larger the clusters are. On the other hand, a saturation followed by a drop of the energy of ions ejected from the interaction will occur when the laser intensity exceeds a definite value for clusters of a certain size.

  20. First Rib Fracture Resulting in Horner's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, You-Cheng; Chuang, Ming-Tsung; Hsu, Chin-Hao; Tailor, Al-Rahim Abbasali; Lee, Jung-Shun

    2015-12-01

    First rib fractures and traumatic Horner's syndrome are both quite rare, which can make it difficult to properly diagnose the combination of these 2 conditions in the emergency department. These conditions may be associated with severe medical emergencies, such as ongoing carotid dissection. We present the case of a 33-year-old man who sustained fractures to his right second, third, and fourth ribs and a delay in the diagnosis of left Horner's syndrome after he was involved in a traffic accident. Left Horner's syndrome was caused by a left transverse fracture of the first rib. This fracture was not detected on chest radiographs and required a 3-dimensional reconstructed neck computed tomography scan for detection. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: In the diagnosis of carotid artery dissection, conventional angiography is the criterion standard but is considered invasive. CTA is less invasive, time-saving, and can show more anatomic structures in the neck in addition to the carotid arteries. It is a good screening diagnostic modality in the traumatology department. Although the treatments for Horner's syndrome and first rib fracture are conservative, the early diagnosis of both conditions can resolve the anxiety and uncertainty experienced by both doctors and patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT perfor...

  2. [Internal fixation treatment of multiple rib fractures with absorbable rib-connecting-pins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinliang; Li, Keyao; He, Jianning

    2011-01-01

    To study the indications, methods, and therapeutic effect of absorbable rib-connecting-pins fixation in the treatment of multiple rib fractures. Between March 2007 and September 2009, 40 patients with multiple rib fractures received internal fixation with absorbable rib-connecting-pins, including 8 one-side flail chest and 1 two-side flail chest. There were 32 males and 8 females with an average age of 39.8 years (range, 25-72 years). The injury was caused by traffic accident in 32 cases, falling from height in 6 cases, and blunt hitting in 2 cases. Preoperatively, imaging data of the chest X-ray or spiral CT three-dimensional (3D) examination showed that all patients had multiple ribs fractures and displacement. The number of fractured ribs was 4-10 (median, 6), and the fracture location ranged from the 2nd to the 10th ribs. Of them, 28 cases were accompanied by hemathorax, pneumothorax or hemopneumothorax; 5 cases by thoracic organ injury; and 10 cases by other part trauma. The time from injury to hospitalization was less than 1 day in 26 cases, 1-3 days in 12 cases, and 3-6 days in 2 cases, and the time from hospitalization to operation was 3 hours to 3 days (mean, 1.2 days). The median fixation rib number was 5 (range, 3-8). The mean operative time, the time in bed, and hospitalization days were 32 minutes (range, 15-50 minutes), 4.5 days (range, 2-7 days), and 11.2 days (range, 5-18 days), respectively. All incisions healed by first intention. No pulmonary infection, pulmonary atelectasis, intrathoracic infection or other complications occurred. All cases were followed up 6-12 months (mean, 8 months). PaO2 [(86.6 +/- 2.2) mmHg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa)] and SpO2 (97.2% +/- 0.6%) at 2 hours after operation were obviously improved when compared with preoperative ones (PaO2 (53.6 + 4.7) mm Hg and SpO2 (86.2% + 1.8%)], showing significant differences (t = 2.971, P = 0.005; t = 2.426, P = 0.020). The chest X-ray films or spiral CT 3D indicated that fracture of rib

  3. Ribbing disease: Uncommon cause of a common symptom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Patnecha, Manish; Kumar, Praveen; Gadodia, Ankur; Subbarao, Kiran; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare form of sclerosing dysplasia characterized by benign endosteal and periosteal bone growth confined to the diaphyses of the long bones, usually the tibiae and femora. It occurs after puberty and is more commonly seen in women. The most common presenting symptom is pain that is usually self-limited; however, progression is known. The etiology and optimal treatment for the disease are as yet undefined. We present here the case of a 31-year-old woman with clinical, radiological and bone scan manifestations of Ribbing disease corroborated by bone biopsy. Radiographs demonstrated cortical thickening of the diaphyses of both tibiae. 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan revealed intense irregular uptake in diaphyseal region of both tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical thickening with bone marrow edema in bilateral tibial diaphysis with minimal adjacent soft tissue edema. Bone biopsy revealed predominantly dense lamellar bone with irregular sized and spaced haversian systems. Serum and urine markers of bone metabolism were within normal limits. The patient was treated with analgesics, and had partial relief from pain. Medullary rimming is the next treatment option in case pain progresses. This report emphasizes the role of bone scan in the diagnosis of this rare condition

  4. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  5. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  6. High energy bremsstrahlung in an intense laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlessinger, L.; Wright, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    The cross section for bremsstrahlung emission and absorption by electrons in an intense laser field has been calculated in the Born approximation for the electron-ion potential. Typical numerical results are presented as a function of the ratio of the electron guiver energy to its energy and the ratio of the bremsstrahlung energy to the electron energy. The intense field correction factor for the rate of bremsstrahlung emission and absorption for electrons with a Boltzmann distribution of energies has been calculated. Numerical results for the correction factor are presented for the Boltzmann case as a function of the ratio of the electron quiver energy to its thermal energy and the ratio of the bremsstrahlung energy to the thermal energy. For typical laser fusion parameters, this correction factor which is the ratio of the thermal bremsstrahlung emission rate in the intense laser field to the rate at zero field can be quite significant. For a laser of wavelength 1.06 μm at an intensity of 3 x 10 15 w/cm 2 and an electron temperature of 1 keV, the correction factor varies from 0.98 at a bremsstrahlung energy of 100 V to greater than 5 at a bremsstrahlung energy of 10 keV

  7. Pain as an indication for rib fixation: a bi-institutional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moya, Marc; Bramos, Thanos; Agarwal, Suresh; Fikry, Karim; Janjua, Sumbal; King, David R; Alam, Hasan B; Velmahos, George C; Burke, Peter; Tobler, William

    2011-12-01

    In trauma patients, open reduction and internal fixation of rib fractures remain controversial. We hypothesized that patients who have open reduction and internal fixation of rib fractures would experience less pain compared with controls and thus require fewer opiates. Further, we hypothesized that improved pain control would result in fewer pulmonary complications and decreased length of stay. This is a retrospective bi-institutional matched case-control study. Cases were matched 1:2 by age, injury severity Score, chest abbreviated injury severity score, head abbreviated injury severity score, pulmonary contusion score, and number of fractured ribs. The daily total doses of analgesic drugs were converted to equianalgesic intravenous morphine doses, and the primary outcome was inpatient narcotic administration. Sixteen patients between July 2005 and June 2009 underwent rib fixation in 5 ± 3 days after injury using an average of 3 (1-5) metallic plates. Morphine requirements decreased from 110 mg ± 98 mg preoperatively to 63 ± 57 mg postoperatively (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the mean morphine dose (79 ± 63 vs. 76 ± 55 mg, p = 0.65), hospital stay (18 ± 12 vs. 16 ± 11 days, p = 0.67), intensive care unit stay (9 ± 8 vs. 7 ± 10 days, p = 0.75), ventilation days (7 ± 8 vs. 6 ± 10, p = 0.44), and pneumonia rates (31% vs. 38%, p = 0.76). The need for analgesia was significantly reduced after rib fixation in patients with multiple rib fractures. However, no difference in outcomes was observed when these patients were compared with matched controls in this pilot study. Further study is required to investigate these preliminary findings.

  8. Underutilization of high-intensity statin therapy after hospitalization for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Kent, Shia T; Brown, Todd M; Farkouh, Michael E; Levitan, Emily B; Yun, Huifeng; Sharma, Pradeep; Safford, Monika M; Kilgore, Meredith; Muntner, Paul; Bittner, Vera

    2015-01-27

    National guidelines recommend use of high-intensity statins after hospitalization for coronary heart disease (CHD) events. This study sought to estimate the proportion of Medicare beneficiaries filling prescriptions for high-intensity statins after hospital discharge for a CHD event and to analyze whether statin intensity before hospitalization is associated with statin intensity after discharge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries between 65 and 74 years old. Beneficiaries were included in the analysis if they filled a statin prescription after a CHD event (myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization) in 2007, 2008, or 2009. High-intensity statins included atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, and simvastatin 80 mg. Among 8,762 Medicare beneficiaries filling a statin prescription after a CHD event, 27% of first post-discharge fills were for a high-intensity statin. The percent filling a high-intensity statin post-discharge was 23.1%, 9.4%, and 80.7%, for beneficiaries not taking statins pre-hospitalization, taking low/moderate-intensity statins, and taking high-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Compared with beneficiaries not on statin therapy pre-hospitalization, multivariable adjusted risk ratios for filling a high-intensity statin were 4.01 (3.58-4.49) and 0.45 (0.40-0.52) for participants taking high-intensity and low/moderate-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Only 11.5% of beneficiaries whose first post-discharge statin fill was for a low/moderate-intensity statin filled a high-intensity statin within 365 days of discharge. The majority of Medicare beneficiaries do not fill high-intensity statins after hospitalization for CHD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High power phased array prototype for clinical high intensity focused ultrasound : applications to transcostal and transcranial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, M; Aubry, J -F; Tanter, M; Marquet, F; Montaldo, G; Boch, A -L; Kujas, M; Seilhean, D; Fink, M

    2007-01-01

    Bursts of focused ultrasound energy three orders of magnitude more intense than diagnostic ultrasound became during the last decade a noninvasive option for treating cancer from breast to prostate or uterine fibroid. However, many challenges remain to be addressed. First, the corrections of distortions induced on the ultrasonic therapy beam during its propagation through defocusing obstacles like skull bone or ribs remain today a technological performance that still need to be validated clinically. Secondly, the problem of motion artifacts particularly important for the treatment of abdominal parts becomes today an important research topic. Finally, the problem of the treatment monitoring is a wide subject of interest in the growing HIFU community. For all these issues, the potential of new ultrasonic therapy devices able to work both in Transmit and Receive modes will be emphasized. A review of the work under achievement at L.O.A. using this new generation of HIFU prototypes on the monitoring, motion correction and aberrations corrections will be presented.

  10. Traumatic Rib Injury: Patterns, Imaging Pitfalls, Complications, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Brett S; Gange, Christopher P; Chaturvedi, Apeksha; Klionsky, Nina; Hobbs, Susan K; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    The ribs are frequently affected by blunt or penetrating injury to the thorax. In the emergency department setting, it is vital for the interpreting radiologist to not only identify the presence of rib injuries but also alert the clinician about organ-specific injury, specific traumatic patterns, and acute rib trauma complications that require emergent attention. Rib injuries can be separated into specific morphologic fracture patterns that include stress, buckle, nondisplaced, displaced, segmental, and pathologic fractures. Specific attention is also required for flail chest and for fractures due to pediatric nonaccidental trauma. Rib fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, both of which increase as the number of fractured ribs increases. Key complications associated with rib fracture include pain, hemothorax, pneumothorax, extrapleural hematoma, pulmonary contusion, pulmonary laceration, acute vascular injury, and abdominal solid-organ injury. Congenital anomalies, including supernumerary or accessory ribs, vestigial anterior ribs, bifid ribs, and synostoses, are common and should not be confused with traumatic pathologic conditions. Nontraumatic mimics of traumatic rib injury, with or without fracture, include metastatic disease, primary osseous neoplasms (osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and osteochondroma), fibrous dysplasia, and Paget disease. Principles of management include supportive and procedural methods of alleviating pain, treating complications, and stabilizing posttraumatic deformity. By recognizing and accurately reporting the imaging findings, the radiologist will add value to the care of patients with thoracic trauma. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2017.

  11. Nd:Ta2O5 rib waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Bayram; Tai, C.-Y.; Shepherd, David P.; Wilkinson, James S.; Perney, Nicolas M.B.; Netti, M. Caterina; Parker, Gregory J.

    2005-01-01

    Ta 2 O 5 waveguides offer great potential for high-density active photonic crystal circuits and their combination with rare-earth dopants for active devices is of interest for increasing their potential functionality. To this end, neodymium-doped Ta 2 O 5 rib waveguide lasers have been fabricated on an oxidized silicon wafer by rf sputtering and argon ion-beam milling and laser action in this material has been demonstrated. Lasing was observed at wavelenghts between 1060 and 1080 nm and an absorbed pump power threshold of 87 mW was obtained

  12. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.; Adams, V.I.; Blackbourne, B.D.; Marks, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  13. Status of the new high intensity H- injector at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; York, R.L.; McConnell, J.R.; Kandarian, R.

    1984-04-01

    The requirement for higher intensity H - ion beams for the proton storage ring now being constructed at LAMPF necessitated the development of a new H - ion source and the rebuilding of the original H - injector and its associated beam transport lines. The goal of the ion source development program was to produce an H - beam with a peak intensity of 20 mA at 10% duty factor and with a beam emittance of less than 0.08 cm-mrad normalized at 95% beam fraction. The ion source concept which was best suited to our requirements was the multicusp, surface-production source developed for neutral beam injectors at Berkeley by Ehlers and Leung. An accelerator version of this source has been subsequently developed at Los Alamos to meet these storage ring requirements. The use of these higher intensity H - beams, together with the more stringent chopping and bunching requirements entailed in the operation of the storage ring, now requires rebuilding the entire H - injector at LAMPF. This construction is in progress. It is anticipated that the new injector will be fully operational by the end of 1984 and that the required H - beams will be available for the operation of the storage ring in early 1985

  14. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  15. Volumetric intensity dependence on the formation of molecular and atomic ions within a high intensity laser focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Lynne; Ledingham, Kenneth W D; McKenna, Paul; McCanny, Thomas; Shimizu, Seiji; Yang, Jiamin M; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Varju, Katalin; Johnsson, Per; Mauritsson, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of atomic and molecular ionization in intense, ultra-short laser fields is a subject which continues to receive considerable attention. An inherent difficulty with techniques involving the tight focus of a laser beam is the continuous distribution of intensities contained within the focus, which can vary over several orders of magnitude. The present study adopts time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with a high intensity (8 x 10(15) Wcm(-2)), ultra-short (20 fs) pulse laser in order to investigate the ionization and dissociation of the aromatic molecule benzene-d1 (C(6)H(5)D) as a function of intensity within a focused laser beam, by scanning the laser focus in the direction of propagation, while detecting ions produced only in a "thin" slice (400 and 800 microm) of the focus. The resultant TOF mass spectra varies significantly, highlighting the dependence on the range of specific intensities accessed and their volumetric weightings on the ionization/dissociation pathways accessed.

  16. Laser-matter interaction at high intensity and high temporal contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous progress in the development of laser installations has already lead to ultra-short pulses capable of achieving very high focalized intensities (I > 10 18 W/cm 2 ). At these intensities, matter presents new non-linear behaviours, due to the fact that the electrons are accelerated to relativistic speeds. The experimental access to this interaction regime on solid targets has long been forbidden because of the presence, alongside the femtosecond pulse, of a pedestal (mainly due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) which occurs in the laser chain) intense enough to modify the state of the target. In this thesis, we first characterized, both experimentally and theoretically, a device which allows an improvement of the temporal contrast of the pulse: the Plasma Mirror. It consists in adjusting the focusing of the pulse on a dielectric target, so that the pedestal is mainly transmitted, while the main pulse is reflected by the overcritical plasma that it forms at the surface. The implementation of such a device on the UHI 10 laser facility (CEA Saclay - 10 TW - 60 fs) then allowed us to study the interaction between ultra-intense, high contrast pulses with solid targets. In a first part, we managed to generate and characterize dense plasmas resulting directly from the interaction between the main pulse and very thin foils (100 nm). This characterization was realized by using an XUV source obtained by high order harmonics generation in a rare gas jet. In a second part, we studied experimentally the phenomenon of high order harmonics generation on solid targets, which is still badly understood, but could potentially lead to a new kind of energetic ultra-short XUV sources. (author)

  17. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.H., E-mail: zhangxiaohu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yuan, Y.J.; Yin, X.J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L.T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du, H.; Li, Z.S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K.D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W.; Xia, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-11

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  18. Rib Geometry Explains Variation in Dynamic Structural Response: Potential Implications for Frontal Impact Fracture Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Michelle M; Kang, Yun-Seok; Goldman, Samuel D; Schafman, Michelle A; Schlecht, Stephen H; Moorhouse, Kevin; Bolte, John H; Agnew, Amanda M

    2017-09-01

    The human thorax is commonly injured in motor vehicle crashes, and despite advancements in occupant safety rib fractures are highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to quantify the ability of gross and cross-sectional geometry, separately and in combination, to explain variation of human rib structural properties. One hundred and twenty-two whole mid-level ribs from 76 fresh post-mortem human subjects were tested in a dynamic frontal impact scenario. Structural properties (peak force and stiffness) were successfully predicted (p rib cross-sectional geometry obtained via direct histological imaging (total area, cortical area, and section modulus) and were improved further when utilizing a combination of cross-sectional and gross geometry (robusticity, whole bone strength index). Additionally, preliminary application of a novel, adaptive thresholding technique, allowed for total area and robusticity to be measured on a subsample of standard clinical CT scans with varied success. These results can be used to understand variation in individual rib response to frontal loading as well as identify important geometric parameters, which could ultimately improve injury criteria as well as the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element (FE) models of the human thorax.

  19. Application of the Speed-Duration Relationship to Normalize the Intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M.; Kemi, Ole J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols. PMID:24244266

  20. Birth-related mid-posterior rib fractures in neonates: a report of three cases (and a possible fourth case) and a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Rick R.; Bilo, Rob A. C.; Robben, Simon G. F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Posterior rib fractures in young children have a high positive predictive value for non-accidental injury (NAI). Combined data of five studies on birth trauma (115,756 live births) showed no cases of rib fractures resulting from birth trauma. There have, however, been sporadic cases

  1. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Ferid; Guertin, Arnaud; Michel, Nathalie; Ferrer, Ludovic; Carlier, Thomas; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ( 67 Cu, 47 Sc) or alpha ( 211 At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ( 64 Cu, 124 I, 44 Sc), or that can be generator-produced ( 82 Rb, 68 Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ( 44 Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas 86 Y, 52 Fe, 55 Co, 76 Br or 89 Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs. (orig.) 5

  2. Comparison Thoracic Epidural and Intercostal Block to Improve Ventilation Parameters and Reduce Pain in Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Raheleh Aligholipour Maleki; Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh; Shahryar Hashemzadeh; Khosrov Hashemzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chest wall blunt trauma causes multiple rib fractures and will often be associated with significant pain and may compromise ventilator mechanics. Analgesia has great roll in rib fracture therapies, opioid are useful, but when used as sole agent may re-quire such high dose that they produce respiratory depression, especially in el-derly .the best analgesia for a severe chest wall injury is a continuous epidural infusion of local anesthetic. This provides complete analgesia allowi...

  3. Push-out tests and evaluation of FRP perfobond rib shear connectors performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpasky, Ludvik; Ryjacek, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    The behavioural characteristics of FRP (fibre-reinforced polymer) perfobond rib shear connector was examined through push-out tests in order to verify the applicability for pedestrian bridge structure. The aim of this study is to determine interaction between high performance concrete slab and handmade FRP plate which represent web of the composite beam. Combination of these modern materials leads to structural system with both great load bearing capacity and also sufficient flexural stiffness of the composite element. Openings cut into the GFRP plate at a variable spacing allow GFRP reinforcement bars to be inserted to act as shear studs. Hand lay-up process can increase suitable properties of FRP for connection by perfobond rib shear connectors. In this study, three push-out tests on fiber-reinforced polymer were performed to investigate their shear behaviour. The results of the push-out tests on FRP perfobond rib shear connector indicates great promise for application in full scale structures.

  4. Osteoradionecrosis of the Ribs following Breast Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Nicholls

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN of the chest wall is a rare complication after whole-breast radiotherapy (RT. Herein, we report a case of ORN involving the underlying ribs following adjuvant whole-breast RT using standard fractionation and conduct a review of the literature. Case Report: A previously well 43-year-old female with right-sided, early-stage, node-negative breast cancer was treated with breast-conserving surgery. She subsequently underwent adjuvant whole-breast RT receiving 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks using standard tangential photon fields with 6 MV photons followed by an electron boost of 10 Gy in 5 fractions according to International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU requirements. Eleven months after RT, the patient developed right lateral chest wall pain, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrating two fractures involving the underlying right fifth and sixth ribs associated with fatty marrow changes in the second to sixth ribs, thus raising the possibility of ORN. Treatments including hyperbaric oxygen, pentoxifylline and vitamin E were used with symptomatic improvements. There was demonstrable resolution on follow-up MRI at 2.5 years. Conclusion: The incidence of ORN utilising modern RT techniques and standard fractionation is rare. Numerous treatments are available, with variable response rates. Emerging evidence of predictive gene profiling to estimate the risk of radiation sensitivity may assist in individualising preventative strategies to mitigate the risk of ORN.

  5. [Tuberculosis of the spine and ribs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishnitzer, R; Landow, Z; Sagiv, S; Rozenhack, M; Eliraz, A

    1991-11-15

    Tuberculosis of the spine or ribs is uncommon, occurring in less than 1% of patients with tuberculosis (TB). 2 women are presented who recently immigrated from Ethiopia and India, respectively. One, aged 55, presented with chest pain, fatigue and several masses under the skin of the scalp. Chest X-ray and CT scan suggested Pancoast tumor, and the lateral parts of the first 2 right ribs were absent. The origin of the patient, clinical findings and positive PPD suggested TB of the ribs and anti-TB therapy resulted in cure. The diagnosis was later confirmed by a positive culture. The other woman, aged 68, presented with fatigue, mild abdominal pain and axillary lymphadenopathy. The PPD was positive and X-ray showed widening of the mediastinum. A caseating granuloma with Langhans epithelioid cells was found in a lymph node. Flaccid paraparesis developed before therapy was started. CT scan showed a typical picture of TB affecting the T3-T6 vertebrae. Drainage of a cold abscess of the spine via the anterior approach was followed by anti-TB therapy. Culture of a biopsied lymph node and of pus obtained at operation confirmed the diagnosis of TB. The patient died 2 months later from gastrointestinal bleeding. Awareness of the unusual presentations of various forms of TB is mandatory in countries with immigration from countries in which TB is still common.

  6. High intensity negative proton beams from a SNICS ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.R.; Hollander, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    For the past year we have been involved in a project to develop an intense (> 100μA) negative proton beam from a SNICS (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) ion source. This report will cover how we accomplished and exceeded this goal by more than 40%. Included in these observations will be the following: A description of an effective method for making titanium hydride cathodes. How to overcome the limitations of the titanium hydride cathode. The modification of the SNICS source to improve output; including the installation of the conical ionizer and the gas cathode. A discussion of problems including: poisoning the proton beam with oxygen, alternative gas cathode materials, the clogging of the gas inlet, long burn-in times, and limited cathode life times. Finally, how to optimize source performance when using a gas cathode, and what is the mechanism by which a gas cathode operates; facts, fantasies, or myth

  7. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  8. A deuteron linac for a high-intensity neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Lancaster, H.; Main, R.; Selph, F.; Smith, L.; Voelker, F.; Yourd, R.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of an accelerator suitable to meet the flux and neutron energy requirements of a CTR materials test facility is presented. The specifications of such a facility call for a neutron flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -sec distributed over an area of about 10 2 cm 2 with a neutron spectrum similar to that anticipated from a fusion reactor. A 30 MeV deuteron linac producing a CW beam of 125 mA, upgradable to 40 MeV at 250 mA at a later date, would produce the relatively broad spectrum of neutrons at the required intensity. Attention to the low-energy beam intercept on the drift tubes and diffusive losses producing neutrons and attendant activation problems are discussed

  9. High intensity proton acceleration at the Brookhaven AGS -- An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    1997-01-01

    The AGS accelerator complex is into its third year of 60+ x 10 12 (teraproton = Tp) per cycle operation. The hardware making up the complex as configured in 1997 is briefly mentioned. The present level of accelerator performance is discussed. This includes beam transfer efficiencies at each step in the acceleration process, i.e. losses; which are a serious issue at this intensity level. Progress made in understanding beam behavior at the Linac-to-Booster (LtB) injection, at the Booster-to-AGS (BtA) transfer as well as across the 450 ms AGS accumulation porch is presented. The state of transition crossing, with the gamma-tr jump is described. Coherent effects including those driven by space charge are important at all of these steps

  10. Transverse feedback: high intensity operation, AGC, IGC, lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    The transverse damper system (ADT) plays an important role in the preservation of the beam transverse emittance and for damping of oscillations driven by the coupled bunch instability. An overview of the ADT system will be presented with an emphasis on the important feedback loop parameters as they change from injection through the ramp into collision. The dedicated setting - up procedure required for the different bunch intensities and bunch spacings will be explained. During the 2011 run the injection and abort gap cleaning became operational at injection energy. Preparations for cleaning at 3.5 TeV as well as batch selective transverse blow - up were completed and preliminarily tested. Plans for 2012 include study and potential improvement of the system impulse response to improve the 'selectivity' of the cleaning and blow - up facility. The ADT also provides bunch - by - bunch observation, which was extensively used during the run and MDs, and will be further upgraded during the next year.

  11. Two-dimensional computer simulation of high intensity proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lapostolle, Pierre M

    1972-01-01

    A computer program has been developed which simulates the two- dimensional transverse behaviour of a proton beam in a focusing channel. The model is represented by an assembly of a few thousand 'superparticles' acted upon by their own self-consistent electric field and an external focusing force. The evolution of the system is computed stepwise in time by successively solving Poisson's equation and Newton's law of motion. Fast Fourier transform techniques are used for speed in the solution of Poisson's equation, while extensive area weighting is utilized for the accurate evaluation of electric field components. A computer experiment has been performed on the CERN CDC 6600 computer to study the nonlinear behaviour of an intense beam in phase space, showing under certain circumstances a filamentation due to space charge and an apparent emittance growth. (14 refs).

  12. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang-Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sebastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential 'bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed

  13. The clinical significance of adjacent rib involvement on MRI in patients with acute osteoporotic compression fractures of the thoracic spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Goo, Dong Erk; Suh, You Sung; Bae, Won Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the presence of adjacent rib involvement in osteoporotic compression fractures. All the patients with acute osteoporotic compression fractures of the thoracic spine on thoracic spine MRI that presented to our clinic between September 2003 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All the vertebrae were divided into two groups: those that showed signal intensity change in the rib adjacent to the compression fracture and those that did not. We compared the results between the two groups to determine if there were differences in the degree of osteoporosis, the compression fracture level and the age of patients between the two groups. We calculated the degree of correlation between the MRI and the bone scan images of these patients. We also reviewed whether percutaneous vertebroplasty relieved symptoms or not. Signal intensity changes were found in the adjacent rib(s) in 12 of the 60 patients and in 14 of the 94 levels (the total number of levels). The MRI and bone scan showed significant correlation (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of pain at the one month outpatient follow up between the two groups (p = 0.0215). The radiologist should comment on the presence or absence of adjacent rib involvement when reporting on the thoracic spine MRI of patients suffering from osteoporotic compression fractures in order to more accurately determine prognosis

  14. The clinical significance of adjacent rib involvement on MRI in patients with acute osteoporotic compression fractures of the thoracic spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Goo, Dong Erk; Suh, You Sung [Soonchunhyang Univ. Seoul Hospital/Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Won Kyung [Soonchunhyang Univ. Cheonan Hospital/Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the presence of adjacent rib involvement in osteoporotic compression fractures. All the patients with acute osteoporotic compression fractures of the thoracic spine on thoracic spine MRI that presented to our clinic between September 2003 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All the vertebrae were divided into two groups: those that showed signal intensity change in the rib adjacent to the compression fracture and those that did not. We compared the results between the two groups to determine if there were differences in the degree of osteoporosis, the compression fracture level and the age of patients between the two groups. We calculated the degree of correlation between the MRI and the bone scan images of these patients. We also reviewed whether percutaneous vertebroplasty relieved symptoms or not. Signal intensity changes were found in the adjacent rib(s) in 12 of the 60 patients and in 14 of the 94 levels (the total number of levels). The MRI and bone scan showed significant correlation (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of pain at the one month outpatient follow up between the two groups (p = 0.0215). The radiologist should comment on the presence or absence of adjacent rib involvement when reporting on the thoracic spine MRI of patients suffering from osteoporotic compression fractures in order to more accurately determine prognosis.

  15. Neurovascular Saturation Thresholds Under High Intensity Auditory Stimulation During Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Jennifer L.; Van Nortwick, Amy S.; Meighan, Peter C.; Rector, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic responses is important in understanding brain function, interpreting brain imaging signals, and assessing pathological conditions. Tissue state is a major factor in neurovascular coupling and may alter the relationship between neural and hemodynamic activity. However, most neurovascular coupling studies are performed under anesthetized or sedated states which may have severe consequences on coupling mechanisms. Our previous studies showed that following prolonged periods of sleep deprivation, evoked hemodynamic responses were muted despite consistent electrical responses, suggesting that sustained neural activity may decrease vascular compliance and limit blood perfusion. To investigate potential perfusion limitations during natural waking conditions, we simultaneously measured evoked response potentials (ERPs) and evoked hemodynamic responses using optical imaging techniques to increasing intensity auditory stimulation. The relationship between evoked hemodynamic responses and integrated ERPs followed a sigmoid relationship where the hemodynamic response approached saturation at lower stimulus intensities than the ERP. If limits in blood perfusion are caused by stretching of the vessel wall, then these results suggest there may be decreased vascular compliance due to sustained neural activity during wake, which could limit vascular responsiveness and local blood perfusion. Conditions that stress cerebral vasculature, such as sleep deprivation and some pathologies (e.g., epilepsy), may further decrease vascular compliance, limit metabolic delivery, and cause tissue trauma. While ERPs and evoked hemodynamic responses provide an indication of the correlated neural activity and metabolic demand, the relationship between these two responses is complex and the different measurement techniques are not directly correlated. Future studies are required to verify these findings and further explore neurovascular coupling during

  16. BRENDA, the GSI RIB-facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, P.

    1994-04-01

    In 1985 the decision was taken to build the Heavy-Ion Synchrotron (SIS) together with an Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) and a number of experimental facilities. The energy range covered by SIS is the same as the former BEVALAC. Higher beam intensities, better beam quality of SIS, the ESR, and the dedicated experiments allowed to plan an experimental programme going beyond what was done at LBL. The SIS filled to its space charge limit, and fast ramping times (1 s) promised high beam intensities. The field of exotic nuclei and secondary beams has been from the beginning an integral part of the planned new facility. A new high current injector modifying the UNILAC serving now as SIS-injector, a high dose target station at the end of SIS, and a fragment separator (FRS) for relativistic projectile fragments supplying all facilities with secondary beams were endorsed by the Machine- and Programme-Advisory Committees of the SIS-Project. Since 1991 Beams of Relativistic Exotic Nuclei from Darmstadt (BRENDA) are available with moderate intensities. Higher intensities wait for the projected, but not yet built high current injector. I show that interesting experiments were done nevertheless and why we were quite successful even with low intensity secondary beams. (orig.)

  17. Development and application of high power and high intensity ion beam sources at NPI, Tomsk, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchikov, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    High - current ion beams have become a powerful tool for improving the surface properties of different materials. The prospects of wide commercial use of such beams for material treatment is not only due to the possibility of improving their properties, but, also for economic expediency. To achieve a high throughput and reduce the cost on ion beam material treatment, ion beams of high average and pulsed power are necessary. This paper gives an overview of work on generation of pulsed and repetitively pulsed beams of ion beams with currents ranging from fractions of an ampere to several tens of kA and with pulse duration from several tens of nanoseconds to several hundreds of microseconds. A number of different methods of materials surface properties modification using high power and intense ion beam and plasma are considered. (author)

  18. A combination thermal dissociation/electron impact ionization source for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Cui, B.; Welton, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The flourishing interest in radioactive ion beams (RIBs) with intensities adequate for astrophysics and nuclear physics research place a premium on targets that will swiftly release trace amounts of short lived radio-nuclei in the presence of bulk quantities of target material and ion sources that have the capability of efficiently ionizing the release products. Because of the low probability of simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecules containing the element of interest with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources, the species of interest is often distributed in several mass channels in the form of molecular sideband beams and, consequently, the intensity is diluted. The authors have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source to address these problems. If the concept proves to be a viable option, the source will be used as a complement to the electron beam plasma ion sources already in use at the HRIBF. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article

  19. Blunt liver injury with intact ribs under impacts on the abdomen: a biomechanical investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shao

    Full Text Available Abdominal trauma accounts for nearly 20% of all severe traffic injuries and can often result from intentional physical violence, from which blunt liver injury is regarded as the most common result and is associated with a high mortality rate. Liver injury may be caused by a direct impact with a certain velocity and energy on the abdomen, which may result in a lacerated liver by penetration of fractured ribs. However, liver ruptures without rib cage fractures were found in autopsies in a series of cases. All the victims sustained punches on the abdomen by fist. Many studies have been dedicated to determining the mechanism underlying hepatic injury following abdominal trauma, but most have been empirical. The actual process and biomechanism of liver injury induced by blunt impact on the abdomen, especially with intact ribs remained, are still inexhaustive. In order to investigate this, finite element methods and numerical simulation technology were used. A finite element human torso model was developed from high resolution CT data. The model consists of geometrically-detailed liver and rib cage models and simplified models of soft tissues, thoracic and abdominal organs. Then, the torso model was used in simulations in which the right hypochondrium was punched by a fist from the frontal, lateral, and rear directions, and in each direction with several impact velocities. Overall, the results showed that liver rupture was primarily caused by a direct strike of the ribs induced by blunt impact to the abdomen. Among three impact directions, a lateral impact was most likely to cause liver injury with a minimum punch speed of 5 m/s (the momentum was about 2.447 kg.m/s. Liver injuries could occur in isolation and were not accompanied by rib fractures due to different material characteristics and injury tolerance.

  20. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C; Simpson, Ben M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h(-1) (D>14.4 km·h(-1)) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen's d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h(-1) (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h(-1) was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h(-1) increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in 'fitness' do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key pointsWhen playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a 'tolerable' relative exercise intensity.While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008).In the context of

  1. ribB and ribBA genes from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans: expression levels under different growth conditions and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knegt, Fábio H P; Mello, Luciane V; Reis, Fernanda C; Santos, Marcos T; Vicentini, Renato; Ferraz, Lúcio F C; Ottoboni, Laura M M

    2008-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a Gram-negative, chemolithoautotrophic bacterium involved in metal bioleaching. Using the RNA arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (RAP-PCR), we have identified several cDNAs that were differentially expressed when A. ferrooxidans LR was submitted to potassium- and phosphate-limiting conditions. One of these cDNAs showed similarity with ribB. An analysis of the A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 genome, made available by The Institute for Genomic Research, showed that the ribB gene was not located in the rib operon, but a ribBA gene was present in this operon instead. The ribBA gene was isolated from A. ferrooxidans LR and expression of both ribB and ribBA was investigated. Transcript levels of both genes were enhanced in cells grown in the absence of K2HPO4, in the presence of zinc and copper sulfate and in different pHs. Transcript levels decreased upon exposure to a temperature higher than the ideal 30 degrees C and at pH 1.2. A comparative genomic analysis using the A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 genome revealed similar putative regulatory elements for both genes. Moreover, an RFN element was identified upstream from the ribB gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of RibB and RibBA in bacteria showed six different combinations. We suggest that the presence of duplicated riboflavin synthesis genes in bacteria must provide their host with some benefit in certain stressful situations.

  2. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  3. Probing the positron moderation process using high-intensity, highly polarized slow-positron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van House, J.; Zitzewitz, P. W.

    1984-01-01

    A highly polarized (P = 0.48 + or - 0.02) intense (500,000/sec) beam of 'slow' (Delta E = about 2 eV) positrons (e+) is generated, and it is shown that it is possible to achieve polarization as high as P = 0.69 + or - 0.04 with reduced intensity. The measured polarization of the slow e+ emitted by five different positron moderators showed no dependence on the moderator atomic number (Z). It is concluded that only source positrons with final kinetic energy below 17 keV contribute to the slow-e+ beam, in disagreement with recent yield functions derived from low-energy measurements. Measurements of polarization and yield with absorbers of different Z between the source and moderator show the effects of the energy and angular distributions of the source positrons on P. The depolarization of fast e+ transmitted through high-Z absorbers has been measured. Applications of polarized slow-e+ beams are discussed.

  4. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  5. Computational Investigations in Rectangular Convergent and Divergent Ribbed Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Karthikeyan; Kulasekharan, N.; Natarajan, E.

    2018-05-01

    Computational investigations on the rib turbulated flow inside a convergent and divergent rectangular channel with square ribs of different rib heights and different Reynolds numbers (Re=20,000, 40,000 and 60,000). The ribs were arranged in a staggered fashion between the upper and lower surfaces of the test section. Computational investigations are carried out using computational fluid dynamic software ANSYS Fluent 14.0. Suitable solver settings like turbulence models were identified from the literature and the boundary conditions for the simulations on a solution of independent grid. Computations were carried out for both convergent and divergent channels with 0 (smooth duct), 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm rib heights, to identify the ribbed channel with optimal performance, assessed using a thermo hydraulic performance parameter. The convergent and divergent rectangular channels show higher Nu values than the standard correlation values.

  6. Rib fracture repair: indications, technical issues, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Raminder; Diaz, Jose J; Trunkey, Donald D; Mayberry, John C

    2009-01-01

    Rib fracture repair has been performed at selected centers around the world for more than 50 years; however, the operative indications have not been established and are considered controversial. The outcome of a strictly nonoperative approach may not be optimal. Potential indications for rib fracture repair include flail chest, painful, movable rib fractures refractory to conventional pain management, chest wall deformity/defect, rib fracture nonunion, and during thoracotomy for other traumatic indication. Rib fracture repair is technically challenging secondary to the human rib's relatively thin cortex and its tendency to fracture obliquely. Nonetheless, several effective repair systems have been developed. Future directions for progress on this important surgical problem include the development of minimally invasive techniques and the conduct of multicenter, randomized trials.

  7. The Place of Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Rib Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Bakılan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether ultrasonography is superior to chest x-ray in detecting rib fractures in patients with minor blunt chest trauma and chest pain. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography findings of 32 patients with minor blunt chest trauma showing no evidence of a rib fracture on anteroposterior chest x-rays, were documented. Presence of cortical discontinuities, acoustic shadows, reverberation artifacts, and hematoma by ultrasonography was proposed as the diagnostic criteria for detecting the rib fracture. Results: Rib fracture was detected in 20 patients (62.5% according to ultrasonography results. A mildly displaced fracture was detected in 7 patients (35%, hematoma was detected in 3 patients (15% and multiple fractures (in 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th ribs were detected in 1 patient (5%. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that ultrasonography is superior to chest x-ray, in detecting rib fractures.

  8. Bifid rib – usefulness of chest ultrasound. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kryger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibility of using ultrasonography in the diagnosis of a congenital rib anomaly in the form of bifid rib. Bifid rib is a rare congenital abnormality of anterior chest wall. It manifests as a chest “lump.” Such lesions are detected during a routine physical examination or chest X-ray which is often performed for other reasons. The overall prevalence of bifid rib is estimated at 0.15% to 3.4% (mean 2% and it accounts for approximately 20% of all congenital rib anomalies. It is usually an unilateral lesion. The cases presented herein constitute the first pediatric cases in the available literature in which bifid rib anomaly was visualized by ultrasound examination.

  9. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Don M.; Dudey, Norman D.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then "boil off" or evaporate a neutron.

  10. Liquid lithium target as a high intensity, high energy neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Dudey, N.D.

    1976-01-01

    The invention described provides a target jet for charged particles. In one embodiment the charged particles are high energy deuterons that bombard the target jet to produce high intensity, high energy neutrons. To this end, deuterons in a vacuum container bombard an endlessly circulating, free-falling, sheet-shaped, copiously flowing, liquid lithium jet that gushes by gravity from a rectangular cross-section vent on the inside of the container means to form a moving web in contact with the inside wall of the vacuum container. The neutrons are produced via break-up of the beam in the target by stripping, spallation and compound nuclear reactions in which the projectiles (deuterons) interact with the target (Li) to produce excited nuclei, which then ''boil off'' or evaporate a neutron

  11. 76 FR 44613 - Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy has designated eight additional counties as High Intensity Drug...

  12. Automatic three-dimensional rib centerline extraction from CT scans for enhanced visualization and anatomical context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sowmya; Alvino, Christopher; Grady, Leo; Kiraly, Atilla

    2011-03-01

    We present a complete automatic system to extract 3D centerlines of ribs from thoracic CT scans. Our rib centerline system determines the positional information for the rib cage consisting of extracted rib centerlines, spinal canal centerline, pairing and labeling of ribs. We show an application of this output to produce an enhanced visualization of the rib cage by the method of Kiraly et al., in which the ribs are digitally unfolded along their centerlines. The centerline extraction consists of three stages: (a) pre-trace processing for rib localization, (b) rib centerline tracing, and (c) post-trace processing to merge the rib traces. Then we classify ribs from non-ribs and determine anatomical rib labeling. Our novel centerline tracing technique uses the Random Walker algorithm to segment the structural boundary of the rib in successive 2D cross sections orthogonal to the longitudinal direction of the ribs. Then the rib centerline is progressively traced along the rib using a 3D Kalman filter. The rib centerline extraction framework was evaluated on 149 CT datasets with varying slice spacing, dose, and under a variety of reconstruction kernels. The results of the evaluation are presented. The extraction takes approximately 20 seconds on a modern radiology workstation and performs robustly even in the presence of partial volume effects or rib pathologies such as bone metastases or fractures, making the system suitable for assisting clinicians in expediting routine rib reading for oncology and trauma applications.

  13. PIV Measurements of Turbulent Flow in a Channel with Solid or Perforated Ribs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Salewski, Mirko; Sundén, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry measurements are performed in a channel with periodic ribs on one wall. We investigate the flow around two different rib configurations: solid and perforated ribs with a slit. The ribs obstruct the channel by 20% of its height and are arranged 10 rib heights apart. For ...

  14. Biomechanical investigation of impact induced rib fractures of a porcine infant surrogate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburne, William B; Waddell, J Neil; Swain, Michael V; Alves de Sousa, Ricardo J; Kieser, Jules A

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the structural, biomechanical and fractographic features of rib fractures in a piglet model, to test the hypothesis that fist impact, apart from thoracic squeezing, may result in lateral costal fractures as observed in abused infants. A mechanical fist with an accelerometer was constructed and fixed to a custom jig. Twenty stillborn piglets in the supine position were impacted on the thoracic cage. The resultant force versus time curves from the accelerometer data showed a number of steps indicative of rib fracture. The correlation between impact force and number of fractures was statistically significant (Pearson׳s r=0.528). Of the fractures visualized, 15 completely pierced the parietal pleura of the thoracic wall, and 5 had butterfly fracture patterning. Scanning electron microscopy showed complete bone fractures, at the zone of impact, were normal to the axis of the ribs. Incomplete vertical fractures, with bifurcation, occurred on the periphery of the contact zone. This work suggests the mechanism of rib failure during a fist impact is typical of the transverse fracture pattern in the anterolateral region associated with cases of non-accidental rib injury. The impact events investigated have a velocity of ~2-3m/s, approximately 2×10(4) times faster than previous quasi-static axial and bending tests. While squeezing the infantile may induce buckle fractures in the anterior as well as posterior region of the highly flexible bones, a fist punch impact event may result in anterolateral transverse fractures. Hence, these findings suggest that the presence of anterolateral rib fractures may result from impact rather than manual compression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An analysis of 214 cases of rib fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Karadayi, Sule; Nadir, Aydin; Sahin, Ekber; Celik, Burcin; Arslan, Sulhattin; Kaptanoglu, Melih

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rib fractures are the most common type of injury associated with trauma to the thorax. In this study, we investigated whether morbidity and mortality rates increased in correlation with the number of fractured ribs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 214 patients with rib fractures who applied or were referred to our clinic between January 2007 and December 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were allocated into three groups according to the number of fractures: 1) p...

  16. Radiographic abnormalities of ribs in β-thalassemic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singcharoen, T.; Piyachon, C.; Kulapongs, P.

    1988-01-01

    Bone change is one of the most outstanding manifestations of marrow hyperplasia in thalassemia patients. In the thorax, marrow hyperplasia widens the ribs, thins the cortices, and erases most of their trabecular patterns. Thus, a variety of radiologic changes of the ribs have been described. The chest radiographs of 33 Thai children with β-thalassemia major were reviewed, and a spectrum of rib changes were observed

  17. Flow instability and critical heat flux in a ribbed annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.W.; Dougherty, T.; Fighetti, C.; Kokolis, S.; Reddy, G.D.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Coutts, A.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to determine the onset of flow instability point in a heated annulus which is divided into four sub channels by non-conducting ribs. The onset of flow instability is identified by the minimum point in the pressure drop-velocity curve. Comparison with a ribless annulus show that the presence of ribs increases the minimum point velocity. In addition, data are presented which show that under certain conditions premature CHF can be induced by the ribs

  18. Ignition of mercury-free high intensity discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czichy, M; Mentel, J; Awakowicz, P; Hartmann, T

    2008-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the ignition behaviour of D4 lamps for automotive headlights the ignition of mercury-free metal iodide test lamps characterized by a high xenon pressure, a small electrode distance and small electrode-wall distances is investigated. The ignition of these lamps is dominated by a high voltage requirement. Nevertheless lamps are found that show a surprisingly low ignition voltage. Electrical measurements and simultaneous optical observations of the ultra-fast streamer processes show that the breakdown takes place in two different modes. One of the ignition modes which requires a high ignition voltage is characterized by a breakdown in the volume between the electrode tips. The other mode is characterized by streamer discharges along the wall. In this case the cathode, its base and the wall around is involved in the ignition process and the lamp breaks down at low voltages

  19. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  20. High harmonic generation in H and HD by intense femtosecond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... We have argued that for these conditions the harmonic generation due to the transitions in the electronic ... (XUV) or soft X-ray range and generation of very high-energy attosecond (as) pulses have been widely ..... [3] Y Liang, S Augst, S L Chin, Y Beaudoin and M Chaker, J. Phys. B 27, 5119 (1994).

  1. Impedance-match experiments using high intensity lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Anderson, R.A.; Veeser, L.R.; Reeves, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of impedance-match experiments using copper-aluminum targets irradiated using the Janus Laser Facility are discussed. The results are compared to extrapolations of data obtained at lower pressures using impact techniques. The sources of errors are described and evaluated. The potential of lasers for high accuracy equation of state investigations are discussed

  2. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  3. [Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high T c superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect

  4. STATUS REPORT ON DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH-SPEED HIGH-INTENSITY MOLECULAR BEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, Eldon L.

    1963-07-15

    Status of a high-speed high-intensity molecular beam under development is described. Bases for designs of the several components are presented. Using an arc-heated source and a hypersonic jet, molecular energies exceeding 1 ev and beam intensities of the order of 10/sup 16/ molecules/ cm/sup 2/ sec are anticipated. A two-disk beam chopper and speed selector provides a means for analyzing the speed distribution in the generated beam, for chopping the beam into bursts of nearly monoenergetic molecules suitable for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique, and for modulating the beam in order to facilitate detection. A through-flow ionization detector possesses the versatility required for scattering studies using the time-of-flight technique. A sorption pump and a turbo pump serve as central components of alternative pumping systems for the collimating chamber. Using the arc-heated source, the converging nozzle, the conduction-radiation-cooled skimmer, the turbo pump (turning at 3400 rpm), the chopperselector (acting only as a chopper), and the detector, an arc-heated beam is generated and detected. (auth)

  5. High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of ''Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions''(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.

  6. Stress injury of the rib in a swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heincelman, Carrie [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brown, Seth; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Wissman, Robert D. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Rib stress injuries are uncommonly reported but have been documented among athletes, most notably rowers. There have only been two prior case reports of rib stress injuries in swimmers, both of which were young females. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was either not obtained or the imaging characteristics were incompletely described. We present a case of an isolated third rib stress injury in a collegiate male swimmer diagnosed via MR imaging. We briefly discuss the possible etiologies for rib stress injuries, their MR appearance, as well as their treatment. (orig.)

  7. Case report 467: Cystic chondroblastoma left 4th rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, M.; McGuire, M.H.; Naunheim, K.; Schajowicz, F.

    1988-03-01

    A case of chondroblastoma in an 18-year-old female arising from a rib near the costotransverse articulation (presumably from the epiphysis of the articular process) has been described. The destructive pattern noted in the rib, associated with a large soft tissue mass, favored a malignant lesion rather than a benign one. Histologically, this tumor had large cystic and hemorrhagic components, consistent with the diagnosis of a cystic chondroblastoma of a rib. Curiously, this patient, like two others with chondroblastoma in a rib was asymptomatic, and attention to the abnormality was drawn from a routine chest radiography. The patient remains disease-free one and a half-years following surgery.

  8. Guideline-Driven Care Improves Outcomes in Patients with Traumatic Rib Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarity, Kathleen; Rhodes, Whitney C; Berson, Andrew J; Leininger, Brian E; Reckard, Paul E; Riley, Keyan D; Shahan, Charles P; Schroeppel, Thomas J

    2017-09-01

    There is no established national standard for rib fracture management. A clinical practice guideline (CPG) for rib fractures, including monitoring of pulmonary function, early initiation of aggressive loco-regional analgesia, and early identification of deteriorating respiratory function, was implemented in 2013. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of the CPG on hospital length of stay. Hospital length of stay (LOS) was compared for adult patients admitted to the hospital with rib fracture(s) two years before and two years after CPG implementation. A separate analysis was done for the patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Over the 48-month study period, 571 patients met inclusion criteria for the study. Pre-CPG and CPG study groups were well matched with few differences. Multivariable regression did not demonstrate a difference in LOS (B = -0.838; P = 0.095) in the total study cohort. In the ICU cohort (n = 274), patients in the CPG group were older (57 vs 52 years; P = 0.023) and had more rib fractures (4 vs 3; P = 0.003). Multivariable regression identified a significant decrease in LOS for those patients admitted in the CPG period (B = -2.29; P = 0.019). Despite being significantly older with more rib fractures in the ICU cohort, patients admitted after implementation of the CPG had a significantly reduced LOS on multivariable analysis, reducing LOS by over two days. This structured intervention can limit narcotic usage, improve pulmonary function, and decrease LOS in the most injured patients with chest trauma.

  9. Rib fractures after reirradiation plus hyperthermia for recurrent breast cancer: Predictive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenborg, Sabine; Valk, Christel; van Os, Rob; Oei, Bing; Venselaar, Jack; Vörding, Paul Zum Vörde Sive; van Randen, Adriënne; Crezee, Hans; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Rasch, Coen

    2016-01-01

    Combining reirradiation (reRT) and hyperthermia (HT) has shown high therapeutic value for patients with locoregional recurrent breast cancer (LR). However, additional toxicity of reirradiation (e.g., rib fractures) may occur. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of potential risk factors

  10. High-Intensity Laser Diagnostics for OMEGA EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Junquist, R.; Stoeckl, C.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA EP is a new high-energy petawatt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP's mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP's off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from <1 to 100 ps as well as setting the desired pulse width before the shot. These diagnostics will enable, for the first time, complete spatial and temporal characterization of the focus of a high-energy petawatt laser at full energy

  11. High-intensity laser diagnostics for OMEGA EP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Jungquist, R.; Stoeckl, C. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a new high-energy peta-watt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP's mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP's off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from < 1 to 100 ps as well as setting the desired pulse width before the shot. These diagnostics will enable, for the first time, complete spatial and temporal characterization of the focus of a high-energy peta-watt laser at full energy. (authors)

  12. High-intensity laser diagnostics for OMEGA EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Jungquist, R.; Stoeckl, C.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a new high-energy peta-watt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP's mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP's off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from < 1 to 100 ps as well as setting the desired pulse width before the shot. These diagnostics will enable, for the first time, complete spatial and temporal characterization of the focus of a high-energy peta-watt laser at full energy. (authors)

  13. High-intensity pulsed beam source with tunable operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilevskiy, A. V.; Kanaev, G. G.; Ezhov, V. V.; Shamanin, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The report presents the design of an electron and an ion pulsed accelerator. The powerful high-voltage pulse generator of the accelerator and the vacuum bushing insulator is able to change the polarity of the output voltage. The low-inductance matching transformer provides an increase in the DFL output impedance by 4 times. The generator based on a high voltage pulse transformer and a pseudo spark switch is applied for DFL charging. The high-impedance magnetically insulated focusing diode with Br magnetic field and the “passive” anode was used to realize the ion beam generation mode. The plasma is formed on the surface of the anode caused by an electrical breakdown at the voltage edge pulse; as a result, the carbon ion and proton beam is generated. This beam has the following parameters: the current density is about 400 A/cm2 (in focus): the applied voltage is up to 450 kV. The accelerator is designed for the research on the interaction of the charged particle pulsed beams with materials and for the development of technological processes of a material modification.

  14. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  15. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Ptraining, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  16. Numerical prediction of turbulent heat transfer augmentation in an annular fuel channel with two-dimensional square ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki

    1996-01-01

    The square-ribbed fuel rod for high temperature gas-cooled reactors was developed in order to enhance the turbulent heat transfer in comparison with the standard fuel rod. To evaluate the heat transfer performance of the square-ribbed fuel rod, the turbulent heat transfer coefficients in an annular fuel channel with repeated two-dimensional square ribs were analyzed numerically on a fully developed incompressible flow using the k - ε turbulence model and the two-dimensional axisymmetrical coordinate system. Numerical analyses were carried out for a range of Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 20000 and ratios of square-rib pitch to height of 10, 20 and 40, respectively. The predicted values of the heat transfer coefficients agreed within an error of 10% for the square-rib pitch to height ratio of 10, 20% for 20 and 25% for 40, respectively, with the heat transfer empirical correlations obtained from the experimental data. It was concluded by the present study that the effect of the heat transfer augmentation by square ribs could be predicted sufficiently by the present numerical simulations and also a part of its mechanism could be explained by means of the change in the turbulence kinematic energy distribution along the flow direction. (author)

  17. Numerical prediction of augmented turbulent heat transfer in an annular fuel channel with repeated two-dimensional square ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, K.

    1996-01-01

    The square-ribbed fuel rod for high temperature gas-cooled reactors was designed and developed so as to enhance the turbulent heat transfer in comparison with the previous standard fuel rod. The turbulent heat transfer characteristics in an annular fuel channel with repeated two-dimensional square ribs were analysed numerically on a fully developed incompressible flow using the k-ε turbulence model and the two-dimensional axisymmetrical coordinate system. Numerical analyses were carried out under the conditions of Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 20000 and ratios of square-rib pitch to height of 10, 20 and 40 respectively. The predictions of the heat transfer coefficients agreed well within an error of 10% for the square-rib pitch to height ratio of 10, 20% for 20 and 25% for 40 respectively, with the heat transfer empirical correlations obtained from the experimental data due to the simulated square-ribbed fuel rods. Therefore it was found that the effect of heat transfer augmentation due to the square ribs could be predicted by the present numerical simulations and the mechanism could be explained by the change in the turbulence kinematic energy distribution along the flow direction. (orig.)

  18. A rare case of an intercostal lung herniation with fractures of the fifth and sixth ribs after thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Akira; Komiya, Kazune; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Haruka; Kouda, Takuyuki; Fujishita, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Lung herniation is a rare condition defined as a protrusion of the pleural-covered lung parenchyma through an abnormal defect or weakness in the thoracic wall. Postoperative lung herniation is reported to result from a preceding operation with inadequate closure of the chest wall. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of hemoptysis and nausea. One year previously, she had undergone wedge resection of the right lower lobe (S6) for treatment of primary lung adenocarcinoma. Upon admission, chest radiograph and chest computed tomography showed a right lung herniation through the fifth enlarged intercostal space with right fifth and sixth rib fractures. She underwent surgical closure of the intercostal hernia using synthetic materials with fixation of the fifth and sixth ribs. The patient had developed no recurrence 9 months after surgical repair. In the present case, adequate closure of the right pleural cavity was ensured by fixation of both fifth and sixth ribs during the preceding video-assisted thoracic surgery for the primary lung carcinoma. Our patient may have had some exacerbation factors for lung herniation, increased intrathoracic pressure, attenuation of chest wall by prolonged coughing and rib fracture, and high abdominal pressure due to her hunched-over posture. It is important to know some exacerbation factors for postoperative intercostal lung herniation. Addition of monofirament-suture fixation of the ribs to patch repair is very effective for lung herniation repair in patients with concurrent lung herniation and rib fractures.

  19. High-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-10-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the Laser Synchrotron Light Source (LSLS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSLS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 70 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of well-collimated, up to 9.36-keV (∼ Angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to a variable e-beam energy. A natural short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to a 10 21 -10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 1 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps. The ATF LSLS x-ray beamline, exceeding by orders of magnitude the peak fluxes attained at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray storage ring, may become attractive for certain users, e.g., for biological x-ray microscopy. In addition, a terawatt CO 2 laser will enable harmonic multiplication of the x-ray spectrum via nonlinear Compton scattering

  20. Future of high intensity accelerators in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Fraser, J.S.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1977-08-01

    A possible application for a high mean current, intermediate-energy proton linear accelerator is the ''electrical breeding'' of fuel for nuclear electrical power stations. The possible role of the spallation breeder in the context of a Canadian nuclear power economy and its relationship to nuclear fuel resources are discussed. The production of fissile material using the spallation process in a target containing actinide elements appears desirable and feasible from engineering and economic considerations. Current development work in Canada and some of the outstanding problems are discussed. (author)

  1. Highly charged ions generated with intense laser beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Peřina, Vratislav; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Szydlowski, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 205, - (2003), s. 355-359 ISSN 0168-583X. [International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter /5./. Taormina-Giardini Naxos, 22.05.2002-25.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) CT-1999-00053; IAEA(XE) 11535/RO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910; CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * highly charged ions * ion implantation * windowless electron multiplier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  2. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10{sup 8} muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  3. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A.; Sakamoto, H.; Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H.; Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-01-01

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10 8 muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion

  4. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  5. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, A.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Gable, I.; Harris, D.; Impey, R.; Leavett-Brown, C.; Paterson, M.; Podaima, W.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.

    2012-02-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  6. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  7. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, A; Impey, R; Podaima, W; Agarwal, A; Anderson, M; Armstrong, P; Fransham, K; Gable, I; Harris, D; Leavett-Brown, C; Paterson, M; Sobie, R J; Vliet, M

    2012-01-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  8. Detection of rib fractures in an abused infant using digital radiography: a laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, Paul K.; O'Connor, Brian; Nimkin, Katherine; Rayder, Shawn M.; Spevak, Melissa R.; Belanger, Patricia L.; Getty, David J.; Karellas, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of digital radiography using charge-coupled device (CCD) technology in the detection of rib fracture in infant abuse.Materials and methods. Four fractured posterior rib arcs and eight normal ribs removed at autopsy from a 10-month-old abused infant were radiographed using a CCD prototype, four clinical film-screen systems, and direct-exposure film. Each rib was viewed with these six systems in nine different projections. The resultant 648 images were assessed for probability of fracture (0-100%) by four pediatric radiologists. The calculated area under the resultant ROC curves (A z ) for the CCD was compared with those obtained with direct-exposure, high-detail, medium and fast film-screen radiographic systems. The mean A z for the CCD (0.937) fell within the range of the high-detail systems (0.934-0.940) and was significantly higher (p 20 line pairs per millimeter) the CCD performance was comparable (A z =0.944 vs. 0.937). The similar performance can be explained by the higher contrast resolution of the digital technology. This study indicates that in the ex vivo setting, digital radiology can perform comparably to high-detail film-screen imaging. The findings suggest that digital radiography has the potential to replace film-screen imaging in the evaluation of inflicted skeletal injury in infants. (orig.)

  9. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  10. Primary clear cell sarcoma of rib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersekli, Murat Ali; Ozkoc, Gurkan; Akpinar, Sercan; Ozalay, Metin; Tandogan, Reha N.; Bircan, Sema; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft tissues) is a very rare soft tissue neoplasm. It generally arises in tendons and aponeuroses. Although metastasis of malignant melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is an extremely rare neoplasm. To our knowledge five cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of bone in a 28-year-old woman arising in the left ninth rib. We treated the patient with total excision of the mass and postoperative radiotherapy. The patient is alive and well without local recurrence or distant metastasis at 33 months after surgery. (orig.)

  11. Experimental study of a high intensity radio-frequency cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Boussaid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the DESIR/SPIRAL-2 project, a radio-frequency quadrupole cooler named SHIRaC has been studied. SHIRaC is a key device of SPIRAL-2, designed to enhance the beam quality required by DESIR. The preliminary study and development of this device has been carried out at Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de CAEN (LPC Caen, France. The goal of this paper is to present the experimental studies conducted on a SHIRaC prototype. The main peculiarity of this cooler is its efficient handling and cooling of ion beams with currents going up as high as 1  μA which has never before been achieved in any of the previous coolers. Much effort has been made lately into these studies for development of appropriate optics, vacuum and rf systems which allow cooling of beams of large emittance (∼80π  mm mrad and high current. The dependencies of SHIRaC’s transmission and the cooled beam parameters in terms of geometrical transverse emittance and the longitudinal energy spread have also been discussed. Investigation of beam purity at optimum cooling condition has also been done. Results from the experiments indicate that an emittance reduction of less than 2.5π  mm mrad and a longitudinal energy spread reduction of less than 4 eV are obtained with more than 70% of ion transmission. The emittance is at expected values whereas the energy spread is not.

  12. Comparison of ultrasonography and radiography in diagnosis of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Foogardi, Molood; Salehi, Maryam; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-08-01

    Rib fractures are the most common skeletal thoracic injuries resulting from blunt chest trauma. Half of the rib fractures are not detected upon a precise physical evaluation and radiographs. Recently ultrasonography (USG) has been investigated to detect rib fractures. But based on literature the usefulness of USG varies widely. This study was conducted to investigate the role of USG in the detection of possible rib fractures in comparison with radiography. In this cross-sectional study, consecutive patients with minor blunt chest trauma and suspected rib fractures presenting in Imam Reza Hospital located in Mashhad-Iran, between April 2013 and October 2013 were assessed by USG and radiography. The radiography was performed in a posteroanterior (PA) chest projection and oblique rib view centered over the area of trauma. The time duration spent in taking USG and radiography were recorded. The prevalence and location of fractures revealed by USG and radiography were compared. Sixty-one suspected patients were assessed. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1 (43 men and 18 women) with a mean ± SD age of (44.3 ± 19.7) years. There were totally 59 rib fractures in 38 (62.3%) patients based on radiography and USG, while 23 (37.7%) patients had no diagnostic evidence of rib lesions. USG revealed 58 rib fractures in 33 (54.1%) of 61 suspected patients and radiographs revealed 32 rib fractures in 20 (32.8%) of 61 patients. A total of 58 (98.3%) rib fractures were detected by USG, whereas oblique rib view and PA chest radiography showed 27 (45.8%) and 24 (40.7%) rib fractures, respectively. The average duration of USG was (12 ± 3) min (range 7-17 min), whereas the duration of radiography was (27 ± 6) min (range 15-37 min). The kappa coefficient showed a low level of agreement between both USG and PA chest radiography (kappa coefficient = 0.28), and between USG and oblique rib view (kappa coefficient = 0.32). USG discloses more fractures than radiography in

  13. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    is absorbed into said plasma (104), and where a sound pressure level of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) is at least substantially 140 dB and where an acoustic power of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102); is at least...... substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...

  14. Computed tomography measurement of rib cage morphometry in emphysema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Sverzellati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors determining the shape of the human rib cage are not completely understood. We aimed to quantify the contribution of anthropometric and COPD-related changes to rib cage variability in adult cigarette smokers. METHODS: Rib cage diameters and areas (calculated from the inner surface of the rib cage in 816 smokers with or without COPD, were evaluated at three anatomical levels using computed tomography (CT. CTs were analyzed with software, which allows quantification of total emphysema (emphysema%. The relationship between rib cage measurements and anthropometric factors, lung function indices, and %emphysema were tested using linear regression models. RESULTS: A model that included gender, age, BMI, emphysema%, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC% fit best with the rib cage measurements (R(2 = 64% for the rib cage area variation at the lower anatomical level. Gender had the biggest impact on rib cage diameter and area (105.3 cm(2; 95% CI: 111.7 to 98.8 for male lower area. Emphysema% was responsible for an increase in size of upper and middle CT areas (up to 5.4 cm(2; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.8 for an emphysema increase of 5%. Lower rib cage areas decreased as FVC% decreased (5.1 cm(2; 95% CI: 2.5 to 7.6 for 10 percentage points of FVC variation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that simple CT measurements can predict rib cage morphometric variability and also highlight relationships between rib cage morphometry and emphysema.

  15. High-intensity light-ion beam research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Colombant, D.G.; Barker, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    High-brightness proton beams (.4 MA, 1 MV) have recently been extracted from 20 cm 2 axial pinch-reflex diodes (PRDs) mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. A source power brightness of GT 10 TW/cm 2 rad 2 was achieved in these experiments. A new barrel-shaped equitorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA-II has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% proton efficiency with predominately azimuthally-symmetric charged-particle flow. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured using a PRD on Gamble II. Results show about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the beam was focused to about .25 MA/cm 2 . Research is also being performed on transporting ion beams in large-diameter channels (>= 2.5 cm) and on a post-transport, plasma-filled, magnetic-focusing section to bring the beam to pellet dimensions. (author)

  16. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  17. A 3 GHz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Dehler, M; Godot, J C

    1996-01-01

    For the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) at CERN a new rf gun with a laser driven photocathode is under construction. The new rf gun will replace the present 11/2 cell gun and will consist of 21/2 cells accelerating the beam to a momentum of 7.0 MeV/c with an electric field strength of 100 MV/m. The strong space-charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches are contained by radial and longitudinal rf focusing in the gun. The rf gun under construction has been optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating rf structure and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 21/2 cell gun. The beam loading of the rf gun, by a train of 48 bunches with 21 nC charge each, causes a strong energy decay accompanied by an increase of the flight time for the bunches with lower energy. These effects can be corrected by slightly shifting the acceleration frequency of the gun. The experimental results...

  18. High Performance Data Transfer for Distributed Data Intensive Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chin [Zettar Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Cottrell, R ' Les' A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hanushevsky, Andrew B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kroeger, Wilko [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yang, Wei [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We report on the development of ZX software providing high performance data transfer and encryption. The design scales in: computation power, network interfaces, and IOPS while carefully balancing the available resources. Two U.S. patent-pending algorithms help tackle data sets containing lots of small files and very large files, and provide insensitivity to network latency. It has a cluster-oriented architecture, using peer-to-peer technologies to ease deployment, operation, usage, and resource discovery. Its unique optimizations enable effective use of flash memory. Using a pair of existing data transfer nodes at SLAC and NERSC, we compared its performance to that of bbcp and GridFTP and determined that they were comparable. With a proof of concept created using two four-node clusters with multiple distributed multi-core CPUs, network interfaces and flash memory, we achieved 155Gbps memory-to-memory over a 2x100Gbps link aggregated channel and 70Gbps file-to-file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  19. Computational aspects in high intensity ultrasonic surgery planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A; Hynynen, K

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound treatment planning is discussed and computational aspects regarding it are reviewed. Nonlinear ultrasound simulations were solved with a combined frequency domain Rayleigh and KZK model. Ultrasonic simulations were combined with thermal simulations and were used to compute heating of muscle tissue in vivo for four different focused ultrasound transducers. The simulations were compared with measurements and good agreement was found for large F-number transducers. However, at F# 1.9 the simulated rate of temperature rise was approximately a factor of 2 higher than the measured ones. The power levels used with the F# 1 transducer were too low to show any nonlinearity. The simulations were used to investigate the importance of nonlinarities generated in the coupling water, and also the importance of including skin in the simulations. Ignoring either of these in the model would lead to larger errors. Most notably, the nonlinearities generated in the water can enhance the focal temperature by more than 100%. The simulations also demonstrated that pulsed high power sonications may provide an opportunity to significantly (up to a factor of 3) reduce the treatment time. In conclusion, nonlinear propagation can play an important role in shaping the energy distribution during a focused ultrasound treatment and it should not be ignored in planning. However, the current simulation methods are accurate only with relatively large F-numbers and better models need to be developed for sharply focused transducers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamics of Cavitation Clouds within a High-Intensity Focused Ultrasonic Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    the cloud size. I. INTRODUCTION High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), along with the associated cavitation , is used in a variety of fields. The...Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2012- May 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamics of Cavitation Clouds within a High-Intensity Focused...in initially quiescent water. The resulting pressure field and behavior of the cavitation bubbles are measured using high-speed digital in-line

  1. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  2. Optimisation of intense X-ray sources of Z-pinch type connected to the high intensity current generator SPHINX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Lassalle, F.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.

    2010-01-01

    A new source of intense X-rays in the spectral range of the keV has been designed in the CEA facilities at Gramat (France). This Z-pinch source is based on the implosion of a cylinder of matter that has been ionized by the Lorentz force generated by the injection in the cylinder of an intense current pulse delivered by a HPP (High Pulsed Powers) generator named SPHINX. The cylinder of matter is made up of a few hundreds of thin metal wires (tungsten or aluminium) whose diameter is less than a few tenths of μm. The SPHINX generator is based on the LTD (Linear Transformer Driver) technology. SPHINX stores an energy of 2.2 MJ and delivers a current of 8 MA over a time of 1 μs. SPHINX does not use any technology of time compression, it is a robust, compact machine with reduced maintenance but the price to pay for this simplification is to maintain a high axial homogeneity of the implosion during the initiation phase, it means the pulse time of 1μs. The preliminary experiments that have been performed give the following results: -) for a tungsten cylinder (X ray 1 keV): 28 kJ, 0.6 TW and 25 ns

  3. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    ; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...

  4. Bremsstrahlung production with high-intensity laser matter interactions and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galy, J.; Maucec, M.; Hamilton, D. J.; Edwards, R.; Magill, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade an evolution of experimental relativistic laser-plasma physics has led to highly sophisticated lasers, which are now able to generate ultra short pulses and can be focused to intensities in excess of 10(21) W cm(-2), with more than 500 J on target. In the intense electric field of

  5. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Con...

  6. High or low intensity aerobic fitness training in fibromyalgia: does it matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Marijke; Bolwijn, Paulien; Landewé, Robert; Verstappen, Frans; Bakker, Carla; Hidding, Alita; van der Kemp, Désirée; Houben, Harry; van der Linden, Sjef

    2002-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of training in fibromyalgia (FM), we compared the effects of high intensity fitness training (HIF) and low intensity fitness training (LIF). Thirty-seven female patients with FM were randomly allocated to either a HIF group (n = 19) or a LIF group (n = 18). Four patients (1

  7. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women....... A three month intervention of high-intensity aerobic training reduces risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease to a similar extent in late pre- and early postmenopausal women....... the postmenopausal women had higher total cholesterol (ptraining intervention reduced body weight (p

  8. The high intensity solar cell: Key to low cost photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sater, B. L.; Goradia, C.

    1975-01-01

    The design considerations and performance characteristics of the 'high intensity' (HI) solar cell are presented. A high intensity solar system was analyzed to determine its cost effectiveness and to assess the benefits of further improving HI cell efficiency. It is shown that residential sized systems can be produced at less than $1000/kW peak electric power. Due to their superior high intensity performance characteristics compared to the conventional and VMJ cells, HI cells and light concentrators may be the key to low cost photovoltaic power.

  9. Evaluation of efficacy and indications of surgical fixation for multiple rib fractures: a propensity-score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Nishimura, T; Takesada, H; Morioka, T; Hagawa, N; Yamamoto, T; Kaga, S; Terada, T; Shinyama, N; Yamamoto, H; Mizobata, Y

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of recent surgical rib fixation and establish its indications not only for flail chest but also for multiple rib fractures. Between 2007 and 2015, 187 patients were diagnosed as having multiple rib fractures in our institution. After the propensity score matching was performed, ten patients who had performed surgical rib fixation and ten patients who had treated with non-operative management were included. Categorical variables were analyzed with Fischer's exact test and non-parametric numerical data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for comparison of pre- and postoperative variables. All statistical data are presented as median (25-75 % interquartile range [IQR]) or number. The surgically treated patients extubated significantly earlier than non-operative management patients (5.5 [1-8] vs 9 [7-12] days: p = 0.019). The duration of continuous intravenous narcotic agents infusion days (4.5 [3-6] vs 12 [9-14] days: p = 0.002) and the duration of intensive care unit stay (6.5 [3-9] vs 12 [8-14] days: p = 0.008) were also significantly shorter in surgically treated patients. Under the same ventilating conditions, the postoperative values of tidal volume and respiratory rate improved significantly compared to those values measured just before the surgery. The incidence of pneumonia as a complication was significantly higher in non-operative management group (p = 0.05). From the viewpoints of early respiratory stabilization and intensive care unit disposition without any complications, surgical rib fixation is a sufficiently acceptable procedure not only for flail chest but also for repair of severe multiple rib fractures.

  10. Case report: clinical and postmortem findings in four cows with rib fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Ueli; Warislohner, Sonja; Hetzel, Udo; Nuss, Karl

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Published reports of rib fractures in adult cattle are limited to the occurrence of chronic rib swellings caused by calluses, which are unremarkable from a clinical standpoint, whereas studies identifying clinical signs of rib fractures were not found in a literature search. This report describes the clinical and postmortem findings in four cows with rib fractures. CASE PRESENTATION: The 13th rib was fractured in three cows and the 11th rib in the remaining cow; three fractures...

  11. Comparison of Postoperative Pain Relief by Intercostal Block Between Pre-rib Harvest and Post-rib Harvest Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M. M.; Shahzad, M. A.; Yousaf, M. N.; Khan, B. A.; Khan, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare intercostal nerve block before and after rib harvest in terms of mean postoperative pain score and mean postoperative tramadol usage. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plastic Surgery, Mayo Hospital, KEMU, Lahore, from January 2011 to July 2012. Methodology: Patients (n = 120) of either gender with ASA class-I and II requiring autogenous costal cartilage graft were inducted. Patients having history of local anaesthetic hypersensitivity and age 60 years were excluded. Subjects were randomly assigned to pre-rib harvest (group-1) and post-rib harvest (group-2). Local anaesthetic mixture was prepared by adding 10 milliliters 2% lidocaine to 10 milliliters 0.5% bupivacaine to obtain a total 20 ml solution. Group-1 received local anaesthetic infiltration along the proposed incision lines and intercostals block before the rib harvest. Group-2 received the infiltration and block after rib harvest. Postoperative consumption of tramadol and pain scores were measured at 6 and 12 hours postoperatively using VAS. Results: Mean age was 31.43 A +- 10.78 years. The mean pain scores at 6 hours postoperatively were 1.033 A +- 0.609 and 2.4667 A +- 0.812 in pre-rib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean pain scores at 12 hours postoperatively were 1.45 A +- 0.565 and 3.65 A +- 0.633 in pre-rib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean tramadol used postoperatively in first 24 hours was 169 A +- 29.24 mg and 255 A +- 17.70 mg in prerib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Intercostal block administered before rib harvest as preemptive strategy result in decreased postoperative pain scores and narcotic use. (author)

  12. Rib fractures in blunt chest trauma - associated thoracic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iv. Dimitrov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE. The aim of our retrospective study was to analyze the patterns of associated thoracic injuries in patients underwent blunt chest trauma and rib fractures. METHODS. The study included 212 patients with rib fractures due to blunt thoracic trauma. The mechanism of trauma, the type of rib fracture and the type of associated injuries were analyzed. RESULTS. The patients were divided in two groups according to the number of fractured ribs-group I included the patients with up to two fractured ribs (72 patients-33,9%, and group II – with ≥3 fractured ribs (140 patients-66,1%. Associated chest injuries were present in 36 of the patients from group I (50%, and in 133 patients from group II (95%. Pulmonary contusion was the most common intrathoracicinjurie-65,6% of the cases. The mean hospital stay was 8, 7 days. The lethality rate was 16,9% -all of them due to the associated chest injuries. CONCLUSIONS. The mortality related to rib fractures is affected by the associated thoracic injuries, the advanced age, and the number of fractured ribs.

  13. Surgical Management of Rib Fractures: Strategies and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M B; Kokke, M C; Hietbrink, F; Leenen, L P H

    2014-06-01

    Rib fractures can cause significant problems in trauma patients, often resulting in pain and difficulty with respiration. To prevent pulmonary complications and decrease the morbidity and mortality rates of patients with rib fractures, currently there is a trend to provide surgical management of patients with flail chest. However, the indications for rib fracture fixation require further specification. Past and current strategies are described according to a review of the medical literature. A systematic review was performed including current indications for rib fracture fixation. MEDLINE (2000-2013) was searched, as well as Embase (2000-2013) and Cochrane Databases, using the keywords rib, fracture, fixation, plate, repair, and surgery. Three retrospective studies were found that described different techniques for rib fracture fixation. The results demonstrated a reduced number of ventilation days, decreased long-term morbidity and pain, and satisfactory rehabilitation after surgical treatment. In addition to flail chest, age, Injury Severity Score, and the number of rib fractures were important predictive factors for morbidity and mortality. Surgical rib fracture fixation might be indicated in a broader range of cases than is currently performed. Prospective randomized trials are needed for further confirmation. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.

  14. Quality of life after major trauma with multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Silvana; Lee, Geraldine; Summerhayes, Robyn; Fitzgerald, Mark; Bailey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Rib fractures are a common injury presenting to major trauma centres and community hospitals. Aside from the acute impact of rib fracture injury, longer-term morbidity of pain, disability and deformity have been described. Despite this, the mainstay of management for the vast majority of rib fracture injuries remains supportive only with analgesia and where required respiratory support. This study aimed to document the long-term quality of life in a cohort of major trauma patients with rib fracture injury over 24 months. Retrospective review (July 2006-July 2011) of 397 major trauma patients admitted to The Alfred Hospital with rib fractures and not treated with operative rib fixation. The main outcome measures were quality of life over 24 months post injury assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended and SF12 health assessment forms and a pain questionnaire. Assessment over 24 months of major trauma patients with multiple rib fractures demonstrated significantly lower quality of life compared with published Australian norms at all time points measured. Return to work rates were poor with only 71% of those who were working prior to their accident, returning to any work. This study demonstrates a significant reduction in quality of life for rib fracture patients requiring admission to hospital, which does not return to the level of Australian norms for at least two years. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The prevalence of cervical ribs in Enugu, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-18

    Nov 18, 2015 ... ... prevalence of cervical ribs and its variation with sex and age among patients ... The patients' identities were removed from the ... syndrome, only 8–10% actually has cervical rib as ... Anatomy, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. ... Illinois: American Association of Neurological Surgeons; 1998. p. 157-70.

  16. In vivo photoacoustics and high frequency ultrasound imaging of mechanical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Khalid; Hoogenboom, Martijn; den Brok, Martijn; Eikelenboom, Dylan; Adema, Gosse J; Fütterer, Jürgen J; de Korte, Chris L

    2017-04-01

    The thermal effect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been clinically exploited over a decade, while the mechanical HIFU is still largely confined to laboratory investigations. This is in part due to the lack of adequate imaging techniques to better understand the in-vivo pathological and immunological effects caused by the mechanical treatment. In this work, we explore the use of high frequency ultrasound (US) and photoacoustics (PA) as a potential tool to evaluate the effect of mechanical ablation in-vivo , e.g. boiling histotripsy. Two mice bearing a neuroblastoma tumor in the right leg were ablated using an MRI-HIFU system conceived for small animals and monitored using MRI thermometry. High frequency US and PA imaging were performed before and after the HIFU treatment. Afterwards, the tumor was resected for further assessment and evaluation of the ablated region using histopathology. High frequency US imaging revealed the presence of liquefied regions in the treated area together with fragmentized tissue which appeared with different reflecting proprieties compared to the surrounding tissue. Photoacoustic imaging on the other hand revealed the presence of deoxygenated blood within the tumor after the ablation due to the destruction of blood vessel network while color Doppler imaging confirmed the blood vessel network destruction within the tumor. The treated area and the presence of red blood cells detected by photoacoustics were further confirmed by the histopathology. This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of high frequency US and PA approach for assessing in-vivo the effect of mechanical HIFU tumor ablation.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  18. Investigation into the heat transfer performance of helically ribbed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firth, R.J.

    1981-12-01

    The first part of an investigation into flow and heat transfer in annular channels and seven pin clusters is described. One of the main aims of the project is to improve cluster heat transfer prediction codes for helically ribbed surfaces. A study is made of the heat transfer and flow characteristics of a helically ribbed pin in an annular channel. It is shown that the swirling flow, which is induced by the helical ribs, gives rise to substantially enhanced diffusivity levels. This phenomenon had not been taken into account by previous analysis techniques. The methods for analysing heat transfer and pressure drop data from annular channels which were originally developed for non-swirling flow are generalised to accommodate swirling flow. The new methods are shown to be consistent with empirical data. Roughness parameter data is presented for helically ribbed surfaces with an axial rib pitch into height ratio of about 7. (author)

  19. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifshitz, A.; Skinner, G.B.; Wood, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described

  20. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, A; Skinner, G B; Wood, D R

    1978-09-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described.

  1. Photocathode fatigue of L-24 PM head due to high intensity light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of radiation detectors which utilizes photomultipliers was determined after exposing the multiplier phototubes to high intensity light pulses. Test results found that generally less than a 5% change was found

  2. Analog measurement of delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra in a high intensity pulsed antiproton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niestroj, A.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Torii, H.A.; Morita, N.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Horvath, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-01-01

    An analog detection system has been developed to measure delayed antiproton annihilation time spectra for laser resonance spectroscopy of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms using the high-intensity pulsed beam of antiprotons from LEAR at CERN. (orig.)

  3. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette K.; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a pause with preceding high intensity contraction requires further investigation before high intensity shoulder elevations can......BACKGROUND: Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary...... contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction...

  4. Enhancement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Heating by Short-Pulse Generated Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshizawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A target tissue can be thermally coagulated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU treatment noninvasively. HIFU thermal treatments have been clinically applied to various solid tumors. One of the problems in HIFU treatments is a long treatment time. Acoustically driven microbubbles can accelerate the ultrasonic heating, resulting in the significant reduction of the treatment time. In this paper, a method named “trigger HIFU exposure” which employs cavitation microbubbles is introduced and its results are reviewed. A trigger HIFU sequence consists of high-intensity short pulses followed by moderate-intensity long bursts. Cavitation bubbles induced in a multiple focal regions by rapidly scanning the focus of high-intensity pulses enhanced the temperature increase significantly and produced a large coagulation region with high efficiency.

  5. A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.H.; Minakawa, M.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

  6. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  7. Experimental study of proton acceleration with ultra-high intensity, high contrast laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flacco, A.

    2008-07-01

    This thesis reports experimental work in the domain of laser-matter interaction to study the production of energetic proton beams. The ion beams accelerated by laser have been increasing in quality, in energy and in repeatability as laser technology keeps improving. The presence of the pedestal before the high peak laser pulse introduces many unknowns in the accelerating conditions that are created on the front and on the rear surface of the target. The first part of the experimental activities is focused to a better comprehension and the experimental validation of the interaction of a 'pedestal-like', moderate intensity, laser pulse on Aluminum targets. The developed interferometric technique proved to be reliable and produced a complete set of maps of the early stages of the plasma expansion. The reflectometry experiment stresses the importance of the quality of the metallic targets and underlines some obscure points on the behaviour of the rear surface of the illuminated foil. For instance the reflectometry measurements on the thicker targets are significantly different from what is foreseen by the simulations about the timescale of the shock break out. In the second part, the XPW laser pulse is used in ion acceleration from thin metal foils. The laser and target parameters are varied to put in evidence the dependence of the ion beam to the experimental condition. In conclusion I can say that first, during the variation of the target thickness, an optimum is put in evidence. Secondly, the correlation between the laser pulse duration and the proton cutoff energy is qualitatively different between thicker (15 μm) and thinner (1.5 μm, 3 μm) targets. For the first, an optimal pulse duration exists while for the seconds, no variation is found - in the searched space - from the monotonic decreasing of the cutoff energy with the peak intensity. The experimental results put however in evidence some points that are not completely understood. (A.C.)

  8. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP KESETIAN MEREK (Studi Kasus Restoran The Prime Steak & Ribs Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foedjiawati Foedjiawati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a research which observes the relationship between customer satisfaction and their loyalty to The Prime Steak & Ribs Restaurant. The customer satisfaction is measured through some attributes such as, attributes related to the product, attributes related to the service, and attributes related to the purchase. Meanwhile, the loyalty of its brand is measured through habitual behaviour, switching cost, satisfaction, liking of the brand and commitment. The result of the research reveals that customer satisfaction levels to The Prime Steak & Ribs Restaurant tends to be good. Some attributes still have a variety of high grade, and there is a positive causal influence that is significant between the customer satisfaction and the loyalty of the brand. Thus, the result of the research is relevant and at the same time supports the theory of brand loyalty. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian Pengaruh Kepuasan Konsumen terhadap Kesetiaan Merek pada Restoran the Prime Steak & Ribs, kepuasan konsumen diukur melalui Attributes related to the product, Attributes related to the service, Attributes related to the purchase, kesetiaan merek diukur melalui habitual behaviour, switching cost, satisfaction, liking of the brand, dan commitment. Hasil penelitian mengungkapakan bahwa kepuasan konsumen di The Prime Steak & Ribs mendapat penilaian yang cenderung baik, beberapa atribut masih mempunyai variasi penilaian yang tinggi, dan terdapat hubungan pengaruh positip yang signifikan antara kepuasan konsumen dengan kesetiaan merek, dengan demikian hasil penelitian mendukung konsep teori tentang kesetiaan merek. Kata kunci: kepuasan, kesetiaan merek.

  9. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Miller, S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Radiobiology Div.; Sacco-Gibson, N. [Proctor and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  10. Numerical investigation of mist/air impingement cooling on ribbed blade leading-edge surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qingfei; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yi-Tung; Wang, Qiuwang; Zeng, Min

    2017-12-01

    The working gas turbine blades are exposed to the environment of high temperature, especially in the leading-edge region. The mist/air two-phase impingement cooling has been adopted to enhance the heat transfer on blade surfaces and investigate the leading-edge cooling effectiveness. An Euler-Lagrange particle tracking method is used to simulate the two-phase impingement cooling on the blade leading-edge. The mesh dependency test has been carried out and the numerical method is validated based on the available experimental data of mist/air cooling with jet impingement on a concave surface. The cooling effectiveness on three target surfaces is investigated, including the smooth and the ribbed surface with convex/concave columnar ribs. The results show that the cooling effectiveness of the mist/air two-phase flow is better than that of the single-phase flow. When the ribbed surfaces are used, the heat transfer enhancement is significant, the surface cooling effectiveness becomes higher and the convex ribbed surface presents a better performance. With the enhancement of the surface heat transfer, the pressure drop in the impingement zone increases, but the incremental factor of the flow friction is smaller than that of the heat transfer enhancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Electrostimulation and Core Exercises on Recovery After High-Intensity Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Mor; Gökhan İpekoğlu; Cansel Arslanoglu; Kursat Acar; Erkal Arslanoglu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of electrostimulation and core exercises on recovery after high-intensity exercise. Methods: The participants of this study consists of 12 male bodybuilders who regularly train and between the ages 18-30. Tabata high intensity interval training (HIIT) was applied with different recovery methods to the athletes on three different days and the recovery levels of athletes were analysed. Heart rate and blood lacta...

  12. High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) versus TENS and NSAIDs in low back pain: clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zati, Allesandro; Fortuna, Damiano; Valent, A.; Filippi, M. V.; Bilotta, Teresa W.

    2004-09-01

    Low back pain, caused by lumbar disc herniation, is prevalently treated with a conservative approach. In this study we valued the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT), compared with accepted therapies such as TENS and NSAIDs. Laser therapy obtained similar results in the short term, but better clinical effect over time than TENS and NSAIDs. In conclusion high intensity laser therapy appears to be a interesting new treatment, worthy of further research.

  13. Impact of a high intensity training program on glucose tolerance in people with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patyn, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent research reported a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in MS patients than in healthy people. The influence of high intensity exercise on IGT in MS was never investigated before. Objective: To investigate the effect of high intensity aerobic interval (HIIT) or continuous endurance (CT) training, both in combination with resistance training, on glucose tolerance muscle strength and body composition. Methods: 34 subjects were randomly as...

  14. Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis involving the Clavicle, Spine and Ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Krishnan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes an unusual case of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, involving the right clavicle and multicentric aytpical spine involvement without any neurological deficit. The female patient presented with acute onset of right clavicular pain associated with a one-month history of lower backache with constitutional symptoms. The clavicular lesion and MRI spine findings were highly suggestive of TB. Anti TB drugs (ATD were started empirically as Sabah, Malaysia the patient’s home, is an endemic area for TB. Despite, 2 months of ATD administration, the patient did not respond well clinically and developed left sided chest wall abscesses arising from the left 3rd and 6th ribs. She was then treated for MDR-TB infection and has responded well to this treatment.

  15. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow using V and broken V ribs within gas turbine blade cooling passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sourabh; Amano, R. S.

    2015-05-01

    throughout the two pass cooling channels. After a series of experiments, it can be concluded that the distribution of peaks in heat transfer in the case of inlet V and outlet inverted V is high. The overall performances for broken ribs are higher compared with the continuous ribs in two-pass cooling channels.

  16. Experimental investigation of cross-over jets in a rib-roughened trailing-edge cooling channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei

    Increasing the rotor inlet temperature can dramatically increase the efficiency and power output of the gas turbine engine. However, the melting point of turbine blade material limits the realistic upper bound of the rotor inlet temperature. As a result, the development of high temperature turbine blade material and advanced turbine blade cooling technology determines the future of turbine blade engine. Adding impingement jet holes and rib turbulators in the inner cooling channel of the gas turbine blades are two effective ways to enhance the cooling effects. The purpose of this study is to figure out the influence of different combinations of jet holes and rib turbulators on the heat transfer efficiency. A tabletop scale test model is used in the study to simulate the cooling cavity of trailing edge and its feed channel in a real gas turbine blade. The Dimensional Analysis Theory is used in the study to eliminate the influence of scaling. Two different crossover slots are tested with 5 different rib arrangements, and each of the test geometries is tested for 6 jet Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 36,000. The two different crossover slots are the crossover slots with 0 and 5 degree tilt angles. The four different rib arrangements are ribs with 0 degree, 45 degree, 90 degree and 135 degree angles of attack with respect to the flow direction. Furthermore, a smooth test section (no ribs) was also tested. The steady state liquid crystal thermography is used to quantify the heat transfer performance of the target areas. The variation of Nusselt number versus Reynolds number is plotted for each of the 10 geometries. Also, the variation of Nusselt number versus Reynolds number are compared for different rib angles of attack with the same crossover slot tilt angle, and between different crossover slots tilt angles with the same rib angle. The results show that, the area-weighted average Nusselt number increases monotonically with the Reynolds number; the target

  17. Painful rib hump: a new clinical sign for detecting intraspinal rib displacement in scoliosis due to neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsalouli Marina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord compression and associate neurological impairment is rare in patients with scoliosis and neurofibromatosis. Common reasons are vertebral subluxation, dislocation, angulation and tumorous lesions around the spinal canal. Only twelve cases of intraspinal rib dislocation have been reported in the literature. The aim of this report is to present a case of rib penetration through neural foramen at the apex of a scoliotic curve in neurofibromatosis and to introduce a new clinical sign for its detection. Methods A 13-year-old girl was evaluated for progressive left thoracic kyphoscoliotic curve due to a type I neurofibromatosis. Clinical examination revealed multiple large thoracic and abdominal "cafe-au-lait" spots, neurological impairment of the lower limbs and the presence of a thoracic gibbous that was painful to pressure at the level of the left eighth rib (Painful Rib Hump. CT-scan showed detachment and translocation of the cephalic end of the left eighth rib into the adjacent enlarged neural foramen. The M.R.I. examination of the spine showed neither cord abnormality nor neurogenic tumor. Results The patient underwent resection of the intraspinal mobile eighth rib head and posterior spinal instrumentation and was neurologically fully recovered six months postoperatively. Conclusion Spine surgeons should be aware of intraspinal rib displacement in scoliotic curves in neurofibromatosis. Painful rib hump is a valuable diagnostic tool for this rare clinical entity.

  18. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  19. Comparative study between rib imaging of DR dual energy subtraction technology and chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jianming; Lei Ziqiao; Kong Xiangchuang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application value of DR dual energy subtraction technology in rib lesions. Methods: 200 patients were performed with chest DR dual energy subtraction, comparing the rib imaging between DR of thorax and chest imaging using ROC analysis. Results: Among the total of 200 patients, there are 50 cases of rib calcification, 7 cases of rib destruction, 22 cases of rib fracture. The calcification, destruction and fracture were displayed respectively by ribs below diaphragm and rib markings. The analytic parameter of rib imaging of DR dual energy subtraction Az is 0.9367, while that of rib imaging of chest Az is 0.6830. Conclusion: DR dual energy subtraction technology is superior to chest imaging in the displaying of rib lesion and ribs below diaphragm. (authors)

  20. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.