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Sample records for high frequency vibrational

  1. High frequency vibration analysis by the complex envelope vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, O; Carcaterra, A; Sestieri, A

    2007-06-01

    The complex envelope displacement analysis (CEDA) is a procedure to solve high frequency vibration and vibro-acoustic problems, providing the envelope of the physical solution. CEDA is based on a variable transformation mapping the high frequency oscillations into signals of low frequency content and has been successfully applied to one-dimensional systems. However, the extension to plates and vibro-acoustic fields met serious difficulties so that a general revision of the theory was carried out, leading finally to a new method, the complex envelope vectorization (CEV). In this paper the CEV method is described, underlying merits and limits of the procedure, and a set of applications to vibration and vibro-acoustic problems of increasing complexity are presented.

  2. High Frequency Longitudinal Damped Vibrations of a Cylindrical Ultrasonic Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Valentin Predoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers used in classical nondestructive testing are producing in general longitudinal vibrations in the MHz range. A simple mechanical model of these transducers would be very useful for wave propagation numerical simulations, avoiding the existing complicated models in which the real components of the transducer are modeled by finite elements. The classical model for longitudinal vibrations is not adequate because the generated longitudinal wave is not dispersive, the velocity being the same at any frequency. We have adopted the Rayleigh-Bishop model, which avoids these limitations, even if it is not converging to the first but to the second exact longitudinal mode in an elastic rod, as obtained from the complicated Pochhammer-Chree equations. Since real transducers have significant vibrations damping, we have introduced a damping term in the Rayleigh-Bishop model, increasing the imaginary part and keeping almost identical real part of the wavenumber. Common transducers produce amplitude modulated signals, completely attenuated after several periods. This can be modeled by two close frequencies, producing a “beat” phenomenon, superposed on the high damping. For this reason, we introduce a two-rod Rayleigh-Bishop model with damping. Agreement with measured normal velocity on the transducer free surface is encouraging for continuation of the research.

  3. High Frequency Vibration Based Fatigue Testing of Developmental Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holycross, Casey M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; George, Tommy J.; Tamirisakandala, Seshacharyulu; Russ, Stephan M.

    Many fatigue test methods have been previously developed to rapidly evaluate fatigue behavior. This increased test speed can come at some expense, since these methods may require non-standard specimen geometry or increased facility and equipment capability. One such method, developed by George et al, involves a base-excited plate specimen driven into a high frequency bending resonant mode. This resonant mode is of sufficient frequency (typically 1200 to 1700 Hertz) to accumulate 107 cycles in a few hours. One of the main limitations of this test method is that fatigue cracking is almost certainly guaranteed to be surface initiated at regions of high stress. This brings into question the validity of the fatigue test results, as compared to more traditional uniaxial, smooth-bar testing, since high stresses are subjecting only a small volume to fatigue damage. This limitation also brings into question the suitability of this method to screen developmental alloys, should their initiation life be governed by subsurface flaws. However, if applicable, the rapid generation of fatigue data using this method would facilitate faster design iterations, identifying more quickly, material and manufacturing process deficiencies. The developmental alloy used in this study was a powder metallurgy boron-modified Ti-6Al-4V, a new alloy currently being considered for gas turbine engine fan blades. Plate specimens were subjected to fully reversed bending fatigue. Results are compared with existing data from commercially available Ti-6Al-4V using both vibration based and more traditional fatigue test methods.

  4. Grid Cell Relaxation Effects on the High Frequency Vibration Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Joo-Young; Eom, Kyong-Bo; Jeon, Sang-Youn; Kim, Jae-Ik

    2015-01-01

    The plate structure of the grid of fuel assembly is always exposed to serious vortex induced vibration. Also, High Frequency flow induced Vibration (HFV) is primarily generated by vortex-shedding effect. When it comes to grid design as a fuel assembly component, HFV should be considered in advance since it is one of the critical factors. Excessive HFV has a possibility of making degradation of the fuel reliability that is directly related to the fuel robustness and operating performance. KEPCO NF (KNF) has performed HFV tests with various grid designs. While studying the HFV characteristics through the HFV tests, it has been observed that HFV amplitudes show different levels according to grid cell relaxation. It means that the testing could give different interpretations due to the condition of grid cell. Since the amount of relaxation is different under operating conditions and environments in a reactor, test specimens should be modified as much as possible to the real state of the fuel. Therefore, in order to consider the grid cell relaxation effects on the HFV tests, it is important to use cell sized or non-cell sized grids. The main focus of this study is to find out how the HFV characteristics such as amplitude and frequency are affected by grid cell relaxation. Three cases of the grid cell sized specimen which is nickel alloy were prepared and tested. Through the comparison of the test results, it could be concluded that HFV amplitudes show decreasing trend according to the grid cell relaxation in the case of nickel alloy grid. It is also possible to expect the tendency of grid cell relaxation of a zirconium alloy grid based on test results

  5. Investigation into high-frequency-vibration assisted micro-blanking of pure copper foils

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    Wang Chunju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties encountered during the manufacture of microparts are often associated with size effects relating to material, process and tooling. Utilizing acoustoplastic softening, achieved through a high-frequency vibration assisted micro-blanking process, was introduced to improve the surface finish in micro-blanking. A frequency of 1.0 kHz was chosen to activate the longitudinal vibration mode of the horn tip, using a piezoelectric actuator. A square hole with dimensions of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm was made, successfully, from a commercial rolled T2 copper foil with 100 μm in thickness. It was found that the maximum blanking force could be reduced by 5% through utilizing the high-frequency vibration. Proportion of the smooth, burnished area in the cut cross-section increases with an increase of the plasticity to fracture, under the high-frequency vibration, which suggests that the vibration introduced is helpful for inhibiting evolution of the crack due to its acoustoplastic softening effect. During blanking, roughness of the burnished surface could be reduced by increasing the vibration amplitude of the punch, which played a role as surface polishing. The results obtained suggest that the high-frequency vibration can be adopted in micro-blanking in order to improve quality of the microparts.

  6. Research on the Vibration Insulation of High-Speed Train Bogies in Mid and High Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a large amount of the test data, the mid and high frequency vibrations of high-speed bogies are very notable, especially in the 565~616 Hz range, which are just the passing frequencies corresponding to the 22nd to 24th polygonal wear of the wheel. In order to investigate the main cause of wheel higher-order polygon formation, a 3D flexible model of a Chinese high-speed train bogie is developed using the explicit finite element method. The results show that the couple vibration of bogie and wheelset may lead to the high-order wears of wheel. In order to reduce the coupled resonance of the wheelset and the bogie frame, the effects of the stiffness and damping of the primary suspensions, wheelset axle radius, and bogie frame strength on the vibration transmissibility are discussed carefully. The numerical results show that the resonance peaks in high frequency range can be reduced by reducing the stiffness of axle box rotary arm joint, reducing the wheelset axle radius or strengthening the bogie frame location. The related results may provide a reference for structure improvement of the existing bogies and structure design of the new high-speed bogies.

  7. High frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system under in-wheel motor torque ripple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Zuo, Shuguang; Wu, Xudong; Duan, Xianglei

    2017-07-01

    With the introduction of in-wheel motor, the electric wheel system encounters new vibration problems brought by motor torque ripple excitation. In order to analyze new vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, torque ripple of in-wheel motor based on motor module and vector control system is primarily analyzed, and frequency/order features of the torque ripple are discussed. Then quarter vehicle-electric wheel system (QV-EWS) dynamics model based on the rigid ring tire assumption is established and the main parameters of the model are identified according to tire free modal test. Modal characteristics of the model are further analyzed. The analysis indicates that torque excitation of in-wheel motor is prone to arouse horizontal vibration, in which in-phase rotational, anti-phase rotational and horizontal translational modes of electric wheel system mainly participate. Based on the model, vibration responses of the QV-EWS under torque ripple are simulated. The results show that unlike vertical low frequency (lower than 20 Hz) vibration excited by road roughness, broadband torque ripple will arouse horizontal high frequency (50-100 Hz) vibration of electric wheel system due to participation of the three aforementioned modes. To verify the theoretical analysis, the bench experiment of electric wheel system is conducted and vibration responses are acquired. The experiment demonstrates the high frequency vibration phenomenon of electric wheel system and the measured order features as well as main resonant frequencies agree with simulation results. Through theoretical modeling, analysis and experiments this paper reveals and explains the high frequency vibration characteristics of electric wheel system, providing references for the dynamic analysis, optimal design of QV-EWS.

  8. An Analysis of the High Frequency Vibrations in Early Thematic Mapper Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, J.; Larduinat, E.

    1985-01-01

    The motion of the mirrors in the thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) instruments, and the motion of other devices, such as the TDRSS antenna drive, and solar array drives onboard LANDSAT-4 cause vibrations to propagate through the spacecraft. These vibrations as well as nonlinearities in the scanning motion of the TM mirror can cause the TM detectors to point away from their nominal positions. Two computer programs, JITTER and SCDFT, were developed as part of the LANDSAT-D Assessment System (LAS), Products and Procedures Analysis (PAPA) program to evaluate the potential effect of high frequency vibrations on the final TM image. The maximum overlap and underlap which were observed for early TM scenes are well within specifications for the ground processing system. The cross scan and scan high frequency vibrations are also within the specifications cited for the flight system.

  9. High-precision and low-cost vibration generator for low-frequency calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Jun; Lei, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Lian-Sheng; Chang, Zhen-Xin; Fan, Kuang-Chao; Cheng, Zhen-Ying; Hu, Peng-Hao

    2018-03-01

    Low-frequency vibration is one of the harmful factors that affect the accuracy of micro-/nano-measuring machines because its amplitude is significantly small and it is very difficult to avoid. In this paper, a low-cost and high-precision vibration generator was developed to calibrate an optical accelerometer, which is self-designed to detect low-frequency vibration. A piezoelectric actuator is used as vibration exciter, a leaf spring made of beryllium copper is used as an elastic component, and a high-resolution, low-thermal-drift eddy current sensor is applied to investigate the vibrator’s performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the vibration generator can achieve steady output displacement with frequency range from 0.6 Hz to 50 Hz, an analytical displacement resolution of 3.1 nm and an acceleration range from 3.72 mm s-2 to 1935.41 mm s-2 with a relative standard deviation less than 1.79%. The effectiveness of the high-precision and low-cost vibration generator was verified by calibrating our optical accelerometer.

  10. Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Vibration Fails to Accelerate Ligament Healing but Stimulates Collagen Synthesis in the Achilles Tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William R; Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S

    2015-05-01

    Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration accelerates fracture and wound healing and prevents disuse atrophy in musculoskeletal tissues. To investigate the role of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration as a treatment to accelerate healing of an acute ligament injury and to examine gene expression in the intact Achilles tendon of the injured limb after low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration. Controlled laboratory study. Complete surgical transection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) was performed in 32 Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into control and low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration groups. Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration started on postoperative day 2, and rats received vibration for 30 minutes a day for 12 days. All rats were sacrificed 2 weeks after the operation, and their intact and injured MCLs were biomechanically tested or used for histological analysis. Intact Achilles tendons from the injured limb were evaluated for differences in gene expression. Mechanical testing revealed no differences in the ultimate tensile load or the structural stiffness between the control and vibration groups for either the injured or intact MCL. Vibration exposure increased gene expression of collagen 1 alpha (3-fold), interleukin 6 (7-fold), cyclooxygenase 2 (5-fold), and bone morphogenetic protein 12 (4-fold) in the intact Achilles tendon when compared with control tendons ( P frequency vibration treatment, significant enhancements in gene expression were observed in the intact Achilles tendon. These included collagen, several inflammatory cytokines, and growth factors critical for tendons. As low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration had no negative effects on ligament healing, vibration therapy may be a useful tool to accelerate healing of other tissues (bone) in multitrauma injuries without inhibiting ligament healing. Additionally, the enhanced gene expression in response to low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration in the intact Achilles tendon suggests the

  11. Eulerian frequency analysis of structural vibrations from high-speed video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzoni, Andrea; De Ryck, Laurent; Cuenca, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    An approach for the analysis of the frequency content of structural vibrations from high-speed video recordings is proposed. The techniques and tools proposed rely on an Eulerian approach, that is, using the time history of pixels independently to analyse structural motion, as opposed to Lagrangian approaches, where the motion of the structure is tracked in time. The starting point is an existing Eulerian motion magnification method, which consists in decomposing the video frames into a set of spatial scales through a so-called Laplacian pyramid [1]. Each scale — or level — can be amplified independently to reconstruct a magnified motion of the observed structure. The approach proposed here provides two analysis tools or pre-amplification steps. The first tool provides a representation of the global frequency content of a video per pyramid level. This may be further enhanced by applying an angular filter in the spatial frequency domain to each frame of the video before the Laplacian pyramid decomposition, which allows for the identification of the frequency content of the structural vibrations in a particular direction of space. This proposed tool complements the existing Eulerian magnification method by amplifying selectively the levels containing relevant motion information with respect to their frequency content. This magnifies the displacement while limiting the noise contribution. The second tool is a holographic representation of the frequency content of a vibrating structure, yielding a map of the predominant frequency components across the structure. In contrast to the global frequency content representation of the video, this tool provides a local analysis of the periodic gray scale intensity changes of the frame in order to identify the vibrating parts of the structure and their main frequencies. Validation cases are provided and the advantages and limits of the approaches are discussed. The first validation case consists of the frequency content

  12. Effect of vibration frequency on microstructure and performance of high chromium cast iron prepared by lost foam casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-qi Zou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, high chromium cast irons (HCCIs were prepared using the lost foam casting (LFC process. To improve the wear resistance of the high chromium cast irons (HCCIs, mechanical vibration was employed during the solidification of the HCCIs. The effects of vibration frequency on the microstructure and performance of the HCCIs under as-cast, as-quenched and as-tempered conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructures of the LFC-produced HCCIs were refined due to the introduction of mechanical vibration, and the hardness was improved compared to that of the alloy without vibration. However, only a slight improvement in hardness was found in spite of the increase of vibration frequency. In contrast, the impact toughness of the as-tempered HCCIs increased with an increase in the vibration frequency. In addition, the wear resistance of the HCCIs was improved as a result of the introduction of vibration and increased with an increase in the vibration frequency.

  13. First-principles studies of PETN molecular crystal vibrational frequencies under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren; Zhao, Jijun

    2005-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies will be presented and compared with experiment. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used.

  14. Transmission of High Frequency Vibrations in Rotating Systems. Application to Cavitation Detection in Hydraulic Turbines

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    David Valentín

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of damage in hydraulic turbines is cavitation. While not all cavitation appearing in a turbine is of a destructive type, erosive cavitation can severely affect the structure, thus increasing maintenance costs and reducing the remaining useful life of the machine. Of all types of cavitation, the maximum erosion occurs when clouds of bubbles collapse on the runner surface (cloud cavitation. When this occurs it is associated with a substantial increase in noise, and vibrations that are propagated everywhere throughout the machine. The generation of these cavitation clouds may occur naturally or it may be the response to a periodic pressure fluctuation, like the rotor/stator interaction in a hydraulic turbine. Erosive bubble cavitation generates high-frequency vibrations that are modulated by the shedding frequency. Therefore, the methods for the detection of erosive cavitation in hydraulic turbines are based on the measurement and demodulation of high-frequency vibrations. In this paper, the feasibility of detecting erosive cavitation in hydraulic turbines is investigated experimentally in a rotating disk system, which represents a simplified hydraulic turbine structure. The test rig used consists of a rotating disk submerged in a tank of water and confined with nearby axial and radial rigid surfaces. The excitation patterns produced by cloud cavitation are reproduced with a PZT (piezoelectric patch located on the disk. These patterns include pseudo-random excitations of different frequency bands modulated by one low carrier frequency, which model the erosive cavitation characteristics. Different types of sensors have been placed in the stationary and in the rotating parts (accelerometers, acoustic emission (AE, and a microphone in order to detect the excitation pattern. The results obtained for all the sensors tested have been compared in detail for the different excitation patterns applied to the disk. With this information

  15. The vibrational behaviour of the generator support structure for Koeberg nuclear power station at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    The vibrational behaviour of the generator support structure at Koeberg nuclear power station at frequencies primarily in the region of 80 Hz to 110 Hz was examined. The effect of soil-structure interaction and the change in stiffness of the foundation soil was investigated. Vibration tests were performed on the generator support structure and the results were compared with a theoretical finite element analysis of the structure. By varying the soil-cement foundation stiffness it was possible to demonstrate the change in dynamic behaviour of the structure in the higher frequency band 80 Hz to 110 Hz. Comment has been made on the design code DIN 4024 in view of the findings of this thesis. It was concluded that the empirical rules regarding the inclusion of the foundation in an analysis specified by the code do not cover all cases and greater cognisance of the effect of the foundation stiffness on the vibration behaviour of such machine foundations is necessary. Obvious machine frequencies higher than the operational frequencies should be analysed where it is considered necessary. 24 refs., 25 tabs., 83 figs

  16. Low intensity, high frequency vibration training to improve musculoskeletal function in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A Novotny

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine if low intensity, high frequency vibration training impacted the musculoskeletal system in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, relative to healthy mice. Three-week old wildtype (n = 26 and mdx mice (n = 22 were randomized to non-vibrated or vibrated (45 Hz and 0.6 g, 15 min/d, 5 d/wk groups. In vivo and ex vivo contractile function of the anterior crural and extensor digitorum longus muscles, respectively, were assessed following 8 wks of vibration. Mdx mice were injected 5 and 1 days prior to sacrifice with Calcein and Xylenol, respectively. Muscles were prepared for histological and triglyceride analyses and subcutaneous and visceral fat pads were excised and weighed. Tibial bones were dissected and analyzed by micro-computed tomography for trabecular morphometry at the metaphysis, and cortical geometry and density at the mid-diaphysis. Three-point bending tests were used to assess cortical bone mechanical properties and a subset of tibiae was processed for dynamic histomorphometry. Vibration training for 8 wks did not alter trabecular morphometry, dynamic histomorphometry, cortical geometry, or mechanical properties (P ≥ 0.34. Vibration did not alter any measure of muscle contractile function (P ≥ 0.12; however the preservation of muscle function and morphology in mdx mice indicates vibration is not deleterious to muscle lacking dystrophin. Vibrated mice had smaller subcutaneous fat pads (P = 0.03 and higher intramuscular triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.03. These data suggest that vibration training at 45 Hz and 0.6 g did not significantly impact the tibial bone and the surrounding musculature, but may influence fat distribution in mice.

  17. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  18. Effects of cations and cholesterol with sphingomyelin membranes investigated by high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Feng, Rong-juan; Li, Yi-yi; Liu, Ming-hua; Guo, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Sphingomyelin(SM) is specifically enriched in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. Its molecular structure is compose by N-acyl-Derythro-sphingosylphosphorylcholine. The function of the SM related to membrane signaling and protein trafficking are relied on the interactions of the SM, cations, cholesterol and proteins. In this report, the interaction of three different nature SMs, cations and cholesterol at air/aqueous interfaces studied by high-resolution broadband sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy, respectively. Our results shed lights on understanding the relationship between SMs monolayer, cholesterol and Cations.

  19. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments.......High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...

  20. Vibration-induced displacement using high-frequency resonators and friction layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider with an imbedded resonator. A simple approximate expression is presented for predicting average velocities of the slider, agreeing fairly well with numerical integration of the full equations of motion. The simple ex...

  1. Capturing inhomogeneous broadening of the -CN stretch vibration in a Langmuir monolayer with high-resolution spectra and ultrafast vibrational dynamics in sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Luis; Wang, Hong-fei

    2013-08-01

    While in principle the frequency-domain and time-domain spectroscopic measurements should generate identical information for a given molecular system, the inhomogeneous character of surface vibrations in sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) studies has only been studied with time-domain SFG-VS by mapping the decay of the vibrational polarization using ultrafast lasers, this due to the lack of SFG vibrational spectra with high enough spectral resolution and accurate enough lineshape. Here, with the recently developed high-resolution broadband SFG-VS (HR-BB-SFG-VS) technique, we show that the inhomogeneous lineshape can be obtained in the frequency-domain for the anchoring CN stretch of the 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface, and that an excellent agreement with the time-domain SFG free-induction-decay can be established. We found that the 8CB CN stretch spectrum consists of a single peak centered at 2234.00 ± 0.01 cm-1 with a total linewidth of 10.9 ± 0.3 cm-1 at half maximum. The Lorentzian contribution accounts only for 4.7 ± 0.4 cm-1 to this width and the Gaussian (inhomogeneous) broadening for as much as 8.1 ± 0.2 cm-1. Polarization analysis of the -CN spectra showed that the -CN group is tilted 57° ± 2° from the surface normal. The large heterogeneity in the -CN spectrum is tentatively attributed to the -CN group interactions with the interfacial water molecules penetrated/accommodated into the 8CB monolayer, a unique phenomenon for the nCB Langmuir monolayers reported previously.

  2. Low magnitude high frequency vibration promotes adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells via P38 MAPK signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao

    Full Text Available Low magnitude high frequency vibration (LMHFV has been mainly reported for its influence on the musculoskeletal system, particularly the bone tissue. In the bone structure, osteogenic activity is the main focus of study with regards to LMHFV. However, adipogenesis, another important mode of differentiation in the bone marrow cavity that might be affected by LMHFV, is much less researched. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of how LMHFV influences adipogenesis still needs to be understood. Here, we tested the effect of LMHFV (0.3g, 40 Hz, amplitude: 50μm, 15min/d, on multipotent stem cells (MSCs, which are the common progenitors of osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and myogenic cells. It is previously shown that LMHFV promotes osteogenesis of MSCs. In this study, we further revealed its effect on adipo-differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs and studied the underlying signaling pathway. We found that when treated with LMHFV, the cells showed a higher expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin and showed more oil droplets. After vibration, the protein expression of PPARγ increased, and the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was enhanced. After treating cells with SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, both the protein level of PPARγ illustrated by immunofluorescent staining and the oil droplets number, were decreased. Altogether, this indicates that p38 MAPK is activated during adipogenesis of BMSCs, and this is promoted by LMHFV. Our results demonstrating that specific parameters of LMHFV promotes adipogenesis of MSCs and enhances osteogenesis, highlights an unbeneficial side effect of vibration therapy used for preventing obesity and osteoporosis.

  3. How does high-frequency sound or vibration activate vestibular receptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curthoys, I S; Grant, J W

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism by which vestibular neural phase locking occurs and how it relates to classical otolith mechanics is unclear. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that sound and vibration both cause fluid pressure waves in the inner ear and that it is these pressure waves which displace the hair bundles on vestibular receptor hair cells and result in activation of type I receptor hair cells and phase locking of the action potentials in the irregular vestibular afferents, which synapse on type I receptors. This idea has been suggested since the early neural recordings and recent results give it greater credibility.

  4. A study on the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the contribution of body vibrations to the vibratory sensation induced by high-level, complex low-frequency noise, we conducted two experiments. In Experiment 1, eight male subjects were exposed to seven types of low-frequency noise stimuli: two pure tones [a 31.5-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone and a 50-Hz, 100-dB(SPL tone] and five complex noises composed of the pure tones. For the complex noise stimuli, the sound pressure level of one tonal component was 100 dB(SPL and that of another one was either 90, 95, or 100 dB(SPL. Vibration induced on the body surface was measured at five locations, and the correlation with the subjective rating of the vibratory sensation at each site of measurement was examined. In Experiment 2, the correlation between the body surface vibration and the vibratory sensation was similarly examined using seven types of noise stimuli composed of a 25-Hz tone and a 50-Hz tone. In both the experiments, we found that at the chest and the abdomen, the rating of the vibratory sensation was in close correlation with the vibration acceleration level (VAL of the body surface vibration measured at each corresponding location. This was consistent with our previous results and suggested that at the trunk of the body (the chest and the abdomen, the mechanoreception of body vibrations plays an important role in the experience of the vibratory sensation in persons exposed to high-level low-frequency noise. At the head, however, no close correlation was found between the rating of the vibratory sensation and the VAL of body surface vibration. This suggested that at the head, the perceptual mechanisms of vibration induced by high-level low-frequency noise were different from those in the trunk of the body.

  5. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear s...

  6. The boundary integral equations method for analysis of high-frequency vibrations of an elastic layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sorokin, S.; Kolman, Radek; Kopačka, Ján

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2017), s. 737-750 ISSN 0939-1533 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03823S; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : an elastic layer * symmetric and skew-symmetric waves * the Green’s matrix * boundary integral equations * eigen frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Acoustics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00419-016-1220-y

  7. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  8. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podder, P; Constantinou, P; Roy, S; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators. (paper)

  9. Sum frequency generation for surface vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.H.; Guyot-Sionnest, P.; Shen, Y.R.

    1987-01-01

    Surface vibrational spectroscopy is one of the best means for characterizing molecular adsorbates. For this reason, many techniques have been developed in the past. However, most of them suffer from poor sensitivity, low spectral and temporal resolution, and applications limited to vacuum solid interfaces. Recently, the second harmonic generation (SHG) technique was proved repeatedly to be a simple but versatile surface probe. It is highly sensitive and surface specific; it is also capable of achieving high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. Being an optical technique, it can be applied to any interface accessible by light. The only serious drawback is its lack of molecular selectivity. An obvious remedy is the extension of the technique to IR-visible sum frequency generation (SFG). Surface vibrational spectroscopy with submonolayer sensitivity is then possible using SFG with the help of a tunable IR laser. The authors report here an SFG measurement of the C-H stretch vibration of monolayers of molecules at air-solid and air-liquid interfaces

  10. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song-Hui; Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the key participants in regulation of bone mass. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) has been found to be anabolic to bone in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LMHFV on osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Murine monocyte cell line RAW264.7 cells in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) were treated with or without LMHFV at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day(-1). Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells (MNCs) and actin ring formation were evaluated. Expression of the osteoclast-specific genes, such as cathepsin K, matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) and TRAP, were analyzed using real time-PCR. c-Fos, an osteoclast-specific transcription factor, was determined using Western blot. We found that LMHFV significantly decreased the number of RANKL-induced TRAP-positive MNCs (P<0.01), and inhibited the actin ring formation. The mRNA expression of the cathepsin K, MMP-9 and TRAP were down-regulated by LMHFV intervention (all P<0.001). Furthermore, LMHFV also inhibited the expression of c-Fos protein in the RANKL-treated RAW264.7 cells (P<0.05). Our results suggest that LMHFV can inhibit the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells, which give some new insight into the anabolic effects of LMHFV on bone.

  11. The direct field boundary impedance of two-dimensional periodic structures with application to high frequency vibration prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Robin S; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    Large sections of many types of engineering construction can be considered to constitute a two-dimensional periodic structure, with examples ranging from an orthogonally stiffened shell to a honeycomb sandwich panel. In this paper, a method is presented for computing the boundary (or edge) impedance of a semi-infinite two-dimensional periodic structure, a quantity which is referred to as the direct field boundary impedance matrix. This terminology arises from the fact that none of the waves generated at the boundary (the direct field) are reflected back to the boundary in a semi-infinite system. The direct field impedance matrix can be used to calculate elastic wave transmission coefficients, and also to calculate the coupling loss factors (CLFs), which are required by the statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach to predicting high frequency vibration levels in built-up systems. The calculation of the relevant CLFs enables a two-dimensional periodic region of a structure to be modeled very efficiently as a single subsystem within SEA, and also within related methods, such as a recently developed hybrid approach, which couples the finite element method with SEA. The analysis is illustrated by various numerical examples involving stiffened plate structures.

  12. The impact of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration on fracture healing is profoundly influenced by the oestrogen status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Wehrle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture healing is impaired in aged and osteoporotic individuals. Because adequate mechanical stimuli are able to increase bone formation, one therapeutical approach to treat poorly healing fractures could be the application of whole-body vibration, including low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV. We investigated the effects of LMHFV on fracture healing in aged osteoporotic mice. Female C57BL/6NCrl mice (n=96 were either ovariectomised (OVX or sham operated (non-OVX at age 41 weeks. When aged to 49 weeks, all mice received a femur osteotomy that was stabilised using an external fixator. The mice received whole-body vibrations (20 minutes/day with 0.3 g peak-to-peak acceleration and a frequency of 45 Hz. After 10 and 21 days, the osteotomised femurs and intact bones (contra-lateral femurs, lumbar spine were evaluated using bending-testing, micro-computed tomography (μCT, histology and gene expression analyses. LMHFV disturbed fracture healing in aged non-OVX mice, with significantly reduced flexural rigidity (−81% and bone formation (−80% in the callus. Gene expression analyses demonstrated increased oestrogen receptor β (ERβ, encoded by Esr2 and Sost expression in the callus of the vibrated animals, but decreased β-catenin, suggesting that ERβ might mediate these negative effects through inhibition of osteoanabolic Wnt/β-catenin signalling. In contrast, in OVX mice, LMHFV significantly improved callus properties, with increased flexural rigidity (+1398% and bone formation (+637%, which could be abolished by subcutaneous oestrogen application (0.025 mg oestrogen administered in a 90-day-release pellet. On a molecular level, we found an upregulation of ERα in the callus of the vibrated OVX mice, whereas ERβ was unaffected, indicating that ERα might mediate the osteoanabolic response. Our results indicate a major role for oestrogen in the mechanostimulation of fracture healing and imply that LMHFV might only be safe and

  13. Low-frequency characteristics extension for vibration sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学山; 高峰; 候兴民

    2004-01-01

    Traditional magneto-electric vibration sensors and servo accelerometers have severe shortcomings when used to measure vibration where low frequency components predominate. A low frequency characteristic extension for velocity vibration sensors is presented in this paper. The passive circuit technology, active compensation technology and the closedcycle pole compensation technology are used to extend the measurable range and to improve low frequency characteristics of sensors. Thses three types of low frequency velocity vibration sensors have been developed and widely adopted in China.

  14. High-Temperature Vibration Damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.

  15. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Sarah L; Good, Craig A; Zernicke, Ronald F; Boyd, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB) would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36) were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass) into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis) were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX.

  16. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Manske

    Full Text Available High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX. Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36 were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX.

  17. Impact-driven, frequency up-converting coupled vibration energy harvesting device for low frequency operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Lei; Livermore, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experiments and models of an energy harvesting device in which a low frequency resonator impacts a high frequency energy harvesting resonator, resulting in energy harvesting predominantly at the system's coupled vibration frequency. Analysis shows that a reduced mechanical damping ratio during coupled vibration enables increased electrical power generation as compared with conventional technology. Experiments demonstrate that the efficiency of electrical power transfer is significantly improved with the coupled vibration approach. An average power output of 0.43 mW is achieved under 0.4g acceleration at 8.2 Hz, corresponding to a power density of 25.5 µW cm −3 . The measured power and power density at the resonant frequency are respectively 4.8 times and 13 times the measured peak values for a conventional harvester created from a low frequency beam alone

  18. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  19. The impact of low-magnitude high-frequency vibration on fracture healing is profoundly influenced by the oestrogen status in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrle, Esther; Liedert, Astrid; Heilmann, Aline; Wehner, Tim; Bindl, Ronny; Fischer, Lena; Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Jakob, Franz; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Ignatius, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Fracture healing is impaired in aged and osteoporotic individuals. Because adequate mechanical stimuli are able to increase bone formation, one therapeutical approach to treat poorly healing fractures could be the application of whole-body vibration, including low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV). We investigated the effects of LMHFV on fracture healing in aged osteoporotic mice. Female C57BL/6NCrl mice (n=96) were either ovariectomised (OVX) or sham operated (non-OVX) at age 41 weeks. When aged to 49 weeks, all mice received a femur osteotomy that was stabilised using an external fixator. The mice received whole-body vibrations (20 minutes/day) with 0.3 G: peak-to-peak acceleration and a frequency of 45 Hz. After 10 and 21 days, the osteotomised femurs and intact bones (contra-lateral femurs, lumbar spine) were evaluated using bending-testing, micro-computed tomography (μCT), histology and gene expression analyses. LMHFV disturbed fracture healing in aged non-OVX mice, with significantly reduced flexural rigidity (-81%) and bone formation (-80%) in the callus. Gene expression analyses demonstrated increased oestrogen receptor β (ERβ, encoded by Esr2) and Sost expression in the callus of the vibrated animals, but decreased β-catenin, suggesting that ERβ might mediate these negative effects through inhibition of osteoanabolic Wnt/β-catenin signalling. In contrast, in OVX mice, LMHFV significantly improved callus properties, with increased flexural rigidity (+1398%) and bone formation (+637%), which could be abolished by subcutaneous oestrogen application (0.025 mg oestrogen administered in a 90-day-release pellet). On a molecular level, we found an upregulation of ERα in the callus of the vibrated OVX mice, whereas ERβ was unaffected, indicating that ERα might mediate the osteoanabolic response. Our results indicate a major role for oestrogen in the mechanostimulation of fracture healing and imply that LMHFV might only be safe and effective in

  20. Nonlinear Vibration of Oscillation Systems using Frequency-Amplitude Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fereidoon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the periodic solutions of free vibration of mechanical systems with third and fifth-order nonlinearity for two examples using He's Frequency-Amplitude Formulation (HFAF.The effectiveness and convenience of the method is illustrated in these examples. It will be shown that the solutions obtained with current method have a fabulous conformity with those achieved from time marching solution. HFAF is easy with powerful concepts and the high accuracy, so it can be found widely applicable in vibrations, especially strong nonlinearity oscillatory problems.

  1. Frequency identification of vibration signals using video camera image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yih-Nen; Wu, Chia-Hung

    2012-10-16

    This study showed that an image data acquisition system connecting a high-speed camera or webcam to a notebook or personal computer (PC) can precisely capture most dominant modes of vibration signal, but may involve the non-physical modes induced by the insufficient frame rates. Using a simple model, frequencies of these modes are properly predicted and excluded. Two experimental designs, which involve using an LED light source and a vibration exciter, are proposed to demonstrate the performance. First, the original gray-level resolution of a video camera from, for instance, 0 to 256 levels, was enhanced by summing gray-level data of all pixels in a small region around the point of interest. The image signal was further enhanced by attaching a white paper sheet marked with a black line on the surface of the vibration system in operation to increase the gray-level resolution. Experimental results showed that the Prosilica CV640C CMOS high-speed camera has the critical frequency of inducing the false mode at 60 Hz, whereas that of the webcam is 7.8 Hz. Several factors were proven to have the effect of partially suppressing the non-physical modes, but they cannot eliminate them completely. Two examples, the prominent vibration modes of which are less than the associated critical frequencies, are examined to demonstrate the performances of the proposed systems. In general, the experimental data show that the non-contact type image data acquisition systems are potential tools for collecting the low-frequency vibration signal of a system.

  2. Frequency Identification of Vibration Signals Using Video Camera Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that an image data acquisition system connecting a high-speed camera or webcam to a notebook or personal computer (PC can precisely capture most dominant modes of vibration signal, but may involve the non-physical modes induced by the insufficient frame rates. Using a simple model, frequencies of these modes are properly predicted and excluded. Two experimental designs, which involve using an LED light source and a vibration exciter, are proposed to demonstrate the performance. First, the original gray-level resolution of a video camera from, for instance, 0 to 256 levels, was enhanced by summing gray-level data of all pixels in a small region around the point of interest. The image signal was further enhanced by attaching a white paper sheet marked with a black line on the surface of the vibration system in operation to increase the gray-level resolution. Experimental results showed that the Prosilica CV640C CMOS high-speed camera has the critical frequency of inducing the false mode at 60 Hz, whereas that of the webcam is 7.8 Hz. Several factors were proven to have the effect of partially suppressing the non-physical modes, but they cannot eliminate them completely. Two examples, the prominent vibration modes of which are less than the associated critical frequencies, are examined to demonstrate the performances of the proposed systems. In general, the experimental data show that the non-contact type image data acquisition systems are potential tools for collecting the low-frequency vibration signal of a system.

  3. Low-Magnitude High-Frequency Vibration Accelerated the Foot Wound Healing of n5-streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats by Enhancing Glucose Transporter 4 and Blood Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caroline Oi-Ling; Leung, Kwok-Sui; Jiang, Jonney Lei; Wang, Tina Bai-Yan; Chow, Simon Kwoon-Ho; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2017-09-14

    Delayed wound healing is a Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) complication caused by hyperglycemia, systemic inflammation, and decreased blood microcirculation. Skeletal muscles are also affected by hyperglycemia, resulting in reduced blood flow and glucose uptake. Low Magnitude High Frequency Vibration (LMHFV) has been proven to be beneficial to muscle contractility and blood microcirculation. We hypothesized that LMHFV could accelerate the wound healing of n5-streptozotocin (n5-STZ)-induced DM rats by enhancing muscle activity and blood microcirculation. This study investigated the effects of LMHFV in an open foot wound created on the footpad of n5-STZ-induced DM rats (DM_V), compared with no-treatment DM (DM), non-DM vibration (Ctrl_V) and non-DM control rats (Ctrl) on Days 1, 4, 8 and 13. Results showed that the foot wounds of DM_V and Ctrl_V rats were significantly reduced in size compared to DM and Ctrl rats, respectively, at Day 13. The blood glucose level of DM_V rats was significantly reduced, while the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression and blood microcirculation of DM_V rats were significantly enhanced in comparison to those of DM rats. In conclusion, LMHFV can accelerate the foot wound healing process of n5-STZ rats.

  4. Multiscale investigation on the effects of additional weight bearing in combination with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration on bone quality of growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianlong; Gao, Jiazi; Fang, Juan; Gong, He

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of additional weight bearing in combination with low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV; 45 Hz, 0.3 g) on bone quality. One hundred twenty rats were randomly divided into ten groups; namely, sedentary (SED), additional weight bearing in which the rat wears a backpack whose weight is x% of the body weight (WBx; x = 5, 12, 19, 26), basic vibration (V), and additional weight bearing in combination with LMHFV in which the rat wears a backpack whose weight is x% of the body weight (Vx; x = 5, 12, 19, 26). The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks, 7 days per week, and 15 min per day. A three-point bending mechanical test, micro computed tomography, and a nanoindentation test were used. Serum samples were analyzed chemically. Failure load in V19 rats was significantly lower than that in SED rats (P bearing in combination with LMHFV negatively affected the macromechanical properties and microarchitecture of bone. Heavy additional weight bearing, such as 26% of body weight, in combination with LMHFV was able to improve the nanomechanical properties of growing bone material compared with LMHFV. A combined mechanical stimulation was used, which may provide useful information to understand the mechanism of this mechanical stimulation on bone.

  5. MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND VIBRATIONAL FREQUENCIES OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih UCUN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The molecular structure, vibrational frequencies and the corresponding assignments of N-aminophthalimide (NAPH in the ground state have been calculated using the Hartree-Fock (HF and density functional methods (B3LYP with 6-31G (d, p basis set. The calculations were utilized in the CS symmetry of NAPH. The obtained vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles were seen to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison of the observed and calculated results showed that B3LYP is superior to the scaled HF method. Theoretical infrared intensities and Raman activities were also reported. Key words: N-aminophthalimide; vibrations; IR spectra; Raman spectra; HF; DFT N-AMİNOFİTALOMİD'İN MOLEKÜLER YAPISI VE TİTREŞİM FREKANSLARI Özet: Temel haldeki N-aminofitalamidin (NAPH moleküler yapısı, titreşim frekansları ve uygun mod tanımlamaları, 6-31 G (d, p temel setli Hartree-Fock (HF ve yoğunluk fonksiyonu metodları (B3LYP kullanılarak hesaplandı. Hesaplamalar, NAPH'ın CS simetrisine uyarlandı. Elde edilen titreşim frekansları ve optimize geometrik parametreleri (bağ uzunlukları ve bağ açıları, deneysel değerlerle iyi bir uyum içinde olduğu görüldü. Deneysel ve teorik sonuçların karşılaştırılması, B3LYP'nin HF metodundan daha üstün olduğunu gösterdi. Ayrıca teorik infrared şiddetleri ve Raman aktiviteleri verildi. Anahtar Kelimeler: N-aminofitalamidin; titreşimler; IR spektrumu; Raman Spektrumu; HF; DFT

  6. A Sub-Hertz, Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo, G.; Farr, William H.; Sannibale, Virginio

    2011-01-01

    struts ends are connected in pairs to the base and to the platform, forming an octahedron. The six struts provide the vibration isolation due to the properties of mechanical oscillators that behave as second-order lowpass filters for frequencies above the resonance. At high frequency, the ideal second-order low-pass filter response is spoiled by the distributed mass and the internal modes of membrane and of the platform with its payload.

  7. Application of a modified complementary filtering technique for increased aircraft control system frequency bandwidth in high vibration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garren, J. F., Jr.; Niessen, F. R.; Abbott, T. S.; Yenni, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    A modified complementary filtering technique for estimating aircraft roll rate was developed and flown in a research helicopter to determine whether higher gains could be achieved. Use of this technique did, in fact, permit a substantial increase in system frequency bandwidth because, in comparison with first-order filtering, it reduced both noise amplification and control limit-cycle tendencies.

  8. High-Pressure Catalytic Reactions of C6 Hydrocarbons on PlatinumSingle-Crystals and nanoparticles: A Sum Frequency Generation VibrationalSpectroscopic and Kinetic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratlie, Kaitlin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic reactions of cyclohexene, benzene, n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene on platinum catalysts were monitored in situ via sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC). SFG is a surface specific vibrational spectroscopic tool capable of monitoring submonolayer coverages under reaction conditions without gas-phase interference. SFG was used to identify the surface intermediates present during catalytic processes on Pt(111) and Pt(100) single-crystals and on cubic and cuboctahedra Pt nanoparticles in the Torr pressure regime and at high temperatures (300K-450K). At low pressures (<10-6 Torr), cyclohexene hydrogenated and dehydrogenates to form cyclohexyl (C6H11) and π-allyl C6H9, respectively, on Pt(100). Increasing pressures to 1.5 Torr form cyclohexyl, π-allyl C6H9, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, illustrating the necessity to investigate catalytic reactions at high-pressures. Simultaneously, GC was used to acquire turnover rates that were correlated to reactive intermediates observed spectroscopically. Benzene hydrogenation on Pt(111) and Pt(100) illustrated structure sensitivity via both vibrational spectroscopy and kinetics. Both cyclohexane and cyclohexene were produced on Pt(111), while only cyclohexane was formed on Pt(100). Additionally, π-allyl c-C6H9 was found only on Pt(100), indicating that cyclohexene rapidly dehydrogenates on the (100) surface. The structure insensitive production of cyclohexane was found to exhibit a compensation effect and was analyzed using the selective energy transfer (SET) model. The SET model suggests that the Pt-H system donates energy to the E2u mode of free benzene, which leads to catalysis. Linear C6 (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene) hydrocarbons were also investigated in the presence and absence of excess hydrogen on Pt

  9. High-frequency, low-intensity vibrations increase bone mass and muscle strength in upper limbs, improving autonomy in disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M Loreto; Hernández, Marta; Holmgren, Luz J; Sanhueza, Enrique; Escobar, Raúl G

    2011-08-01

    Disuse osteoporosis in children is a progressive disease that can affect quality of life. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration (HFLMV) acts as an anabolic signal for bone and muscle. We undertook a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of regional HFLMV in disabled children. Sixty-five children 6 to 9 year of age were randomized into three groups: placebo, 60 Hz, and 90 Hz. In the two active groups, a 0.3-g mechanical vibration was delivered to the radii and femurs for 5 minutes each day. After 6 months, the main endpoint was bone mineral density (BMD) at the ultradistal radius (UDR), 33% radii (33%R), and femoral necks (FN). Secondary endpoints were area and bone mineral content (BMC) at the UDR, 33%R, and FN; grip force of the upper and lower limbs; motor function; and PedsQL evaluation. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Fifty-seven children (88%) completed the protocol. A significant increase was observed in the 60-Hz group relative to the other groups in BMD at the UDR (p = .011), in grip force of the upper limbs (p = .035), and in the "daily activities item" (p = .035). A mixed model to evaluate the response to intervention showed a stronger effect of 60 Hz on patients with cerebral palsy on the UDR and that between-subject variability significantly affected the response. There were no reported side effects of the intervention. This work provides evidence that regional HFLMV is an effective and safe strategy to improve bone mass, muscle strength, and possibly independence in children with motor disabilities. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Effect of low-frequency vibrations on speckle interferometry fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, C.S.; Pechersky, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low-frequency vibrations on speckle correlation fringes have been investigated. The relatively short capture time of the camera in the low-frequency case may yield usable fringe contrast in spite of vibration. It has been shown that the fringes also shift due to the vibration. The study is in agreement with experimental observations of good-contrast correlation fringes even if the object is not on a vibration-isolated table. Some such experimental observations are also presented. copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  11. An analytical study of the effects of transverse shear deformation and anisotropy on natural vibration frequencies of laminated cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1988-01-01

    Natural vibration frequencies of orthotropic and anisotropic simply supported right circular cylinders are predicted using a higher-order transverse-shear deformation theory. A comparison of natural vibration frequencies predicted by first-order transverse-shear deformation theory and the higher-order theory shows that an additional allowance for transverse shear deformation has a negligible effect on the lowest predicted natural vibration frequencies of laminated cylinders but significantly reduces the higher natural vibration frequencies. A parametric study of the effects of ply orientation on the natural vibration frequencies of laminated cylinders indicates that while stacking sequence affects natural vibration frequencies, cylinder geometry is more important in predicting transverse-shear deformation effects. Interaction curves for cylinders subjected to axial compressive loadings and low natural vibration frequencies indicate that transverse shearing effects are less important in predicting low natural vibration frequencies than in predicting axial compressive buckling loads. The effects of anisotropy are more important than the effects of transverse shear deformation for most strongly anisotropic laminated cylinders in predicting natural vibration frequencies. However, transverse-shear deformation effects are important in predicting high natural vibration frequencies of thick-walled laminated cylinders. Neglecting either anisotropic effects or transverse-shear deformation effects leads to non-conservative errors in predicted natural vibration frequencies.

  12. Low frequency phase signal measurement with high frequency squeezing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Zehui; Gao, Jiangrui

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the utility of high-frequency squeezed-state enhanced two-frequency interferometry for low-frequency phase measurement. To use the high-frequency sidebands of the squeezed light, a two-frequency intense laser is used in the interferometry instead of a single-frequency laser as usual. We find that the readout signal can be contaminated by the high-frequency phase vibration, but this is easy to check and avoid. A proof-of-principle experiment is in the reach of modern quantum optic...

  13. A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, Vinod R; Prasad, M G; Shi Yong; Fisher, Frank T

    2008-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined

  14. Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration enhances gene expression related to callus formation, mineralization and remodeling during osteoporotic fracture healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shu-Lu; Leung, Kwok-Sui; Cheung, Wing-Hoi

    2014-12-01

    Low magnitude high frequency vibration (LMHFV) has been shown to improve anabolic and osteogenic responses in osteoporotic intact bones and during osteoporotic fracture healing; however, the molecular response of LMHFV during osteoporotic fracture healing has not been investigated. It was hypothesized that LMHFV could enhance osteoporotic fracture healing by regulating the expression of genes related to chondrogenesis (Col-2), osteogenesis (Col-1) and remodeling (receptor activator for nuclear factor- κ B ligand (RANKL) and osteoproteger (OPG)). In this study, the effects of LMHFV on both osteoporotic and normal bone fracture healing were assessed by endpoint gene expressions, weekly radiographs, and histomorphometry at weeks 2, 4 and 8 post-treatment. LMHFV enhanced osteoporotic fracture healing by up-regulating the expression of chondrogenesis-, osteogenesis- and remodeling-related genes (Col-2 at week 4 (p=0.008), Col-1 at week 2 and 8 (p<0.001 and p=0.008) and RANKL/OPG at week 8 (p=0.045)). Osteoporotic bone had a higher response to LMHFV than normal bone and showed significantly better results as reflected by increased expression of Col-2 and Col-1 at week 2 (p<0.001 for all), larger callus width at week 2 (p=0.001), callus area at week 1 and 5(p<0.05 for all) and greater relative area of osseous tissue (p=0.002) at week 8. This study helps to understand how LMHFV regulates gene expression of callus formation, mineralization and remodeling during osteoporotic fracture healing. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Capacitance-Based Frequency Adjustment of Micro Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  16. Capacitance-based frequency adjustment of micro piezoelectric vibration generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinhua; He, Qing; Li, Hong; Chu, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Micro piezoelectric vibration generator has a wide application in the field of microelectronics. Its natural frequency is unchanged after being manufactured. However, resonance cannot occur when the natural frequencies of a piezoelectric generator and the source of vibration frequency are not consistent. Output voltage of the piezoelectric generator will sharply decline. It cannot normally supply power for electronic devices. In order to make the natural frequency of the generator approach the frequency of vibration source, the capacitance FM technology is adopted in this paper. Different capacitance FM schemes are designed by different locations of the adjustment layer. The corresponding capacitance FM models have been established. Characteristic and effect of the capacitance FM have been simulated by the FM model. Experimental results show that the natural frequency of the generator could vary from 46.5 Hz to 42.4 Hz when the bypass capacitance value increases from 0 nF to 30 nF. The natural frequency of a piezoelectric vibration generator could be continuously adjusted by this method.

  17. Perceptual Space of Superimposed Dual-Frequency Vibrations in the Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Inwook; Seo, Jeongil; Choi, Seungmoon

    2017-01-01

    The use of distinguishable complex vibrations that have multiple spectral components can improve the transfer of information by vibrotactile interfaces. We investigated the qualitative characteristics of dual-frequency vibrations as the simplest complex vibrations compared to single-frequency vibrations. Two psychophysical experiments were conducted to elucidate the perceptual characteristics of these vibrations by measuring the perceptual distances among single-frequency and dual-frequency vibrations. The perceptual distances of dual-frequency vibrations between their two frequency components along their relative intensity ratio were measured in Experiment I. The estimated perceptual spaces for three frequency conditions showed non-linear perceptual differences between the dual-frequency and single-frequency vibrations. A perceptual space was estimated from the measured perceptual distances among ten dual-frequency compositions and five single-frequency vibrations in Experiment II. The effect of the component frequency and the frequency ratio was revealed in the perceptual space. In a percept of dual-frequency vibration, the lower frequency component showed a dominant effect. Additionally, the perceptual difference among single-frequency and dual-frequency vibrations were increased with a low relative difference between two frequencies of a dual-frequency vibration. These results are expected to provide a fundamental understanding about the perception of complex vibrations to enrich the transfer of information using vibrotactile stimuli.

  18. Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Chaari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity and may be difficult to analyze which lead to erroneous diagnosis of the system. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of time varying load conditions on a gearbox dynamic behavior. To investigate this, a simple spur gear system without defects is modeled. It is subjected to a time varying load. The speed-torque characteristic of the driving motor is considered. The load variation induces speed variation, which causes a variation in the gearmesh stiffness period. Computer simulation shows deep amplitude modulations with sidebands that don't differ from those obtained when there is a defective tooth. In order to put in evidence the time varying load effects, Short Time Fourier Transform and then Smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution are used. Results show that the last one is well suited for the studied case.

  19. An innovative MRE absorber with double natural frequencies for wide frequency bandwidth vibration absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shuaishuai; Yang, Jian; Li, Weihua; Alici, Gursel; Deng, Huaxia; Du, Haiping; Yan, Tianhong

    2016-01-01

    A new design of adaptive tuned vibration absorber was proposed in this study for vibration reduction. The innovation of the new absorber is the adoption of the eccentric mass on the top of the multilayered magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) structure so that this proposed absorber has two vibration modes: one in the torsional direction and the other in translational direction. This property enables the absorber to expand its effective bandwidth and to be more capable of reducing the vibrations especially dealing with those vibrations with multi-frequencies. The innovative MRE absorber was designed and tested on a horizontal vibration table. The test results illustrate that the MRE absorber realized double natural frequencies, both of which are controllable. Inertia’s influence on the dynamic behavior of the absorber is also investigated in order to guide the design of the innovative MRE absorber. Additionally, the experimentally obtained natural frequencies coincide with the theoretical data, which sufficiently verifies the feasibility of this new design. The last part in terms of the vibration absorption ability also proves that both of these two natural frequencies play a great role in absorbing vibration energy. (paper)

  20. Nonlinear convergence active vibration absorber for single and multiple frequency vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Yang, Bintang; Guo, Shufeng; Zhao, Wenqiang

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear convergence algorithm for active dynamic undamped vibration absorber (ADUVA). The damping of absorber is ignored in this algorithm to strengthen the vibration suppressing effect and simplify the algorithm at the same time. The simulation and experimental results indicate that this nonlinear convergence ADUVA can help significantly suppress vibration caused by excitation of both single and multiple frequency. The proposed nonlinear algorithm is composed of equivalent dynamic modeling equations and frequency estimator. Both the single and multiple frequency ADUVA are mathematically imitated by the same mechanical structure with a mass body and a voice coil motor (VCM). The nonlinear convergence estimator is applied to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of fast convergence rate and small steady state frequency error, which are incompatible for linear convergence estimator. The convergence of the nonlinear algorithm is mathematically proofed, and its non-divergent characteristic is theoretically guaranteed. The vibration suppressing experiments demonstrate that the nonlinear ADUVA can accelerate the convergence rate of vibration suppressing and achieve more decrement of oscillation attenuation than the linear ADUVA.

  1. Protonated Nitrous Oxide, NNOH(+): Fundamental Vibrational Frequencies and Spectroscopic Constants from Quartic Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The interstellar presence of protonated nitrous oxide has been suspected for some time. Using established high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques, spectroscopic constants and fundamental vibrational frequencies are provided for the lower energy O-protonated isomer of this cation and its deuterated isotopologue. The vibrationally-averaged B0 and C0 rotational constants are within 6 MHz of their experimental values and the D(subJ) quartic distortion constants agree with experiment to within 3%. The known gas phase O-H stretch of NNOH(+) is 3330.91 cm(exp-1), and the vibrational configuration interaction computed result is 3330.9 cm(exp-1). Other spectroscopic constants are also provided, as are the rest of the fundamental vibrational frequencies for NNOH(+) and its deuterated isotopologue. This high-accuracy data should serve to better inform future observational or experimental studies of the rovibrational bands of protonated nitrous oxide in the ISM and the laboratory.

  2. Micro-scale piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting: From fixed-frequency to adaptable-frequency devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay Margaret

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the potential to transform engineering infrastructure, manufacturing, and building controls by allowing condition monitoring, asset tracking, demand response, and other intelligent feedback systems. A wireless sensor node consists of a power supply, sensor(s), power conditioning circuitry, radio transmitter and/or receiver, and a micro controller. Such sensor nodes are used for collecting and communicating data regarding the state of a machine, system, or process. The increasing demand for better ways to power wireless devices and increase operation time on a single battery charge drives an interest in energy harvesting research. Today, wireless sensor nodes are typically powered by a standard single-charge battery, which becomes depleted within a relatively short timeframe depending on the application. This introduces tremendous labor costs associated with battery replacement, especially when there are thousands of nodes in a network, the nodes are remotely located, or widely-distributed. Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting presents a potential solution to the problems associated with too-short battery life and high maintenance requirements, especially in industrial environments where vibrations are ubiquitous. Energy harvester designs typically use the harvester to trickle charge a rechargeable energy storage device rather than directly powering the electronics with the harvested energy. This allows a buffer between the energy harvester supply and the load where energy can be stored in a "tank". Therefore, the harvester does not need to produce the full required power at every instant to successfully power the node. In general, there are tens of microwatts of power available to be harvested from ambient vibrations using micro scale devices and tens of milliwatts available from ambient vibrations using meso scale devices. Given that the power requirements of wireless sensor nodes range from several microwatts to about one

  3. Active Low-frequency Vertical Vibration Isolation System for Precision Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Kang; LI Gang; HU Hua; WANG Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise.Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed.However,few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility.An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument,the Super Spring,is designed and implemented.The system,which is simple and compact,consists of two stages:a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion,and a simple spring-mass system.The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented,including terms erroneously ignored before.By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control,the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz,a reduction by a factor of more than 75.The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter,where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5.The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system,making it particularly suitable for precision experiments.The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems.An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed,providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  4. High frequency dynamics in centrifugal compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twerda, A.; Meulendijks, D.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Handel, R. van den; Lier, L.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Problems with centrifugal compressors relating to high frequency, i.e. Blade passing frequency (BPF) are increasing. Pulsations and vibrations generated in centrifugal compressors can lead to nuisance, due to strong tonal noise, and even breakdown. In several cases the root cause of a failure or a

  5. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  6. Diagnosis of industrial gearboxes condition by vibration and time-frequency, scale-frequency, frequency-frequency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Czech

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article methods of vibroacoustic diagnostics of high-power toothed gears are described. It is shown below, that properly registered and processed acoustic signal or vibration signal may serve as an explicitly interpreted source of diagnostic symptoms. The presented analysis were based on vibration signals registered during the work of the gear of a rolling stand working in Katowice Steel Plant (presently one of the branches of Mittal Steel Poland JSC.

  7. Frequency Tuning of Vibration Absorber Using Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Swapnil Subhash

    A tuned mass absorber is a system for reducing the amplitude in one oscillator by coupling it to a second oscillator. If tuned correctly, the maximum amplitude of the first oscillator in response to a periodic driver will be lowered, and much of the vibration will be 'transferred' to the second oscillator. The tuned vibration absorber (TVA) has been utilized for vibration control purposes in many sectors of Civil/Automotive/Aerospace Engineering for many decades since its inception. Time and again we come across a situation in which a vibratory system is required to run near resonance. In the past, approaches have been made to design such auxiliary spring mass tuned absorbers for the safety of the structures. This research focuses on the development and optimization of continuously tuned mass absorbers as a substitute to the discretely tuned mass absorbers (spring- mass system). After conducting the study of structural behavior, the boundary condition and frequency to which the absorber is to be tuned are determined. The Modal analysis approach is used to determine mode shapes and frequencies. The absorber is designed and optimized using the topology optimization tool, which simultaneously designs, optimizes and tunes the absorber to the desired frequency. The tuned, optimized absorber, after post processing, is attached to the target structure. The number of the absorbers are increased to amplify bandwidth and thereby upgrade the safety of structure for a wide range of frequency. The frequency response analysis is carried out using various combinations of structure and number of absorber cell.

  8. A Solvatochromic Model Calibrates Nitriles’ Vibrational Frequencies to Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Sayan; Fried, Stephen D.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions provide a primary connection between a protein’s three-dimensional structure and its function. Infrared (IR) probes are useful because vibrational frequencies of certain chemical groups, such as nitriles, are linearly sensitive to local electrostatic field, and can serve as a molecular electric field meter. IR spectroscopy has been used to study electrostatic changes or fluctuations in proteins, but measured peak frequencies have not been previously mapped to total electric fields, because of the absence of a field-frequency calibration and the complication of local chemical effects such as H-bonds. We report a solvatochromic model that provides a means to assess the H-bonding status of aromatic nitrile vibrational probes, and calibrates their vibrational frequencies to electrostatic field. The analysis involves correlations between the nitrile’s IR frequency and its 13C chemical shift, whose observation is facilitated by a robust method for introducing isotopes into aromatic nitriles. The method is tested on the model protein Ribonuclease S (RNase S) containing a labeled p-CN-Phe near the active site. Comparison of the measurements in RNase S against solvatochromic data gives an estimate of the average total electrostatic field at this location. The value determined agrees quantitatively with MD simulations, suggesting broader potential for the use of IR probes in the study of protein electrostatics. PMID:22694663

  9. Band Width of Acoustic Resonance Frequency Relatively Natural Frequency of Fuel Rod Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, Konstantin Nicolaevich; Moukhine, V.S.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivets, E.Yu. [MPEI - TU, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya str., Moscow, 111250 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    In flow induced vibrations the fluid flow is the energy source that causes vibration. Acoustic resonance in piping may lead to severe problems due to over-stressing of components or significant losses of efficiency. Steady oscillatory flow in NPP primary loop can be induced by the pulsating flow introduced by reactor circulating pump or may be set up by self-excitation. Dynamic forces generated by the turbulent flow of coolant in reactor cores cause fuel rods (FR) and fuel assembly (FA) to vibrate. Flow-induced FR and FA vibrations can generally be broken into three groups: large amplitude 'resonance type' vibrations, which can cause immediate rod failure or severe damage to the rod and its support structure, middle amplitude 'within bandwidth of resonance frequency type' vibrations responsible for more gradual wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support and small amplitude vibrations, 'out of bandwidth of resonance frequency type' responsible for permissible wear and fatigue at the contact surface between the fuel cladding and rod support. Ultimately, these vibration types can result in a cladding breach, and therefore must be accounted for in the thermal hydraulic design of FR and FA and reactor internals. In paper the technique of definition of quality factor (Q) of acoustic contour of the coolant is presented. The value of Q defines a range of frequencies of acoustic fluctuations of the coolant within which the resonance of oscillations of the structure and the coolant is realized. Method of evaluation of so called band width (BW) of acoustic resonance frequency is worked out and presented in the paper. BW characterises the range of the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations within which the frequency of coolant pressure oscillations matches the fuel assembly's natural frequency of vibration (its resonance frequency). Paper show the way of detuning acoustic resonance from natural

  10. A low frequency vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric laminate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Suna; Chae, Song Hee; Choi, Yunhee; Lee, Seungjun; Ji, Chang-Hyeon; Lee, Hyang Woon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric laminate composite and a springless spherical permanent magnet as a proof mass. The harvester utilizes a freely movable spherical permanent magnet to transform external vibration into a time varying magnetic field applied to the magnetoelectric transducer. The laminate composite consists of a Ni–Mn–Ga-based MSMA (magnetic shape memory alloy) element and a PZT (lead zirconate titanate) plate. A proof-of-concept harvester has been fabricated and characterized at various input accelerations and frequencies. A maximum open circuit voltage of 1.18 V has been obtained in response to a 3g vibration at 17 Hz with the fabricated device. Moreover, a maximum output voltage of 10.24 V and output power of 4.1 μW have been achieved on a 950 Ω load, when the fabricated energy harvester was mounted on a smartphone and shaken by hand. (paper)

  11. Tuning and sensitivity of the human vestibular system to low-frequency vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Neil P McAngus; Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G

    2008-10-17

    Mechanoreceptive hair-cells of the vertebrate inner ear have a remarkable sensitivity to displacement, whether excited by sound, whole-body acceleration or substrate-borne vibration. In response to seismic or substrate-borne vibration, thresholds for vestibular afferent fibre activation have been reported in anamniotes (fish and frogs) in the range -120 to -90 dB re 1g. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that the human vestibular system is also extremely sensitive to low-frequency and infrasound vibrations by making use of a new technique for measuring vestibular activation, via the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). We found a highly tuned response to whole-head vibration in the transmastoid plane with a best frequency of about 100 Hz. At the best frequency we obtained VOR responses at intensities of less than -70 dB re 1g, which was 15 dB lower than the threshold of hearing for bone-conducted sound in humans at this frequency. Given the likely synaptic attenuation of the VOR pathway, human receptor sensitivity is probably an order of magnitude lower, thus approaching the seismic sensitivity of the frog ear. These results extend our knowledge of vibration-sensitivity of vestibular afferents but also are remarkable as they indicate that the seismic sensitivity of the human vestibular system exceeds that of the cochlea for low-frequencies.

  12. Vibration-free stirling cryocooler for high definition microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.

    2009-12-01

    The normal operation of high definition Scanning Electronic and Helium Ion microscope tools often relies on maintaining particular components at cryogenic temperatures. This has traditionally been accomplished by using liquid coolants such as liquid Nitrogen. This inherently limits the useful temperature range to above 77 K, produces various operational hazards and typically involves elevated ownership costs, inconvenient logistics and maintenance. Mechanical coolers, over-performing the above traditional method and capable of delivering required (even below 77 K) cooling to the above cooled components, have been well-known elsewhere for many years, but their typical drawbacks, such as high purchasing cost, cooler size, low reliability and high power consumption have so far prevented their wide-spreading. Additional critical drawback is inevitable degradation of imagery performance originated from the wideband vibration export as typical for the operation of the mechanical cooler incorporating numerous movable components. Recent advances in the development of reliable, compact, reasonably priced and dynamically quiet linear cryogenic coolers gave rise to so-called "dry cooling" technologies aimed at eventually replacing the traditional use of outdated liquid Nitrogen cooling facilities. Although much improved these newer cryogenic coolers still produce relatively high vibration export which makes them incompatible with modern high definition microscopy tools. This has motivated further research activity towards developing a vibration free closed-cycle mechanical cryocooler. The authors have successfully adapted the standard low vibration Stirling cryogenic refrigerator (Ricor model K535-LV) delivering 5 W@40 K heat lift for use in vibration-sensitive high definition microscopy. This has been achieved by using passive mechanical counterbalancing of the main portion of the low frequency vibration export in combination with an active feed-forward multi

  13. Electromagnetic energy harvesting from vibrations of multiple frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bin; Lee Chengkuo; Xie Jin; Han He, Johnny; Kotlanka, Rama Krishna; Feng Hanhua; Xiang Wenfeng; Low, Siew Ping

    2009-01-01

    A novel multi-frequency energy harvester has been designed and fabricated, which consists of three permanent magnets, three sets of two-layer copper coils and a supported beam of acrylic, while these coils are made of thin fire resistant 4 (FR4) substrates using a standard printed circuit board. The energy under the first, second and third resonant modes can be harvested, corresponding to the resonant frequencies of 369 Hz, 938 Hz and 1184 Hz, respectively. The maximum output voltage and power of the first and second vibration modes are 1.38 mV, 0.6 µW and 3.2 mV, 3.2 µW for a 14 µm exciting vibration amplitude and a 0.4 mm gap between the magnet and coils, respectively. The feasibility study results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations and show promising application potentials

  14. Determination of low-frequency vibrational states in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Hasan, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that density of low frequency (v < 1 THz) vibrational states g(v) in glasses can be determined from heat capacities measured at low temperature. These g(v) are identical to those determined from inelastic neutron scattering studies. The form of g(v) is non quadratic and therefore the Debye density of states may not be used to interpret the Raman, and infrared absorption in glasses. (author)

  15. Calculation of mechanical vibration frequencies of stiffened superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.J.; Spalek, G.

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the frequencies of transverse and longitudinal mechanical-vibration modes of the HEPL- modified, CERN/DESY four-cell superconducting cavity, using finite-element techniques. We compared the results of these calculations, including the stiffening of the cavity with rods, with mode frequencies measured at HEPL. The correlation between data was significant. The same techniques were also used to design and optimize the stiffening scheme for the seven-cell 805-MHz superconducting cavity being developed at Los Alamos. In this report, we describe the final stiffening scheme and the results of our calculations

  16. Calculation of mechanical vibration frequencies of stiffened superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.J.; Spalek, G.

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the frequencies of transverse and longitudinal mechanical-vibration modes of the HEPL-modified, CERN/DESY four-cell superconducting cavity, using finite-element techniques. We compared the results of these calculations, including the stiffening of the cavity with rods, with mode frequencies measured at HEPL. The correlation between data was significant. The same techniques were also used to design and optimize the stiffening scheme for the seven-cell 805-MHz superconducting cavity being developed at Los Alamos. In this report, we describe the final stiffening scheme and the results of our calculations. (Author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 4 refs

  17. Broadband electromagnetic power harvester from vibrations via frequency conversion by impact oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksek, N. S.; Almasri, M.; Feng, Z. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an electromagnetic power harvester that uses a transformative multi-impact approach to achieve a wide bandwidth response from low frequency vibration sources through frequency-up conversion. The device consists of a pick-up coil, fixed at the free edge of a cantilever beam with high resonant frequency, and two cantilever beams with low excitation frequencies, each with an impact mass attached at its free edge. One of the two cantilevers is designed to resonate at 25 Hz, while the other resonates at 50 Hz within the range of ambient vibration frequency. When the device is subjected to a low frequency vibration, the two low-frequency cantilevers responded by vibrating at low frequencies, and thus their thick metallic masses made impacts with the high resonance frequency cantilever repeatedly at two locations. This has caused it along with the pick-up coil to oscillate, relative to the permanent magnet, with decaying amplitude at its resonance frequency, and results in a wide bandwidth response from 10 to 63 Hz at 2 g. A wide bandwidth response between 10–51 Hz and 10–58 Hz at acceleration values of 0.5 g and 2 g, respectively, were achieved by adjusting the impact cantilever frequencies closer to each other (25 Hz and 45 Hz). A maximum output power of 85 μW was achieved at 5 g at 30 Hz across a load resistor, 2.68 Ω.

  18. Vertical Vibration Characteristics of a High-Temperature Superconducting Maglev Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Li, Ke Cai; Zhao, Li Feng; Ma, Jia Qing; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2013-06-01

    The vertical vibration characteristics of a high-temperature superconducting maglev vehicle system are investigated experimentally. The displacement variations of the maglev vehicle system are measured with different external excitation frequency, in the case of a certain levitation gap. When the external vibration frequency is low, the amplitude variations of the response curve are small. With the increase of the vibration frequency, chaos status can be found. The resonance frequencies with difference levitation gap are also investigated, while the external excitation frequency range is 0-100 Hz. Along with the different levitation gap, resonance frequency is also different. There almost is a linear relationship between the levitation gap and the resonance frequency.

  19. Sensibility to Changes of Vibrational Modes of Excited Electron: Sum Frequency Signals Versus Difference Frequency Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Anna; Liang Xianting

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a two electronic level system with vibrational modes coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath. The difference frequency generation (DFG) signals and sum frequency generation (SFG) signals are calculated. It is shown that, for the same model, the SFG signals are more sensitive than the DFG signals to the changes of the vibrational modes of the electronic two-level system. Because the SFG conversion efficiency can be improved by using the time-delay method, the findings in this paper predict that the SFG spectrum may probe the changes of the microstructure more effectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. High-speed digital holographic interferometry for vibration measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrini, Giancarlo; Osten, Wolfgang; Gusev, Mikhail E.

    2006-01-01

    A system based on digital holographic interferometry for the measurement of vibrations is presented. A high-power continuous laser(10 W) and a high-speed CCD camera are used. Hundreds of holograms of an object that has been subjected to dynamic deformation are recorded. The acquisition speed and the time of exposure of the detector are determined by the vibration frequency. Two methods are presented for triggering the camera in order to acquire at a given phase of the vibration. The phase of the wavefront is calculated from the recorded holograms by use of a two-dimensional digital Fourier-transform method. The deformation of the object is obtained from the phase. By combination of the deformations recorded at different times it is possible to reconstruct the vibration of the object

  1. Flextensional fiber Bragg grating-based accelerometer for low frequency vibration measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghua Zhang; Xueguang Qiao; Manli Hu; Zhongyao Feng; Hong Gao; Yang Yang; Rui Zhou

    2011-01-01

    @@ The intelligent structural health monitoring method,which uses a fiber Bragg grating(FBG)sensor,is a new approach in the field of civil engineering.However,it lacks a reliable FBG-based accelerometer for taking structural low frequency vibration measurements.In this letter,a flextensional FBG-based accelerometer is proposed and demonstrated.The experimental results indicate that the natural frequency of the developed accelerometer is 16.7 Hz,with a high sensitivity of 410.7 pm/g.In addition,it has a broad and flat response over low frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 Hz.The natural frequency and sensitivity of the accelerometer can be tuned by adding mass to tailor the sensor performance to specific applications.Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed FBG-based accelerometer.These results show that the proposed accelerometer is satisfactory for low frequency vibration measurements.%The intelligent structural health monitoring method, which uses a fiber Bragg grating {FBG} sensor, ie a new approach in the field of civil engineering. However, it lacks a reliable FBG-based accelerometer for taking structural low frequency vibration measurements. In this letter, a flextensional FBG-based accelerometer is proposed and demonstrated. The experimental results indicate that the natural frequency of the developed accelerometer is 16.7 Hz, with a high sensitivity of 410.7 pm/g. In addition, it has a broad and flat response over low frequencies ranging from 1 to 10 Hz. The natural frequency and sensitivity of the accelerometer can be tuned by adding mass to tailor the sensor performance to specific applications. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed FBG-based accelerometer. These results show that the proposed accelerometer is satisfactory for low frequency vibration measurements.

  2. Measuring frequency of one-dimensional vibration with video camera using electronic rolling shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yipeng; Liu, Jinyue; Guo, Shijie; Li, Tiejun

    2018-04-01

    Cameras offer a unique capability of collecting high density spatial data from a distant scene of interest. They can be employed as remote monitoring or inspection sensors to measure vibrating objects because of their commonplace availability, simplicity, and potentially low cost. A defect of vibrating measurement with the camera is to process the massive data generated by camera. In order to reduce the data collected from the camera, the camera using electronic rolling shutter (ERS) is applied to measure the frequency of one-dimensional vibration, whose frequency is much higher than the speed of the camera. Every row in the image captured by the ERS camera records the vibrating displacement at different times. Those displacements that form the vibration could be extracted by local analysis with sliding windows. This methodology is demonstrated on vibrating structures, a cantilever beam, and an air compressor to identify the validity of the proposed algorithm. Suggestions for applications of this methodology and challenges in real-world implementation are given at last.

  3. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  4. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  5. Effect of Low Frequency Burner Vibrations on the Characteristics of Jet Diffusion Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kanthasamy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical vibrations introduced in diffusion flame burners significantly affect the flame characteristics. In this experimental study, the effects of axial vibrations on the characteristics of laminar diffusion flames are investigated systematically. The effect of the frequency and amplitude of the vibrations on the flame height oscillations and flame stability is brought out. The amplitude of flame height oscillations is found to increase with increase in both frequency and amplitude of burner vibrations. Vibrations are shown to enhance stability of diffusion flames. Although flame lifts-off sooner with vibrations, stability of the flame increases.

  6. Vibrational resonances in biological systems at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Robert K

    2002-03-01

    Many biological systems can be expected to exhibit resonance behavior involving the mechanical vibration of system elements. The natural frequencies of such resonances will, generally, be in the microwave frequency range. Some of these systems will be coupled to the electromagnetic field by the charge distributions they carry, thus admitting the possibility that microwave exposures may generate physiological effects in man and other species. However, such microwave excitable resonances are expected to be strongly damped by interaction with their aqueous biological environment. Although those dissipation mechanisms have been studied, the limitations on energy transfers that follow from the limited coupling of these resonances to the electromagnetic field have not generally been considered. We show that this coupling must generally be very small and thus the absorbed energy is so strongly limited that such resonances cannot affect biology significantly even if the systems are much less strongly damped than expected from basic dissipation models.

  7. Non-linear Vibration of Oscillation Systems using Frequency-Amplitude Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereidoon, A.; Ghadimi, M.; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the periodic solutions of free vibration of mechanical systems with third and fifthorder nonlinearity for two examples using He’s Frequency Amplitude Formulation (HFAF).The effectiveness and convenience of the method is illustrated in these examples. It will be shown that t...... that the solutions obtained with current method have a fabulous conformity with those achieved from time marching solution. HFAF is easy with powerful concepts and the high accuracy, so it can be found widely applicable in vibrations, especially strong nonlinearity oscillatory problems....

  8. Frequency Up-Converted Low Frequency Vibration Energy Harvester Using Trampoline Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, S; Chae, S H; Choi, Y; Jun, S; Park, S M; Lee, S; Ji, C-H; Lee, H W

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a non-resonant vibration energy harvester based on magnetoelectric transduction mechanism and mechanical frequency up-conversion using trampoline effect. The harvester utilizes a freely movable spherical permanent magnet which bounces off the aluminum springs integrated at both ends of the cavity, achieving frequency up-conversion from low frequency input vibration. Moreover, bonding method of magnetoelectric laminate composite has been optimized to provide higher strain to piezoelectric material and thus obtain a higher output voltage. A proof-of-concept energy harvesting device has been fabricated and tested. Maximum open-circuit voltage of 11.2V has been obtained and output power of 0.57μW has been achieved for a 50kΩ load, when the fabricated energy harvester was hand-shaken

  9. Frequency Up-Converted Low Frequency Vibration Energy Harvester Using Trampoline Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, S.; Chae, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Jun, S.; Park, S. M.; Lee, S.; Lee, H. W.; Ji, C.-H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a non-resonant vibration energy harvester based on magnetoelectric transduction mechanism and mechanical frequency up-conversion using trampoline effect. The harvester utilizes a freely movable spherical permanent magnet which bounces off the aluminum springs integrated at both ends of the cavity, achieving frequency up-conversion from low frequency input vibration. Moreover, bonding method of magnetoelectric laminate composite has been optimized to provide higher strain to piezoelectric material and thus obtain a higher output voltage. A proof-of-concept energy harvesting device has been fabricated and tested. Maximum open-circuit voltage of 11.2V has been obtained and output power of 0.57μW has been achieved for a 50kΩ load, when the fabricated energy harvester was hand-shaken.

  10. Coupled analysis of multi-impact energy harvesting from low-frequency wind induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Energy need from off-grid locations has been critical for effective real-time monitoring and control to ensure structural safety and reliability. To harvest energy from ambient environments, the piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system has been proven very efficient to convert high frequency vibrations into usable electrical energy. However, due to the low frequency nature of the vibrations of civil infrastructures, such as those induced from vehicle impacts, wind, and waves, the application of a traditional piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system is greatly restrained since the output power drops dramatically with the reduction of vibration frequencies. This paper focuses on the coupled analysis of a proposed piezoelectric multi-impact wind-energy-harvesting device that can effectively up-convert low frequency wind-induced vibrations into high frequency ones. The device consists of an H-shape beam and four bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams. The H-shape beam, which can be easily triggered to vibrate at a low wind speed, is originated from the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed at wind speeds of 18.8 m s-1 in 1940. The multi-impact mechanism between the H-shape beam and the bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams is incorporated to improve the harvesting performance at lower frequencies. During the multi-impact process, a series of sequential impacts between the H-shape beam and the cantilever beams can trigger high frequency vibrations of the cantilever beams and result in high output power with a considerably high efficiency. In the coupled analysis, the coupled structural, aerodynamic, and electrical equations are solved to obtain the dynamic response and the power output of the proposed harvesting device. A parametric study for several parameters in the coupled analysis framework is carried out including the external resistance, wind speed, and the configuration of the H-shape beam. The average harvested power for the piezoelectric cantilever

  11. High frequency electromagnetic dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Hernández, David A

    2009-01-01

    Along with the growth of RF and microwave technology applications, there is a mounting concern about the possible adverse effects over human health from electromagnetic radiation. Addressing this issue and putting it into perspective, this groundbreaking resource provides critical details on the latest advances in high frequency electromagnetic dosimetry.

  12. Rotational structure of the five lowest frequency fundamental vibrational states of dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Drumel, Marie-Aline Martin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the successful extended analysis of the high-frequency (200-700 GHz) part of the gas phase (sub)mm-wave spectra of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The spectrum was recorded at 100 kHz resolution using a solid state subTHz spectrometer. The five lowest energy fundamental vibrational states of DMSO with frequencies below 400 cm-1 were observed as sidebands along with the main 0←0 band. Neglecting the internal rotation of methyls, our rotational Hamiltonian reproduced the spectrum to the subMHz accuracy. We have found that the asymmetric bending state ν23 is the only low frequency fundamental vibrational state with the "anomalous" rotational structure uncovered in Cuisset et al. [1]. dmsomw 2013-09-04 15:03

  13. Frontside-micromachined planar piezoresistive vibration sensor: Evaluating performance in the low frequency test range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a surface piezoresistor diffusion method and front-side only micromachining process, a planar piezoresistive vibration sensor was successfully developed with a simple structure, lower processing cost and fewer packaging difficulties. The vibration sensor had a large sector proof mass attached to a narrow flexure. Optimization of the boron diffusion piezoresistor placed on the edge of the narrow flexure greatly improved the sensitivity. Planar vibration sensors were fabricated and measured in order to analyze the effects of the sensor dimensions on performance, including the values of flexure width and the included angle of the sector. Sensitivities of fabricated planar sensors of 0.09–0.46 mV/V/g were measured up to a test frequency of 60 Hz. The sensor functioned at low voltages (<3 V and currents (<1 mA with a high sensitivity and low drift. At low background noise levels, the sensor had performance comparable to a commercial device.

  14. Frontside-micromachined planar piezoresistive vibration sensor: Evaluating performance in the low frequency test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lan; Lu, Jian, E-mail: jian-lu@aist.go.jp; Takagi, Hideki; Maeda, Ryutaro [Research Center for Ubiquitous MEMS and Micro Engineering (UMEMSME), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8564 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Using a surface piezoresistor diffusion method and front-side only micromachining process, a planar piezoresistive vibration sensor was successfully developed with a simple structure, lower processing cost and fewer packaging difficulties. The vibration sensor had a large sector proof mass attached to a narrow flexure. Optimization of the boron diffusion piezoresistor placed on the edge of the narrow flexure greatly improved the sensitivity. Planar vibration sensors were fabricated and measured in order to analyze the effects of the sensor dimensions on performance, including the values of flexure width and the included angle of the sector. Sensitivities of fabricated planar sensors of 0.09–0.46 mV/V/g were measured up to a test frequency of 60 Hz. The sensor functioned at low voltages (<3 V) and currents (<1 mA) with a high sensitivity and low drift. At low background noise levels, the sensor had performance comparable to a commercial device.

  15. A wideband, frequency up-converting bounded vibration energy harvester for a low-frequency environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, K; Md Khir, M H; Baharudin, Z; Dennis, J O

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded vibration energy harvester to effectively harvest energy from a wide band of low-frequency environmental vibrations ranging from 10 to 18 Hz. Rigid mechanical stoppers are used to confine the seismic mass movement within the elastic limits of the spring. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique in increasing the efficiency of the energy harvester. When excited at a frequency of 10 Hz with a peak acceleration of 1 g, the harvester responds at a higher frequency of 20 Hz and gives a peak power of 2.68 mW and a peak to peak voltage of 2.62 V across a load of 220 Ω. The average power density of 65.74 μW cm −3 obtained at 10 Hz 1 g excitation monotonically increases with frequency up to 341.86 μW cm −3 at 18 Hz. An analytical model describing the nonlinear dynamics of the proposed harvester is also presented. A simple technique to estimate the energy losses during impact and thereof a method to incorporate these losses in the model are suggested. The presented model not only predicts the experimental voltage waveform and frequency response of the device with good similarity but also predicts the RMS voltage from the harvester for the whole range of operating frequencies with an RMS error of 5.2%. (paper)

  16. Simultaneous rotational and vibrational CARS generation through a multiple-frequency combination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alden, M.; Bengtsson, P.E.; Edner, H.

    1987-01-01

    One most promising laser technique for probing combustion processes is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), which due to its coherent nature and signal strength is applied in several real-world applications. Until today almost all CARS experiments are based on probing the population of molecular vibrational energy levels. However, there are several reasons rotational CARS, i.e. probing of rotational energy levels, may provide a complement to or even a better choice than vibrational CARS. Recently an alternative way to produce rotational CARS spectra is proposed, which is based on a multiple-frequency combination technique. The energy-level diagram for this process is presented. Two dye laser beams at ω/sub r/, and one fix frequency laser beam at ω/sub g/ are employed. ω/sub r,1/ and ω/sub r,2/ are two frequencies of many possible pairs with a frequency difference matching a rotational transition in a molecule. The excitation induced by ω/sub r,1/ and ω/sub r,2/ is then scattered by the narrowband ω/sub g/ beam resulting in a CARS beam ω/sub g/ at ω/sub g/ + ω/sub r,1/ - ω/sub r,2/. An interesting feature with this technique is that it is possible to generate simultaneously a rotational and vibrational CARS spectrum by using a double-folded boxcars phase matching approach. The authors believe that the proposed technique for producing rotational and vibration CARS spectra could be of interest, e.g., when measuring in highly turbulent flows. In this case the rotational CARS spectra could use for temperature measurements in the cooler parts, whereas vibrational CARS are to be preferred when measuring in the hotter parts

  17. The Influence of Various Vibration Frequency on Barium Sulfate Scale Formation Of Vibrated Piping System In The Presence Citric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, N.; Mangestiyono, W.; Muryanto, S.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of vibrated piping system for BaSO4 scale formation was investigated. The vibration frequency and presence of citric acid were independent variables determining the kinetics, mass deposit and polymorph of the crystals. Correspondingly, induction time and mass of scale were obtained during the experiments. The crystalline scale was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to investigate the morphology and the phase mineral deposits, respectively. This effect indicated that the increase in vibration frequency promoted the increased deposition rate, while the pure barite with a plate-like morphology was produced in the experiments.

  18. Effects of vibration frequency on vibration-assisted nano-scratch process of mono-crystalline copper via molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has always been a critical issue to understand the material removal behavior of Vibration-Assisted Machining (VAM, especially on atomic level. To find out the effects of vibration frequency on material removal response, a three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD model has been established in this research to investigate the effects of scratched groove, crystal defects on the surface quality, comparing with the Von Mises shear strain and tangential force in simulations during nano-scratching process. Comparisons are made among the results of simulations from different vibration frequency with the same scratching feed, depth, amplitude and crystal orientation. Copper potential in this simulation is Embedded-Atom Method (EAM potential. Interaction between copper and carbon atoms is Morse potential. Simulational results show that higher frequency can make groove smoother. Simulation with high frequency creates more dislocations to improve the machinability of copper specimen. The changing frequency does not have evident effects on Von Mises shear strain. Higher frequency can decrease the tangential force to reduce the consumption of cutting energy and tool wear. In conclusion, higher vibration frequency in VAM on mono-crystalline copper has positive effects on surface finish, machinablility and tool wear reduction.

  19. Effects of vibration frequency on vibration-assisted nano-scratch process of mono-crystalline copper via molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Hongwei, E-mail: hwzhao@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: khl69@163.com; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Yihan; Han, Lei [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China); Kui, Hailin, E-mail: hwzhao@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: khl69@163.com [School of Transportation, Jilin University, 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun, Jilin 130025 (China)

    2016-03-15

    It has always been a critical issue to understand the material removal behavior of Vibration-Assisted Machining (VAM), especially on atomic level. To find out the effects of vibration frequency on material removal response, a three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) model has been established in this research to investigate the effects of scratched groove, crystal defects on the surface quality, comparing with the Von Mises shear strain and tangential force in simulations during nano-scratching process. Comparisons are made among the results of simulations from different vibration frequency with the same scratching feed, depth, amplitude and crystal orientation. Copper potential in this simulation is Embedded-Atom Method (EAM) potential. Interaction between copper and carbon atoms is Morse potential. Simulational results show that higher frequency can make groove smoother. Simulation with high frequency creates more dislocations to improve the machinability of copper specimen. The changing frequency does not have evident effects on Von Mises shear strain. Higher frequency can decrease the tangential force to reduce the consumption of cutting energy and tool wear. In conclusion, higher vibration frequency in VAM on mono-crystalline copper has positive effects on surface finish, machinablility and tool wear reduction.

  20. Structure and vibrational frequencies of gaseous europium dibromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giricheva, N.I.; Girichev, S.A.; Shlykov, S.A.; Pelipets, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    Structure of EuBr 2 molecule is studied in the framework of synchronous electron diffraction and mass-spectrometric experiment at the temperature of 1373(20) K. It is found that the molecule has a nonlinear equilibrium configuration, being characterized by the following effective parameters: r g (Eu - Br) = 2.767 A, r g (Br - Br) = 5.11(5) A, l g (Eu - Br) = 0.109(2) A, l g (Br - Br) = 0.388(5) A, valence angle (Br - Eu - Br) = 135.0(3.5) deg. The electron diffraction data permit ascertaining vibration frequencies ν 1 225(10) cm -1 and ν 2 = 40(4) cm -1 [ru

  1. Theoretical Investigation of Vibrational Frequencies for Tetrabromopalladate (II Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Bilge

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of tetrabromopalladate (II ion ([Pd(Br4]2- have been theoretically examined by means of standard quantum chemical technique. All normal modes have been successfully assigned utilizing the D4h symmetry of [Pd(Br4]2-. Calculation has been performed at the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP density functional method using the Lanl2dz basis set. Infrared intensities and Raman activities have also been calculated and reported. Theoretical results have been successfully compared against available experimental data. Key words: [Pd(Br4]2-, DFT, vibrational assignment, normal mode frequency, Lanl2dz Tetrabromopaladyum (II İyonunun Titreşim Frekanslarının Teorik Olarak İncelenmesi Tetrabromopaladyum (II iyonunun ([Pd(Br4]2- normal mod frekansları ve bunlara karşılık gelen titreşim işaretlemeleri standart kuantum kimyasal teknik yardımıyla teorik olarak incelenmektedir. Tüm normal modlar [Pd(Br4]2- iyonunun D4h nokta grubu kullanılarak başarılı bir şekilde işaretlenmiştir. Hesaplama Lanl2dz baz seti kullanılarak B3LYP (Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr yoğunluk fonksiyonel metoduyla gerçekleştirilmiş ve infrared intensiteleri ile Raman aktiviteleri de hesaplanmıştır. Teorik sonuçlar mevcut deneysel değerler ile başarılı bir şekilde karşılaştırılmaktadır. Anahtar kelimeler: [Pd(Br4]2-, DFT, titreşim işaretlemesi, normal mod frekansı, Lanl2dz

  2. Comparative analysis of internal friction and natural frequency measured by free decay and forced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Ding, X. D.; Xiong, X. M.; Zhang, J. X.

    2007-01-01

    Relations between various values of the internal friction (tgδ, Q -1 , Q -1* , and Λ/π) measured by free decay and forced vibration are analyzed systemically based on a fundamental mechanical model in this paper. Additionally, relations between various natural frequencies, such as vibration frequency of free decay ω FD , displacement-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω d , and velocity-resonant frequency of forced vibration ω 0 are calculated. Moreover, measurement of natural frequencies of a copper specimen of 99.9% purity has been made to demonstrate the relation between the measured natural frequencies of the system by forced vibration and free decay. These results are of importance for not only more accurate measurement of the elastic modulus of materials but also the data conversion between different internal friction measurements

  3. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions

  4. High frequency asymptotic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouche, D.; Dessarce, R.; Gay, J.; Vermersch, S.

    1991-01-01

    The asymptotic methods allow us to compute the interaction of high frequency electromagnetic waves with structures. After an outline of their foundations with emphasis on the geometrical theory of diffraction, it is shown how to use these methods to evaluate the radar cross section (RCS) of complex tri-dimensional objects of great size compared to the wave-length. The different stages in simulating phenomena which contribute to the RCS are reviewed: physical theory of diffraction, multiple interactions computed by shooting rays, research for creeping rays. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 insets

  5. Characteristics in Molecular Vibrational Frequency Patterns between Agonists and Antagonists of Histamine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. June Oh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To learn the differences between the structure-activity relationship and molecular vibration-activity relationship in the ligand-receptor interaction of the histamine receptor, 47 ligands of the histamine receptor were analyzed by structural similarity and molecular vibrational frequency patterns. The radial tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibrational frequency patterns shows its potential for the functional classification of histamine receptor ligands.

  6. Frequencies in the Vibration Induced by the Rotor Stator Interaction in a Centrifugal Pump Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Cristian; Egusquiza, Eduard; Santos, Ilmar

    2007-01-01

    The highest vibration levels in large pump turbines are, in general, originated in the rotor stator interaction (RSI). This vibration has specific characteristics that can be clearly observed in the frequency domain: harmonics of the moving blade passing frequency and a particular relationship am...

  7. Low frequency vibration tests on a floating slab track in an underground laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-yun DING; Wei-ning LIU; Ke-fei LI; Xiao-jing SUN; Wei-feng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency vibrations induced by underground railways have attracted increasing attention in recent years. To obtain the characteristics of low frequency vibrations and the low frequency performance of a floating slab track (FST), low frequency vibration tests on an FST in an underground laboratory at Beijing Jiaotong University were carried out. The FST and an unbalanced shaker SBZ30 for dynamic simulation were designed for use in low frequency vibration experiments. Vibration measurements were performed on the bogie of the unbalanced shaker, the rail, the slab, the tunnel invert, the tunnel wall, the tunnel apex, and on the ground surface at distances varying from 0 to 80 m from the track. Measurements were also made on several floors of an adjacent building. Detailed results of low frequency vibration tests were reported. The attenuation of low frequency vibrations with the distance from the track was presented, as well as the responses of different floors of the building. The experimental results could be regarded as a reference for developing methods to control low frequency vibrations and for adopting countermeasures.

  8. Development of a distributed polarization-OTDR to measure two vibrations with the same frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yun; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiangchuan; Zhang, Mingjiang; Zhou, Ling; Sun, Zhenqing; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-08-01

    A polarization optical time-domain reflectometer (POTDR) can distributedly measure the vibration of fiber by detecting the vibration induced polarization variation only with a polarization analyzer. It has great potential in the monitoring of the border intrusion, structural healthy, anti-stealing of pipeline and so on, because of its simple configuration, fast response speed and distributed measuring ability. However, it is difficult to distinguish two vibrations with the same frequency for POTDR because the signal induced by the first vibration would bury the other vibration induced signal. This paper proposes a simple method to resolve this problem in POTDR by analyzing the phase of the vibration induced signal. The effectiveness of this method in distinguishing two vibrations with the same frequency for POTDR is proved by simulation.

  9. Vibrational characteristics of FRP-bonded concrete interfacial defects in a low frequency regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tin Kei; Lau, Denvid

    2014-04-01

    As externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) is a critical load-bearing component of strengthened or retrofitted civil infrastructures, the betterment of structural health monitoring (SHM) methodology for such composites is imperative. Henceforth the vibrational characteristics of near surface interfacial defects involving delamination and trapped air pockets at the FRP-concrete interface are investigated in this study using a finite element approach. Intuitively, due to its lower interfacial stiffness compared with an intact interface, a damaged region is expected to have a set of resonance frequencies different from an intact region when excited by acoustic waves. It has been observed that, when excited acoustically, both the vibrational amplitudes and frequency peaks in the response spectrum of the defects demonstrate a significant deviation from an intact FRP-bonded region. For a thin sheet of FRP bonded to concrete with sizable interfacial defects, the fundamental mode under free vibration is shown to be relatively low, in the order of kHz. Due to the low resonance frequencies of the defects, the use of low-cost equipment for interfacial defect detection via response spectrum analysis is highly feasible.

  10. CFD simulation on flow induced vibrations in high pressure control and emergency stop turbine valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    2011-01-01

    During the refuelling outage at Unit 2 of Forsmark NPP in 2009, the high pressure turbine valves were replaced. Three month after recommissioning, an oil pipe connected to one of the actuators was broken. Measurements showed high-frequency vibration levels. The pipe break was suspected to be an effect of highly increased vibrations caused by the new valve. In order to establish the origin of the vibrations, investigations by means of CFD-simulations were made. The simulations showed that the increased vibrations most likely stems from the open cavity that the valves centre consists of. (author)

  11. Examining the impact of harmonic correlation on vibrational frequencies calculated in localized coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D., E-mail: magnus.hansonheine@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    Carefully choosing a set of optimized coordinates for performing vibrational frequency calculations can significantly reduce the anharmonic correlation energy from the self-consistent field treatment of molecular vibrations. However, moving away from normal coordinates also introduces an additional source of correlation energy arising from mode-coupling at the harmonic level. The impact of this new component of the vibrational energy is examined for a range of molecules, and a method is proposed for correcting the resulting self-consistent field frequencies by adding the full coupling energy from connected pairs of harmonic and pseudoharmonic modes, termed vibrational self-consistent field (harmonic correlation). This approach is found to lift the vibrational degeneracies arising from coordinate optimization and provides better agreement with experimental and benchmark frequencies than uncorrected vibrational self-consistent field theory without relying on traditional correlated methods.

  12. High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Bryan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency oscillatory (HFO ventilation using low tidal volume and peak airway pressures is extremely efficient at eliminating carbon dioxide and raising pH in the newborn infant with acute respiratory failure. Improvement in oxygenation requires a strategy of sustained or repetitive inflations to 25 to 30 cm H2O in order to place the lung on the deflation limb of the pressure-volume curve. This strategy has also been shown to decrease the amount of secondary lung injury in animal models. Experience of the use of HFO ventilation as a rescue therapy as well as several published controlled trials have shown improved outcomes and a decrease in the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation when it has been used in newborns.

  13. Applying Low-Frequency Vibration for the Experimental Investigation of Clutch Hub Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De’an Meng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A vibration-assisted plastic-forming method was proposed, and its influence on clutch hub forming process was investigated. The experiments were conducted on a vibration-assisted hydraulic extrusion press with adjustable frequency and amplitude. Vibration frequency and amplitude were considered in investigating the effect of vibration on forming load and surface quality. Results showed that applying vibration can effectively reduce forming force and improve surface quality. The drop in forming load was proportional to the vibration frequency and amplitude, and the load decreased by up to 25%. Such reduction in forming load raised with amplitude increase because the increase in amplitude would accelerate punch relative speed, which then weakened the adhesion between workpiece and dies. By increasing the vibration frequency, the punch movement was enhanced, and the number of attempts to drag the lubricant out of the pits was increased. In this manner, the lubrication condition was improved greatly. The 3D surface topography testing confirmed the assumption. Moreover, vibration frequency exerted a more significant effect on the forming load reduction than vibration amplitude.

  14. Low frequency torsional vibration gaps in the shaft with locally resonant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dianlong; Liu Yaozong; Wang Gang; Cai Li; Qiu Jing

    2006-01-01

    The propagation of torsional wave in the shaft with periodically attached local resonators is studied with the transfer matrix theory and the finite element method. The analytical dispersion relation and the complex band structure of such a structure is presented for the first time, which indicates the existence of low frequency gaps. The effect of shaft material on the vibration attenuation in band gap is investigated. The frequency response function of the shaft with finite periodic locally resonant oscillators is simulated with finite element method, which shows large vibration attenuation in the frequency range of the gap as expected. The low frequency torsional gap in shafts provides a new idea for vibration control

  15. Nonlinear Microstructured Material to Reduce Noise and Vibrations at Low Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavazec, Deborah; Cumunel, Gwendal; Duhamel, Denis; Soize, Christian; Batou, Anas

    2016-01-01

    At low frequencies, for which the wavelengths are wide, the acoustic waves and the mechanical vibrations cannot easily be reduced in the structures at macroscale by using dissipative materials, contrarily to the middle- and high-frequency ranges. The final objective of this work is to reduce the vibrations and the induced noise on a broad low-frequency band by using a microstructured material by inclusions that are randomly arranged in the material matrix. The dynamical regimes of the inclusions will be imposed in the nonlinear domain in order that the energy be effectively pumped over a broad frequency band around the resonance frequency, due to the nonlinearity. The first step of this work is to design and to analyze the efficiency of an inclusion, which is made up of a hollow frame including a point mass centered on a beam. This inclusion is designed in order to exhibit nonlinear geometric effects in the low-frequency band that is observed. For this first step, the objective is to develop the simplest mechanical model that has the capability to roughly predict the experimental results that are measured. The second step, which is not presented in the paper, will consist in developing a more sophisticated nonlinear dynamical model of the inclusion. In this paper, devoted to the first step, it is proved that the nonlinearity induces an attenuation on a broad frequency band around the resonance, contrarily to its linear behavior for which the attenuation is only active in a narrow frequency band around the resonance. We will present the design in terms of geometry, dimension and materials for the inclusion, the experimental manufacturing of this system realized with a 3D printing system, and the experimental measures that have been performed. We compare the prevision given by the stochastic computational model with the measurements. The results obtained exhibit the physical attenuation over a broad low-frequency band, which were expected. (paper)

  16. High-Accuracy Quartic Force Field Calculations for the Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies of 1(exp 1)A' l-C3H(-): A Possible Link to Lines Observed in the Horsehead Nebula PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Huang, Xinchuan; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that rotational lines observed in the Horsehead nebula photon-dominated-region (PDR) are probably not caused by l-C3H+, as was originally suggested. In the search for viable alternative candidate carriers, quartic force fields are employed here to provide highly accurate rotational constants, as well as fundamental vibrational frequencies, for another candidate carrier: 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). The ab initio computed spectroscopic constants provided in this work are, compared to those necessary to define the observed lines, as accurate as the computed spectroscopic constants for many of the known interstellar anions. Additionally, the computed D-eff for C3H(-) is three times closer to the D deduced from the observed Horsehead nebula lines relative to l-C3H(+). As a result, 1 (sup 1)A' C3H(-). is a more viable candidate for these observed rotational transitions and would be the seventh confirmed interstellar anion detected within the past decade and the first C(sub n)H(-) molecular anion with an odd n.

  17. A broadband frequency-tunable dynamic absorber for the vibration control of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsuzaki, T; Inoue, T; Terashima, O

    2016-01-01

    A passive-type dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) is basically a mass-spring system that suppresses the vibration of a structure at a particular frequency. Since the natural frequency of the DVA is usually tuned to a frequency of particular excitation, the DVA is especially effective when the excitation frequency is close to the natural frequency of the structure. Fixing the physical properties of the DVA limits the application to a narrowband, harmonically excited vibration problem. A frequency-tunable DVA that can modulate its stiffness provides adaptability to the vibration control device against non-stationary disturbances. In this paper, we suggest a broadband frequency-tunable DVA whose natural frequency can be extended by 300% to the nominal value using the magnetorheological elastomers (MREs). The frequency adjustability of the proposed absorber is first shown. The real-time vibration control performance of the frequency-tunable absorber for an acoustically excited plate having multiple resonant peaks is then evaluated. Investigations show that the vibration of the structure can be effectively reduced with an improved performance by the DVA in comparison to the conventional passive- type absorber. (paper)

  18. Sensitivity analysis of the stiffness between the frame structure and the frequency and vibration mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyuan

    2018-03-01

    The modal parameters such as natural frequency and vibration mode of the frame structure of the layer stiffness sensitivity is inconsistent. This article focuses on the theoretical derivation of the frequency and mode of the frame structure layer stiffness of the first-order sensitivity. The numerical examples show that the frame structure of layer stiffness higher than with the first order sensitivity vibration frequency.

  19. Contact area affects frequency-dependent responses to vibration in the peripheral vascular and sensorineural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G R; Waugh, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with development of peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunctions. These disorders and symptoms associated with it are referred to as hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Although the symptoms of the disorder have been well characterized, the etiology and contribution of various exposure factors to development of the dysfunctions are not well understood. Previous studies performed using a rat-tail model of vibration demonstrated that vascular and peripheral nervous system adverse effects of vibration are frequency-dependent, with vibration frequencies at or near the resonant frequency producing the most severe injury. However, in these investigations, the amplitude of the exposed tissue was greater than amplitude typically noted in human fingers. To determine how contact with vibrating source and amplitude of the biodynamic response of the tissue affects the risk of injury occurring, this study compared the influence of frequency using different levels of restraint to assess how maintaining contact of the tail with vibrating source affects the transmission of vibration. Data demonstrated that for the most part, increasing the contact of the tail with the platform by restraining it with additional straps resulted in an enhancement in transmission of vibration signal and elevation in factors associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury. In addition, there were also frequency-dependent effects, with exposure at 250 Hz generating greater effects than vibration at 62.5 Hz. These observations are consistent with studies in humans demonstrating that greater contact and exposure to frequencies near the resonant frequency pose the highest risk for generating peripheral vascular and sensorineural dysfunction.

  20. Separate recording of rationally related vibration frequencies using digital stroboscopic holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeenko, Igor; Gusev, Michael; Gurevich, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    A method for separate recording of rationally related vibration frequencies is presented. To record and measure the mode shape of vibrations, a synchronized stroboscopic CCD camera is used. Synchronization and control of the camera acquisition for recording stroboscopic holographic sequence has been realized. The phase for different states of the object vibration is calculated using the Fourier-transform method. Experimental results are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method are discussed.

  1. The high level vibration test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  2. Research of hydroelectric generating set low-frequency vibration monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Faxiang; Sun, Zhihui; Li, ShuJuan; Wang, Meng; Wang, Chang

    2017-10-01

    In order to satisfy hydroelectric generating set low-frequency vibration monitoring, the design of Passive low-frequency vibration monitoring system based on Optical fiber sensing in this paper. The hardware of the system adopts the passive optical fiber grating sensor and unbalanced-Michelson interferometer. The software system is used to programming by Labview software and finishing the control of system. The experiment show that this system has good performance on the standard vibration testing-platform and it meets system requirements. The frequency of the monitoring system can be as low as 0.2Hz and the resolution is 0.01Hz.

  3. Low-frequency wideband vibration energy harvesting by using frequency up-conversion and quin-stable nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhang, Qichang; Wang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This work presents models and experiments of an impact-driven and frequency up-converted wideband piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester with a quintuple-well potential induced by the combination effect of magnetic nonlinearity and mechanical piecewise-linearity. Analysis shows that the interwell motions during coupled vibration period enable to increase electrical power output in comparison to conventional frequency up-conversion technology. Besides, the quintuple-well potential with shallower potential wells could extend the harvester's operating bandwidth to lower frequencies. Experiments demonstrate our proposed approach can dramatically boost the measured power of the energy harvester as much as 35 times while its lower cut-off frequency is two times lower than that of a conventional counterpart. These results reveal our proposed approach shows promise for powering portable wireless smart devices from low-intensity, low-frequency vibration sources.

  4. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  5. Low frequency vibrations disrupt left-right patterning in the Xenopus embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Vandenberg

    Full Text Available The development of consistent left-right (LR asymmetry across phyla is a fascinating question in biology. While many pharmacological and molecular approaches have been used to explore molecular mechanisms, it has proven difficult to exert precise temporal control over functional perturbations. Here, we took advantage of acoustical vibration to disrupt LR patterning in Xenopus embryos during tightly-circumscribed periods of development. Exposure to several low frequencies induced specific randomization of three internal organs (heterotaxia. Investigating one frequency (7 Hz, we found two discrete periods of sensitivity to vibration; during the first period, vibration affected the same LR pathway as nocodazole, while during the second period, vibration affected the integrity of the epithelial barrier; both are required for normal LR patterning. Our results indicate that low frequency vibrations disrupt two steps in the early LR pathway: the orientation of the LR axis with the other two axes, and the amplification/restriction of downstream LR signals to asymmetric organs.

  6. Theory of sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules using the density matrix method-broadband vibrational sum-frequency generation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, M; Ueba, H; Wolf, M

    2005-01-01

    A generalized theory of frequency- and time-resolved vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy of adsorbates at surfaces is presented using the density matrix formalism. Our theoretical treatment is specifically aimed at addressing issues that accompany the relatively novel SFG approach using broadband infrared pulses. The ultrashort duration of these pulses makes them ideally suited for time-resolved investigations, for which we present a complete theoretical treatment. A second key characteristic of these pulses is their large bandwidth and high intensity, which allow for highly non-linear effects, including vibrational ladder climbing of surface vibrations. We derive general expressions relating the density matrix to SFG spectra, and apply these expressions to specific experimental results by solving the coupled optical Bloch equations of the density matrix elements. Thus, we can theoretically reproduce recent experimentally demonstrated hot band SFG spectra using femtosecond broadband infrared excitation of carbon monoxide (CO) on a Ru(001) surface

  7. Dispersion of low frequency vibrations in the deuterated naphthalene crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhenkov, E.L.; Sheka, E.; Natkaniec, I.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion curves of the lattice vibrations and of the two lowest intramolecular vibrations in d 8 -naphthalene (C 10 D 8 ) crystal have been measured by coherent inelastic neutron scattering for the [010] and the [100] directions at the temperature of 98 K and partially at 5 K. The results are compared with calculations based on the Kitaigorodskii parameters for C-C, C-H and H-H interactions in organic molecular crystals. (author)

  8. Structure-borne sound structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, L; Petersson, Björn AT

    2005-01-01

    Structure-Borne Sound"" is a thorough introduction to structural vibrations with emphasis on audio frequencies and the associated radiation of sound. The book presents in-depth discussions of fundamental principles and basic problems, in order to enable the reader to understand and solve his own problems. It includes chapters dealing with measurement and generation of vibrations and sound, various types of structural wave motion, structural damping and its effects, impedances and vibration responses of the important types of structures, as well as with attenuation of vibrations, and sound radi

  9. The low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djamal, Mitra; Sanjaya, Edi; Islahudin; Ramli [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40116 (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40116 (Indonesia) and Department of Physics, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jl. Ir.H. Djuanda 95 Ciputat 15412 (Indonesia); MTs NW Nurul Iman Kembang Kerang, Jl. Raya Mataram - Lb.Lombok, NTB (Indonesia); Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40116 (Indonesia) and Department of Physics,Universitas Negeri Padang, Jl. Prof. Hamka, Padang 25132 (Indonesia)

    2012-06-20

    Vibration like an earthquake is a phenomenon of physics. The characteristics of these vibrations can be used as an early warning system so as to reduce the loss or damage caused by earthquakes. In this paper, we introduced a new type of low frequency 2D vibration sensor based on flat coil element that we have developed. Its working principle is based on position change of a seismic mass that put in front of a flat coil element. The flat coil is a part of a LC oscillator; therefore, the change of seismic mass position will change its resonance frequency. The results of measurements of low frequency vibration sensor in the direction of the x axis and y axis gives the frequency range between 0.2 to 1.0 Hz.

  10. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts: Disordering versus Removal of Organic Capping

    KAUST Repository

    Krier, James M.; Michalak, William D.; Baker, L. Robert; An, Kwangjin; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work with nanoparticle catalysts shows that size and shape control on the nanometer scale influences reaction rate and selectivity. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying heterogeneous

  11. Enhancement to Non-Contacting Stress Measurement of Blade Vibration Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael; Jagodnik, John

    2011-01-01

    A system for turbo machinery blade vibration has been developed that combines time-of-arrival sensors for blade vibration amplitude measurement and radar sensors for vibration frequency and mode identification. The enabling technology for this continuous blade monitoring system is the radar sensor, which provides a continuous time series of blade displacement over a portion of a revolution. This allows the data reduction algorithms to directly calculate the blade vibration frequency and to correctly identify the active modes of vibration. The work in this project represents a significant enhancement in the mode identification and stress calculation accuracy in non-contacting stress measurement system (NSMS) technology when compared to time-of-arrival measurements alone.

  12. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s 2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.

  13. Using frequency response functions to manage image degradation from equipment vibration in the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William R.; McBride, Daniel R.

    2016-08-01

    The Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, providing a significant increase in the resolution of solar data available to the scientific community. Vibration mitigation is critical in long focal-length telescopes such as the Inouye Solar Telescope, especially when adaptive optics are employed to correct for atmospheric seeing. For this reason, a vibration error budget has been implemented. Initially, the FRFs for the various mounting points of ancillary equipment were estimated using the finite element analysis (FEA) of the telescope structures. FEA analysis is well documented and understood; the focus of this paper is on the methods involved in estimating a set of experimental (measured) transfer functions of the as-built telescope structure for the purpose of vibration management. Techniques to measure low-frequency single-input-single-output (SISO) frequency response functions (FRF) between vibration source locations and image motion on the focal plane are described. The measurement equipment includes an instrumented inertial-mass shaker capable of operation down to 4 Hz along with seismic accelerometers. The measurement of vibration at frequencies below 10 Hz with good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requires several noise reduction techniques including high-performance windows, noise-averaging, tracking filters, and spectral estimation. These signal-processing techniques are described in detail.

  14. Vibration characteristics of dental high-speed turbines and speed-increasing handpieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Ruth L; Lea, Simon C; Dyson, John E; Shortall, Adrian C C; Walmsley, A Damien

    2008-07-01

    Vibrations of dental handpieces may contribute to symptoms of hand-arm vibration syndrome in dental personnel and iatrogenic enamel cracking in teeth. However, methods for measuring dental handpiece vibrations have previously been limited and information about vibration characteristics is sparse. This preliminary study aimed to use a novel approach to assess the vibrations of unloaded high-speed handpieces in vitro. Maximum vibration displacement amplitudes of five air turbines and two speed-increasing handpieces were recorded whilst they were operated with and without a rotary cutting instrument (RCI) using a scanning laser vibrometer (SLV). RCI rotation speeds, calculated from frequency peaks, were consistent with expected values. ANOVA statistical analysis indicated significant differences in vibrations between handpiece models (p0.11). Operating handpieces with a RCI resulted in greater vibrations than with no RCI (pmeasurement exceeded 4 microm for the handpieces in the current test setup (implying that these vibrations may be unlikely to cause adverse effects), this study has formed the basis for future work which will include handpiece vibration measurements whilst cutting under clinically representative loads.

  15. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-02-01

    The feasibility of calculating natural frequencies and mode shapes of major equipment in a CANDU reactor from the measurements of their response to background excitation has been studied. A review of vibration data measured at various locations in CANDU plants shows that structures responded to a combination of random and harmonic background excitation. Amplitude of measured vibration is sufficient to allow meaningful data analysis. Frequency content in the 0 to 50-Hz range, which is of interest for earthquake response, is present in some of the vibration measurements studied. Spectral techniques have been developed for determining the response function of structures from measured vibration response to background excitation. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are then evaluated graphically from the frequency function plots. The methodology has been tested on a simple cantilever beam with known natural frequencies and mode shapes. The comparison between the theoretical and the computed natural frequencies and mode shapes is good for the lower modes. However, better curve-fitting techniques will be required in future, especially for higher modes. Readily available equipment necessary for the measurement of background vibration in a CANDU plant (which is commercially available) has been identified. An experimental program has been proposed to verify the methodology developed in this study. Recommendations are also made to study methods to improve the accuracy of the mode shape and natural frequency prediction

  16. High quality factor gigahertz frequencies in nanomechanical diamond resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidarzhy, Alexei; Imboden, Matthias; Mohanty, Pritiraj; Rankin, Janet; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    We report actuation and detection of gigahertz-range resonance frequencies in nano-crystalline diamond mechanical resonators. High order transverse vibration modes are measured in coupled-beam resonators exhibiting frequencies up to 1.441 GHz. The cantilever-array design of the resonators translates the gigahertz-range resonant motion of micron-long cantilever elements to the displacement of the central supporting structure. Use of nano-crystalline diamond further increases the frequency comp...

  17. Electrostatics determine vibrational frequency shifts in hydrogen bonded complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arghya; Mondal, Sohidul Islam; Sen, Saumik; Ghosh, Debashree; Patwari, G Naresh

    2014-12-14

    The red-shifts in the acetylenic C-H stretching vibration of C-H∙∙∙X (X = O, N) hydrogen-bonded complexes increase with an increase in the basicity of the Lewis base. Analysis of various components of stabilization energy suggests that the observed red-shifts are correlated with the electrostatic component of the stabilization energy, while the dispersion modulates the stabilization energy.

  18. Binaural beats at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G

    1975-10-24

    Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.

  19. Nonlinear laser dynamics induced by frequency shifted optical feedback: application to vibration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau, Vadim; Goloni, Carolina; Jacquin, Olivier; Hugon, Olivier; Inglebert, Mehdi; Lacot, Eric

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we study the nonlinear dynamics of a laser subjected to frequency shifted optical reinjection coming back from a vibrating target. More specifically, we study the nonlinear dynamical coupling between the carrier and the vibration signal. The present work shows how the nonlinear amplification of the vibration spectrum is related to the strength of the carrier and how it must be compensated to obtain accurate (i.e., without bias) vibration measurements. The theoretical predictions, confirmed by numerical simulations, are in good agreement with the experimental data. The main motivation of this study is the understanding of the nonlinear response of a laser optical feedback imaging sensor for quantitative phase measurements of small vibrations in the case of strong optical feedback.

  20. An extension of command shaping methods for controlling residual vibration using frequency sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Neil C.; Seering, Warren P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present an extension to the impulse shaping technique for commanding machines to move with reduced residual vibration. The extension, called frequency sampling, is a method for generating constraints that are used to obtain shaping sequences which minimize residual vibration in systems such as robots whose resonant frequencies change during motion. The authors present a review of impulse shaping methods, a development of the proposed extension, and a comparison of results of tests conducted on a simple model of the space shuttle robot arm. Frequency shaping provides a method for minimizing the impulse sequence duration required to give the desired insensitivity.

  1. Fatigue of 1 {mu}m-scale gold by vibration with reduced resonant frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumigawa, Takashi, E-mail: sumigawa@cyber.kues.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsumoto, Kenta [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kitamura, Takayuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-10-30

    In order to investigate the fatigue strength of micro-metal (1 {mu}m-scale), a testing method using resonant vibration is developed. Although the loading by vibration can solve the difficulties associated with the fatigue experiment of micro-specimen (e.g., specimen gripping and high-cycle loading under tension-compression), it inherently has an excessively high resonance frequency (more than several GHz at least) in a 1 {mu}m-scale metal specimen. For control of the fatigue cycle, the resonance frequency must be reduced to several hundreds of kHz by tuning the specimen shape. We design a cantilever specimen of 1 {mu}m scale gold with a weight at the tip, which reduces the resonant frequency to about 330 kHz. The unique specimen with the test section of 1.26 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 0.94 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 1.52 {mu}m is successfully fabricated by a novel technique using a focused ion beam and the tension-compression fatigue cycle is applied to it by means of a piezoelectric actuator. The test section breaks at about 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cycles under {Delta}{sigma}/2=230 MPa, which is within the targeted range of this project. It is easy to extend this method to high-cycle fatigue for actual use (including the failure cycles of over 10{sup 8} cycles). The slip bands observed on the surface, which have concavity and convexity similar to the intrusions/extrusions of PSBs, indicate that the failure is induced by the fatigue.

  2. Vibration-induced particle formation during yogurt fermentation-Effect of frequency and amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körzendörfer, Adrian; Temme, Philipp; Schlücker, Eberhard; Hinrichs, Jörg; Nöbel, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Machinery such as pumps used for the commercial production of fermented milk products cause vibrations that can spread to the fermentation tanks. During fermentation, such vibrations can disturb the gelation of milk proteins by causing texture defects including lumpiness and syneresis. To study the effect of vibrations on yogurt structure systematically, an experimental setup was developed consisting of a vibration exciter to generate defined vibrational states and accelerometers for monitoring. During the fermentation of skim milk, vibrations (frequency sweep: 25 to 1,005 Hz) were introduced at different pH (5.7 to 5.1, step width 0.1 units) for 200 s. Physical properties of set gels (syneresis, firmness) and resultant stirred yogurts (visible particles, rheology, laser diffraction) were analyzed. Vibrational treatments at pH 5.5 to 5.2 increased syneresis, gel firmness, and the number of large particles (d > 0.9 mm); hence, this period was considered critical. The particle number increased from 34 ± 5 to 242 ± 16 particles per 100 g of yogurt due to vibrations at pH 5.4. In further experiments, yogurts were excited with fixed frequencies (30, 300, and 1,000 Hz). All treatments increased syneresis, firmness, and particle formation. As the strongest effect was observed by applying 30 Hz, the amplitude was set to vibration accelerations of a = 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 m/s 2 in the final experiments. The number of large particles was increased due to each treatment and a positive correlation with the amplitude was found. We concluded that vibrations during gelation increase the collision probability of aggregating milk proteins, resulting in a compressed set gel with syneresis. Resultant stirred yogurts exhibit large particles with a compact structure leading to a reduced water-holding capacity and product viscosity. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High frequency ignition arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canup, R E

    1977-03-03

    The invention concerns an HF ignition arrangement for combustion engines with a transistor oscillator. As this oscillator requires a current of 10A, with peak currents up to about 50A, it is not sensible to take this current through the remote ignition switch for switching it on and off. According to the invention the HF high voltage transformer of the ignition is provided with a control winding, which only requires a few milliamps DC and which can therefore be switched via the ignition switch. If the ignition switch is in the 'running' position, then a premagnetising DC current flows through the control winding, which suppresses the oscillation of the oscillator which has current flowing through it, until this current is interrupted by the interruptor contacts controlled by the combustion engine, so that the oscillations of the oscillator start immediately; the oscillator only continues to oscillate during the period during which the interruptor contacts controlled by the machine are open and interrupt the premagnetisation current. The control winding is short circuited in the 'off' position of the ignition switch.

  4. Portable vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  5. Building Modern Vibration Diagnostics Systems Based on the Frequency-Time Transformations of A Measured Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasoveev Vasikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic methods of analysis of vibration transducers signals were reviewed. Continuous wavelet transform, being a time-frequency transform, was found to be an advanced mathematical tool for analysis of vibration signals. Experimental studies revealed obvious changes in the continuous wavelet transform spectrum depending on the existing defects. A method for detection and identification of technological violations based on the analysis of CWT spectrum components and normalized correlation coefficient was suggested. In accordance with the suggested method software for vibration diagnostics was developed.

  6. Calculation of vibrational frequencies through a variational reduced-coupling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Yohann; Benoit, David M

    2007-10-28

    In this study, we present a new method to perform accurate and efficient vibrational configuration interaction computations for large molecular systems. We use the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method to compute an initial description of the vibrational wave function of the system, combined with the single-to-all approach to compute a sparse potential energy surface at the chosen ab initio level of theory. A Davidson scheme is then used to diagonalize the Hamiltonian matrix built on the VSCF virtual basis. Our method is applied to the computation of the OH-stretch frequency of formic acid and benzoic acid to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this new technique.

  7. Measurement of Mechatronic Property of Biological Gel with Micro-Vibrating Electrode at Ultrasonic Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Hashimoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A measurement system has been designed with a micro-vibrating electrode at ultrasonic frequency to measure local impedance of biological gel in vitro. The designed system consists of two electrodes, where one of the electrodes vibrates with a piezoelectric actuator. The component of variation at impedance between two electrodes with vibration of one electrode is analyzed at the corresponding spectrum. The manufactured system was applied to measure impedance of a physiological saline solution, a potassium chloride solution, a dextran aqueous solution, and an egg. The experimental results show that the designed system is effective to measure local mechatronic property of biological gel.

  8. Low frequency vibrations induce malformations in two aquatic species in a frequency-, waveform-, and direction-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Vandenberg

    Full Text Available Environmental toxicants such as industrial wastes, air particulates from machinery and transportation vehicles, and pesticide run-offs, as well as many chemicals, have been widely studied for their effects on human and wildlife populations. Yet other potentially harmful environmental pollutants such as electromagnetic pulses, noise and vibrations have remained incompletely understood. Because developing embryos undergo complex morphological changes that can be affected detrimentally by alterations in physical forces, they may be particularly susceptible to exposure to these types of pollutants. We investigated the effects of low frequency vibrations on early embryonic development of two aquatic species, Xenopus laevis (frogs and Danio rerio (zebrafish, specifically focusing on the effects of varying frequencies, waveforms, and applied direction. We observed treatment-specific effects on the incidence of neural tube defects, left-right patterning defects and abnormal tail morphogenesis in Xenopus tadpoles. Additionally, we found that low frequency vibrations altered left-right patterning and tail morphogenesis, but did not induce neural tube defects, in zebrafish. The results of this study support the conclusion that low frequency vibrations are toxic to aquatic vertebrates, with detrimental effects observed in two important model species with very different embryonic architectures.

  9. Resonant frequency function of thickness-shear vibrations of rectangular crystal plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Yang, Lijun; Pan, Qiaoqiao; Chao, Min-Chiang; Du, Jianke

    2011-05-01

    The resonant frequencies of thickness-shear vibrations of quartz crystal plates in rectangular and circular shapes are always required in the design and manufacturing of quartz crystal resonators. As the size of quartz crystal resonators shrinks, for rectangular plates we must consider effects of both length and width for the precise calculation of resonant frequency. Starting from the three-dimensional equations of wave propagation in finite crystal plates and the general expression of vibration modes, we obtained the relations between frequency and wavenumbers. By satisfying the major boundary conditions of the dominant thickness-shear mode, three wavenumber solutions are obtained and the frequency equation is constructed. It is shown the resonant frequency of thickness-shear mode is a second-order polynomial of aspect ratios. This conforms to known results in the simplest form and is applicable to further analytical and experimental studies of the frequency equation of quartz crystal resonators.

  10. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  11. Relationship of the vibrational frequency of the uranyl ion with the uranium electronegativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, A.; Martinez Q, E.

    1990-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the vibrational asymmetric frequency of the uranyl ion, it experiences a consistent spectrochemical displacement with the variations of electronegativity of the uranium in their complexes. The values of the electronegativity of the uranium they were dear by means of calculations that it involves measures of those lengths of the connection uranium-oxygen, obtained by vibrational spectroscopy, effective nuclear charges and the Allred and Rochow equation. The results show the evidence of a natural order that relates to the vibrational frequency with the electronegativity of the uranium atom; settling down that if the electronegativity is graph against it bond length to the oxygen or to it frequency value, a simple relationship is obtained as a form to obtain clear responses in absence of complementary information. (Author)

  12. Experimental investigation on low-frequency vibration assisted micro-WEDM of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Rajendra Unune

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The micro-wire electric discharge machining (micro-WEDM has emerged as the popular micromachining processes for fabrication of micro-features. However, the low machining rate and poor surface finish are restricting wide applications of this process. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to improve machining rate of micro-WEDM with low-frequency workpiece vibration assistance. The gap voltage, capacitance, feed rate and vibrational frequency were chosen as control factors, whereas, the material removal rate (MRR and kerf width were selected as performance measures while fabricating microchannels in Inconel 718. It was observed that in micro-WEDM, the capacitance is the most significant factor affecting both MRR and kerf width. It was witnessed that the low-frequency workpiece vibration improves the performance of micro-WEDM by improving the MRR due to enhanced flushing conditions and reduced electrode-workpiece adhesion.

  13. A low-frequency vibration energy harvester based on diamagnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuta; Masuda, Arata; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2017-04-01

    This article presents 3-degree-of-freedom theoretical modeling and analysis of a low-frequency vibration energy harvester based on diamagnetic levitation. In recent years, although much attention has been placed on vibration energy harvesting technologies, few harvesters still can operate efficiently at extremely low frequencies in spite of large potential demand in the field of structural health monitoring and wearable applications. As one of the earliest works, Liu, Yuan and Palagummi proposed vertical and horizontal diamagnetic levitation systems as vibration energy harvesters with low resonant frequencies. This study aims to pursue further improvement along this direction, in terms of expanding maximum amplitude and enhancing the flexibility of the operation direction for broader application fields by introducing a new topology of the levitation system.

  14. Vibration-tolerant narrow-linewidth semiconductor disk laser using novel frequency-stabilisation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Craig R.; Jones, Brynmor E.; Schlosser, Peter; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Strain, Michael J.; McKnight, Loyd J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper will present developments in narrow-linewidth semiconductor-disk-laser systems using novel frequencystabilisation schemes for reduced sensitivity to mechanical vibrations, a critical requirement for mobile applications. Narrow-linewidth single-frequency lasers are required for a range of applications including metrology and highresolution spectroscopy. Stabilisation of the laser was achieved using a monolithic fibre-optic ring resonator with free spectral range of 181 MHz and finesse of 52 to act as passive reference cavity for the laser. Such a cavity can operate over a broad wavelength range and is immune to a wide band of vibrational frequency noise due to its monolithic implementation. The frequency noise of the locked system has been measured and compared to typical Fabry-Perotlocked lasers using vibration equipment to simulate harsh environments, and analysed here. Locked linewidths of portable, narrow-linewidth laser system for harsh environments that can be flexibly designed for a range of applications.

  15. Peculiarities of the Third Natural Frequency Vibrations of a Cantilever for the Improvement of Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Ostasevicius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on several aspects extending the dynamical efficiency of a cantilever beam vibrating in the third mode. A few ways of producing this mode stimulation, namely vibro-impact or forced excitation, as well as its application for energy harvesting devices are proposed. The paper presents numerical and experimental analyses of novel structural dynamics effects along with an optimal configuration of the cantilever beam. The peculiarities of a cantilever beam vibrating in the third mode are related to the significant increase of the level of deformations capable of extracting significant additional amounts of energy compared to the conventional harvester vibrating in the first mode. Two types of a piezoelectric vibrating energy harvester (PVEH prototype are analysed in this paper: the first one without electrode segmentation, while the second is segmented using electrode segmentation at the strain nodes of the third vibration mode to achieve effective operation at the third resonant frequency. The results of this research revealed that the voltage generated by any segment of the segmented PVEH prototype excited at the third resonant frequency demonstrated a 3.4–4.8-fold increase in comparison with the non-segmented prototype. Simultaneously, the efficiency of the energy harvester prototype also increased at lower resonant frequencies from 16% to 90%. The insights presented in the paper may serve for the development and fabrication of advanced piezoelectric energy harvesters which would be able to generate a considerably increased amount of electrical energy independently of the frequency of kinematical excitation.

  16. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm3, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  17. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol [Department of System Dynamics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Eun, E-mail: jekim@cu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13 Hayang-Ro, Hayang-Eup, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  18. The effect of the condensed-phase environment on the vibrational frequency shift of a hydrogen molecule inside clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Anna; Scribano, Yohann; Lauvergnat, David; Mebe, Elsy; Benoit, David M; Bačić, Zlatko

    2018-04-14

    We report a theoretical study of the frequency shift (redshift) of the stretching fundamental transition of an H 2 molecule confined inside the small dodecahedral cage of the structure II clathrate hydrate and its dependence on the condensed-phase environment. In order to determine how much the hydrate water molecules beyond the confining small cage contribute to the vibrational frequency shift, quantum five-dimensional (5D) calculations of the coupled translation-rotation eigenstates are performed for H 2 in the v=0 and v=1 vibrational states inside spherical clathrate hydrate domains of increasing radius and a growing number of water molecules, ranging from 20 for the isolated small cage to over 1900. In these calculations, both H 2 and the water domains are treated as rigid. The 5D intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of H 2 inside a hydrate domain is assumed to be pairwise additive. The H 2 -H 2 O pair interaction, represented by the 5D (rigid monomer) PES that depends on the vibrational state of H 2 , v=0 or v=1, is derived from the high-quality ab initio full-dimensional (9D) PES of the H 2 -H 2 O complex [P. Valiron et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)]. The H 2 vibrational frequency shift calculated for the largest clathrate domain considered, which mimics the condensed-phase environment, is about 10% larger in magnitude than that obtained by taking into account only the small cage. The calculated splittings of the translational fundamental of H 2 change very little with the domain size, unlike the H 2 j = 1 rotational splittings that decrease significantly as the domain size increases. The changes in both the vibrational frequency shift and the j = 1 rotational splitting due to the condensed-phase effects arise predominantly from the H 2 O molecules in the first three complete hydration shells around H 2 .

  19. The effect of the condensed-phase environment on the vibrational frequency shift of a hydrogen molecule inside clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Anna; Scribano, Yohann; Lauvergnat, David; Mebe, Elsy; Benoit, David M.; Bačić, Zlatko

    2018-04-01

    We report a theoretical study of the frequency shift (redshift) of the stretching fundamental transition of an H2 molecule confined inside the small dodecahedral cage of the structure II clathrate hydrate and its dependence on the condensed-phase environment. In order to determine how much the hydrate water molecules beyond the confining small cage contribute to the vibrational frequency shift, quantum five-dimensional (5D) calculations of the coupled translation-rotation eigenstates are performed for H2 in the v =0 and v =1 vibrational states inside spherical clathrate hydrate domains of increasing radius and a growing number of water molecules, ranging from 20 for the isolated small cage to over 1900. In these calculations, both H2 and the water domains are treated as rigid. The 5D intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of H2 inside a hydrate domain is assumed to be pairwise additive. The H2-H2O pair interaction, represented by the 5D (rigid monomer) PES that depends on the vibrational state of H2, v =0 or v =1 , is derived from the high-quality ab initio full-dimensional (9D) PES of the H2-H2O complex [P. Valiron et al., J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008)]. The H2 vibrational frequency shift calculated for the largest clathrate domain considered, which mimics the condensed-phase environment, is about 10% larger in magnitude than that obtained by taking into account only the small cage. The calculated splittings of the translational fundamental of H2 change very little with the domain size, unlike the H2 j = 1 rotational splittings that decrease significantly as the domain size increases. The changes in both the vibrational frequency shift and the j = 1 rotational splitting due to the condensed-phase effects arise predominantly from the H2O molecules in the first three complete hydration shells around H2.

  20. Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.

  1. Laser diagnostics of high vibrational and rotational H2-states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbach, Th.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    We report on measurements of vibrational and rotational excited electronic-ground-state hydrogen molecules in a magnetic multipole plasma source by LIF with VUV radiation. The measurements are taken after rapid shut-off of the discharge current. Absolute level populations are obtained using Rayleigh scattering calibration with Krypton. The theoretically predicted suprathermal population of the vibrational distribution is clearly identified. We found also non-Boltzmann rotational distributions for the high vibrational states. The addition of noble gases (Argon and Xenon) to hydrogen leads to a decrease of the vibrational population. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  3. Investigation of a vibration-damping unit for reduction in low-frequency vibrations of electric motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryey, N. V.; Fedorovich, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    The vibroacoustical characteristics of different types of electric motors are discussed. It is shown that the basic source of low frequency vibrations is rotor unbalance. A flexible damping support, with an antivibrator, is used to obtain the vibroacoustical effect of reduction in the basic harmonic of the electric motor. A model of the electric motor and the damping apparatus is presented. Mathematical models are developed to show the relationships of the parameters. The basic purpose in using a calculation model id the simultaneous replacement of the exciting force created by the rotor unbalance and its inertial rigidity characteristics by a limiting kinematic disturbance.

  4. High-frequency Trader Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the recent shift in financial markets toward high-frequency trading (HFT). This turn is being legitimized with reference to how algorithms are allegedly more rational and efficient than human traders, and less prone to emotionally motivated decisions. We argue......-techniques of the ideal high-frequency trader. We demonstrate that these traders face the challenge of avoiding emotional interference in their algorithms and that they deploy a set of disciplinary self-techniques to curb the importance of emotional attachment....

  5. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: zhangxy@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn; Yan, Xiaojun, E-mail: zhangxy@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxiaojun@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Aero-Engine Structure and Strength, Beijing 100191 (China); Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young’s modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz–97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method.

  6. Molecular-level mechanisms of vibrational frequency shifts in a polar liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Christine M; Thompson, Ward H

    2011-06-16

    A molecular-level analysis of the origins of the vibrational frequency shifts of the CN stretching mode in neat liquid acetonitrile is presented. The frequency shifts and infrared spectrum are calculated using a perturbation theory approach within a molecular dynamics simulation and are in good agreement with measured values reported in the literature. The resulting instantaneous frequency of each nitrile group is decomposed into the contributions from each molecule in the liquid and by interaction type. This provides a detailed picture of the mechanisms of frequency shifts, including the number of surrounding molecules that contribute to the shift, the relationship between their position and relative contribution, and the roles of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. These results provide insight into what information is contained in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra about the environment of the probed vibrational mode. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Note: A component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips using SMA beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiaojun; Ding, Xin; Wu, Di; Qi, Junlei; Wang, Ruixin; Lu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    This note presents a component-level frequency tunable isolator for vibration-sensitive chips. The isolator employed 8 U-shaped shape memory alloy (SMA) beams to support an isolation island (used for mounting chips). Due to the temperature-induced Young’s modulus variation of SMA, the system stiffness of the isolator can be controlled through heating the SMA beams. In such a way, the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned. A prototype was fabricated to evaluate the concept. The test results show that the natural frequency of the isolator can be tuned in the range of 64 Hz–97 Hz by applying different heating strategies. Moreover, resonant vibration can be suppressed significantly (the transmissibility decreases about 65% near the resonant frequency) using a real-time tuning method.

  8. Frequency tuning and directional sensitivity of tympanal vibrations in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankheet, Martin J.; Cerkvenik, Uroš; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    Female field crickets use phonotaxis to locate males by their calling song. Male song production and female behavioural sensitivity form a pair of matched frequency filters, which in Gryllus bimaculatus are tuned to a frequency of about 4.7 kHz. Directional sensitivity is supported by an elaborate...... play a major role in tuning directional sensitivity to the calling song frequency, by measuring tympanal vibrations as a function of sound direction and frequency. Rather than sharp frequency tuning of directional sensitivity corresponding to the calling song, we found broad frequency tuning......, with optima shifted to higher frequencies. These findings agree with predictions from a vector summation model for combining external and internal sounds. We show that the model provides robust directional sensitivity that is, however, broadly tuned with an optimum well above the calling song frequency. We...

  9. The vibrating reed frequency meter : digital investigation of an early cochlear model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, Andrew; Wit, Hero P.

    2015-01-01

    The vibrating reed frequency meter, originally employed by Bekesy and later by Wilson as a cochlear model, uses a set of tuned reeds to represent the cochlea's graded bank of resonant elements and an elastic band threaded between them to provide nearest-neighbour coupling. Here the system,

  10. The effect of an external electric field on the vibrational frequency of CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ab initio calculations, using a CAS SCF wavefunction and extended basis set, show a change in the vibrational frequency with electric field strength for the ground 1sigma(+) state of CO of one third that observed for CO/Ni(110). This result supports the view of Lambert.

  11. Low Frequency Vibration approach to asess the Performance of wood structural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Michael O. Hunt

    2004-01-01

    The primary means of inspecting buildings and other structures is to evaluate each structure member individually. This is a time consuming process that is expensive, particularly if sheathing or other covering materials must be removed to access the structural members. This paper presents an effort to use a low frequency vibration method for assessing the structural...

  12. Low frequency vibration approach for assessing performance of wood floor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Michael O. Hunt; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman

    2005-01-01

    The primary means of inspecting buildings and other structures is to evaluate each structure member individually. This is a time-consuming and expensive process, particularly if sheathing or other covering materials must be removed to access the structural members. The objective of this study was to determine if a low frequency vibration method could be used to...

  13. Molecular Structure And Vibrational Frequencies of Tetrafluoro isophthalonitrile By Hartree-Fock And Density Functional Theory Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayikoglu, A.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of tetrafluoro isophthalonitrile (TFPN) in the ground state have been calculated using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional methods (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The calculations were utilized in the CS symmetry of TFPN. The obtained vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were seen to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison of the observed and calculated results showed that the B3LYP method is superior to the HF method for both the vibrational frequencies and geometric parameters

  14. Vibration compensated high-resolution scanning white-light Linnik-interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereschenko, Stanislav; Lehmann, Peter; Gollor, Pascal; Kuehnhold, Peter

    2017-06-01

    We present a high-resolution Linnik scanning white-light interferometer (SWLI) with integrated distance measuring interferometer (DMI) for close-to-machine applications in the presence of environmental vibrations. The distance, measured by DMI during the depth-scan, is used for vibration compensation of SWLI signals. The reconstruction of the white-light interference signals takes place after measurement by reordering the captured images in accordance with their real positions obtained by the DMI and subsequent trigonometrical approximation. This system is the further development of our previously presented Michelson-interferometer. We are able to compensate for arbitrary vibrations with frequencies up to several kilohertz and amplitudes in the lower micrometer range. Completely distorted SWLI signals can be reconstructed and the surface topography can be obtained with high accuracy. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method by examples of practical measurements with and without vibrational disturbances.

  15. Research on a new type of precision cropping method with variable frequency vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the cropping operations widely applied in practical industry production, a new method of bar cropping is presented. The rotational speeds of actuating motor of eccentric blocks are controlled by a frequency-changer, and the shearing die provides the bar with the controllable force, frequency and amplitude of vibration. By utilizing the stress concentration at the bottom of V shape groove on the bar, the low stress bar cropping is realized. The bar cropping experiments of duralumin alloy and steel ...

  16. FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF VIBRATIONS OF THE ROUND PARACHUTE EDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to the analysis of the videos obtained during flight experiment at the launch of meteo-rocket MMP-06 in order to determine main characteristics of the oscillatory process the edges of the canopy at subsonic speeds at altitudes from 42,2 km to 34.2 km. Data analysis demonstrated that the oscillations of the edge of the canopy has a random character. The structure frequency of 2.4 Hz was identified from the analysis to be determined by the nylon sling stiffness.

  17. Low-frequency elastic vibrations localized near fracture in solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosevich, Yu.A.; Syrkin, E.S.

    1994-11-01

    We propose a consistent macroscopic description of the thermodynamic and dynamical properties of two-dimensional surface layers on the interface between two crystals or between different media. Such description enables one to elucidate the effect of two-dimensional defects (fracture) on the frequency, dispersion and polarization characteristics of surface waves and scattered on two-dimensional defects bulk waves of various nature, starting from rather general assumptions and without using of the microscopic models of surface or interface layers. A new thermodynamic variable for two-dimensional defect with an internal dynamical degree of freedom is introduced. The coupled long-wavelength and low-frequency equations of motion of the defect layer are obtained as a set of nontraditional boundary conditions for the bulk equations of the theory of elasticity. New types of surface and pseudo-surface (resonance) waves caused by two-dimensional absorbed or segregated layers with different strength of bonding with elastic substrate are analyzed. (author). 31 refs, 4 figs

  18. Bandwidth Widening of Piezoelectric Cantilever Beam Arrays by Mass-Tip Tuning for Low-Frequency Vibration Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dechant

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks usually rely on internal permanent or rechargeable batteries as a power supply, causing high maintenance efforts. An alternative solution is to supply the entire system by harvesting the ambient energy, for example, by transducing ambient vibrations into electric energy by virtue of the piezoelectric effect. The purpose of this paper is to present a simple engineering approach for the bandwidth optimization of vibration energy harvesting systems comprising multiple piezoelectric cantilevers (PECs. The frequency tuning of a particular cantilever is achieved by changing the tip mass. It is shown that the bandwidth enhancement by mass tuning is limited and requires several PECs with close resonance frequencies. At a fixed frequency detuning between subsequent PECs, the achievable bandwidth shows a saturation behavior as a function of the number of cantilevers used. Since the resonance frequency of each PEC is different, the output voltages at a particular excitation frequency have different amplitudes and phases. A simple power-transfer circuit where several PECs with an individual full wave bridge rectifier are connected in parallel allows one to extract the electrical power close to the theoretical maximum excluding the diode losses. The experiments performed on two- and three-PEC arrays show reasonable agreement with simulations and demonstrate that this power-transfer circuit additionally influences the frequency dependence of the harvested electrical power.

  19. Low-frequency vibrational spectra of crystals of tutton salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, M. V.; Zazhogin, A. A.; Komyak, A. I.; Shashkov, S. N.

    2000-07-01

    IR absorption spectra and polarized Raman spectra of crystals of Tutton salts K2M(SO4)26H2O and (NH4)2M(SO4)2·6H2O, where M=Co, Ni, Zn, have been obtained by experiment at 93 K and at room temperature. The frequencies and forms of normal modes of the [Zn(H2O)6]2+ octahedral complex have been calculated. The observed lines are assigned to the internal modes of the [M(H2O)6]2+ complex and external modes of the crystal lattice in accordance with the results of the calculations and factor-group analysis.

  20. THE POSSIBLE INTERSTELLAR ANION CH2CN–: SPECTROSCOPIC CONSTANTS, VIBRATIONAL FREQUENCIES, AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lee, Timothy J.; Crawford, T. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The A 1 B 1 ⇽ X-tilde 1 A' excitation into the dipole-bound state of the cyanomethyl anion (CH 2 CN – ) has been hypothesized as the carrier for one diffuse interstellar band. However, this particular molecular system has not been detected in the interstellar medium even though the related cyanomethyl radical and the isoelectronic ketenimine molecule have been found. In this study, we are employing the use of proven quartic force fields and second-order vibrational perturbation theory to compute accurate spectroscopic constants and fundamental vibrational frequencies for X-tilde 1 A' CH 2 CN – in order to assist in laboratory studies and astronomical observations.

  1. Orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes from combined experimental and theoretical sum frequency spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Hilary M.; Chen, Shunli; Fu, Li; Upshur, Mary Alice; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Thomson, Regan J.; Wang, Hong-Fei; Batista, Victor S.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2017-09-01

    Inferring molecular orientations from vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra is challenging in polarization combinations that result in low signal intensities, or when the local point group symmetry approximation fails. While combining experiments with density functional theory (DFT) could overcome this problem, the scope of the combined method has yet to be established. Here, we assess its feasibility of determining the distributions of molecular orientations for one monobasic ester, two epoxides and three alcohols at the vapor/fused silica interface. We find that molecular orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes cannot be determined using polarization-resolved SFG measurements alone.

  2. Energy conversion by ‘T-shaped’ cantilever type electromagnetic vibration based micro power generator from low frequency vibration sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Abu Raihan Mohammad; Mahmud, Shohel; Van Heyst, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A T-shaped cantilever type electromagnetic vibration based MPG has been described. • The designed EVMPG is useful for low frequency based vibration sources. • Both experimental tests and theoretical analysis have been performed. • The final compact prototype was tested at different conditions of human movements. • The prototype can generate 35.2 mV and 0.22 mW at 7 Hz with 5.6 Ω. - Abstract: The design, development, and analyses of low-frequency vibration based T-shaped cantilever type electromagnetic micro power generators (EVMPGs) are presented in this paper. Four different configurations (Configurations A to D) of EVMPGs were designed and fabricated and subsequently characterized using detailed experimental and limited analytical techniques. Configuration A and B consisted of a single and a double cylindrical moving magnets (NdFeB), respectively, while Configuration C consisted of four rectangular moving magnets with respect to a fixed copper coil. In contrast, Configuration D used a moving coil between four rectangular magnets with a back-iron bar. The open circuit RMS voltage output was observed to be a maximum from Configuration D (98.2 mV at 6.29 Hz) with a base vibration acceleration of 0.8 m s"−"2. Therefore, Configuration D was selected for further experimental investigations, which included changing the back-iron bar thickness, changing the base acceleration level, and changing the air gap separation between the magnets in order to optimize this configuration. The maximum load RMS voltage and power outputs of Configuration D were 105.4 mV and 1.35 mW at 6.29 Hz for load resistance 8.2 Ω and a base acceleration of 0.8 m s"−"2 with a 4.2 mm back-iron bar when the air gap between the magnets was 20 mm. Finally, a small portable EVMPG prototype was developed based on the Configuration D and was tested at different human movement conditions (i.e., walking, quick walking, and running). The developed EVMPG prototype was capable of

  3. Vibrational modes of hydraulic fractures: Inference of fracture geometry from resonant frequencies and attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2015-02-01

    Oscillatory seismic signals arising from resonant vibrations of hydraulic fractures are observed in many geologic systems, including volcanoes, glaciers and ice sheets, and hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. To better quantify the physical dimensions of fluid-filled cracks and properties of the fluids within them, we study wave motion along a thin hydraulic fracture waveguide. We present a linearized analysis, valid at wavelengths greater than the fracture aperture, that accounts for quasi-static elastic deformation of the fracture walls, as well as fluid viscosity, inertia, and compressibility. In the long-wavelength limit, anomalously dispersed guided waves known as crack or Krauklis waves propagate with restoring force from fracture wall elasticity. At shorter wavelengths, the waves become sound waves within the fluid channel. Wave attenuation in our model is due to fluid viscosity, rather than seismic radiation from crack tips or fracture wall roughness. We characterize viscous damping at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where the flow has a nearly constant velocity profile away from viscous boundary layers near the fracture walls. Most observable seismic signals from resonating fractures likely arise in the boundary layer crack wave limit, where fluid-solid coupling is pronounced and attenuation is minimal. We present a method to estimate the aperture and length of a resonating hydraulic fracture using both the seismically observed quality factor and characteristic frequency. Finally, we develop scaling relations between seismic moment and characteristic frequency that might be useful when interpreting the statistics of hydraulic fracture events.

  4. Vocal-fold vibration of patients with Reinke's edema observed using high-speed digital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Kenichi; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Takahashi, Haruo

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the vocal-fold vibration of patients with moderate-to-severe Reinke's edema using high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and videostroboscopy and to confirm HSDI usefulness in examining the vocal folds with Reinke's edema. We examined the vocal folds of seven patients (six severe and one moderate; six females and one male; aged 55-74 years; mean 64.7 years) with Reinke's edema using HSDI and videostroboscopy. The following characteristics were analyzed: glottic closure, mucosal-wave propagation, left-right asymmetry, phase shift, frequency difference, periodicity, and contact of the true vocal fold with the false vocal fold. HSDI revealed complete glottic closure, anterior-posterior phase shift, and obvious contact of at least one side of the edematous true vocal fold with the ipsilateral false vocal fold in all patients. Mucosal-wave propagation increased in six patients and decreased in one. Left-right asymmetry was observed in six patients. Left-right phase shifts and left-right frequency differences were observed in four and two patients, respectively. The vibration was periodic in four patients, quasi-periodic in three, and aperiodic in none. Anterior-posterior frequency differences were not observed for any patient. The vocal-fold vibration always synchronized with strobolights in two patients, while the vibration occasionally and never synchronized in two and three patients, respectively. In one patient whose vibration occasionally synchronized, videostroboscopy could not reveal the slight left-right frequency difference of the vibration. It was often difficult to observe vocal-fold vibration correctly in patients with severe Reinke's edema using videostroboscopy. However, HSDI was useful for examining these patients. Our results suggest that HSDI can be very useful for examining the vocal folds of patients with severe Reinke's edema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinetics of highly vibrationally excited O2(X) molecules in inductively-coupled oxygen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annušová, Adriana; Marinov, Daniil; Booth, Jean-Paul; Sirse, Nishant; Lino da Silva, Mário; Lopez, Bruno; Guerra, Vasco

    2018-04-01

    The high degree of vibrational excitation of O2 ground state molecules recently observed in inductively coupled plasma discharges is investigated experimentally in more detail and interpreted using a detailed self-consistent 0D global kinetic model for oxygen plasmas. Additional experimental results are presented and used to validate the model. The vibrational kinetics considers vibrational levels up to v = 41 and accounts for electron impact excitation and de-excitation (e-V), vibration-to-translation relaxation (V-T) in collisions with O2 molecules and O atoms, vibration-to-vibration energy exchanges (V-V), excitation of electronically excited states, dissociative electron attachment, and electron impact dissociation. Measurements were performed at pressures of 10–80 mTorr (1.33 and 10.67 Pa) and radio frequency (13.56 MHz) powers up to 500 W. The simulation results are compared with the absolute densities in each O2 vibrational level obtained by high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy measurements of the Schumann–Runge bands for O2(X, v = 4–18), O(3 P) atom density measurements by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) calibrated against Xe, and laser photodetachment measurements of the O‑ negative ions. The highly excited O2(X, v) distribution exhibits a shape similar to a Treanor-Gordiets distribution, but its origin lies in electron impact e-V collisions and not in V-V up-pumping, in contrast to what happens in all other molecular gases known to date. The relaxation of vibrational quanta is mainly due to V-T energy-transfer collisions with O atoms and to electron impact dissociation of vibrationally excited molecules, e+O2(X, v)→O(3P)+O(3P).

  6. Study of Bubble Size, Void Fraction, and Mass Transport in a Bubble Column under High Amplitude Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrouz Mohagheghian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical vibration is known to cause bubble breakup, clustering and retardation in gas-liquid systems. In a bubble column, vibration increases the mass transfer ratio by increasing the residence time and phase interfacial area through introducing kinetic buoyancy force (Bjerknes effect and bubble breakup. Previous studies have explored the effect of vibration frequency (f, but minimal effort has focused on the effect of amplitude (A on mass transfer intensification. Thus, the current work experimentally examines bubble size, void fraction, and mass transfer in a bubble column under relatively high amplitude vibration (1.5 mm < A <9.5 mm over a frequency range of 7.5–22.5 Hz. Results of the present work were compared with past studies. The maximum stable bubble size under vibration was scaled using Hinze theory for breakage. Results of this work indicate that vibration frequency exhibits local maxima in both mass transfer and void fraction. Moreover, an optimum amplitude that is independent of vibration frequency was found for mass transfer enhancements. Finally, this work suggests physics-based models to predict void fraction and mass transfer in a vibrating bubble column.

  7. Theory and experiment research for ultra-low frequency maglev vibration sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dezhi; Liu, Yixuan; Guo, Zhanshe; Fan, Shangchun; Zhao, Xiaomeng

    2015-01-01

    A new maglev sensor is proposed to measure ultra-low frequency (ULF) vibration, which uses hybrid-magnet levitation structure with electromagnets and permanent magnets as the supporting component, rather than the conventional spring structure of magnetoelectric vibration sensor. Since the lower measurement limit needs to be reduced, the equivalent bearing stiffness coefficient and the equivalent damping coefficient are adjusted by the sensitivity unit structure of the sensor and the closed-loop control system, which realizes both the closed-loop control and the solving algorithms. A simple sensor experimental platform is then assembled based on a digital hardware system, and experimental results demonstrate that the lower measurement limit of the sensor is increased to 0.2 Hz under these experimental conditions, indicating promising results of the maglev sensor for ULF vibration measurements

  8. Theory and experiment research for ultra-low frequency maglev vibration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dezhi; Liu, Yixuan; Guo, Zhanshe; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Fan, Shangchun

    2015-10-01

    A new maglev sensor is proposed to measure ultra-low frequency (ULF) vibration, which uses hybrid-magnet levitation structure with electromagnets and permanent magnets as the supporting component, rather than the conventional spring structure of magnetoelectric vibration sensor. Since the lower measurement limit needs to be reduced, the equivalent bearing stiffness coefficient and the equivalent damping coefficient are adjusted by the sensitivity unit structure of the sensor and the closed-loop control system, which realizes both the closed-loop control and the solving algorithms. A simple sensor experimental platform is then assembled based on a digital hardware system, and experimental results demonstrate that the lower measurement limit of the sensor is increased to 0.2 Hz under these experimental conditions, indicating promising results of the maglev sensor for ULF vibration measurements.

  9. Theory and experiment research for ultra-low frequency maglev vibration sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dezhi; Liu, Yixuan, E-mail: xuan61x@163.com; Guo, Zhanshe; Fan, Shangchun [School of Instrument Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhao, Xiaomeng [Laser Medicine Laboratory, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A new maglev sensor is proposed to measure ultra-low frequency (ULF) vibration, which uses hybrid-magnet levitation structure with electromagnets and permanent magnets as the supporting component, rather than the conventional spring structure of magnetoelectric vibration sensor. Since the lower measurement limit needs to be reduced, the equivalent bearing stiffness coefficient and the equivalent damping coefficient are adjusted by the sensitivity unit structure of the sensor and the closed-loop control system, which realizes both the closed-loop control and the solving algorithms. A simple sensor experimental platform is then assembled based on a digital hardware system, and experimental results demonstrate that the lower measurement limit of the sensor is increased to 0.2 Hz under these experimental conditions, indicating promising results of the maglev sensor for ULF vibration measurements.

  10. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  11. The High Level Vibration Test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  12. High-frequency, high-intensity photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, H. R.

    1996-02-01

    Two analytical methods for computing ionization by high-frequency fields are compared. Predicted ionization rates compare well, but energy predictions for the onset of ionization differ radically. The difference is shown to arise from the use of a transformation in one of the methods that alters the zero from which energy is measured. This alteration leads to an apparent energy threshold for ionization that can, especially in the stabilization regime, differ strongly from the laboratory measurement. It is concluded that channel closings in intense-field ionization can occur at high as well as low frequencies. It is also found that the stabilization phenomenon at high frequencies, very prominent for hydrogen, is absent in a short-range potential.

  13. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  14. Identification of Natural Frequency of Low Rise Building on Soft Ground Profile using Ambient Vibration Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, A. F.; Zainal Abidin, M. H.; Mokhatar, S. N.; Daud, M. E.; Ibrahim, A.; Ibrahim, Z.; Noh, M. S. Md

    2018-04-01

    Natural frequency is the rate at which a body to vibrate or oscillate. Application of ambient vibration (AV) excitation is widely used nowadays as the input motion for building predominant frequency, fo, and ground fundamental frequency, Fo, prediction due to simple, fast, non-destructive, simple handling operation and reliable result. However, it must be emphasized and caution to isolate these frequencies (fo and Fo) from spurious frequencies of site-structure effects especially to low rise building on soft ground deposit. In this study, identification of fo and Fo by using AV measurements were performed on ground and 4-storey primary school reinforced concrete (RC) building at Sekolah Kebangsaan (SK) Sg. Tongkang, Rengit, Johor using 1 Hz of tri-axial seismometer sensor. Overlapping spectra between Fourier Amplitude Spectra (FAS) from and Horizontal to Vertical Spectra Ratio (HVSR) were used to distinguish respective frequencies of building and ground natural frequencies. Three dominant frequencies were identified from the FAS curves at 1.91 Hz, 1.98 Hz and 2.79 Hz in longitudinal (East West-EW), transverse (North South-NS) and vertical (UD) directions. It is expected the building has deformed in translational mode based on the first peak frequency by respective NS and EW components of FAS spectrum. Vertical frequency identified from the horizontal spectrums, might induces to the potential of rocking effect experienced by the school building. Meanwhile, single peak HVSR spectrum at low ground fundamental frequency concentrated at 0.93 Hz indicates to the existence deep contrast of soft deposit. Strong interaction between ground and building at similar frequency (0.93 Hz) observed from the FAS curves on the highest floor has shown the building to behave as a dependent unit against ground response as one rigid mass.

  15. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  16. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life

  17. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  18. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-01-15

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  19. Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.

    2018-04-01

    The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.

  20. Amplitude-cyclic frequency decomposition of vibration signals for bearing fault diagnosis based on phase editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbini, L.; Eltabach, M.; Hillis, A. J.; du Bois, J. L.

    2018-03-01

    In rotating machine diagnosis different spectral tools are used to analyse vibration signals. Despite the good diagnostic performance such tools are usually refined, computationally complex to implement and require oversight of an expert user. This paper introduces an intuitive and easy to implement method for vibration analysis: amplitude cyclic frequency decomposition. This method firstly separates vibration signals accordingly to their spectral amplitudes and secondly uses the squared envelope spectrum to reveal the presence of cyclostationarity in each amplitude level. The intuitive idea is that in a rotating machine different components contribute vibrations at different amplitudes, for instance defective bearings contribute a very weak signal in contrast to gears. This paper also introduces a new quantity, the decomposition squared envelope spectrum, which enables separation between the components of a rotating machine. The amplitude cyclic frequency decomposition and the decomposition squared envelope spectrum are tested on real word signals, both at stationary and varying speeds, using data from a wind turbine gearbox and an aircraft engine. In addition a benchmark comparison to the spectral correlation method is presented.

  1. Two-dimensional concentrated-stress low-frequency piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpes, Nathan [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Abdelkefi, Abdessattar [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Priya, Shashank [Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Bio-Inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Vibration-based energy harvesters using piezoelectric materials have long made use of the cantilever beam structure. Surmounting the deficiencies in one-dimensional cantilever-based energy harvesters has been a major focus in the literature. In this work, we demonstrate a strategy of using two-dimensional beam shapes to harvest energy from low frequency excitations. A characteristic Zigzag-shaped beam is created to compare against the two proposed two-dimensional beam shapes, all of which occupy a 25.4 × 25.4 mm{sup 2} area. In addition to maintaining the low-resonance bending frequency, the proposed beam shapes are designed with the goal of realizing a concentrated stress structure, whereby stress in the beam is concentrated in a single area where a piezoelectric layer may be placed, rather than being distributed throughout the beam. It is shown analytically, numerically, and experimentally that one of the proposed harvesters is able to provide significant increase in power production, when the base acceleration is set equal to 0.1 g, with only a minimal change in the resonant frequency compared to the current state-of-the-art Zigzag shape. This is accomplished by eliminating torsional effects, producing a more pure bending motion that is necessary for high electromechanical coupling. In addition, the proposed harvesters have a large effective beam tip whereby large tip mass may be placed while retaining a low-profile, resulting in a low volume harvester and subsequently large power density.

  2. Derivatives of buckling loads and vibration frequencies with respect to stiffness and initial strain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftka, Raphael T.; Cohen, Gerald A.; Mroz, Zenon

    1990-01-01

    A uniform variational approach to sensitivity analysis of vibration frequencies and bifurcation loads of nonlinear structures is developed. Two methods of calculating the sensitivities of bifurcation buckling loads and vibration frequencies of nonlinear structures, with respect to stiffness and initial strain parameters, are presented. A direct method requires calculation of derivatives of the prebuckling state with respect to these parameters. An adjoint method bypasses the need for these derivatives by using instead the strain field associated with the second-order postbuckling state. An operator notation is used and the derivation is based on the principle of virtual work. The derivative computations are easily implemented in structural analysis programs. This is demonstrated by examples using a general purpose, finite element program and a shell-of-revolution program.

  3. Frequency Equations for the In-Plane Vibration of Circular Annular Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashmal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the in-plane vibration of circular annular disks under combinations of different boundary conditions at the inner and outer edges. The in-plane free vibration of an elastic and isotropic disk is studied on the basis of the two-dimensional linear plane stress theory of elasticity. The exact solution of the in-plane equation of equilibrium of annular disk is attainable, in terms of Bessel functions, for uniform boundary conditions. The frequency equations for different modes can be obtained from the general solutions by applying the appropriate boundary conditions at the inner and outer edges. The presented frequency equations provide the frequency parameters for the required number of modes for a wide range of radius ratios and Poisson's ratios of annular disks under clamped, free, or flexible boundary conditions. Simplified forms of frequency equations are presented for solid disks and axisymmetric modes of annular disks. Frequency parameters are computed and compared with those available in literature. The frequency equations can be used as a reference to assess the accuracy of approximate methods.

  4. High-Power Piezoelectric Vibration Characteristics of Textured SrBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Hirozumi; Kimura, Masahiko; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke; Niimi, Hideaki

    2006-09-01

    The high-power piezoelectric vibration characteristics of textured SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBN) ceramics, that is bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectrics, were studied in the longitudinal mode (33-mode) by constant current driving method and compared with those of ordinary randomly oriented SBN and widely used Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 (PZT) ceramics. In the case of textured SBN ceramics, resonant properties are stable up to a vibration velocity of 2.6 m/s. Vibration velocity at resonant frequency increases proportionally with the applied electric field, and resonant frequency is almost constant in high-vibration-velocity driving. On the other hand, in the case of randomly oriented SBN and PZT ceramics, the increase in vibration velocity is not proportional to the applied high electric field, and resonant frequency decreases with increasing vibration velocity. The resonant sharpness Q of textured SBN ceramics is about 2000, even at a vibration velocity of 2.6 m/s. Therefore, textured SBN ceramics are good candidates for high-power piezoelectric applications.

  5. Reduction of low frequency vibration of truck driver and seating system through system parameter identification, sensitivity analysis and active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Bi, Fengrong; Du, Haiping

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to develop an 5-degree-of-freedom driver and seating system model for optimal vibration control. A new method for identification of the driver seating system parameters from experimental vibration measurement has been developed. The parameter sensitivity analysis has been conducted considering the random excitation frequency and system parameter uncertainty. The most and least sensitive system parameters for the transmissibility ratio have been identified. The optimised PID controllers have been developed to reduce the driver's body vibration.

  6. Calculations on the vibrational level density in highly excited formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashev, Svetoslav; Moule, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The object of the present work is to develop a model that provides realistic estimates of the vibrational level density in polyatomic molecules in a given electronic state, at very high (chemically relevant) vibrational excitation energies. For S 0 formaldehyde (D 2 CO), acetylene, and a number of triatomics, the estimates using conventional spectroscopic formulas have yielded densities at the dissociation threshold, very much lower than the experimentally measured values. In the present work we have derived a general formula for the vibrational energy levels of a polyatomic molecule, which is a generalization of the conventional Dunham spectroscopic expansion. Calculations were performed on the vibrational level density in S 0 D 2 CO, H 2 C 2 , and NO 2 at excitation energies in the vicinity of the dissociation limit, using the newly derived formula. The results from the calculations are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured data

  7. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shengwei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Lu; Mi, Lidong; Du, Guangyu; Sun, Chuanxiu; Sun, Xuegang

    2017-01-01

    To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo . Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz) were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 α were measured. Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 α were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Low frequency (25-50 Hz) vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury.

  8. Low-frequency vibration treatment of bone marrow stromal cells induces bone repair in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:To study the effect of low-frequency vibration on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and potential bone repair in vivo. Materials and Methods:Forty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups with eight rabbits in each group. For each group, bone defects were generated in the left humerus of four rabbits, and in the right humerus of the other four rabbits. To test differentiation, bones were isolated and demineralized, supplemented with bone marrow stromal cells, and implanted into humerus bone defects. Varying frequencies of vibration (0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 Hz were applied to each group for 30 min each day for four weeks. When the bone defects integrated, they were then removed for histological examination. mRNA transcript levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligan, and pre-collagen type 1 a were measured. Results:Humeri implanted with bone marrow stromal cells displayed elevated callus levels and wider, more prevalent, and denser trabeculae following treatment at 25 and 50 Hz. The mRNA levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor k-B ligand, and pre-collagen type 1 a were also markedly higher following 25 and 50 Hz treatment. Conclusion:Low frequency (25–50 Hz vibration in vivo can promote bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and repair bone injury.

  9. High-frequency magnetic components

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2013-01-01

    A unique text on the theory and design fundaments of inductors and transformers, updated with more coverage on the optimization of magnetic devices and many new design examples The first edition is popular among a very broad audience of readers in different areas of engineering and science. This book covers the theory and design techniques of the major types of high-frequency power inductors and transformers for a variety of applications, including switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) and resonant dc-to-ac power inverters and dc-to-dc power converters. It describes eddy-current phenomena (su

  10. Algorithm for the calculation of vibration inherent frequencies bending from two-shafts transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore Jan-Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of the speed shaft transmissions at or near the natural frequency of the pulses at the resonance phenomenon leads to bending, when the amplitude of the oscillations increases sharply, causing deterioration or complete destruction thereof. To avoid system resonance operation is necessary to know the most accurate values its pulsations and taking appropriate constructive measures to avoid overlapping with disturbing frequency harmonics (operating speeds.This paper presents an algorithm for calculating the pulsation and vibration modes in bending, and based on numerical simulations performed on a real two-shafts transmission and will draw conclusions drawn diagrams.

  11. Vibration sensor data denoising using a time-frequency manifold for machinery fault diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-12-27

    Vibration sensor data from a mechanical system are often associated with important measurement information useful for machinery fault diagnosis. However, in practice the existence of background noise makes it difficult to identify the fault signature from the sensing data. This paper introduces the time-frequency manifold (TFM) concept into sensor data denoising and proposes a novel denoising method for reliable machinery fault diagnosis. The TFM signature reflects the intrinsic time-frequency structure of a non-stationary signal. The proposed method intends to realize data denoising by synthesizing the TFM using time-frequency synthesis and phase space reconstruction (PSR) synthesis. Due to the merits of the TFM in noise suppression and resolution enhancement, the denoised signal would have satisfactory denoising effects, as well as inherent time-frequency structure keeping. Moreover, this paper presents a clustering-based statistical parameter to evaluate the proposed method, and also presents a new diagnostic approach, called frequency probability time series (FPTS) spectral analysis, to show its effectiveness in fault diagnosis. The proposed TFM-based data denoising method has been employed to deal with a set of vibration sensor data from defective bearings, and the results verify that for machinery fault diagnosis the method is superior to two traditional denoising methods.

  12. Horizontal vibration suppression method suitable for super-high-speed elevators; Chokosoku elevator ni tekishita kago yokoshindo yokusei hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kagomiya, K.; Kurosawa, T.; Konya, M> ; Ando, T. [Hitachi Building System Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Horizontal vibrations of elevator cars mainly occur because a car swings as roller guides installed at corners of a car frame move on a winding guide rail at high speeds. Rider comfort in high speed elevators is worsened by these vibrations. Conventional active dampers suppressing horizontal vibrations using ac servo motors make cars heavier so driving power becomes larger, and they are not easily applied to existing elevators. An active damping control method suited to super-high-speed elevators is which can solve these problems. The method suppresses vibrations by generating only enough magnetic force needed to suppress them only when vibrations of the car franc are produced. The vibrations are detected using acceleration detectors and magnets installed on left and right sides of the car frame. A computer simulator was made to analyze phenomena of car vibrations and to verify effects of the proposed magnetic damping controller. It was found that the vibrations generated on the cabin floor were remarkably large when left and right sides at the upper and lower parts of the car frame were swung by sine waves with the same phase. The vibrations bad two resonant modes. Results obtained with the computer simulator and a full scale running simulator showed that the acceleration on the cabin floor, even at the resonant frequencies, could be reduced by the magnetic damping control to around 0.1m/s{sup 2} which would provide a comfortable ride. 10 refs., 14 figs.

  13. High-frequency plasma oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhiezer, A I; Fainberg, Y B; Sitenko, A G; Stepanov, K; Kurilko, V; Gorbatenko, M; Kirochkin, U [Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (USSR)

    1958-07-01

    It is well known that the electrical conductivity of a plasma, the ion-electron equilibration time, and the time required to heat the electron component of the plasma all increase greatly with increasing temperature. Consequently, the usual method of Joule heating a plasma may be difficult to apply in the region of high temperatures (> 10{sup 6}K), especially if the plasma current alone, without any additional measures, is used to generate magnetic fields for the confinement of the plasma. Therefore, it is of interest to study methods of plasma heating that do not directly use Joule heat, especially methods by which energy is directly supplied to the ion component during the time between collisions. Some of these methods make use of ionic resonance as well as other resonance phenomena which can occur in plasma in an external magnetic field. This paper deals with certain aspects of the theory of high-frequency plasma oscillations.

  14. Understanding the influence of low-frequency vibrations on the hydrogen bonds of acetic acid and acetamide dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Christopher; Menon, Omkaran; Majumdar, D; Roszak, Szczepan; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2017-09-20

    Low-frequency vibrations coupled to high-frequency modes are known to influence the hydrogen bond strengths in a weakly interacting dimer. In this context, various acetic acid and acetamide dimers were analyzed using Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT)-based approaches with explicit anharmonicity corrections. The computed low-frequency fundamentals as well as the high-frequency modes, which were found to be related to hydrogen bonding (OH/NH stretching modes), were analyzed and their computed intensities were correlated with their hydrogen-bond strengths/binding energies. There are similarities in the nature of eight low-frequency fundamentals of these two dimers, and the in-plane bending and stretch-bend fundamentals of the different dimers of these two species (in this low-frequency region) have specific roles in their relative stability order. The computed linear correlations were further verified against the results from coupled cluster calculations including triple excitation (CCSD(T)), Gaussian-G4 (G4), Gaussian-G2-MP2 (G2MP2) and complete basis set (CBS-QB3) methods of high accuracy energy calculations. As a consequence of such linear correlations, an additive property of local fragment energies (responsible for hydrogen bonding) was found to be a valid approximation to predict the binding energies of such dimers and the idea was found to be extendable to the other homologues of these acids/amides.

  15. A laser-optical sensor system for blade vibration detection of high-speed compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Mathias; Dreier, Florian; Günther, Philipp; Wilke, Ulrich; Fischer, Andreas; Büttner, Lars; Holzinger, Felix; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter; Czarske, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Improved efficiency as well as increased lifetime of turbines and compressors are important goals in turbomachinery development. A significant enhancement to accomplish these aims can be seen in online monitoring of the operating parameters of the machines. During the operation of compressors it is of high interest to predict critical events like flutter or stall which can be achieved by observing blade deformations and vibrations. We have developed a laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is capable of simultaneously measuring the radial blade expansions, the circumferential blade deflections as well as the circumferential velocities of the rotor blade tips. As a result, an increase of blade vibrations is measured before stall at characteristic frequencies. While the detected vibration frequencies and the vibration increase are in agreement with the measurement results of a commercial capacitive blade tip timing system, the measured values of the vibration amplitudes differ by a factor of three. This difference can be mainly attributed to the different measurement locations and to the different measurement approaches. Since the LDDS is applicable to metal as well as ceramic, carbon-fiber and glass-fiber reinforced composite blades, a universally applicable sensor system for stall prediction and status monitoring is presented.

  16. The vibrating reed frequency meter: digital investigation of an early cochlear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The vibrating reed frequency meter, originally employed by Békésy and later by Wilson as a cochlear model, uses a set of tuned reeds to represent the cochlea’s graded bank of resonant elements and an elastic band threaded between them to provide nearest-neighbour coupling. Here the system, constructed of 21 reeds progressively tuned from 45 to 55 Hz, is simulated numerically as an elastically coupled bank of passive harmonic oscillators driven simultaneously by an external sinusoidal force. To uncover more detail, simulations were extended to 201 oscillators covering the range 1–2 kHz. Calculations mirror the results reported by Wilson and show expected characteristics such as traveling waves, phase plateaus, and a response with a broad peak at a forcing frequency just above the natural frequency. The system also displays additional fine-grain features that resemble those which have only recently been recognised in the cochlea. Thus, detailed analysis brings to light a secondary peak beyond the main peak, a set of closely spaced low-amplitude ripples, rapid rotation of phase as the driving frequency is swept, frequency plateaus, clustering, and waxing and waning of impulse responses. Further investigation shows that each reed’s vibrations are strongly localised, with small energy flow along the chain. The distinctive set of equally spaced ripples is an inherent feature which is found to be largely independent of boundary conditions. Although the vibrating reed model is functionally different to the standard transmission line, its cochlea-like properties make it an intriguing local oscillator model whose relevance to cochlear mechanics needs further investigation.

  17. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  18. Slow high-frequency effects in mechanics: problems, solutions, potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2005-01-01

    – an apparent change in the stiffness associated with an equilibrium; Biasing – a tendency for a system to move towards a particular state which does not exist or is unstable without HFE; and Smoothening – a tendency for discontinuities to be apparently smeared out by HFE. The effects and a method for analyzing...... and compared: The Method of Direct Separation of Motions, the Method of Averaging, and the Method of Multiple Scales. The tutorial concludes by suggesting that more vibration experts, researchers and students should know about HFE effects, for the benefit not only of general vibration troubleshooting, but also......Strong high-frequency excitation (HFE) may change the ‘slow’ (i.e. effective or average) properties of mechanical systems, e.g. their stiffness, natural frequencies, equilibriums, equilibrium stability, and bifurcation paths. This tutorial describes three general HFE effects: Stiffening...

  19. Slow high-frequency effects in mechanics: problems, solutions, potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    – an apparent change in the stiffness associated with an equilibrium; Biasing – a tendency for a system to move towards a particular state which does not exist or is unstable without HFE; and Smoothening – a tendency for discontinuities to be apparently smeared out by HFE. The effects and a method for analyzing...... and compared: The Method of Direct Separation of Motions, the Method of Averaging, and the Method of Multiple Scales. The tutorial concludes by suggesting that more vibration experts, researchers and students should know about HFE effects, for the benefit not only of general vibration troubleshooting, but also......Strong high-frequency excitation (HFE) may change the ‘slow’ (i.e. effective or average) properties of mechanical systems, e.g. their stiffness, natural frequencies, equilibriums, equilibrium stability, and bifurcation paths. This tutorial describes three general HFE effects: Stiffening...

  20. Impact of acoustic airflow on intrasinus drug deposition: New insights into the vibrating mode and the optimal acoustic frequency to enhance the delivery of nebulized antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Merhie, Amira El; Navarro, Laurent; Prévôt, Nathalie; Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the impact of vibrating acoustic airflow, the high frequency (f≥100 Hz) and the low frequency (f≤45 Hz) sound waves, on the enhancement of intrasinus drug deposition. (81m)Kr-gas ventilation study was performed in a plastinated human cast with and without the addition of vibrating acoustic airflow. Similarly, intrasinus drug deposition in a nasal replica using gentamicin as a marker was studied with and without the superposition of different modes of acoustic airflow. Ventilation experiments demonstrate that no sinus ventilation was observed without acoustic airflow although sinus ventilation occurred whatever the modes of acoustic airflow applied. Intrasinus drug deposition experiments showed that the high frequency acoustic airflow led to 4-fold increase in gentamicin deposition into the left maxillary sinus and to 2-fold deposition increase into the right maxillary sinus. Besides, the low frequency acoustic airflow demonstrated a significant increase of 4-fold and 2-fold in the right and left maxillary sinuses, respectively. We demonstrated the benefit of different modes of vibrating acoustic airflow for maxillary sinus ventilation and intrasinus drug deposition. The degree of gentamicin deposition varies as a function of frequency of the vibrating acoustic airflow and the geometry of the ostia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and particle rearrangements in quasi-two-dimensional colloidal glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Manning, M.L.; Yunker, P.J.; Ellenbroek, W.G.; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J.; Yodh, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance

  2. First-Principles Studies of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) Single Crystal Unit Cell Volumes and Vibrational Frequencies under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren F.; Zhao, Jijun; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2006-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies is presented.

  3. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitsugu, Nekomoto; Satoshi, Kiriyama; Moritatsu, Nishimura; Kenji, Matsumoto; Eiji, O'shima

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have a large number of pipes. Of these small-diameter pipe branches in particular are often damaged due to high-cycle fatigue. In order to ensure the reliability of a plant it is important to detect the fatigues in pipe branches at an early stage and to develop the technology to predict and diagnose the advancement of fatigue. Further, in order to carry out the diagnosis of the piping system effectively during operation, non-contact evaluation is useful. Hence, we have developed a 'high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing', where the vibration of the pipe branch is measured using a non-contact sensor. Since the contents of the developed sensor technology has already been reported, this paper mainly describes the newly developed high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system. (authors)

  4. Low frequency noise and air vibration generated by a simple cycle gas turbine installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbrecht, C.; Hertil, S. [ATCO Noise Management, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Low-frequency noise refers to infrasound whose frequency is lower than the minimum human audible frequency of about 20 Hz. Recently, there have been serious complaints on noise pollution in the frequency range of 1-100 Hz. This presentation outlined ASHRAE noise criteria regions and discussed human perceptions to vibration. It also presented methods that ATCO used for measuring noise at a simple gas turbine installation, inside the site at the administration buildings, at the paths of vibration and noise propagation, and at noise sensitive receptors. A 70 dBC at the closes noise-sensitive receptor was used as a noise limit to minimize annoyance. In addition, 96 dBC was measured at 400 feet. It was noted that reducing the C-weighted sound level depends on reducing the stack noise emissions in the 16 and 31.5 band levels. ATCO evaluated silencer designs and recommended reactive silencers to achieve a 10 dB reduction in noise emitted by the 3 exhaust stacks. 6 figs.

  5. Difference frequency generation spectroscopy as a vibrational optical activity measurement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sangheon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-03-19

    Vibrational optical activity (VOA) of chiral molecules in condensed phases can be studied by using vibrational circular dichroism and Raman optical activity measurement techniques. Recently, IR-vis sum frequency generation has shown to be an alternative VOA measurement method. Such a three-wave-mixing method employing a polarization modulation technique can be a potentially useful VOA measurement tool. Here, a theoretical description of difference frequency generation (DFG) employing circularly polarized visible radiations is presented. Frequency scanning to obtain a VOA-DFG spectrum is achieved by controlling the difference between the two electronically nonresonant incident radiation frequencies. If the two incident beams are linearly polarized and their polarization directions are perpendicular to each other, one can selectively measure the all-electric-dipole-allowed chiral component of the DFG susceptibility. In addition, by using circularly polarized beams and taking the DFG difference intensity signal, which is defined as the difference between left and right circularly polarized DFG signals, additional chiral susceptibility components originating from the electric quadrupole transition can be measured. The DFG as a novel VOA measurement technique for solution samples containing chiral molecules will therefore be a useful coherent spectroscopic tool for determining absolute configuration of chiral molecules in condensed phases.

  6. The Possible Interstellar Anion CH2CN-: Spectroscopic Constants, Vibrational Frequencies, and Other Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Crawford, T. Daniel; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The A\\ ^1B_1 \\leftarrow \\tilde{X}\\ ^1A^{\\prime } excitation into the dipole-bound state of the cyanomethyl anion (CH2CN-) has been hypothesized as the carrier for one diffuse interstellar band. However, this particular molecular system has not been detected in the interstellar medium even though the related cyanomethyl radical and the isoelectronic ketenimine molecule have been found. In this study, we are employing the use of proven quartic force fields and second-order vibrational perturbation theory to compute accurate spectroscopic constants and fundamental vibrational frequencies for \\tilde{X}\\ ^1A^{\\prime } CH2CN- in order to assist in laboratory studies and astronomical observations.

  7. Natural frequencies and forms of flexural vibrations of a beam with a crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of providing durability of constructions, the urgent problem is studying dynamic processes in loaded rod structures occurring in the process of sudden local defects formation, such as breakage of support bonds, partial destruction, transverse and longitudinal cracks etc., which are united under general term "beyond design impacts". To date, a number of problems related to this topic are solved: the problem of dynamic loadings at sudden formation of transverse cracks, the problem of partial tie breaks in the bearings, partial destruction and longitudinal lamination of compound bars. In the paper the authors propose a method of determining the spectrum of natural frequencies of flexural vibrations of a rod system with this type of injury. The results are to be used for modal analysis of forced vibrations of a beam with a defect of longitudinal lamination, depending on its level.

  8. Circularly polarized infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy: Vibrational optical activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Sangheon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2005-01-01

    Vibrational optical activity spectroscopies utilizing either circularly polarized ir or circularly polarized visible beams were theoretically investigated by considering the infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation (IV-SFG) schemes. In addition to the purely electric dipole-allowed chiral component of the IV-SFG susceptibility, the polarizability-electric quadrupole hyperpolarizability term also contributes to the vibrationally resonant IV-SFG susceptibility. The circular-intensity-difference signal is shown to be determined by the interferences between the all-electric dipole-allowed chiral component and the polarizability-electric-dipole or electric-dipole-electric-quadrupole Raman optical activity tensor components. The circularly polarized SFG methods are shown to be potentially useful coherent spectroscopic tools for determining absolute configurations of chiral molecules in condensed phases

  9. Fabrication and characterization of non-resonant magneto-mechanical low-frequency vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammari, Abdullah; Caskey, Logan; Negrete, Johnny; Bardaweel, Hamzeh

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a non-resonant magneto-mechanical vibration energy harvester. When externally excited, the energy harvester converts vibrations into electric charge using a guided levitated magnet oscillating inside a multi-turn coil that is fixed around the exterior of the energy harvester. The levitated magnet is guided using four oblique mechanical springs. A prototype of the energy harvester is fabricated using additive manufacturing. Both experiment and model are used to characterize the static and dynamic behavior of the energy harvester. Measured restoring forces show that the fabricated energy harvester retains a mono-stable potential energy well with desired stiffness nonlinearities. Results show that magnetic spring results in hardening effect which increases the resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Additionally, oblique mechanical springs introduce geometric, negative, nonlinear stiffness which improves the harvester's response towards lower frequency spectrum. The unique design can produce a tunable energy harvester with multi-well potential energy characteristics. A finite element model is developed to estimate the average radial flux density experienced by the multi-turn coil. Also, a lumped parameter model of the energy harvester is developed and validated against measured data. Both upward and downward frequency sweeps are performed to determine the frequency response of the harvester. Results show that at higher excitation levels hardening effects become more apparent, and the system dynamic response turns into non-resonant. Frequency response curves exhibit frequency jump phenomena as a result of coexistence of multiple energy states at the frequency branch. The fabricated energy harvester is hand-held and measures approximately 100.5 [cm3] total volume. For a base excitation of 1.0 g [m/s2], the prototype generates a peak voltage and normalized power density of approximately 3.5 [V] and 0.133 [mW/cm3 g2], respectively, at 15.5 [Hz].

  10. Nonlinear vibration behaviors of suspended cables under two-frequency excitation with temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaobing; Huang, Chaohui; Chen, Lincong; Peng, Jian

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate temperature effects on the nonlinear vibration behaviors of suspended cables under two-frequency excitation. For this purpose, two combination and simultaneous resonances are chosen and studied in detail. First of all, based on the assumptions of the temperature effects, the partial differential equations of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions with thermal effects under multi-frequency excitations are obtained. The Galerkin method is adopted to discretize the nonlinear dynamic equations, and the single-mode planar discretization is considered. Then, in the absence of the primary and internal resonances, the frequency response equations are obtained by using the multiple scales method. The stability analyses are conducted via investigating the nature of the singular points of equations. After that, temperature effects on nonlinear vibration characteristics of the first symmetric mode are studied. Parametric investigations of temperature effects on corresponding non-dimensional factors and coefficients of linear and nonlinear terms are performed. Numerical results are presented to show the temperature effects via the frequency-response curves and detuning-phase curves of four different sag-to-span ratios. It is found out that effects of temperature variations would lead to significant quantitative and/or qualitative changes of the nonlinear vibration properties, and these effects are closely related to the sag-to-span ratio and the degree of the temperature variation. Specifically, the softening/hardening-type spring behaviors, the response amplitude, the range of the resonance, the intersection and number of branches, the number and phase of the steady-state solutions are all affected by the temperature changes.

  11. Topology optimization and fabrication of low frequency vibration energy harvesting microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Jiadong; Rorschach, Katherine; Baker, Evan; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Topological design of miniaturized resonating structures capable of harvesting electrical energy from low frequency environmental mechanical vibrations encounters a particular physical challenge, due to the conflicting design requirements: low resonating frequency and miniaturization. In this paper structural static stiffness to resist undesired lateral deformation is included into the objective function, to prevent the structure from degenerating and forcing the solution to be manufacturable. The rational approximation of material properties interpolation scheme is introduced to deal with the problems of local vibration and instability of the low density area induced by the design dependent body forces. Both density and level set based topology optimization (TO) methods are investigated in their parameterization, sensitivity analysis, and applicability for low frequency energy harvester TO problems. Continuum based variation formulations for sensitivity analysis and the material derivative based shape sensitivity analysis are presented for the density method and the level set method, respectively; and their similarities and differences are highlighted. An external damper is introduced to simulate the energy output of the resonator due to electrical damping and the Rayleigh proportional damping is used for mechanical damping. Optimization results for different scenarios are tested to illustrate the influences of dynamic and static loads. To demonstrate manufacturability, the designs are built to scale using a 3D microfabrication method and assembled into vibration energy harvester prototypes. The fabricated devices based on the optimal results from using different TO techniques are tested and compared with the simulation results. The structures obtained by the level set based TO method require less post-processing before fabrication and the structures obtained by the density based TO method have resonating frequency as low as 100 Hz. The electrical voltage response

  12. Vibrational spectroscopy at high external pressures the diamond anvil cell

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1984-01-01

    Vibrational Spectroscopy at High External Pressures: The Diamond Anvil Cell presents the effects of high pressure on the vibrational properties of materials as accomplished in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The DAC serves the dual purpose of generating the pressures and being transparent to infrared radiation, allowing the observation of changes caused by pressure. The optical probes highlighted will deal principally with infrared and Raman scattering, although some observations in the visible region will also be presented. The book begins with a discussion of the effects of pressure and pres

  13. Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Taiha; Albrecht, A. C.

    1993-06-01

    Time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (TRDFWM) for an electronically resonant system in a phase-matching configuration that measures population decay is reported. Because the spectral width of input light exceeds the vibrational Bohr frequency of a strong Raman active mode, the vibrational coherence produces strong oscillations in the TRDFWM signal together with the usual population decay from the excited electronic state. The data are analyzed in terms of a four-level system: ground and excited electronic states each split by a vibrational quantum of a Raman active mode. Absolute frequencies and their dephasing times of the vibrational modes at ≈590 cm -1 are obtained for the excited as well as the ground electronic state. The vibrational dephasing rate in the excited electronic state is about an order of magnitude faster than that in the ground state, the origin of which is speculated upon.

  14. Frequency-varying synchronous micro-vibration suppression for a MSFW with application of small-gain theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cong; Fan, Yahong; Huang, Ziyuan; Han, Bangcheng; Fang, Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel synchronous micro-vibration suppression method on the basis of the small gain theorem to reduce the frequency-varying synchronous micro-vibration forces for a magnetically suspended flywheel (MSFW). The proposed synchronous micro-vibration suppression method not only eliminates the synchronous current fluctuations to force the rotor spinning around the inertia axis, but also considers the compensation caused by the displacement stiffness in the permanent-magnet (PM)-biased magnetic bearings. Moreover, the stability of the proposed control system is exactly analyzed by using small gain theorem. The effectiveness of the proposed micro-vibration suppression method is demonstrated via the direct measurement of the disturbance forces for a MSFW. The main merit of the proposed method is that it provides a simple and practical method in suppressing the frequency varying micro-vibration forces and preserving the nominal performance of the baseline control system.

  15. Bi-resonant structure with piezoelectric PVDF films for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng

    2016-01-01

    and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity......This paper reports on a bi-resonant structure of piezoelectric PVDF films energy harvester (PPEH), which consists of two cantilevers with resonant frequencies of 15 Hz and 22 Hz. With increased acceleration, the vibration amplitudes of the two cantilever-mass structures are increased and collision...

  16. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Masanori; Nishimura, Moritatsu; Matsumoto, Kenji; O'shima, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have a large number of pipes. These small-diameter pipe branches in particles are often damaged due to high-cycle fatigue. In order to ensure the reliability of a plant it is important to detect fatigue damages in pipe branches at an early stage and to develop the technology to predict and diagnose the advancement of fatigue. Further, in order to carry out the diagnosis of the piping system effectively during operation, non-contact evaluation is useful. Hence, we have developed a ''high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing'', which measures the vibration of the pipe branch using a non-contact sensor. (author)

  17. The origin of small and large molecule behavior in the vibrational relaxation of highly excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    An explanation is proposed for the qualitatively different types of behavior that have been reported for the vibrational relaxation of highly excited diatomic and polyatomic molecules. It is argued that all of the diatomic molecules that have been studied in bulk relax adiabatically at room temperature. In contrast, large polyatomic molecules have low frequency modes which act at ''doorway'' modes for the rest of the molecules, producing an impulsive relaxation mechanism. The theoretical work of Nesbitt and Hynes showed that impulsive collisions result in an exponential decay of the average vibrational energy of a Morse oscillator, whereas adiabatic collisions produce nonexponential power law behavior. We propose that this result explains a large body of data for the vibrational relaxation of small and large molecules

  18. Natural Frequencies and Vibrating Modes for a Magnetic Planetary Gear Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic model for a magnetic planetary gear drive is proposed. Based on the model, the dynamic equations for the magnetic planetary gear drive are given. From the magnetic meshing forces and torques between the elements for the drive system, the tangent and radial magnetic meshing stiffness is obtained. Using these equations, the natural frequencies and the modes of the magnetic planetary gear drive are investigated. The sensitivity of the natural frequencies to the system parameters is discussed. Results show that the pole pair number and the air gap have obvious effects on the natural frequencies. For the planetary gear number larger than two, the vibrations of the drive system include the torsion mode of the center elements, the translation mode of the center elements, and the planet modes. For the planetary gear number equal to two, the planet mode does not occur, the crown mode and the sun gear mode occur.

  19. Energy Expenditure and Substrate Oxidation in Response to Side-Alternating Whole Body Vibration across Three Commonly-Used Vibration Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie-Jacques Fares

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition about the importance of enhancing energy expenditure (EE for weight control through increases in low-intensity physical activities comparable with daily life (1.5-4 METS. Whole-body vibration (WBV increases EE modestly and could present both a useful adjuvant for obesity management and tool for metabolic phenotyping. However, it is unclear whether a "dose-response" exists between commonly-used vibration frequencies (VF and EE, nor if WBV influences respiratory quotient (RQ, and hence substrate oxidation. We aimed to investigate the EE-VF and RQ-VF relationships across three different frequencies (30, 40, and 50Hz.EE and RQ were measured in 8 healthy young adults by indirect calorimetry at rest, and subsequently during side-alternating WBV at one of 3 VFs (30, 40, and 50 Hz. Each frequency was assessed over 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest, separated by 5 min seated rest. During the WBV participants stood on the platform with knees flexed sufficiently to maintain comfort, prevent transmission of vibration to the upper body, and minimise voluntary physical exertion. Repeatability was assessed across 3 separate days in a subset of 4 individuals. In order to assess any sequence/habituation effect, an additional group of 6 men underwent 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest at 40 Hz, separated by 5 min seated rest.Side-alternating WBV increased EE relative to standing, non-vibration levels (+36%, p<0.001. However, no differences in EE were observed across VFs. Similarly, no effect of VF on RQ was found, nor did WBV alter RQ relative to standing without vibration.No relationship could be demonstrated between EE and VF in the range of 30-50Hz, and substrate oxidation did not change in response to WBV. Furthermore, the thermogenic effect of intermittent WBV, whilst robust, was quantitatively small (<2 METS.

  20. Influence of Traffic Vehicles Against Ground Fundamental Frequency Prediction using Ambient Vibration Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, A. F.; Noh, M. S. Md; Mokhatar, S. N.; Anuar, M. A. Mohd; Ibrahim, A.; Ibrahim, Z.; Daud, M. E.

    2018-04-01

    Ambient vibration (AV) technique is widely used nowadays for ground fundamental frequency prediction. This technique is easy, quick, non-destructive, less operator required and reliable result. The input motions of ambient vibration are originally collected from surrounding natural and artificial excitations. But, careful data acquisition controlled must be implemented to reduce the intrusion of short period noise that could imply the quality of frequency prediction of an investigated site. In this study, investigation on the primary noise intrusion under peak (morning, afternoon and evening) and off peak (early morning) traffic flows (only 8 meter from sensor to road shoulder) against the stability and quality of ground fundamental frequency prediction were carried out. None of specific standard is available for AV data acquisition and processing. Thus, some field and processing parameters recommended by previous studies and guideline were considered. Two units of 1 Hz tri-axial seismometer sensor were closely positioned in front of the main entrance Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. 15 minutes of recording length were taken during peak and off peak periods of traffic flows. All passing vehicles were counted and grouped into four classes. Three components of ambient vibration time series recorded in the North-South: NS, East-West: EW and vertical: UD directions were automatically computed into Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), by using open source software of GEOPSY for fundamental ground frequency, Fo determination. Single sharp peak pattern of HVSR curves have been obtained at peak frequencies between 1.33 to 1.38 Hz which classified under soft to dense soil classification. Even identical HVSR curves pattern with close frequencies prediction were obtained under both periods of AV measurement, however the total numbers of stable and quality windows selected for HVSR computation were significantly different but both have satisfied the requirement

  1. Econometrics of financial high-frequency data

    CERN Document Server

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    This book covers major approaches in high-frequency econometrics. It discusses implementation details, provides insights into properties of high-frequency data as well as institutional settings and presents applications.

  2. The effect of classical and quantum dynamics on vibrational frequency shifts of H2 in clathrate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattner, Nuria; Meuwly, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Vibrational frequency shifts of H 2 in clathrate hydrates are important to understand the properties and elucidate details of the clathrate structure. Experimental spectra of H 2 in clathrate hydrates have been measured for different clathrate compositions, temperatures, and pressures. In order to establish reliable relationships between the clathrate structure, dynamics, and observed frequencies, calculations of vibrational frequency shifts in different clathrate environments are required. In this study, a combination of classical molecular dynamics simulations, electronic structure calculations, and quantum dynamical simulation is used to calculate relative vibrational frequencies of H 2 in clathrate hydrates. This approach allows us to assess dynamical effects and simulate the change of vibrational frequencies with temperature and pressure. The frequency distributions of the H 2 vibrations in the different clathrate cage types agree favorably with experiment. Also, the simulations demonstrate that H 2 in the 5 12 cage is more sensitive to the details of the environment and to quantum dynamical effects, in particular when the cage is doubly occupied. We show that for the 5 12 cage quantum effects lead to frequency increases and double occupation is unlikely. This is different for the 5 12 6 4 cages for which higher occupation numbers than one H 2 per cage are likely

  3. Low-Frequency MEMS Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester With Corona-Charged Vertical Electrets and Nonlinear Stoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Galayko, D.; Marty, F.; Basset, P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports for the first time a MEMS electrostatic vibration energy harvester (e-VEH) with corona-charged vertical electrets on its electrodes. The bandwidth of the 1-cm2 device is extended in low and high frequencies by nonlinear elastic stoppers. With a bias voltage of 46 V (electret@21 V + DC external source@25 V) between the electrodes, the RMS power of the device reaches 0.89 μW at 33 Hz and 6.6 μW at 428 Hz. The -3dB frequency band including the hysteresis is 223∼432 Hz, the one excluding the hysteresis 88∼166 Hz. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47 μF capacitor used for powering a wireless and autonomous temperature sensor node with a data transmission beyond 10 m at 868 MHz.

  4. On the nature of highly vibrationally excited states of thiophosgene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding the nature of the highly excited molecu- lar eigenstates is equivalent to deciphering the mecha- nism of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution. (IVR) occurring in the molecule.1 However, the assign- ment of eigenstates is far from simple. The existence of and interplay of several strong anharmonic ...

  5. Pattern recognition based on time-frequency analysis and convolutional neural networks for vibrational events in φ-OTDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengjin; Guan, Junjun; Bao, Ming; Lu, Jiangang; Ye, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Based on vibration signals detected by a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer distributed optical fiber sensing system, this paper presents an implement of time-frequency analysis and convolutional neural network (CNN), used to classify different types of vibrational events. First, spectral subtraction and the short-time Fourier transform are used to enhance time-frequency features of vibration signals and transform different types of vibration signals into spectrograms, which are input to the CNN for automatic feature extraction and classification. Finally, by replacing the soft-max layer in the CNN with a multiclass support vector machine, the performance of the classifier is enhanced. Experiments show that after using this method to process 4000 vibration signal samples generated by four different vibration events, namely, digging, walking, vehicles passing, and damaging, the recognition rates of vibration events are over 90%. The experimental results prove that this method can automatically make an effective feature selection and greatly improve the classification accuracy of vibrational events in distributed optical fiber sensing systems.

  6. Refinements in the vibration frequencies of H3+ and D3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    Refinements in vibration intervals of the order of 1 per cent are reported for H 3 + and D 3 + . These improved intervals result from the addition of polarization terms to the electronic wavefunction previously obtained with a complete configuration-interaction treatment of electron correlation using a 21 floating gaussian lobe basis. Twelve additional floating gaussian lobe orbitals were used to construct 78 additional configuration-interaction functions. Positions and exponents of these additional floating gaussian lobe orbitals were carefully chosen to allow for polarization of the correlated wavefunctions. Calculated vibrational state-averaged and observed geometries for H 3 + agree to within 0.01 A; refined fundamental frequencies are νsub(A) = 3220.48 and νsub(E) = 2545.99 cm -1 for H 3 + , and νsub(A) = 2332.94 and νsub(E) = 1848.12 cm -1 for D 3 + . Einstein coefficients for spontaneous emission of radiation from infrared active states of H 3 + and D 3 + are reported, and an alternative to the Carney-Porter method of vibration analysis is used to confirm the accuracy of their method for axial molecules such as H 3 + . (author)

  7. Vibrational frequency analysis, FT-IR, DFT and M06-2X studies on tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2yl)carbamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Yusuf; Singer, L. M.; Findlater, M.; Doğan, Hatice; Çırak, Ç.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical vibrational frequencies of a newly synthesized tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2yl)carbamate have been investigated. The experimental FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) spectrum of the molecule in the solid phase have been recorded. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP: Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) and DFT/M06-2X (the highly parametrized, empirical exchange correlation function) quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set by Gaussian 09W software, for the first time. The vibrational frequencies have been assigned using potential energy distribution (PED) analysis by using VEDA 4 software. The computational optimized geometric parameters and vibrational frequencies have been found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with related literature results. In addition, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and the other related molecular energy values have been calculated and are depicted.

  8. Comparative Study of Time-Frequency Decomposition Techniques for Fault Detection in Induction Motors Using Vibration Analysis during Startup Transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antonio Delgado-Arredondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Induction motors are critical components for most industries and the condition monitoring has become necessary to detect faults. There are several techniques for fault diagnosis of induction motors and analyzing the startup transient vibration signals is not as widely used as other techniques like motor current signature analysis. Vibration analysis gives a fault diagnosis focused on the location of spectral components associated with faults. Therefore, this paper presents a comparative study of different time-frequency analysis methodologies that can be used for detecting faults in induction motors analyzing vibration signals during the startup transient. The studied methodologies are the time-frequency distribution of Gabor (TFDG, the time-frequency Morlet scalogram (TFMS, multiple signal classification (MUSIC, and fast Fourier transform (FFT. The analyzed vibration signals are one broken rotor bar, two broken bars, unbalance, and bearing defects. The obtained results have shown the feasibility of detecting faults in induction motors using the time-frequency spectral analysis applied to vibration signals, and the proposed methodology is applicable when it does not have current signals and only has vibration signals. Also, the methodology has applications in motors that are not fed directly to the supply line, in such cases the analysis of current signals is not recommended due to poor current signal quality.

  9. Influence of Suspended Equipment on the Carbody Vertical Vibration Behaviour of High-Speed Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The equipment mounted on the carbody chassis of the railway vehicles is a critical component of the vehicle in terms of ride comfort. The reason for that is their large mass, able to visibly influence the vibrations mode of the carbody. The paper examines the influence of the equipment upon the mode of vertical vibrations of the carbody in the high-speed vehicles, reached on the basis of the frequency response functions of the acceleration in three carbody reference points - at the centre and above the bogies. These functions are derived from the numerical simulations developed on a rigid-flexible coupled model, with seven degrees of freedom. As a rule, the results herein prove the influence of the equipment mounting mode (rigid or elastic, along with the speed regime, upon the level of vibrations in the carbody reference points, at the resonance frequency of the symmetrical bending mode. Similarly, it is also demonstrated how the equipment mass and the damping degree of the suspension system affect the level of the vibrations in the carbody.

  10. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  11. Low-frequency and wideband vibration energy harvester with flexible frame and interdigital structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengwei, E-mail: lipengwei@tyut.edu.cn; Wang, Yanfen; Luo, Cuixian; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Wendong [MicroNano System Research Center of College of Information Engineering and Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of the Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Liu, Ying [MicroNano System Research Center of College of Information Engineering and Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of the Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Baicheng Ordnance Test Center of China, Baicheng 137000, Jilin (China); Liu, Wei [Baicheng Ordnance Test Center of China, Baicheng 137000, Jilin (China)

    2015-04-15

    As an alternative to traditional cantilever beam structures and their evolutions, a flexible beam based, interdigital structure, vibration energy harvester has been presented and investigated. The proposed interdigital-shaped oscillator consists of a rectangular flexible frame and series of cantilever beams interdigitally bonded to it. In order to achieve low frequency and wide-bandwidth harvesting, Young’s modulus of materials, frame size and the amount of the cantilevers have been studied systematically. The measured frequency responses of the designed device (PDMS frame, quintuple piezoelectric cantilever beams) show a 460% increase in bandwidth below 80Hz. When excited at an acceleration of 1.0 g, the energy harvester achieves to a maximum open-circuit voltage of 65V, and the maximum output power 4.5 mW.

  12. Vibration energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on flexible coil and liquid spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, L.; Tang, Y.; Shkel, A.; Kim, E. S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports an electromagnetic vibration-energy harvester with low resonant frequency based on liquid spring composed of ferrofluid. Cylinder magnet array formed by four disc NdFeB magnets is suspended by ferrofluid in a laser-machined acrylic tube which is wrapped by flexible planar coil fabricated with microfabrication process. The magnet array and coil are aligned automatically by the ferrofluid. Restoring force when the magnet array is deviated from the balance position is proportional to the deviated distance, which makes the ferrofluid work as a liquid spring obeying Hook's law. Experimental results show that the electromagnetic energy harvester occupying 1.8 cc and weighing 5 g has a resonant frequency of 16 Hz and generates an induced electromotive force of Vrms = 2.58 mV (delivering 79 nW power into matched load of 21 Ω) from 3 g acceleration at 16 Hz.

  13. Natural frequency and vibration analysis of jacket type foundation for offshore wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y.-C.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Chen, S.-Y.

    2017-12-01

    There are various types of foundation structure for offshore wind power, engineers may assess the condition of ocean at wind farm, and arrange the transportation, installation of each structure members, furthermore, considering the ability of manufacture steel structure as well, then make an optimum design. To design jacket offshore structure, unlike onshore cases, offshore structure also need to estimate the wave excitation effect. The aim of this paper is to study the difference of natural frequency between different kinds of structural stiffness and discuss the effect of different setting of boundary condition during analysis, besides, compare this value with the natural frequency of sea wave, in order to avoid the resonance effect. In this paper, the finite element analysis software ABAQUS is used to model and analyze the natural vibration behavior of the jacket structure.

  14. Natural Frequencies Evaluation on Partially Damaged Building using Ambient Vibration Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, A. F.; Zainal Abidin, M. H.; Daud, M. E.; Noh, M. S. Md; Madun, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Matarul, J.; Mokhatar, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    Severe damages observed on the school blocks, roads, retaining walls and drainage within the compound of SMK Kundasang Sabah possibly due to the ground movements triggered by the Ranau earthquake in 1991. Ambient vibration measurements were carried on the remaining demolished 3-storey building which partially damaged in order to measure the predominant building frequencies using tri-axial 1 Hz seismometer sensors. Popular methods of Horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) and Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) were used to compute the ambient vibration wave fields of each building axes (Transverse or North-South (NS), Longitudinal or East-West (EW) and vertical) into Fourier spectra. Two main modes of translation and torsion were observed from the peaks frequencies obtained at 2.99 to 3.10 Hz (1st mode), 4.85 Hz (2nd mode) and 5.63 to 5.85 Hz (3rd mode). The building experiencing translation modes of bending and shear in the NS and EW directions. It could be seen when the amplitudes tends to increase when the floor are increased. Meanwhile, the torsional bending mode is expected to occur when the deformation amplitudes are found to be increasing horizontally, when moving into partially structural damaged section located on the East wing of building.

  15. Prototype fiber Bragg Grattings (FBG) sensor based on intensity modulation of the laser diode low frequency vibrations measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiono, Andi; Ula, Rini Khamimatul; Hanto, Dwi; Widiyatmoko, Bambang; Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri

    2016-02-01

    In general, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor works based on observation of spectral response characteristic to detect the desired parameter. In this research, we studied intensity response characteristic of FBG to detect the dynamic strain. Experiment result show that the reflected intensity had linier relationships with dynamic strain. Based on these characteristics, we developed the FBG sensor to detect low frequency vibration. This sensor is designed by attaching the FBG on the bronze cantilever with dimensions of 85×3×0.5 mm. Measurement results showed that the sensor was able to detect vibrations in the frequency range of 7-10 Hz at temperature range of 25-45 ˚C. The measured frequency range is still within the frequency range of digging activity, therefore this vibration sensor can be applied for oil pipelines vandalisation detection system.

  16. Shallow PS-logging by high frequency wave; Koshuha wo mochiita senbu PS kenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, A; Miyazawa, M; Azuma, H [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the following matters on down-hole PS logging in shallow subsurface. Determining an elastic wave velocity structure in shallow subsurface with high accuracy by using down-hole PS logging requires reduction of errors in reading travel time. Therefore, a high-frequency vibration source was fabricated with an objective to raise frequencies of waves used for the measurement. Measurements were made on two holes, A and B, at a measurement interval of 0.5 m, whereas at the hole A a measurement was performed simultaneously by using a normal type (low-frequency) vibration source. A spectral analysis on the waveform record revealed that the frequencies with each vibration source were 127 Hz and 27 Hz for the hole A, 115 Hz for the hole B, and the S/N ratio was all the same for both holes. When the high-frequency vibration source was used, the velocity was determined at accuracy of 5% over the whole length of the shallow section. When the low-frequency vibration source was used, sections with the velocity determining error greater than 5% were found, and it was not possible to derive the velocity structure in the shallow subsurface in fine segments. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Earless toads sense low frequencies but miss the high notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Womack, Molly C; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Coloma, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    Sensory losses or reductions are frequently attributed to relaxed selection. However, anuran species have lost tympanic middle ears many times, despite anurans' use of acoustic communication and the benefit of middle ears for hearing airborne sound. Here we determine whether pre-existing alternat......Sensory losses or reductions are frequently attributed to relaxed selection. However, anuran species have lost tympanic middle ears many times, despite anurans' use of acoustic communication and the benefit of middle ears for hearing airborne sound. Here we determine whether pre......-existing alternative sensory pathways enable anurans lacking tympanic middle ears (termed earless anurans) to hear airborne sound as well as eared species or to better sense vibrations in the environment. We used auditory brainstem recordings to compare hearing and vibrational sensitivity among 10 species (six eared......, four earless) within the Neotropical true toad family (Bufonidae). We found that species lacking middle ears are less sensitive to high-frequency sounds, however, low-frequency hearing and vibrational sensitivity are equivalent between eared and earless species. Furthermore, extratympanic hearing...

  18. Active vibration isolation of high precision machines

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Artoos, K; Hauviller, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.

  19. Measuring body layer vibration of vocal folds by high-frame-rate ultrasound synchronized with a modified electroglottograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qin, Xulei; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-07-01

    The body-cover concept suggests that the vibration of body layer is an indispensable component of vocal fold vibration. To quantify this vibration, a synchronized system composed of a high-frame-rate ultrasound and a modified electroglottograph (EGG) was employed in this paper to simultaneously image the body layer vibration and record the vocal fold vibration phase information during natural phonations. After data acquisition, the displacements of in vivo body layer vibrations were measured from the ultrasonic radio frequency data, and the temporal reconstruction method was used to enhance the measurement accuracy. Results showed that the modified EGG, the waveform and characteristic points of which were identical to the conventional EGG, resolved the position conflict between the ultrasound transducer and EGG electrodes. The location and range of the vibrating body layer in the estimated displacement image were more clear and discernible than in the ultrasonic B-mode image. Quantitative analysis for vibration features of the body layer demonstrated that the body layer moved as a unit in the superior-inferior direction during the phonation of normal chest registers.

  20. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE VIBRATIONS FREQUENCY OF THE DRILL TOOL IN THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING THE BRONZE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin-Mihai MIRIŢOIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the experimental testings used to study the vibration of the drill tool, during the drilling of the bronze products. We have used the experimental setup presented in Miriţoiu (2013[1]. In this paper the vibrations are analyzed during the drilling on the universal lathe machines. The main purpose of to find a correlation between the cutting speed and the frequency of the vibration by using the experimental results and the regression analysis

  1. Surprising performance for vibrational frequencies of the distinguishable clusters with singles and doubles (DCSD) and MP2.5 approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Manoj K.; Sylvetsky, Nitai; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2017-11-01

    We show that the DCSD (distinguishable clusters with all singles and doubles) correlation method permits the calculation of vibrational spectra at near-CCSD(T) quality but at no more than CCSD cost, and with comparatively inexpensive analytical gradients. For systems dominated by a single reference configuration, even MP2.5 is a viable alternative, at MP3 cost. MP2.5 performance for vibrational frequencies is comparable to double hybrids such as DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ, but without resorting to empirical parameters. DCSD is also quite suitable for computing zero-point vibrational energies in computational thermochemistry.

  2. [Dynamics of vegetative indicators induced by low-frequency magnetotherapy and EHF-puncture in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, V A; Efremov, A V; Loseva, M I; Sukharevskaia, T M; Michurin, A I

    2002-01-01

    Low-frequency magnetic fields and EHF-therapy have been used in correction of autonomic homeostasis in workers exposed to vibration for different periods of time. The workers suffered from early arterial hypertension. Vegetative status and central hemodynamics improved best in workers exposed to vibration for less than 5 years. If the exposure was 6-15 years, a positive trend occurred in the tension of regulatory mechanisms. Workers with long exposure to vibration suffering from vagotonia showed an inadequate response of the autonomic parameters to treatment. This necessitates enhancement of therapeutic measures with medicines.

  3. Proprioceptive impairments in high fall risk older adults: the effect of mechanical calf vibration on postural balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Ehsani, Hossein; Miramonte, Marco; Mohler, Jane

    2018-05-02

    Impairments in proprioceptive mechanism with aging has been observed and associated with fall risk. The purpose of the current study was to assess proprioceptive deficits among high fall risk individuals in comparison with healthy participants, when postural performance was disturbed using low-frequency mechanical gastrocnemius vibratory stimulation. Three groups of participants were recruited: healthy young (n = 10; age = 23 ± 2 years), healthy elders (n = 10; age = 73 ± 3 years), and high fall risk elders (n = 10; age = 84 ± 9 years). Eyes-open and eyes-closed upright standing balance performance was measured with no vibration, and 30 and 40 Hz vibration of both calves. Vibration-induced changes in balance behaviors, compared to baseline (no vibratory stimulation) were compared between three groups using multivariable repeated measures analysis of variance models. Overall, similar results were observed for two vibration frequencies. However, changes in body sway due to vibration were more obvious within the eyes-closed condition, and in the medial-lateral direction. Within the eyes-closed condition high fall risk participants showed 83% less vibration-induced change in medial-lateral body sway, and 58% less sway velocity, when compared to healthy participants (p balance performance may be explained by reduced sensitivity in peripheral nervous system among older adults with impaired balance.

  4. Communication: Quantitative multi-site frequency maps for amide I vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppert, Mike [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Tokmakoff, Andrei, E-mail: tokmakoff@uchicago.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    An accurate method for predicting the amide I vibrational spectrum of a given protein structure has been sought for many years. Significant progress has been made recently by sampling structures from molecular dynamics simulations and mapping local electrostatic variables onto the frequencies of individual amide bonds. Agreement with experiment, however, has remained largely qualitative. Previously, we used dipeptide fragments and isotope-labeled constructs of the protein G mimic NuG2b as experimental standards for developing and testing amide I frequency maps. Here, we combine these datasets to test different frequency-map models and develop a novel method to produce an optimized four-site potential (4P) map based on the CHARMM27 force field. Together with a charge correction for glycine residues, the optimized map accurately describes both experimental datasets, with average frequency errors of 2–3 cm{sup −1}. This 4P map is shown to be convertible to a three-site field map which provides equivalent performance, highlighting the viability of both field- and potential-based maps for amide I spectral modeling. The use of multiple sampling points for local electrostatics is found to be essential for accurate map performance.

  5. The use of displacement threshold for switching frequency strategy for structural vibration mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Joko; Samali, Bijan; Li, Jianchun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of controllable real-time frequency shift using a fluid pin damper, so called 'smart pin', mounted at a beam-column connection. Unlike the stationary frequency shifter, the pin can increase or decrease the rotational stiffness of the connection, leading to an actively adjustable structural frequency due to real-time responses of polarised magneto-rheological (MR) fluid, whose rheological properties can change in milliseconds. The feedback to the pin damper governs the structural frequency changes. To demonstrate this concept, a single storey plane steel frame model with one hinge and one 'smart pin' damper, mounted at each beam-column connection and subjected to two scaled earthquake excitations, namely El-Centro 1940 and Northridge 1994, which respectively represent near- and farfield excitations, was tested using the shake table at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) structures laboratory, for 'proof-of-concept' investigation. Further, the dynamic performance of the model using a proposed switching strategy with a displacement threshold as an indicator for alternately supplied current level (flip-flop) was examined, assuming the earthquake records were known. The results showed some potential use of this control technique for structural vibration mitigation, however, further study to optimize the performance of the switching strategy is still required

  6. Effect of surface structure on catalytic reactions: A sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, Keith R.

    2001-01-01

    In the results discussed above, it is clear that Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) is a unique tool that allows the detection of vibrational spectra of adsorbed molecules present on single crystal surfaces under catalytic reaction conditions. Not only is it possible to detect active surface intermediates, it is also possible to detect spectator species which are not responsible for the measured turnover rates. By correlating high-pressure SFG spectra under reaction conditions and gas chromatography (GC) kinetic data, it is possible to determine which species are important under reaction intermediates. Because of the flexibility of this technique for studying surface intermediates, it is possible to determine how the structures of single crystal surfaces affect the observed rates of catalytic reactions. As an example of a structure insensitive reaction, ethylene hydrogenation was explored on both Pt(111) and Pt(100). The rates were determined to be essentially the same. It was observed that both ethylidyne and di-(sigma) bonded ethylene were present on the surface under reaction conditions on both crystals, although in different concentrations. This result shows that these two species are not responsible for the measured turnover rate, as it would be expected that one of the two crystals would be more active than the other, since the concentration of the surface intermediate would be different on the two crystals. The most likely active intermediates are weakly adsorbed molecules such as(pi)-bonded ethylene and ethyl. These species are not easily detected because their concentration lies at the detection limit of SFG. The SFG spectra and GC data essentially show that ethylene hydrogenation is structure insensitive for Pt(111) and Pt(100). SFG has proven to be a unique and excellent technique for studying adsorbed species on single crystal surfaces under high-pressure catalytic reactions. Coupled with kinetic data obtained from gas chromatography measurements, it can

  7. Comparing the accuracy of perturbative and variational calculations for predicting fundamental vibrational frequencies of dihalomethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V.; Schutski, Roman S.; Craig, Norman C.; Sibaev, Marat; Crittenden, Deborah L.

    2018-02-01

    Three dihalogenated methane derivatives (CH2F2, CH2FCl, and CH2Cl2) were used as model systems to compare and assess the accuracy of two different approaches for predicting observed fundamental frequencies: canonical operator Van Vleck vibrational perturbation theory (CVPT) and vibrational configuration interaction (VCI). For convenience and consistency, both methods employ the Watson Hamiltonian in rectilinear normal coordinates, expanding the potential energy surface (PES) as a Taylor series about equilibrium and constructing the wavefunction from a harmonic oscillator product basis. At the highest levels of theory considered here, fourth-order CVPT and VCI in a harmonic oscillator basis with up to 10 quanta of vibrational excitation in conjunction with a 4-mode representation sextic force field (SFF-4MR) computed at MP2/cc-pVTZ with replacement CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ harmonic force constants, the agreement between computed fundamentals is closer to 0.3 cm-1 on average, with a maximum difference of 1.7 cm-1. The major remaining accuracy-limiting factors are the accuracy of the underlying electronic structure model, followed by the incompleteness of the PES expansion. Nonetheless, computed and experimental fundamentals agree to within 5 cm-1, with an average difference of 2 cm-1, confirming the utility and accuracy of both theoretical models. One exception to this rule is the formally IR-inactive but weakly allowed through Coriolis-coupling H-C-H out-of-plane twisting mode of dichloromethane, whose spectrum we therefore revisit and reassign. We also investigate convergence with respect to order of CVPT, VCI excitation level, and order of PES expansion, concluding that premature truncation substantially decreases accuracy, although VCI(6)/SFF-4MR results are still of acceptable accuracy, and some error cancellation is observed with CVPT2 using a quartic force field.

  8. High Frequency Components Recovery in Music Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sebesta

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A new technique is presented which improves the subjective quality of band-limited music by recovery of high frequency components. Sequences of harmonics are found in the band-limited signal and these sequences are expanded to the high frequency band to estimate the lost part of spectrum. High frequency signal is generated to match this estimation and is added to the band-limited signal.

  9. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed

  10. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States); Ge, Nien-Hui, E-mail: nhge@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  11. Observation of the low frequency vibrational modes of bacteriophage M13 in water by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen Shaw-Wei D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a technique which departs radically from conventional approaches has been proposed. This novel technique utilizes biological objects such as viruses as nano-templates for the fabrication of nanostructure elements. For example, rod-shaped viruses such as the M13 phage and tobacco mosaic virus have been successfully used as biological templates for the synthesis of semiconductor and metallic nanowires. Results and discussion Low wave number (≤ 20 cm-1 acoustic vibrations of the M13 phage have been studied using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations based on an elastic continuum model and appropriate Raman selection rules derived from a bond polarizability model. The observed Raman mode has been shown to belong to one of the Raman-active axial torsion modes of the M13 phage protein coat. Conclusion It is expected that the detection and characterization of this low frequency vibrational mode can be used for applications in nanotechnology such as for monitoring the process of virus functionalization and self-assembly. For example, the differences in Raman spectra can be used to monitor the coating of virus with some other materials and nano-assembly process, such as attaching a carbon nanotube or quantum dots.

  12. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts: Disordering versus Removal of Organic Capping

    KAUST Repository

    Krier, James M.

    2012-08-23

    Recent work with nanoparticle catalysts shows that size and shape control on the nanometer scale influences reaction rate and selectivity. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying heterogeneous catalysis because it enables the observation of surface intermediates during catalytic reactions. To control the size and shape of catalytic nanoparticles, an organic ligand was used as a capping agent to stabilize nanoparticles during synthesis. However, the presence of an organic capping agent presents two major challenges in SFG and catalytic reaction studies: it blocks a significant fraction of active surface sites and produces a strong signal that prevents the detection of reaction intermediates with SFG. Two methods for cleaning Pt nanoparticles capped with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) are examined in this study: solvent cleaning and UV cleaning. Solvent cleaning leaves more PVP intact and relies on disordering with hydrogen gas to reduce the SFG signal of PVP. In contrast, UV cleaning depends on nearly complete removal of PVP to reduce SFG signal. Both UV and solvent cleaning enable the detection of reaction intermediates by SFG. However, solvent cleaning also yields nanoparticles that are stable under reaction conditions, whereas UV cleaning results in aggregation during reaction. The results of this study indicate that solvent cleaning is more advantageous for studying the effects of nanoparticle size and shape on catalytic selectivity by SFG vibrational spectroscopy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Hyperfine-resolved transition frequency list of fundamental vibration bands of H35Cl and H37Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuni, Kana; Sera, Hideyuki; Abe, Masashi; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Sub-Doppler resolution spectroscopy of the fundamental vibration bands of H35Cl and H37Cl has been carried out from 87.1 to 89.9 THz. We have determined the absolute transition frequencies of the hyperfine-resolved R(0) to R(4) transitions with a typical uncertainty of 10 kHz. We have also yielded six molecular constants for each isotopomer in the vibrational excited state, which reproduce the determined frequencies with a standard deviation of about 10 kHz.

  14. Lightweight, high-frequency transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The 25-kVA space transformer was developed under contract by Thermal Technology Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. The NASA Lewis transformer technology program attempted to develop the baseline technology. For the 25-kVA transformer the input voltage was chosen as 200 V, the output voltage as 1500 V, the input voltage waveform as square wave, the duty cycle as continuous, the frequency range (within certain constraints) as 10 to 40 kHz, the operating temperatures as 85 deg. and 130 C, the baseplate temperature as 50 C, the equivalent leakage inductance as less than 10 micro-h, the operating environment as space, and the life expectancy as 10 years. Such a transformer can also be used for aircraft, ship and terrestrial applications.

  15. Combined IR-Raman vs vibrational sum-frequency heterospectral correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sandra; Beutier, Clémentine; Hore, Dennis K.

    2018-06-01

    Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy is a valuable probe of surface structure, particularly when the same molecules are present in one of the adjacent bulk solid or solution phases. As a result of the non-centrosymmetric requirement of SFG, the signal generated is a marker of the extent to which the molecules are ordered in an arrangement that breaks the up-down symmetry at the surface. In cases where the accompanying changes in the bulk are of interest in understanding and interpreting the surface structure, simultaneous analysis of the bulk IR absorption or bulk Raman scattering is helpful, and may be used in heterospectral surface-bulk two-dimensional correlation. We demonstrate that, in such cases, generating a new type of bulk spectrum that combines the IR and Raman amplitudes is a better candidate than the individual IR and Raman spectra for the purpose of correlation with the SFG signal.

  16. Potassium-cobalt sulphate crystal growth assisted by low frequency vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, A.; Ermochenkov, I.; Dubovenko, E.; Sukhanova, E.; Bebyakin, M.; Dubov, V.; Avetissov, I.

    2018-02-01

    Single crystals of K2Co(SO4)2·6H2O were grown from solution using the temperature reduction method enhanced by the axial low frequency vibration control technique (AVC-technique). Physical modeling of heat-mass transfer in solution under the AVC action was performed. The growth rate of the AVC grown crystal was found to be twice that of the crystal grown under natural convection conditions. Analysis of spectral characteristics (absorption and Raman spectra) as well as structural properties (dislocation density and microhardness) of the grown crystals showed the significant superiority of the AVC technique for the growth of K2Co(SO4)2·6H2O crystals.

  17. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Background vibration in a CANDU plant can be used to determine the dynamic characteristics of major items of equipment, such as calandria, the fuelling machines and the primary heat transport pumps. These dynamic characteristics can then be used to verify the seismic response of the equipment which, at present, is based on theoretical models only. The feasibility and basic theory of this new approach (which uses accelerations measured at several points on a structure and does not require knowledge of the source of excitation) was established in Phase I of the study. This report is based on Phase II in which the methods of analysis developed in Phase I were improved and verified experimentally. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm was incorporated and an interactive curve fitting technique was developed to obtain the dynamic characteristics in the form of natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. The method is now available for use at a CANDU plant

  18. Theoretical study of sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy on limonene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ren-Hui; Liu, Hao; Jing, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Bo-Yang; Shi, Qiang; Wei, Wen-Mei

    2014-01-01

    By combining molecule dynamics (MD) simulation and quantum chemistry computation, we calculate the surface sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS) of R-limonene molecules at the gas-liquid interface for SSP, PPP, and SPS polarization combinations. The distributions of the Euler angles are obtained using MD simulation, the ψ-distribution is between isotropic and Gaussian. Instead of the MD distributions, different analytical distributions such as the δ-function, Gaussian and isotropic distributions are applied to simulate surface SFVS. We find that different distributions significantly affect the absolute SFVS intensity and also influence on relative SFVS intensity, and the δ-function distribution should be used with caution when the orientation distribution is broad. Furthermore, the reason that the SPS signal is weak in reflected arrangement is discussed

  19. Theoretical study of sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy on limonene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ren-Hui, E-mail: zrh@iccas.ac.cn; Liu, Hao; Jing, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Bo-Yang; Shi, Qiang [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Wen-Mei [Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China)

    2014-03-14

    By combining molecule dynamics (MD) simulation and quantum chemistry computation, we calculate the surface sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy (SFVS) of R-limonene molecules at the gas-liquid interface for SSP, PPP, and SPS polarization combinations. The distributions of the Euler angles are obtained using MD simulation, the ψ-distribution is between isotropic and Gaussian. Instead of the MD distributions, different analytical distributions such as the δ-function, Gaussian and isotropic distributions are applied to simulate surface SFVS. We find that different distributions significantly affect the absolute SFVS intensity and also influence on relative SFVS intensity, and the δ-function distribution should be used with caution when the orientation distribution is broad. Furthermore, the reason that the SPS signal is weak in reflected arrangement is discussed.

  20. Synchronization of vortex formation frequency with the body motion frequency at high Reynolds numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luiz Antonio Alcantara [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: luizantp@unifei.edu.br; Hirata, Miguel Hiroo [State University of Rio de Janeiro (FAT/UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: hirata@fat.uerj.br

    2010-07-01

    Understanding vortex induced vibrations is of great importance in the design of a variety of offshore engineering structures, nuclear plant components and cylindrical elements in tube-bank heat exchangers, for example. If a body is placed in a flow, it experiences alternating lift and drag forces caused by the asymmetric formation of vortices, which can cause a structure to vibrate. One of the most interesting features of this flow is the phenomenon of lock-in which is observed when the vortex shedding frequency is close to the body oscillation frequency. This paper presents the results of numerical experiments on vortex shedding from a circular cylinder vibrating in-line or transversely with an incident uniform flow at Reynolds number of 1.0 x 10{sup 5}. The frequencies of the lift and drag coefficients are compared with the body motion frequency when the frequency ratio is about unity. (author)

  1. Effect of magnet/slot combination on triple-frequency magnetic force and vibration of permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Mina; Wang, Shiyu; Xiu, Jie; Cao, Shuqian

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between magnet/slot combination and magnetic forces including unbalanced magnetic force (UMF) and cogging torque (CT) of permanent magnet (PM) motors is investigated by using superposition principle and mechanical and magnetic symmetries. The results show that magnetic force can be produced by all magnets passing a single slot, by all slots passing a single magnet, or by eccentricity, which respectively correspond to three frequency components. The results further show that net force/torque can be classified into three typical cases: UMF is suppressed and CT is excited, UMF excited and CT suppressed, and UMF and CT both suppressed, and consequently possible vibrations include three unique groups: rotational modes, translational modes, and balanced modes. The conclusion that combinations with the greatest common divisor (GCD) greater than unity can avoid UMF is mathematically verified, and at the same time lower CT harmonics are preliminarily addressed by the typical excitations. The above findings can create simple guidelines for the suppression of certain UMF and/or CT by using suitable combinations, which in turn can present approach to yield a more desirable response in high performance applications. The superposition effect and predicted relationship are verified by the transient magnetic Finite Element method. Since this work is motivated by symmetries, comparisons are made in order to give further insight into the inner force and vibration behaviors of general rotary power-transmission systems.

  2. Tooling device design for vibration-assisted high speed shaping of PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam; Noh, J. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Ahn, J. H.; Kang, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    PMMA optical components that are used as one of the most important parts of high precision equipment and machines are increasingly replacing the glass due to the various advantages of PMMA. Especially in Light Guide Panels, the PMMA sheet that is used in Liquid Crystal Displays plays an important role in scattering the incident light and requires very fine machining as the sheet is directly related to the optical characteristics of the panels. The High Speed End milling and High Speed Shaping processes that are widely adopted and applied to the precise machining of Light Incident Plane still have quality problems, such as cracks, breakages, poor waviness, and straightness. This paper presents the tooling device design for machining a Light Incident Plane through vibration-assisted High Speed Shaping for increasing the optical quality by minimizing the above-mentioned problems. The cutting tool and the tool post presented in this paper are designed by the authors to increase the magnitude of the cutting stroke by adopting the resonant frequency without weakening the stiffness and to reduce vibrations during even high speed feeding. The dynamic characteristics of the cutting tool and the tool post are evaluated through simulation and experiment as well. The results reveal very appropriate dynamic characteristics for vibration-assisted High Speed Shaping

  3. Characterization of polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour by sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opdahl, Aric; Koffas, Telly S; Amitay-Sadovsky, Ella; Kim, Joonyeong; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2004-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study polymer surface structure and surface mechanical behaviour, specifically to study the relationships between the surface properties of polymers and their bulk compositions and the environment to which the polymer is exposed. The combination of SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM has been used to study surface segregation behaviour of polyolefin blends at the polymer/air and polymer/solid interfaces. SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM experiments have also been performed to characterize the properties of polymer/liquid and polymer/polymer interfaces, focusing on hydrogel materials. A method was developed to study the surface properties of hydrogel contact lens materials at various hydration conditions. Finally, the effect of mechanical stretching on the surface composition and surface mechanical behaviour of phase-separated polyurethanes, used in biomedical implant devices, has been studied by both SFG surface vibrational spectroscopy and AFM. (topical review)

  4. Improvement of force factor of magnetostrictive vibration power generator for high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Shota; Ueno, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Sotoshi

    2015-01-01

    We develop high power magnetostrictive vibration power generator for battery-free wireless electronics. The generator is based on a cantilever of parallel beam structure consisting of coil-wound Galfenol and stainless plates with permanent magnet for bias. Oscillating force exerted on the tip bends the cantilever in vibration yields stress variation of Galfenol plate, which causes flux variation and generates voltage on coil due to the law of induction. This generator has advantages over conventional, such as piezoelectric or moving magnet types, in the point of high efficiency, highly robust, and low electrical impedance. Our concern is the improvement of energy conversion efficiency dependent on the dimension. Especially, force factor, the conversion ratio of the electromotive force (voltage) on the tip velocity in vibration, has an important role in energy conversion process. First, the theoretical value of the force factor is formulated and then the validity was verified by experiments, where we compare four types of prototype with parameters of the dimension using 7.0 × 1.5 × 50 mm beams of Galfenol with 1606-turn wound coil. In addition, the energy conversion efficiency of the prototypes depending on load resistance was measured. The most efficient prototype exhibits the maximum instantaneous power of 0.73 W and energy of 4.7 mJ at a free vibration of frequency of 202 Hz in the case of applied force is 25 N. Further, it was found that energy conversion efficiency depends not only on the force factor but also on the damping (mechanical loss) of the vibration

  5. The Impact of Traffic-Induced Bridge Vibration on Rapid Repairing High-Performance Concrete for Bridge Deck Pavement Repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on forced vibration tests for high-performance concrete (HPC, the influence of bridge vibration induced by traveling vehicle on compressive strength and durability of HPC has been studied. It is concluded that 1 d and 2 d compressive strength of HPC decreased significantly, and the maximum reduction rate is 9.1%, while 28 d compressive strength of HPC had a slight lower with a 3% maximal drop under the action of two simple harmonic vibrations with 2 Hz, 3 mm amplitude, and 4 Hz, 3 mm amplitude. Moreover, the vibration had a slight effect on the compressive strength of HPC when the simple harmonic vibration had 4 Hz and 1 mm amplitude; it is indicated that the amplitude exerts a more prominent influence on the earlier compressive strength with the comparison of the frequency. In addition, the impact of simple harmonic vibration on durability of HPC can be ignored; this shows the self-healing function of concrete resulting from later hydration reaction. Thus, the research achievements mentioned above can contribute to learning the laws by which bridge vibration affects the properties of concrete and provide technical support for the design and construction of the bridge deck pavement maintenance.

  6. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  7. Analysis of musle fatigue induced by isometric vibration exercise at varying frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischi, M.; Rabotti, C.; Cardinale, M. (Marco)

    2012-01-01

    An increase in neuromuscular activity, measured by electromyography (EMG), is usually observed during vibration exercise. The underlying mechanisms are however unclear, limiting the possibilities to introduce and exploit vibration training in rehabilitation programs. In this study, a new training

  8. Fin whale sound reception mechanisms: skull vibration enables low-frequency hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted W Cranford

    Full Text Available Hearing mechanisms in baleen whales (Mysticeti are essentially unknown but their vocalization frequencies overlap with anthropogenic sound sources. Synthetic audiograms were generated for a fin whale by applying finite element modeling tools to X-ray computed tomography (CT scans. We CT scanned the head of a small fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus in a scanner designed for solid-fuel rocket motors. Our computer (finite element modeling toolkit allowed us to visualize what occurs when sounds interact with the anatomic geometry of the whale's head. Simulations reveal two mechanisms that excite both bony ear complexes, (1 the skull-vibration enabled bone conduction mechanism and (2 a pressure mechanism transmitted through soft tissues. Bone conduction is the predominant mechanism. The mass density of the bony ear complexes and their firmly embedded attachments to the skull are universal across the Mysticeti, suggesting that sound reception mechanisms are similar in all baleen whales. Interactions between incident sound waves and the skull cause deformations that induce motion in each bony ear complex, resulting in best hearing sensitivity for low-frequency sounds. This predominant low-frequency sensitivity has significant implications for assessing mysticete exposure levels to anthropogenic sounds. The din of man-made ocean noise has increased steadily over the past half century. Our results provide valuable data for U.S. regulatory agencies and concerned large-scale industrial users of the ocean environment. This study transforms our understanding of baleen whale hearing and provides a means to predict auditory sensitivity across a broad spectrum of sound frequencies.

  9. Active Seismic Monitoring Using High-Power Moveable 40-TONS Vibration Sources in Altay-Sayn Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, V. M.; Seleznev, V. S.; Emanov, A. F.; Kashun, V. N.; Elagin, S. A.; Romanenko, I.; Shenmayer, A. E.; Serezhnikov, N.

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents data of operating vibroseismic observations using high-power stationary 100-tons and moveable 40-tons vibration sources, which have been carried out in Russia for 30 years. It is shown that investigations using high-power vibration sources open new possibilities for study stressedly-deformed condition of the Earth`s crust and the upper mantle and tectonic process in them. Special attention is given to developing operating seismic translucences of the Earth`s crust and the upper mantle using high-power 40-tons vibration sources. As a result of experimental researches there was proved high stability and repeatability of vibration effects. There were carried out long period experiments of many days with vibration source sessions of every two hours with the purpose of monitoring accuracy estimation. It was determined, that repeatability of vibroseismic effects (there was researched time difference of repeated sessions of P- and S-waves from crystal rocks surface) could be estimated as 10-3 - 10-4 sec. It is ten times less than revealed here annual variations of kinematic parameters according to regime vibroseismic observations. It is shown, that on hard high-speed grounds radiation spectrum becomes narrowband and is dislocated to high frequency; at the same time quantity of multiple high-frequency harmonic is growing. At radiation on soft sedimentary grounds (sand, clay) spectrum of vibration source in near zone is more broadband, correlograms are more compact. there Correspondence of wave fields from 40-tons vibration sources and explosions by reference waves from boundaries in he Earth`s crust and the upper mantle at record distance of 400 km was proved by many experiments in various regions of Russia; there was carried out the technique of high-power vibration sources grouping for increase of effectiveness of emanation and increase of record distance. According to results of long-term vibroseismic monitoring near Novosibirsk (1997-2012) there are

  10. Hybrid nanogenerators for low frequency vibration energy harvesting and self-powered wireless locating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Hulin; Wang, Jie; Xie, Yuhang; Khan, Saeed Ahmed; Jin, Long; Yan, Zhuocheng; Huang, Long; Pan, Taisong; Yang, Weiqing; Lin, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid energy harvesters based on different physical effects is fascinating, but a rational design for multiple energy harvesting is challenging. In this work, a spring-magnet oscillator-based triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (EMG) with a solar cell cap is proposed. A power was produced by a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an EMG independently or simultaneously by using a shared spring-magnet oscillator. The oscillator configuration enables versatile energy harvesting with the excellent size scalability and self-packaged structure which can perform well at low frequency ranging from 3.5 to 5 Hz. The solar cell cap mounted above the oscillator can harvest solar energy. Under vibrations at the frequency of 4 Hz, the TENG and the EMG produced maximum output power of 5.46 nW cm-3 and 378.79 μW cm-3, respectively. The generated electricity by the hybrid nanogenerator can be stored in a capacitor or Li-ion battery, which is capable of powering a wireless locator for real-time locating data reporting to a personal cell phone. The light-weight and handy hybrid nanogenerator can directly light a caution light or play as a portable flashlight by shaking hands at night.

  11. Quantitative Surface Chirality Detection with Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy: Twin Polarization Angle Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Feng; Xu, Yanyan; Guo, Yuan; Liu, Shi-lin; Wang, Hongfei

    2009-01-01

    Here we report a novel twin polarization angle (TPA) approach in the quantitative chirality detection with the surface sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS). Generally, the achiral contribution dominates the surface SFG-VS signal, and the pure chiral signal is usually two or three orders of magnitude smaller. Therefore, it has been difficult to make quantitative detection and analysis of the chiral contributions to the surface SFG-VS signal. In the TPA method, by varying together the polarization angles of the incoming visible light and the sum frequency signal at fixed s or p polarization of the incoming infrared beam, the polarization dependent SFG signal can give not only direct signature of the chiral contribution in the total SFG-VS signal, but also the accurate measurement of the chiral and achiral components in the surface SFG signal. The general description of the TPA method is presented and the experiment test of the TPA approach is also presented for the SFG-VS from the S- and R-limonene chiral liquid surfaces. The most accurate degree of chiral excess values thus obtained for the 2878 cm -1 spectral peak of the S- and R-limonene liquid surfaces are (23.7±0.4)% and (25.4±1.3)%, respectively.

  12. Gray bootstrap method for estimating frequency-varying random vibration signals with small samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During environment testing, the estimation of random vibration signals (RVS is an important technique for the airborne platform safety and reliability. However, the available methods including extreme value envelope method (EVEM, statistical tolerances method (STM and improved statistical tolerance method (ISTM require large samples and typical probability distribution. Moreover, the frequency-varying characteristic of RVS is usually not taken into account. Gray bootstrap method (GBM is proposed to solve the problem of estimating frequency-varying RVS with small samples. Firstly, the estimated indexes are obtained including the estimated interval, the estimated uncertainty, the estimated value, the estimated error and estimated reliability. In addition, GBM is applied to estimating the single flight testing of certain aircraft. At last, in order to evaluate the estimated performance, GBM is compared with bootstrap method (BM and gray method (GM in testing analysis. The result shows that GBM has superiority for estimating dynamic signals with small samples and estimated reliability is proved to be 100% at the given confidence level.

  13. [Influence of low-frequency magnetotherapy and HF-puncture on the heart rhythm in hypertensive workers exposed to vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, V A; Loseva, M I; Sukharevskaia, T M; Michurin, A I

    2001-01-01

    The authors present results concerning use of low-frequency magnetic fields and HF-therapy for correction of vegetative homeostasis in workers with variable length of service, exposed to vibration, having early forms of arterial hypertension. The most positive changes of vegetative status and central hemodynamics are seen in workers with low length of service.

  14. Molecular Structure And Vibrational Frequencies of 2,3,4 Nitro anilines By Hartree-Fock And Density Functional Theory Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The optimised molecular structure, vibrational frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of 2-, 3- and 4- nitro anilines have been calculated using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional methods (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set. The calculations were adapted to the C S symmetries of all the molecules. The calculated vibrational frequencies and geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were seen to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The comparison of the experimental and theoretical results showed that the HF method is superior to the B3LYP method for both the vibrational frequencies and geometric parameters

  15. Quantitative spectral and orientational analysis in surface sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Gan, Wei; Lu, Rong; Rao, Yi; Wu, Bao-Hua

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) has been proven to be a uniquely effective spectroscopic technique in the investigation of molecular structure and conformations, as well as the dynamics of molecular interfaces. However, the ability to apply SFG-VS to complex molecular interfaces has been limited by the ability to abstract quantitative information from SFG-VS experiments. In this review, we try to make assessments of the limitations, issues and techniques as well as methodologies in quantitative orientational and spectral analysis with SFG-VS. Based on these assessments, we also try to summarize recent developments in methodologies on quantitative orientational and spectral analysis in SFG-VS, and their applications to detailed analysis of SFG-VS data of various vapour/neat liquid interfaces. A rigorous formulation of the polarization null angle (PNA) method is given for accurate determination of the orientational parameter D = /, and comparison between the PNA method with the commonly used polarization intensity ratio (PIR) method is discussed. The polarization and incident angle dependencies of the SFG-VS intensity are also reviewed, in the light of how experimental arrangements can be optimized to effectively abstract crucial information from the SFG-VS experiments. The values and models of the local field factors in the molecular layers are discussed. In order to examine the validity and limitations of the bond polarizability derivative model, the general expressions for molecular hyperpolarizability tensors and their expression with the bond polarizability derivative model for C3v, C2v and C∞v molecular groups are given in the two appendixes. We show that the bond polarizability derivative model can quantitatively describe many aspects of the intensities observed in the SFG-VS spectrum of the vapour/neat liquid interfaces in different polarizations. Using the polarization analysis in SFG-VS, polarization selection rules or

  16. Development of a heterodyne laser interferometer for very small high frequency displacements detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarmann, P.

    1992-10-01

    A heterodyne laser interferometer with detection electronics has been developed for measuring very small amplitude high frequency vibrations. A laser beam from HeNe-laser is focused and reflected in the vibrating surface and the generated phase shifts are after interference with a reference beam detected with a photo detector and evaluated in a demodulation system. The set-up is a prototype and techniques to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of the system are presented. The present system can detect vibration amplitude from around 1 Angstrom and is linear up to 250 Angstrom (±4%). Frequencies from a few tens of kHz up to tens of MHz are covered. The low frequency region can be greatly improved. The minimum detectable displacement may be improved by narrowing the bandwidth of the detection system to the region of interest

  17. Multimode vibration analysis with high-speed TV holography and a spatiotemporal 3D Fourier transform method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Angel F; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando; Pérez-López, Carlos; de la Torre-Ibarra, Manuel; Deán, J Luis

    2009-09-28

    The combination of a high-speed TV holography system and a 3D Fourier-transform data processing is proposed for the analysis of multimode vibrations in plates. The out-of-plane displacement of the object under generic vibrational excitation is resolved in time by the fast acquisition rate of a high-speed camera, and recorded in a sequence of interferograms with spatial carrier. A full-field temporal history of the multimode vibration is thus obtained. The optical phase of the interferograms is extracted and subtracted from the phase of a reference state to yield a sequence of optical phase-change maps. Each map represents the change undergone by the object between any given state and the reference state. The sequence of maps is a 3D array of data (two spatial dimensions plus time) that is processed with a 3D Fourier-transform algorithm. The individual vibration modes are separated in the 3D frequency space due to their different vibration frequencies and, to a lesser extent, to the different spatial frequencies of the mode shapes. The contribution of each individual mode (or indeed the superposition of several modes) to the dynamic behaviour of the object can then be separated by means of a bandpass filter (or filters). The final output is a sequence of complex-valued maps that contain the full-field temporal history of the selected mode (or modes) in terms of its mechanical amplitude and phase. The proof-of-principle of the technique is demonstrated with a rectangular, fully clamped, thin metal plate vibrating simultaneously in several of its natural resonant frequencies under white-noise excitation.

  18. High-frequency conductivity of photoionized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anakhov, M. V.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The tensor of the high-frequency conductivity of a plasma created via tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of linearly or circularly polarized radiation is derived. It is shown that the real part of the conductivity tensor is highly anisotropic. In the case of a toroidal velocity distribution of photoelectrons, the possibility of amplification of a weak high-frequency field polarized at a sufficiently large angle to the anisotropy axis of the initial nonequilibrium distribution is revealed.

  19. Cooking Appliances Using High-Frequency Heating

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 秀行; Hideyuki, KIMURA; (株)日立製作所機械研究所

    2007-01-01

    We have produced a guide suitable for people with no technical knowledge of cooking appliances that use high-frequency heating. In general, cooking appliances that use an electric heat source are popular since, they are simple to use because the offer easy heat control, are safe because they do not have naked flames, and do not make kitchens dirty because there is no exhaust. In recent years, high-efficiency cooking appliances using high-frequency heating technology have surged in popularity....

  20. High frequency oscillations in brain hemodynamic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ata; Bolay, Hayrunnisa

    2007-07-01

    Tight autoregulation of vessel tone guarantees proper delivery of nutrients to the tissues. This regulation is maintained at a more delicate level in the brain since any decrease in the supply of glucose and oxygen to neuronal tissues might lead to unrecoverable injury. Functional near infrared spectroscopy has been proposed as a new tool to monitor the cerebrovascular response during cognitive activity. We have observed that during a Stroop task three distinct oscillatory patterns govern the control of the cerebrovascular reactivity: very low frequency (0.02-0.05 Hz), low frequency (0.08-0.12 Hz) and high frequency (0.12-0.18 Hz). High frequency oscillations have been shown to be related to stress level of the subjects. Our findings indicate that as the stress level is increased so does the energy of the high frequency component indicating a higher stimulation from the autonomic nervous system.

  1. Spectroscopic Constants and Vibrational Frequencies for l-C3H+ and Isotopologues from Highly-Accurate Quartic Force Fields: The Detection of l-C3H+ in the Horsehead Nebula PDR Questioned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Fortenberry, Ryan Clifton; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Very recently, molecular rotational transitions observed in the photon-dominated region of the Horsehead nebula have been attributed to l-C3H+. In an effort to corroborate this finding, we employed state-of-the art and proven high-accuracy quantum chemical techniques to compute spectroscopic constants for this cation and its isotopologues. Even though the B rotational constant from the fit of the observed spectrum and our computations agree to within 20 MHz, a typical level of accuracy, the D rotational constant differs by more than 40%, while the H rotational constant differs by three orders of magnitude. With the likely errors in the rotational transition energies resulting from this difference in D on the order of 1 MHz for the lowest observed transition (J = 4 yields 3) and growing as J increases, the assignment of the observed rotational lines from the Horsehead nebula to l-C3H+ is questionable.

  2. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment and... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High... potential impacts of each alternative on the human and natural environments. DATES: Comments and related...

  3. Superconducting high frequency high power resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbis, C.; Vardiman, R.; Weinman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A niobium superconducting quarter-wave helical resonator has been designed and built. The resonator has been electron-beam welded and electropolished to produce a smooth flaw-free surface. This has been followed by an anodization to produce a 1000 A layer of Nb 2 0 5 . At the resonant frequency of approximately 15 MHz the unloaded Q was approximately equal to 4.6x10 6 with minimal dielectric support. With the resonator open to the helium bath to provide cooling, and rigidly supported by a teflon cylinder, 350 V of power were transferred at a doubly loaded Q of 3500. The extrapolation of the results to a Qsub(DL) of 1000 meet the power handling criteria of one kilowatt for the intended application. (author)

  4. Vibrational Properties of High- Superconductors Levitated Above a Bipolar Permanent Magnetic Guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wang, Jiasu

    2014-05-01

    A bipolar permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) has a unique magnetic field distribution profile which may introduce a better levitation performance and stability to the high- superconducting (HTS) maglev system. The dynamic vibration properties of multiple YBCO bulks arranged into different arrays positioned above a bipolar PMG and free to levitate were investigated. The acceleration and resonance frequencies were experimentally measured, and the stiffness and damping coefficients were evaluated for dynamic stability. Results indicate that the levitation stiffness is closely related to the field-cooling-height and sample positioning. The damping ratio was found to be low and nonlinear for the Halbach bipolar HTS-PMG system.

  5. A second, low-frequency mode of vibration in the intact mammalian cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashkin, Andrei N; Russell, Ian J

    2003-03-01

    The mammalian cochlea is a structure comprising a number of components connected by elastic elements. A mechanical system of this kind is expected to have multiple normal modes of oscillation and associated resonances. The guinea pig cochlear mechanics was probed using distortion components generated in the cochlea close to the place of overlap between two tones presented simultaneously. Otoacoustic emissions at frequencies of the distortion components were recorded in the ear canal. The phase behavior of the emissions reveals the presence of a nonlinear resonance at a frequency about a half octave below that of the high-frequency primary tone. The location of the resonance is level dependent and the resonance shifts to lower frequencies with increasing stimulus intensity. This resonance is thought to be associated with the tectorial membrane. The resonance tends to minimize input to the cochlear receptor cells at frequencies below the high-frequency primary and increases the dynamic load to the stereocilia of the receptor cells at the primary frequency when the tectorial membrane and reticular lamina move in counterphase.

  6. [The effect of betahistine on histological changes in rabbit brain in model of whole body wide-frequency vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimkus, Iu Iu; Sapegin, I D

    2013-01-01

    In acute experiments in conscious rabbits was studied protective action of selective blocker of histamine H3-receptor betahistine (2mg/kg i/v) against histological changes in precentral and postcentral gyrus, as well as in temporal lobe of cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, arising in case of modeling of whole body wide-frequency vibration. Betahistine attenuates edematous and degenerative changes in neurons and reciprocal glial reaction, caused by vibration, but does not eliminate edema in perivascular spaces. This effect may be related to the improvement of blood supply as a result of of vasodilatory action and decrease of oxygen consumption via vestibuloprotective effect.

  7. Surprising Performance for Vibrational Frequencies of the Distinguishable Clusters with Singles and Doubles (DCSD) and MP2.5 Approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Kesharwani, Manoj K.; Sylvetsky, Nitai; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the DCSD (distinguishable clusters with all singles and doubles) correlation method permits the calculation of vibrational spectra at near-CCSD(T) quality but at no more than CCSD cost, and with comparatively inexpensive analytical gradients. For systems dominated by a single reference configuration, even MP2.5 is a viable alternative, at MP3 cost. MP2.5 performance for vibrational frequencies is comparable to double hybrids such as DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ, but without resorting to empir...

  8. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to vertex low frequency vibration as a diagnostic test for superior canal dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrecchia, Luca; Westin, Magnus; Duan, Maoli; Brantberg, Krister

    2016-04-01

    To explore ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) to low-frequency vertex vibration (125 Hz) as a diagnostic test for superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome. The oVEMP using 125 Hz single cycle bone-conducted vertex vibration were tested in 15 patients with unilateral superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome, 15 healthy controls and in 20 patients with unilateral vestibular loss due to vestibular neuritis. Amplitude, amplitude asymmetry ratio, latency and interaural latency difference were parameters of interest. The oVEMP amplitude was significantly larger in SCD patients when affected sides (53 μVolts) were compared to non-affected (17.2 μVolts) or compared to healthy controls (13.6 μVolts). Amplitude larger than 33.8 μVolts separates effectively the SCD ears from the healthy ones with sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 93%. The other three parameters showed an overlap between affected SCD ears and non-affected as well as between SCD ears and those in the two control groups. oVEMP amplitude distinguishes SCD ears from healthy ones using low-frequency vibration stimuli at vertex. Amplitude analysis of oVEMP evoked by low-frequency vertex bone vibration stimulation is an additional indicator of SCD syndrome and might serve for diagnosing SCD patients with coexistent conductive middle ear problems. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  10. Nanostructures for Very High Frequency Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelmont, Boris

    2002-01-01

    The study of a new class of mesoscopic high frequency semi-conductor devices based on resonant tunneling in staggered-bandgap heterostructures with III-V semi-conductor ternary alloys such as AlGaSb...

  11. High frequency system project implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    The High Frequency System is a new mobile, digital diagnostic recording system for use at the Nevada Test Site. Many different kinds of event data will be digitized in real-time by this system, and these data will be recorded and stored for later read-out and transmission to NADCEN. The hardware and software requirements of the High Frequency System are examined, and the parameters of the system are proposed

  12. A novel smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber for high temperatures and variable amplitude vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Hong, Jie; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Liu, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    The work describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a smart rotor support with shape memory alloy metal rubber (SMA-MR) elements, able to provide variable stiffness and damping characteristics with temperature, motion amplitude and excitation frequency. Differences in damping behavior and nonlinear stiffness between SMA-MR and more traditional metal rubber supports are discussed. The mechanical performance shown by the prototype demonstrates the feasibility of using the SMA-MR concept for active vibration control in rotordynamics, in particular at high temperatures and large amplitude vibrations. (paper)

  13. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  14. Damping of vibrational excitations in glasses at terahertz frequency: The case of 3-methylpentane

    KAUST Repository

    Baldi, Giacomo

    2017-10-24

    We report a compared analysis of inelastic X ray scattering (IXS) and of low frequency Raman data of glassy 3-methylpentane. The IXS spectra have been analysed allowing for the existence of two distinct excitations at each scattering wavevector obtaining a consistent interpretation of the spectra. In particular, this procedure allows us to interpret the linewidth of the modes in terms of a simple model which relates them to the width of the first sharp diffraction peak in the static structure factor. In this model, the width of the modes arises from the blurring of the dispersion curves which increases approaching the boundary of the first pseudo-Brillouin zone. The position of the boson peak contribution to the density of vibrational states derived from the Raman scattering measurements is in agreement with the interpretation of the two excitations in terms of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, the latter being a result of the mixed character of the transverse modes away from the center of the pseudo-Brillouin zone.

  15. Structure and orientation of interfacial proteins determined by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy: method and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuji; Wei, Feng; Li, Hongchun; Tian, Kangzhen; Luo, Yi

    2013-01-01

    In situ and real-time characterization of molecular structures and orientation of proteins at interfaces is essential to understand the nature of interfacial protein interaction. Such work will undoubtedly provide important clues to control biointerface in a desired manner. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique to study the interfacial structures and interactions at the molecular level. This paper first systematically introduced the methods for the calculation of the Raman polarizability tensor, infrared transition dipole moment, and SFG molecular hyperpolarizability tensor elements of proteins/peptides with the secondary structures of α-helix, 310-helix, antiparallel β-sheet, and parallel β-sheet, as well as the methodology to determine the orientation of interfacial protein secondary structures using SFG amide I spectra. After that, recent progresses on the determination of protein structure and orientation at different interfaces by SFG-VS were then reviewed, which provides a molecular-level understanding of the structures and interactions of interfacial proteins, specially understanding the nature of driving force behind such interactions. Although this review has focused on analysis of amide I spectra, it will be expected to offer a basic idea for the spectral analysis of amide III SFG signals and other complicated molecular systems such as RNA and DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A proof-of-principle for frequency-domain vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The economic and regulatory pressures on operating utilities to improve efficiency, availability, and reliability and to extend the effective operating life of existing electric power generating plants have created a real need for instrumentation, systems, and programs that can monitor, analyze, and provide the means to correct incipient machine and process problems. Predictive maintenance programs, properly utilized, can be one key to achieving these goals. Recent developments in microprocessor technology have provided the ability to routinely monitor the actual mechanical condition of all rotating and reciprocating machinery and process variables (i.e., pressure, temperature, flow, etc.) of other process equipment within an operating electric power generating plant. This direct correlation between frequency-domain vibration and actual mechanical condition of machinery and trending process variables of nonrotating equipment can provide the key to improving availability, reliability, and thermal efficiency and can provide the baseline information necessary for developing a realistic plan for extending the useful life of power plants. The premise of utilizing microprocessor-based predictive maintenance to improve power plant operation has been proven by a number of utilities

  17. Damping of vibrational excitations in glasses at terahertz frequency: The case of 3-methylpentane

    KAUST Repository

    Baldi, Giacomo; Benassi, Paola; Fontana, Aldo; Giugni, Andrea; Monaco, Giulio; Nardone, Michele; Rossi, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    We report a compared analysis of inelastic X ray scattering (IXS) and of low frequency Raman data of glassy 3-methylpentane. The IXS spectra have been analysed allowing for the existence of two distinct excitations at each scattering wavevector obtaining a consistent interpretation of the spectra. In particular, this procedure allows us to interpret the linewidth of the modes in terms of a simple model which relates them to the width of the first sharp diffraction peak in the static structure factor. In this model, the width of the modes arises from the blurring of the dispersion curves which increases approaching the boundary of the first pseudo-Brillouin zone. The position of the boson peak contribution to the density of vibrational states derived from the Raman scattering measurements is in agreement with the interpretation of the two excitations in terms of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, the latter being a result of the mixed character of the transverse modes away from the center of the pseudo-Brillouin zone.

  18. Theoretical vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of water near lipid and surfactant monolayer interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, S.; Gruenbaum, S. M.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, 1101 University Ave., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Understanding the structure of water near cell membranes is crucial for characterizing water-mediated events such as molecular transport. To obtain structural information of water near a membrane, it is useful to have a surface-selective technique that can probe only interfacial water molecules. One such technique is vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. As model systems for studying membrane headgroup/water interactions, in this paper we consider lipid and surfactant monolayers on water. We adopt a theoretical approach combining molecular dynamics simulations and phase-sensitive VSFG to investigate water structure near these interfaces. Our simulated spectra are in qualitative agreement with experiments and reveal orientational ordering of interfacial water molecules near cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic interfaces. OH bonds of water molecules point toward an anionic interface leading to a positive VSFG peak, whereas the water hydrogen atoms point away from a cationic interface leading to a negative VSFG peak. Coexistence of these two interfacial water species is observed near interfaces between water and mixtures of cationic and anionic lipids, as indicated by the presence of both negative and positive peaks in their VSFG spectra. In the case of a zwitterionic interface, OH orientation is toward the interface on the average, resulting in a positive VSFG peak.

  19. Explicit frequency equations of free vibration of a nonlocal Timoshenko beam with surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Sheng; Zhang, Yao; Lie, Seng-Tjhen

    2018-02-01

    Considerations of nonlocal elasticity and surface effects in micro- and nanoscale beams are both important for the accurate prediction of natural frequency. In this study, the governing equation of a nonlocal Timoshenko beam with surface effects is established by taking into account three types of boundary conditions: hinged-hinged, clamped-clamped and clamped-hinged ends. For a hinged-hinged beam, an exact and explicit natural frequency equation is obtained. However, for clamped-clamped and clamped-hinged beams, the solutions of corresponding frequency equations must be determined numerically due to their transcendental nature. Hence, the Fredholm integral equation approach coupled with a curve fitting method is employed to derive the approximate fundamental frequency equations, which can predict the frequency values with high accuracy. In short, explicit frequency equations of the Timoshenko beam for three types of boundary conditions are proposed to exhibit directly the dependence of the natural frequency on the nonlocal elasticity, surface elasticity, residual surface stress, shear deformation and rotatory inertia, avoiding the complicated numerical computation.

  20. Analysis and wafer-level design of a high-order silicon vibration isolator for resonating MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Won; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil; Perkins, Noel C

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and preliminary design, fabrication, and measurement for mechanical vibration-isolation platforms especially designed for resonating MEMS devices including gyroscopes. Important parameters for designing isolation platforms are specified and the first platform (in designs with cascaded multiple platforms) is crucial for improving vibration-isolation performance and minimizing side-effects on integrated gyroscopes. This isolation platform, made from a thick silicon wafer substrate for an environment-resistant MEMS package, incorporates the functionalities of a previous design including vacuum packaging and thermal resistance with no additional resources. This platform consists of platform mass, isolation beams, vertical feedthroughs, and bonding pads. Two isolation platform designs follow from two isolation beam designs: lateral clamped–clamped beams and vertical torsion beams. The beams function simultaneously as mechanical springs and electrical interconnects. The vibration-isolation platform can yield a multi-dimensional, high-order mechanical low pass filter. The isolation platform possesses eight interconnects within a 12.2 × 12.2 mm 2 footprint. The contact resistance ranges from 4–11 Ω depending on the beam design. Vibration measurements using a laser-Doppler vibrometer demonstrate that the lateral vibration-isolation platform suppresses external vibration having frequencies exceeding 2.1 kHz.

  1. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2010-11-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of centrifugal force on natural frequency of lateral vibration of rotating shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, M.; Bastami, A. R.

    2004-07-01

    This paper investigates the effect of shaft rotation on its natural frequency. Apart from gyroscopic effect, the axial force originated from centrifugal force and the Poisson effect results in change of shaft natural frequency. D'Alembert principle for shaft in cylindrical co-ordinate system, along with the stress-strain relation, gives the non-homogenous linear differential equation, which can be used to calculate axial stress in the shaft. Numerical results of this study show that axial stress produced by shaft rotation has a major effect on the natural frequency of long high-speed shafts, while shaft diameter has no influence on the results. In addition, change in lateral natural frequency due to gyroscopic effect is compared with the results of this study.

  3. [High-frequency components of occlusal sound in sliding movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, K

    1990-03-01

    We postulated that high-frequency components of the occlusal sound occurring due to the characteristic vibration of teeth can be useful data for confirmation of the stability in occlusion, and studied the high-frequency components in the cases both of an experimental sliding movement and a normal occlusion. The results obtained were as follows. 1. A study on high-frequency components of the occlusal sound in an experimental sliding movement. 1) A study on wave type of the occlusal sound revealed one damped oscillation in an impact form and two in a slide form. 2) Spectrum analysis of the damped oscillation showed a similar spectrum pattern with a peak existing between 16KHz or more and 17KHz or less in both impact and slide cases. 2. A study on high-frequency components of the occlusal sound in a normal occlusion case. 1) The wave type in occlusal sound we have observed in a normal occlusion group and in a prosthetic or operative group was as follows: One damped oscillation shown in an impact form and two damped oscillation in a slide form which were the same as those shown in the case where an interference device was attached. 2) Duration of the sliding movement was short in a normal occlusion group, but was prolonged in a prosthetic or operative group. 3) The incidence of the wave type in occlusal sound was 56.7% in a prosthetic or operative group as compared to 87.8% in a normal occlusion group in an impact form. In contrast, the incidence was 43.3% in a prosthetic or operative group as compared to 12.2% in a normal occlusion group in a slide form. Such difference in the incidence between the wave types suggested that high-frequency components of occlusal sound can be an index for judgement of the stability in occlusion.

  4. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  5. Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ARL-TR-8185 ● OCT 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video...Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras by Caitlin P Conn and Geoffrey H Goldman Sensors and...June 2016 – October 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Field Test Data for Detecting Vibrations of a Building Using High-Speed Video Cameras 5a. CONTRACT

  6. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    be implemented. ‡ Follow the reverse of the ventilation sequence if respiratory alkalosis develops—however, start at ventilation goal sequence 1 not at...High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has demonstrated a potential role as a rescue option for refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome...frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) has demon- strated a potential role as a salvage option for refrac- tory acute respiratory distress syndrome

  7. An approach for modeling the influence of wheel tractor loads and vibration frequencies on soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verotti, M.; Servadio, P.; Belfiore, N. P.; Bergonzoli, S.

    2012-04-01

    -soil-man interaction. In particular, a model based on elasto-visco-plastic concentrated parameters, with multiple degrees of freedom, will be used in order to build a method for detecting a soil damage index, especially expressed in terms of increasing of soil compaction. Besides the axle load, the model will take into account the frequency of the vibrations that the vehicle is transmitting to the soil. Such model expresses a numerical value for the transmissibility coefficient and also allows evaluating the damage at the surface and on the bulk medium where the agricultural crops initially develop. Key words: vehicle-soil interaction, vibration, compaction, models. Acknowledgements This work was carried out under the auspices of the special project "Sceneries of adaptation of the Italian agriculture to the climatic changes" (AGROSCENARI) of the Agricultural Research Council, and Italian Ministry of the Agricultural and Forestry Politics.

  8. High Frequency Traders and Market Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of high-frequency traders (HFTs) coincided with the entry of new markets and, subsequently, strong fragmentation of the order flow. These trends might be related as new markets serve HFTs who seek low fees and high speed. New markets only thrive on competitive price quotes that

  9. High-accuracy vibration sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer with active phase-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Li, Chuncheng; Hao, Hui; Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A novel position-sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed with direct phase modulation by a built-in electro-optic modulator. Pure sinusoidal phase modulation of the light was produced, and the first harmonic of the interference signal was extracted to dynamically maintain the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point of the interferogram. Therefore, the minute vibration of the object was coded on the variation of the interference signal and could be directly retrieved by the output voltage of a photodetector. The operating principle and the signal processing method for active feedback control of the interference phase have been demonstrated in detail. The developed vibration sensor was calibrated through a high-precision piezo-electric transducer and tested by a nano-positioning stage under a vibration magnitude of 60 nm and a frequency of 300 Hz. The active phase-tracking method of the system provides high immunity against environmental disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can effectively reconstruct tiny vibration waveforms with subnanometer resolution, paving the way for high-accuracy vibration sensing, especially for micro-electro-mechanical systems/nano-electro-mechanical systems and ultrasonic devices.

  10. Optimization design of high power ultrasonic circular ring radiator in coupled vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Lin, Shuyu; Hu, Wenxu

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a new high power ultrasonic (HPU) radiator, which consists of a transducer, an ultrasonic horn, and a metal circular ring. Both the transducer and horn in longitudinal vibrations are used to drive a metal circular ring in a radial-axial coupled vibration. This coupled vibration cannot only generate ultrasound in both the radial and axial directions, but also focus the ultrasound inside the circular ring. Except for the radial-axial coupled vibration mode, the third longitudinal harmonic vibration mode with relative large vibration amplitude is also detected, which can be used as another operation mode. Overall, the HPU with these two vibration modes should have good potential to be applied in liquid processing, such as sonochemistry, ultrasonic cleaning, and Chinese herbal medicine extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibro-Shock Dynamics Analysis of a Tandem Low Frequency Resonator—High Frequency Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Žižys

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequency up-conversion is a promising technique for energy harvesting in low frequency environments. In this approach, abundantly available environmental motion energy is absorbed by a Low Frequency Resonator (LFR which transfers it to a high frequency Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester (PVEH via impact or magnetic coupling. As a result, a decaying alternating output signal is produced, that can later be collected using a battery or be transferred directly to the electric load. The paper reports an impact-coupled frequency up-converting tandem setup with different LFR to PVEH natural frequency ratios and varying contact point location along the length of the harvester. RMS power output of different frequency up-converting tandems with optimal resistive values was found from the transient analysis revealing a strong relation between power output and LFR-PVEH natural frequency ratio as well as impact point location. Simulations revealed that higher power output is obtained from a higher natural frequency ratio between LFR and PVEH, an increase of power output by one order of magnitude for a doubled natural frequency ratio and up to 150% difference in power output from different impact point locations. The theoretical results were experimentally verified.

  12. Measurement of correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and particle rearrangements in quasi-two-dimensional colloidal glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Manning, M L; Yunker, Peter J; Ellenbroek, Wouter G; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J; Yodh, A G

    2011-09-02

    We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance matrix is measured and used to extract the vibrational spectrum of the "shadow" colloidal glass (i.e., the particle network with the same geometry and interactions as the sample colloid but absent damping). Rearrangements are induced by successive, small reductions in the packing fraction. The experimental results suggest that low-frequency quasilocalized phonon modes in colloidal glasses, i.e., modes that present low energy barriers for system rearrangements, are spatially correlated with rearrangements in this thermal system.

  13. Intrinsic Chirality and Prochirality at Air/R-(+)- and S-(-)-Limonene Interfaces: Spectral Signatures with Interference Chiral Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Zhehao; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-06-04

    We report in this work detailed measurements on the chiral and achiral sum-frequency vibrational spectra in the C-H stretching vibration region (2800-3050cm-1) of the air/liquid interfaces of R-limonene and S-limonene, using the recently developed high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS). The achiral SFG spectra of R-limonene and S-limonene, as well as the equal amount (50/50) racemic mixture show that the enantiomers are with the same interfacial orientations. The interference chiral SFG spectra of the limonene enantiomers exhibit spectral signature from chiral response of the Cα-H stretching mode, and spectral signature from prochiral response of the CH2 asymmetric stretching mode, respectively. The chiral spectral feature of the Cα-H stretching mode changes sign from R-limonene to S-limonene, and disappears for the 50/50 racemic mixture. While the prochiral spectral feature of the CH2 asymmetric stretching mode is the same for R-limonene and S-limonene, and also surprisingly remains the same for the 50/50 racemic mixture. These results provided detail information in understanding the structure and chirality of molecular interfaces, and demonstrated the sensitivity and potential of SFG-VS as unique spectroscopic tool for chirality characterization and chiral recognition at the molecular interface.

  14. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-08-01

    We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester Cdbnd O and diazo Ndbnd N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single Cdbnd O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  15. Piezoelectric Shunt Vibration Damping of F-15 Panel under High Acoustic Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Yau; Turner, Travis L.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    At last year's SPIE symposium, we reported results of an experiment on structural vibration damping of an F-15 underbelly panel using piezoelectric shunting with five bonded PZT transducers. The panel vibration was induced with an acoustic speaker at an overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of about 90 dB. Amplitude reductions of 13.45 and 10.72 dB were achieved for the first and second modes, respectively, using single- and multiple-mode shunting. It is the purpose of this investigation to extend the passive piezoelectric shunt-damping technique to control structural vibration induced at higher acoustic excitation levels, and to examine the controllability and survivability of the bonded PZT transducers at these high levels. The shunting experiment was performed with the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) at the NASA Langley Research Center using the same F-15 underbelly panel. The TAFA is a progressive wave tube facility. The panel was mounted in one wall of the TAFA test section using a specially designed mounting fixture such that the panel was subjected to grazing-incidence acoustic excitation. Five PZT transducers were used with two shunt circuits designed to control the first and second modes of the structure between 200 and 400 Hz. We first determined the values of the shunt inductance and resistance at an OASPL of 130 dB. These values were maintained while we gradually increased the OASPL from 130 to 154 dB in 6-dB steps. During each increment, the frequency response function between accelerometers on the panel and the acoustic excitation measured by microphones, before and after shunting, were recorded. Good response reduction was observed up to the 148dB level. The experiment was stopped at 154 dB due to wire breakage from vibration at a transducer wire joint. The PZT transducers, however, were still bonded well on the panel and survived at this high dB level. We also observed shifting of the frequency peaks toward lower frequency when the OASPL

  16. Combined effect of noise and vibration produced by high-speed trains on annoyance in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Griffin, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on annoyance in buildings during the passage of a nearby high-speed train have been investigated in a laboratory experiment with recorded train noise and 20 Hz vibration. The noises included the effects of two types of façade: windows-open and windows-closed. Subjects were exposed to six levels of noise and six magnitudes of vibration, and asked to rate annoyance using an 11-point numerical scale. The experiment consisted of four sessions: (1) evaluation of noise annoyance in the absence of vibration, (2) evaluation of total annoyance from simultaneous noise and vibration, (3) evaluation of noise annoyance in the presence of vibration, and (4) evaluation of vibration annoyance in the absence of noise. The results show that vibration did not influence ratings of noise annoyance, but that total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration was considerably greater than the annoyance caused by noise alone. The noise annoyance and the total annoyance caused by combined noise and vibration were associated with subject self-ratings of noise sensitivity. Two classical models of total annoyance due to combined noise sources (maximum of the single source annoyance or the integration of individual annoyance ratings) provided useful predictions of the total annoyance caused by simultaneous noise and vibration.

  17. High-Performance Pressure Sensor for Monitoring Mechanical Vibration and Air Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancheng Meng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To realize the practical applications of flexible pressure sensors, the high performance (sensitivity and response time as well as more functionalities are highly desired. In this work, we fabricated a piezoresistive pressure sensor based on the micro-structured composites films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS. In addition, we establish efficient strategies to improve key performance of our pressure sensor. Its sensitivity is improved up to 474.13 kPa−1 by minimizing pressure independent resistance of sensor, and response time is shorten as small as 2 μs by enhancing the elastic modulus of polymer elastomer. Benefiting from the high performance, the functionalities of sensors are successfully extended to the accurate detection of high frequency mechanical vibration (~300 Hz and large range of air pressure (6–101 kPa, both of which are not achieved before.

  18. Crack recognition on vertical rotors by means of frequency selective vibration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nink, A.; Stoelben, H.

    1990-01-01

    Shaft cracks on primary coolant pumps in pressurized water reactors have led to intensive vibration monitoring, in particular of vertically arranged rotors. However, the interpretation of shaft vibrations with respect to crack recognition proved to be very difficult. Appropriate experimental approaches resulted in an improved interpretation base. The article describes both the problems related to primary coolant pumps and first experimental experience gained from tests on a pre-cracked vertical rotor. Differential vectors of rotational speed harmonics provide an optimum description of the effect of a crack on shaft vibration. Diagnostics can be supported by observing the vectors, while purposefully changing axial loads. (orig.) [de

  19. High-frequency and microwave circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Charles

    2007-01-01

    An integral part of any communications system, high-frequency and microwave design stimulates major progress in the wireless world and continues to serve as a foundation for the commercial wireless products we use every day. The exceptional pace of advancement in developing these systems stipulates that engineers be well versed in multiple areas of electronics engineering. With more illustrations, examples, and worked problems, High-Frequency and Microwave Circuit Design, Second Edition provides engineers with a diverse body of knowledge they can use to meet the needs of this rapidly progressi

  20. High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, Allan D

    1992-01-01

    High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r

  1. Vibration of high-voltage electric machines with rotors on rolling bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekyan, H. G.; Gevorgyan, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents an investigation of vibrational activity of electric machines due to high-harmonic vibrational loadings. It is shown that the vibrational loadings experienced by bearings may result in the interruption of their normal operation and even take them out of action. Therefore, the values of the vibrational speed-up leading to high harmonics are factors determining the admissible dynamic loading on the bearings. In the paper, an attempt is made to consider the factors which result in origination of high harmonics and to illustrate methods for their smoothing.

  2. Development of high frequency tungsten inert gas welding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisada, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Inagaki, Fuminori; Kamai, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new ultrasonic wave TIG welding method was developed. ► The area of the blowholes decreased to less than about 1/8 in the normal TIG weld. ► The number of blowholes decreased with the decreasing frequency. ► The number of blowholes increased when the frequency was less than 15 kHz. ► The microstructure of the weld was refined by ultrasonic wave. -- Abstract: A new welding method, called high frequency tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, was developed to decrease blowholes in a weld. A1050 aluminum alloy plates (100 mm l × 50 mm w × 5 mm t ) were welded at a frequency from 10 to 40 kHz. An Ar-1% hydrogen mixture was used as the shielding gas to generate blowholes in the experiments. The welding was performed in the horizontal position so that the blowholes can easily be a problem. For comparison, a normal TIG welding was also performed at 60 Hz. After welding, the distribution of the blowholes in the welds was observed in order to evaluate the effect of the sonic wave. The number of blowholes changed with the frequency. A frequency near 15 kHz is the most suitable to decrease the blowholes. Using this new method, the area of blowholes is decreased to less than about 1/8 of the normal TIG weld. This method is much more effective for decreasing the number of blowholes, compared with an ultrasonic wave vibrator which is directly fixed to the sample.

  3. Balancing Vibrations at Harmonic Frequencies by Injecting Harmonic Balancing Signals into the Armature of a Linear Motor/Alternator Coupled to a Stirling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ezekiel S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations at harmonic frequencies are reduced by injecting harmonic balancing signals into the armature of a linear motor/alternator coupled to a Stirling machine. The vibrations are sensed to provide a signal representing the mechanical vibrations. A harmonic balancing signal is generated for selected harmonics of the operating frequency by processing the sensed vibration signal with adaptive filter algorithms of adaptive filters for each harmonic. Reference inputs for each harmonic are applied to the adaptive filter algorithms at the frequency of the selected harmonic. The harmonic balancing signals for all of the harmonics are summed with a principal control signal. The harmonic balancing signals modify the principal electrical drive voltage and drive the motor/alternator with a drive voltage component in opposition to the vibration at each harmonic.

  4. Phonon vibrational frequencies of all single-wall carbon nanotubes at the lambda point: reduced matrix calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufang; Wu, Yanzhao; Feng, Min; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qinghua; Ding, Datong; Cao, Xuewei

    2008-12-01

    With a simple method-the reduced matrix method, we simplified the calculation of the phonon vibrational frequencies according to SWNTs structure and their phonon symmetric property and got the dispersion properties of all SWNTs at Gamma point in Brillouin zone, whose diameters lie between 0.6 and 2.5 nm. The calculating time is shrunk about 2-4 orders. A series of the dependent relationships between the diameters of SWNTs and the frequencies of Raman and IR active modes are given. Several fine structures including "glazed tile" structures in omega approximately d figures are found, which might predict a certain macro-quantum phenomenon of the phonons in SWNTs.

  5. The Utilization of Low Frequency Raman Spectra of Gases for the Study of Molecules with Large Amplitude Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James R. Durig; Sarah Xiao-hua Zhou; Joshua Klaassen; Arindam Ganguly

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of the Raman spectra of the low frequency bending mode for three quasi-linear molecules, disiloxane, (SiH3)2 O; methylisocyanate, CH3NCO; and dimethy lisocyanate, (CH3)2SiHNCO for observing the low frequency anharmonic bending vibration is demonstrated which is superior to the corresponding far infrared spectra. From the observed frequencies from the Raman spectra the potential function governing the heavy atom motion to linearity has been obtained from which the barrier has been determined. These experimental values are compared to the ab ini-tio predicted values. Also low frequency Raman spectra of the ring puckering vibration of chlorocy-clobutane, c-C4H7Cl, bromocyclobutane, c-C4H7Br, and aminocyclobutane, c-C4H7NH2, have been utilized to obtain the potential function governing the ring inversion for these molecules. The deter-mined barriers to planarity are compared to those obtained from MP2 (full) ab initio and density functional theory B3LYP calculations by utilizing a variety of basis sets. For all of these studies it is shown that the Raman spectra are superior to the infrared spectra for determining the frequencies of the excited state transitions.

  6. Dry friction damping couple at high frequencies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Košina, Jan; Radolfová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 91-100 ISSN 1802-680X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : dry friction * damping * high frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/acm/article/view/239/265

  7. High Frequency Trading, Information, and Takeovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphery-Jenner, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper (1) proposes new variables to detect informed high-frequency trading (HFT), (2) shows that HFT can help to predict takeover targets, and (3) shows that HFT in uences target announcement announcement returns. Prior literature suggests that informed trade may occur before takeovers, but has

  8. Essays on high frequency financial econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been demonstrated that continuous-time methods are powerful tools in financial modeling. Yet only in recent years, their counterparts in empirical analysis—high frequency econometrics—began to emerge with the availability of intra-day data and relevant statistical tools. This

  9. Assessment of the Vibrations Effects Caused by Technical Seismicity Due to the Railway traffic on High-sensitivity Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika; Demeterová, Katarína

    2016-10-01

    The numerical and experimental approach in structural dynamics problems is more and more current nowadays. This approach is applied and solved in many research and developing institutions of the all the world. Vibrations effect caused by passing trains used in manufacturing facilities can affect the quality of the production activity. This effect is possible to be solved by a numerical or an experimental way. Numerical solution is not so financially and time demanding. The main aim of this article is to focus on just experimental measurement of this problem. In this paper, the case study with measurement due to cramped conditions realized in situ is presented. The case study is located close to railway. The vibration effect caused by passing trains on the high-sensitivity machinery contained in this object were observed. The structure was a high-sensitivity machine that was placed in a construction process. For the measurements, the high-sensitivity standard vibrations equipment was used. The assessments of measurements’ results were performed for the technological conditions and Slovak Standard Criteria. Both of these assessments were divided to amplitude and frequency domain. The amplitude criterion is also divided to peak particle velocity and RMS (Root Mean Square). Frequency domain assessment were realised using the frequency response curves obtained from high-sensitivity machinery manufacturer. The frequency limits are established for each axis of triaxle system. The measurement results can be predicted if the vibration have to be reduced. Measurement implemented in the production hall should obtain materials to determine the seismic loading and response of production machinery caused by technical seismicity.

  10. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  11. Relationship Between Psychomotor Efficiency and Sensation Seeking of People Exposed to Noise and Low Frequency Vibration Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchut, Aleksander; Kowalska-Koczwara, Alicja; Romanska – Zapała, Anna; Stypula, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    At the workplace of the machine operator, low frequency whole body and hand- arm vibrations are observed. They occur together with noise. Whole body vibration in the range of 3-25 Hz are detrimental to the human body due to the location of the resonant frequency of large organs of the human body in this range. It can be assumed that for this reason people working every day in such conditions can have reduced working efficiency. The influence of low frequency vibration and noise on the human body leads to both physiological and functional changes. The result of the impact of noise and vibration stimuli depends largely on the specific characteristics of the objects, which include among other personality traits, temperament and emotional factor. The pilot study conducted in the laboratory was attended by 30 young men. The aim of the study was to look for correlations between the need for stimulation of the objects and their psychomotor efficiency in case of vibration exposure and vibration together with noise exposure in variable conditions task. The need for stimulation of the objects as defined in the study is based on theoretical assumptions of one dimensional model of temperament developed by Marvin Zuckerman. This theory defines the need for stimulation as the search for different, new, complex and intense sensations, as well as the willingness to take risks. The aim of research was to verify if from four factors such as: the search for adventure and horror, sensation seeking, disinhibition and susceptibility to boredom, we can choose the ones that in conjunction with varying operating conditions, may significantly determine the efficiency of the task situation. The objects performed the test evaluation of their motor skills which consisted in keeping the cursor controlled by a joystick through the path. The number of exceeds of the cursor beyond the path and its maximum deviation was recorded. The collected data were used to determine the correlation between the

  12. Evaluating performance of multivariable vibration isolators : a frequency domain identification approach applied to an industrial AVIS : A frequency domain identification approach applied to an industrial AVIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, M.A.; Heertjes, M.A.; Voorhoeve, R.J.; Oomen, T.A.E.

    2017-01-01

    Vibration isolation is essential for industrial high-precision systems in suppressing the influence of external disturbances. The aim of this paper is to develop an identification method to estimate the transmissibility matrix for such systems. The transmissibility matrix is a key performance

  13. Tensor-decomposed vibrational coupled-cluster theory: Enabling large-scale, highly accurate vibrational-structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Niels Kristian; Godtliebsen, Ian H.; Losilla, Sergio A.; Christiansen, Ove

    2018-01-01

    A new implementation of vibrational coupled-cluster (VCC) theory is presented, where all amplitude tensors are represented in the canonical polyadic (CP) format. The CP-VCC algorithm solves the non-linear VCC equations without ever constructing the amplitudes or error vectors in full dimension but still formally includes the full parameter space of the VCC[n] model in question resulting in the same vibrational energies as the conventional method. In a previous publication, we have described the non-linear-equation solver for CP-VCC calculations. In this work, we discuss the general algorithm for evaluating VCC error vectors in CP format including the rank-reduction methods used during the summation of the many terms in the VCC amplitude equations. Benchmark calculations for studying the computational scaling and memory usage of the CP-VCC algorithm are performed on a set of molecules including thiadiazole and an array of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that the reduced scaling and memory requirements of the CP-VCC algorithm allows for performing high-order VCC calculations on systems with up to 66 vibrational modes (anthracene), which indeed are not possible using the conventional VCC method. This paves the way for obtaining highly accurate vibrational spectra and properties of larger molecules.

  14. Causes and proposed resolutions of high vibration in NWTF transfer pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trawinski, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Report is intended to communicate the findings from the latest phase of New Waste Transfer Facility (NWTF) transfer pump testing. These tests have identified causes for the high pump vibrations that have been observed during previous phases of transfer pump startup testing, and have led to recommendations for resolving the vibration problem. The paper describes the problem, the test methodology, observations, and recommend actions to correct the vibration problem

  15. Highly Resolved Sub-Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Biological Macromolecules and Bacteria Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    HIGHLY RESOLVED SUB-TERAHERTZ VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES AND BACTERIA CELLS ECBC...SUBTITLE Highly Resolved Sub-Terahertz Vibrational Spectroscopy of Biological Macromolecules and Bacteria Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911SR-14-P...22 4.3 Bacteria THz Study

  16. Evolution of Very High Frequency Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Kamby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing demand for smaller and lighter power supplies is driving the motivation to increase the switching frequencies of power converters. Drastic increases however come along with new challenges, namely the increase of switching losses in all components. The application of power circuits used...... in radio frequency transmission equipment helps to overcome those. However those circuits were not designed to meet the same requirements as power converters. This paper summarizes the contributions in recent years in application of very high frequency (VHF) technologies in power electronics, shows results...... of the recent advances and describes the remaining challenges. The presented results include a self-oscillating gate-drive, air core inductor optimizations, an offline LED driver with a power density of 8.9 W/cm3 and a 120 MHz, 9 W DC powered LED driver with 89 % efficiency as well as a bidirectional VHF...

  17. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Kinetic Study of 2-Methylfuran and 2,5-Dimethylfuran Hydrogenation over 7 nm Platinum Cubic Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Aliaga, Cesar; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Alayoglu, Selim; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2011-01-01

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements obtained from gas chromatography were used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) over cubic Pt nanoparticles of 7 nm

  18. Nonlinear generation of non-acoustic modes by low-frequency sound in a vibrationally relaxing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelomova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two dynamic equations referring to a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive flow of a gas in which molecular vibrational relaxation takes place, are derived. The first one governs an excess temperature associated with the thermal mode, and the second one describes variations in vibrational energy. Both quantities refer to non-wave types of gas motion. These variations are caused by the nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy into thermal mode and internal vibrational degrees of freedom of a relaxing gas. The final dynamic equations are instantaneous; they include a quadratic nonlinear acoustic source, reflecting the nonlinear character of interaction of low-frequency acoustic and non-acoustic motions of the fluid. All types of sound, periodic or aperiodic, may serve as an acoustic source of both phenomena. The low-frequency sound is considered in this study. Some conclusions about temporal behavior of non-acoustic modes caused by periodic and aperiodic sound are made. Under certain conditions, acoustic cooling takes place instead of heating. (author)

  19. Adaptive High Frequency Laser Sonar System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cray, Benjamin A

    2007-01-01

    .... Antivibration mounts are joined between said scanning laser vibrometer and said housing. In further embodiments, the scanning laser vibrometer detects vibrations at a plurality of locations on the acoustic window forming a virtual array...

  20. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....

  1. THE POSSIBLE INTERSTELLAR ANION CH{sub 2}CN{sup -}: SPECTROSCOPIC CONSTANTS, VIBRATIONAL FREQUENCIES, AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Lee, Timothy J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Crawford, T. Daniel, E-mail: Ryan.C.Fortenberry@nasa.gov, E-mail: Timothy.J.Lee@nasa.gov [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    The A {sup 1}B{sub 1} Leftwards-Open-Headed-Arrow X-tilde{sup 1}A' excitation into the dipole-bound state of the cyanomethyl anion (CH{sub 2}CN{sup -}) has been hypothesized as the carrier for one diffuse interstellar band. However, this particular molecular system has not been detected in the interstellar medium even though the related cyanomethyl radical and the isoelectronic ketenimine molecule have been found. In this study, we are employing the use of proven quartic force fields and second-order vibrational perturbation theory to compute accurate spectroscopic constants and fundamental vibrational frequencies for X-tilde{sup 1} A' CH{sub 2}CN{sup -} in order to assist in laboratory studies and astronomical observations.

  2. Vibrational frequencies and structural investigation of (M(CN)4)2- (M Cd, Hg and Zn) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurkan, Keshan; Tomas, Polivka; Cemal, Parlak; Mustafa, Shenyel

    2011-01-01

    The normal mode frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of tetracyanometallate (II) ions ([M(CN) 4 ] 2 -, M = Cd, Hg and Zn) have been theoretically examined by means of standard quantum chemical techniques. All normalmodes have been successfully assigned to one of six types of motion utilizing the T d symmetry of M(CN) 4 2 -. Calculations have been performed at the Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) density functional method using the Lanl2dz effective core basis set. Furthermore, reliable vibrational assignments have been made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) calculated and the thermodynamics functions, highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) of the title ions have been predicted together with their infrared intensities and Raman activities. Theoretical results have been successfully compared against available experimental data

  3. Selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna L; Bradley, Laura C; Veres, Brandon D; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Junyeong; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2011-07-11

    The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in biomass was demonstrated with sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy. SFG is a second-order nonlinear optical response from a system where the optical centrosymmetry is broken. In secondary plant cell walls that contain mostly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin with varying concentrations, only certain vibration modes in the crystalline cellulose structure can meet the noninversion symmetry requirements. Thus, SFG can be used to detect and analyze crystalline cellulose selectively in lignocellulosic biomass without extraction of noncellulosic species from biomass or deconvolution of amorphous spectra. The selective detection of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass is not readily achievable with other techniques such as XRD, solid-state NMR, IR, and Raman analyses. Therefore, the SFG analysis presents a unique opportunity to reveal the cellulose crystalline structure in lignocellulosic biomass.

  4. High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  5. High-Order Frequency-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In very recent years, some attempts for designing high-order frequency-locked loops (FLLs) have been made. Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of these structures, particularly in comparison with a standard FLL and high-order phase-locked loops (PLLs), are rather unclear. This lack...... study, and its small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and parameter tuning are presented. Finally, to gain insight about advantages and disadvantages of high-order FLLs, a theoretical and experimental performance comparison between the designed second-order FLL and a standard FLL (first-order FLL...

  6. Trajectory study of supercollision relaxation in highly vibrationally excited pyrazine and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziman; Sansom, Rebecca; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F; Mullin, Amy S

    2005-09-01

    Classical trajectory calculations were performed to simulate state-resolved energy transfer experiments of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (E(vib) = 37,900 cm(-1)) and CO(2), which were conducted using a high-resolution transient infrared absorption spectrometer. The goal here is to use classical trajectories to simulate the supercollision energy transfer pathway wherein large amounts of energy are transferred in single collisions in order to compare with experimental results. In the trajectory calculations, Newton's laws of motion are used for the molecular motion, isolated molecules are treated as collections of harmonic oscillators, and intermolecular potentials are formed by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the observed energy partitioning in the scattered CO(2) molecules and show that the relative partitioning between bath rotation and translation is dependent on the moment of inertia of the bath molecule. The simulations show that the low-frequency modes of the vibrationally excited pyrazine contribute most to the strong collisions. The majority of collisions lead to small DeltaE values and primarily involve single encounters between the energy donor and acceptor. The large DeltaE exchanges result from both single impulsive encounters and chattering collisions that involve multiple encounters.

  7. Transformation of potential energy surfaces for estimating isotopic shifts in anharmonic vibrational frequency calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Patrick; Oschetzki, Dominik; Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Berger, Robert [Clemens-Schöpf Institut für Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 22, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-14

    A transformation of potential energy surfaces (PES) being represented by multi-mode expansions is introduced, which allows for the calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra of any isotopologue from a single PES. This simplifies the analysis of infrared spectra due to significant CPU-time savings. An investigation of remaining deviations due to truncations and the so-called multi-level approximation is provided. The importance of vibrational-rotational couplings for small molecules is discussed in detail. In addition, an analysis is proposed, which provides information about the quality of the transformation prior to its execution. Benchmark calculations are provided for a set of small molecules.

  8. High Temperature, High Frequency Fuel Metering Valve, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Signal Technologies and its subcontractor Moog propose to develop a high-frequency actuator driven valve intended to achieve TRL 6 by the end of Phase II....

  9. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and... each alternative on the human and natural environments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have... Programmatic Environmental Assessment The scope of the PEA focuses on potential impacts associated with the...

  10. The Biological Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Vibrations on Barley Seed Hydration and Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Amyan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of wet and dry weights and germination of barley seed in different periods of its swelling in nontreated (control, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF –treated, and extremely low frequency vibrations (ELFV–treated cold (4°C and warm (20°C distilled water (DW were studied. The metabolic-dependent seed hydration, dry weight dissolving, germination, and water binding in seed were modulated by preliminary EMF- and ELFV-treated DW. Frequency “windows” for the effect of EMF and ELFV on seed hydration, solubility, water binding in seed, and germination were discovered. These “windows” were different for EMF and ELFV, as well as in various phases of seed swelling. It is suggested that EMF-induced water structure modification has a different biological effect on the process of seed hydration, solubility, water binding in seed, and germination compared to ELFV.

  11. The millimeter-wave spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaaghababa, R.; Gottlieb, C.A.; Vrtilek, J.M.; Thaddeus, P.

    1991-01-01

    The millimeter-wave rotational spectra of SiO in high vibrational states (v = 0-40) in its electronic ground state were measured between 228 and 347 GHz in a laboratory discharge through SiH4 and CO. On ascending the vibrational ladder, populations decline precipitously for the first few levels, with a vibrational temperature of about 1000 K; at v of roughly 3, however, they markedly flatten out, and from there to v of roughly 40 the temperature is of the order of 10,000 K. With the Dunham coefficients determined here, the rotational spectrum of highly vibrationally excited SiO can now be calculated into the far-infrared to accuracies required for radioastronomy. Possible astronomical sources of highly vibrationally excited SiO are certain stellar atmospheres, ultracompact H II regions, very young supernova ejecta, and dense interstellar shocks. 16 refs

  12. Determination of vibration frequency depending on abrasive mass flow rate during abrasive water jet cutting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Radvanská, A.; Hloch, Sergej; Peržel, V.; Krolczyk, G.; Monková, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 77, 1-4 (2014), s. 763-774 ISSN 0268-3768 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Abrasive water jet * Abrasive mass flow rate * Vibration Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00170-014-6497-9#page-1

  13. Inverter design for high frequency power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A class of simple resonantly commutated inverters are investigated for use in a high power (100 KW - 1000 KW) high frequency (10 KHz - 20 KHz) AC power distribution system. The Mapham inverter is found to provide a unique combination of large thyristor turn-off angle and good utilization factor, much better than an alternate 'current-fed' inverter. The effects of loading the Mapham inverter entirely with rectifier loads are investigated by simulation and with an experimental 3 KW 20 KHz inverter. This inverter is found to be well suited to a power system with heavy rectifier loading.

  14. Molecular structures and vibrational frequencies of xanthine and its methyl derivatives (caffeine and theobromine) by ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucun, Fatih; Sağlam, Adnan; Güçlü, Vesile

    2007-06-01

    The molecular structures, vibrational frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of xanthine and its methyl derivatives (caffeine and theobromine) have been calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with 6-31G(d, p) basis set level. The calculations were utilized to the CS symmetries of the molecules. The obtained vibrational frequencies and optimised geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were seen to be well agreement with the experimental data. The used scale factors which have been obtained the ratio of the frequency values of the strongest peaks in the calculated and experimental spectra seem to cause the gained vibrations well corresponding to the experimental ones. Theoretical infrared intensities and Raman activities are also reported.

  15. Advances in Very High Frequency Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Milovan

    Resonant and quasi-resonant converters operated at frequencies above 30 MHz have attracted special attention in the last two decades. Compared to conventional converters operated at ~100 kHz, they offer significant advantages: smaller volume and weight, lower cost, and faster transient performance....... Excellent performance and small size of magnetic components and capacitors at very high frequencies, along with constant advances in performance of power semiconductor devices, suggests a sizable shift in consumer power supplies market into this area in the near future. To operate dc-dc converter power...... method provides low complexity and low gate loss simultaneously. A direct design synthesis method is provided for resonant SEPIC converters employing this technique. Most experimental prototypes were developed using low cost, commercially available power semiconductors. Due to very fast transient...

  16. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  17. Viscoelastic nanoscale properties of cuticle contribute to the high-pass properties of spider vibration receptor (Cupiennius salei Keys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E; Schaber, Clemens F; Julian, Michael D; Barth, Friedrich G; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2007-12-22

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface force spectroscopy were applied in live spiders to their joint pad material located distal of the metatarsal lyriform organs, which are highly sensitive vibration sensors. The surface topography of the material is sufficiently smooth to probe the local nanomechanical properties with nanometre elastic deflections. Nanoscale loads were applied in the proximad direction on the distal joint region simulating the natural stimulus situation. The force curves obtained indicate the presence of a soft, liquid-like epicuticular layer (20-40 nm thick) above the pad material, which has much higher stiffness. The Young modulus of the pad material is close to 15 MPa at low frequencies, but increases rapidly with increasing frequencies approximately above 30 Hz to approximately 70 MPa at 112 Hz. The adhesive forces drop sharply by about 40% in the same frequency range. The strong frequency dependence of the elastic modulus indicates the viscoelastic nature of the pad material, its glass transition temperature being close to room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) and, therefore, to its maximized energy absorption from low-frequency mechanical stimuli. These viscoelastic properties of the cuticular pad are suggested to be at least partly responsible for the high-pass characteristics of the vibration sensor's physiological properties demonstrated earlier.

  18. Vibrational frequency scaling factors for correlation consistent basis sets and the methods CC2 and MP2 and their spin-scaled SCS and SOS variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry CTCC, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Törk, Lisa; Hättig, Christof, E-mail: christof.haettig@rub.de [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-11-21

    We present scaling factors for vibrational frequencies calculated within the harmonic approximation and the correlated wave-function methods coupled cluster singles and doubles model (CC2) and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with and without a spin-component scaling (SCS or spin-opposite scaling (SOS)). Frequency scaling factors and the remaining deviations from the reference data are evaluated for several non-augmented basis sets of the cc-pVXZ family of generally contracted correlation-consistent basis sets as well as for the segmented contracted TZVPP basis. We find that the SCS and SOS variants of CC2 and MP2 lead to a slightly better accuracy for the scaled vibrational frequencies. The determined frequency scaling factors can also be used for vibrational frequencies calculated for excited states through response theory with CC2 and the algebraic diagrammatic construction through second order and their spin-component scaled variants.

  19. Superconducting electron tunneling as detection method for low frequency resonant vibration modes of interstitials in fcc lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)

  20. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweskin, Sasha Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non

  1. Tha AGS Booster high frequency rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.; Cameron, P.; Damn, R.

    1988-01-01

    A high level rf system, including a power amplifier and cavity has been designed for the AGS Booster. It covers a frequency range of 2.4 to 4.2 Mhz and will be used to accelerate high intensity proton, and low intensity polarized proton beams to 1.5 GeV and heavy ions to 0.35 GeV per nucleon. A total accelerating voltage of up to 90kV will be provided by two cavities, each having two gaps. The internally cross-coupled, pushpull cavities are driven by an adjacently located power amplifier. In order to accommodate the high beam intensity, up to 0.75 /times/ 10 13 protons per bunch, a low plate resistance power tetrode is used. The tube anode is magnetically coupled to one of the cavity's two paralleled cells. The amplifier is a grounded cathode configuration driven by a remotely located solid state amplifier

  2. Cultures of High-frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Ann-Christina; Lenglet, Marc; Seyfert, Robert

    2016-01-01

    As part of ongoing work to lay a foundation for social studies of high-frequency trading (HFT), this paper introduces the culture(s) of HFT as a sociological problem relating to knowledge and practice. HFT is often discussed as a purely technological development, where all that matters is the speed...... of allocating, processing and transmitting data. Indeed, the speed at which trades are executed and data transmitted is accelerating, and it is fair to say that algorithms are now the primary interacting agents operating in the financial markets. However, we contend that HFT is first and foremost a cultural...

  3. Pulsed-High Field/High-Frequency EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Michael; Moebius, Klaus

    Pulsed high-field/high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is used to disentangle many kinds of different effects often obscured in continuous wave (cw) EPR spectra at lower magnetic fields/microwave frequencies. While the high magnetic field increases the resolution of G tensors and of nuclear Larmor frequencies, the high frequencies allow for higher time resolution for molecular dynamics as well as for transient paramagnetic intermediates studied with time-resolved EPR. Pulsed EPR methods are used for example for relaxation-time studies, and pulsed Electron Nuclear DOuble Resonance (ENDOR) is used to resolve unresolved hyperfine structure hidden in inhomogeneous linewidths. In the present article we introduce the basic concepts and selected applications to structure and mobility studies on electron transfer systems, reaction centers of photosynthesis as well as biomimetic models. The article concludes with an introduction to stochastic EPR which makes use of an other concept for investigating resonance systems in order to increase the excitation bandwidth of pulsed EPR. The limited excitation bandwidth of pulses at high frequency is one of the main limitations which, so far, made Fourier transform methods hardly feasible.

  4. Influence of vibration on structure rheological properties of a highly concentrated suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriev Uriev, Boris N.; Uriev, Naum B.

    2005-08-01

    The influence of mechanical vibration on the flow properties of a highly concentrated multiphase food system is explored in this work. An experimental set-up was designed and adapted to a conventional rotational rheometer with precise rheological characterization capability. A number of calibration tests were performed prior to fundamental experiments with a highly concentrated chocolate suspension. Also, the prediction of wall slippage in shear flow under vibration was evaluated. Analysis of the boundary conditions shows that no side effects such as wall slippage or the Taylor effect were present during the shear experiment under vibration. It was found that superposition of mechanical vibration and shear flow radically decreases the shear viscosity. Comparison between reference shear viscosities at specified shear rates and those measured under vibration shows considerable differences in flow properties. Conversion of the behaviour of the concentrated suspension from strongly shear-thinning to Newtonian flow is reported. Also, the appearance of vibration-induced dilatancy as a new phenomenon is described. It is suggested to relate such phenomena to the non-equilibrium between structure formation and disintegration under vibration and hydrodynamic forces of shear flow. The influence of vibration on structure formation can be well observed during measurement of the yield value of the chocolate suspension under vibration. Comparison with reference data shows how sensitive the structure of the concentrated suspension is to vibration in general. The effects and observations revealed provide a solid basis for further fundamental investigations of structure formation regularities in the flow of any highly concentrated system. The results also show the technological potential for non-conventional treatment of concentrated, multiphase systems.

  5. Microscopic structure of high-spin vibrational states in superdeformed A=190 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada); Matsuyanagi, Kenichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Mizutori, Shoujirou [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Microscopic RPA calculations based on the cranked shell model are performed to investigate the quadrupole and octupole correlations for excited superdeformed (SD) bands in even-even A=190 nuclei. The K = 2 octupole vibrations are predicted to be the lowest excitation modes at zero rotational frequency. The Coriolis coupling at finite frequency produces different effects depending on the neutron and proton number of nucleus. The calculations also indicate that some collective excitations may produce moments of inertia almost identical to those of the yrast SD band. An interpretation of the observed excited bands invoking the octupole vibrations is proposed, which suggests those octupole vibrations may be prevalent in even-even SD A=190 nuclei.

  6. Intrinsic chirality and prochirality at Air/R-(+)- and S-(-)-limonene interfaces: spectral signatures with interference chiral sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Zhe-Hao; Wang, Hong-Fei

    2014-09-01

    We report in this work detailed measurements of the chiral and achiral sum-frequency vibrational spectra in the C-H stretching vibration region (2800-3050 cm(-1)) of the air/liquid interfaces of R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene, using the recently developed high-resolution broadband sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (HR-BB-SFG-VS). The achiral SFG spectra of R-limonene and S-limonene, as well as the RS racemic mixture (50/50 equal amount mixture), show that the corresponding molecular groups of the R and S enantiomers are with the same interfacial orientations. The interference chiral SFG spectra of the limonene enantiomers exhibit a spectral signature from the chiral response of the Cα-H stretching mode, and a spectral signature from the prochiral response of the CH(2) asymmetric stretching mode, respectively. The chiral spectral feature of the Cα-H stretching mode changes sign from R-(+)-limonene to S-(-)-limonene surfaces, and disappears for the RS racemic mixture surface. While the prochiral spectral feature of the CH(2) asymmetric stretching mode is the same for R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene surfaces, and also surprisingly remains the same for the RS racemic mixture surface. Therefore, the structures of the R-(+)-limonene and the S-(-)-limonene at the liquid interfaces are nevertheless not mirror images to each other, even though the corresponding groups have the same tilt angle from the interfacial normal, i.e., the R-(+)-limonene and the S-(-)-limonene at the surface are diastereomeric instead of enantiomeric. These results provide detailed information in understanding the structure and chirality of molecular interfaces and demonstrate the sensitivity and potential of SFG-VS as a unique spectroscopic tool for chirality characterization and chiral recognition at the molecular interface. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Skeletal site-specific effects of whole body vibration in mature rats: from deleterious to beneficial frequency-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Marion; Lavet, Cédric; Elbadaoui, Mohamed; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Laroche, Norbert; Gnyubkin, Vasily; Vico, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as an anti-osteoporotic prevention strategy. In this context, selective effects of different frequency and acceleration magnitude modalities on musculoskeletal responses need to be better defined. Our aim was to investigate the bone effects of different vibration frequencies at constant g level. Vertical WBV was delivered at 0.7 g (peak acceleration) and 8, 52 or 90 Hz sinusoidal vibration to mature male rats 10 min daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Peak accelerations measured by skin or bone-mounted accelerometers at L2 vertebral and tibia crest levels revealed similar values between adjacent skin and bone sites. Local accelerations were greater at 8 Hz compared with 52 and 90 Hz and were greater in vertebra than tibia for all the frequencies tested. At 52 Hz, bone responses were mainly seen in L2 vertebral body and were characterized by trabecular reorganization and stimulated mineral apposition rate (MAR) without any bone volume alteration. At 90 Hz, axial and appendicular skeletons were affected as were the cortical and trabecular compartments. Cortical thickness increased in femur diaphysis (17%) along with decreased porosity; trabecular bone volume increased at distal femur metaphysis (23%) and even more at L2 vertebral body (32%), along with decreased SMI and increased trabecular connectivity. Trabecular thickness increased at the tibia proximal metaphysis. Bone cellular activities indicated a greater bone formation rate, which was more pronounced at vertebra (300%) than at long bone (33%). Active bone resorption surfaces were unaffected. At 8 Hz, however, hyperosteoidosis with reduced MAR along with increased resorption surfaces occurred in the tibia; hyperosteoidosis and trend towards decreased MAR was also seen in L2 vertebra. Trabecular bone mineral density was decreased at femur and tibia. Thus the most favorable regimen is 90 Hz, while deleterious effects were seen at 8 Hz. We concluded that

  8. The JET high frequency pellet injector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraud, Alain; Dentan, M.; Whitehead, A.; Butcher, P.; Communal, D.; Faisse, F.; Gedney, J.; Gros, G.; Guillaume, D.; Hackett, L.; Hennion, V.; Homfray, D.; Lucock, R.; McKivitt, J.; Sibbald, M.; Portafaix, C.; Perin, J.P.; Reade, M.; Sands, D.; Saille, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new deuterium ice pellet injector is in preparation for JET. It is designed to inject both small pellets (variable volume within 1-2 mm 3 ) at high frequency (up to 60 Hz) for ELM mitigation experiments and large pellets (volume within 35-70 mm 3 ) at moderate frequency (up to 15 Hz) for plasma fuelling. It is based on the screw extruder technology developed by PELIN and pneumatic acceleration. An injection line will connect the injector to the flight tubes already in place to convey the pellets toward the plasma either from the low field side or from the high field side of the torus. This injection line enables: (i) the pumping of the propellant gas, (ii) the provision of the vacuum interface with the torus and (iii) the selection of the flight tube to be used via a fast selector. All the interfaces have been designed and a prototype injector is being built, to demonstrate that the required performance is achievable

  9. Laser-Doppler vibrating tube densimeter for measurements at high temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aida, Tsutomu; Yamazaki, Ai; Akutsu, Makoto; Ono, Takumi; Kanno, Akihiro; Hoshina, Taka-aki; Ota, Masaki; Watanabe, Masaru; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Richard L. Jr.; Inomata, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A laser-Doppler vibrometer was used to measure the vibration of a vibrating tube densimeter for measuring P-V-T data at high temperatures and pressures. The apparatus developed allowed the control of the residence time of the sample so that decomposition at high temperatures could be minimized. A function generator and piezoelectric crystal was used to excite the U-shaped tube in one of its normal modes of vibration. Densities of methanol-water mixtures are reported for at 673 K and 40 MPa with an uncertainty of 0.009 g/cm 3

  10. Natural frequencies, modeshapes and modal interactions for strings vibrating against an obstacle: Relevance to Sitar and Veena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A. K.; Wahi, P.

    2015-03-01

    We study the vibration characteristics of a string with a smooth unilateral obstacle placed at one of the ends similar to the strings in musical instruments like sitar and veena. In particular, we explore the correlation between the string vibrations and some unique sound characteristics of these instruments like less inharmonicity in the frequencies, a large number of overtones and the presence of both frequency and amplitude modulations. At the obstacle, we have a moving boundary due to the wrapping of the string and an appropriate scaling of the spatial variable leads to a fixed boundary at the cost of introducing nonlinearity in the governing equation. Reduced order system of equations has been obtained by assuming a functional form for the string displacement which satisfies all the boundary conditions and gives the free length of the string in terms of the modal coordinates. To study the natural frequencies and mode-shapes, the nonlinear governing equation is linearized about the static configuration. The natural frequencies have been found to be harmonic and they depend on the shape of the obstacle through the effective free length of the string. Expressions have been obtained for the time-varying mode-shapes as well as the variation of the nodal points. Modal interactions due to coupling have been studied which show the appearance of higher overtones as well as amplitude modulations in our theoretical model akin to the experimental observations. All the obtained results have been verified with an alternate formulation based on the assumed mode method with polynomial shape functions.

  11. High Tc superconductors at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruener, G.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses various experiments conducted in the micro- and millimeter wave spectral range on thin film and single crystal specimens of the high temperature oxide superconductors. For high quality film the surface resistance R s is, except at low temperatures, due to thermally excited carriers, with extrinsic effects playing only a secondary role. Because of the low loss various passive microwave components, such as resonators, delay lines and filters, with performance far superior to those made of normal metals can be fabricated. The conductivity measured at millimeter wave frequencies displays a peak below T c . Whether this is due to coherence factors or due to the change of the relaxation rate when the materials enter the superconducting state remains to be seen

  12. High-frequency behavior of magnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarkov, Andrey N.; Rozanov, Konstantin N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews recent progress in the field of microwave magnetic properties of composites. The problem under discussion is developing composites with high microwave permeability that are needed in many applications. The theory of magnetic composites is briefly sketched with the attention paid to the laws governing the magnetic frequency dispersion in magnetic materials and basic mixing rules for composites. Recent experimental reports on the microwave performance of magnetic composites, as well as data on the agreement of the mixing rules with the measured permeability of composites that are available from the literature are discussed. From the data, a conclusion is made that the validity of a mixing rule is determined by the permeability contrast in the composite, i.e., the difference between permeability of inclusions and that of the host matrix. When the contrast is low, the Maxwell Garnet mixing rule is frequently valid. When the contrast is high, which is of the most interest for obtaining high microwave permeability of a composite, no conventionally accepted theory is capable of accurately predicting the permeability of the composites. Therefore, the mixing rules do not allow the microwave properties of magnetic composites to be predicted when the permeability of inclusions is high, that is the case of the most interest. Because of that, general limitations to the microwave performance of composites are of importance. In particular, an important relation constraining the microwave permeability of composites follows from Kittel's theory of ferromagnetic resonance and analytical properties of frequency dependence of permeability. Another constraint concerning the bandwidth of electromagnetic wave absorbers follows from the Kramers-Kronig relations for the reflection coefficient. The constraints are of importance in design and analysis of electromagnetic wave absorbers and other devices that employ the microwave magnetic properties of composites, such as

  13. Vibration isolation and damping in high precision equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukkems, B.; Ruijl, T.; Simons, J.

    2017-06-01

    All systems located in a laboratory environment or factory are subject to disturbances. These disturbances can either come from the surroundings, e.g. floor-induced vibrations, or from the system itself, e.g. stage-induced vibrations. In many cases it is needed to minimize the effect of these disturbances. This can either be done by isolating the system from its disturbance source or by applying damping to the system. In this paper we present various cases in which we have effectively reduced the impact of disturbances on the system's performance, either by improving its isolation system, by minimizing the impact of stage reaction forces, or by designing polymer damping into the system.

  14. Catalyzed hydrogenation of nitrogen and ethylene on metal (Fe, Pt) single crystal surfaces and effects of coadsorption: A sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Staffan Per Gustav [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    High-pressure catalytic reactions and associated processes, such as adsorption have been studied on a molecular level on single crystal surfaces. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy together with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Gas Chromatography (GC) were used to investigate the nature of species on catalytic surfaces and to measure the catalytic reaction rates. Special attention has been directed at studying high-pressure reactions and in particular, ammonia synthesis in order to identify reaction intermediates and the influence of adsorbates on the surface during reaction conditions. The adsorption of gases N2, H2, O2 and NH3 that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH2 (~3325 cm-1) and NH (~3235 cm-1) under high pressure of ammonia (200 Torr) on the clean Fe(111) surface. Addition of 0.5 Torr of oxygen to 200 Torr of ammonia does not significantly change the bonding of dissociation intermediates to the surface. However, it leads to a phase change of nearly 180° between the resonant and non-resonant second order non-linear susceptibility of the surface, demonstrated by the reversal of the SFG spectral features. Heating the surface in the presence of 200 Torr ammonia and 0.5 Torr oxygen reduces the oxygen coverage, which can be seen from the SFG spectra as another relative phase change of 180°. The reduction of the oxide is also supported by Auger electron spectroscopy. The result suggests that the phase change of the spectral features could serve as a sensitive indicator of the chemical environment of the adsorbates.

  15. Seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure from the viewpoint of energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Endo, Rokuro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In this study, vibration characteristics of mechanical structure having high natural frequency are investigated from the viewpoint of energy balance. Mechanical structures having high natural frequency in a nuclear power plant are generally designed statically and elastically. However it has been reported that fracture of ordinary piping is produced not by momentary large load but by cumulative fatigue damage. Therefore it is very important to grasp seismic performance dynamically by considering cyclic load. This paper deals with an investigation regarding seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure. The energy balance equation that is one of valid methods for structural calculation is applied through the investigation. The main feature of the energy balance equation is that it explains accumulated information of motion. Therefore the energy balance equation is adequate for the investigation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. In this paper, vibration experiment and simulation using sinusoidal waves and artificial seismic waves were examined in order to investigate relationship between natural frequency of structure and energy. As a result, we found that input energy decreases with an increase in the natural frequency. (author)

  16. Vibrational properties of ZnTe at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, J.; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Cantarero, A.

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectra of ZnTe were measured under hydrostatic pressures up to 15 GPa at T=300 K. Results for the frequencies of first- and second-order Raman features of the zincblende phase (0-9.5 GPa) are used to set up a rigid-ion model of the phonon dispersion relations under pressure. Calculated phonon densities of states, mode Grueneisen parameters and the thermal expansion coefficient as a function of pressure are discussed. The effect of pressure on the widths and intensities of Raman spectral features is considered. Raman spectra of high-pressure phases of ZnTe are reported. These spectra indicate the possible existence of a new phase near 13 GPa, intermediate between the cinnabar and orthorhombic (Cmcm) phases of ZnTe. (author)

  17. Vibrational properties of ZnTe at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany) and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: Juana.Camacho@uv.es; Loa, I.; Syassen, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Cantarero, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2002-02-04

    Raman spectra of ZnTe were measured under hydrostatic pressures up to 15 GPa at T=300 K. Results for the frequencies of first- and second-order Raman features of the zincblende phase (0-9.5 GPa) are used to set up a rigid-ion model of the phonon dispersion relations under pressure. Calculated phonon densities of states, mode Grueneisen parameters and the thermal expansion coefficient as a function of pressure are discussed. The effect of pressure on the widths and intensities of Raman spectral features is considered. Raman spectra of high-pressure phases of ZnTe are reported. These spectra indicate the possible existence of a new phase near 13 GPa, intermediate between the cinnabar and orthorhombic (Cmcm) phases of ZnTe. (author)

  18. Design, Simulation, and Optimization of a Frequency-Tunable Vibration Energy Harvester That Uses a Magnetorheological Elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the design, simulation, and load power optimization for the development of a novel frequency-tunable electromagnetic vibrational energy harvester. The unique characteristic of a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE is utilized, that the shear modulus can be varied by changing the strength of an applied magnetic field. The electromagnetic energy harvester is fabricated, the external electric circuit is connected, and the performance is evaluated through a series of experiments. The resonant frequencies and the parasitic damping constant are measured experimentally for different tuning magnet gap distances, which validate the application of the MRE to the development of a frequency-tunable energy harvesting system. The harvested energy of the system is measured by the voltage across the load resistor. The maximum load power is attained by optimizing the external circuit connected to the coil system. The analysis results are presented for harvesting the maximum load power in terms of the coil parameters and external circuit resistance. The optimality of the load resistance is validated by comparing the analytical results with experimental results. The optimal load resistances under various resonance frequencies are also found for the design and composition of the optimal energy harvesting circuit of the energy harvester system.

  19. Effect of high-frequency excitation on natural frequencies of spinning discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of high-frequency, non-resonant parametric excitation on the low-frequency response of spinning discs is considered. The parametric excitation is obtained through a non-constant rotation speed, where the frequency of the pulsating overlay is much higher than the lowest natural frequenc......The effect of high-frequency, non-resonant parametric excitation on the low-frequency response of spinning discs is considered. The parametric excitation is obtained through a non-constant rotation speed, where the frequency of the pulsating overlay is much higher than the lowest natural...

  20. Radio frequency energy coupling to high-pressure optically pumped nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plonjes, Elke; Palm, Peter; Lee, Wonchul; Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an experimental demonstration of a high-pressure unconditionally stable nonequilibrium molecular plasma sustained by a combination of a continuous wave CO laser and a sub-breakdown radio frequency (rf) electric field. The plasma is sustained in a CO/N 2 mixture containing trace amounts of NO or O 2 at pressures of P=0.4 - 1.2atm. The initial ionization of the gases is produced by an associative ionization mechanism in collisions of two CO molecules excited to high vibrational levels by resonance absorption of the CO laser radiation with subsequent vibration-vibration (V-V) pumping. Further vibrational excitation of both CO and N 2 is produced by free electrons heated by the applied rf field, which in turn produces additional ionization of these species by the associative ionization mechanism. In the present experiments, the reduced electric field, E/N, is sufficiently low to preclude field-induced electron impact ionization. Unconditional stability of the resultant cold molecular plasma is enabled by the negative feedback between gas heating and the associative ionization rate. Trace amounts of nitric oxide or oxygen added to the baseline CO/N 2 gas mixture considerably reduce the electron - ion dissociative recombination rate and thereby significantly increase the initial electron density. This allows triggering of the rf power coupling to the vibrational energy modes of the gas mixture. Vibrational level populations of CO and N 2 are monitored by infrared emission spectroscopy and spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. The experiments demonstrate that the use of a sub-breakdown rf field in addition to the CO laser allows an increase of the plasma volume by about an order of magnitude. Also, CO infrared emission spectra show that with the rf voltage turned on the number of vibrationally excited CO molecules along the line of sight increase by a factor of 3 - 7. Finally, spontaneous Raman spectra of N 2 show that with the rf voltage the vibrational

  1. Nonlinear vibration behaviors of high-Tc superconducting bulks in an applied permanent magnetic array field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jipeng; Li, Haitao; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Huang, Huan; Deng, Zigang

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear vibration of high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulks in an applied permanent magnetic array (Halbach array) field, as a precondition for commercial application to HTS maglev train and HTS bearing, is systematically investigated. This article reports the actual vibration rules of HTS bulks from three aspects. First, we propose a new numerical model to simplify the calculation of levitation force. This model could provide precise simulations, especially the estimation of eigenfrequency. Second, an approximate analytic solution of the vibration of the HTS bulks is obtained by using the method of harmonic balance. Finally, to verify the results mentioned above, we measure the vertical vibration acceleration signals of an HTS maglev model, consisting of eight YBaCuO bulks, oscillating freely above a Halbach array with large displacement excitation. Higher order harmonic components, which indicate the nonlinear vibration phenomenon, are detected in the responses. All the three results are compared and agreed well with each other. This study combines the experimental and theoretical analyses and provides a deep understanding of the physical phenomenon of the nonlinear vibration and is meaningful for the vibration control of the relevant applications.

  2. A vibrating wire parallel to a high temperature superconducting slab. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif, A G; El-sabagh, M A [Department of Mathematic and Theoretical physics, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The power losses problem for an idealized high temperature type II superconducting system of a simple geometry is studied. This system is composed of a vibrating normal conducting wire (two wires) carrying a direct current parallel to an uniaxial anisotropic type II superconducting slab (moving slab). First, the electromagnetic equation governing the dynamics of this system, and its solutions are obtained. Secondly, a modified anisotropic london equation is developed to study these systems in the case of the slab moving. Thirdly, it is found that, the power losses is dependent on the frequency, london penetration depth, permeability, conductivity, velocity, and the distance between the normal conductors and the surfaces of the superconducting slab. Moreover, the power losses decreases as the distance between the normal conductors and the surface of the superconducting slab decreases; and increases as the frequency, the london penetration depth, permeability, conductivity, and velocity are increased. These losses along the versor of the anisotropy axis is increased as {lambda}{sub |}| increases. Moreover, it is greater than the power losses along the crystal symmetry direction. In the isotropic case as well as the slab thickness tends to infinity, agreement with previous results are obtained. 2 figs.

  3. High-speed kymography identifies the immediate effects of voiced vibration in healthy vocal folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenta, Regina Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of voiced vibration technique can be assessed by laryngeal imaging. Kymographic images derived from high-speed videoendoscopy allow actual visualization of vocal folds vibration. Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the immediate effects of the voiced vibration technique in healthy vocal folds using high-speed digital laryngeal imaging. Methods: Samples were obtained from 15 healthy subjects with no history of voice disorders (6 men and 9 women aged 21 to 43 years. High-speed videoendoscopy recordings were performed before and after the voiced vibration technique. Kymographic images were obtained using high-speed videoendoscopy. The vocal folds were examined in their open and closed positions and the characteristics of the opening and closing phases were determined. A customize computational routine was used quantify these parameters. The closing, opening, and speed quotients were also calculated. Results: In this study, women displayed statistically significant differences in opened phase (P= 0.05*, closed phase (P= 0.046*, and closing phase (P= 0.026* phase characteristics. Men displayed the highest difference rate in opening time characteristics (P= 0.06. The closing and opening quotients for the female group showed significant differences (P= 0.029* and P= 0.049*, respectively. The speed quotient exhibited statistically significant differences in the male group (P= 0.048*. Conclusion: The kymographic images indicated that the immediate effect of the voiced vibration technique was smooth contact in healthy vocal fold vibration.

  4. A piezoelectric micro generator worked at low frequency and high acceleration based on PZT and phosphor bronze bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gang; Yang, Bin; Hou, Cheng; Li, Guimiao; Liu, Jingquan; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng

    2016-12-08

    Recently, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have been paid a lot of attention by many researchers to convert mechanical energy into electrical and low level vibration. Currently, most of PEHs worked under high frequency and low level vibration. In this paper, we propose a micro cantilever generator based on the bonding of bulk PZT wafer and phosphor bronze, which is fabricated by MEMS technology, such as mechanical chemical thinning and etching. The experimental results show that the open-circuit output voltage, output power and power density of this fabricated prototype are 35 V, 321 μW and 8664 μW cm -3 at the resonant frequency of 100.8 Hz, respectively, when it matches an optimal loading resistance of 140 kΩ under the excitation of 3.0 g acceleration. The fabricated micro generator can obtain the open-circuit stable output voltage of 61.2 V when the vibration acceleration arrives at 7.0 g. Meanwhile, when this device is pasted on the vibrating vacuum pump, the output voltage is about 11 V. It demonstrates that this novel proposed device can scavenge high vibration level energy at low frequency for powering the inertial sensors in internet of things application.

  5. Vibration Isolation Study in Scanning Probe Microscopy Part I: Low Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.I.; Espinosa-Faller, F.J.; Aguilar, M.

    1998-01-01

    A study of a low frequency isolation device based in a pneumatic system is presented. It consists of four cylinders which are closed and sealed with an elastic membrane on which the load is applied. Each cylinder made of PVC is formed by two chambers divided by a plate with a small hole for communication and damping. Air contained into chambers acts, in combination with the the elastic membranes, as a damper. Scanning probe techniques can be supported by this device in order to reduce the low frequency noises that affects them. Advantages of this isolator are discussed and compared. A theoretical approximation for this model is presented and compared with the experimental results obtained and show that it can isolate noises up to ∼ 2 Hz. The low frequency isolator has stability and fast response to external perturbations. This simple and economical low frequency isolator can be reproduced easily and its design depends on the work specific requirements. (Author) 9 refs

  6. O modelo AM1 na previsão de frequências vibracionais The vibration frequencies predicted by the AM1 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Silva Ramos

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyse vibrational frequencies of 168 compounds with the AM1 model concerning its experimentally observed gaseous frequencies. Stretching of CH, NH, OH and CO bonds, its related bending frequencies, and the CC frame movements are the studied vibrations. The results show problems with the AM1 vibrational splittings. Often symmetric stretching frequencies, like in CH3, CH2 and NH3, appear switched with the corresponding antisymmetrical ones. Among the studied vibrations many stretchings are overestimated, while bendings oscillate around experimental values. Fluorine stretchings, NN, OO, CH, double and triples CC bonds and cyclic hydrocarbon breathing modes are always overestimated while torsions, umbrella modes and OH/SH stretching are, in average, underestimated. Graphical analysis show that compounds with the lowest molecular masses are the ones with the largest difference to the experimental values. From our results it is not possible to fit confortably the calculated frequencies by a simple linear relationship of the type, n(obs=a*n(AM1. Better aggreement is obtained when different curves are adjusted for the stretching and bending modes, and when a complete linear function is used. Among our studies the best obtained statistical results are for CH, NH and OH. The conclusions obtained in this work will improve the AM1 calculated frequencies leading to accurate results for these properties.

  7. High frequency CARM driver for rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    This CARM program has successfully demonstrated the first ever long-pulse CARM oscillator operation; these results demonstrate the potential of CARMs as an alternative source of millimeter waves to the gyrotron for ECRH plasma heating. The result of 1.8 MW at 27.8 GHz and 0.5 μs pulse width in the TE 11 mode represent a clear demonstration of the capabilities of the CARM oscillator for the production of high powers with large frequency upshift. It is hoped that this successful proof-of-principle demonstration.will lead to further development of the CARM as an ECRH source by the DOE Office of Fusion Energy, Development and Technology Division. This success is a direct outcome of this support of the Advanced Energy Projects Office of DOE in the form of this program. The CARM amplifier component of the program, although unsuccessful at obtaining CARM amplifier operation at 17 GHz, has succeeded by furthering the understanding of the limitations and difficulties that lie ahead for continued CARM amplifier development. The amplifier component of the program has successfully demonstrated a high power second and third harmonic gyro-TWT amplifier. Up to 5 MW of power at 17.1 GHz and >50dB gain have been obtained. These results should be viewed as an important contribution of this program to the development of viable microwave sources for powering the next linear collider. Indeed, the present gyro-amplifier, which resulted from this program, is presently being used in ongoing high-gradient accelerator research at MIT under a DOE High Energy Physics grant. As a result of both the oscillator and amplifier advances made during this program, the CARM and harmonic gyro-TWT have reached a significantly more mature level; their future role in specific applications of benefit to DOEs OFE and HEP offices may now be pursued

  8. The AGS Booster high frequency rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.T.; Cameron, P.; Eng, W.; Goldman, M.A.; Jablonski, E.; Kasha, D.; Keane, J.; McNerney, A.; Meth, M.; Plotkin, M.; Puglisi, M.; Ratti, A.; Spitz, R.

    1991-01-01

    A high level rf system, including a power amplifier and cavity, has been designed and built for the AGS Booster. It covers a frequency range of 2.4 to 4.2 MHz and will be used to accelerate high intensity protons. Low intensity polarized protons and heavy ions, to the 1.5 GeV level. A total accelerating voltage of up to 90 kV will be provided by two cavities, each having two gaps. The internally cross coupled, pushpull cavities are driven by an adjacently located power amplifier. In order to accommodate beam intensities up to 0.75 x 10 13 protons per bunch, a low plate resistance power tetrode is used. The tube anode is magnetically coupled to one of the cavity's two parallel cells. The amplifier is a grounded cathode configuration driven by a remotely located solid-state amplifier. It has been tested in the laboratory at full gap voltage with satisfactory results. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. Testing a simple control law to reduce broadband frequency harmonic vibrations using semi-active tuned mass dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the control problems related to semi-active tuned mass dampers (TMDs) used to reduce harmonic vibrations, specially involving civil structures. A simplified version of the phase control law is derived and its effectiveness is investigated and evaluated. The objective is to improve the functioning of control systems of this type by simplifying the measurement process and reducing the number of variables involved, making the control system more feasible and reliable. Because the control law is of ON/OFF type, combined with appropriate trigger conditions, the activity of the actuation system may be significantly reduced, which may be of few seconds a day in many practical cases, increasing the durability of the device and reducing its maintenance. Moreover, due to the ability of the control system to command the motion of the inertial mass, the semi-active TMD is relatively insensitive to its initial tuning, resulting in the capability of self-tuning and in the possibility of controlling several vibration modes of a structure over a significant broadband frequency. (paper)

  10. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Solid-Water Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holinga IV, George Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to investigate the interfacial properties of several amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at the hydrophilic polystyrene solid-liquid and the hydrophobic silica solid-liquid interfaces. The influence of experimental geometry on the sensitivity and resolution of the SFG vibrational spectroscopy technique was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. SFG was implemented to investigate the adsorption and organization of eight individual amino acids at model hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces under physiological conditions. Biointerface studies were conducted using a combination of SFG and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) comparing the interfacial structure and concentration of two amino acids and their corresponding homopeptides at two model liquid-solid interfaces as a function of their concentration in aqueous solutions. The influence of temperature, concentration, equilibration time, and electrical bias on the extent of adsorption and interfacial structure of biomolecules were explored at the liquid-solid interface via QCM and SFG. QCM was utilized to quantify the biological activity of heparin functionalized surfaces. A novel optical parametric amplifier was developed and utilized in SFG experiments to investigate the secondary structure of an adsorbed model peptide at the solid-liquid interface.

  11. Pronounced low-frequency vibrational thermal transport in C60 fullerite realized through pressure-dependent molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2017-12-01

    Fullerene condensed-matter solids can possess thermal conductivities below their minimum glassy limit while theorized to be stiffer than diamond when crystallized under pressure. These seemingly disparate extremes in thermal and mechanical properties raise questions into the pressure dependence on the thermal conductivity of C60 fullerite crystals, and how the spectral contributions to vibrational thermal conductivity changes under applied pressure. To answer these questions, we investigate the effect of strain on the thermal conductivity of C60 fullerite crystals via pressure-dependent molecular dynamics simulations under the Green-Kubo formalism. We show that the thermal conductivity increases rapidly with compressive strain, which demonstrates a power-law relationship similar to their stress-strain relationship for the C60 crystals. Calculations of the density of states for the crystals under compressive strains reveal that the librational modes characteristic in the unstrained case are diminished due to densification of the molecular crystal. Over a large compression range (0-20 GPa), the Leibfried-Schlömann equation is shown to adequately describe the pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, suggesting that low-frequency intermolecular vibrations dictate heat flow in the C60 crystals. A spectral decomposition of the thermal conductivity supports this hypothesis.

  12. Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of lipid bilayers at repetition rates up to 100 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Freeda; Mero, Mark; Kneipp, Janina; Heiner, Zsuzsanna

    2018-03-01

    Broadband vibrational sum-frequency generation (BB-VSFG) spectroscopy has become a well-established surface analytical tool capable of identifying the orientation and structure of molecular layers. A straightforward way to boost the sensitivity of the technique could be to increase the laser repetition rate beyond that of standard BB-VSFG spectrometers, which rely on Ti:sapphire lasers operating at repetition rates of 1-5 kHz. Nevertheless, possible thermally induced artifacts in the vibrational spectra due to higher laser average powers are unexplored. Here, we discuss laser power induced temperature accumulation effects that distort the BB-VSFG spectra of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at an interface between two transparent phases at repetition rates of 5, 10, 50, and 100 kHz at constant pulse energy. No heat-induced distortions were found in the spectra, suggesting that the increase in the laser repetition rate provides a feasible route to an improved signal-to-noise ratio or shorter data acquisition times in BB-VSFG spectroscopy for thin films on transparent substrates. The results have implications for future BB-VSFG spectrometers pushing the detection limit for molecular layers with low surface coverage.

  13. A Practical Method to Increase the Frequency Readability for Vibration Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Loius Ntakpe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection and nondestructive evaluation of mechanical and civil engineering structures are nowadays very important to assess the integrity and ensure the reliability of structures. Thus, frequency evaluation becomes a crucial issue, since this modal parameter is mainly used in structural integrity assessment. The herein presented study highligts the possibility of increasing the frequency readability by involving a simple and cost-effective method.

  14. Analysis of methods for calculating the transition frequencies of the torsional vibration of acrolein isomers in the ground ( S 0) electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. A.; Tyulin, V. I.; Matveev, V. K.; Pentin, Yu. A.

    2013-05-01

    B3LYP, MP2, CCSD(T), and MP4/MP2 in the 6-311G( d, p), 6-311++G( d, p), cc-pVTZ, aug-cc-pVTZ bases used to calculate the transition frequencies of torsional vibration of trans- and cis-isomers of acrolein in the ground electronic state ( S 0) are analyzed. It is found that for trans-isomers, all methods of calculation except for B3LYP in the cc-pVTZ basis yield good agreement between the calculated and experimental values. It is noted that for the cis-isomer of acrolein, no method of calculation confirms the experimental value of the frequency of torsional vibration (138 cm-1). It is shown that the calculated and experimental values for obertones at 273.0 cm-1 and other transitions of torsional vibration are different for this isomer in particular. However, it is established that in some calculation methods (B3LYP, MP2), the frequency of the torsional vibration of the cis-isomer coincides with another experimental value of this frequency (166.5 cm-1). It is concluded that in analyzing the vibrational structure of the UV spectrum, the calculated and experimental values of its obertone (331.3 cm-1) coincide, along with its frequency. It is also noted that the frequency of torsional vibration for the cis-isomer (166.5 cm-1) can also be found in other experimental works if we change the allocation of torsional transition 18{1/1}.

  15. HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTROSTATIC INSTABILITIES IN A PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M W; Auer, P L

    1963-06-15

    The dispersion relation is examined for a collisionless infinite plasma in the presence of an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution and a uniform external magnetic field. Unstable solutions exist below the muitiples of the electron cyclotron frequency provided the temperature anisotropy is sufficiently large. The dependence of the growth rate upon harmonic number, density, angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, and frequency is discussed for zero as well as non-zero parallel temperatures. In the latter case, the waves are strongly damped as their frequency approaches a multiple of the gyro- frequency. (auth)

  16. Multimodal Broadband Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (MM-BB-V-SFG) Spectrometer and Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher M; Kafle, Kabindra; Huang, Shixin; Kim, Seong H

    2016-01-14

    A broadband sum frequency generation (BB-SFG) spectrometer with multimodal (MM) capabilities was constructed, which could be routinely reconfigured for tabletop experiments in reflection, transmission, and total internal reflection (TIR) geometries, as well as microscopic imaging. The system was constructed using a Ti:sapphire amplifier (800 nm, pulse width = 85 fs, repetition rate = 2 kHz), an optical parameter amplification (OPA) system for production of broadband IR pulses tunable between 1000 and 4000 cm(-1), and two Fabry-Pérot etalons arranged in series for production of narrowband 800 nm pulses. The key feature allowing the MM operation was the nearly collinear alignment of the visible (fixed, 800 nm) and infrared (tunable, 1000-4000 cm(-1)) pulses which were spatially separated. Physical insights discussed in this paper include the comparison of spectral bandwidth produced with 40 and 85 fs pump beams, the improvement of spectral resolution using etalons, the SFG probe volume in bulk analysis, the normalization of SFG signals, the stitching of multiple spectral segments, and the operation in different modes for air/liquid and adsorbate/solid interfaces, bulk samples, as well as spectral imaging combined with principle component analysis (PCA). The SFG spectral features obtained with the MM-BB-SFG system were compared with those obtained with picosecond-scanning-SFG system and high-resolution BB-SFG system (HR-BB-SFG) for dimethyl sulfoxide, α-pinene, and various samples containing cellulose (purified commercial products, Cladophora cell wall, cotton and flax fibers, and onion epidermis cell wall).

  17. Chemical reaction surface vibrational frequencies evaluated in curvilinear internal coordinates: Application to H + CH(4) H(2) + CH(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Simon T; Clary, David C

    2009-01-14

    We consider the general problem of vibrational analysis at nonglobally optimized points on a reduced dimensional reaction surface. We discuss the importance of the use of curvilinear internal coordinates to describe molecular motion and derive a curvilinear projection operator to remove the contribution of nonzero gradients from the Hessian matrix. Our projection scheme is tested in the context of a two-dimensional quantum scattering calculation for the reaction H + CH(4) --> H(2) + CH(3) and its reverse H(2) + CH(3) --> H + CH(4). Using zero-point energies calculated via rectilinear and curvilinear projections we construct two two-dimensional, adiabatically corrected, ab initio reaction surfaces for this system. It is shown that the use of curvilinear coordinates removes unphysical imaginary frequencies observed with rectilinear projection and leads to significantly improved thermal rate constants for both the forward and reverse reactions.

  18. Salt Effects on Surface Structures of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers (PEMs) Investigated by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Aimin; Matsusaki, Michiya; Qiao, Lin; Akashi, Mitsuru; Ye, Shen

    2016-04-26

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was employed to investigate the surface structures of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) constructed by sequentially alternating adsorption of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). It was found that the surface structures and surface charge density of the as-deposited PEMs of PDDA/PSS significantly depend on the concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) present in the polyelectrolyte solutions. Furthermore, it was found that the surface structure of the as-deposited PEMs is in a metastable state and will reach the equilibrium state by diffusion of the polyelectrolyte chain after an aging process, resulting in a polyelectrolyte mixture on the PEM surfaces.

  19. Quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy and comparison with other analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, Anna L; Lee, Christopher; Bradley, Laura C; Schreiner, Edward P; Park, Yong Bum; Shin, Heenae; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Park, Sunkyu; Kim, Seong H

    2012-07-01

    The non-centrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) vibration spectroscopy allows the detection and quantification of crystalline cellulose in lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. This paper shows a correlation between the amount of crystalline cellulose in biomass and the SFG signal intensity. Model biomass samples were prepared by mixing commercially available cellulose, xylan, and lignin to defined concentrations. The SFG signal intensity was found sensitive to a wide range of crystallinity, but varied non-linearly with the mass fraction of cellulose in the samples. This might be due to the matrix effects such as light scattering and absorption by xylan and lignin, as well as the non-linear density dependence of the SFG process itself. Comparison with other techniques such as XRD, FT-Raman, FT-IR and NMR demonstrate that SFG can be a complementary and sensitive tool to assess crystalline cellulose in biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amine Chemistry at Aqueous Interfaces: The Study of Organic Amines in Neutralizing Acidic Gases at an Air/Water Surface Using Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, L.; Wren, S. N.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Small organic bases have been measured in atmospheric samples, with their sources ranging from industrial processing to animal husbandry. These small organic amines are often highly soluble, being found in atmospheric condensed phases such as fogwater and rainwater. Additionally, they display acid-neutralization ability often greater than ammonia, yet little is known regarding their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. This presentation will describe the molecular level details of a model amine system at the vapor/liquid interface in the presence of acidic gas. We find that this amine system shows very unique properties in terms of its bonding, structure, and orientation at aqueous surfaces. The results of our studies using a combination of computation, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy, and surface tension will report the properties inherent to these atmospherically relevant species at aqueous surfaces.

  1. Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy and Kinetic Study of 2-Methylfuran and 2,5-Dimethylfuran Hydrogenation over 7 nm Platinum Cubic Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Aliaga, Cesar

    2011-04-28

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements obtained from gas chromatography were used to study the adsorption and hydrogenation of 2-methylfuran (MF) and 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) over cubic Pt nanoparticles of 7 nm average size, synthesized by colloidal methods and cleaned by ultraviolet light and ozone treatment. Reactions carried out at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of 20-120 °C produced dihydro and tetrahydro species, as well as ring-opening products (alcohols) and ring-cracking products, showing high selectivity toward ring opening throughout the entire temperature range. The aromatic rings (MF and DMF) adsorbed parallel to the nanoparticle surface. Results yield insight into various surface reaction intermediates and the reason for the significantly lower selectivity for ring cracking in DMF hydrogenation compared to MF hydrogenation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Contact resistance measurement structures for high frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; Pijper, Ralf M.T.; Tiemeijer, Luuk F.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the interfacial contact impedance offered by the device at its operating frequency range is crucial for accurate modelling and understanding of the device. In this article, a novel modified TLM test-structure has been devised to extract interfacial contact parameters at frequencies upto

  3. A Novel Tunable Multi-Frequency Hybrid Vibration Energy Harvester Using Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Conversion Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel tunable multi-frequency hybrid energy harvester (HEH. It consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH and an electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH, which are coupled with magnetic interaction. An electromechanical coupling model was developed and numerically simulated. The effects of magnetic force, mass ratio, stiffness ratio, and mechanical damping ratios on the output power were investigated. A prototype was fabricated and characterized by experiments. The measured first peak power increases by 16.7% and 833.3% compared with that of the multi-frequency EMEH and the multi-frequency PEH, respectively. It is 2.36 times more than the combined output power of the linear PEH and linear EMEH at 22.6 Hz. The half-power bandwidth for the first peak power is also broadened. Numerical results agree well with the experimental data. It is indicated that magnetic interaction can tune the resonant frequencies. Both magnetic coupling configuration and hybrid conversion mechanism contribute to enhancing the output power and widening the operation bandwidth. The magnitude and direction of magnetic force have significant effects on the performance of the HEH. This proposed HEH is an effective approach to improve the generating performance of the micro-scale energy harvesting devices in low-frequency range.

  4. Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Nibu A; Mul, Frits F M de; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K

    2008-01-01

    We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications

  5. Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Nibu A; Mul, Frits F M de; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K [Groningen Voice Research Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, 9700 AD Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-05-21

    We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications.

  6. A New Vibration Absorber Design for Under-Chassis Device of a High-Speed Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the separation of vertical and lateral stiffness of the under-chassis device, a new type of vibration absorber is designed by using the negative stiffness of the disc spring in parallel with the rubber component. To solve its transmission characteristics, harmonic transfer method was used. A rigid-flexible coupling multibody dynamic model of a high-speed train with an elastic car body is established, and the vertical and lateral optimal stiffness of the under-chassis device are calculated. The Sperling index and acceleration PSD of the vehicle with the new vibration absorber and the vehicle with traditional rubber absorber are compared and analyzed. The results show that, with the new vibration absorber, vehicle’s running stability and vibration of the car body are more effective than the vehicle with the traditional rubber absorber.

  7. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.

  8. Comparison of high-intensity sound and mechanical vibration for cleaning porous titanium cylinders fabricated using selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Gary; Hopkins, Carl; Sutcliffe, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Orthopedic components, such as the acetabular cup in total hip joint replacement, can be fabricated using porous metals, such as titanium, and a number of processes, such as selective laser melting. The issue of how to effectively remove loose powder from the pores (residual powder) of such components has not been addressed in the literature. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of two processes, acoustic cleaning using high-intensity sound inside acoustic horns and mechanical vibration, to remove residual titanium powder from selective laser melting-fabricated cylinders. With acoustic cleaning, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by either the fundamental frequency of the horn used (75 vs. 230 Hz) or, for a given horn, the number of soundings (between 1 and 20). With mechanical vibration, the amount of residual powder removed was not influenced by the application time (10 vs. 20 s). Acoustic cleaning was found to be more reliable and effective in removal of residual powder than cleaning with mechanical vibration. It is concluded that acoustic cleaning using high-intensity sound has significant potential for use in the final preparation stages of porous metal orthopedic components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 117-123, 2017. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Low intensity vibration of ankle muscles improves balance in elderly persons at high risk of falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane

    2018-01-01

    In our study we examined postural performance of young healthy persons (HY), elderly healthy persons (HE), and elderly persons at high risk of falling (FR). Anterio-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) ankle and hip angular deviations, as well as linear displacements of the center of mass (COM) were assessed in persons standing with eyes either open or closed, while none, and 40 and 30 Hz vibrations were applied bilaterally to the ankle muscle gastrocnemius. During quiet standing with eyes open, balance parameters in FR group differed from those in healthy groups. ML ankle and hip angular deviations, as well as COM linear displacements were noticeably larger in FR group. During quiet standing with eyes closed, all balance parameters in participants of all groups had a clear trend to increase. During standing with eyes open, 40 Hz vibration increased all but one balance parameter within HY group, ankle angular deviations in HE group, but none in FR group. In response to 30 Hz vibration, only ankle angular deviations and COM linear displacements increased in HY group. There were no changes in both elderly groups. During standing with eyes closed, 40 and 30 Hz vibrations did not produce consistent changes in balance parameters in HY and HE groups. In FR persons, 40 Hz vibration did not change balance parameters. However, in FR groups, 30 Hz vibration decreased ankle and hip angular deviations, and COM linear displacements. The major result of the study is a finding that low intensity vibration of ankle muscles makes balance better in elderly persons at high risk of falling. This result is clinically relevant because it suggests that applying mild vibration to ankle muscles while standing and walking might benefit elderly persons, improving their postural performance and reducing a risk of unexpected falls. PMID:29579098

  10. Optical fiber grating vibration sensor for vibration monitoring of hydraulic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Liu, Chuntong; Li, Hongcai; He, Zhenxin; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2017-06-01

    In view of the existing electrical vibration monitoring traditional hydraulic pump vibration sensor, the high false alarm rate is susceptible to electromagnetic interference and is not easy to achieve long-term reliable monitoring, based on the design of a beam of the uniform strength structure of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor. In this paper, based on the analysis of the vibration theory of the equal strength beam, the principle of FBG vibration tuning based on the equal intensity beam is derived. According to the practical application of the project, the structural dimensions of the equal strength beam are determined, and the optimization design of the vibrator is carried out. The finite element analysis of the sensor is carried out by ANSYS, and the first order resonant frequency is 94.739 Hz. The vibration test of the sensor is carried out by using the vibration frequency of 35 Hz and the vibration source of 50 Hz. The time domain and frequency domain analysis results of test data show that the sensor has good dynamic response characteristics, which can realize the accurate monitoring of the vibration frequency and meet the special requirements of vibration monitoring of hydraulic pump under specific environment.

  11. Low-frequency, low-magnitude vibrations (LFLM enhances chondrogenic differentiation potential of human adipose derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if low-frequency, low-magnitude vibrations (LFLM could enhance chondrogenic differentiation potential of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs with simultaneous inhibition of their adipogenic properties for biomedical purposes. We developed a prototype device that induces low-magnitude (0.3 g low-frequency vibrations with the following frequencies: 25, 35 and 45 Hz. Afterwards, we used human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell (hASCS, to investigate their cellular response to the mechanical signals. We have also evaluated hASCs morphological and proliferative activity changes in response to each frequency. Induction of chondrogenesis in hASCs, under the influence of a 35 Hz signal leads to most effective and stable cartilaginous tissue formation through highest secretion of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2, and Collagen type II, with low concentration of Collagen type I. These results correlated well with appropriate gene expression level. Simultaneously, we observed significant up-regulation of α3, α4, β1 and β3 integrins in chondroblast progenitor cells treated with 35 Hz vibrations, as well as Sox-9. Interestingly, we noticed that application of 35 Hz frequencies significantly inhibited adipogenesis of hASCs. The obtained results suggest that application of LFLM vibrations together with stem cell therapy might be a promising tool in cartilage regeneration.

  12. High-frequency modulation of ion-acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    A large amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic oscillation is impressed on a nonrelativistic, collisionless plasma from an external source. The frequency is chosen to be far from the plasma frequency (in fact, lower). The resulting electron velocity distribution function strongly modifies the propagation of ion-acoustic waves parallel to the oscillating electric field. The complex frequency is calculated numerically.

  13. The effect of ground borne vibrations from high speed train on overhead line equipment (OHLE) structure considering soil-structure interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2018-06-15

    At present, railway infrastructure experiences harsh environments and aggressive loading conditions from increased traffic and load demands. Ground borne vibration has become one of these environmental challenges. Overhead line equipment (OHLE) provides electric power to the train and is, for one or two tracks, normally supported by cantilever masts. A cantilever mast, which is made of H-section steel, is slender and has a poor dynamic behaviour by nature. It can be seen from the literature that ground borne vibrations cause annoyance to people in surrounding areas especially in buildings. Nonetheless, mast structures, which are located nearest and alongside the railway track, have not been fully studied in terms of their dynamic behaviour. This paper presents the effects of ground borne vibrations generated by high speed trains on cantilever masts and contact wire located alongside railway tracks. Ground borne vibration velocities at various train speeds, from 100 km/h to 300 km/h, are considered based on the consideration of semi-empirical models for predicting low frequency vibration on ground. A three-dimensional mast structure with varying soil stiffness is made using a finite element model. The displacement measured is located at the end of cantilever mast which is the position of contact wire. The construction tolerance of contact stagger is used as an allowable movement of contact wire in transverse direction. The results show that the effect of vibration velocity from train on the transverse direction of mast structure is greater than that on the longitudinal direction. Moreover, the results obtained indicate that the ground bourn vibrations caused by high speed train are not strong enough to cause damage to the contact wire. The outcome of this study will help engineers improve the design standard of cantilever mast considering the effect of ground borne vibration as preliminary parameter for construction tolerances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  14. Sheath impedance effects in very high frequency plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Hollenstein, C.

    1995-05-01

    The frequency dependence (13.56 MHz to 70 MHz) of the ion energy distribution at the ground electrode was measured by mass spectrometry in a symmetrical capacitive argon discharge. Reduced sheath impedance at Very High Frequency allows high levels of plasma power and substrate ion flux whilst maintaining low levels of ion energy and electrode voltage. The lower limit of ion bombardment energy is fixed by the sheath floating potential at high frequency, in contrast to low frequencies where only the rf voltage amplitude is determinant. The capacitive sheaths are thinner at high frequencies which accentuates the high frequency reduction in sheath impedance. It is argued that the frequency dependence of sheath impedance is responsible for the principal characteristics of Very High Frequency plasmas. The measurements are summarised by simple physical descriptions and compared with a Particle-In-Cell simulation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Impact Analysis of Roller System Stability for Four-High Mill Horizontal Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-bin Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the hot Compact Strip Production (CSP, four-high mill vibration characteristics, and vibration suppression method, the roller system structure stability was analyzed and calculated at first in the paper. And then, the mill stand gap was measured at field and its influence on roll transverse vibration was analyzed. The drum gear coupling effect on the roller system stability and the automatic balance conditions of the coupling transmission torque were studied; the influence of axial force caused by the roller cross on the system stability was analyzed. Finally, the roller transverse friction chatter vibration mechanics model was established; the simulation analysis was carried out with eliminating mill house-bearing clearance and adding floating support for coupling, respectively. And the characteristics of the roller “jump vibration” were studied. We applied copper gaskets to eliminate or reduce mill house-bearing clearance for suppressing the rolling mill vibration on the spot; the test results show that the roller transverse vibration was suppressed after eliminating clearance.

  16. The viscoelastic standard nonlinear solid model: predicting the response of the lumbar intervertebral disk to low-frequency vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kevin M; Granata, Kevin P

    2008-06-01

    Due to the mathematical complexity of current musculoskeletal spine models, there is a need for computationally efficient models of the intervertebral disk (IVD). The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model that will adequately describe the motion of the IVD under axial cyclic loading as well as maintain computational efficiency for use in future musculoskeletal spine models. Several studies have successfully modeled the creep characteristics of the IVD using the three-parameter viscoelastic standard linear solid (SLS) model. However, when the SLS model is subjected to cyclic loading, it underestimates the load relaxation, the cyclic modulus, and the hysteresis of the human lumbar IVD. A viscoelastic standard nonlinear solid (SNS) model was used to predict the response of the human lumbar IVD subjected to low-frequency vibration. Nonlinear behavior of the SNS model was simulated by a strain-dependent elastic modulus on the SLS model. Parameters of the SNS model were estimated from experimental load deformation and stress-relaxation curves obtained from the literature. The SNS model was able to predict the cyclic modulus of the IVD at frequencies of 0.01 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and 1 Hz. Furthermore, the SNS model was able to quantitatively predict the load relaxation at a frequency of 0.01 Hz. However, model performance was unsatisfactory when predicting load relaxation and hysteresis at higher frequencies (0.1 Hz and 1 Hz). The SLS model of the lumbar IVD may require strain-dependent elastic and viscous behavior to represent the dynamic response to compressive strain.

  17. HIGH FREQUENCY INDUCTION WELDING OF HIGH SILICON STEEL TUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miranda Alé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available High-Si steel is a low cost alternative for the fabrication of tubular structures resistant to atmospheric corrosion. However, the literature has often pointed out that steels presenting a higher Si content and/or a lower Mn/Si ratio have higher susceptibility to defects at the weld bond line during HFIW (High Frequency Induction Welding process, which has been widely used for manufacturing small diameter tubes. In this study the effect of the HFIW conditions on the quality of steel tubes with high-Si content and low Mn/Si ratio is investigated. The quality of welded tubes was determined by flare test and the defects in the bond line were identified by SEM. It has been found that higher welding speeds, V-convergence angles and power input should be applied in welding of high-Si steel, when compared to similar strength C-Mn steel.

  18. Density functional theory for prediction of far-infrared vibrational frequencies: molecular crystals of astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, C.; Auchettl, R.; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Robertson, E. G.

    2017-11-01

    Solid-state density functional theory code has been implemented for the structure optimization of crystalline methanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid and for the calculation of infrared frequencies. The results are compared to thin film spectra obtained from low-temperature experiments performed at the Australian Synchrotron. Harmonic frequency calculations of the internal modes calculated at the B3LYP-D3/m-6-311G(d) level shows higher deviation from infrared experiment than more advanced theory applied to the gas phase. Importantly for the solid-state, the simulation of low-frequency molecular lattice modes closely resembles the observed far-infrared features after application of a 0.92 scaling factor. This allowed experimental peaks to be assigned to specific translation and libration modes, including acetaldehyde and acetic acid lattice features for the first time. These frequency calculations have been performed without the need for supercomputing resources that are required for large molecular clusters using comparable levels of theory. This new theoretical approach will find use for the rapid characterization of intermolecular interactions and bonding in crystals, and the assignment of far-infrared spectra for crystalline samples such as pharmaceuticals and molecular ices. One interesting application may be for the detection of species of prebiotic interest on the surfaces of Kuiper-Belt and Trans-Neptunian Objects. At such locations, the three small organic molecules studied here could reside in their crystalline phase. The far-infrared spectra for their low-temperature solid phases are collected under planetary conditions, allowing us to compile and assign their most intense spectral features to assist future far-infrared surveys of icy Solar system surfaces.

  19. Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopic study of crystalline cellulose in biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong H.; Lee, Christopher M.; Kafle, Kabindra; Park, Yong Bum; Xi, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    The noncentrosymmetry requirement of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy allows selective detection of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls and lignocellulose biomass without spectral interferences from hemicelluloses and lignin. In addition, the phase synchronization requirement of the SFG process allows noninvasive investigation of spatial arrangement of crystalline cellulose microfibrils in the sample. This paper reviews how these principles are applied to reveal structural information of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls and biomass.

  20. Vibrational modes and frequencies of borophene in comparison with graphene nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghzadeh, S.; Khatibi, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, for the first time, by applying molecular dynamics simulation in conjugation with frequency domain decomposition, it was demonstrated that borophene resonators are at least 100% more efficient than graphene ones. It was also shown that this significant superiority does not arise solely from the difference between the molecular weights of borophene and graphene, but rather from the amazing intrinsic mechanical properties of borophene. Interest in detecting lower masses and lower pressures has led to a scientific race to find resonators with higher resonant frequencies. As a powerful rival of graphene, and used to fabricate sensors with lower-than-zeptogram resolutions, borophene promises enhanced future capabilities. Studies of the effects of geometrical parameters have verified that resonance is fully dependent on resonator size and chirality. The fundamental natural frequency of a rectangular borophene sheet is much higher when its zigzag edge is longer than the armchair edge, but not the other way around. Generally, it can be concluded that a rectangular borophene resonator with a longer zigzag edge achieves a higher resonance than a graphene resonator of equivalent weight. As a final fascinating conclusion: Borophene seems to be superior to graphene in resonance applications.

  1. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution

  2. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-01

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  3. On the origin of bonding and vibrational frequency shifts for CO adsorbed on neutral, cationic and anionic gold clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagus, P S; Pacchioni, G

    2008-01-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the electronic mechanisms which determine the bond strength and the vibrational frequency of CO molecules adsorbed on neutral or charged gold nanoparticles. To this end we have considered a simple cluster model, Au 5 CO q (q = +1, 0, -1), and decomposed the Au-CO interaction energy into the sum of various contributions according to a Constrained Space Orbital Variation approach. While the adsorption energy is relatively insensitive to the value of q, the C-O stretch frequency, ω e (CO), changes substantially, and allows the use of this molecule as a direct probe of the gold oxidation state. The results show that two major terms contribute to the red or blue shift of ω e (CO) as a function of q: the interaction with the electric field associated to the charged nanoparticle (Stark effect) and the Au → CO Φ back donation. The CO → Au σ donation is about half as important as the Φ back-donation and all other terms are much less important

  4. Modulated convection at high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, J.B.; Hohenberg, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    Modulated Rayleigh-Benard convection is analyzed for high frequencies and large modulation amplitudes. The linear theory of Gershuni and Zhukhovitskii is generalized to the nonlinear domain, and a subcritical bifurcation to convection is found in agreement with the experiments of Niemela and Donnelly. The crossover between the high-frequency (''Stokes layer'') regime and the low-frequency regime studied previously is analyzed

  5. Calculation of Leakage Inductance for High Frequency Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Jun, Zhang; Hurley, William Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dependent leakage inductance is often observed. High frequency eddy current effects cause a reduction in leakage inductance. The proximity effect between adjacent layers is responsible for the reduction of leakage inductance. This paper gives a detailed analysis of high frequency leakag...

  6. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, So-myo; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Takeishi, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Toshiaki; O'shima, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, it is very important to foresee occurring events with in-operation -inspection (IOI) since the foreseeing makes plant maintenance more speedy and reliable. Moreover, information on plant condition under operating would make period of in-service inspection (ISI) shorter because maintenance plan can be made effectively using the information. In this study, a high cycle fatigue diagnostic system is being developed applying to especially pipe branches with small diameter under in-operating condition, which are in the radioactive areas of PWR plants and hard to access. This paper presents a concept of the in-operating diagnostic system and current status of developing sensing systems. (author)

  7. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kye-Si; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance

  8. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kye-Si, E-mail: kskwon@sch.ac.kr; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Soonchunhyang University 22, Soonchunhyang-Ro, Shinchang, Asan Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Hyun-Seok [Department of Electrical and Robot Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, 22, Soonchunhyang-Ro, Shinchang, Asan Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance.

  9. Time-frequency analysis of railway bridge response in forced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantero, Daniel; Ülker-Kaustell, Mahir; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-08-01

    This paper suggests the use of the Continuous Wavelet Transform in combination with the Modified Littlewood-Paley basis to analyse bridge responses exited by traversing trains. The analysis provides an energy distribution map in the time-frequency domain that offers a better resolution compared to previous published studies. This is demonstrated with recorded responses of the Skidträsk Bridge, a 36 m long composite bridge located in Sweden. It is shown to be particularly useful to understand the evolution of the energy content during a vehicle crossing event. With this information it is possible to distinguish the effect of several of the governing factors involved in the dynamic response including vehicle's speed and axle configuration as well as non-linear behaviour of the structure.

  10. Major enhancement of extra-low-frequency radiation by increasing the high-frequency heating wave power in electrojet modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.; Lee, S.H.; Kossey, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Extra-low-frequency (ELF) wave generation by modulated polar electrojet currents is studied. The amplitude-modulated high-frequency (HF) heating wave excites a stimulated thermal instability to enhance the electrojet current modulation by the passive Ohmic heating process. Inelastic collisions of electrons with neutral particles (mainly due to vibrational excitation of N 2 ) damp nonlinearly this instability, which is normally saturated at low levels. However, the electron's inelastic collision loss rate drops rapidly to a low value in the energy regime from 3.5 to 6 eV. As the power of the modulated HF heating wave exceeds a threshold level, it is shown that significant electron heating enhanced by the stimulated thermal instability can indeed cause a steep drop in the electron inelastic collision loss rate. Consequently, this instability saturates at a much higher level, resulting to a near step increase (of about 10-13 dB, depending on the modulation wave form) in the spectral intensity of ELF radiation. The dependence of the threshold power of the HF heating wave on the modulation frequency is determined

  11. High-frequency analog integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    To learn more about designing analog integrated circuits (ICs) at microwave frequencies using GaAs materials, turn to this text and reference. It addresses GaAs MESFET-based IC processing. Describes the newfound ability to apply silicon analog design techniques to reliable GaAs materials and devices which, until now, was only available through technical papers scattered throughout hundred of articles in dozens of professional journals.

  12. Coplanar stripline components for high frequency application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverdhanam, Kavita; Simons, Rainee N.; Dib, Nihad; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coplanar stripline discontinuities such as a slit, a right angle bend and a T-junction are characterized and their performance is parameterized with respect to frequency and geometry. Lumped equivalent circuits are presented for some of them. The element values are obtained from the measured discontinuity scattering (S) parameters. The experimental results are compared with theoretical data obtained using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FD-TD) technique for validation and show very good agreement.

  13. In situ speciation of the functional groups at mineral/electrolyte interfaces by sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floersheimer, M.; Kruse, K.; Klenze, R.; Kim, J.I. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fanghaenel, Th. [Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, D-69120, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to describe surface reactivity and adsorption/desorption processes on the molecular level, a large number of functional groups has been postulated. In most cases, however, a direct proof for the existence of these species in real aquatic environment is lacking because it is difficult to obtain chemical analytical information in situ under electrolyte with interface selectivity. Here we apply interface selective sum frequency (SF) vibrational spectroscopy to study the (001) and (110) surfaces of sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) under water between pH 4 and 12. This work is part of an ongoing fundamental study of the sorption mechanism of actinides on single crystals faces of sapphire by various experimental and theoretical techniques. Sapphire is used as a simple model for natural clay minerals and related iron phases. In the O-H stretch region of the infrared spectrum between 2800 and 4000 cm{sup -1}, we observe a surprisingly large number of 8 SF bands in total. Two of them are due to the polar ordered water film near the mineral surface which is well known from various aquatic interfaces. The other bands originate from up to 6 different aluminol species or from specifically [1] bound water molecules. The prominent peak of the (001) surface (SF intensity maximum at 3690 cm{sup -1}), we attribute to an OH species bridging two [1-4] aluminium atoms. At the (110) surface, the concentration of this species is considerably smaller. Another aluminol species that can be detected at the (001) and the (110) surface (signal maximum near 3450 cm{sup -1}) exhibits O-H bonds which are almost parallel to the interface plane. This species is probably the in-plane aluminol group predicted in recent molecular dynamics calculations [4]. SF spectroscopy allows us also to measure the absolute polar orientation of the water molecules adjacent to the mineral surface. The inversion of the molecules polar orientation upon alteration of the p

  14. Vibration of machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Mun Gyu; Na, Sung Su; Baek, Gwang Hyeon; Song, Chul Gi; Han, Sang Bo

    2001-09-01

    This book deals with vibration of machine which gives descriptions of free vibration using SDOF system, forced vibration using SDOF system, vibration of multi-degree of freedom system like introduction and normal form, distribution system such as introduction, free vibration of bar and practice problem, approximate solution like lumped approximations and Raleigh's quotient, engineering by intuition and experience, real problem and experimental method such as technology of signal, fourier transform analysis, frequency analysis and sensor and actuator.

  15. Vibration and acoustic frequency spectra for industrial process modeling using selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Qiao, Junfei; Wu, ZhiWei; Chai, Tianyou; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Frequency spectral data of mechanical vibration and acoustic signals relate to difficult-to-measure production quality and quantity parameters of complex industrial processes. A selective ensemble (SEN) algorithm can be used to build a soft sensor model of these process parameters by fusing valued information selectively from different perspectives. However, a combination of several optimized ensemble sub-models with SEN cannot guarantee the best prediction model. In this study, we use several techniques to construct mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectra of a data-driven industrial process parameter model based on selective fusion multi-condition samples and multi-source features. Multi-layer SEN (MLSEN) strategy is used to simulate the domain expert cognitive process. Genetic algorithm and kernel partial least squares are used to construct the inside-layer SEN sub-model based on each mechanical vibration and acoustic frequency spectral feature subset. Branch-and-bound and adaptive weighted fusion algorithms are integrated to select and combine outputs of the inside-layer SEN sub-models. Then, the outside-layer SEN is constructed. Thus, "sub-sampling training examples"-based and "manipulating input features"-based ensemble construction methods are integrated, thereby realizing the selective information fusion process based on multi-condition history samples and multi-source input features. This novel approach is applied to a laboratory-scale ball mill grinding process. A comparison with other methods indicates that the proposed MLSEN approach effectively models mechanical vibration and acoustic signals.

  16. Low velocity target detection based on time-frequency image for high frequency ground wave radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Songhua; WU Shicai; WEN Biyang

    2007-01-01

    The Doppler spectral broadening resulted from non-stationary movement of target and radio-frequency interference will decrease the veracity of target detection by high frequency ground wave(HEGW)radar.By displaying the change of signal energy on two dimensional time-frequency images based on time-frequency analysis,a new mathematical morphology method to distinguish target from nonlinear time-frequency curves is presented.The analyzed results from the measured data verify that with this new method the target can be detected correctly from wide Doppler spectrum.

  17. Direct excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takayasu

    1993-01-01

    A new mechanism is presented of an excitation of a high frequency wave by a low frequency wave in a plasma. This mechanism works when the low frequency wave varies in time in a manner deviated from a usual periodic motion with a constant amplitude. The conversion rate is usually not large but the conversion is done without time delay after the variation of the low frequency wave. The Manley Rowe relation in the usual sense does not hold in this mechanism. This mechanism can excite also waves with same or lower frequencies. (author)

  18. Perspective: Watching low-frequency vibrations of water in biomolecular recognition by THz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Havenith, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has turned out to be a powerful tool which is able to shed new light on the role of water in biomolecular processes. The low frequency spectrum of the solvated biomolecule in combination with MD simulations provides deep insights into the collective hydrogen bond dynamics on the sub-ps time scale. The absorption spectrum between 1 THz and 10 THz of solvated biomolecules is sensitive to changes in the fast fluctuations of the water network. Systematic studies on mutants of antifreeze proteins indicate a direct correlation between biological activity and a retardation of the (sub)-ps hydration dynamics at the protein binding site, i.e., a "hydration funnel." Kinetic THz absorption studies probe the temporal changes of THz absorption during a biological process, and give access to the kinetics of the coupled protein-hydration dynamics. When combined with simulations, the observed results can be explained in terms of a two-tier model involving a local binding and a long range influence on the hydration bond dynamics of the water around the binding site that highlights the significance of the changes in the hydration dynamics at recognition site for biomolecular recognition. Water is shown to assist molecular recognition processes.

  19. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy of planar phosphatidylethanolamine hybrid bilayer membranes under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kett, Peter J N; Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2010-06-15

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has been used to study the structure of phosphatidylethanolamine hybrid bilayer membranes (HBMs) under water at ambient temperatures. The HBMs were formed using a modified Langmuir-Schaefer technique and consisted of a layer of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) physisorbed onto an octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at a series of surface pressures from 1 to 40 mN m(-1). The DPPE and ODT were selectively deuterated so that the contributions to the SFG spectra from the two layers could be determined separately. SFG spectra in both the C-H and C-D stretching regions confirmed that a monolayer of DPPE had been adsorbed to the ODT SAM and that there were gauche defects within the alkyl chains of the phospholipid. On adsorption of a layer of DPPE, methylene modes from the ODT SAM were detected, indicating that the phospholipid had partially disordered the alkanethiol monolayer. SFG spectra recorded in air indicated that removal of water from the surface of the HBM resulted in disruption of the DPPE layer and the formation of phospholipid bilayers.

  20. IMITATION MODEL OF A HIGH-SPEED INDUCTION MOTOR WITH FREQUENCY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Pliugin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop the imitation model of the frequency converter controlled high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor in order to determine reasons causes electric motor vibrations and noises in starting modes. Methodology. We have applied the mathematical simulation of electromagnetic field in transient mode and imported obtained field model as an independent object in frequency converter circuit. We have correlated the simulated result with the experimental data obtained by means of the PID regulator factors. Results. We have made the simulation model of the high-speed induction motor with a squirrel-cage rotor speed control in AnsysRMxprt, Ansys Maxwell and Ansys Simplorer, approximated to their physical prototype. We have made models modifications allows to provide high-performance computing (HPC in dedicated server and computer cluster to reduce the simulation time. We have obtained motor characteristics in starting and rated modes. This allows to make recommendations on determination of high-speed electric motor optimal deign, having minimum indexes of vibrations and noises. Originality. For the first time, we have carried out the integrated research of induction motor using simultaneously simulation models both in Ansys Maxwell (2D field model and in Ansys Simplorer (transient circuit model with the control low realization for the motor soft start. For the first time the correlation between stator and rotor slots, allows to obtain minimal vibrations and noises, was defined. Practical value. We have tested manufactured high-speed motor based on the performed calculation. The experimental studies have confirmed the adequacy of the model, which allows designing such motors for new high-speed construction, and upgrade the existing ones.

  1. Dynamic modeling and adaptive vibration suppression of a high-speed macro-micro manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-ling; Wei, Yan-ding; Lou, Jun-qiang; Fu, Lei; Fang, Sheng; Chen, Te-huan

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a dynamic modeling and microscopic vibration suppression for a flexible macro-micro manipulator dedicated to high-speed operation. The manipulator system mainly consists of a macro motion stage and a flexible micromanipulator bonded with one macro-fiber-composite actuator. Based on Hamilton's principle and the Bouc-Wen hysteresis equation, the nonlinear dynamic model is obtained. Then, a hybrid control scheme is proposed to simultaneously suppress the elastic vibration during and after the motor motion. In particular, the hybrid control strategy is composed of a trajectory planning approach and an adaptive variable structure control. Moreover, two optimization indices regarding the comprehensive torques and synthesized vibrations are designed, and the optimal trajectories are acquired using a genetic algorithm. Furthermore, a nonlinear fuzzy regulator is used to adjust the switching gain in the variable structure control. Thus, a fuzzy variable structure control with nonlinear adaptive control law is achieved. A series of experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the established system model and hybrid control strategy. The excited vibration during the motor motion and the residual vibration after the motor motion are decreased. Meanwhile, the settling time is shortened. Both the manipulation stability and operation efficiency of the manipulator are improved by the proposed hybrid strategy.

  2. High-frequency homogenization of zero frequency stop band photonic and phononic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Antonakakis, Tryfon; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    We present an accurate methodology for representing the physics of waves, for periodic structures, through effective properties for a replacement bulk medium: This is valid even for media with zero frequency stop-bands and where high frequency phenomena dominate. Since the work of Lord Rayleigh in 1892, low frequency (or quasi-static) behaviour has been neatly encapsulated in effective anisotropic media. However such classical homogenization theories break down in the high-frequency or stop band regime. Higher frequency phenomena are of significant importance in photonics (transverse magnetic waves propagating in infinite conducting parallel fibers), phononics (anti-plane shear waves propagating in isotropic elastic materials with inclusions), and platonics (flexural waves propagating in thin-elastic plates with holes). Fortunately, the recently proposed high-frequency homogenization (HFH) theory is only constrained by the knowledge of standing waves in order to asymptotically reconstruct dispersion curves an...

  3. High Frequency Acoustic Propagation using Level Set Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    solution of the high frequency approximation to the wave equation. Traditional solutions to the Eikonal equation in high frequency acoustics are...the Eikonal equation derived from the high frequency approximation to the wave equation, ucuH ∇±=∇ )(),( xx , with the nonnegative function c(x...For simplicity, we only consider the case ucuH ∇+=∇ )(),( xx . Two difficulties must be addressed when solving the Eikonal equation in a fixed

  4. Sources for high frequency heating. Performance and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gardeur, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various problems encountered in high frequency heating of plasmas can be decomposed into three spheres of action: theoretical development, antenna designing, and utilization of power sources. By classifying heating into three spectral domains, present and future needs are enumerated. Several specific antenna designs are treated. High frequency power sources are reviewed. The actual development of the gyratron is discussed in view of future needs in very high frequency heating of plasmas [fr

  5. Communication: Disorder-suppressed vibrational relaxation in vapor-deposited high-density amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalit, Andrey; Perakis, Fivos; Hamm, Peter

    2014-04-01

    We apply two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to differentiate between the two polyamorphous forms of glassy water, low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ices, that were obtained by slow vapor deposition at 80 and 11 K, respectively. Both the vibrational lifetime and the bandwidth of the 1-2 transition of the isolated OD stretch vibration of HDO in H2O exhibit characteristic differences when comparing hexagonal (Ih), LDA, and HDA ices, which we attribute to the different local structures - in particular the presence of interstitial waters in HDA ice - that cause different delocalization lengths of intermolecular phonon degrees of freedom. Moreover, temperature dependent measurements show that the vibrational lifetime closely follows the structural transition between HDA and LDA phases.

  6. Cooperative Effects of Zwitterionic-Ionic Surfactant Mixtures on the Interfacial Water Structure Revealed by Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuecong; Yang, Fangyuan; Chen, Shunli; Zhu, Xuefeng; Wang, Chuanyi

    2018-05-08

    Cooperative effects of a series of equimolar binary zwitterionic-ionic surfactant mixtures on the interfacial water structure at the air-water interfaces have been studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS). For zwitterionic surfactant palmityl sulfobetaine (SNC 16 ), anionic surfactant sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS), and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the same length of alkyl chain, significantly enhanced ordering of interfacial water molecules was observed for the zwitterionic-anionic surfactant mixtures SNC 16 -SHS, indicating that SNC 16 interacts more strongly with SHS than with CTAB because of the strong headgroup-headgroup electrostatic attraction for SNC 16 -SHS. Meanwhile, the SFG amplitude ratio of methyl and methylene symmetric stretching modes was used to verify the stronger interaction between SNC 16 and SHS. The conformational order indicator increased from 0.64 for SNC 16 to 7.17 for SNC 16 -SHS but only 0.94 for SNC 16 -CTAB. In addition, another anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was introduced to study the influence of chain-chain interaction. Decreased SFG amplitude of interfacial water molecules for SNC 16 -SDS was observed. Therefore, both the headgroup-headgroup electrostatic interaction and chain-chain van der Waals attractive interaction of the surfactants play an important role in enhancing the ordering of interfacial water molecules. The results provided experimental and theoretical bases for practical applications of the surfactants.

  7. Facet-specific interaction between methanol and TiO2 probed by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deheng; Li, Yadong; Liu, Xinyi; Cao, Yue; Gao, Yi; Shen, Y Ron; Liu, Wei-Tao

    2018-04-24

    The facet-specific interaction between molecules and crystalline catalysts, such as titanium dioxides (TiO 2 ), has attracted much attention due to possible facet-dependent reactivity. Using surface-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, we have studied how methanol interacts with different common facets of crystalline TiO 2 , including rutile(110), (001), (100), and anatase(101), under ambient temperature and pressure. We found that methanol adsorbs predominantly in the molecular form on all of the four surfaces, while spontaneous dissociation into methoxy occurs preferentially when these surfaces become defective. Extraction of Fermi resonance coupling between stretch and bending modes of the methyl group in analyzing adsorbed methanol spectra allows determination of the methanol adsorption isotherm. The isotherms obtained for the four surfaces are nearly the same, yielding two adsorbed Gibbs free energies associated with two different adsorption configurations singled out by ab initio calculations. They are ( i ) ∼-20 kJ/mol for methanol with its oxygen attached to a low-coordinated surface titanium, and ( ii ) ∼-5 kJ/mol for methanol hydrogen-bonded to a surface oxygen and a neighboring methanol molecule. Despite similar adsorption energetics, the Fermi resonance coupling strength for adsorbed methanol appears to depend sensitively on the surface facet and coverage.

  8. Analysis of algorithms for detection of resonance frequencies in vibration measurements on super heater tubes; Analys av algoritmer foer detektering av resonansfrekvenser i vibrationsmaetningar paa oeverhettartuber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Combustion of fuel in thermal power plants emits particles which creates coatings on the super heater tubes. The coatings isolate the tubes and impairs the efficiency of the heat transfer. Cleaning the tubes occurs while the power plant is running but without any knowledge of the actual coating. A change in frequency corresponds to a change in mass of the coatings. This thesis has been focusing in estimating resonance frequencies in vibration measurements made by strain gauges on the tubes. To improve the estimations a target tracking algorithm had been added. The results indicates that it is possible to estimate the resonance frequencies but the algorithms need to be verified on more signals.

  9. Carbody elastic vibrations of high-speed vehicles caused by bogie hunting instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Zeng, Jing; Chi, Maoru; Wang, Jianbin

    2017-09-01

    In particular locations of the high-speed track, the worn wheel profile matched up with the worn rail profile will lead to an extremely high-conicity wheel-rail contact. Consequently, the bogie hunting instability arises, which further results in the so-called carbody shaking phenomenon. In this paper, the carbody elastic vibrations of a high-speed vehicle in service are firstly introduced. Modal tests are conducted to identity the elastic modes of the carbody. The ride comfort and running safety indices for the tested vehicle are evaluated. The rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model for the high-speed passenger car is then developed by using the FE and MBS coupling approach. The rail profiles in those particular locations are measured and further integrated into the simulation model to reproduce the bogie hunting and carbody elastic vibrations. The effects of wheel and rail wear on the vehicle system response, e.g. wheelset bifurcation graph and carbody vibrations, are studied. Two improvement measures, including the wheel profile modification and rail grinding, are proposed to provide possible solutions. It is found that the wheel-rail contact conicity can be lowered by decreasing wheel flange thickness or grinding rail corner, which is expected to improve the bogie hunting stability under worn rail and worn wheel conditions. The carbody elastic vibrations caused by bogie hunting instability can be further restrained.

  10. Characterization of Vocal Fold Vibration in Sulcus Vocalis Using High-Speed Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Nito, Takaharu; Tayama, Niro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize vocal fold vibrations in sulcus vocalis by high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and to clarify the correlations between HSDI-derived parameters and traditional vocal parameters. Method: HSDI was performed in 20 vocally healthy subjects (8 men and 12 women) and…

  11. Calibration of High Frequency MEMS Microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Humphreys, William M.; Bartram, Scott M.; Zuckewar, Allan J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and controlling aircraft noise is one of the major research topics of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program. One of the measurement technologies used to acquire noise data is the microphone directional array (DA). Traditional direction array hardware, consisting of commercially available condenser microphones and preamplifiers can be too expensive and their installation in hard-walled wind tunnel test sections too complicated. An emerging micro-machining technology coupled with the latest cutting edge technologies for smaller and faster systems have opened the way for development of MEMS microphones. The MEMS microphone devices are available in the market but suffer from certain important shortcomings. Based on early experiments with array prototypes, it has been found that both the bandwidth and the sound pressure level dynamic range of the microphones should be increased significantly to improve the performance and flexibility of the overall array. Thus, in collaboration with an outside MEMS design vendor, NASA Langley modified commercially available MEMS microphone as shown in Figure 1 to meet the new requirements. Coupled with the design of the enhanced MEMS microphones was the development of a new calibration method for simultaneously obtaining the sensitivity and phase response of the devices over their entire broadband frequency range. Over the years, several methods have been used for microphone calibration. Some of the common methods of microphone calibration are Coupler (Reciprocity, Substitution, and Simultaneous), Pistonphone, Electrostatic actuator, and Free-field calibration (Reciprocity, Substitution, and Simultaneous). Traditionally, electrostatic actuators (EA) have been used to characterize air-condenser microphones for wideband frequency ranges; however, MEMS microphones are not adaptable to the EA method due to their construction and very small diaphragm size. Hence a substitution-based, free-field method was developed to

  12. Cosmic microwave background distortions at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Peratt, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyze the deviation of the cosmic background radiation spectrum from the 2.76+-0.02 0 Κ blackbody curve. If the cosmic background radiation is due to absorption and re-emission of synchrotron radiation from galactic-width current filaments, higher-order synchrotron modes are less thermalized than lower-order modes, causing a distortion of the blackbody curve at higher frequencies. New observations of the microwave background spectrum at short wavelengths should provide an indication of the number of synchrotron modes thermalized in this process. The deviation of the spectrum from that of a perfect blackbody can thus be correlated with astronomical observations such as filament temperatures and electron energies. The results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions of other models which assume the presence of intergalactic superconducting cosmic strings

  13. Vibrational mode frequencies of silica species in SiO2-H2O liquids and glasses from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekermann, Georg; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro

    2012-04-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to probe the atomic-scale structure of silica species in aqueous solution and hydrous silica glasses. However, unequivocal assignment of individual spectroscopic features to specific vibrational modes is challenging. In this contribution, we establish a connection between experimentally observed vibrational bands and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) of silica species in solution and in hydrous silica glass. Using the mode-projection approach, we decompose the vibrations of silica species into subspectra resulting from several fundamental structural subunits: The SiO(4) tetrahedron of symmetry T(d), the bridging oxygen (BO) Si-O-Si of symmetry C(2v), the geminal oxygen O-Si-O of symmetry C(2v), the individual Si-OH stretching, and the specific ethane-like symmetric stretching contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer. This allows us to study relevant vibrations of these subunits in any degree of polymerization, from the Q(0) monomer up to the fully polymerized Q(4) tetrahedra. Demonstrating the potential of this approach for supplementing the interpretation of experimental spectra, we compare the calculated frequencies to those extracted from experimental Raman spectra of hydrous silica glasses and silica species in aqueous solution. We discuss observed features such as the double-peaked contribution of the Q(2) tetrahedral symmetric stretch, the individual Si-OH stretching vibrations, the origin of the experimentally observed band at 970 cm(-1) and the ethane-like vibrational contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer at 870 cm(-1).

  14. Laboratory piping system vibration tests to determine parametric effects on damping in the seismic frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    A pipe damping research program is being conducted for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to establish more realistic, best-estimate damping values for use in dynamic structural analyses of piping systems. As part of this program, tests were conducted on a 5-in. (128 mm ID) laboratory piping system to determine the effects of pressure, support configuration, insulation and response amplitude on damping. The tests were designed to produce a wide range of damping values, from very low damping in lightly excited uninsulated systems with few supports, to higher damping under conditions of either/or insulation, high level excitation, and various support arrangements. The effect of pressure at representative seismic levels was considered to be minimal. The supports influence damping at all excitation levels; damping was highest when a mechanical snubber was present in the system. The addition of insulation produced a large increase in damping for the hydraulic shaker excitation tests, but there was no comparable increase for the snapback excitation tests. Once a response amplitude of approximately one-half yield stress was reached, overall damping increased to relatively high levels (>10% of critical)

  15. Theoretical studies for the N2–N2O van der Waals complex: The potential energy surface, intermolecular vibrations, and rotational transition frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Rui; Zheng, Limin; Yang, Minghui; Lu, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the potential energy surface (PES) and bound states are performed for the N 2 –N 2 O van der Waals (vdW) complex. A four-dimensional intermolecular PES is constructed at the level of single and double excitation coupled-cluster method with a non-iterative perturbation treatment of triple excitations [CCSD(T)] with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set supplemented with bond functions. Two equivalent T-shaped global minima are located, in which the O atom of N 2 O monomer is near the N 2 monomer. The intermolecular fundamental vibrational states are assigned by inspecting the orientation of the nodal surface of the wavefunctions. The calculated frequency for intermolecular disrotation mode is 23.086 cm −1 , which is in good agreement with the available experimental data of 22.334 cm −1 . A negligible tunneling splitting with the value of 4.2 MHz is determined for the ground vibrational state and the tunneling splitting increases as the increment of the vibrational frequencies. Rotational levels and transition frequencies are calculated for both isotopomers 14 N 2 –N 2 O and 15 N 2 –N 2 O. The accuracy of the PES is validated by the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results for the transition frequencies and spectroscopic parameters

  16. High frequency response of open quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Ferry, D.; Elhassan, M.; Ishibashi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We investigate the response of the transport through open quantum dots to millimeterwave radiation (up to 55 GHz). In the low-field region ( 11 cm -2 and a mobility of 1.2 10 6 cm 2 /Vs. By applying a sufficiently negative voltage to the gates the 2DES is split into two regions connected only by a dot-like region (about 350 nm diameter) between them. The DC data exhibit backscattering peaks at fields of a few tenth of a Tesla. Shubnikovde- Haas (SdH) oscillations appear above 0.5 T. While the SdH oscillations show the usual temperature dependence, the backscattering peaks are temperature independent up to 2.5 K. The backscattering peak shows a reduction of 10 percent due to the millimeterwave irradiation. However, due to the temperature independence of this peak, this reduction cannot simply be attributed to electron heating. This conclusion is supported by the observation of a strong frequency dependence of the reduction of the peak height. (author)

  17. Gender Identification Using High-Frequency Speech Energy: Effects of Increasing the Low-Frequency Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donai, Jeremy J; Halbritter, Rachel M

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of normal-hearing listeners to use high-frequency energy for gender identification from naturally produced speech signals. Two experiments were conducted using a repeated-measures design. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff (i.e., increasing the low-frequency spectral limit) on gender identification from naturally produced vowel segments. Experiment 2 studied the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff on gender identification from naturally produced sentences. Confidence ratings for the gender identification task were also obtained for both experiments. Listeners in experiment 1 were capable of extracting talker gender information at levels significantly above chance from vowel segments high-pass filtered up to 8.5 kHz. Listeners in experiment 2 also performed above chance on the gender identification task from sentences high-pass filtered up to 12 kHz. Cumulatively, the results of both experiments provide evidence that normal-hearing listeners can utilize information from the very high-frequency region (above 4 to 5 kHz) of the speech signal for talker gender identification. These findings are at variance with current assumptions regarding the perceptual information regarding talker gender within this frequency region. The current results also corroborate and extend previous studies of the use of high-frequency speech energy for perceptual tasks. These findings have potential implications for the study of information contained within the high-frequency region of the speech spectrum and the role this region may play in navigating the auditory scene, particularly when the low-frequency portion of the spectrum is masked by environmental noise sources or for listeners with substantial hearing loss in the low-frequency region and better hearing sensitivity in the high-frequency region (i.e., reverse slope hearing loss).

  18. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizi, Barbara; Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco; Foggi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds

  19. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrizi, Barbara, E-mail: patrizi@lens.unifi.it [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco [CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Foggi, Paolo [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds.

  20. Vibration Control of a High-Speed Precision Servo Numerically Controlled Punching Press: Multidomain Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-degree-of-freedom mathematical vibration model of a high-speed punching press was developed in order to explore the vibration modes of the punching press. A multidomain model of the punching press was established to predict the kinematic state during different conditions, as well as the effects of load fluctuation on the motor speed. Experimental measurements of the acceleration of the punching press were carried out. The results comparison reveals that the multidomain model is consistent with the vibration model and the experimental measurements. Modal analysis and structure modification of the punching press were conducted. The foundation at the base of the punching press was improved against excess of vibration. The effects of the dimensions of the foundation on the vibration were discussed with the aid of the multidomain model. Finally, proper foundation design, able to reduce the vibration, was obtained.

  1. A high-switching-frequency flyback converter in resonant mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jianting; van Horck, Frank B.M.; Daniel, Bobby J.; Bergveld, Henk Jan

    2017-01-01

    The demand of miniaturization of power systems has accelerated the research on high-switching-frequency power converters. A flyback converter in resonant mode that features low switching losses, less transformer losses, and low switching noise at high switching frequency is investigated in this

  2. Interference between vibration-to-translation and vibration-to-vibration energy transfer modes in diatomic molecules at high collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H.K.

    1983-01-01

    An explicit time dependent approach for simultaneous VT and VV energy transfer in diatom--diatom collisions is explored using the exponential form of ladder operators in the solution of the Schroedinger equation of motion. The collision of two hydrogen molecules is chosen to illustrate the extent of interference between VT and VV modes among various vibrational states. While vibrational energy transfer processes of nominally VT type can be treated with pure VT mode at low collision energies, the intermode coupling is found to be very important at collision energies of several hω. The occurrence of the coupling appears to be nearly universal in vibrational transitions at such energies. Exceptions to the coupling have been discussed

  3. Nanohertz frequency determination for the gravity probe B high frequency superconducting quantum interference device signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, M; Conklin, J W; Kozaczuk, J; Berberian, J E; Keiser, G M; Silbergleit, A S; Worden, P; Santiago, D I

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we present a method to measure the frequency and the frequency change rate of a digital signal. This method consists of three consecutive algorithms: frequency interpolation, phase differencing, and a third algorithm specifically designed and tested by the authors. The succession of these three algorithms allowed a 5 parts in 10(10) resolution in frequency determination. The algorithm developed by the authors can be applied to a sampled scalar signal such that a model linking the harmonics of its main frequency to the underlying physical phenomenon is available. This method was developed in the framework of the gravity probe B (GP-B) mission. It was applied to the high frequency (HF) component of GP-B's superconducting quantum interference device signal, whose main frequency f(z) is close to the spin frequency of the gyroscopes used in the experiment. A 30 nHz resolution in signal frequency and a 0.1 pHz/s resolution in its decay rate were achieved out of a succession of 1.86 s-long stretches of signal sampled at 2200 Hz. This paper describes the underlying theory of the frequency measurement method as well as its application to GP-B's HF science signal.

  4. The dance of molecules: new dynamical perspectives on highly excited molecular vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellman, Michael E; Tyng, Vivian

    2007-04-01

    At low energies, molecular vibrational motion is described by the normal modes model. This model breaks down at higher energy, with strong coupling between normal modes and onset of chaotic dynamics. New anharmonic modes are born in bifurcations, or branchings of the normal modes. Knowledge of these new modes is obtained through the window of frequency-domain spectroscopy, using techniques of nonlinear classical dynamics. It may soon be possible to "watch" molecular rearrangement reactions spectroscopically. Connections are being made with reaction rate theories, condensed phase systems, and motions of electrons in quantum dots.

  5. Characterisation of the membrane affinity of an isoniazide peptide conjugate by tensiometry, atomic force microscopy and sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, using a phospholipid Langmuir monolayer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katalin; Pénzes, Csanád Botond; Schnöller, Donát; Horváti, Kata; Bosze, Szilvia; Hudecz, Ferenc; Keszthelyi, Tamás; Kiss, Eva

    2010-10-07

    Tensiometry, sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to assess the cell penetration ability of a peptide conjugate of the antituberculotic agent isoniazide. Isoniazide was conjugated to peptide (91)SEFAYGSFVRTVSLPV(106), a functional T-cell epitope of the immunodominant 16 kDa protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a simple but versatile model of the cell membrane a phospholipid Langmuir monolayer at the liquid/air interface was used. Changes induced in the structure of the phospholipid monolayer by injection of the peptide conjugate into the subphase were followed by tensiometry and sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. The drug penetrated lipid films were transferred to a solid support by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, and their structures were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Peptide conjugation was found to strongly enhance the cell penetration ability of isoniazide.

  6. Shell structure in superdeformed nuclei at high rotational frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploszajczak, M.

    1980-01-01

    Properties of the shell structure in superdeformed nuclei at high rotational frequencies are discussed. Moreover, stability of the high spin compound nucleus with respect to the fission and the emission of light particles is investigated. (author)

  7. Hydrogenation of the alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Prenal over Pt Single Crystals: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, C.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-11-26

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the surface reaction intermediates during the hydrogenation of three {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal, over Pt(111) at Torr pressures (1 Torr aldehyde, 100 Torr hydrogen) in the temperature range of 295K to 415K. SFG-VS data showed that acrolein has mixed adsorption species of {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-trans, {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-cis as well as highly coordinated {eta}{sub 3} or {eta}{sub 4} species. Crotonaldehyde adsorbed to Pt(111) as {eta}{sub 2} surface intermediates. SFG-VS during prenal hydrogenation also suggested the presence of the {eta}{sub 2} adsorption species, and became more highly coordinated as the temperature was raised to 415K, in agreement with its enhanced C=O hydrogenation. The effect of catalyst surface structure was clarified by carrying out the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over both Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals while acquiring the SFG-VS spectra in situ. Both the kinetics and SFG-VS showed little structure sensitivity. Pt(100) generated more decarbonylation 'cracking' product while Pt(111) had a higher selectivity for the formation of the desired unsaturated alcohol, crotylalcohol.

  8. A MEMS-based high frequency x-ray chopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siria, A; Schwartz, W; Chevrier, J [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dhez, O; Comin, F [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Torricelli, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-29

    Time-resolved x-ray experiments require intensity modulation at high frequencies (advanced rotating choppers have nowadays reached the kHz range). We here demonstrate that a silicon microlever oscillating at 13 kHz with nanometric amplitude can be used as a high frequency x-ray chopper. We claim that using micro-and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), it will be possible to achieve higher frequencies in excess of hundreds of megahertz. Working at such a frequency can open a wealth of possibilities in chemistry, biology and physics time-resolved experiments.

  9. High Accelerating Field Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R. S.; Saito, K.; Furuta, F.; Saeki, T.; Inoue, H.; Morozumi, Y.; Higo, T.; Higashi, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Kazakov, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Ueno, K.; Sato, M.

    2008-06-01

    We have conducted a study of a series of single cell superconducting RF cavities at KEK. These tests were designed to investigate the effect of surface treatment on the maximum accelerating field attainable. All of these cavities are of the ICHIRO shape, based on the Low Loss shape. Our results indicate that accelerating fields as high as the theoretical maximum of 50MV/m are attainable.

  10. Surface and buried interfacial structures of epoxy resins used as underfills studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Anne V; Holden, Brad; Kristalyn, Cornelius; Fuller, Mike; Wilkerson, Brett; Chen, Zhan

    2011-05-01

    Flip chip technology has greatly improved the performance of semiconductor devices, but relies heavily on the performance of epoxy underfill adhesives. Because epoxy underfills are cured in situ in flip chip semiconductor devices, understanding their surface and interfacial structures is critical for understanding their adhesion to various substrates. Here, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to study surface and buried interfacial structures of two model epoxy resins used as underfills in flip chip devices, bisphenol A digylcidyl ether (BADGE) and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE). The surface structures of these epoxies were compared before and after cure, and the orientations of their surface functional groups were deduced to understand how surface structural changes during cure may affect adhesion properties. Further, the effect of moisture exposure, a known cause of adhesion failure, on surface structures was studied. It was found that the BADGE surface significantly restructured upon moisture exposure while the BDDGE surface did not, showing that BADGE adhesives may be more prone to moisture-induced delamination. Lastly, although surface structure can give some insight into adhesion, buried interfacial structures more directly correspond to adhesion properties of polymers. SFG was used to study buried interfaces between deuterated polystyrene (d-PS) and the epoxies before and after moisture exposure. It was shown that moisture exposure acted to disorder the buried interfaces, most likely due to swelling. These results correlated with lap shear adhesion testing showing a decrease in adhesion strength after moisture exposure. The presented work showed that surface and interfacial structures can be correlated to adhesive strength and may be helpful in understanding and designing optimized epoxy underfill adhesives.

  11. Improving mental task classification by adding high frequency band information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Wei; He, Chuanhong; Wang, Ping

    2010-02-01

    Features extracted from delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands spanning low frequency range are commonly used to classify scalp-recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) for designing brain-computer interface (BCI) and higher frequencies are often neglected as noise. In this paper, we implemented an experimental validation to demonstrate that high frequency components could provide helpful information for improving the performance of the mental task based BCI. Electromyography (EMG) and electrooculography (EOG) artifacts were removed by using blind source separation (BSS) techniques. Frequency band powers and asymmetry ratios from the high frequency band (40-100 Hz) together with those from the lower frequency bands were used to represent EEG features. Finally, Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) combining with Mahalanobis distance were used as the classifier. In this study, four types of classifications were performed using EEG signals recorded from four subjects during five mental tasks. We obtained significantly higher classification accuracy by adding the high frequency band features compared to using the low frequency bands alone, which demonstrated that the information in high frequency components from scalp-recorded EEG is valuable for the mental task based BCI.

  12. Chaos in high-power high-frequency gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airila, M.

    2004-01-01

    Gyrotron interaction is a complex nonlinear dynamical process, which may turn chaotic in certain circumstances. The emergence of chaos renders dynamical systems unpredictable and causes bandwidth broadening of signals. Such effects would jeopardize the prospect of advanced gyrotrons in fusion. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the possibility of chaos in gyrotrons. There are three different chaos scenarios closely related to the development of high-power gyrotrons: First, the onset of chaos in electron trajectories would lead to difficulties in the design and efficient operation of depressed potential collectors, which are used for efficiency enhancement. Second, the radio-frequency signal could turn chaotic, decreasing the output power and the spectral purity of the output signal. As a result, mode conversion, transmission, and absorption efficiencies would be reduced. Third, spatio-temporal chaos in the resonator field structure can set a limit for the use of large-diameter interaction cavities and high-order TE modes (large azimuthal index) allowing higher generated power. In this thesis, the issues above are addressed with numerical modeling. It is found that chaos in electron residual energies is practically absent in the parameter region corresponding to high efficiency. Accordingly, depressed collectors are a feasible solution also in advanced high-power gyrotrons. A new method is presented for straightforward numerical solution of the one-dimensional self-consistent time-dependent gyrotron equations, and the method is generalized to two dimensions. In 1D, a chart of gyrotron oscillations is calculated. It is shown that the regions of stationary oscillations, automodulation, and chaos have a complicated topology in the plane of generalized gyrotron variables. The threshold current for chaotic oscillations exceeds typical operating currents by a factor of ten. However, reflection of the output signal may significantly lower the threshold. 2D

  13. Collision dynamics of methyl radicals and highly vibrationally excited molecules using crossed molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.M.Y.

    1991-10-01

    The vibrational to translational (V→T) energy transfer in collisions between large highly vibrationally excited polyatomics and rare gases was investigated by time-of-flight techniques. Two different methods, UV excitation followed by intemal conversion and infrared multiphoton excitation (IRMPE), were used to form vibrationally excited molecular beams of hexafluorobenzene and sulfur hexafluoride, respectively. The product translational energy was found to be independent of the vibrational excitation. These results indicate that the probability distribution function for V→T energy transfer is peaked at zero. The collisional relaxation of large polyatomic molecules with rare gases most likely occurs through a rotationally mediated process. Photodissociation of nitrobenzene in a molecular beam was studied at 266 nm. Two primary dissociation channels were identified including simple bond rupture to produce nitrogen dioxide and phenyl radical and isomerization to form nitric oxide and phenoxy radical. The time-of-flight spectra indicate that simple bond rupture and isomerization occurs via two different mechanisms. Secondary dissociation of the phenoxy radicals to carbon monoxide and cyclopentadienyl radicals was observed as well as secondary photodissociation of phenyl radical to give H atom and benzyne. A supersonic methyl radical beam source is developed. The beam source configuration and conditions were optimized for CH 3 production from the thermal decomposition of azomethane. Elastic scattering of methyl radical and neon was used to differentiate between the methyl radicals and the residual azomethane in the molecular beam

  14. Research on Free Vibration Frequency Characteristics of Rotating Functionally Graded Material Truncated Conical Shells with Eccentric Functionally Graded Material Stringer and Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Van Dung

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research work, an exact analytical solution for frequency characteristics of the free vibration of rotating functionally graded material (FGM truncated conical shells reinforced by eccentric FGM stringers and rings has been investigated by the displacement function method. Material properties of shell and stiffeners are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution. The change of spacing between stringers is considered. Using the Donnell shell theory, Leckhnisky smeared stiffeners technique and taking into account the influences of centrifugal force and Coriolis acceleration the governing equations are derived. For stiffened FGM conical shells, it is difficult that free vibration equations are a couple set of three variable coefficient partial differential equations. By suitable transformations and applying Galerkin method, this difficulty is overcome in the paper. The sixth order polynomial equation for w is obtained and it is used to analyze the frequency characteristics of rotating ES-FGM conical shells. Effects of stiffener, geometrics parameters, cone angle, vibration modes and rotating speed on frequency characteristics of the shell forward and backward wave are discussed in detail. The present approach proves to be reliable and accurate by comparing with published results available in the literature.

  15. Nuclear-Mechanical Coupling: Small Amplitude Mechanical Vibrations and High Amplitude Power Oscillations in Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2008-11-01

    The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may produce changes in density. Changes in density modify the reactivity. Changes in reactivity modify thermal power. Modifications in thermal power produce variations in temperature fields. Variations in temperature produce variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small amplitude. A recently constructed, simple mathematical model of nuclear reactor kinetics, that improves the one due to A.S. Thompson, is reviewed. It was constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor: a nonlinear nuclear-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to reactor point kinetics with thermal-elastic feedback and with frozen delayed neutron effects) is coupled nonlinearly with a linear mechanical-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to the first normal mode of mechanical vibrations excited by thermo-elastic effects). This mathematical model is studied here from the standpoint of mechanical vibrations. It is shown how, under certain conditions, a suitable mechanical perturbation could elicit fast and growing oscillatory instabilities in the reactor power. Applying the asymptotic method due to Krylov, Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky, analytical formulae that may be used in the calculation of the time varying amplitude and phase of the mechanical oscillations are given, as functions of the mechanical, thermal and nuclear parameters of the reactor. The consequences for the mechanical integrity of the reactor are assessed. Some conditions, mainly, but not exclusively

  16. High frequency characterization of Galfenol minor flux density loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Weng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first measurement of ring-shaped Galfenol’s high frequency-dependent minor flux density loops. The frequencies of applied AC magnetic field are 1k, 5k, 10k, 50k, 100k, 200k, 300k, 500 kHz. The measurements show that the cycle area between the flux density and magnetic field curves increase with increasing frequency. High frequency-dependent characterization, including coercivity, specific power loss, residual induction, and maximum relative permeability are discussed. Minor loops for different max induction are also measured and discussed at the same frequency 100 kHz. Minor loops with the same max induction 0.05 T for different frequencies 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 kHz are measured and specific power loss are discussed.

  17. High-frequency acoustic spectrum analyzer based on polymer integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Araz

    This dissertation presents an acoustic spectrum analyzer based on nonlinear polymer-integrated optics. The device is used in a scanning heterodyne geometry by zero biasing a Michelson interferometer. It is capable of detecting vibrations from DC to the GHz range. Initial low frequency experiments show that the device is an effective tool for analyzing an acoustic spectrum even in noisy environments. Three generations of integrated sensors are presented, starting with a very lossy (86 dB total insertion loss) initial device that detects vibrations as low as λ/10, and second and third generation improvements with a final device of 44 dB total insertion loss. The sensor was further tested for detecting a pulsed laser-excited vibration and resonances due to the structure of the sample. The data are compared to the acoustic spectrum measured using a low loss passive fiber interferometer detection scheme which utilizes a high speed detector. The peaks present in the passive detection scheme are clearly visible with our sensor data, which have a lower noise floor. Hybrid integration of GHz electronics is also investigated in this dissertation. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is integrated on a polymer device using a new approach. The VCO is shown to operate as specified by the manufacturer, and the RF signal is efficiently launched onto the micro-strip line used for EO modulation. In the future this technology can be used in conjunction with the presented sensor to produce a fully integrated device containing high frequency drive electronics controlled by low DC voltage. Issues related to device fabrication, loss analysis, RF power delivery to drive circuitry, efficient poling of large area samples, and optimizing poling conditions are also discussed throughout the text.

  18. High-frequency multimodal atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Nievergelt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multifrequency atomic force microscopy imaging has been recently demonstrated as a powerful technique for quickly obtaining information about the mechanical properties of a sample. Combining this development with recent gains in imaging speed through small cantilevers holds the promise of a convenient, high-speed method for obtaining nanoscale topography as well as mechanical properties. Nevertheless, instrument bandwidth limitations on cantilever excitation and readout have restricted the ability of multifrequency techniques to fully benefit from small cantilevers. We present an approach for cantilever excitation and deflection readout with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, enabling multifrequency techniques extended beyond 2 MHz for obtaining materials contrast in liquid and air, as well as soft imaging of delicate biological samples.

  19. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  20. Rotational and High-resolution Infrared Spectrum of HC3N: Global Ro-vibrational Analysis and Improved Line Catalog for Astrophysical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Tamassia, Filippo; Laas, Jacob; Giuliano, Barbara M.; Degli Esposti, Claudio; Dore, Luca; Melosso, Mattia; Canè, Elisabetta; Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Müller, Holger S. P.; Spahn, Holger; Belloche, Arnaud; Caselli, Paola; Menten, Karl M.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2017-11-01

    HC3N is a ubiquitous molecule in interstellar environments, from external galaxies to Galactic interstellar clouds, star-forming regions, and planetary atmospheres. Observations of its rotational and vibrational transitions provide important information on the physical and chemical structures of the above environments. We present the most complete global analysis of the spectroscopic data of HC3N. We recorded the high-resolution infrared spectrum from 450 to 1350 cm-1, a region dominated by the intense {ν }5 and {ν }6 fundamental bands, located at 660 and 500 cm-1, respectively, and their associated hot bands. Pure rotational transitions in the ground and vibrationally excited states were recorded in the millimeter and submillimeter regions in order to extend the frequency range so far considered in previous investigations. All of the transitions from the literature and from this work involving energy levels lower than 1000 cm-1 were fitted together to an effective Hamiltonian. Because of the presence of various anharmonic resonances, the Hamiltonian includes a number of interaction constants, in addition to the conventional rotational and vibrational l-type resonance terms. The data set contains about 3400 ro-vibrational lines of 13 bands and some 1500 pure rotational lines belonging to 12 vibrational states. More than 120 spectroscopic constants were determined directly from the fit, without any assumption deduced from theoretical calculations or comparisons with similar molecules. An extensive list of highly accurate rest frequencies was produced to assist astronomical searches and data interpretation. These improved data enabled a refined analysis of the ALMA observations toward Sgr B2(N2).