Sample records for high flow priapism

  1. Successful treatment of high-flow priapism with radiologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occlusive, low flow) painful priapism and nonischemic (arterial, high flow) painless priapism.. We report our successful treatment of arterial priapism by means of radiologic selective transcatheter embolization of the internal pudendal artery using micro ...

  2. High-flow priapism in acute lymphatic leukaemia

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    Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Vogt, Susanna; Kaiser, Werner A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740, Jena (Germany); Kentouche, Karim; Doerfel, Claus; Zintl, Felix [Department of Paediatrics, University of Jena (Germany)


    Priapism is defined as prolonged and persistent erection of the penis without sexual stimulation. It is associated with excessive hyperleukocytosis (e.g. in acute or chronic leukaemia); however, this complication is rarely seen in the pediatric population. We report a 12-year-old boy suffering from acute leukaemia presenting with, at first intermittent, but increasingly persistent erection. Doppler US revealed signs of high-flow priapism. MRI excluded intrapelvic tumour masses, and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography could not demonstrate an arteriovenous fistula or thrombosis. Cavernosal blood-gas measurement was in agreement with high-flow priapism. On the basis of the imaging findings, invasive therapeutic management was avoided in our patient with a successful outcome. (orig.)

  3. High-flow priapism in a 12-year-old boy: Treatment with superselective embolization

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    A R Mossadeq


    Full Text Available Priapism is caused by an imbalance between penile blood inflow and outflow. There are two types of priapism: low-flow priapism due to venous occlusion and high-flow priapism due to uncontrolled arterial flow to the veins. High-flow priapism most frequently occurs as a result of penile trauma in which the intercavernosal artery disruption causes an arteriocavernosal fistula. It is rarely encountered in the pediatric and prepubertal population. Clinically, it manifests as a painless, prolonged erection after perineal trauma. Treatment ranges from expectant management to open surgical exploration with vessel ligation. We report the successful treatment of high-flow priapism in a 12-year-old prepubertal boy with superselective embolization.

  4. Erectie bij een kleuter door "high-flow" -priapisme: spoedgeval.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.


    A healthy 5-year-old child was brought to the general practitioner with priapism that had been observed for a few days, without any other symptoms. Angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula originating from the left A. dorsalis penis, which was successfully embolised. The diagnosis was ‘high

  5. High-flow priapism treated with superselective transcatheter embolization using polyvinyl alcohol particles

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    Sebastián Sánchez-López


    Full Text Available Objectives: Priapism is a persistent erection of the penis not associated with sexual stimulation. High-flow priapism is caused by unregulated arterial inflow, usually preceded by perineal or penile blunt trauma and formation of an arterial-lacunar fistula. We present a case of high-flow priapism in a 13-year-old patient managed with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Methods: After obtaining informed consent of the parents of the minor, diagnosis was made with penile Color Doppler Ultrasound and confirmed with flush angiography. Selective arterial embolization was performed with the use of polyvinyl alcohol particles. Results: Complete detumescence was achieved without compromising the patient’s erectile function. Conclusions: The use of permanent occlusive agents like polyvinyl alcohol particles for embolization shows good occlusion rates compared to temporary agents. More studies are needed to find the safer and better agent for the treatment of high flow priapism without compromising erectile function.

  6. Bilateral Superselective Arterial Microcoil Embolization in Post-Traumatic High-Flow Priapism: A Case Report

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    Yung-Chin Lee


    Full Text Available Priapism is a prolonged penile erection unrelated to sexual stimulation. High-flow arteriogenic priapism is uncommon and usually occurs after genitoperineal trauma, which may damage a feeding cavernosal artery, leading to an arteriovenous fistula and, occasionally, to an associated pseudoaneurysm. The defects rarely occur bilaterally. Herein, we report successful treatment of high-flow priapism secondary to a traumatic pseudoaneurysm fed from the bilateral cavernosal artery. Diagnosis was made after cavernosal blood gas analysis, color Doppler ultrasonography, and superselective angiography. Treatment consisted of superselective arterial embolization using metallic microcoils and resulted in simultaneous detumescence of the penis with no complications. The patient regained morning erection on the second postoperative day and erectile function remained normal 8 months after treatment. This case shows that bilateral arteriocavernosal fistulae can be successfully treated with superselective arterial embolization without affecting potency and highlights the importance of warning men about the possibility of developing high-flow priapism following a perineal trauma.

  7. Therapeutic embolization of high-flow priapism 1 year follow up with color Doppler sonography

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    Zhao, Song, E-mail:; Zhou, Jun, E-mail: 18740585@QQ.COM; Zhang, Yi-Fan, E-mail:; Zhang, Xiao-Long, E-mail: 87512377@QQ.COM; Long, Qing-Yun, E-mail:


    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of color Doppler sonography (CDS) for the diagnosis of high-flow priapism and the treatment of cavernosal arterial fistula via super-selective arterial embolization. Methods and materials: We reviewed eight cases of high-flow priapism with cavernosal arterial fistula, from 2005 to 2011. All of the patients were diagnosed with a high-flow priapism and unilateral artery fistula via CDS. Conventional treatments for the eight cases were unsuccessful, and the patients were then treated through super-selective embolization. Diagnostic angiograms of the internal iliac artery showed a fistula on one side of the cavernosal artery, thus confirming the CDS images. We compared hemodynamic parameters including the peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity the resistance index of the pathological cavernosal artery and intracavernosal pressure in all patients before and after treatment using t-test. The efficacy of super-selective embolization and the erectile function of all patients were evaluated at a follow-up time of 12 months. Results: All patients were successfully treated and angiography showed that the fistulas disappeared after treatment. Additionally significant differences were found in the peak systolic velocity, the end diastolic velocity, the resistance index and intracavernosal pressure between pre-treatment and post-treatment (P < 0.05). At 5 days post-treatment, only one case relapses had occurred. Seven cases displayed restored erectile function and only one case exhibited erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Color Doppler sonography is a highly sensitive method for the examination of high-flow priapism, and super-selective embolization is a safe and effective treatment for cavernosal arterial fistula.

  8. Penile angiography and superselective embolization therapy in arterial priapism; Penisangiographie und superselektive Embolisationstherapie bei high-flow Priapismus

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    Dinkel, H.P.; Triller, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland); Hochreiter, W. [Urologische Klinik, Inselspital, Univ. Bern (Switzerland)


    Purpose: To report feasibility, benefit and complications of penile angiography and superselective penile embolization in arterial priapism. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive patients (aged 28, 29, 40 and 49 years), who underwent penile angiography for arterial priapism (high-flow priapism) within a four-year period, were identified by a keyword search of our radiology information system. One patient had sustained a direct penile trauma (severe blow to the erected penis) and three patients suffered from recurrent spontaneous priapism. All patients had previously undergone corporeal aspiration and noradrenaline injection to achieve detumescence. Two patients had one or several unsuccessful spongiocavernous shunt procedures. Results: In three of the four patients, superselective pudendal and penile angiography demonstrated pathologic arteriocavernous shunting. In two of the three patients, superselective embolization using a coaxial micro-catheter was attempted. In one of the two patients, the cavernous artery became spastic before embolization material was actually injected, inducing immediate and lasting detumescence. In the other patient, unilateral Gelfoam embolization led to immediate detumescence but the priapism recurred 12 hours after the procedure. A subsequent contralateral Gelfoam embolization was successful. Erectile function was preserved in all cases. No procedure-related complications occurred. Conclusion: Our experience supports the prevailing opinion found in the current literature that superselective coaxial embolization constitutes the treatment of choice in patients with high-flow priapism. Prognosis is good with high probability of preserving the erectile function. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Untersuchung der Interventionsmoeglichkeiten bei arteriellem (high-flow) Priapismus durch endovaskulaere superselektive Embolisation der Penisarterien. Methode: Alle innerhalb eines Vierjahreszeitraums (1/99-5/2002) wegen Priapismus zur Angiographie

  9. European Association of Urology guidelines on priapism. (United States)

    Salonia, Andrea; Eardley, Ian; Giuliano, François; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios; Moncada, Ignacio; Vardi, Yoram; Wespes, Eric; Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos


    Priapism is defined as a penile erection that persists beyond or is unrelated to sexual interest or stimulation. It can be classified into ischaemic (low flow), arterial (high flow), or stuttering (recurrent or intermittent). To provide guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of priapism. Systematic literature search on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of priapism. Articles with highest evidence available were selected to form the basis of these recommendations. Ischaemic priapism is usually idiopathic and the most common form. Arterial priapism usually occurs after blunt perineal trauma. History is the mainstay of diagnosis and helps determine the pathogenesis. Laboratory testing is used to support clinical findings. Ischaemic priapism is an emergency condition. Intervention should start within 4-6h, including decompression of the corpora cavernosa by aspiration and intracavernous injection of sympathomimetic drugs (e.g. phenylephrine). Surgical treatment is recommended for failed conservative management, although the best procedure is unclear. Immediate implantation of a prosthesis should be considered for long-lasting priapism. Arterial priapism is not an emergency. Selective embolization is the suggested treatment modality and has high success rates. Stuttering priapism is poorly understood and the main therapeutic goal is the prevention of future episodes. This may be achieved pharmacologically, but data on efficacy are limited. These guidelines summarise current information on priapism. The extended version are available on the European Association of Urology Website ( Priapism is a persistent, often painful, penile erection lasting more than 4h unrelated to sexual stimulation. It is more common in patients with sickle cell disease. This article represents the shortened EAU priapism guidelines, based on a systematic literature review. Cases of priapism are classified into ischaemic (low flow), arterial (high flow), or

  10. Management of Low-Flow Priapism Using the Winter Procedure: A Case Report


    Chen, Chung-Chin; Wang, Chii-Jye; Lee, Yung-Chin; Chou, Yii-Her; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Chen, Chi-Wen


    Priapism is a prolonged penile erection that is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Low-flow priapism has been associated with sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies, neoplastic syndrome, anticoagulant therapy, psychotropic medication, and idiopathic causes. We report the successful treatment of idiopathic low-flow priapism using the Winter procedure. Initial treatment consisted of aspiration and intracavernous irrigation with iced saline and a vasoconstrictive agent, but in vain. We t...

  11. Clinical Management of Priapism: A Review

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    Kazuyoshi Shigehara


    Full Text Available Priapism is defined as a persistent and painful erection lasting longer than four hours without sexual stimulation. Based on episode history and pathophysiology, priapism is classified into three subtypes: ischemic (low-flow, non-ischemic (high-flow, and stuttering priapism. Ischemic priapism is characterized by a persistent, painful erection with remarkable rigidity of the corpora cavernosa caused by a disorder of venous blood outflow from this tissue mass, and is similar to penile compartment syndrome. Stuttering priapism is characterized by a self-limited, recurrent, and intermittent erection, frequently occurring in patients with sickle cell disease. Non-ischemic priapism is characterized by a painless, persistent nonsexual erection that is not fully rigid and is caused by excess arterial blood flow into the corpora cavernosa. Because ischemic and non-ischemic priapism differ based on emergency status and treatment options, appropriate discrimination of each type of priapism is required to initiate adequate clinical management. The goal of management of priapism is to achieve detumescence of the persistent penile erection and to preserve erectile function after resolution of the priapism. To achieve successful management, urologists should address this emergency clinical condition. In the present article, we review the diagnosis and clinical management of the three types of priapism.

  12. Highly selective embolization of bilateral cavernous arteries for post-traumatic penile arterial priapism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhuijsen, J. F.; Reisman, Y.; Reekers, J. A.; de Reijke, T. M.


    High-flow priapism is characteristically diagnosed on clinical findings: a prolonged, non-painful erection with a delayed onset that develops after a penile or perineal trauma. If conservative measures fail arteriography is indicated, which shows a blush of extravasating contrast from an

  13. Priapism in children: treatment with embolotherapy

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    Hurh, Peter; Baskin, Kevin; Cahill, Anne M.; Kaye, Robin [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Carr, Michael; Canning, Douglas; Snyder, Howard [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Urology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Towbin, Richard


    Priapism is defined as involuntary, prolonged penile erection caused by factors other than sexual arousal, and is classified as either low-flow or high-flow. Embolotherapy is an accepted form of therapy in adults with high-flow priapism. Because the differences in etiology, management and outcome are significant, accurate and timely diagnosis is imperative. The purpose of this report is to present our experience with embolotherapy for treatment of high-flow priapism in three children. This was a retrospective study. During an 18-month period, three boys ranging in age from 6 to 15 years presented with priapism. All three children were treated with embolotherapy. All three children were successfully treated with angiography and embolotherapy. One boy had a presentation that initially raised the possibility of low-flow priapism. No complications occurred, and to date all children are able to maintain normal erections. Subselective transcatheter embolization is the procedure of choice for high-flow priapism. In cases where priapism persists despite adequate therapy, angiography might be useful to exclude high-flow disease. In children with high-flow priapism, selective occlusion of the penile arteriovenous fistula led to detumescence and normal erectile function. (orig.)

  14. The Winter Procedure as Management for Prolonged Low-Flow Priapism: A Case Report

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    Hsi-Lin Hsiao


    Full Text Available Priapism is a prolonged penile erection that is not associated with sexual stimulation. Although the time course has not been formally defined, it is usually considered to be one that lasts for more than 4–6 hours. Low-flow (ischemic priapism is usually associated with sickle cell disease, hemoglobinopathies, neoplastic syndrome, anticoagulant therapy, psychotropic medication or idiopathic causes. Here, we report a case of prolonged low-flow priapism lasting for 2 weeks, which was successfully treated with the Winter procedure after several attempts of conservative treatment. Although the potency remains unclear and the patient needs a longer period of follow-up, the case reported here still shows that prolonged low-flow priapism can be successfully treated with the Winter procedure when conservative treatments fail.

  15. Management of Low-Flow Priapism Using the Winter Procedure: A Case Report

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    Chung-Chin Chen


    Full Text Available Priapism is a prolonged penile erection that is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Low-flow priapism has been associated with sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies, neoplastic syndrome, anticoagulant therapy, psychotropic medication, and idiopathic causes. We report the successful treatment of idiopathic low-flow priapism using the Winter procedure. Initial treatment consisted of aspiration and intracavernous irrigation with iced saline and a vasoconstrictive agent, but in vain. We then performed the Winter procedure, in which fistulas between the corpora cavernosa and the glans penis were created. This resulted in the simultaneous detumescence of the penis, without complication. The erectile function of the penis was normal 1 year after the procedure. This case shows that idiopathic low-flow priapism can be successfully treated using the Winter procedure when conservative treatment fails.

  16. Priapism: etiology, pathophysiology and management

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    Van Der Horst C.


    Full Text Available The understanding of erectile physiology has improved the prompt diagnosis and treatment of priapism. Priapism is defined as prolonged and persistent erection of the penis without sexual stimulation and failure to subside despite orgasm. Numerous etiologies of this condition are considered. Among others a disturbed detumescence mechanism, which may due to excess release of contractile neurotransmitters, obstruction of draining venules, malfunction of the intrinsic detumescence mechanism or prolonged relaxation of intracavernosal smooth muscle are postulated. Treatment of priapism varies from a conservative medical to a drastic surgical approach. Two main types of priapism; veno-occlusive low flow (ischemic and arterial high flow (non-ischemic, must be distinguished to choose the correct treatment option for each type. Patient history, physical examination, penile hemodynamics and corporeal metabolic blood quality provides distinction between a static or dynamic pathology. Priapism can be treated effectively with intracavernous vasoconstrictive agents or surgical shunting. Alternative options, such as intracavernous injection of methylene blue (MB or selective penile arterial embolization (SPEA, for the management of high and low flow priapism are described and a survey on current treatment modalities is given.

  17. Pathophysiology of priapism: dysregulatory erection physiology thesis. (United States)

    Burnett, Arthur L


    While a modest amount of medical literature has been written on the topic of priapism, reports heretofore have focused predominantly on diagnostic and management related aspects of the disorder, providing meager information in regard to its pathophysiology. Accordingly the intent of this review was to explore the etiological and pathogenic factors involved in priapism. The review entailed an overview of traditional and modern concepts that have been applied to the pathophysiology of priapism and an evaluation of assorted observational and experimental data relating to this field of study. The basic exercise consisted of a literature search using the National Library of Medicine PubMed Services, index referencing provided through the Historical Collection of the Institute of Medicine of The Johns Hopkins University and a survey of abstract proceedings from national meetings relevant to priapism. Insight into the pathophysiology of priapism was derived from a synthesis of evolutionary clinical experiences, mythical beliefs, clinical variants and scientific advances associated with the field of priapism. The results can be summarized. 1) Clinicopathological manifestations of priapism support its basic classification into low flow (ischemic) and high flow (nonischemic) hemodynamic categories, commonly attributed to venous outflow occlusion and unregulated arterial overflow of the penis, respectively. 2) Factual information is insufficient to substantiate etiological roles for urethral infection, bladder distention, failed ejaculation, satyriasis and sleep apnea in priapism. 3) Features of the variant forms of priapism invoke changes in nervous system control of erection and penile vascular homeostasis as having pathogenic roles in the disorder. 4) Clinical therapeutic and basic science investigative studies have revealed various effector mechanisms of the erectile tissue response that may act in dysregulated fashion to subserve priapism. This exercise suggested that

  18. How I treat priapism (United States)

    Anele, Uzoma A.; Le, Brian V.; Resar, Linda M. S.


    Priapism is a disorder of persistent penile erection unrelated to sexual interest or desire. This pathologic condition, specifically the ischemic variant, is often associated with devastating complications, notably erectile dysfunction. Because priapism demonstrates high prevalence in patients with hematologic disorders, most commonly sickle cell disease (SCD), there is significant concern for its sequelae in this affected population. Thus, timely diagnosis and management are critical for the prevention or at least reduction of cavernosal tissue ischemia and potential damage consequent to each episode. Current guidelines and management strategies focus primarily on reactive treatments. However, an increasing understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of SCD-associated priapism has led to the identification of new potential therapeutic targets. Future agents are being developed and explored for use in the prevention of priapism. PMID:25810489

  19. Partial priapism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyerup, Peter; Azawi, Nessn Htum


    With only 34 prior cases in world literature, partial priapism (PP), also called partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum, is a rare urological condition. The aetiology and treatment of PP is still unclear, but bicycle riding, trauma, drug usage, sexual intercourse, haematological...

  20. Nonischemic priapism following penile tattooing. (United States)

    Zargooshi, Javaad; Rahmanian, Elham; Motaee, Hiwa; Kohzadi, Mozhgan


    To our knowledge, here we report the first case of nonischemic priapism following penile tattooing. To report the first case of nonischemic priapism following penile tattooing. A case with tattooing-induced priapism is presented including subjective reporting, physical examination, and laboratory/radiologic evaluations. A 21-year-old man, presented with partially rigid penis of 3-month duration. On examination, the penis was half rigid, with a tattoo on its dorsal surface, and a smaller tattoo on the glans (Figure 1). The patient initially stated that the tattoo had been created years ago, but later admitted that he had it created just before the occurrence of priapism. A traditional tattooist created the tattoo manually, using a handheld needle. Bleeding from deep penile tissue for several days complicated the tattooing. Known etiologies of priapism were investigated and ruled out. Specifically, perineal injury, leukemia, sickle cell trait, thalassemia, urinary tract infection, neurogenic, neoplastic, infectious, toxic, and pharmacological causes were actively investigated and ruled out. There was no history of alcohol consumption or smoking. Aspirated penile blood was bright red. Cavernous blood gas measurements confirmed high oxygen and low carbon dioxide content, diagnostic of arterial priapism. There was no embolization facility in Kermanshah. In fact, there are few experts in superselective embolization in Iran. We referred the patient for superselective embolization. However, he underwent a nonindicated Sacher procedure. Predictably, the procedure was unsuccessful. At present, the patient continues to have priapism. Because of the painless nature of erections, moderately good preservation of erectile function during intercourses, and disappointment with former surgery, the patient declined further therapies, and he lives with his condition. Tattooing should be added to the etiologies of nonischemic priapism. Considering this case, we discourage penile

  1. Recurrent priapism from therapeutic quetiapine. (United States)

    Saghafi, Omeed; Kao, Amanda; Druck, Jeffrey


    Priapism is rarely related to use of non-erectile related medications. The objective was to educate about the multiple possible causes of priapism and to provide treatment recommendations for the different types of priapism. We present the case of a 43-year-old African American male with a history of schizoaffective disorder who presented to our emergency department multiple times over a three year period with priapism, each episode related to the ingestion of quetiapine. Following penile aspiration and intercavernosal injection of phenylephrine, this patient had resolution of his priapism. This case demonstrates an unusual case of recurrent priapism.

  2. Aripiprazole-induced priapism

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    Satya K Trivedi


    Full Text Available Priapism is a urologic emergency representing a true disorder of penile erection that persists beyond or is unrelated to sexual interest or stimulation. A variety of psychotropic drugs are known to produce priapism, albeit rarely, through their antagonistic action on alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. We report such a case of priapism induced by a single oral dose of 10 mg aripiprazole, a drug with the least affinity to adrenergic receptors among all atypical antipsychotics. Polymorphism of alpha-2A adrenergic receptor gene in schizophrenia patients is known to be associated with sialorrhea while on clozapine treatment. Probably, similar polymorphism of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor gene could contribute to its altered sensitivity and resultant priapism. In future, pharmacogenomics-based approach may help in personalizing the treatment and effectively prevent the emergence of such side effects.

  3. Etiological factors and management in priapism patients and attitude of emergency physicians

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    Mehmet Giray Sönmez


    Full Text Available Objective: To present the underlying etiological factors in patients referring with priapism, sharing how they are managed according to etiology and priapism type together with our experiences, creating awareness so that urologists and emergency physicians may play a more active role together in priapism management. Materials and methods: Patients referring to emergency service with priapism were examined. Penile Doppler ultrasonography (PDU and/or corporeal aspiration and blood gas analysis were made in order to determine priapism type after anamnesis and physical examination. The most appropriate treatment option was chosen and applied on the patients considering priapism type, underlying etiological factors and priapism time. Presence of a statistical difference between etiological factors causing priapism, priapism type and applied treatment methods was calculated using Chi square (χ2 test. Results: A total of 51 patients referring to emergency service with priapism attacks for 53 times were included in the evaluation. When compared to other etiological factors, number of priapism cases developing secondary to papaverine after PDU was found statistically significantly high (p < 0.001. Ischemic priapism ratio was detected statistically higher compared to other groups (p < 0.001. Aspiration and/or irrigation treatment were the most common method used for treatment at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001. All patients (100% were hospitalized in urology service without applying any treatment in emergency service and had treatment and intervention under the control of the urologist. Conclusions: Application of non-invasive treatments in suitable priapism patients would protect patients from invasive painful interventions. We believe that emergency physicians should be more effective in priapism phase management and at least noninvasive treatment phase.

  4. Successful management of stuttering priapism using home self-injections of the alpha-agonist metaraminol

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    Mcdonald Michael


    Full Text Available Low-flow priapism can result in impotence if treatment is delayed, yet patients with recurrent priapism often suffer delay before therapy. We describe management of recurrent priapism using self-administered injections of intracavernosal metaraminol (Aramine™, Merck, a long-acting vasoconstricting amine that is considered safer than epinephrine. The patient injects as often as once daily using 5-10 mg of drug. Our patient reports rapid detumescence and has not required emergency room visits since starting injections. He denies complications. Treatment of priapism using metaraminol has been suggested in the hospital setting; however, this is the first report of successful home self-administration of the drug.

  5. [Priapism through the centuries]. (United States)

    Jolidon, C; Cordier, M; Lanson, Y


    Priapism is known from egyptian antiquity, but greek doctors give the name of god Priape, to this pathology. The physiopathology is controversial, between Paré and the authors of Middle age tradition medical. The treatment is at first the use of quack medicines, and the Velpeau used surgery.

  6. Priapism: Prolonged Erection (United States)

    ... Overview Priapism is a prolonged erection of the penis. The persistent erection continues hours beyond or isn't caused by ... cause serious complications. The blood trapped in the penis is deprived of oxygen. When an erection lasts for too long, this oxygen-poor blood ...

  7. Recurrent Priapism from Therapeutic Quetiapine

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    Omeed Saghafi


    Full Text Available Priapism is rarely related to use of non-erectile related medications. The objective was to educate about the multiple possible causes of priapism and to provide treatment recommendations for the different types of priapism. We present the case of a 43 year-old African American male with a history of schizoaffective disorder who presented to our emergency department multiple times over a three year period with priapism, each episode related to the ingestion of quetiapine. Following penile aspiration and intercavernosal injection of phenylephrine, this patient had resolution of his priapism. This case demonstrates an unusual case of recurrent priapism. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:114–116.

  8. Priapism associated with pregabalin

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    Ali A Alsulihem


    Full Text Available Priapism is a well-known cause of erectile dysfunction. There are a wide variety of causes, including hemoglobinopathy, neurological diseases, and drugs. We present a case report of an Asian man who presented with priapism that was continuous for 3 days after taking three doses of pregabalin for chronic back pain. Cavernous aspiration, phenylephrine injection, and a winter shunt all failed to achieve detumescence. The patient then presented to our institution on the 5 th day of his initial presentation, and an El-Ghorab shunt was performed, after which detumescence and pain relief were achieved. We suggest that pregabalin might induce tumescence through acting on the α2δ1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels in the penile smooth muscle or by presynaptic inhibition of noradrenaline release. Further studies are warranted regarding the action of pregabalin and its effect on penile physiology.

  9. A Case of Priapism with Risperidone

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    Almari Ginory


    Full Text Available Priapism is a urologic emergency defined as a prolonged, possibly painful, penile erection. There are several known causes of priapism including psychotropic medications. One of the mechanisms by which antipsychotics are believed to induce priapism is through alpha-1 antagonism. This is case of a 50-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia with previous priapism related to trazodone, who presents with new onset priapism associated with risperidone. In this case, the treatment of priapism includes discontinuation of the offending agent and drainage of the corpus cavernosum twice along with intracavernosal phenylephrine injections. It is important to educate patients on priapism as a possible side effect of medications. It is also important to consider previous episodes of medication-induced priapism when prescribing psychotropic medications as this may increase the patient’s future risk of priapism.

  10. The Occurrence of Priapism as a Result of the Use of a Single Dose of Quetiapine


    Ozkaya, Fatih; Ziypak, Tevfik; Adanur, Senol; Yucel, Atakan; Aydinoglu, Unsal


    Priapism is a prolonged pathologic erection situation that occurs after sexual stimulation or without sexual stimulation. This condition is divided into two types, ischemic (low-flow, veno-occlusive) and non-ischemic (high-flow, arterial). A 68-year-old male patient applied to our clinic with the complaints of hardness and pain in the penis. Three days before he applied to our clinic, he was prescribed a single dose of 200 mg quetiapine by a psychiatry polyclinic for the complication of insom...

  11. Barry shunt for treatment of a 76-hour stuttering priapism without subsequent erectile dysfunction

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    Osmonov DK


    Full Text Available Daniar Kurmanbekovich Osmonov, Aleksey Aksenov, Andrea Nathaly Guerra Sandoval, Almut Kalz, Klaus Peter Juenemann Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Introduction: This paper reports treatment of a 76-hour low-flow priapism with a shunting procedure that was first described by Barry in 1976. We were able to observe the preservation of erectile function despite the long period of ischemia. A review of the literature shows that there are few reports of erectile function recovery after a priapism of similar duration. Materials and methods: A 42-year-old patient presented with a 76-hour priapism, probably caused by consumption of alcohol and illegal drugs. A Barry Shunt procedure was performed. The erectile function of the patient was assessed by means of International Index of Erectile Function score over a follow-up period of 30 months. Moreover, we reviewed different surgical options for treatment of priapism in the literature. Results: Partial return of erection without sexual arousal occurred on two occasions during the 10-day hospitalization, but was treated by manipulation of the penis, ie, by milking the tumescence into the shunt. After 3 months, the shunt was still palpable as a subcutaneous swelling. Six months postoperatively, the residual swelling had disappeared. The International Index of Erectile Function score was of 21 without phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors after a follow-up of 2.5 years. Conclusion: Barry shunt is an effective alternative surgical option for the treatment of low-flow priapism. In the case of our patient, it was also effective after a 76-hour-lasting priapism. Keywords: low flow priapism, erectile function, cavernovenous shunt, surgical treatment of stuttering priapism

  12. Malignant priapism: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P


    Metastatic involvement of the penis is most commonly from a primary malignant genitourinary tumour. It is a rare phenomenon usually reflecting disseminated malignancy associated with a poor prognosis. Metastasis to the penis mimicking priapism is extremely rare, particularly in the absence of disseminated disease.

  13. Mean velocity and peak systolic velocity can help determine ischaemic and non-ischaemic priapism. (United States)

    von Stempel, C; Zacharakis, E; Allen, C; Ramachandran, N; Walkden, M; Minhas, S; Muneer, A; Ralph, D; Freeman, A; Kirkham, A


    To determine the threshold waveform characteristics at Doppler ultrasound (DUS) to differentiate between ischaemic and non-ischaemic priapism. Fifty-two patients were categorised into "ischaemic" and "non-ischaemic" types based on clinical and blood-gas findings: 10 patients with non-ischaemic priapism; 20 with ischaemic priapism before surgical shunt placement and 22 with ischaemic priapism after surgical shunt placement. DUS traces were analysed: peak systolic velocity (PSV) and mean velocity (MV) were calculated. Histological samples were obtained at the time of surgery. Three clinical outcome groups were defined: (1) normal, (2) regular use of pharmacostimulation, and (3) refractory dysfunction/penile implant. All non-ischaemic priapism cases had a PSV >50 cm/s and all but one had an MV of >6.5 cm/s. In pre-surgery ischaemic cases, all men had a PSV PSV 22 cm/s but diastolic reversal. In post-surgery ischaemic priapism, flow parameters overlapped with the non-ischaemic group. PSV/MV did not predict clinical outcome or histology. In the present cohort, PSV PSV >22 cm/s, but have diastolic reversal and therefore low net perfusion. Post-shunt, DUS findings were extremely variable and did not predict histology or clinical outcome. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonischemic Priapism in Childhood: A Case Series and Review of Literature. (United States)

    Hacker, Hans-Walter; Schwoebel, Marcus G; Szavay, Philipp O


    Introduction  Nonischemic priapism (NIP) in childhood is a very rare affection. In the literature, patients with NIP are described mainly incidental after perineal trauma. Many of them underwent embolization of either internal pudendal artery or bulbocavernosal arteries. Patients and Methods  We report on six boys between 4 and 13 years of age with NIP, treated at our institution between 2008 and 2014. Color Doppler ultrasound (CDU) was performed in all patients as emergency diagnostic evaluation. Patients were treated conservatively, including bed rest, local cooling, and perineal compression. History, etiological factors, clinical findings, diagnostics, and follow-up are presented. Results  Out of the six patients, only one boy had a history of perineal injury with subsequent arteriocavernosal fistula, revealed in CDU. Five patients were circumcised, and one of them suffered from thalassemia minor, but no other underlying disease or etiological factors could be found. In all patients, normal to high blood flow velocities were detected in the cavernosal arteries. Detumescence started with nonoperative treatment within 24 hours in five boys and in one patient with recurrent priapism after 1 week. All six patients remained painless without evidence for an ischemic priapism. None of them suffered from relapse and further erections were observed during follow-up from 3 to 87 months. Conclusion  In contrast to the literature, five out of six boys developed NIP without a previous perineal trauma. The etiology of idiopathic NIP in childhood remains unclear; however, circumcision may play a role as a conditional factor. One etiological thesis could be the release of the neurotransmitter nitric oxide after stimulation of the corpora cavernosa. Conservative treatment proved to be successful in all six patients. During a median follow-up of 55 months (3-87 months), none of the patients showed signs of erectile dysfunction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Management of refractory ischemic priapism: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece M


    Full Text Available Marco Capece,1 Arianna Gillo,2 Andrea Cocci,3 Giulio Garaffa,1 Massimiliano Timpano,4 Marco Falcone4 1The Institute of Urology, University College of London Hospital (UCLH, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, “Umberto Parini” Hospital, Aosta, 3Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, Firenze, 4Department of Urology, University of Turin, Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Italy Objectives: The aim of the present manuscript is to review the current literature on priapism, focusing on the state-of-the-art knowledge of both the diagnosis and the treatment of the refractory ischemic priapism (IP.Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE search engines were used to search for words “priapism”, “refractory priapism”, “penile prosthesis”, “diagnosis priapism”, “priapism treatment”, “penile fibrosis”, “priapism therapy”. All the studies were carefully examined by the authors and then included in the review.Results: First-line treatment involves ejaculation, physical exercise and cold shower followed by corporal blood aspiration and injection of α-adrenoceptor agonists. Subsequently, a distal or proximal shunt may be considered. If none of the treatment is effective or the priapism episode lasts >48 hours penile prosthesis implantation could be the only option to solve the priapism and treat the ongoing erectile dysfunction.Conclusion: The management of IP is to achieve detumescence of persistent penile erection and to preserve erectile function after resolution of the priapic episode. On the other hand, penile fibrosis and following shortening should be prevented. Early penile prosthesis implantation in patients with refractory IP is able to solve both the priapic episode and prevent the otherwise certain penile shortening. Penile prosthesis implantation is the actual gold standard of care in cases of refractory IP. Keywords: priapism, ischemic priapism, penile fibrosis, penile prosthesis, shunt 

  16. The value of penile duplex in the prediction of intracavernous drug-induced priapism. (United States)

    Shamloul, R; Ghanem, H M; Salem, A; Kamel, I I; Mousa, A A


    The aim of this work is to assess the value of penile duplex in the prediction of intracavernous drug-induced ischemic priapism. A total of 400 patients with erectile dysfunction were evaluated before and after diagnostic intracavernous injection of a trimix solution (papaverine+phentolamine+PGE1) using color Doppler sonography. In all, 29 patients experienced sustained rigid erections for more than an hour. Patients were further divided into two groups. Group A included patients with spontaneous resolution of their rigid erection within 3 h (10/29) and group B included patients with priapism (19/29) that did not resolve within 3 h. In group A, patients had minimal cavernous artery blood flow within the first hour postinjection, that increased with relief of their erection. Group B patients had no blood flow in their cavernous artery an hour after intracavernous injection and for 6 h later. The disappearance of blood flow in the cavernous artery after an hour of sustained rigid erection predicted priapism with 100% specificity and sensitivity. The persistent absence of cavernous artery blood flow for more than an hour, as detected by color Doppler ultrasound, is an objective predictor of priapism. This may guide early intervention to resolve the prolonged erection.

  17. Ischemic priapism in South‑East Nigeria: Presentation, management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 4, 2015 ... Context: Ischemic priapism is the more common variety of priapism and often presents late. Outcome is largely dependent on the duration of ischemia. Aims: To determine the etiology, presentation, management, and outcome of ischemic priapism. Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis of consecutive ...

  18. Homocysteinemia: A rare cause of priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaisukh Kalathia


    Full Text Available Priaprism is a persistent painful erection that continuous beyond or is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Majority of cases are idiopathic (46%, alcohol and drug related (21%, perineal trauma (12%, sickle cell anemia and hypercoagualable state related (11%. We report case of priapism caused by hyperhomocysteinemia with favorable outcome with only few cases so far reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. A 31 year-old male referred to our institution with non resolving priaprism for the last 6 days. Immediate distal shunt (Al-ghorab was created but it could not achieve the detumescence. The penile Doppler showed no flow into the corpora, so a proximal shunt (Quackels was made which achieved satisfactory detumescence. On thorough evaluation for the cause of priaprism, only homocysteine level was found to be significantly raised (40.46 µmol/L, being the unusual and rare cause for priaprism. The patient was discharged on homocheck. In the follow-up the patient is on vacuum assisted device for the erectile dysfunction and has been advised for the penile implant. Priaprism being a urological emergency should be thoroughly evaluated even for the rare causes and should be timely intervened to avoid the unavoidable consequences of permanent erectile dysfunction.

  19. Recurring priapism may be a symptom of voiding dysfunction – case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recurring priapism is rare in pre-pubertal children and may be attributed to multiple causes. We propose that voiding dysfunction (VD may also justify this symptom and detail a clinical case of recurring stuttering priapism associated to overactive bladder that completely resolved after usage of anticholinergics and urotherapy. Sacral parasympathetic activity is responsible for detrusor contraction and for spontaneous erections and a relationship between erections and bladder status has been proved in healthy subjects (morning erections and models of medullar trauma. High bladder pressures and/or volumes, voiding incoordination and posterior urethritis can potentially trigger reflex erections.

  20. One month priapism in a 39 year old man with chronic myeloid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a high index of suspicion of chronic myeloid leukemia in a non sickle cell adult patient presenting with priapism. ... investigations for diagnosis eg peripheral and bone marrow aspiration blood film and BCR- ABL quantification; the ancilliary investigations ; liver function test, serum electrolyte, urea and creatinine etc.

  1. Chronic myeloid leukemia presented with priapism: Effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 1, 2015 ... of sexual stimulation, trauma, previous similar episodes, use of medications or any chronic illness. On physical examination, the patient had pallor. The spleen and liver. Chronic myeloid leukemia presented with priapism: Effective management with prompt leukapheresis. H Ergenc, C Varım, C Karacaer, ...

  2. Pediatric priapism: a rare first manifestation of leukemia. (United States)

    Hazra, Shankar Prasad; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Gogoi, Debojit; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Sudip C


    Priapism is a rare disease. It is an emergency condition with a poor prognosis, and the risk of impotence is 50% despite appropriate management. Though about 20% cases of all priapism are related to hematological disorders, the incidence of priapism in adult leukemic patients is only about 1-5 percent. The incidence in pediatric leukemia patient is even rarer. Here we present a case of priapism in a 14-year-old apparently healthy boy who found to have chronic myeloid leukemia on subsequent investigations.

  3. Modified technique in treating recurrent priapism: a technique report

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    Wei Chen


    Full Text Available Recurrent ischemic priapism is a problem in clinical treatment. Most of the cases require more invasive surgery to shunt the blood stasis. We introduce a modified technique in treating recurrent ischemic priapism. The technique described is applied to acute ischaemic priapic episodes in patients with a history of stuttering priapism. It was carried out by a Winter's shunt combined with a continuous cavernosal irrigation system. Priapism was effectively resolved on the patients without recurrence. The four patients who received this treatment recovered most sexual function after 6 months follow-up.

  4. Priapism: A Review. | Ugwumba | International Journal of Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria some patients are noted to have developed priapism following ingestion of oral herbal aphrodisiacs. Conclusion: Priapism is an emergency with dire effects on erectile function when treatment is delayed. A clear understanding of the aetiological factors and pathogenesis is useful in aiding rapid diagnosis and ...

  5. Role of cold saline enema in management of priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Khurana


    Full Text Available Priapism, the prolonged erection of penis is a urologic emergency. Untreated, the patient can land up in impo-tence. Various methods have been described for its treat-ment but the initial management remains conservative. The authors present their experience with use of seda-tion followed by ice-cold saline enema in management of priapism.

  6. Priapism as an initial presentation of chronic myeloid leukaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Priapism is an uncommon emergent urologic condition characterized by prolonged, painful, penile erection often with no sexual excitement. The disorder is without known cases in approximately 60% of cases. Although, cases of priapism due to known causes are unrelated to psychic sexual excitement, the ...

  7. Priapism after a Singular Dose of Chlorpromazine | Suleekwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of priapism in a young Nigerian man following a singular dose of chlorpromazine is presented. Complete detumescence was achieved with needle aspiration and adrenaline infiltration. Potency was retained. A review of relevant literature is done. Key words: Priapism, Chlorpromazine, Needle aspiration.

  8. Prevalence of Priapism among Adult Male Sickle Cell Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Priapism is a serious urological complication of sickle cell disease with adverse clinical and psychological implications. The study is aimed at determining the prevalence of priapism among adult male SCD patients seen at the university of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City; to assess their knowledge of the ...

  9. Chronic myeloid leukaemia presenting with priapism as the only ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There have been few reports of priapism as complications of various haematological malignancies. Delays in establishing the cause and late institution of appropriate intervention in patients suffering from priapism could result in long-term complications, especially erectile dysfunction. We present here a case of ...

  10. Priapism: clinical aspects and etiology Le Priapisme: particularités ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrosis of the corpora cavernosa occurred in 24 (38.1%) patients. Conclusion: Priapism represents a urologic emergency which in Africa is commonly associated with sickle-cell disease. A timely and adequate treatment in our environment is rendered difficult due to the fact that most patients present very late. This situation ...

  11. Prognostic factors and outcome of management of ischemic priapism in Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ahmed


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the nuances of management, prognostic factors, and outcome of ischemic priapism in patients seen at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied the case notes of all patients managed for ischemic priapism in the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, over a period of 10 years (2006–2015. The data extracted included patients' age, occupation, duration of painful penile erection, and previous episodes. Addition information including precipitating factors, hemoglobin genotype, treatment, and complications was also retrieved. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The records of a total of forty patients managed for priapism over the period under review were retrieved. Thirty-three (82.5% of these patients had an operative intervention. The mean age was 23.7 years with a range of 8–53 years. Sixty percent of patients were young adults in their third decade of life. The minimum duration of erection at presentation was 18 h and a maximum period of 10 days with a mean of 105.5 h (4 days. Thirty-three patients (82.5% had sickle cell anemia (HbSS. Erectile dysfunction (ED accounted for 60% of all forms of postpriapism complications. Five patients (12.5% had residual tumescence from fibrosis, and three patients had recurrence outside the immediate postoperative period. Duration of symptoms before surgical intervention, SSA and previous episodes were the most important prognostic factors. Conclusion: Priapism is a disease of the young, mostly sickle cell anemic patients. Late presentation remains the norm in our environment, hence a higher incidence of ED. The distal penile shunt is an effective means of achieving detumescence even with failed conservative management. Favorable outcome is highly dependent on the duration of erection and early intervention.

  12. Chemotherapeutic Treatment of Priapism in Metastatic Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kitai


    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man was admitted with penile tenderness and dysuria due to priapism. Enhanced computed tomography revealed metastatic tumors in the liver, lung, sacrum and lymph nodes. Advanced rectal cancer, detected by colonoscopy as a primary tumor, was treated with chemotherapy (FOLFOX4. Although the rectal cancer showed no change, five months of chemotherapy improveid the priapism, suggesting that chemotherapy can improve rare symptoms of rectal cancer.

  13. Penile fracture in a patient with stuttering priapism | Badmus | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous présentons un cas d'une fracture de pénile, une urologie d'urgence peu commun priapism douloureux ou de complications, un autre urologie; precipite a des circonstances peu ordinaire. Ce rapport illustre le cas d'un étudiant âgé de 30 ans qui etait frappé d'une maladie begaiement priapism pendant une semaine et ...

  14. Priapism associated with the addition of risperidone to methylphenidate monotherapy: a case report


    Unver, Hatice; Memik, Nursu Cakin; Simsek, Emrah


    Priapism is a state of prolonged and unwanted erection without sexual stimulation or desire. Priapism may occur with a variety of diseases or as a side effect of medication. Immediate diagnosis and treatment is essential, as ischemia of cavernous tissues results in erectile dysfunction. Described in the present report is a 12-year-old male with priapism associated with the addition of risperidone to methylphenidate monotherapy. Priapism decreased and disappeared following discontinuation of d...

  15. Malignant priapism: Penile metastasis originating on a primary prostate adenocarcinoma

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    Sandro Roberto da Silva Gaspar


    Full Text Available Malignant priapism is a definition invented in 1938 by Peacock, defined as a persistent erection, not related with sexual activity, caused by cavernous sinus and associated venous systems invasion with malignant cells. Penile secondary lesions are rare entities. Primary locations are usually the pelvic cavity organs, namely the prostate and the bladder as the most common ones. Priapism as a first manifestation of these kinds of lesions is even rarer. The aim was to present a 52-year-old patient harboring a penile metastasis that originated in the primary prostate adenocarcinoma, manifesting itself as a "common" priapism. The patient referred to the emergency room presenting with a priapism and nodules at the coronal sulcus, without previous similar episodes. His evolution until properly diagnosed was catastrophic with multiple lymph nodes, bone and organ involvement, and with his demise soon after from serious bleeding and congestive heart failure, almost 2 months after he first came to the emergency room. We review the literature concerning malignant priapism, diagnosis, and current treatment and survival perspectives.

  16. Penile Gangrene: An Unusual Complication of Priapism in a Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    earlier paper reviewed the previously reported 13 cases in the literature.[2,3] Majority of the cases of priapism .... leading to the engorgement of the sinusoidal space with low oxygen tension venous blood resulting in ... For logistic reasons, only corpus cavernosa aspiration for cytology was available to affirm our suspicion of.

  17. Priapism Associated with MethylphenidateSR (Concerta Withdrawal

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    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattention subtype (ADHD, developed stuttering priapism (intermittent, prolonged, painful erections after withdrawal of OROS methylphenidate (ConcertaR 36 mg/day, and is reported from Inova Fairfax Hospital for Children, Falls Church, VA, and Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC.

  18. Priapism Associated with MethylphenidateSR (Concerta) Withdrawal


    J Gordon Millichap


    A 15-year-old boy with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattention subtype (ADHD), developed stuttering priapism (intermittent, prolonged, painful erections) after withdrawal of OROS methylphenidate (ConcertaR) 36 mg/day, and is reported from Inova Fairfax Hospital for Children, Falls Church, VA, and Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC.

  19. Priapism with Diabetes and Hypertension – A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical case report of a 55 year old policeman with diabetes and systemic hypertension, who presented with acute priapism. There was no obvious precipitating factor except for a poorly controlled blood sugar level. He was managed as a case of hyperglycemic emergency with saline infusion and insulin therapy while the ...

  20. Priapism following Phenothiazine therapy: A Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was only able to achieve penile detumescence (subsidence or diminution of swelling or erection of the penis) after surgical intervention. Medical practitioners must regard this as a reminder of the possible risk of priapism with the use of chlorpromazine which remains a main line drug in the treatment of agitated patients ...

  1. Priapism in type I1 Diabetes Mellitus: A case report.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Priapism in type I1 diabetes mellitus is an uncommon event. A case of this condition in an adult male is presented. More common precipitating factors such as use of medications like sildenafil or use of an intracarvenosal vasodilator was absent, although diagnostic investigations postulated the cause as thrombotic factors in ...

  2. Priapisme induit par la chlorpromazine: A propos de deux cas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. Marrag

    Nous rapportons ici le cas de deux patients qui ont présenté un priapisme en concomitance avec une pres- cription de chlorpromazine .... ischémiques pourraient être induits par des médicaments dont les neuroleptiques occupent ... vie sexuelle des patients, souvent touchée par la prescription des traitements psychotropes ...

  3. Priapisme induit par la chlorpromazine: A propos de deux cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marrag


    Le priapisme veineux est une urgence urologique. Il constitue un des effets secondaires des neuroleptiques parmi les quels la chlorpromazine. Cet effet iatrogène, qui est rare mais grave, doit être connu par les cliniciens afin d’être mieux prévenu pour éviter les séquelles érectiles.

  4. Priapisme induit par la chlorpromazine: A propos de deux cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and to adress both patients in the Urologic Surgery department. They were treated with aspiration and irrigation of the corpora cavernosa with intracavernous injection of sympathomimetic drugs followed by a surgical distal cavernoglanular shunt. This study illustrates two cases of priapism associated with chlorpromazine.

  5. Penile Gangrene: An Unusual Complication of Priapism in a Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    type;[13,14] the presentations are classical and the treatment involves active resuscitation of the patient, followed by ... with ischemic type of priapism and the penile gangrene that followed its management made this case distinctive .... thrombotic microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, digital and cerebral microvascular arterial ...

  6. Penile fracture in a patient with stuttering priapism | Badmus | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penile fracture commonly results from trauma of sexual intercourse or masturbation. It is common in the Middle East and America, but rare in Nigeria and sub-Sahara Africa. We present a case of penile fracture, an uncommon urologic emergency, complicating priapism, another urologic emergency; precipitated in an ...

  7. Ischemic priapism in South‑East Nigeria: Presentation, management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 8 SCD patients had stuttering priapism on several occasions previously. Six patients (40%) had taken oral herbal medications as treatment prior to presentation. Initial resuscitative measures were intravenous hydration, aspiration, and irrigation with normal saline in 13 patients. Glanulo‑cavernous shunt (Al‑Ghorab) ...

  8. Effects of cigarette smoking on priapism induced by quetiapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Seyed


    Full Text Available Abstract Priapism is defined as an unwanted, prolonged, and painful erection which is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Some case studies suggest that priapism is an adverse effect of antipsychotic medications. In our case study a 30 year-old Iranian male with schizophrenia was experiencing recurrent priapism associated with quetiapine use. There are three interesting facts about this case: Firstly, the patient suffered priapism after even low dose consumption of quetiapine. Secondly, this case had experienced priapism with risperidone, olanzapine, and even clozapine in the past, suggesting a possible pharmacodynamic interaction of antipsychotics and inner biological traits in this particular case. Thirdly, priapism induced by low dose quetiapine was resolved after cigarette smoking.

  9. High flow ceramic pot filters. (United States)

    van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J


    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h-1), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Intracavernous papaverine injection has gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of erectile impotence. The opposite problem-priapism -can be treated with the same technique using a vasoconstrictive drug such as adrenaline. We report on eight patients successfully treated for priapism by

  11. Pattern and management of priapism in a tertiary hospital of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Priapism is a persistent penile erection that continues for more than four hours beyond sexual stimulation and orgasm or unrelated to sexual stimulation1. The objective is to document the pattern and management of priapism in our hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients managed for ...

  12. Priapism in paediatric patients with sickle cell disease - a report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of the 185 SCD cases, three (1.6%) had priapism. They were adolescents aged 17years, 11years and 10 years 9months respectively. Two patients had never attended a sickle cell clinic, never been on routine drugs nor received advice on oral liberal fluids intake. One patient had stuttering priapism, 24hours before ...

  13. Priapism Followed by Discontinuation of Methadone: A rare Case Report

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    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi


    Full Text Available Objective: Priapism is defined by persistent, painful penile erection which occurs without sexual stimulation. Methadone is used as an analgesic and is also used in detoxification and maintenance protocol for opioid dependence treatment. Here we will report a case of a male with priapism after rapid discontinuation doses of methadone.Case presentation: The case was a young married male who referred to a psychiatry clinic due to long-time spontaneous erections. The patient had no history of mental disorders, trauma or sickle cell anemia. He used to smoke opium for five years and used methadone for four years at a dose of 17 cc daily, which he abruptly discontinued. Then he often experienced spontaneous and painful erections without physical or mental stimulation that caused him shame and embarrassment .Conclusion: In this case, chronology indicates that rapid discontinuation of methadone was possibly responsible for the occurrence of priapism. This may have happened due to a compensatory reaction to methadone side effect of erectile dysfunction, followed by its rapid withdrawal.

  14. Finasteride for recurrent priapism in children and adolescents: a report on 5 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr.


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrent priapism is prevalent in children. Different medications have been used to avoid new episodes, however, there is no consensus regarding the best option. The use of finasteride to treat priapism in adults has already been tested. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a low dose of finasteride would be effective in preventing recurrent priapism in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since 2007, five children and adolescents with recurrent episodes of priapism have been treated with finasteride in our department, and the medical records of these patients were reviewed for this study. In four cases, the dose used was 1 mg a day, while the remaining patient used 1 mg twice a day. RESULTS: Prior to initiating finasteride treatment, one patient reported having had 6 episodes of acute priapism, while the remaining patients had more than 10 episodes. One of the patients reported having stuttering priapism almost daily. With a mean follow-up of 20 months, four patients had no episodes and only one patient complained of sporadic and shorter duration episodes. CONCLUSIONS: These initial results suggest that a low daily dose of finasteride appears to represent an effective and safe form of treatment for recurrent priapism in children and adolescents with SCD. However, in order to confirm these initial findings, studies with a large population and a control group are essential.

  15. Molecular analysis of erection regulatory factors in sickle cell disease associated priapism in the human penis. (United States)

    Lagoda, Gwen; Sezen, Sena F; Cabrini, Marcelo R; Musicki, Biljana; Burnett, Arthur L


    Priapism is a vasculopathy that occurs in approximately 40% of patients with sickle cell disease. Mouse models suggest that dysregulated nitric oxide synthase and RhoA/ROCK signaling as well as increased oxidative stress may contribute to the mechanisms of sickle cell disease associated priapism. We examined changes in the protein expression of nitric oxide synthase and ROCK signaling pathways, and a source of oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase, in penile erectile tissue from patients with a priapism history etiologically related and unrelated to sickle cell disease. Human penile erectile tissue was obtained from 5 patients with sickle cell disease associated priapism and from 6 with priapism of other etiologies during nonemergent penile prosthesis surgery for erectile dysfunction or priapism management and urethroplasty. Tissue was also obtained from 5 control patients without a priapism history during penectomy for penile cancer. Samples were collected, immediately placed in cold buffer and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. The expression of phosphodiesterase 5, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, p47(phox), p67(phox), gp91(phox) and β-actin were determined by Western blot analysis. Nitric oxide was measured using the Griess reaction. In the sickle cell disease group phosphodiesterase 5 (p human penis may involve dysfunctional nitric oxide synthase and ROCK signaling, and increased oxidative stress associated with NADPH oxidase mediated signaling. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Semi-rigid penile prosthesis as a salvage management of idiopathic ischemic stuttering priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faddan AA


    Full Text Available Amr A Faddan, Alexey V Aksenov, Carsten M Naumann, Klaus P Jünemann, Daniar K Osmonov Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany Introduction: Priapism is the persistent erection resulting from dysfunction of the mechanisms that regulate penile swelling, stiffness, and sagging. It is a full or partial erection that persists for a period more than 4 hours beyond sexual stimulation and/or orgasm or is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Ischemic priapism should be managed in a step-by-step fashion. Objective: To demonstrate step-by-step management of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism. We report a case of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism. Moreover, we reviewed different approaches to priapism management in the literature. Case presentation: A 53-year-old male presented with a painful erection of 29 hours’ duration, probably caused by consumption of alcohol. The penile blood gas showed a pH of 7.08, PCO2 of 75 mmHg and PO2 of 39 mmHg. Aspiration was followed by irrigation of an α-adrenergic, Winter and T-shunt operations were preformed, and finally a semi-rigid penile prosthesis was implanted to overcome the refractory stuttering ischemic priapism. Conclusion: In case of stuttering refractory ischemic priapism, immediate implantation of a penile prosthesis is a simple and effective procedure that manages both the acute episode and the inevitable erectile dysfunction that would otherwise occur, while preserving penile length. Keywords: priapism, stuttering priapism, shunting operation, penile prosthesis 

  17. Corporal Burnett "Snake" surgical maneuver for the treatment of ischemic priapism: long-term followup. (United States)

    Segal, Robert L; Readal, Nathaniel; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Burnett, Arthur L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J


    We provide long-term followup on a modification of the Al-Ghorab distal penile corporoglanular shunt surgery for the treatment of ischemic priapism. We conducted a retrospective review of patients surgically treated for ischemic priapism at The Johns Hopkins Hospital from January 2008 to April 2012 with the Burnett "Snake" maneuver of the Al-Ghorab shunt. Electronic medical records were reviewed to collect demographic information and telephone followup was performed to verify treatment outcomes. Patients completed the SHIM (Sexual Health Inventory for Men) to assess current erectile function. A total of 10 patients were analyzed (age range 31 to 59 years). Mean followup was 6.7 months (range 0.5 to 17). Priapism etiologies were idiopathic (3), trazodone (2), trazodone and cocaine (3), intracavernous injection of trimix (1) and spinal cord injury (1). There were 6 patients who had previously undergone unsuccessful surgical attempts at priapism decompression and mean priapism duration was 75 hours (range 24 to 288). Of the 10 men 8 achieved successful resolution of priapism with no recurrence. There were 2 men with recurrent priapism refractory to all management who were definitively treated with insertion of an inflatable penile prosthesis. Of 9 men 6 had normal erectile function preoperatively, of whom 2 achieved at least partial erectile function postoperatively. Complications were sustained by 2 men, including wound infection with skin necrosis in 1, and an intraoperative urethral injury in the other with subsequent urethrocutaneous fistula formation and wound infection with skin necrosis. The modified Al-Ghorab corporoglanular shunt using the Burnett snake maneuver is successful in resolving ischemic priapism, particularly in cases refractory to first line management, and in preventing further episodes of priapism. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Bosentan, Theophylline and Vardenafil in Treatment of Priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Unus


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the early therapeutic alternatives such as Bosentan an Endothelin receptor blocker, The­ophylline and Adenosin receptor blocker and Vardenafil a non-selective Phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme inhibitor for the therapy of ischemic priapism in the rat models. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were ran­domly divided into 4 equal groups. Control group, Var­denafil group, Bosentan group and Theophylline group. Erection was provided by vacuum constriction method and it was maintained for 4 hours for achieving the pria­pism in all groups. Then, Six rats from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Consequently, cavern­ous tissue samples were collected and placed in the tis­sue bath. Tissue samples were prepared as 0.5-0.2 cm. strips and put into heat jacketed double walled organ bath containing 37°C krebs solution which is constantly bubbled with 95% O2 and 5 % CO2 and mounted at a resting tension of 1000 mg. After taking the 1 hour record of the three groups except the control group, Bosentan, Theophylline and Vardenafil were admitted in increasing doses. Consequently the alterations of the contractions in the strips due to the drugs and their increasing doses are observed. Results: In this study we detected that Bosentan in­creased the frequency and amplitude of the contractions of the cavernous tissue in the Priapism status in a sta­tistically significant manner, Theophylline decreased the frequency and the amplitude significantly and Vardenafil had statistically no effect on the frequency and amplitude. Conclusion: Inhibition of priapism induced apoptosis with Bosentan, seems promising on preserving erectile function.

  19. Recent advances in the management of priapism [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Muneer


    Full Text Available Priapism is an uncommon urological emergency that can lead to permanent impotence if prompt presentation and medical intervention is not performed. It is a breakdown of the usual physiological mechanisms controlling penile tumescence and detumescence, leading to a prolonged penile erection (>4 hours that is unrelated to sexual stimulation. Currently, there are three accepted subtypes: ischaemic, non-ischaemic, and stuttering priapism, which is also known as recurrent ischemic priapism. The aim of treatment is the immediate resolution of the painful erection and the preservation of cavernosal smooth muscle function in order to prevent cavernosal fibrosis, which can lead to penile shortening and permanent erectile dysfunction.

  20. High flow ceramic pot filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.


    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more

  1. Oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors alleviate recurrent priapism complicating thalassemia intermedia: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzortzis, Vassilios; Mitrakas, Lampros; Gravas, Stavros; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Meissner, Andreas; Kyriakou, Despina; Melekos, Michael D.


    Recurrent ischemic priapism still remains a serious and difficult to treat complication of certain hematological disorders. Elucidation of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and application of new effective prophylactic treatments are needed. To present the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type

  2. Noninvasive treatments for iatrogenic priapism: Do they really work? A prospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Habous


    Conclusions: Physical exercise and oral salbutamol are safe and effective in restoring detumescence of pharmacologically-induced priapism. Noninvasive therapy may save a significant number of these patients an invasive treatment.

  3. Is there a relation between priapism occurring after penile doppler ultrasonography and international erectile function index score and erection hardness score levels? (United States)

    Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Öztürk, Ahmet


    The relation between Erection Hardness Score (EHS) and The International Erectile Function Index (IIEF) Questionnaire- Erectile Function Domain Score (IIEF-EF score) used in erectile dysfunction (ED) evaluation and the prevalence of priapism after penile Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) was examined in this study. A total of 62 patients who had PDU were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; there were 33 patients in IIEF-EF score ≤10, EHS 10, EHS ≥2 group (Group 2). The two groups separated according to their scores were compared for age, body mass index (BMI), prevalence of priapism, vascular comorbidities and duration of erection. When compared to Group 2, median age, rate of vascular comorbidities rate and BMI were detected to be higher in Group 1 with IIEF-EF score ≤10 and EHS 10 and EHS ≥2 (p<0.001, p=0.027, p=0.049 respectively). High IIEF-EF and EHS scores, younger ages and lower rates of vascular comorbidities in patients from whom PDU was demanded increase the prevalence of priapism.

  4. Le priapisme aigu: mode inaugural de decouverte d'une Leucemie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Rapporter un cas de LMC (Leucémie Myéloïde Chronique) découverte à l'occasion d'un priapisme avec survenue d'une mutation T 315I résistante aux ITK ... Under imatinib (400 mg / day), the evolution was marked by the disappearance of priapism in 14 days with loss of morning erection and achievement of ...

  5. Prise en Charge du Priapisme Chez L'enfant, au Chu de Treichville ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Le but de cette étude est d'évaluer la prise en charge du priapisme dans notre service en vue de proposer une conduite à tenir à partir d'une revue de la littérature. Patients et méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 7 dossiers de patients suivis pour priapisme dans le service de chirurgie ...

  6. Priapism – A Rare Presentation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra B. Nerli


    Full Text Available Priapism is a complication rarely seen in leukemia. We report a 19-year-old man presented with persistent painful erection of penis for over 24 hours at home. The patient had underwent immediate irrigation and decompression of priapism by urologist at emergency services of the hospital. This approach resulted in a flaccid penis later. During hospitalization, peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia.

  7. Risperidone-induced priapism in an autistic child: a case report. (United States)

    Aabbassi, Bouchra; Benali, Abdeslam; Asri, Fatima


    Priapism is a prolonged stimulation with painful, persistent penile erection unaccompanied by sexual desire. It is a rare but serious urological emergency. Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic widely prescribed for the treatment of behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorder. It seems associated with priapism in children. We present a case of a 12-year-old Moroccan boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who developed priapism while on an existing regimen of risperidone, and we report the treatment decisions that followed. Clinicians who prescribe risperidone should be aware of the possibility of this rare complication in their patients. Information about this possible side effect and instructions regarding appropriate response should be made available to caregivers of those in the at-risk group of young patients.

  8. Chlorpromazine induced priapism from a single dose: an unusual complication of antipsychotic agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Salam


    Full Text Available Priapism is considered as an unusual andrological emergency that requires urgent intervention. It is defined as prolonged penile erection (usually painful for more than 4 hours not related to sexual excitation or stimulation. Several causes have been attributed to cause such condition including the use of psychotropic drugs as chlorpromazine. Only few case reports in literature have recorded priapism as a complication of administration of chlorpromazine, however most of them were due to overdose or prolonged administration for prolonged period or as an interaction with other drugs. Here, in this case report is about a 23 years old male presented to the emergency department with neglected priapism after administration of a single dose of chlorpromazine.

  9. Malignant priapism due to penile metastases: Case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Luca


    Full Text Available Malignant priapism secondary to penile metastases is a rare condition. This term was originally used by Peacock in 1938 to describe a condition of painful induration and erection of the penis due to metastatic infiltration by a neoplasm. In the current literature there are 512 case reports. The primary tumor sites are bladder, prostate and rectum. The treatment has only palliative intent and consists of local tumor excision, penectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We present one case of malignant priapism originated from prostate cancer, and two from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Different approaches in diagnosis and therapy were performed. The entire three patient reported a relief of the pain following the treatment, with an improvement of their quality of life, even though it was only temporary as a palliative. Malignant priapism is a rare medical emergency. Penile/pelvis magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan and corporal biopsies are considered an effective method of diagnosis of the primary organ site.

  10. Intracorporeal Dilatation Plus Al-Ghorab Corporoglandular Shunt for Salvage Management of Prolonged Ischemic Priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Afriansyah


    Full Text Available Ischemic priapism (IP is a urological emergency that requires early intervention in order to prevent irreversible structural and functional changes. The purpose of penile shunt surgery is to passage out ischemic blood in the corpus cavernosum (CC, restoring the normal circulation within these structures. Here, we present our first experience using modification of Al-Ghorab shunt procedure to treat severe and prolonged IP. The Al-Ghorab shunt procedure was modified by the retrograde insertion of a 7/8 Hegar dilator into the opening of the distal cavernous tissue via the original Al-Ghorab incision. Priapism was successfully relieved, and no recurrent IP was reported.

  11. Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease Reverses Hypogonadism Without Promoting Priapism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison


    Full Text Available Delayed puberty secondary to hypogonadism is commonly seen in sickle cell disease (SCD, affecting normal growth and development. The condition is rarely treated in SCD for fear of inducing priapism episodes. We present a case report of an Afro-Jamaican adolescent male at 16 years of age who presented with symptoms of delayed puberty as well as frequent stuttering priapism episodes. Endocrinological assessment revealed low serum total testosterone levels. Treatment was commenced monthly with testosterone enanthate which resulted in improved symptoms of delayed puberty, improvement in anthropometric parameters while apparently ameliorating priapism episodes.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 10, 2003 ... Fourteen patients (87.5%) had sickle cell disease (SCD) and two (12.5%) were psychiatric patients on oral chlorpromazine. ... Conclusion: Sickle cell disease account for 87.5% of priapism in our community. Late presentation and ... absence of erotic psychic stimuli or a condition in which erection fail to ...

  13. The dreadful and the deadly erection—Malignant priapism from renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ling Lee


    Full Text Available Penile metastasis of renal cell carcinoma is a rare occurrence. We report a case in a 44-year-old man who presented with malignant priapism as the first sign of recurrence of renal cell carcinoma. Although invasive procedures have a limited role in survival benefits, we performed a total penectomy to alleviate pain and provide a better quality of life.

  14. Priapism in type II Diabetes Mellitus: A case report | Muthuuri | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Priapism in type II diabetes mellitus is an uncommon event. A case of this condition in an adult male is presented. More common precipitating factors such as use of medications like sildenafil or use of an intracarvenosal vasodilator was absent, although diagnostic investigations postulated the cause as thrombotic factors in ...

  15. Prise en charge du priapisme à bas débit vue tardivement : à propos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Priapism is a rare condition, affecting young adults and is defined as a prolonged and painful erection of the corpora cavernosa, without ejaculation and with absence of sexual desire or local stimulation. The delay of care can affect sexuality with significant psychological impact. The objective is to study clinical, ...

  16. Treatments for priapism in boys and men with sickle cell disease. (United States)

    Chinegwundoh, Francis I; Smith, Sherie; Anie, Kofi A


    Sickle cell disease comprises a group of genetic haemoglobin disorders. The predominant symptom associated with sickle cell disease is pain resulting from the occlusion of small blood vessels by abnormally 'sickle-shaped' red blood cells. There are other complications, including chronic organ damage and prolonged painful erection of the penis, known as priapism. Severity of sickle cell disease is variable, and treatment is usually symptomatic. Priapism affects up to half of all men with sickle cell disease, however, there is no consistency in treatment. We therefore need to know the best way of treating this complication in order to offer an effective interventional approach to all affected individuals. To assess the benefits and risks of different treatments for stuttering (repeated short episodes) and fulminant (lasting for six hours or more) priapism in sickle cell disease. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also searched trial registries.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 15 September 2017.Date of most recent search of trial registries and of Embase: 12 December 2016. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing non-surgical or surgical treatment with placebo or no treatment, or with another intervention for stuttering or fulminant priapism. The authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the trials. Three trials with 102 participants were identified and met the criteria for inclusion in this review. These trials compared stilboestrol to placebo, sildenafil to placebo and ephedrine or etilefrine to placebo and ranged in duration from two weeks to six months. All of the trials were conducted in an outpatient setting in Jamaica

  17. Flow simulation and high performance computing (United States)

    Tezduyar, T.; Aliabadi, S.; Behr, M.; Johnson, A.; Kalro, V.; Litke, M.


    Flow simulation is a computational tool for exploring science and technology involving flow applications. It can provide cost-effective alternatives or complements to laboratory experiments, field tests and prototyping. Flow simulation relies heavily on high performance computing (HPC). We view HPC as having two major components. One is advanced algorithms capable of accurately simulating complex, real-world problems. The other is advanced computer hardware and networking with sufficient power, memory and bandwidth to execute those simulations. While HPC enables flow simulation, flow simulation motivates development of novel HPC techniques. This paper focuses on demonstrating that flow simulation has come a long way and is being applied to many complex, real-world problems in different fields of engineering and applied sciences, particularly in aerospace engineering and applied fluid mechanics. Flow simulation has come a long way because HPC has come a long way. This paper also provides a brief review of some of the recently-developed HPC methods and tools that has played a major role in bringing flow simulation where it is today. A number of 3D flow simulations are presented in this paper as examples of the level of computational capability reached with recent HPC methods and hardware. These examples are, flow around a fighter aircraft, flow around two trains passing in a tunnel, large ram-air parachutes, flow over hydraulic structures, contaminant dispersion in a model subway station, airflow past an automobile, multiple spheres falling in a liquid-filled tube, and dynamics of a paratrooper jumping from a cargo aircraft.

  18. High energy density redox flow device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, Craig W.; Ho, Bryan Y.; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa


    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  19. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.


    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  20. Numerical modelling of flow pattern for high swirling flows (United States)

    Parra, Teresa; Perez, J. R.; Szasz, R.; Rodriguez, M. A.; Castro, F.


    This work focuses on the interaction of two coaxial swirling jets. High swirl burners are suitable for lean flames and produce low emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the isothermal behaviour of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model is a Total Variation Diminishing and PISO is used to pressure velocity coupling. Transient analysis let identify the non-axisymmetric region of reverse flow. The center of instantaneous azimuthal velocities is not located in the axis of the chamber. The temporal sampling evidences this center spins around the axis of the device forming the precessing vortex core (PVC) whose Strouhal numbers are more than two for Swirl numbers of one. Influence of swirl number evidences strong swirl numbers are precursor of large vortex breakdown. Influence of conical diffusers evidence the reduction of secondary flows associated to boundary layer separation.

  1. Numerical modelling of flow pattern for high swirling flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Teresa


    Full Text Available This work focuses on the interaction of two coaxial swirling jets. High swirl burners are suitable for lean flames and produce low emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the isothermal behaviour of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model is a Total Variation Diminishing and PISO is used to pressure velocity coupling. Transient analysis let identify the non-axisymmetric region of reverse flow. The center of instantaneous azimuthal velocities is not located in the axis of the chamber. The temporal sampling evidences this center spins around the axis of the device forming the precessing vortex core (PVC whose Strouhal numbers are more than two for Swirl numbers of one. Influence of swirl number evidences strong swirl numbers are precursor of large vortex breakdown. Influence of conical diffusers evidence the reduction of secondary flows associated to boundary layer separation.

  2. Digital valve for high pressure high flow applications (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Lewis, Derek; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Hall, Jeffery L.


    To address the challenges, which are involved with the development of flow control valves that can meet high demand requirements such as high pressure, high flow rate, limited power and limited space, the authors have conceived a novel design configuration. This design consists of a digitalized flow control valve with multipath and multistage pressure reduction structures. Specifically, the valve is configured as a set of parallel flow paths from the inlet to the outlet. A choke valve controls the total flow rate by digitally opening different paths or different combination of the paths. Each path is controlled by a poppet cap valve basically operated in on-off states. The number of flow states is 2N where N is the number of flow paths. To avoid erosion from sand in the fluid and high speed flow, the seal area of the poppet cap valve is located at a distance from the flow inlet away from the high speed flow and the speed is controlled to stay below a predefined erosion safe limit. The path is a multistage structure composed of a set of serial nozzles-expansion chambers that equally distribute the total pressure drop to each stage. The pressure drop of each stage and, therefore, the flow speed at the nozzles and expansion chambers is controlled by the number of stages. The paths have relatively small cross section and could be relatively long for large number of stages and still fit in a strict annular space limit. The paper will present the design configuration, analysis and preliminary test results.

  3. High frequency image-based flow detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, R [National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton Hospital, London SW3 6NP (United Kingdom); Prager, R W [Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Gee, A H [Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Treece, G M [Dept. of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)


    Tumour angiogenesis refers to neovascular development on a microvascular scale and is an early indicator of cancer. Prototype high frequency pulsed Doppler systems using 50 MHz transducers have been reported to detect microvascular flow in vessels 0.02 mm to 0.5 mm in diameter at superficial depths of 0.5 mm. Detecting flow in microvasculature at deeper depths requires lower frequency transducers with a resulting tradeoff in spatial resolution. Using a 22 MHz transducer, we demonstrate a speckle decorrelation technique to detect in vitro flow in soft tubing of 0.5 mm diameter at a depth of 2 cm. This image-based decorrelation technique is capable of detecting flow in significantly narrower diameters down to 0.125 mm by decreasing the region of interest.

  4. Heterogeneous flow during high-pressure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto B. Figueiredo


    Full Text Available High-Pressure Torsion (HPT has attracted significant attention in recent years as an effective technique to process ultrafine and nanostructured materials. The hydrostatic pressure developed during processing prevents the occurrence of cracks and the low thickness to diameter ratio provides the opportunity for developing high strains at low numbers of rotations. The present work analyses the plastic flow during HPT. Experimental results and computer modeling are used to describe heterogeneous plastic flow. It is shown that variations in structure, hardness and in the distribution of strain are observed along the disc thickness. The sources of these heterogeneities are discussed.

  5. Highly Turbulent Taylor-Couette Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Dennis Paulus Maria


    The research issues addressed in this mostly experimental thesis concern highly turbulent Taylor-Couette (TC) flow (Re>105, implying Ta>1011). We study it on a fundamental level to aid our understanding of (TC) turbulence and to make predictions towards astrophysical disks, and at a practical level

  6. Flow Interaction With Highly Flexible Structures (United States)

    Shoele, Kourosh

    Studying the interaction between fluid and structure is an essential step towards the understanding of many engineering and physical problems, from the flow instability of structures to the biolocomotion of insects, birds and fishes. The simulation of such problems is computationally challenging. This justifies the attempts to develop more sophisticated and more efficient numerical models of fluid-solid interactions. In this dissertation, we proposed numerical models both in potential flow and fully viscous flow for the interaction of immersed structure with a strongly unsteady flow. In particular we have developed efficient approaches to study two groups of problems, the flow interaction with skeleton-reinforced fish fins and flow interaction with highly flexible bluff bodies. Fins of bony fishes are characterized by a skeleton-reinforced membrane structure consisting of a soft collagen membrane strengthened by embedded flexible rays. Morphologically, each ray is connected to a group of muscles so that the fish can control the rotational motion of each ray individually, enabling multi-degree of freedom control over the fin motion and deformation. We have developed fluid-structure interaction models to simulate the kinematics and dynamic performance of a structurally idealized fin. The first method includes a boundary-element model of the fluid motion and a fully-nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam model of the embedded rays. In the second method, we use an improved immersed boundary approach. Using these models, we study thrust generation and propulsion efficiency of the fin at different combinations of parameters at both high-Re and intermediate-Re flow. Effects of kinematic as well as structural properties are examined. It has been illustrated that the fish's capacity to control the motion of each individual ray, as well as the anisotropic deformability of the fin determined by distribution of the rays (especially the detailed distribution of ray stiffness), is

  7. Ninety-six hours ordeal of priapism induced by paroxetine--A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Bhat, Ishrat A; Shannon, Kelly D; Ara, Anjum; Coe, Ian


    Priapism is a rare but severe medical condition of sustained and painful erection of penis in the absence of any sexual stimulation, in which the penis does not return to a flaccid state. It is considered to be a medical emergency because without treatment it can lead to permanent damage and fibrosis of penis and in the long run to impotency. Albeit that there is no uniform consensus regarding the duration of sustained erection, an erection lasting more than 4 h is generally considered as an emergency which needs immediate medical attention and care. Priapism is commonly associated with iatrogenic, pharmacologic, underlying medical, or traumatic causes. In this report, we present the case of a 42-year-old African American man who developed priapism after three weeks of therapy with paroxetine which lasted for more than 96 h before coming to the attention of his health-care providers. This case is unique in that there are no reports in literature of an erection lasting for such a long duration following therapy with paroxetine. The objective of this report is to highlight the importance of recognizing the possibility of priapism with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in general and paroxetine in particular since this condition is not commonly seen in clinical practice to be associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and may go unrecognized. Also, potential biological mechanisms involved in the development of paroxetine-induced priapism are presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Prise en charge du priapisme à bas débit vue tardivement : à propos de 28 cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamel


    Conclusion: Le priapisme doit être considéré comme une urgence andrologique majeure dont le traitement s’impose sans délai. Le pronostic dépend essentiellement de l’âge des malades et du délai de leur prise en charge. Dans notre étude le priapisme idiopathique semble avoir le meilleur pronostic. Enfin, le traitement des facteurs de risque et la prise en charge précoce sont les meilleurs moyens pour éviter cette infirmité.

  9. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.


    Modeling porous flow in complex media is a challenging problem. Not only is the problem inherently multiscale but, due to high contrast in permeability values, flow velocities may differ greatly throughout the medium. To avoid complicated interface conditions, the Brinkman model is often used for such flows [O. Iliev, R. Lazarov, and J. Willems, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 1350--1372]. Instead of permeability variations and contrast being contained in the geometric media structure, this information is contained in a highly varying and high-contrast coefficient. In this work, we present two main contributions. First, we develop a novel homogenization procedure for the high-contrast Brinkman equations by constructing correctors and carefully estimating the residuals. Understanding the relationship between scales and contrast values is critical to obtaining useful estimates. Therefore, standard convergence-based homogenization techniques [G. A. Chechkin, A. L. Piatniski, and A. S. Shamev, Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point is that the Brinkman equations, in certain scaling regimes, are invariant under homogenization. Unlike in the case of Stokes-to-Darcy homogenization [D. Brown, P. Popov, and Y. Efendiev, GEM Int. J. Geomath., 2 (2011), pp. 281--305, E. Marusic-Paloka and A. Mikelic, Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. A (7), 10 (1996), pp. 661--671], the results presented here under certain velocity regimes yield a Brinkman-to-Brinkman upscaling that allows using a single software platform to compute on both microscales and macroscales. In this paper, we discuss the homogenized Brinkman equations. We derive auxiliary cell problems to build correctors and calculate effective coefficients for certain velocity regimes. Due to the boundary effects, we construct

  10. [High flow vascular malformations in children]. (United States)

    López Gutiérrez, J C; Ros, Z; Martínez, L; Díaz, M; Leal, N; Rivas, S; Hernández, F


    Unlike hemangiomas and low-flow vascular malformations which are very common in children, arterial anomalies have small incidence. Differential diagnosis is difficult, and needs a physician familiarized with vascular anomalies. Appropriate treatment must be planned by multidisciplinary team considering the patient's age, and anatomical location. Twenty-eight children with high flow vascular malformations have been treated since 1990 at La Paz Children's Hospital Vascular Anomalies Program. We excluded of the study group patients with central nervous system lesions. 85% of the patients had malformation in stage I or II (according the ISSVA accepted Schöbinger stating) and most of them were erroneously diagnosed as hemangioms with a variety of inappropriate treatments previously performed. Doppler Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance confirmed malformation flow and extension. Angiography and selective embolization was only considered as therapeutic approach in candidates to surgical resection. 16 patients underwent complete resection of the malformation including one foot and two fingers amputation and five more incomplete resection of the ulcerate area. In conclusion, we did not find age at onset, sex and symptoms relationship. Laser, radiotherapy, surgical ligation or partial resection must be considered inappropriate therapies which may stimulate AVM exacerbation. Only radical surgical procedure after selective endovascular embolization will be successful but then reconstructive surgery should be performed to achieve good aesthetic and functional results.

  11. Sustained nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound reverses dysregulated NO signal transduction in priapism (United States)

    Lagoda, Gwen; Sezen, Sena F.; Hurt, K. Joseph; Cabrini, Marcelo R.; Mohanty, Dillip K.; Burnett, Arthur L.


    We evaluated the therapeutic potential of a sustained nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound to correct the molecular hallmarks and pathophysiology of priapism, an important but poorly characterized erectile disorder. 1,5-Bis-(dihexyl-N-nitrosoamino)-2,4-dinitrobenzene (C6′) and an inactive form of the compound [1,5-bis-(dihexylamino)-2,4-dinitrobenzene (C6)] were tested in neuronal cell cultures and penile lysates for NO release (Griess assay) and biological activity (cGMP production). The effect of local depot C6′ or C6 was evaluated in mice with a priapic phenotype due to double neuronal and endothelial NO synthase deletion (dNOS−/−) or human sickle hemoglobin transgenic expression (Sickle). Changes in NO signaling molecules and reactive oxygen species (ROS) surrogates were assessed by Western blot. The physiological response after C6′ treatment was assessed using an established model of electrically stimulated penile erection. C6′ generated NO, increased cGMP, and dose dependently increased NO metabolites. C6′ treatment reversed abnormalities in key penile erection signaling molecules, including phosphodiesterase type 5, phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. In Sickle mice, C6′ also attenuated the increased ROS markers gp91phox, 4-hydroxynonenal, and 3-nitrotyrosine. Finally, C6′ corrected the excessive priapic erection response of dNOS−/− mice. Exogenous sustained NO release from C6′ corrects pathological erectile signaling in mouse models of priapism and suggests novel approaches to human therapy.—Lagoda, G., Sezen, S. F., Hurt, K. J., Cabrini, M. R., Mohanty, D. K., Burnett, A. L. Sustained nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound reverses dysregulated NO signal transduction in priapism. PMID:24076963

  12. Non-ischemic priapism in dog: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sherry TM


    Full Text Available Bulldog with unilateral cryptorchidism was admitted to our clinic suffering from a persistent erection for 2 d. The animal was left for the first time for breeding without observation. Penis was hyperaemic, oedematous with area of mucous membrane necrosis and swollen bulbus glandis. Doppler ultrasound was optimized to allow adequate recognition of blood flow sensitive for slow flow on the head, shaft of the penis and bulbus glandis. Penis showed unsymmetrical blood flow that started in the left side of the bulbus glandis, and continue to the shaft until the gland penis; whereas, the other half of the penis showed no blood flow. Using Doppler ultrasonography was useful for diagnosis of the blood flow pattern that was beneficial to give the appropriate treatment.

  13. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini


    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  14. Excess adenosine in murine penile erectile tissues contributes to priapism via A2B adenosine receptor signaling (United States)

    Mi, Tiejuan; Abbasi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Hong; Uray, Karen; Chunn, Janci L.; Xia, Ling Wei; Molina, Jose G.; Weisbrodt, Norman W.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang


    Priapism, abnormally prolonged penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is associated with ischemia-mediated erectile tissue damage and subsequent erectile dysfunction. It is common among males with sickle cell disease (SCD), and SCD transgenic mice are an accepted model of the disorder. Current strategies to manage priapism suffer from a poor fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. Here we report that mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of adenosine, displayed unexpected priapic activity. ADA enzyme therapy successfully corrected the priapic activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that it was dependent on elevated adenosine levels. Further genetic and pharmacologic evidence demonstrated that A2B adenosine receptor–mediated (A2BR-mediated) cAMP and cGMP induction was required for elevated adenosine–induced prolonged penile erection. Finally, priapic activity in SCD transgenic mice was also caused by elevated adenosine levels and A2BR activation. Thus, we have shown that excessive adenosine accumulation in the penis contributes to priapism through increased A2BR signaling in both Ada–/– and SCD transgenic mice. These findings provide insight regarding the molecular basis of priapism and suggest that strategies to either reduce adenosine or block A2BR activation may prove beneficial in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:18340377

  15. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods (United States)


    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  16. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie


    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  17. Unsteady Flow Simulation of High-speed Turbopumps (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey A.


    Computation of high-speed hydrodynamics requires high-fidelity simulation to resolve flow features involving transient flow, cavitation, tip vortex and multiple scales of unsteady fluctuations. One example of this type in aerospace is related to liquid-fueled rocket turbopump. Rocket turbopumps operate under severe conditions at very high rotational speeds typically at thousands of rpm. For example, the Shuttle orbiter low-pressure-fuel-turbopump creates transient flow features associated with reverse flows, tip clearance effects, secondary flows, vortex shedding, junction flows, and cavitation effects. Flow unsteadiness originating from the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the flow liners just upstream of the LPFTP. The reverse flow generated at the tip of the inducer blades travels upstream and interacts with the bellows cavity. Simulation procedure for this type high-speed hydrodynamic problems requires a method for quantifying multi-scale and multi-phase flow as well as an efficient high-end computing strategy. The current paper presents a high-fidelity computational procedure for unsteady hydrodynamic problems using a high-speed liquid-fueled rocket turbopump.

  18. Real gas flows with high velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Lunev, Vladimir V


    Gasdynamic Model and Equations Outline of the Gasdynamic Model Basic Equations and Postulates Equations of State Kinetic Theory Second Law of Thermodynamics Speed of Sound Integral Equations of Motion Kinematics of Fluid Media Differential Equations of Gasdynamics Rheological Model Initial and Boundary Conditions Similarity and Modeling in Gasdynamics Euler Equations Navier-Stokes Equations Turbulent Flows Viscous and Inviscid Flow Models Inviscid Gasdynamics Stream Function, Potential,

  19. Effect of lysyl oxidase (LOX) on corpus cavernous fibrosis caused by ischaemic priapism. (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Wu, Changjing; Fu, Fudong; You, Xuanhe; Ma, Xue; Qin, Feng; Li, Tao; Wang, Run; Yuan, Jiuhong


    Penile fibrosis caused by ischemic priapism (IP) adversely affects patients' erectile function. We explored the role of lysyl oxidase (LOX) in rat and human penes after ischemic priapism (IP) to verify the effects of anti-LOX in relieving penile fibrosis and preventing erectile dysfunction caused by IP in rats. Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, control + β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) group, 9 hrs group, 9 hrs + BAPN group, 24 hrs group, and 24 hrs + BAPN group. β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a specific inhibitor of LOX, was administered in the drinking water. At 1 week and 4 weeks, half of the rats in each group were randomly selected for the experiment. Compared to the control group, the erectile function of IP rats was significantly decreased while the expression of LOX in the corpus cavernosum was significantly up-regulated in both 9 and 24 hrs group. Proliferated fibroblasts, decreased corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells/collagen ratios, destroyed endothelial continuity, deposited abnormal collagen and disorganized fibers were observed in IP rats. The relative content of collage I and III was not obviously different among the groups. β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) could effectively improve the structure and erectile function of the penis, and enhance recovery. The data in this study suggests that LOX may play an important role in the fibrosis of corpus cavernosum after IP and anti-LOX may be a novel target for patients suffering with IP. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzy-Clara Cita

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters.Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group. Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time. Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, total bilirubin (BIL levels and reticulocyte (RET percentage to calculate a hemolytic index.Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01, LDH (p = 0.03, RET (p = 0.03 levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02. Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01 and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005 were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01 and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03 were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01 than controls.Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability.

  1. Steroids, drugs and stuttering priapism; the rock-and-roll lifestyle of a 24-year-old man. (United States)

    Evans, Lloyd; Larsen, Matt; Cox, Adam; Skyrme, Rob


    The authors present a case of a 24-year-old, poorly controlled insulin-dependent type 1 diabetic Caucasian man who presented to the emergency department, with a painful erection of 36 h duration that had failed to resolve with conservative management. This was the patient's seventh priapism, with his most recent attendance 1 week previously for which he underwent a distal cavernosal shunt. He admitted to taking several recreational drugs, including marijuana and cocaine, during the preceding few days, in addition to the long-term use of the oral anabolic steroid oxandrolone. He had no family history of sickle cell disease or trait. On examination, a tensely erect penis was noted. A diagnosis of stuttering priapism was made and 750 mL of blood subsequently drained via a distal corporoglandular shunt resulting in successful detumescence. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Electro-flow focusing. The high conductivity, low viscosity limit (United States)

    Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso M.; Lopez-Herrera, José M.


    Electro-flow focusing, a technique combining the features of electrospray (ES) and flow focusing (FF), provides a reliable tool to reach parametrical micro-jetting ranges not attainable by ES or FF alone under specific operational regimes (liquid properties and flow rate). In this work, we provide not only a closed theoretical model predicting the diameter of a high electrical conductivity electro-flow focused liquid micro-jet, but also its convective/absolute instability, linked to the jetting/dripping transition and the minimum liquid flow rate that can be issued in steady jetting regime. Our predictions are compared to experiments with good accord.

  3. High flow nasal cannula for respiratory support in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilkinson, Dominic


    High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered cannulae used to deliver oxygen or blended oxygen and air at flow rates of > 1 L\\/min. HFNC can be used to provide high concentrations of oxygen and may deliver positive end-expiratory pressure.

  4. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control (United States)

    Cary, Robert E.


    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  5. High energy density redox flow device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, W. Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa


    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  6. Emergency Department Visits and Inpatient Admissions Associated with Priapism among Males with Sickle Cell Disease in the United States, 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi Dupervil

    Full Text Available People with sickle cell disease (SCD suffer from numerous acute complications that can result in multiple hospitalizations and emergency department (ED and outpatient care visits. Priapism, a prolonged unwanted erection of the penis not due to sexual stimulation, is a serious complication among males with SCD. Variations in estimates of prevalence make it difficult to accurately assess the burden of this complication of SCD. We analyzed data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS, a product of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, for the years 2006 through 2010 to measure the numbers of ED visits and to examine patterns of subsequent hospitalizations associated with priapism among male patients with SCD. We find that among ED visits associated with males with SCD, those prompted by priapism are more likely to result in hospitalization than are those associated with pain.

  7. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo


    , current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI...

  8. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The compressive flow behaviour of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass, with and without SiC particulate reinforcements, was studied. The LAS glass crystallized to β spodumene during high-temperature testing. The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of.

  9. Core surface flow modelling from high-resolution secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, R.; Olsen, Nils


    -flux hypothesis, but the spectrum of the SV implies that a conclusive test of frozen-flux is not possible. We parametrize the effects of diffusion as an expected misfit in the flow prediction due to departure from the frozen-flux hypothesis; at low spherical harmonic degrees, this contribution dominates...... the expected departure of the SV predictions from flow to the observed SV, while at high degrees the SV model uncertainty is dominant. We construct fine-scale core surface flows to model the SV. Flow non-uniqueness is a serious problem because the flows are sufficiently small scale to allow flow around non......-series of magnetic data and better parametrization of the external magnetic field....

  10. Evaporation of polydispersed droplets in a highly turbulent channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, M.; Bazile, Rudy; Ferret, B.; Cazin, S. [INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Universite de Toulouse (France)


    A model experiment for the study of evaporating turbulent two-phase flows is presented here. The study focuses on a situation where pre-atomized and dispersed droplets vaporize and mix in a heated turbulent flow. The test bench consists in a channel flow with characteristics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence where fluctuations levels reach very high values (25% in the established zone). An ultrasonic atomizer allows the injection of a mist of small droplets of acetone in the carrier flow. The large range diameters ensure that every kind of droplet behavior with regards to turbulence is possible. Instantaneous concentration fields of the vaporized phase are extracted from fluorescent images (PLIF) of the two phase flow. The evolution of the mixing of the acetone vapor is analyzed for two different liquid mass loadings. Despite the high turbulence levels, concentration fluctuations remain significant, indicating that air and acetone vapor are not fully mixed far from the injector. (orig.)

  11. Performance of high flow rate samplers for respirable particle collection. (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Chisholm, William P; Slaven, James; Harper, Martin


    The American Conference of Governmental Industrial hygienists (ACGIH) lowered the threshold limit value (TLV) for respirable crystalline silica (RCS) exposure from 0.05 to 0.025 mg m(-3) in 2006. For a working environment with an airborne dust concentration near this lowered TLV, the sample collected with current standard respirable aerosol samplers might not provide enough RCS for quantitative analysis. Adopting high flow rate sampling devices for respirable dust containing silica may provide a sufficient amount of RCS to be above the limit of quantification even for samples collected for less than full shift. The performances of three high flow rate respirable samplers (CIP10-R, GK2.69, and FSP10) have been evaluated in this study. Eleven different sizes of monodisperse aerosols of ammonium fluorescein were generated with a vibrating orifice aerosol generator in a calm air chamber in order to determine the sampling efficiency of each sampler. Aluminum oxide particles generated by a fluidized bed aerosol generator were used to test (i) the uniformity of a modified calm air chamber, (ii) the effect of loading on the sampling efficiency, and (iii) the performance of dust collection compared to lower flow rate cyclones in common use in the USA (10-mm nylon and Higgins-Dewell cyclones). The coefficient of variation for eight simultaneous samples in the modified calm air chamber ranged from 1.9 to 6.1% for triplicate measures of three different aerosols. The 50% cutoff size ((50)d(ae)) of the high flow rate samplers operated at the flow rates recommended by manufacturers were determined as 4.7, 4.1, and 4.8 microm for CIP10-R, GK2.69, and FSP10, respectively. The mass concentration ratio of the high flow rate samplers to the low flow rate cyclones decreased with decreasing mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and high flow rate samplers collected more dust than low flow rate samplers by a range of 2-11 times based on gravimetric analysis. Dust loading inside the

  12. High order Poisson Solver for unbounded flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe


    This paper presents a high order method for solving the unbounded Poisson equation on a regular mesh using a Green’s function solution. The high order convergence was achieved by formulating mollified integration kernels, that were derived from a filter regularisation of the solution field....... The method was implemented on a rectangular domain using fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to increase computational efficiency. The Poisson solver was extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution. This is achieved either by including the differential operator in the integration kernel...... or by performing the differentiation as a multiplication of the Fourier coefficients. In this way, differential operators such as the divergence or curl of the solution field could be solved to the same high order convergence without additional computational effort. The method was applied and validated using...

  13. Towards a high-resolution flow camera using artificial hair sensor arrays for flow pattern observations. (United States)

    Dagamseh, A M K; Wiegerink, R J; Lammerink, T S J; Krijnen, G J M


    Flow-sensor arrays uncover the potential to measure spatio-temporal flow patterns rather than flow measurements at just a single point. We present in this paper the developments in design, fabrication and interfacing of biomimetic flow-sensor arrays, inspired by flow-sensitive organs (cerci) of crickets. For the purpose of high-resolution flow field visualization by our artificial hair flow-sensor arrays, various array-interfacing schemes are discussed and compared. Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is shown to be an attractive method for efficient interrogation of capacitive array sensors. Using silicon-on-insulator technology with deep trench isolation structures, hair-based flow-sensors with differential capacitive read-out, arranged in single-chip arrays, have been successfully fabricated. FDM is implemented and used to interrogate individual hair sensors providing simultaneous real-time flow measurements from multiple hairs. This powerful approach is demonstrated by reconstruction of the field of a harmonic dipole field at the position of the hairs and by localizing this dipole source relative to the array elements.

  14. Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data. (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo


    Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible.

  15. Computational analysis of high-throughput flow cytometry data (United States)

    Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek; Patsekin, Valery; Davisson, Vincent Jo


    Introduction Flow cytometry has been around for over 40 years, but only recently has the opportunity arisen to move into the high-throughput domain. The technology is now available and is highly competitive with imaging tools under the right conditions. Flow cytometry has, however, been a technology that has focused on its unique ability to study single cells and appropriate analytical tools are readily available to handle this traditional role of the technology. Areas covered Expansion of flow cytometry to a high-throughput (HT) and high-content technology requires both advances in hardware and analytical tools. The historical perspective of flow cytometry operation as well as how the field has changed and what the key changes have been discussed. The authors provide a background and compelling arguments for moving toward HT flow, where there are many innovative opportunities. With alternative approaches now available for flow cytometry, there will be a considerable number of new applications. These opportunities show strong capability for drug screening and functional studies with cells in suspension. Expert opinion There is no doubt that HT flow is a rich technology awaiting acceptance by the pharmaceutical community. It can provide a powerful phenotypic analytical toolset that has the capacity to change many current approaches to HT screening. The previous restrictions on the technology, based on its reduced capacity for sample throughput, are no longer a major issue. Overcoming this barrier has transformed a mature technology into one that can focus on systems biology questions not previously considered possible. PMID:22708834

  16. Study on flow parameters of fractal porous media in the high-velocity fluid flow regime (United States)

    Qi, Mei; Xu, Hui; Yang, Chao; Qu, Tailai; Kong, lingxiao; Wu, Shucheng; Zeng, Baoquan; Xu, Haixia


    High-velocity fluid flow, which will result in the region of the wellbore or fracture, is generally in the turbulent flow regime and has drawn tremendous attention in petroleum engineering field. Turbulent factor is the key parameter, which is widely used to describe high-velocity flow in porous media. In this work, a theoretical model for turbulent factor in fractal porous media in the high-velocity fluid flow regime is developed. Moreover, a novel analytical expression for the permeability in porous media based on Wu's resistance model is also derived. Then, the analytical Kozeny-Carman constant with no empirical constant is obtained. The predictions of permeability-porosity relation by the current mathematical models have been validated by comparing with available experimental data. Furthermore, the effects of structural parameters of porous media on the curve of velocity and pressure drop are discussed in detail.

  17. Dynamics of High Pressure Reacting Shear Flows (United States)


    liquid rockets, future gas turbines • When the combustion systems are for propulsion, limited tankage dictates that on-board propellants be stored in...condensed form – eg, kerosene, liquid oxygen in rockets • Combustion systems can no longer be designed to meet modern requirements without considering...speed gaseous H2 Symmetric recirculation zones Low-speed liquid O2 High-speed gaseous H2 Asymmetric recirculation zones Combustion case Results

  18. High-Flow Jet Exit Rig Designed and Fabricated (United States)

    Buehrle, Robert J.; Trimarchi, Paul A.


    The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to test single flow jet nozzles and to measure the appropriate thrust and noise levels. The rig has been designed for the maximum hot condition of 16 lbm/sec of combustion air at 1960 R (maximum) and to produce a maximum thrust of 2000 lb. It was designed for cold flow of 29.1 lbm/sec of air at 530 R. In addition, it can test dual-flow nozzles (nozzles with bypass flow in addition to core flow) with independent control of each flow. The High- Flow Jet Exit Rig was successfully fabricated in late 2001 and is being readied for checkout tests. The rig will be installed in Glenn's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig consists of the following major components: a single component force balance, the natural-gas-fueled J-79 combustor assembly, the plenum and manifold assembly, an acoustic/instrumentation/seeding (A/I/S) section, a table, and the research nozzles. The rig will be unique in that it is designed to operate uncooled. The structure survives the 1960 R test condition because it uses carefully selected high temperature alloy materials such as Hastelloy-X. The lower plenum assembly was designed to operate at pressures to 450 psig at 1960 R, in accordance with the ASME B31.3 piping code. The natural gas-fueled combustor fires directly into the lower manifold. The hot air is directed through eight 1-1/2-in. supply pipes that supply the upper plenum. The flow is conditioned in the upper plenum prior to flowing to the research nozzle. The 1-1/2-in. supply lines are arranged in a U-shaped design to provide for a flexible piping system. The combustor assembly checkout was successfully conducted in Glenn's Engine Component Research Laboratory in the spring of 2001. The combustor is a low-smoke version of the J79 combustor used to power the F4 Phantom military aircraft. The natural gas-fueled combustor demonstrated high-efficiency combustion over a wide range of operating

  19. Deployable Emergency Shutoff Device Blocks High-Velocity Fluid Flows (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a device and method for blocking the flow of fluid from an open pipe. Motivated by the sea-bed oil-drilling catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, NASA innovators designed the device to plug, control, and meter the flow of gases and liquids. Anchored with friction fittings, spikes, or explosively activated fasteners, the device is well-suited for harsh environments and high fluid velocities and pressures. With the addition of instrumentation, it can also be used as a variable area flow metering valve that can be set based upon flow conditions. With robotic additions, this patent-pending innovation can be configured to crawl into a pipe then anchor and activate itself to block or control fluid flow.

  20. Turbulent behaviour of non-cohesive sediment gravity flows at unexpectedly high flow density (United States)

    Baker, Megan; Baas, Jaco H.; Malarkey, Jonathan; Kane, Ian


    Experimental lock exchange-type turbidity currents laden with non-cohesive silica-flour were found to be highly dynamic at remarkably high suspended sediment concentrations. These experiments were conducted to produce sediment gravity flows of volumetric concentrations ranging from 1% to 52%, to study how changes in suspended sediment concentration affects the head velocities and run-out distances of these flows, in natural seawater. Increasing the volumetric concentration of suspended silica-flour, C, up to C = 46%, within the flows led to a progressive increase in the maximum head velocity. This relationship suggests that suspended sediment concentration intensifies the density difference between the turbulent suspension and the ambient water, which drives the flow, even if almost half of the available space is occupied by sediment particles. However, from C = 46% to C = 52% a rapid reduction in the maximum head velocity was measured. It is inferred that at C = 46%, friction from grain-to-grain interactions begins to attenuate turbulence within the flows. At C > 46%, the frictional stresses become progressively more dominant over the turbulent forces and excess density, thus producing lower maximum head velocities. This grain interaction process started to rapidly reduce the run-out distance of the silica-flour flows at equally high concentrations of C ≥ 47%. All flows with C 9%. Yet, the critical flow concentration at which turbulence modulation commenced for these silica-flour laden flows appeared to be much higher. We suggest that Bagnold's 9% criterion cannot be applied to flows that carry fine-grained sediment, because turbulent forces are more important than dispersive forces, and frictional forces start to affect the flows only at concentrations just below the cubic packing density of spheres of C = 52%. These experimental results also imply that natural flows may be able to transport vast volumes of non-cohesive sediment with relative ease, especially

  1. Carbon film deposition from high velocity rarefied flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebrov, A.K., E-mail:; Emelyanov, A.A.; Yudin, I.B.


    The presented study is based on the idea of the activation of a gas-precursor high velocity flow by hot wire. The wire forms the channel for flow before expansion to substrate. The construction allows change of the specific flow rate, velocity, composition and temperature of a gas mixture by studying the film synthesis in conditions from free molecular to continuum flow at velocities from hundreds to thousands of m/s. At a high pressure, the film has typical and unusual hexagonal incorporations for diamond tetragonal particles. Raman spectrum with the pronounced diamond peak is typical for diamond-like film. X-ray diffraction points in the presence of lonsdaleite. Conditions of deposition were simulated by Monte Carlo method. Collisions with hot surfaces and chemical transformations were taken into consideration as well.

  2. An adaptive finite element method for high speed flows (United States)

    Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Peiro, J.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.


    The solution of the equations of compressible high speed flow, on unstructured triangular grids in 2D and tetrahedral grids in 3D, is considered. Solution methods based upon both Taylor-Galerkin and Runge-Kutta time-stepping techniques are presented and the incorporation of the ideas of flux corrected transport (FCT) is discussed. These methods are combined with an adaptive mesh regeneration procedure and are employed in the solution of several examples, consisting of Euler flows in both 2D and 3D and Navier-Stokes flows in 2D.

  3. High flow rate microsieve for bio medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    A new composite filtration membrane having a thin filtration or sieving layer has been developed. This filtration membrane with a high pore density and a narrow pore size distribution on a macro porous support shows good separation behaviour and a high flow rate. Because of the construction method,

  4. The Steady Flow Resistance of Perforated Sheet Materials in High Speed Grazing Flows (United States)

    Syed, Asif A.; Yu, Jia; Kwan, H. W.; Chien, E.; Jones, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)


    A study was conducted to determine the effects of high speed grazing air flow on the acoustic resistance of perforated sheet materials used in the construction of acoustically absorptive liners placed in commercial aircraft engine nacelles. Since DC flow resistance of porous sheet materials is known to be a major component of the acoustic resistance of sound suppression liners, the DC flow resistance of a set of perforated face-sheets and linear 'wiremesh' face-sheets was measured in a flow duct apparatus (up to Mach 0.8). Samples were fabricated to cover typical variations in perforated face-sheet parameters, such as hole diameter, porosity and sheet thickness, as well as those due to different manufacturing processes. The DC flow resistance data from perforated sheets were found to correlate strongly with the grazing flow Mach number and the face-sheet porosity. The data also show correlation against the boundary layer displacement thickness to hole-diameter ratio. The increase in resistance with grazing flow for punched aluminum sheets is in good agreement with published results up to Mach 0.4, but is significantly larger than expected above Mach 0.4. Finally, the tests demonstrated that there is a significant increase in the resistance of linear 'wiremesh' type face-sheet materials.

  5. Miniature, high efficiency transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters (United States)

    Saikia, Meghna

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a new type of miniature, high efficiency transducer for use in ultrasonic flow meters. The proposed transducer consists of a thin plate of a suitable piezoelectric material on which an inter-digital transducer is fabricated for the generation and detection of plate acoustic waves. When immersed in a fluid medium, this device can convert energy from plate acoustic waves (PAWs) into bulk acoustic waves (BAWs) and vice versa. It is shown that this mode coupling principle can be used to realize efficient transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters. This transducer can be mounted flush with the walls of the pipe through which fluid is flowing, resulting in minimal disturbance of fluid flow. A prototype flow cell using these transducers has been designed and fabricated. The characteristics of this device have been measured over water flow rates varying from 0 to 7.5 liters per minute and found to be in good agreement with theory. Another attractive property of the new transducers is that they can be used to realize remotely read, passive, wireless flow meters. Details of methods that can be used to develop this wireless capability are described. The research carried out in this thesis has applications in several other areas such as ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE), noncontact or air coupled ultrasonics, and for developing wireless capability in a variety of other acoustic wave sensors.

  6. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression (United States)

    Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang


    Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ADA enzyme therapy to reduce adenosine or a specific antagonist to block A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling, we successfully attenuated priapism in both ADA−/− and SCD mice by restoring penile PDE5 gene expression to normal levels. This finding led us to further discover that excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation directly reduces PDE5 gene expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. Overall, we reveal that excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling underlies reduced penile PDE activity by decreasing PDE5 gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent manner and provide new insight for the pathogenesis of priapism and novel therapies for the disease.—Ning, C., Wen, J., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Wang, W., Zhang, W., Qi, L., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackburn, M. R., Kellems, R. E., Xia, Y. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression. PMID:24614760

  7. Prise en charge du priapisme ischémique aigu à l’Hôpital National de Lamordé de Niamey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumarou Habou


    Conclusion: La drépanocytose est la principale cause du priapisme ischémique aigu dans notre contexte. La ponction caverneuse selon Winter est une option thérapeutique simple, fiable et efficace pour la prise en charge de cette affection.

  8. Channel Geometry and Flood Flows: Quantifying over-bank flow dynamics during high-flow events in North Carolina's floodplains (United States)

    Lovette, J. P.; Duncan, J. M.; Vimal, S.; Band, L. E.


    Natural riparian areas play numerous roles in the maintenance and improvement of stream water quality. Both restoration of riparian areas and improvement of hydrologic connectivity to the stream are often key goals of river restoration projects. These management actions are designed to improve nutrient removal by slowing and treating overland flow delivered from uplands and by storing, treating, and slowly releasing streamwater from overbank inundation during flood events. A major question is how effective this storage of overbank flow is at treating streamwater based on the cumulative time stream discharge at a downstream location has spent in shallower, slower overbank flow. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program maintains a detailed statewide Flood Risk Information System (FRIS) using HEC-RAS modeling, lidar, and detailed surveyed river cross-sections. FRIS provides extensive information regarding channel geometry on approximately 39,000 stream reaches (a slightly coarser spatial resolution than the NHD+v2 dataset) with tens of cross-sections for each reach. We use this FRIS data to calculate volume and discharge from floodplain riparian areas separately from in-channel flow during overbank events. Preliminary results suggest that a small percentage of total annual discharge interacts with the full floodplain extent along a stream reach due to the infrequency of overbank flow events. However, with the significantly different physical characteristics of the riparian area when compared to the channel itself, this overbank flow can provide unique services to water quality. Our project aims to use this information in conjunction with data from the USGS SPARROW program to target non-point source hotspots of Nitrogen and Phosphorus addition and removal. By better understanding the flow dynamics within riparian areas during high flow events, riparian restoration projects can be carried out with improved efficacy.

  9. High Definition Graphics Application In Fluid Flow Simulations (United States)

    Bancroft, Gordon; Merritt, Fergus; Buning, Pieter; Watson, Val


    The Fluid Dynamics Division of the NASA Ames Research Center is using high definition (high spatial and color resolution) computer graphics to help visualize flow fields from computer simulations of air flow about vehicles such as the Space Shuttle. Computational solutions of the flow field are obtained from Cray supercomputers. These solutions are then transferred to Silicon Graphics Workstations for creation and interactive viewing of dynamic 3D displays of the flow fields. The scientist's viewing position in the 3D space can be interactively changed while the fluid flow is either frozen in time or moving in time. Specific animated sequences can be created for viewing on the workstation or for recording on video tape or 16mm movies with the aid of specialized software that permits easy editing and automatic "tweening" of the sequences. This paper will describe the software developed for creating the 3D flow field displays and for creating the animation sequences. It will also specify the hardware required to generate these displays, to record them on video tape, and to record them on 16mm film. A video tape will be shown to illustrate the capabilities of the hardware and software with examples.

  10. Marangoni Flow and Surface Tension of High Temperature Melts (United States)

    Hibiya, Taketoshi; Ozawa, Shumpei

    Marangoni flow plays an important role in the heat and mass transport for highly value-added high-temperature processes, such as crystal growth, welding, casting, and electron beam melting. For silicon single crystal growth, the effect of the oscillatory Marangoni flow on the introduction of growth striation was discussed by Chen and Wilcox for the first time in 1972 [1]. The existence of the Marangoni flow within molten silicon was proved through microgravity experiments in space on board a sounding rocket in 1983 by Eyer et al. [2], who found formation of growth striation in single crystals even under microgravity, where buoyancy-driven flow was suppressed. To explain the Marangoni effect at the melt surface, surface tension is essential. Keene [3] discussed the oxygen contamination in the surface tension measurement and recommended the use of a levitation technique, which is a containerless process and assures the contamination-free condition from measurement devices. It is well known that flow direction in the weld pool is dependent on surface contamination and that this is related to weldability [4, 5]. Flow direction is controlled by the temperature coefficient of surface tension for molten steels; contaminants are oxygen and sulfur. In the electron beam button melting system, the Marangoni flow is dominant because of intense heating at the melt surface [5]. In this chapter, surface tension of high temperature metallic melts is discussed from the viewpoint of the Marangoni effect in the value-added high temperature processes, particularly from the viewpoint of the effect of oxygen and sulfur. Theoretical treatment for oxygen adsorption is also discussed.

  11. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows (United States)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.


    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  12. Thermal Mechanisms for High Amplitude Aerodynamic Flow Control (YIP 2012) (United States)


    high speed, high Reynolds number jets (see Samimy et al. 2010 and references therein). In this case, localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs...fundamentally different from the widely studied ac-DBD plasma actuator which functions through momentum transfer between ionized and neutral species... arc plasmas has been demonstrated in high-speed flows having turbulent boundary layers and negligible pressure gradient (Lazar et al. 2008; Kearney

  13. Direct Numerical Simulation of Disperse Multiphase High-Speed Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourgaliev, R R; Dinh, T N; Theofanous, T G; Koning, J M; Greenman, R M; Nakafuji, G T


    A recently introduced Level-Set-based Cartesian Grid (LSCG) Characteristics-Based Matching (CBM) method is applied for direct numerical simulation of shock-induced dispersal of solid material. The method incorporates the latest advancements in the level set technology and characteristics-based numerical methods for solution of hyperbolic conservation laws and boundary treatment. The LSCG/CBM provides unique capabilities to simulate complex fluid-solid (particulate) multiphase flows under high-speed flow conditions and taking into account particle-particle elastic and viscoelastic collisions. The particular emphasis of the present study is placed on importance of appropriate modeling of particle-particle collisions, which are demonstrated to crucially influence the global behavior of high-speed multiphase particulate flows. The results of computations reveal the richness and complexity of flow structures in compressible disperse systems, due to dynamic formation of shocks and contact discontinuities, which provide an additional long-range interaction mechanism in dispersed high-speed multiphase flows.

  14. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail:; Golingo, R. P., E-mail:; Nelson, B. A., E-mail:; Bowers, C. A., E-mail:; Doty, S. A., E-mail:; Forbes, E. G., E-mail:; Hughes, M. C., E-mail:; Kim, B., E-mail:; Knecht, S. D., E-mail:; Lambert, K. K., E-mail:; Lowrie, W., E-mail:; Ross, M. P., E-mail:; Weed, J. R., E-mail: [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)


    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  15. Void fraction in horizontal bulk flow boiling at high flow qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Fancisco J.; Monne, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad de Zaragoza-CPS, Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain); Pascau, Antonio [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza-CPS, Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)


    In this work, a new thermodynamic prediction of the vapor void fraction in bulk flow boiling, which is the core process of many energy conversion systems, is analyzed. The current heat balance is based on the flow quality, which is closely related to the measured void fraction, although some correlation for the vapor-liquid velocity ratio is needed. So here, it is suggested to work with the 'static' or thermodynamic quality, which is directly connected to the void fraction through the densities of the phases. Thus, the relation between heat and the mixture enthalpy (here based on the thermodynamic quality instead of the flow one) should be analyzed in depth. The careful void fraction data taken by Thom during the 'Cambridge project' for horizontal saturated flow boiling with high flow qualities ({<=}0.8) have been used for this analysis. As main results, first, we have found that the applied heat and the increment of the proposed thermodynamic enthalpy mixture throughout the heated duct do not agree, and for closure, a parameter is needed. Second, it has been checked that this parameter is practically equal to the classic velocity ratio or 'slip' ratio, suggesting that it should be included in a true thermodynamic heat balance. Furthermore, it has been clearly possible to improve the 'Cambridge project' correlations for the 'slip' ratio, here based on inlet pressure and water velocity, and heat flux. The calculated void fractions compare quite well with the measured ones. Finally, the equivalence of the suggested new heat balance with the current one through the 'slip' ratio is addressed. Highlighted is the same new energetic relation for saturated flow boiling that has been recently confirmed by the authors for Knights data, also taken during the 'Cambridge project', which include not only horizontal but also vertical upwards flows with moderate outlet flow quality ({<=}0.2). (author)

  16. Measurements of granular flow dynamics with high speed digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingeol [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    The flow of granular materials is common to many industrial processes. This dissertation suggests and validates image processing algorithms applied to high speed digital images to measure the dynamics (velocity, temperature and volume fraction) of dry granular solids flowing down an inclined chute under the action of gravity. Glass and acrylic particles have been used as granular solids in the experiment. One technique utilizes block matching for spatially averaged velocity measurements of the glass particles. This technique is compared with the velocity measurement using an optic probe which is a conventional granular flow velocity measurement device. The other technique for measuring the velocities of individual acrylic particles is developed with correspondence using a Hopfield network. This technique first locates the positions of particles with pattern recognition techniques, followed by a clustering technique, which produces point patterns. Also, several techniques are compared for particle recognition: synthetic discriminant function (SDF), minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter, modified minimum average correlation energy (MMACE) filter and variance normalized correlation. The author proposes an MMACE filter which improves generalization of the MACE filter by adjusting the amount of averaged spectrum of training images in the spectrum whitening stages of the MACE filter. Variance normalized correlation is applied to measure the velocity and temperature of flowing glass particles down the inclined chute. The measurements are taken for the steady and wavy flow and qualitatively compared with a theoretical model of granular flow.

  17. Minimum state for high Reynolds and Peclet number turbulent flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ye, E-mail: yezhou@llnl.go [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buckingham, A.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bataille, F. [PROMES-CNRS, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Mathelin, L. [LIMSI-CNRS, BP 133, 91403 Orsay (France)


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) or experiments for the very high Reynolds (Re) and Peclet (Pe) number flows commonly exceed the resolution possible even when use is made of the most advanced computer capability or most sophisticated diagnostics and physical capabilities of advanced laboratory facilities. In practice use is made of statistical flow data bases developed at the highest Re and Pe levels achievable within the currently available facility limitations. In addition, there is presently no metric to indicate whether and how much of the fully resolved physics of the flow of interest has been captured within the facilities available. In this Letter the authors develop the necessary metric criteria for homogeneous, isotropic and shear layer flows. It is based on establishing a smaller subset of the total range of dynamic scale interactions that will still faithfully reproduce all of the essential, significant, influences of the larger range of scale interactions. The work identifies a minimum significant Re and Pe level that must be obtained by DNS or experiment in order to capture all of the significant dynamic influences in data which is then scaleable to flows of interest. Hereafter this is called the minimum state. Determination of the minimum state is based on finding a minimum scale separation for the energy-containing scales of the flow and scalar fields sufficient to prevent contamination by interaction with the (non-universal) velocity dissipation and scalar diffusivity inertial range scale limits.

  18. Real-time High-fidelity Surface Flow Simulation. (United States)

    Ren, Bo; Yuan, Tailing; Li, Chenfeng; Xu, Kun; Hu, Shi-Min


    Surface flow phenomena, such as rain water flowing down a tree trunk and progressive water front in a shower room, are common in real life. However, compared with the 3D spatial fluid flow, these surface flow problems have been much less studied in the graphics community. To tackle this research gap, we present an efficient, robust and high-fidelity simulation approach based on the shallow-water equations. Specifically, the standard shallow-water flow model is extended to general triangle meshes with a feature-based bottom friction model, and a series of coherent mathematical formulations are derived to represent the full range of physical effects that are important for real-world surface flow phenomena. In addition, by achieving compatibility with existing 3D fluid simulators and by supporting physically realistic interactions with multiple fluids and solid surfaces, the new model is flexible and readily extensible for coupled phenomena. A wide range of simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the new approach.

  19. Engineering of Biomimetic Hair-Flow Sensor Arrays Dedicated to High-Resolution Flow Field Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Bruinink, C.M.; Droogendijk, H.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.


    This paper addresses the latest developments in biomimetic hair-flow sensors towards sensitive high-density arrays. Improving the electrodes design of the hair sensor, using Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer technology, has resulted in the ability to measure small capacitance changes as caused by

  20. Properties of thin films for high temperature flow sensors (United States)

    Albin, Sacharia


    Requirements of material parameters of high temperature flow sensors are identified. Refractory metal silicides offer high temperature sensitivity and high frequency response and are stable up to 1000 C. Intrinsic semiconductors of high band gap are also considered as sensor elements. SiC and diamond are identified. Combined with substrates of low thermal and electrical conductivity, such as quartz or Al2O3, these materials meet several requirements of high sensitivity and frequency response. Film deposition and patterning techniques suitable for these materials are identified.

  1. Taylor dispersion analysis in coiled capillaries at high flow rates. (United States)

    Lewandrowska, Anna; Majcher, Aldona; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna; Tabaka, Marcin; Hołyst, Robert


    Taylor Dispersion Analysis (TDA) has been performed for analytes moving at high flow rates in long, coiled capillaries. A thin injection zone of the analyte is stretched by the flow and final distribution of concentration of the analyte at the end of the capillary has the gaussian shape. The high flow rates in coiled capillary generate vortices. They convectively mix the analyte across the capillary. This mixing reduces the width of the gaussian distribution several times in comparison to the width obtained in a straight capillary in standard TDA. We have determined an empirical, scaling equation for the width as a function of the flow rate, molecular diffusion coefficient of the analyte, viscosity of the carrier phase, internal radius of the cylindrical capillary, and external radius of the coiled capillary. This equation can be used for different sizes of capillaries in a wide range of parameters without an additional calibration procedure. Our experimental results of flow in the coiled capillary could not be explained by current models based on approximate solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. We applied the technique to determine the diffusion coefficients of the following analytes: salts, drugs, single amino acids, peptides (from dipeptides to hexapeptides), and proteins.

  2. Uncertainty in future high flows in Qiantang River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Y.; Booij, Martijn J.; Wang, G.


    Uncertainties in high flows originating from greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, hydrological model structures, and their parameters for the Jinhua River basin, China, were assessed. The baseline (1961–90) and future (2011–40) climates for A1B, A2, and B2 scenarios were downscaled from the general

  3. Abnormal blood flow in the sublingual microcirculation at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Daniel S.; Ince, Can; Goedhart, Peter; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Grocott, Mike P. W.


    We report the first direct observations of deranged microcirculatory blood flow at high altitude, using sidestream dark-field imaging. Images of the sublingual microcirculation were obtained from a group of 12 volunteers during a climbing expedition to Cho Oyu (8,201 m) in the Himalayas.

  4. Numerical investigation of high pressure condensing flows in supersonic nozzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzini, L.; Pini, M.


    High-pressure non-equilibrium condensing flows are investigated in this paper through a quasi-1D Euler model coupled to the method of moments for the physical characterization of the dispersed phase. Two different numerical approaches, namely the so-called (a) the mixture and (b) continuum phase

  5. Modeling the interaction between flow and highly flexible aquatic vegetation (United States)

    Dijkstra, J. T.; Uittenbogaard, R. E.


    Aquatic vegetation has an important role in estuaries and rivers by acting as bed stabilizer, filter, food source, and nursing area. However, macrophyte populations worldwide are under high anthropogenic pressure. Protection and restoration efforts will benefit from more insight into the interaction between vegetation, currents, waves, and sediment transport. Most aquatic plants are very flexible, implying that their shape and hence their drag and turbulence production depend on the flow conditions. We have developed a numerical simulation model that describes this dynamic interaction between very flexible vegetation and a time-varying flow, using the sea grass Zostera marina as an example. The model consists of two parts: an existing 1DV k-ɛ turbulence model simulating the flow combined with a new model simulating the bending of the plants, based on a force balance that takes account of both vegetation position and buoyancy. We validated this model using observations of positions of flexible plastic strips and of the forces they are subjected to, as well as hydrodynamic measurements. The model predicts important properties like the forces on plants, flow velocity profiles, and turbulence characteristics well. Although the validation data are limited, the results are sufficiently encouraging to consider our model to be of generic value in studying flow processes in fields of flexible vegetation.

  6. Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru


    We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.

  7. Embedded function methods for compressible high speed turbulent flow (United States)

    Walker, J. D. A.


    This is the final report on the work performed on the grant 'Embedded Function Methods for Compressible High Speed Turbulent Flow' carried out at Lehigh University during the contract period from September, 1987, to October of 1991. Work has continued at Lehigh on this project on an unfunded basis to the present. The original proposed work had two separate thrusts which were associated with developing embedded function methods in order to obviate the need to expend computational resources on turbulent wall layers in Navier Stokes and boundary-layer calculations. Previous work on the incompressible problem had indicated that this could be done successfully for two-dimensional and three-dimensional incompressible flows. The central objective here was to extend the basic approach to the high speed compressible problem.

  8. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.


    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...... Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices...

  9. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)


    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  10. High-Fidelity Numerical Modeling of Compressible Flow (United States)


    source of much of the aero-thermo- acoustic load that a high-speed vehicle must resist. In recent work, we have addressed several aspects of the...region is tiled with boxes of size r, and the number of boxes N that contain the boundary is counted. For a self-similar fractal, this number is N(r...resolution outside the boundary layer to accommodate acoustic disturbances as they travelled through the inviscid core flow and where reflected back into

  11. ECAJS 2009 VOL 14 No 1 FINAL EDIT doc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Rodriguez J, Cuadrado JM, Frances A High-flow priapism as a complication of veno-occlusive priapism: two case reports. Int J Impot Res 2006;18:215-217. 4. Liguori G, Garaffa G, Trombetta C et al. High- flow priapisim(HFP) secondary to. Nesbit operation: management by percutaneous embolization and colour Doppler-.

  12. High performance micro-flow cytometer based on optical fibres. (United States)

    Etcheverry, S; Faridi, A; Ramachandraiah, H; Kumar, T; Margulis, W; Laurell, F; Russom, A


    Flow cytometry is currently the gold standard for analysis of cells in the medical laboratory and biomedical research. Fuelled by the need of point-of-care diagnosis, a significant effort has been made to miniaturize and reduce cost of flow cytometers. However, despite recent advances, current microsystems remain less versatile and much slower than their large-scale counterparts. In this work, an all-silica fibre microflow cytometer is presented that measures fluorescence and scattering from particles and cells. It integrates cell transport in circular capillaries and light delivery by optical fibres. Single-stream cell focusing is performed by Elasto-inertial microfluidics to guarantee accurate and sensitive detection. The capability of this technique is extended to high flow rates (up to 800 µl/min), enabling a throughput of 2500 particles/s. The robust, portable and low-cost system described here could be the basis for a point-of-care flow cytometer with a performance comparable to commercial systems.

  13. Refraction of high frequency noise in an arbitrary jet flow (United States)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Krejsa, Eugene A.


    Refraction of high frequency noise by mean flow gradients in a jet is studied using the ray-tracing methods of geometrical acoustics. Both the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) formulations are considered. In the former case, the mean flow is assumed parallel and the governing propagation equations are described by a system of four first order ordinary differential equations. The 3D formulation, on the other hand, accounts for the jet spreading as well as the axial flow development. In this case, a system of six first order differential equations are solved to trace a ray from its source location to an observer in the far field. For subsonic jets with a small spreading angle both methods lead to similar results outside the zone of silence. However, with increasing jet speed the two prediction models diverge to the point where the parallel flow assumption is no longer justified. The Doppler factor of supersonic jets as influenced by the refraction effects is discussed and compared with the conventional modified Doppler factor.

  14. Towards a high-resolution flow camera using artificial hair sensor arrays for flow pattern observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.


    Flow-sensor arrays uncover the potential to measure spatio-temporal flow patterns rather than flow measurements at just a single point. We present in this paper the developments in design, fabrication and interfacing of biomimetic flow-sensor arrays, inspired by flow-sensitive organs (cerci) of

  15. Transient flow characteristics of a high speed rotary valve (United States)

    Browning, Patrick H.

    were experimentally mapped as a function of valve speed, inter-cylinder pressure ratios and volume ratios and the results were compared to compressible flow theoretical models. Specifically, the transient behavior suggested a short-lived loss-mode initiation closely resembled by shock tube theory followed by a quasi-steady flow regime resembling choked flow behavior. An empirical model was then employed to determine the useful range of the CCV design as applied to a four-stroke CIBAI engine cycle modeled using a 1-D quasi-steady numerical method, with particular emphasis on the cyclic timing of the CCV opening. Finally, a brief discussion of a high-temperature version of the CCV design is presented.

  16. Lagrangian transported MDF methods for compressible high speed flows (United States)

    Gerlinger, Peter


    This paper deals with the application of thermochemical Lagrangian MDF (mass density function) methods for compressible sub- and supersonic RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) simulations. A new approach to treat molecular transport is presented. This technique on the one hand ensures numerical stability of the particle solver in laminar regions of the flow field (e.g. in the viscous sublayer) and on the other hand takes differential diffusion into account. It is shown in a detailed analysis, that the new method correctly predicts first and second-order moments on the basis of conventional modeling approaches. Moreover, a number of challenges for MDF particle methods in high speed flows is discussed, e.g. high cell aspect ratio grids close to solid walls, wall heat transfer, shock resolution, and problems from statistical noise which may cause artificial shock systems in supersonic flows. A Mach 2 supersonic mixing channel with multiple shock reflection and a model rocket combustor simulation demonstrate the eligibility of this technique to practical applications. Both test cases are simulated successfully for the first time with a hybrid finite-volume (FV)/Lagrangian particle solver (PS).

  17. Modeling Compressibility Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flows (United States)

    Sarkar, S.


    Man has strived to make objects fly faster, first from subsonic to supersonic and then to hypersonic speeds. Spacecraft and high-speed missiles routinely fly at hypersonic Mach numbers, M greater than 5. In defense applications, aircraft reach hypersonic speeds at high altitude and so may civilian aircraft in the future. Hypersonic flight, while presenting opportunities, has formidable challenges that have spurred vigorous research and development, mainly by NASA and the Air Force in the USA. Although NASP, the premier hypersonic concept of the eighties and early nineties, did not lead to flight demonstration, much basic research and technology development was possible. There is renewed interest in supersonic and hypersonic flight with the HyTech program of the Air Force and the Hyper-X program at NASA being examples of current thrusts in the field. At high-subsonic to supersonic speeds, fluid compressibility becomes increasingly important in the turbulent boundary layers and shear layers associated with the flow around aerospace vehicles. Changes in thermodynamic variables: density, temperature and pressure, interact strongly with the underlying vortical, turbulent flow. The ensuing changes to the flow may be qualitative such as shocks which have no incompressible counterpart, or quantitative such as the reduction of skin friction with Mach number, large heat transfer rates due to viscous heating, and the dramatic reduction of fuel/oxidant mixing at high convective Mach number. The peculiarities of compressible turbulence, so-called compressibility effects, have been reviewed by Fernholz and Finley. Predictions of aerodynamic performance in high-speed applications require accurate computational modeling of these "compressibility effects" on turbulence. During the course of the project we have made fundamental advances in modeling the pressure-strain correlation and developed a code to evaluate alternate turbulence models in the compressible shear layer.

  18. Endofalloprosthesis with a one-component semirigid prosthesis in a patient with an arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous artery and the development of priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov


    Full Text Available Phalloprosthesis in patients with various durations and different hemodynamic types of priapism is a disputable problem. Rigid penile prosthesis placement may be deemed to be a possible method for the torpid treatment of ischemic priapism, particularly if other medical and surgical procedures have been ineffective and the time of pathological erection is over 36–72 hours. The paper gives an example of how such a patient was treated. Imaging techniques, such as color Doppler mapping of the penile vessels, selective iliacography, and compression sono elastography, were used for diagnosis. These techniques could make a correct diagnosis and provide a rationale for endofalloprosthesis.

  19. Autoinflation Leading to Failure of Two-Piece Ambicor Implantable Penile Prosthesis: An Outcome from a Methodical Treatment of Recalcitrant Stuttering Priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Charles Welliver


    Full Text Available Introduction. We present the case of a patient who received a two-piece Ambicor penile prosthesis for idiopathic recurrent “stuttering” priapism refractory to other treatment options. The patient returned unable to deflate the device due to an interesting anatomically induced mechanical failure. Aims. To describe the method and findings of this inflatable prosthesis failure. Results. Prosthesis failure occurred due to restrictive corporal diameter and the unique characteristics of fluid reservoir location in the two-piece inflatable prosthesis. The patient was successfully converted to a semirigid prosthesis with resolution of the pain that was due to his prosthesis autoinflation. Conclusion. Stuttering priapism remains a challenging clinical problem. Penile implantation is a reasonable long-term solution in a patient refractory to less invasive options. In patients with fibrotic corpora, a malleable device should be considered (at least temporarily if unable to dilate comfortably to 13 mm.

  20. Penile Metastasis from Prostate Cancer Presenting as Malignant Priapism Detected Using Gallium-68 Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography. (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Balasundararaj, Barani Kumar Pollachi; Jose, Raghi; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan


    Gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT) is a promising diagnostic tool for patients with prostate cancer. Penile metastasis from prostate cancer is a rare phenomenon that infrequently manifests as malignant priapism. We present a case of 79-year-old patient diagnosed as a case of adenocarcinoma prostate presenting with penile metastases imaged using Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT.

  1. Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin


    Charles Onyutha; Patrick Willems


    This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF) relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using grow...

  2. Adiabatic flow curves of metallic materials at high strain rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Magd, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Scholles, H. [Rheinmetall Industrie GmbH, Unterluess (Germany); Weisshaupt, H. [Rheinmetall Industrie GmbH, Unterluess (Germany)


    Dynamic compression tests are carried out on Armco iron, Cr-V-steel, Ni-Cr-Mo-V-steel, an austenitic Ni-Cr-Mo-steel, tantalum, nickel and Ni{sub 3}Al and magnesium. The flow curves are analysed to determine the influence of the deformation energy which is transformed into heat on the flow behaviour and mechanical stability. Not only the material properties but also the conditions of friction between the specimen and the compresion tool are found to have a greate influence on the flow stress reduction and stability. High frictional forces promote mechanical instability of materials with low strain hardening and low strain rate sensitivity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Schlagdruckversuche werden an Armcoeisen, CrV-Stahl, NiCr-MoV-Stahl, austenitischen NiCrMo-Stahl, Tantal, Nickel, Ni{sub 3}Al und Magnesium durchgefuehrt. Die ermittelten Fliesskurven werden analysiert, um den Einfluss der in Waerme umgewandelte Verformungsarbeit auf das Fliessverhalten und die mechanische Stabilitaet zu erfassen. Nicht nur die Werkstoffeigenschaften sondern auch die Reibungsbedingungen erweisen sich als massgebliche Einflussgroessen fuer Fliessspannungsabnahme und die Stabilitaet. Hohe Reibungskraefte foerdern die Verformungslokalisierung und die mechanische Instabilitaet von Werkstoffen mit niedriger Verfestigung und niedriger Geschwindigkeitsempfindlichkeit. (orig.)

  3. Sildenafil Citrate-Restored eNOS and PDE5 Regulation in Sickle Cell Mouse Penis Prevents Priapism Via Control of Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress (United States)

    Hsu, Lewis L.; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Champion, Hunter C.; Burnett, Arthur L.


    Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders. PMID:23844149

  4. Sildenafil citrate-restored eNOS and PDE5 regulation in sickle cell mouse penis prevents priapism via control of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinity J Bivalacqua

    Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders.

  5. Sildenafil citrate-restored eNOS and PDE5 regulation in sickle cell mouse penis prevents priapism via control of oxidative/nitrosative stress. (United States)

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Musicki, Biljana; Hsu, Lewis L; Berkowitz, Dan E; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L


    Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders.

  6. Resonance Line Formation in Moving Gas Flows with High Porosity (United States)

    Shulman, S. G.


    The formation of resonance lines in gas flows generated by interactions of circumstellar gas with a star's magnetosphere is examined. An effective method is proposed for calculating these lines when the magnetospheric wind is highly porous. The resonance sodium lines observed in the spectrum of UX Ori type star RZ Psc are modelled as an example. It is shown that the narrow absorptions observed in the short wavelength wings of these lines can be formed by scattering of the star's radiation in two gas jets that are semitransparent at the line frequencies when they cross the line of sight.

  7. A high-precision algorithm for axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gokhman


    Full Text Available We present a new algorithm for highly accurate computation of axisymmetric potential flow. The principal feature of the algorithm is the use of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates are used to write down the equations and to specify quadrilateral elements following the boundary. In particular, boundary conditions for the Stokes' stream-function are satisfied exactly. The velocity field is determined by differentiating the stream-function. We avoid the use of quadratures in the evaluation of Galerkin integrals, and instead use splining of the boundaries of elements to take the double integrals of the shape functions in closed form. This is very accurate and not time consuming.

  8. High flow rates during modified ultrafiltration decrease cerebral blood flow velocity and venous oxygen saturation in infants. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A; Ruel, Marc; Broecker, Lothar; Cornel, Garry


    The intracranial hemodynamic effects of modified ultrafiltration in children are unknown. We investigated the effects of different blood flow rates during modified ultrafiltration on the cerebral hemodynamics of children with weights above and below 10 kg. Thirty-one children (weights: 10 kg, n = 10) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Middle-cerebral artery blood flow velocities and cerebral mixed venous oxygen saturations were measured before, five minutes from the beginning, and at the end of ultrafiltration. Patients were classified according to their blood flow rates during ultrafiltration in three groups: high (> or = 20 mL/kg/min), moderate (10-19 mL/kg/min), and low flow rates (flow rates of ultrafiltration and the decline in mean cerebral blood flow velocity (r = - 0.48; p = 0.005) and cerebral oxygen saturation (r = - 0.49; p = 0.005) or hematocrit increase (r = 0.59; p = 0.001). Infants exposed to high flow rates had greater reduction of cerebral blood flow velocity and regional mixed venous saturation and higher hematocrit at the end of ultrafiltration compared with those subjected to moderate and low flow rates (p flow rates through the ultrafilter during modified ultrafiltration transiently decrease the cerebral circulation in young infants compared with lower blood flow rates. These effects may be related to an increased diastolic runoff from the aorta into the ultrafiltration circuit that leads to a "stealing" effect from the intracranial circulation, which may be important in infants with dysfunctional cerebral autoregulation.

  9. Uncertainties in Flow-Duration-Frequency Relationships of High and Low Flow Extremes in Lake Victoria Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Onyutha


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on uncertainty analysis to aid decision making in applications of statistically modeled flow-duration-frequency (FDF relationships of both daily high and low flows. The analysis is based on 24 selected catchments in the Lake Victoria basin in Eastern Africa. The FDF relationships were derived for aggregation levels in the range 1–90 days for high flows and 1–365 days for low flows. The validity of the projected FDF quantiles for high return periods T was checked using growth factor curves. Monte Carlo simulations were used to construct confidence intervals CI on both the estimated Ts for given flows and the estimated FDF quantiles for given T. The average bias of the modeled T of high and low flows are for all catchments and Ts up to 25 years lower than 8%. Despite this relatively small average bias in the modeled T, the limits of the CI on the modeled 25-year flows go up to more than 100% for high flows and more than 150% for low flows. The assessed FDF relationships and accompanied uncertainties are useful for various types of risk based water engineering and water management applications related to floods and droughts.

  10. CPAP and High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Sinha, Ian P; McBride, Antonia K S; Smith, Rachel; Fernandes, Ricardo M


    Severe respiratory failure develops in some infants with bronchiolitis because of a complex pathophysiologic process involving increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen may improve the work of breathing and oxygenation. Although the mechanisms behind these noninvasive modalities of respiratory support are not well understood, they may help infants by way of distending pressure and delivery of high concentrations of warmed and humidified oxygen. Observational studies of varying quality have suggested that CPAP and HFNC may confer direct physiologic benefits to infants with bronchiolitis and that their use has reduced the need for intubation. No trials to our knowledge, however, have compared CPAP with HFNC in bronchiolitis. Two randomized trials compared CPAP with oxygen delivered by low-flow nasal cannula or face mask and found some improvements in blood gas results and some physiologic parameters, but these trials were unable to demonstrate a reduction in the need for intubation. Two trials evaluated HFNC in bronchiolitis (one comparing it with headbox oxygen, the other with nebulized hypertonic saline), with the results not seeming to suggest important clinical or physiologic benefits. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of respiratory failure in bronchiolitis, discuss these trials in detail, and consider how future research studies may be designed to best evaluate CPAP and HFNC in bronchiolitis.

  11. Fluid flow and degassing in high temperature magma (United States)

    Gaunt, H. E.; Sammonds, P.; Kilburn, C.; Meredith, P.; Smith, R.


    Dacitic volcanoes such as Mount St Helens are commonly associated with plinian eruptions. They can also erupt magma as lava domes that, in addition to simple effusion, frequently pass through episodes of major collapse and can also explode in vulcanian eruptions under suitable increases in gas pressure. Both dome collapse and vulcanian events can propagate pyroclastic flows and so extend the hazardous range of a dome far beyond the radius of the dome itself. As magma rises in the conduit it becomes supersaturated with dissolved volatiles and, during decompression, exsolution occurs creating gas bubbles within the melt. The ability of gases to escape the rising magma depends strongly on its permeability. It is common in highly viscous magma for gas pressure to build up until, under a sufficient amount of depressurisation, the tensile strength of the magma is exceeded and fragmentation occurs. However effusion of lava domes requires magma to reach the surface in a relatively volatile free state and the processes that control this gas escape in high temperature magma are still poorly understood. To investigate the controls on degassing processes, we have measured how permeability varies progressively with increasing temperature on samples from the 2004-2008 lava dome at Mount St Helens. Permeability was measured on cylindrical samples 25 mm in diameter in a high temperature triaxial deformation apparatus at temperatures up to 900oC, confining pressures of 10 MPa and pore fluid pressures of 5 MPa. Samples of intact dacite from the interior of Spine 4 were used to test temperature effects on fluid flow. Our preliminary results show that fluid flow in the dacite lava at the core of the lava dome is reduced by over two orders of magnitude when the temperature is increased from 30oC to 400oC, with no apparent discontinuity when the pore fluid water flashes to steam at 264oC. During ascent in the conduit the magma is cooled from around 850oC and depressurisation causes

  12. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef


    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  13. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization


    Jian Chen; Chengcheng Xue; Yang Zhao; Deyong Chen; Min-Hsien Wu; Junbo Wang


    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance ...

  14. The flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.


    The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work. The stability map of partial premixed flames illustrates that the flames are stable between two extinction limits. A low extinction limit when partial premixed flames approach non-premixed flame conditions, and a high extinction limit, with the partial premixed flames approach fully premixed flame conditions. These two limits showed that the most stable flame conditions are achieved at a certain degree of partial premixed. The stability is improved by adding air co-flow. As the air co-flow velocity increases the most stable flames are those that approach fully premixed. The turbulent flow field of three flames at 0, 5, 10 m/s co-flow velocity are investigated using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) in order to explore the improvement of the flame stability due to the use of air co-flow. The three flames are all at a jet equivalence ratio (Φj) of 2, fixed level of partial premixing and jet Reynolds number (Rej) of 10,000. The use of co-flow results in the formation of two vortices at the cone exit. These vortices act like stabilization anchors for the flames to the nozzle tip. With these vortices in the flow field, the reaction zone shifts toward the reduced turbulence intensity at the nozzle rim of the cone. Interesting information about the structure of the flow field with and without co-flow are identified and reported in this work.

  15. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi


    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  16. Electron Flow to a Satellite at High Positive Potential (United States)

    Sheldon, John W.


    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) is designed to deploy a 1.6 m diameter spherical satellite a distance of 20 km above the space shuttle orbiter on an insulated conducting tether. Because of the passage of the conducting tether through the earth's magnetic field, an emf is generated producing a positive satellite potential of about 5000 V. Electron flow under the influence of this high positive potential is the focus of the present analysis. The ionospheric parameters at TSS orbit altitude are; thermal velocity of electrons, 1.9 x 10(exp 5) M/S, thermal velocity of the ions, 1.1 x 10(exp 3) m/s, velocity of the satellite 8 x 10(exp 3) m/s. The electrons, with a Debye length, lambda(D) = 0.49 cm, spiral about the earth's magnetic field lines (0.4 Gauss) with a radius of about 3 cm and the ions spiral with a radius of 5 m. Under these conditions, the electron thermal energy, kT is 0.17 eV. The TSS satellite radius, r(p) is 163 Debye lengths. There is an extensive literature on the interaction of satellites with the near-earth ionospheric plasma. The space charge limitation to the electron current collected by a sphere at positive electrical potential was calculated by Langmuir and Blodgett (1924). Parker and Murphy (1967) recognized the importance of the influence of the earth's magnetic field and used the guiding center approximation to calculate the electron current collected by a positive charged satellite. More recently Ma and Schunk (1989) have calculated the time dependent flow of electrons to a spherical satellite at positive potential utilizing numerical methods and Sheldon (1994) used similar methods to solve this problem for the steady state. In order to analyze some of the phenomena that occurred in the ionosphere during the TSS flights, it would be useful to have analytic expressions for these electron flows. The governing equations are very complex and an exact analytical solution is not likely. An approximate analytical solution is feasible however

  17. Rigid spherical particles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow (United States)

    Bakhuis, Dennis; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Mathai, Varghese; Huisman, Sander G.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao


    Many industrial and maritime processes are subject to enormous frictional losses. Reducing these losses even slightly will already lead to large financial and environmental benefits. The understanding of the underlying physical mechanism of frictional drag reduction is still limited, for example, in bubbly drag reduction there is an ongoing debate whether deformability and bubble size are the key parameters. In this experimental study we report high precision torque measurements using rigid non-deformable spherical particles in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow with Reynolds numbers up to 2 ×106 . The particles are made of polystyrene with an average density of 1.036 g cm-3 and three different diameters: 8mm, 4mm, and 1.5mm. Particle volume fractions of up to 6% were used. By varying the particle diameter, density ratio of the particles and the working fluid, and volume fraction of the particles, the effect on the torque is compared to the single phase case. These systematic measurements show that adding rigid spherical particles only results in very minor drag reduction. This work is financially supported by Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) by VIDI Grant Number 13477.

  18. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of crystalline phase. Further, with the addition of 40 vol.% SiC additions, the strain rate sensitivity of flow stress decreased. While the activation energy for flow in LAS was 300 kJ/mole, it increased to 995 kJ/mole with the ...

  19. Flow visualization of bubble behavior under two-phase natural circulation flow conditions using high speed digital camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental


    The The present work aims at identifying flow patterns and measuring interfacial parameters in two-phase natural circulation by using visualization technique with high-speed digital camera. The experiments were conducted in the Natural Circulation Circuit (CCN), installed at Nuclear Engineering Institute/CNEN. The thermo-hydraulic circuit comprises heater, heat exchanger, expansion tank, the pressure relief valve and pipes to interconnect the components. A glass tube is installed at the midpoint of the riser connected to the heater outlet. The natural circulation circuit is complemented by acquisition system of values of temperatures, flow and graphic interface. The instrumentation has thermocouples, volumetric flow meter, rotameter and high-speed digital camera. The experimental study is performed through analysis of information from measurements of temperatures at strategic points along the hydraulic circuit, besides natural circulation flow rates. The comparisons between analytical and experimental values are validated by viewing, recording and processing of the images for the flows patterns. Variables involved in the process of identification of flow regimes, dimensionless parameters, the phase velocity of the flow, initial boiling point, the phenomenon of 'flashing' pre-slug flow type were obtained experimentally. (author)

  20. PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows (United States)

    Pope, Stephen B.


    This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.

  1. Flow separation in rocket nozzles under high altitude condition (United States)

    Stark, R.; Génin, C.


    The knowledge of flow separation in rocket nozzles is crucial for rocket engine design and optimum performance. Typically, flow separation is studied under sea-level conditions. However, this disregards the change of the ambient density during ascent of a launcher. The ambient flow properties are an important factor concerning the design of altitude-adaptive rocket nozzles like the dual bell nozzle. For this reason an experimental study was carried out to study the influence of the ambient density on flow separation within conventional nozzles.

  2. Flow and travel time statistics in highly heterogeneous porous media (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko


    In this paper we present flow and travel time ensemble statistics based on a new simulation methodology, the adaptive Fup Monte Carlo method (AFMCM). As a benchmark case, we considered two-dimensional steady flow in a rectangular domain characterized by multi-Gaussian heterogeneity structure with an isotropic exponential correlation and lnK variance σY2 up to 8. Advective transport is investigated using the travel time framework where Lagrangian variables (e.g., velocity, transverse displacement, or travel time) depend on space rather than on time. We find that Eulerian and Lagrangian velocity distributions diverge for increasing lnK variance due to enhanced channeling. Transverse displacement is a nonnormal for all σY2 and control planes close to the injection area, but after xIY = 20 was found to be nearly normal even for high σY2. Travel time distribution deviates from the Fickian model for large lnK variance and exhibits increasing skewness and a power law tail for large lnK variance, the slope of which decreases for increasing distance from the source; no anomalous features are found. Second moment of advective transport is analyzed with respect to the covariance of two Lagrangian velocity variables: slowness and slope which are directly related to the travel time and transverse displacement variance, which are subsequently related to the longitudinal and transverse dispersion. We provide simple estimators for the Eulerian velocity variance, travel time variance, slowness, and longitudinal dispersivity as a practical contribution of this analysis. Both two-parameter models considered (the advection-dispersion equation and the lognormal model) provide relatively poor representations of the initial part of the travel time probability density function in highly heterogeneous porous media. We identify the need for further theoretical and experimental scrutiny of early arrival times, and the need for computing higher-order moments for a more accurate

  3. The role of flow visualization in the study of high-angle-of-attack aerodynamics (United States)

    Nelson, Robert C.

    The flow around a slender aerodynamic shape, such as guided missile, is characterized by large regions of flow separation at high angles of attack; these regions may contain highly organized vortical flow structures which may be symmetric or asymmetric, steady or unsteady, or even devoid of coherent vortex structure (in which case the wake is entirely turbulent). Attention is presently given to flow visualization experiments that illuminate these aerodynamic conditions, employing schlieren, vapor screen, surface flow visualization, smoke streakline, smoke boundary layer, flow mapping, and hydrodynamic methods.

  4. In-Vivo High Dynamic Range Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Current vector flow systems are limited in their detectable range of blood flow velocities. Previous work on phantoms has shown that the velocity range can be extended using synthetic aperture directional beamforming combined with an adaptive multi-lag approach. This paper presents a first invivo...

  5. High-throughput flow cytometry data normalization for clinical trials. (United States)

    Finak, Greg; Jiang, Wenxin; Krouse, Kevin; Wei, Chungwen; Sanz, Ignacio; Phippard, Deborah; Asare, Adam; De Rosa, Stephen C; Self, Steve; Gottardo, Raphael


    Flow cytometry datasets from clinical trials generate very large datasets and are usually highly standardized, focusing on endpoints that are well defined apriori. Staining variability of individual makers is not uncommon and complicates manual gating, requiring the analyst to adapt gates for each sample, which is unwieldy for large datasets. It can lead to unreliable measurements, especially if a template-gating approach is used without further correction to the gates. In this article, a computational framework is presented for normalizing the fluorescence intensity of multiple markers in specific cell populations across samples that is suitable for high-throughput processing of large clinical trial datasets. Previous approaches to normalization have been global and applied to all cells or data with debris removed. They provided no mechanism to handle specific cell subsets. This approach integrates tightly with the gating process so that normalization is performed during gating and is local to the specific cell subsets exhibiting variability. This improves peak alignment and the performance of the algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is demonstrated on two clinical trial datasets from the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN). In the ITN data set we show that local normalization combined with template gating can account for sample-to-sample variability as effectively as manual gating. In the HVTN dataset, it is shown that local normalization mitigates false-positive vaccine response calls in an intracellular cytokine staining assay. In both datasets, local normalization performs better than global normalization. The normalization framework allows the use of template gates even in the presence of sample-to-sample staining variability, mitigates the subjectivity and bias of manual gating, and decreases the time necessary to analyze large datasets. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen


    Full Text Available This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1 early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2 microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3 microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4 integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  7. Microfluidic impedance flow cytometry enabling high-throughput single-cell electrical property characterization. (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo


    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications.

  8. High anisotropy of flow-aligned bicellar membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kogan, Maxim


    In recent years, multi-lipid bicellar systems have emerged as promising membrane models. The fast orientational diffusion and magnetic alignability made these systems very attractive for NMR investigations. However, their alignment was so far achieved with a strong magnetic field, which limited their use with other methods that require macroscopic orientation. Recently, it was shown that bicelles could be aligned also by shear flow in a Couette flow cell, making it applicable to structural and biophysical studies by polarized light spectroscopy. Considering the sensitivity of this lipid system to small variations in composition and physicochemical parameters, efficient use of such a flow-cell method with coupled techniques will critically depend on the detailed understanding of how the lipid systems behave under flow conditions. In the present study we have characterized the flow alignment behavior of the commonly used dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/dicaproyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DHPC) bicelle system, for various temperatures, lipid compositions, and lipid concentrations. We conclude that at optimal flow conditions the selected bicellar systems can produce the most efficient flow alignment out of any lipid systems used so far. The highest degree of orientation of DMPC/DHPC samples is noticed in a narrow temperature interval, at a practical temperature around 25 C, most likely in the phase transition region characterized by maximum sample viscosity. The change of macroscopic orientation factor as function of the above conditions is now described in detail. The increase in macroscopic alignment observed for bicelles will most likely allow recording of higher resolution spectra on membrane systems, which provide deeper structural insight and analysis into properties of biomolecules interacting with solution phase lipid membranes. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.


    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  10. High frequency lateral flow affinity assay using superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago-Cachón, D., E-mail: [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Rivas, M., E-mail: [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-García, J.C., E-mail: [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Oliveira-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: [Dpto. de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Julián Clavería 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Blanco-López, M.C., E-mail: [Dpto. de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Julián Clavería 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García, J.A., E-mail: [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Escuela de Marina, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain)


    Lateral flow assay is one of the simplest and most extended techniques in medical diagnosis for point-of-care testing. Although it has been traditionally a positive/negative test, some work has been lately done to add quantitative abilities to lateral flow assay. One of the most successful strategies involves magnetic beads and magnetic sensors. Recently, a new technique of superparamagnetic nanoparticle detection has been reported, based on the increase of the impedance induced by the nanoparticles on a RF-current carrying copper conductor. This method requires no external magnetic field, which reduces the system complexity. In this work, nitrocellulose membranes have been installed on the sensor, and impedance measurements have been carried out during the sample diffusion by capillarity along the membrane. The impedance of the sensor changes because of the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. The results prove the potentiality of the method for point-of-care testing of biochemical substances and nanoparticle capillarity flow studies. - Highlights: • A method for quantification of Lateral Flow Assays is proposed. • MNP induce an increase of the impedance on a RF-current carrying copper sensor. • Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be detected flowing over the sensing element.

  11. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Flow er en positiv, koncentreret tilstand, hvor al opmærksomhed er samlet om en bestemt aktivitet, som er så krævende og engagerende, at man må anvende mange mentale ressourcer for at klare den. Tidsfornemmelsen forsvinder, og man glemmer sig selv. 'Flow' er den første af en række udsendelser om...

  12. Optimum support by high-flow nasal cannula in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: effects of increasing flow rates. (United States)

    Mauri, Tommaso; Alban, Laura; Turrini, Cecilia; Cambiaghi, Barbara; Carlesso, Eleonora; Taccone, Paolo; Bottino, Nicola; Lissoni, Alfredo; Spadaro, Savino; Volta, Carlo Alberto; Gattinoni, Luciano; Pesenti, Antonio; Grasselli, Giacomo


    Limited data exist on the correlation between higher flow rates of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and its physiologic effects in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). We assessed the effects of HFNC delivered at increasing flow rate on inspiratory effort, work of breathing, minute ventilation, lung volumes, dynamic compliance and oxygenation in AHRF patients. A prospective randomized cross-over study was performed in non-intubated patients with patients AHRF and a PaO2/FiO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio of ≤300 mmHg. A standard non-occlusive facial mask and HFNC at different flow rates (30, 45 and 60 l/min) were randomly applied, while maintaining constant FiO2 (20 min/step). At the end of each phase, we measured arterial blood gases, inspiratory effort, based on swings in esophageal pressure (ΔPes) and on the esophageal pressure-time product (PTPPes), and lung volume, by electrical impedance tomography. Seventeen patients with AHRF were enrolled in the study. At increasing flow rate, HFNC reduced ΔPes (p flow rate also progressively reduced minute ventilation (p flow rates was better described by exponential fitting, while ΔEELV, V T/ΔPes and oxygenation improved linearly. In this cohort of patients with AHRF, an increasing HFNC flow rate progressively decreased inspiratory effort and improved lung aeration, dynamic compliance and oxygenation. Most of the effect on inspiratory workload and CO2 clearance was already obtained at the lowest flow rate.

  13. Temperature Prediction for High Pressure High Temperature Condensate Gas Flow Through Chokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Li


    Full Text Available This study developed a theoretical model for predicting the downstream temperatures of high pressure high temperature condensate gas flowing through chokes. The model is composed of three parts: the iso-enthalpy choke model derived from continuity equation and energy conservation equation; the liquid-vapor equilibrium model based on the SRK equation of state (EoS; and the enthalpy model based on the Lee-Kesler EoS. Pseudocritical properties of mixtures, which are obtained by mixing rules, are very important in the enthalpy model, so the Lee-Kesler, Plocker-Knapp, Wong-Sandler and Prausnitz-Gunn mixing rules were all researched, and the combination mixing rules with satisfactory accuracy for high pressure high temperature condensate gases were proposed. The temperature prediction model is valid for both the critical and subcritical flows through different kinds of choke valves. The applications show the model is reliable for predicting the downstream temperatures of condensate gases with upstream pressures up to 85.54 MPa and temperatures up to 93.23 °C. The average absolute errors between the measured and calculated temperatures are expected for less than 2 °C by using the model.

  14. Flow field design for high-pressure PEM electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    micro-channels and porous media, our research group has developed an Euler-Euler model in the computational fluid dynamics modelling framework of ANSYS CFX. In addition to two-phase flow, the model accounts for turbulence, species transport in the gas phase, heat transport in all three phases (i......With the increasing interest in producing hydrogen through water electrolysis, the importance of understanding the transport phenomena governing its operation increases. To ensure optimal operating conditions for PEM electrolysis, it is particularly important to understand how the liquid feed.......e. solid, gas and liquid), as well as charge transport of electrons and ions. Our recent improvements have focused on the models ability to account for phase change and electrochemistry as well as the modelling of two-phase flow regimes. For comparison, an interdigitated and parallel channel flow field...

  15. Plasma Sensor for High Bandwidth Mass-Flow Measurements at High Mach Numbers with RF Link Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal is aimed at the development of a miniature high bandwidth (1 MHz class) plasma sensor for flow measurements at high enthalpies. This device uses a...

  16. High efficiency energy conversion from liquid jet flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; de Vreede, Lennart; Nguyen, Trieu; de Boer, Hans L.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.


    We investigate the performance of a microfluidic energy conversion system using jetting flow. Preliminary results indicate that a voltage can be generated of several kilo-Volts and energy efficiencies can reach 15%. Such values are by far the highest obtained for electrokinetic conversion systems

  17. Universal intermittent properties of particle trajectories in highly turbulent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnèodo, A.; Benzi, R.; Berg, Jacob


    We present a collection of eight data sets from state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations on turbulent velocity statistics along particle trajectories obtained in different flows with Reynolds numbers in the range R-lambda is an element of [120740]. Lagrangian structure functions fro...

  18. High Reynolds number liquid layer flow with flexible walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: Keywords. Stability; triple-deck; separation; boundary-layer; compliant wall. Abstract. The stability of liquid layer flow over an inclined flexible wall is studied using asymptotic methods based on the assumption that the Reynolds number is large.

  19. High Reynolds number liquid layer flow with flexible walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    layer flows over flat plates have been extensively studied and it is well-known that wall flexibility greatly affects the growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves, see Carpenter & Garrad (1985). The problem of a lami- nar separation bubble interacting with ...

  20. Flux flow in high-Tc Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig


    experimentally. The spatial inhomogeneities considered are on the scale of the Josephson penetration depth (mum). It is demonstrated that the topic is of interest for the construction of amplifiers. Thus when fluxons are generated the resulting flux flow regime proves to be much more sensitive than the uniform...

  1. The use of high-flow nasal cannula in the pediatric emergency department. (United States)

    Slain, Katherine N; Shein, Steven L; Rotta, Alexandre T

    To summarize the current literature describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children, the components and mechanisms of action of a high-flow nasal cannula system, the appropriate clinical applications, and its role in the pediatric emergency department. A computer-based search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar for literature on high-flow nasal cannula use in children was performed. High-flow nasal cannula, a non-invasive respiratory support modality, provides heated and fully humidified gas mixtures to patients via a nasal cannula interface. High-flow nasal cannula likely supports respiration though reduced inspiratory resistance, washout of the nasopharyngeal dead space, reduced metabolic work related to gas conditioning, improved airway conductance and mucociliary clearance, and provision of low levels of positive airway pressure. Most data describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children focuses on those with bronchiolitis, although high-flow nasal cannula has been used in children with other respiratory diseases. Introduction of high-flow nasal cannula into clinical practice, including in the emergency department, has been associated with decreased rates of endotracheal intubation. Limited prospective interventional data suggest that high-flow nasal cannula may be similarly efficacious as continuous positive airway pressure and more efficacious than standard oxygen therapy for some patients. Patient characteristics, such as improved tachycardia and tachypnea, have been associated with a lack of progression to endotracheal intubation. Reported adverse effects are rare. High-flow nasal cannula should be considered for pediatric emergency department patients with respiratory distress not requiring immediate endotracheal intubation; prospective, pediatric emergency department-specific trials are needed to better determine responsive patient populations, ideal high-flow nasal cannula settings, and comparative efficacy vs. other respiratory support modalities

  2. A study on high-viscosity oil-water two-phase flow in horizontal pipes


    Shi, Jing


    A study on high-viscosity oil-water flow in horizontal pipes has been conducted applying experimental, mechanism analysis and empirical modelling, and CFD simulation approaches. A horizontal 1 inch flow loop was modified by adding a designed sampling section to achieve water holdup measurement. Experiments on high-viscosity oil-water flow were conducted. Apart from the data obtained in the present experiments, raw data from previous experiments conducted in the same resea...

  3. Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection (United States)


    boundary-layer flow with gas injection 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Alexander V. Fedorov ...distribution unlimited Stability analysis of high-speed boundary-layer flow with gas injection Alexander V. Fedorov * and Vitaly G. Soudakov...Laminar Flow, AGARD Report Number 709, 1984. 2. Fedorov , A., “Transition and Stability of High-Speed Boundary Layers,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., Vol

  4. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik


    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  5. Influences of incidence angle on 2D-flow and secondary flow structure in ultra-highly loaded turbine cascade (United States)

    Tsujita, Hoshio; Yamamoto, Atsumasa


    An increase of turbine blade loading can reduce the numbers of blade and stage of gas turbines. However, an increase of blade loading makes the secondary flow much stronger because of the steep pitch-wise pressure gradient in the cascade passage, and consequently deteriorates the turbine efficiency. In this study, the computations were performed for the flow in an ultra-highly loaded turbine cascade with high turning angle in order to clarify the effects of the incidence angle on the two dimensional flow and the secondary flow in the cascade passage, which cause the profile loss and the secondary loss, respectively. The computed results showed good agreement with the experimental surface oil flow visualizations and the blade surface static pressure at mid-span of the blade. The profile loss was strongly increased by the increase of incidence angle especially in the positive range. Moreover, the positive incidences not only strengthened the horseshoe vortex and the passage vortex but also induced a new vortex on the end-wall. Moreover, the newly formed vortex influenced the formation of the pressure side leg of horseshoe vortex.

  6. The Effect of Low Flow Inhalation Anesthesia on Operative Hemodynamic Condition in Comparison with High Flow Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eidi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Low flow anesthesia technique in which the flow fresh gas is lower than minute volume of the patient results in improvement in the patient’s care such as reduction of operative hypothermia, reduction of postoperative shivering and leads to an increase in economical and enviornmental interests. The goal of the study was to investigate the patients’ operative hemodynamic variations using the high and low flow anesthesia techniques. Materials & Methods: This prospective, clincal and single blind study was carried out in Tbriz Emam Khomeini Hospital in 1384. In this study 97 patients in ASA class I or II after routine induction of G.A, during maintenance of anesthesia were randomly divided in two groups group I (high flow anesthesia and group II (low flow anesthesia. For all patients ECG, HR, SPO2, BP, B.T, ETCO2 and inspiratory, expiratory percentage of O2, N2O, halothane, postoprative shievring and duration of oprations were recorded. 46 patients underwent high flow anesthesia and 51 patients underwent low flow anesthesia. Results: The average blood pressure in group I was as follow: preoperative, systol=13820 mmHg and diastol=7815 mmHg, intraoperative, systol=10531 mmHg and diastol=6410 mmHg and in recovery systol=11615 mmHg and diastol=7013 mmHg. In group II who had low flow anesthesia the blood pressure was found to be systol=13922 mmHg and diastol=7922 mmHg preoperative, systol=12221 mmHg and diastol=7517 mmHg intraoperative and systol=11815 mmHg and diastol=7717 mmHg in recovery. The differences in blood pressure in both group were statiscally significant (p=0.01. The average heart rate in group I was 9018 beat/min preoperative, 7014 intraoperative and 126 in recovery. The avrage heart rate in group II was 87.921 preoperative, 8616 intraoperative and 10417 in recovery. The differences were statiscally significant but there was no significant difference between

  7. High flow, low mobile weight quick disconnect system (United States)

    Smith, Ronn G. (Inventor); Nagy, Jr., Zoltan Frank (Inventor); Moszczienski, Joseph Roch (Inventor)


    A fluid coupling device and coupling system that may start and stop the flow of a fluid is disclosed. In some embodiments, first and second couplings are provided having an actuator coupled with each of the couplings. The couplings and actuators may be detachable to provide quick disconnect features and, in some embodiments, provide unitary actuation for the actuators of the coupling device to facilitate connection in mobile applications. Actuation may occur as the two couplings and actuators are engaged and disengaged and may occur by rotational actuation of the actuators. Rotational actuation can be provided to ensure flow through the coupling device, which in some embodiments may further provide an offset venturi feature. Upon disengagement, a compression element such as a compression spring can be provided to return the actuators to a closed position. Some embodiments further provide a seal external to the actuators and provided at incipient engagement of the couplings.

  8. A high rate flow-focusing foam generator


    Lorenceau, Elise; Sang, Yann Yip Cheung; Hohler, Reinhard; Cohen-Addad, Sylvie


    We use a rigid axisymetric microfluidic flow focusing device to produce monodisperse bubbles, dispersed in a surfactant solution. The gas volume fraction of the dispersion collected out of this device can be as large as 90%, demonstrating that foam with solid-like viscoelastic properties can be produced in this way. The polydispersity of the bubbles is so low that we observe crystallization of our foam. We measure the diameter of the bubbles and compare these data to recent theoretical predic...

  9. Cyclonic Flows for Reactor Applications with High Engulfment Levels


    Chinnici, Alfonso


    This thesis aims at designing, developing and optimizing novel cyclonic vortex reactor configurations in the context of innovative technologies development for increasing the efficiency and reducing the environmental impact of energy systems. Furthermore, not depending on the specific engineering application, the thesis aims at improving our knowledge on cyclonic vortex flows, clarifying several aspects of their aerodynamic. In particular, the interaction mechanism between a jet and the vorte...

  10. Computed Tomography Angiography With High Flow Rates: An In Vitro and In Vivo Feasibility Study. (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Wildberger, Joachim E; Turek, Jakub; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Das, Marco


    The aims of this study were to test high-flow application of contrast media (CM) using novel high-flow needles and to assess injection- and flow-related parameters in a circulation phantom and in an in vivo population. A circulation phantom simulating physiological parameters was used. Preheated CM (300 mg/mL) was injected at flow rates varying between 5 and 15 mL/s through a novel 18-gauge high-flow intravenous injection needle. In addition, feasibility of these high-flow needles was tested with administration of flow rates of 9 mL/s in 20 patients referred for pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation assessment. Injection parameters (eg, peak pressures, peak flow rates) in both phantom and in vivo setup were continuously monitored by a data acquisition program. Attenuation at predefined levels of the aorta (eg, aortic root to common femoral arteries) was measured in all patients to determine clinical applicability. In the phantom setup, injection rates up to 15 mL/s were feasible. An enhancement plateau was reached at 11 mL/s (464 [20] HU). In patients, no pressure- or flow-related complications (eg, extravasation) were recorded (mean [SD] peak pressure, 154 [8] psi; mean [SD] peak flow rate, 9.2 [0.1 mL/s; range, 9.1-9.6]). Diagnostic attenuation values were reached at all predefined levels of the aorta (330.8 [113.1] HU to 622.9 [81.5] HU). These results indicate that injections with 9 mL/s using high-flow injection needles are safe. The pressure limit of 325 psi was not reached, and the injections resulted in diagnostic attenuation values. Using this dedicated needle, high flow rates should not be considered a drawback for CM application in routine CT angiography examinations.

  11. High-resolution Digital Mapping of Historical Lava Flows as a Test-bed for Lava Flow Models (United States)

    Pyle, D. M.; Parks, M.; Nomikou, P.; Mather, T. A.; Simou, E.; Kalnins, L. M.; Paulatto, M.; Watts, A. B.


    Quantitative analysis of high-resolution lava flow morphology can improve our understanding of past effusive eruptions by providing insight into eruptive processes and the rheological properties of erupted magmas. We report the results of an ongoing investigation into the young dacite lava flows of the Kameni islands, Santorini volcano, Greece, which were emplaced during both subaerial and shallow submarine eruptions over the past 3000 years. Historical eruptions of the Kameni islands since 1866 have been very carefully documented in contemporaneous scientific reports. Eruptions since 1573 appear to be time-predictable, with a close relationship between eruption length, the size of extruded lava domes, and the time elapsed since the previous eruption. A new NERC - Airborne Survey and Research Facility LiDAR survey of the Kameni islands was completed in May 2012, using a Leica ALS50 Airborne Laser Scanner mounted on a Dornier 228 aircraft. The topographic surface was mapped at an average point density of 2.1 points per square metre, and covers the entire extent of the youngest subaerial lava flow fields on Santorini. A 2-m DEM derived from the 2012 LiDAR dataset was merged with a 5-m resolution bathymetric grid, based on multibeam surveys carried out by the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, during cruises in 2001 and 2006, using a SEABEAM 2120 hull-mounted swath system. The resultant grid provides the first high resolution map of both subaerial and submarine historic lava flows emplaced in the centre of the Santorini caldera, and includes several previously unidentified submarine flows and cones. Attribute maps were used to delineate and identify discrete lava flows both onshore and offshore; and morphometric profiles were used to compute accurate volumetric estimates for each of the historic flows, and to determine bulk rheological properties of the lavas, assuming a Bingham rheology. This ongoing work will improve our analysis of the relationship between

  12. Geometry of power flows and convex-relaxed power flows in distribution networks with high penetration of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran


    Renewable energies are increasingly integrated in electric distribution networks and will cause severe overvoltage issues. Smart grid technologies make it possible to use coordinated control to mitigate the overvoltage issues and the optimal power flow (OPF) method is proven to be efficient...... in the applications such as curtailment management and reactive power control. Nonconvex nature of the OPF makes it difficult to solve and convex relaxation is a promising method to solve the OPF very efficiently. This paper investigates the geometry of the power flows and the convex-relaxed power flows when high...... penetration level of renewables is present in the distribution networks. The geometry study helps understand the fundamental nature of the OPF and its convex-relaxed problem, such as the second-order cone programming (SOCP) problem. A case study based on a three-node system is used to illustrate the geometry...

  13. High-throughput flow cytometry for drug discovery: principles, applications, and case studies. (United States)

    Ding, Mei; Kaspersson, Karin; Murray, David; Bardelle, Catherine


    Flow cytometry is a technology providing multiparametric analysis of single cells or other suspension particles. High-throughput (HT) flow cytometry has become an attractive screening platform for drug discovery. In this review, we highlight the recent HT flow cytometry applications, and then focus on HT flow cytometry deployment at AstraZeneca (AZ). Practical considerations for successful HT flow cytometry assay development and screening are provided based on experience from four project case studies at AZ. We provide an overview of the scientific rationale, explain why HT flow cytometry was chosen and how HT flow cytometry assays deliver new ways to support the drug discovery process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High-temperature entrained flow gasification of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ke; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    Biomass (wood and straw) gasification has been studied in a laboratory scale atmospheric pressure entrained flow reactor. Effects of reaction temperature, steam/carbon molar ratio, excess air ratio, and biomass type on the solid, liquid and gas products were investigated. The biomass was completely...... soot. Increasing excess air ratio from 0.25 to 0.50 gave no significant change in the producer gas yield, but the yields of H2, CO, and soot decreased, the CO2 yield increased, and the molar ratio of H2/CO decreased. Moreover, wood and straw gasification provided similar product compositions. At 1350°C...

  15. Modeling of High-Velocity Flows in ITAM Impulse Facilities (United States)


    time of flow stabilization tstab. Each wind tunnel (WT) also has its own characteristic time tWT (time during which the stagnation parameters a certain factor). For instance, if the behavior of these parameters in the settling chamber is close to exponential, tWT may be assumed to be...relative non-uniformity is determined by the ratio tin/ tWT . The lower this ratio, the more grounds are for neglecting it. The ratio tstab/ tWT is

  16. Acute portal hypertension models in dogs: low- and high-flow approaches. (United States)

    Dave, Jaydev K; Liu, Ji-Bin; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Merton, Daniel A; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Altemus, Joseph; Needleman, Laurence; Brown, Daniel B; Forsberg, Flemming


    Effective animal models are needed to evaluate the feasibility of new techniques to assess portal hypertension (PH). Here we developed 2 canine models of acute PH by increasing intrasinusoidal resistance and by increasing the portal vein (PV) flow volume to test the efficacy of a noninvasive technique to evaluate PH. The acute low-flow PH model was based on embolization of liver circulation by using a gelatin sponge material. The acute high-flow PH model was based on increasing the PV flow volume by using an arteriovenous (A-V) shunt from the femoral artery and saline infusion. PV pressures and diameters were assessed before and after inducing PH. Pressure values and diameters were obtained from the inferior vena cava in 3 unmanipulated controls. The low-flow model of PH was repeatable and successfully increased PV pressure by an average of 16.5 mm Hg within 15 min. The high-flow model of PH failed to achieve increased PV pressures. However, saline supplementation of the portal circulation in the high-flow model led to mean increases in PV pressures of 12.8 mm Hg within 20 min. Pulsatility in the PV was decreased in the low-flow model and increased in the high-flow model relative to baseline. No changes in PV diameter were noted in either model. These acute PH models are relatively straightforward to implement and may facilitate the evaluation of new techniques to assess PH.

  17. Double-Barrel STA-MCA Bypass: Can It Be Considered "High-Flow?" (United States)

    Cherian, Jacob; Srinivasan, Visish; Kan, Peter; Duckworth, Edward A M


    Traditionally, superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass uses one STA branch. Its augmentation of flow has classically been described as "low flow." In a double-barrel STA-MCA bypass, however, both branches of the STA are utilized. Here we hypothesize that this should not be considered "low flow." To review quantitative flow data from our cases and investigate the impact of double-barrel STA-MCA bypass on total flow augmentation, and to assess whether double-barrel STA-MCA bypass might be useful in situations that traditionally demand more complex bypass strategies. Intraoperative flow probe measurements from STA-MCA bypass cases were retrospectively tabulated and compared. Cut flow and bypass flow measurements were, respectively, taken before and after completion of anastomoses. The higher value was labeled best observed flow (BOF). We identified 21 STA-MCA bypass cases with available intraoperative flow probe measurements, of which 17 utilized double-barrel technique. Only 1 STA branch was available in 4 cases. Significantly higher average BOF was seen when utilizing 2 STA branches (69 vs 39 cc/min, P bypasses provided BOF ≥ 65 cc/min (120 cc/min maximum). The single branch bypass maximum BOF was 40 cc/min. Double-barrel bypass technique significantly enhances STA-MCA flow capacity and may be useful in situations in which a high-flow bypass is needed. The 2 efferent limbs allow flexibility in distributing flow across separate at-risk territories. The method compares favorably to other descriptions of high-flow bypass without the morbidity of graft harvest or an additional cervical incision.

  18. High Fidelity Simulation of Liquid Jet in Cross-flow Using High Performance Computing (United States)

    Soteriou, Marios; Li, Xiaoyi


    High fidelity, first principles simulation of atomization of a liquid jet by a fast cross-flowing gas can help reveal the controlling physics of this complicated two-phase flow of engineering interest. The turn-around execution time of such a simulation is prohibitively long using typically available computational resources today (i.e. parallel systems with ~O(100) CPUs). This is due to multiscale nature of the problem which requires the use of fine grids and time steps. In this work we present results from such a simulation performed on a state of the art massively parallel system available at Oakridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Scalability of the computational algorithm to ~2000 CPUs is demonstrated on grids of up to 200 million nodes. As a result, a simulation at intermediate Weber number becomes possible on this system. Results are in agreement with detailed experiment measurements of liquid column trajectory, breakup location, surface wavelength, onset of surface stripping as well as droplet size and velocity after primary breakup. Moreover, this uniform grid simulation is used as a base case for further code enhancement by evaluating the feasibility of employing Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) near the liquid-gas interface as a means of mitigating computational cost.

  19. Study of Solid Particle Behavior in High Temperature Gas Flows (United States)

    Majid, A.; Bauder, U.; Stindl, T.; Fertig, M.; Herdrich, G.; Röser, H.-P.


    The Euler-Lagrangian approach is used for the simulation of solid particles in hypersonic entry flows. For flow field simulation, the program SINA (Sequential Iterative Non-equilibrium Algorithm) developed at the Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme is used. The model for the effect of the carrier gas on a particle includes drag force and particle heating only. Other parameters like lift Magnus force or damping torque are not taken into account so far. The reverse effect of the particle phase on the gaseous phase is currently neglected. Parametric analysis is done regarding the impact of variation in the physical input conditions like position, velocity, size and material of the particle. Convective heat fluxes onto the surface of the particle and its radiative cooling are discussed. The variation of particle temperature under different conditions is presented. The influence of various input conditions on the trajectory is explained. A semi empirical model for the particle wall interaction is also discussed and the influence of the wall on the particle trajectory with different particle conditions is presented. The heat fluxes onto the wall due to impingement of particles are also computed and compared with the heat fluxes from the gas.

  20. Numerical Simulations of High-Speed Chemically Reacting Flow (United States)

    Ton, V. T.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Osher, S. J.; Engquist, B. E.


    The essentially nonoscillatory (ENO) shock-capturing scheme for the solution of hyperbolic equations is extended to solve a system of coupled conservation equations governing two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible chemically reacting flow with full chemistry. The thermodynamic properties of the mixture are modeled accurately, and stiff kinetic terms are separated from the fluid motion by a fractional step algorithm. The methodology is used to study the concept of shock-induced mixing and combustion, a process by which the interaction of a shock wave with a jet of low-density hydrogen fuel enhances mixing through streamwise vorticity generation. Test cases with and without chemical reaction are explored here. Our results indicate that, in the temperature range examined, vorticity generation as well as the distribution of atomic species do not change significantly with the introduction of a chemical reaction and subsequent heat release. The actual diffusion of hydrogen is also relatively unaffected by the reaction process. This suggests that the fluid mechanics of this problem may be successfully decoupled from the combustion processes, and that computation of the mixing problem (without combustion chemistry) can elucidate much of the important physical features of the flow.

  1. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a 4000-Pound-Thrust Axial-Flow Turbojet Engine. 3; Performance Characteristics with the High-Flow Compressor (United States)

    Fleming, William A.; Golladay, Richard L.


    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the performance of a 4000-pound-thrust axial-flow turbojet engine with a high flow compressor. Pressure altitudes included 5000 to 40000 feet with ram pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.82. Altitudes included 20000 to 40000 feet and ram pressure ratios from 1.09 to 1.75. A comparison is made between engine performance with high flow and low flow compressors.

  2. Testing of a shrouded, short mixing stack gas eductor model using high temperature primary flow.


    Eick, Ira James.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited An existing apparatus for testing models of gas eductor systems using high temperature primary flow was redesigned and modified to provide improved control and performance over a wide range of gas temperatures and flow rates. Pumping coefficient, temperature, and pressure data were recorded for two gas eductor system models. The first, previously tested under hot flow conditions, consisted of a primary plate with four straight nozzle...

  3. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Adults: An Evidence-based Assessment. (United States)

    Drake, Matthew G


    High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation has distinct advantages over other oxygen devices because of its unique effects on respiratory physiology. In particular, adjustable oxygen delivery and flow-dependent carbon dioxide clearance reduce work of breathing and better match inspiratory demand during respiratory distress. Historically, few studies had evaluated whether the physiologic effects of these devices translated into clinical benefit. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation has been shown to have similar, and in some cases superior clinical efficacy compared with conventional low-flow oxygen supplementation and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation also prevents reintubations in medical and postoperative surgical populations, provides preoxygenation for laryngoscopy, and supports oxygenation during bronchoscopy. This review examines the evidence for high-flow nasal cannula oxygenation use in adults, including a focus on the unique effects of high flow on respiratory physiology and keys for tailoring flow for specific clinical scenarios.

  4. Development of an Active Flow Control Technique for an Airplane High-Lift Configuration (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Dickey, Eric D.; Hartwich, Peter M.; Khodadoust, Abdi


    This study focuses on Active Flow Control methods used in conjunction with airplane high-lift systems. The project is motivated by the simplified high-lift system, which offers enhanced airplane performance compared to conventional high-lift systems. Computational simulations are used to guide the implementation of preferred flow control methods, which require a fluidic supply. It is first demonstrated that flow control applied to a high-lift configuration that consists of simple hinge flaps is capable of attaining the performance of the conventional high-lift counterpart. A set of flow control techniques has been subsequently considered to identify promising candidates, where the central requirement is that the mass flow for actuation has to be within available resources onboard. The flow control methods are based on constant blowing, fluidic oscillators, and traverse actuation. The simulations indicate that the traverse actuation offers a substantial reduction in required mass flow, and it is especially effective when the frequency of actuation is consistent with the characteristic time scale of the flow.

  5. Effects of High-Energy Particles on Accretion Flows onto a Supermassive Black Hole


    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Toma, Kenji; Takahara, Fumio


    We study effects of high-energy particles on the accretion flows onto a supermassive black hole and luminosities of escaping particles such as protons, neutrons, gamma-rays, and neutrinos. We formulate a one-dimensional model of the two-component accretion flow consisting of thermal particles and high-energy particles, supposing that some fraction of the released energy is converted to the acceleration of the high-energy particles. The thermal component is governed by fluid dynamics while the...

  6. A case of atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm secondary to high flow state. (United States)

    Troisi, Nicola; Esposito, Giovanni; Cefalì, Pietro; Setti, Marco


    Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are very rare and they are among the rarest of visceral artery aneurysms. Sometimes, the distribution of the blood flow due to chronic atherosclerotic occlusion of some arteries can establish an increased flow into a particular supplying district (high flow state). A high flow state in a stenotic inferior mesenteric artery in compensation for a mesenteric occlusive disease can produce a rare form of aneurysm. We report the case of an atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric aneurysm secondary to high flow state (association with occlusion of the celiac trunk and severe stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery), treated by open surgical approach. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolating Flow-field Discontinuities while Preserving Monotonicity and High-order Accuracy on Cartesian Meshes (United States)


    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/09/2017 Briefing Charts 01 January 2017 - 31 January 2017 Isolating Flow -field Discontinuities while...Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 18 V. Sanakaran N/A Isolating Flow -field Discontinuities while Preserving Monotonicity and High-order

  8. Flow pattern formation in high-velocity gas-fluidised beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Grace, J.R.; Zhu, J.; De Hugo, L.


    The occurrence of heterogeneous flow structures in gas-particle flows seriously affects the gas-solid contacting and transport processes in high-velocity fluidized beds. A computational study, using a discrete particle method based on Molecular Dynamics techniques, has been carried out to explore

  9. Computation of Flow around NACA0012 Airfoil at High Angle of Attack


    Shida, Yoshifumi; Kuwahara, Kunio; 信太, 良文; 桑原, 邦郎


    Transonic flow around an NACA0012 airfoil at high angle of attack is simulated by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The block pentadiagonal matrix scheme is employed. Periodic phenomena of shock-wave vortex interaction are observed. For comparison, computation of subsonic flow has been done. Small vortices are observed between the leading edge and the center of the chord.

  10. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.


    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I Kurysheva


    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the eye’s venous blood flow and the correlation between clinical data and ocular blood flow in normal tension and high tension open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods: Color Doppler imaging of arterial and venous blood flow was performed on 78 patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, 80 patients with high-pressure glaucoma (HPG and 60 control subjects. The statistical analysis included the calculation of the correlation between clinical data and ocular blood flow parameters, as well as Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The threshold P value for statistical significance was 0.05. Results: Ocular blood flow (both arterial and venous was significantly reduced in NTG and HTG, compared to the control group. While the arterial blood flow reduction was more significant in HTG than in NTG, a decrease in venous blood flow had a higher incidence in NTG. In contrast to the control group, POAG patients showed a correlation between clinical data and venous blood flow. The correlation was higher in NTG patients. Conclusions: The results obtained indicate the potential importance of venous blood flow in glaucoma pathogenesis, especially in NTG.

  12. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yang


    Full Text Available A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate.

  13. High Sensitivity Carbon Nanotubes Flow-Rate Sensors and Their Performance Improvement by Coating (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Zhou, Zhaoying; Wang, Dingqu; Liu, Xiaoli


    A new type of hot-wire flow-rate sensor (HWFS) with a sensing element made of a macro-sized carbon nanotube (CNT) strand is presented in this study. An effective way to improve repeatability of the CNT flow-rate sensor by coating a layer of Al2O3 on the CNT surface is proposed. Experimental results show that due to the large surface-to-volume ratio and thin coated Al2O3 layer, the CNT flow-rate sensor has higher sensitivity and faster response than a conventional platinum (Pt) HWFS. It is also demonstrated that the covered CNT flow-rate sensor has better repeatability than its bare counterpart due to insulation from the surrounding environment. The proposed CNT flow-rate sensor shows application potential for high-sensitivity measurement of flow rate. PMID:22399913

  14. High-Speed Thermal Characterization of Cryogenic Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna proposes to continue development on a high-speed fiber optic sensor and readout system for cryogenic temperature measurements in liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid...

  15. High bias gas flows increase lung injury in the ventilated preterm lamb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka P Bach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation of preterm babies increases survival but can also cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI, leading to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. It is not known whether shear stress injury from gases flowing into the preterm lung during ventilation contributes to VILI. METHODS: Preterm lambs of 131 days' gestation (term = 147 d were ventilated for 2 hours with a bias gas flow of 8 L/min (n = 13, 18 L/min (n = 12 or 28 L/min (n = 14. Physiological parameters were measured continuously and lung injury was assessed by measuring mRNA expression of early injury response genes and by histological analysis. Control lung tissue was collected from unventilated age-matched fetuses. Data were analysed by ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test when appropriate. RESULTS: High bias gas flows resulted in higher ventilator pressures, shorter inflation times and decreased ventilator efficiency. The rate of rise of inspiratory gas flow was greatest, and pulmonary mRNA levels of the injury markers, EGR1 and CTGF, were highest in lambs ventilated with bias gas flows of 18 L/min. High bias gas flows resulted in increased cellular proliferation and abnormal deposition of elastin, collagen and myofibroblasts in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: High ventilator bias gas flows resulted in increased lung injury, with up-regulation of acute early response genes and increased histological lung injury. Bias gas flows may, therefore, contribute to VILI and BPD.

  16. Geometrical aspects of laser-drilled high precision holes for flow control applications (United States)

    Giedl, Roswitha; Helml, H.-J.; Wagner, F. X.; Wild, Michael J.


    Laser drilling has become a valuable tool for the manufacture of high precision micro holes in a variety of materials. Laser drilled precision holes have applications in the automotive, aerospace, medical and sensor industry for flow control applications. The technology is competing with conventional machining micro electro-discharge machining in the field of fuel injection nozzle for combustion engines. Depending on the application, laser and optics have to be chosen which suits the requirements. In this paper, the results achieved with different lasers and drilling techniques will be compared to the hole specifications in flow control applications. The issue of geometry control of high aspect ratio laser drilled holes in metals will be investigated. The comparison of flow measurement results to microscopic hole dimension measurement show that flow characteristics strongly depend on cavitation number during flow.

  17. Turbulence Models: Data from Other Experiments: Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Shock Wave / Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows at High Mach Numbers. This web page provides data from experiments that may be useful for the validation of turbulence...

  18. A Decentralized Control Strategy for High Density Material Flow Systems with Automated Guided Vehicles


    Schwab, Melanie


    This work presents a universal decentralized control strategy for grid-based high-density material flow systems with automated guided vehicles and gives insights into the system behavior as well as the solution quality.

  19. High Resolution Multispectral Flow Imaging of Cells with Extended Depth of Field Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is the development the extended depth of field (EDF) or confocal like imaging capabilities of a breakthrough multispectral high resolution imaging flow...

  20. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Preconcentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume...

  1. Turbulent Scalar Transport Model Validation for High Speed Propulsive Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort entails the validation of a RANS turbulent scalar transport model (SFM) for high speed propulsive flows, using new experimental data sets and...

  2. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams (United States)

    Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu


    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  3. Spinnability Investigation of High Strength Steel in Draw-spinning and Flow-spinning (United States)

    Shi, L.; Xiao, H.; Xu, D. K.


    High strength steels are difficult to process in spinning due to their high yield and tensile strength, poor ductility and large springback. In this paper, formability of dual phase steel has been investigated on the basis of spinnability evaluation in draw-spinning and flow-spinning processes. The influences of key process parameters such as feed ratio and wheel fillet radius on forming limit coefficient in draw-spinning and maximum thinning ratio in flow-spinning are studied in detail.

  4. Assessment of modern methods in numerical simulations of high speed flows (United States)

    Pindera, M. Z.; Yang, H. Q.; Przekwas, A. J.; Tucker, K.


    Results of extensive studies on CFD algorithms for 2D inviscid flows in Cartesian and body fitted coordinates geometries are reviewed. These studies represent part of an ongoing investigation of combustion instabilities involving the interactions of high-speed nonlinear acoustic waves. Four numerical methods for the treatment of high speed flows are compared, namely, Roe-Sweby TVD, Yee symmetric TVD; Osher-Chakravarthy TVD; and the Colella's multi-dimensional Godunov method.

  5. Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation (United States)


    liquid rocket engines, studied the concept of rotating detonation rocket engine in both gaseous and two-phase propellants . Recently, there have been...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0195 Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation Kenneth Yu MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE...MARCH 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURE OF HIGH-SPEED REACTING FLOWS: SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION AND DETONATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  6. The Characteristics of Turbulence in Curved Pipes under Highly Pulsatile Flow Conditions (United States)

    Kalpakli, A.; Örlü, R.; Tillmark, N.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    High speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry has been employed to provide unique data from a steady and highly pulsatile turbulent flow at the exit of a 90 degree pipe bend. Both the unsteady behaviour of the Dean cells under steady conditions, the so called "swirl switching" phenomenon, as well as the secondary flow under pulsations have been reconstructed through proper orthogonal decomposition. The present data set constitutes - to the authors' knowledge - the first detailed investigation of a turbulent, pulsatile flow through a pipe bend.

  7. High-resolution AUV mapping and lava flow ages at Axial Seamount (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.; Martin, J.


    Mapping along mid-ocean ridges, as on land, requires identification of flow boundaries and sequence, and ages of some flows to understand eruption history. Multibeam sonars on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) now generate 1-m resolution maps that resolve lava pillars, internal flow structures and boundaries, and lava flow emplacement sequences using crosscutting relations and abundance of fissures. MBARI has now mapped the summit caldera floor and rims and the upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. With the advent of the high-resolution bathymetry and the ability to observe flow contacts to determine superposition using ROVs and submersibles, the missing component has been determining absolute ages of the flows. We used the MBARI ROV Doc Ricketts to collect short push cores (Six ages from the lowermost part of the south rift of Axial Seamount include samples on a cone with deep summit crater that is ~16,580 aBP and on 5 flows between 950 and 1510 aBP. Two additional flows from the southeast rim of the caldera are 905 and 2005 aBP. An age of 6910 aBP from 15 cm depth in a 2-m volcaniclastic unit on top of a pre-caldera flow on the eastern rim of the caldera suggests formation of the caldera several tens of thousands aBP. Seven ages on at least 5 flows on the floor of Axial caldera range from 620 to 1145 aBP, whereas 10 extensive mapped flows are all inferred to be <620 aBP as they are covered by sediment too thin to sample. The older pillow flows are difficult to map as discrete flows. In contrast, the 11 flows erupted during the last 620 years have an eruption frequency of 55 years. Of these, 6 not significantly overlapped by younger flows have a combined surface area of 30.2 km2 and represent roughly the output over 275 years of eruptive activity in the caldera at Axial Seamount, although they were not erupted in a continuous 275 year timespan. If we use average flow thicknesses of 3-5 m for these sheet flows, we estimate a lava

  8. Statistical study of high-latitude plasma flow during magnetospheric substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Provan


    Full Text Available We have utilised the near-global imaging capabilities of the Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN radars, to perform a statistical superposed epoch analysis of high-latitude plasma flows during magnetospheric substorms. The study involved 67 substorms, identified using the IMAGE FUV space-borne auroral imager. A substorm co-ordinate system was developed, centred on the magnetic local time and magnetic latitude of substorm onset determined from the auroral images. The plasma flow vectors from all 67 intervals were combined, creating global statistical plasma flow patterns and backscatter occurrence statistics during the substorm growth and expansion phases. The commencement of the substorm growth phase was clearly observed in the radar data 18-20min before substorm onset, with an increase in the anti-sunward component of the plasma velocity flowing across dawn sector of the polar cap and a peak in the dawn-to-dusk transpolar voltage. Nightside backscatter moved to lower latitudes as the growth phase progressed. At substorm onset a flow suppression region was observed on the nightside, with fast flows surrounding the suppressed flow region. The dawn-to-dusk transpolar voltage increased from ~40kV just before substorm onset to ~75kV 12min after onset. The low-latitude return flow started to increase at substorm onset and continued to increase until 8min after onset. The velocity flowing across the polar-cap peaked 12-14min after onset. This increase in the flux of the polar cap and the excitation of large-scale plasma flow occurred even though the IMF Bz component was increasing (becoming less negative during most of this time. This study is the first to statistically prove that nightside reconnection creates magnetic flux and excites high-latitude plasma flow in a similar way to dayside reconnection and that dayside and nightside reconnection, are two separate time-dependent processes.

  9. Distinguishing high-flow from low-flow vascular malformations using maximum intensity projection images in dynamic magnetic resonance angiography - comparison to other MR-based techniques. (United States)

    Kociemba, Anna; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna; Stajgis, Marek; Oszkinis, Grzegorz; Pyda, Małgorzata


    In addition to ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered a suitable, non-invasive technique to assess the type and extent of vascular malformations. The distinction between low- and high-flow lesions is crucial because it determines appropriate patient treatment. To distinguish high-flow from low-flow lesions on the basis of the enhancement pattern on MIP images acquired from dynamic time-resolved MR angiography (MRA) and compare it with previously described MR-based methods. We examined 25 consecutive patients with previously diagnosed vascular malformations. Next, each malformation was classified as "high-flow" or "low-flow" using the following criteria: (i) findings on T1-weighted (T1W) and T2-weighted (T2W) imaging (signal voids, signal intensity); (ii) the time interval between the start of arterial enhancement and the onset of lesion enhancement (artery-lesion time); (iii) the time of maximum lesion enhancement; and (iv) analysis of the slope of the enhancement curve. Of the 25 patients, seven had high-flow and 18 had low-flow malformations. Signal voids on spin-echo T1W images were observed only in four of seven high-flow malformations and in two of 18 low-flow malformations. Analysis of signal intensity on T2W images showed increased signal intensity in 17 of 18 low-flow malformations, and in two of seven high-flow lesions. Calculation of the artery-lesion time, maximum enhancement time, and slope revealed significant differences between the high- and low-flow groups. In conclusion, the slope of the enhancement curve appears to be useful in distinguishing between high- and low-flow vascular malformations. Standardization of MR image evaluation criteria is essential. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  10. Spectroscopy Measurements on Ablation Testing in High Enthalpy Plasma Flows (United States)


    two-colour Raytek Marathon MR1S-C pyrometer (0.75 − 1.1μm), with a temperature range from 1000°C to 3000°C. It measures the infrared radiation of a...18 3.5.2 PYROMETER ...might undergo additional chemical reactions, creating highly radiating species which can increase the radiative heat flux. Figure 1-2: Process of

  11. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy Versus Intermittent Noninvasive Ventilation in Obese Subjects After Cardiothoracic Surgery. (United States)

    Stéphan, François; Bérard, Laurence; Rézaiguia-Delclaux, Saida; Amaru, Priscilla


    Obese patients are considered at risk of respiratory failure after cardiothoracic surgery. High-flow nasal cannula has demonstrated its non-inferiority after cardiothoracic surgery compared to noninvasive ventilation (NIV), which is the recommended treatment in obese patients. We hypothesized that NIV was superior to high-flow nasal cannula for preventing or resolving acute respiratory failure after cardiothoracic surgery in this population. We performed a post hoc analysis of a randomized, controlled trial. Obese subjects were randomly assigned to receive NIV for at least 4 h/d (inspiratory pressure, 8 cm H2O; expiratory pressure, 4 cm H2O; FIO2 , 0.5) or high-flow nasal cannula delivered continuously (flow, 50 L/min, FIO2 0.5). Treatment failure (defined as re-intubation, switch to the other treatment, or premature discontinuation) occurred in 21 of 136 (15.4%, 95% CI 9.8-22.6%) subjects with NIV compared to 18 of 135 (13.3%, 95% CI 8.1-20.3%) subjects with high-flow nasal cannula (P = .62). No significant differences were found for dyspnea and comfort scores. Skin breakdown was significantly more common with NIV after 24 h (9.2%, 95% CI 5.0-16.0 vs 1.6%, 95% CI 1.0-6.0; P = .01). No significant differences were found for ICU mortality (5.9% for subjects with NIV vs 2.2% for subjects with high-flow nasal cannula, P = .22) or for any of the other secondary outcomes. Among obese cardiothoracic surgery subjects with or without respiratory failure, the use of continuous high-flow nasal cannula compared to intermittent NIV (8/4 cm H2O) did not result in a worse rate of treatment failure. Because high-flow nasal cannula presents some advantages, it may be used instead of NIV in obese patients after cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. CFD Simulation of Transonic Flow in High-Voltage Circuit Breaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Ye


    Full Text Available A high-voltage circuit breaker is an indispensable piece of equipment in the electric transmission and distribution systems. Transonic flow typically occurs inside breaking chamber during the current interruption, which determines the insulating characteristics of gas. Therefore, accurate compressible flow simulations are required to improve the prediction of the breakdown voltages in various test duties of high-voltage circuit breakers. In this work, investigation of the impact of the solvers on the prediction capability of the breakdown voltages in capacitive switching is presented. For this purpose, a number of compressible nozzle flow validation cases have been presented. The investigation is then further extended for a real high-voltage circuit breaker geometry. The correlation between the flow prediction accuracy and the breakdown voltage prediction capability is identified.

  13. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. A global approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi


    We apply dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methods to flows in highly-heterogeneous porous media to extract the dominant coherent structures and derive reduced-order models via Galerkin projection. Permeability fields with high contrast are considered to investigate the capability of these techniques to capture the main flow features and forecast the flow evolution within a certain accuracy. A DMD-based approach shows a better predictive capability due to its ability to accurately extract the information relevant to long-time dynamics, in particular, the slowly-decaying eigenmodes corresponding to largest eigenvalues. Our study enables a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the applicability of these techniques for flows in high-contrast porous media. Furthermore, we discuss the robustness of DMD- and POD-based reduced-order models with respect to variations in initial conditions, permeability fields, and forcing terms. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Next Generation Flow for highly sensitive and standardized detection of minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma. (United States)

    Flores-Montero, J; Sanoja-Flores, L; Paiva, B; Puig, N; García-Sánchez, O; Böttcher, S; van der Velden, V H J; Pérez-Morán, J-J; Vidriales, M-B; García-Sanz, R; Jimenez, C; González, M; Martínez-López, J; Corral-Mateos, A; Grigore, G-E; Fluxá, R; Pontes, R; Caetano, J; Sedek, L; Del Cañizo, M-C; Bladé, J; Lahuerta, J-J; Aguilar, C; Bárez, A; García-Mateo, A; Labrador, J; Leoz, P; Aguilera-Sanz, C; San-Miguel, J; Mateos, M-V; Durie, B; van Dongen, J J M; Orfao, A


    Flow cytometry has become a highly valuable method to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) and evaluate the depth of complete response (CR) in bone marrow (BM) of multiple myeloma (MM) after therapy. However, current flow-MRD has lower sensitivity than molecular methods and lacks standardization. Here we report on a novel next generation flow (NGF) approach for highly sensitive and standardized MRD detection in MM. An optimized 2-tube 8-color antibody panel was constructed in five cycles of design-evaluation-redesign. In addition, a bulk-lysis procedure was established for acquisition of ⩾107 cells/sample, and novel software tools were constructed for automatic plasma cell gating. Multicenter evaluation of 110 follow-up BM from MM patients in very good partial response (VGPR) or CR showed a higher sensitivity for NGF-MRD vs conventional 8-color flow-MRD -MRD-positive rate of 47 vs 34% (P=0.003)-. Thus, 25% of patients classified as MRD-negative by conventional 8-color flow were MRD-positive by NGF, translating into a significantly longer progression-free survival for MRD-negative vs MRD-positive CR patients by NGF (75% progression-free survival not reached vs 7 months; P=0.02). This study establishes EuroFlow-based NGF as a highly sensitive, fully standardized approach for MRD detection in MM which overcomes the major limitations of conventional flow-MRD methods and is ready for implementation in routine diagnostics.

  15. Quartz measurement in coal dust with high-flow rate samplers: laboratory study. (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Lee, Eun Gyung; Kim, Seung Won; Chisholm, William P; Kashon, Michael; Harper, Martin


    A laboratory study was performed to measure quartz in coal dust using high-flow rate samplers (CIP10-R, GK2.69 cyclone, and FSP10 cyclone) and low-flow rate samplers [10-mm nylon and Higgins-Dewell type (BGI4L) cyclones] and to determine whether an increased mass collection from high-flow rate samplers would affect the subsequent quartz measurement by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analytical procedures. Two different sizes of coal dusts, mass median aerodynamic diameter 4.48 μm (Coal Dust A) and 2.33 μm (Coal Dust B), were aerosolized in a calm air chamber. The mass of coal dust collected by the samplers was measured gravimetrically, while the mass of quartz collected by the samplers was determined by FTIR (NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method 7603) and XRD (NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method 7500) after one of two different indirect preparations. Comparisons between high-flow rate samplers and low-flow rate samplers were made by calculating mass concentration ratios of coal dusts, net mass ratios of coal dusts, and quartz net mass. Mass concentrations of coal dust from the FSP10 cyclone were significantly higher than those from other samplers and mass concentrations of coal dust from 10-mm nylon cyclone were significantly lower than those from other samplers, while the CIP10-R, GK2.69, and BGI4L samplers did not show significant difference in the comparison of mass concentration of coal dusts. The BGI4L cyclone showed larger mass concentration of ∼9% compared to the 10-mm nylon cyclone. All cyclones provided dust mass concentrations that can be used in complying with the International Standard Organization standard for the determination of respirable dust concentration. The amount of coal dust collected from the high-flow rate samplers was found to be higher with a factor of 2-8 compared to the low-flow rate samplers but not in direct proportion of increased flow rates. The high-flow rate samplers collected more quartz compared to

  16. Applications of an adaptive unstructured solution algorithm to the analysis of high speed flows (United States)

    Thareja, R. R.; Prabhu, R. K.; Morgan, K.; Peraire, J.; Peiro, J.


    An upwind cell-centered scheme for the solution of steady laminar viscous high-speed flows is implemented on unstructured two-dimensional meshes. The first-order implementation employs Roe's (1981) approximate Riemann solver, and a higher-order extension is produced by using linear reconstruction with limiting. The procedure is applied to the solution of inviscid subsonic flow over an airfoil, inviscid supersonic flow past a cylinder, and viscous hypersonic flow past a double ellipse. A detailed study is then made of a hypersonic laminar viscous flow on a 24-deg compression corner. It is shown that good agreement is achieved with previous predictions using finite-difference and finite-volume schemes. However, these predictions do not agree with experimental observations. With refinement of the structured grid at the leading edge, good agreement with experimental observations for the distributions of wall pressure, heating rate and skin friction is obtained.

  17. Use of flow cytometry for high-throughput cell population estimates in brain tissue (United States)

    Young, Nicole A.; Flaherty, David K.; Airey, David C.; Varlan, Peter; Aworunse, Feyi; Kaas, Jon H.; Collins, Christine E.


    The large size of primate brains is an impediment to obtaining high-resolution cell number maps of the cortex in humans and non-human primates. We present a rapid, flow cytometry-based cell counting method that can be used to estimate cell numbers from homogenized brain tissue samples comprising the entire cortical sheet. The new method, called the flow fractionator, is based on the isotropic fractionator (IF) method (Herculano-Houzel and Lent, 2005), but substitutes flow cytometry analysis for manual, microscope analysis using a Neubauer counting chamber. We show that our flow cytometry-based method for total cell estimation in homogenized brain tissue provides comparable data to that obtained using a counting chamber on a microscope. The advantages of the flow fractionator over existing methods are improved precision of cell number estimates and improved speed of analysis. PMID:22798947

  18. High-temperature plastic flow behaviour in the binder of WC-Co cemented carbides (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul


    Co-rich solid solution alloys regarded as the composition of binder phasesat elevated temperatures in WC-Co cemented carbides were fabricated and the high-temperature deformation behaviour of the alloys was investigated. The logarithmic relationship between flow stress and strain rate is expressed by a single straight line with the slope of 0.15 at a constant temperature in all strain rate range examined, unlike in cemented carbides showing the sigmoidal behaviour. The solid solution hardening due to the addition of Cr3C2 and VC is negligible in the Co-9WC-lCr3C2-0.5VC alloy and the mutual relation in flow stress is different between the cemented carbides and their binder phases in region I. The plastic flow in region I in WC-Co cemented carbides cannot be explained by the flow stress or flow behaviour in the binder phase.

  19. Three-dimensional viscous flow computations of high area ratio nozzles for hypersonic propulsion (United States)

    Reddy, D. R.; Harloff, G. J.


    The PARC3D code was selected by the authors to analyze a variety of complex and high-speed flow configurations. Geometries considered for code validation include ramps and corner flows, which are characteristic of inlets and nozzles. Flows with Mach numbers of 3-14 were studied. Both two- and three-dimensional experimental data for shock-boundary-layer interaction were considered to validate the code. A detailed comparison of various flow parameters with available experimental data is presented; agreement between the solutions and the experimental data in terms of pitot pressure profiles, yaw-angle distributions, static pressures, and skin friction is found to be very good. In addition, two- and three-dimensional flow calculations were performed for a hypersonic nozzle. Comparison of the wall pressure results with the published solutions is made for the two-dimensional case.

  20. High-Performance data flows using analytical models and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL; Towlsey, D. [University of Massachusetts; Vardoyan, G. [University of Massachusetts; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Foster, I. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Settlemyer, Bradley [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)


    The combination of analytical models and measurements provide practical configurations and parameters to achieve high data transport rates: (a) buffer sizes and number of parallel streams for improved memory and file transfer rates, (b) Hamilton and Scalable TCP congestion control modules for memory transfers in place of default CUBIC, and (c) direct IO mode for Lustre file systems for wide-area transfers. Conventional parameter selection using full sweeps is impractical in many cases since it takes months. By exploiting the unimodality of throughput profiles, we developed the d-w method that significantly reduces the number of measurements needed for parameter identification. This heuristic method was effective in practice in reducing the measurements by about 90% for Lustre and XFS file transfers.

  1. Investigation on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin


    Uncertainties associated with the core bypass flow are some of the key issues that directly influence the coolant mass flow distribution and magnitude, and thus the operational core temperature profiles, in the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR). Designers will attempt to configure the core geometry so the core cooling flow rate magnitude and distribution conform to the design values. The objective of this project is to study the bypass flow both experimentally and computationally. Researchers will develop experimental data using state-of-the-art particle image velocimetry in a small test facility. The team will attempt to obtain full field temperature distribution using racks of thermocouples. The experimental data are intended to benchmark computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes by providing detailed information. These experimental data are urgently needed for validation of the CFD codes. The following are the project tasks: • Construct a small-scale bench-top experiment to resemble the bypass flow between the graphite blocks, varying parameters to address their impact on bypass flow. Wall roughness of the graphite block walls, spacing between the blocks, and temperature of the blocks are some of the parameters to be tested. • Perform CFD to evaluate pre- and post-test calculations and turbulence models, including sensitivity studies to achieve high accuracy. • Develop the state-of-the art large eddy simulation (LES) using appropriate subgrid modeling. • Develop models to be used in systems thermal hydraulics codes to account and estimate the bypass flows. These computer programs include, among others, RELAP3D, MELCOR, GAMMA, and GAS-NET. Actual core bypass flow rate may vary considerably from the design value. Although the uncertainty of the bypass flow rate is not known, some sources have stated that the bypass flow rates in the Fort St. Vrain reactor were between 8 and 25 percent of the total reactor mass flow rate. If bypass flow rates are on the

  2. In vivo imaging of ocular blood flow using high-speed ultrasound (United States)

    Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Urs, Raksha; Silverman, Ronald H.


    Clinical ophthalmic ultrasound is currently performed with mechanically scanned, single-element probes, but these are unable to provide useful information about blood flow with Doppler techniques. Linear arrays are well-suited for the detection of blood flow, but commercial systems generally exceed FDA ophthalmic safety limits. A high-speed plane-wave ultrasound approach with an 18-MHz linear array was utilized to characterize blood flow in the orbit and choroid. Acoustic intensity was measured and the plane-wave mode was within FDA limits. Data were acquired for up to 2 sec and up to 20,000 frames/s with sets of steered plane-wave transmissions that spanned 2*θ degrees where 0 degrees was normal to the array. Lateral resolution was characterized using compounding from 1 to 50 transmissions and -6-dB lateral beamwidths ranged from 320 to 180 μm, respectively. Compounded high-frame-rate data were post-processed using a singular value decomposition spatiotemporal filter and then flow was estimated at each pixel using standard Doppler processing methods. A 1-cm diameter rotating scattering phantom and a 2-mm diameter tube with a flow of blood-mimicking fluid were utilized to validate the flow-estimation algorithms. In vivo data were obtained from the posterior pole of the human eye which revealed regions of flow in the choroid and major orbital vessels supplying the eye. PMID:28275423

  3. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.


    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  4. In Vivo High Frame Rate Vector Flow Imaging Using Plane Waves and Directional Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo


    oscillation (TO) estimators and only 3 directional beamformed lines. The suggested DB vector flow estimator is employed with steered plane wave transmissions for high frame rate imaging.Two distinct plane wave sequences are used: a short sequence(3 angles) for fast flow and an interleaved long sequence (21....... The long sequence has a higher sensitivity, and when used forestimation of slow flow with a peak velocity of 0.04 m/s, the SDis 2.5 % and bias is 0.1 %. This is a factor of 4 better than ifthe short sequence is used. The carotid bifurcation was scanned on a healthy volunteer, and the short sequence...

  5. Towards a comprehensive assessment and framework for low and high flow water risks (United States)

    Motschmann, Alina; Huggel, Christian; Drenkhan, Fabian; León, Christian


    Driven by international organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the past years have seen a move from a vulnerability concept of climate change impacts towards a risk framework. Risk is now conceived at the intersection of climate-driven hazard and socioeconomic-driven vulnerability and exposure. The concept of risk so far has been mainly adopted for sudden-onset events. However, for slow-onset and cumulative climate change impacts such as changing water resources there is missing clarity and experience how to apply a risk framework. Research has hardly dealt with the challenge of how to integrate both low and high flow risks in a common framework. Comprehensive analyses of risks related to water resources considering climate change within multi-dimensional drivers across different scales are complex and often missing in climate-sensitive mountain regions where data scarcity and inconsistencies represent important limitations. Here we review existing vulnerability and risk assessments of low and high flow water conditions and identify critical conceptual and practical gaps. Based on this, we develop an integrated framework for low and high flow water risks which is applicable to both past and future conditions. The framework explicitly considers a water balance model simulating both water supply and demand on a daily basis. We test and apply this new framework in the highly glacierized Santa River catchment (SRC, Cordillera Blanca, Peru), representative for many developing mountain regions with both low and high flow water risks and poor data availability. In fact, in the SRC, both low and high flow hazards, such as droughts and floods, play a central role especially for agricultural, hydropower, domestic and mining use. During the dry season (austral winter) people are increasingly affected by water scarcity due to shrinking glaciers supplying melt water. On the other hand during the wet season (austral summer) high flow water

  6. Hemodynamic Study of Flow Remodeling Stent Graft for the Treatment of Highly Angulated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm


    Siang Lin Yeow; Hwa Liang Leo


    This study investigates the effect of a novel flow remodeling stent graft (FRSG) on the hemodynamic characteristics in highly angulated abdominal aortic aneurysm based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. An idealized aortic aneurysm with varying aortic neck angulations was constructed and CFD simulations were performed on nonstented models and stented models with FRSG. The influence of FRSG intervention on the hemodynamic performance is analyzed and compared in terms of flow patte...

  7. An investigation of laser velocimetry measurements within high speed, complex flows (United States)

    Maurice, Mark S.

    Laser velocimetry (LV) is a nonintrusive, optical method that measures particle velocities within a flow. Therefore, if LV measurements are to represent the structure of a flowfield, the particles must follow the dynamic motion of the fluid. However, in high speed, complex flows, the lag in particle response to fluid gradients can be substantial. In order to quantify velocity lag bias in high speed, mean velocity measurements, several flowfields are investigated experimentally and computationally. From measurements within the vortical flowfield of a supersonic delta wing at Mach 1.9, and for expansion flows at Mach 5.76, it is found that by coupling a particle equation of motion with the computational flowfield solutions, particle trajectories and velocity lag within complex flows can be predicted. For two primary flow structures, potential vortices and two-dimensional ideal shocks, it is found that relaxation distances can be quantified in terms of three dimensionless parameters. Results for these cases are presented graphically as an aid for test design and data analysis over a wide range of conditions. However, any analysis of velocity lag bias requires knowledge of the particle size distribution, which is often unknown in high speed flows. For a ten degree half-angle wedge at Mach Three, a methodology is presented which determines the mean particle diameter from measurements downstream of the shock, and then examines the remaining LV data throughout the flow. To extend this approach to flows with highly polydispersed particle sizes, an algorithm is developed which extracts the size distribution from the shape of LV velocity histograms. This method is applied to the investigation of a hypersonic inlet at Mach 5.76. Results show that despite the problem of velocity lag, measurements can still be used for computational code validation. In this final case, the developing boundary layer along the inlet ramp is accurately predicted, but the algebraic eddy viscosity

  8. A powerful electrohydrodynamic flow generated by a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge in a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebogatkin, S. V.; Rebrov, I. E.; Khomich, V. Yu.; Yamshchikov, V. A., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power (Russian Federation)


    Theoretical and experimental studies of an electrohydrodynamic flow induced by a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge distributed over a dielectric surface in a gas have been conducted. Dependences of the ion current, the gas flow velocity, and the spatial distributions thereof on the parameters of the power supply of the plasma ion emitter and an external electric field determined by the collector grid voltage have been described.

  9. Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    boundary-layer flow with gas injection 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Alexander V. Fedorov ...Release; Distribution Unlimited Stability analysis of high-speed boundary-layer flow with gas injection Alexander Fedorov and Vitaly Soudakov Moscow...Dispersion relation from WKB analysis*,**: *Guschin, V.R., & Fedorov , A.V., Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 24, No.1, 1989 **Guschin, V.R., & Fedorov , A.V., NASA

  10. High throughput holographic imaging-in-flow for the analysis of a wide plankton size range. (United States)

    Yourassowsky, Catherine; Dubois, Frank


    We developed a Digital Holographic Microscope (DHM) working with a partial coherent source specifically adapted to perform high throughput recording of holograms of plankton organisms in-flow, in a size range of 3 µm-300 µm, which is of importance for this kind of applications. This wide size range is achieved with the same flow cell and with the same microscope magnification. The DHM configuration combines a high magnification with a large field of view and provides high-resolution intensity and quantitative phase images refocusing on high sample flow rate. Specific algorithms were developed to detect and extract automatically the particles and organisms present in the samples in order to build holograms of each one that are used for holographic refocusing and quantitative phase contrast imaging. Experimental results are shown and discussed.

  11. Use of a High-Flow Oxygen Delivery System in a Critically Ill Patient with Dementia (United States)


    facial mask. We saw a 92-year-old woman with delirium and dementia in the intensive care unit for multi-lobar pneumonia with severe hypoxemia. Attempts to...a high oxygen concentration. Key words: high-flow oxygen, palliative care , hypoxemia. [Respir Care 2008;53(12):1739–1743] Introduction We have...Fig. 2. Radiograph on hospital day 4. HIGH-FLOW OXYGEN IN A CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT WITH DEMENTIA 1740 RESPIRATORY CARE • DECEMBER 2008 VOL 53 NO 12

  12. Can blood flow restriction augment muscle activation during high-load training? (United States)

    Dankel, Scott J; Buckner, Samuel L; Jessee, Matthew B; Mattocks, Kevin T; Mouser, J Grant; Counts, Brittany R; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Loenneke, Jeremy P


    Blood flow restriction has been shown to augment muscle activation and increase muscle size when combined with low-load training; however, much less is known on whether blood flow restriction can augment muscle activation during high-load exercise. To determine whether applying blood flow restriction can augment muscle activation with traditional high-load resistance exercise. Ten individuals completed two sets of elbow flexion exercise to volitional fatigue. The control arm rested for 3 min between sets while the experimental arm had blood flow restriction applied for 3 min. The blood flow restricted arm completed significantly fewer repetitions in set 2 in comparison with set 1 [set 1: 9 (1), set 2: 4 (1); P<0·001], whereas no meaningful differences were observed in the control arm [set 1: 8 (1), set 2: 7 (1); P = 0·057]. There was no interaction for muscle activation (P = 0·851) with both conditions significantly lower at the start of set 2 [87 (26)%] in comparison with the end of set 1 [106 (40)%] or end of set 2 [103 (33)%]. The application of blood flow restriction does not augment muscle activation present with high-load exercise and would seem unlikely to induce greater muscle hypertrophy. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hemodynamic Study of Flow Remodeling Stent Graft for the Treatment of Highly Angulated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lin Yeow


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of a novel flow remodeling stent graft (FRSG on the hemodynamic characteristics in highly angulated abdominal aortic aneurysm based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. An idealized aortic aneurysm with varying aortic neck angulations was constructed and CFD simulations were performed on nonstented models and stented models with FRSG. The influence of FRSG intervention on the hemodynamic performance is analyzed and compared in terms of flow patterns, wall shear stress (WSS, and pressure distribution in the aneurysm. The findings showed that aortic neck angulations significantly influence the velocity flow field in nonstented models, with larger angulations shifting the mainstream blood flow towards the center of the aorta. By introducing FRSG treatment into the aneurysm, erratic flow recirculation pattern in the aneurysm sac diminishes while the average velocity magnitude in the aneurysm sac was reduced in the range of 39% to 53%. FRSG intervention protects the aneurysm against the impacts of high velocity concentrated flow and decreases wall shear stress by more than 50%. The simulation results highlighted that FRSG may effectively treat aneurysm with high aortic neck angulations via the mechanism of promoting thrombus formation and subsequently led to the resorption of the aneurysm.

  14. Flow rates of large animal fluid delivery systems used for high-volume crystalloid resuscitation. (United States)

    Nolen-Walston, Rose D


    Large animal species in states of shock can require particularly high flow rates for volume resuscitation and the ability to deliver adequate volumes rapidly may be a rate-limiting step. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum flow rates of common combinations of IV catheter, extension set, and fluid administration sets. University veterinary teaching hospital. In vitro experimental study. Maximum flow rates were measured using combinations of 4 IV catheters (3 14-Ga and a single 10-Ga), 2 IV catheter extension sets (small bore and large bore), and 2 types of fluid administration sets (standard 2-lead large animal coiled IV set and nonpressurized 4-lead arthroscopic irrigation set). The catheter, extension sets, and administration sets were arranged in 16 configurations, and flow rates measured in triplicate using tap water flowing into an open receptacle. Flow rates ranged from 7.4 L/h with an over-the-wire 14-Ga catheter, small-bore extension, and coil set, to 51.2 L/h using a 10-Ga catheter, no extension, and arthroscopic irrigation set. There was an increase of 1.3-8.9% in flow rates between the large- versus small-bore extension sets. Crystalloid delivery in vivo to an adult horse was 21% slower (9.1 L/h versus 11.5 L/h) than the corresponding in vitro measurement. Extremely high flow rates can be achieved in vitro using large-bore catheters and delivery systems, although the clinical necessity for rates >50 L/h has not been determined. The use of large-bore extension sets resulted in only a minimal increase in flow rate. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  15. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography (United States)

    Villagómez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Bechsgaard, Thor; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow angle in the ROI was 86.22° +/- 6.66° with a true flow angle of 90°. A relative velocity bias of -39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found. In-vivo acquisitions show complex flow patterns in the heart. In the aortic valve view, blood is seen exiting the left ventricle cavity through the aortic valve into the aorta during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. In the left ventricle view, blood flow is seen entering the left ventricle cavity through the mitral valve and splitting in two ways when approximating the left ventricle wall. The work presents 2-D velocity estimates on the heart from a non-invasive transthoracic scan. The ability of the method detecting flow regardless of the beam angle could potentially reveal a more complete view of the flow patterns presented on the heart.

  16. Piezoelectric microvalve for precise control of gas flow at high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    We present a normally open piezoelectric actuated micro valve, based on the novel concept of micro and fine machining technology. This new design allows a wide controllable range for high flow at a high pressure difference between inlet and outlet. This promising combination of micro and fine

  17. High School Physical Education: What Contributes to the Experience of Flow? (United States)

    Stormoen, Sidsel; Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Wold, Bente; Diseth, Åge


    This study seeks to identify factors that promote positive experiences in high school physical education (PE). The study combines elements of Self-determination Theory (SDT) with the theory of "flow". Special attention is given to gender differences. The study sample consisted of 167 Norwegian senior high school students (78 females and…

  18. High-paraffinaceous oil as a disperse system: The selection of a flow equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, V.N.; Kirsanov, E.S.; Remizov, S.V. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)


    The rheological properties of high-paraffinaceous oil were studied for different preliminary mechanical treatments of the samples. The flow curves were analyzed by different rheological models. The selection of Casson`s model for the range of high shear velocities was proven.

  19. Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team (United States)

    Lamar, John E. (Editor)


    This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.

  20. High PRF ultrafast sliding compound doppler imaging: fully qualitative and quantitative analysis of blood flow. (United States)

    Kang, Jinbum; Jang, Won Seuk; Yoo, Yangmo


    Ultrafast compound Doppler imaging based on plane-wave excitation (UCDI) can be used to evaluate cardiovascular diseases using high frame rates. In particular, it provides a fully quantifiable flow analysis over a large region of interest with high spatio-temporal resolution. However, the pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) in the UCDI method is limited for high-velocity flow imaging since it leverages between the number of plane-wave angles (N) and acquisition time. In this paper, we present high PRF ultrafast sliding compound Doppler imaging method (HUSDI) to improve quantitative flow analysis. With the HUSDI method, full scanline images (i.e., each tilted plane wave data) in a Doppler frame buffer are consecutively summed using a sliding window to create high-quality ensemble data so that there is no reduction in frame rate and flow sensitivity. In addition, by updating a new compounding set with a certain time difference (i.e., sliding window step size or L), the HUSDI method allows various Doppler PRFs with the same acquisition data to enable a fully qualitative, retrospective flow assessment. To evaluate the performance of the proposed HUSDI method, simulation, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted under diverse flow circumstances. In the simulation and in vitro studies, the HUSDI method showed improved hemodynamic representations without reducing either temporal resolution or sensitivity compared to the UCDI method. For the quantitative analysis, the root mean squared velocity error (RMSVE) was measured using 9 angles (-12° to 12°) with L of 1 to 9, and the results were found to be comparable to those of the UCDI method (L=N=9), i.e., ≤ 0.24 cm/s, for all L values. For the in vivo study, the flow data acquired from a full cardiac cycle of the femoral vessels of a healthy volunteer were analyzed using a PW spectrogram, and arterial and venous flows were successfully assessed with

  1. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.


    . Global cerebral blood flow at rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique. Cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated by the Fick principle. Cerebral function was assessed by a computer-based measurement of reaction time...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow......The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level...

  2. Internal filtration, filtration fraction, and blood flow resistance in high- and low-flux dialyzers. (United States)

    Schneditz, Daniel; Zierler, Edda; Vanholder, Raymond; Eloot, Sunny


    It was the aim to examine the fluid flow in blood and dialysate compartments of highly permeable hollow fiber dialyzers where internal filtration contributes to solute removal but where excessive filtration bears a risk of cell activation and damage. Flow characteristics of high- (HF) and low-flux (LF) dialyzers were studied in lab-bench experiments using whole bovine blood. Measurements obtained under different operating conditions and under zero net ultrafiltration were compared to theoretical calculations obtained from a mathematical model. Experimental resistances in the blood compartment were within ±2% of those calculated from the model when dialysate was used as a test fluid. With whole blood, the experimental resistances in the blood compartment were only 81.8 ± 2.8% and 83.7 ± 4.3% of those calculated for the LF and HF dialyzer, respectively. Surprisingly, measured blood flow resistance slightly but significantly decreased with increasing flow rate (p filtration fraction, while overall internal filtration increased. The increase in internal filtration when increasing blood flow is associated with a beneficial reduction in internal filtration fraction. Concerns of increased hemoconcentration when increasing blood flow therefore appear to be unwarranted.

  3. Force and vortical flow development on pitching wings at high rates (United States)

    Bernal, Luis; Yu, Huai-Te; Ol, Michael; Granlund, Kenneth


    Recent experimental results of pitching flat plate wings are presented. High pitch-rate perching maneuvers are frequently used by birds for feeding and landing. Insects use very fast rotation rates at the end of each flapping stroke, which results in high thrust and precise flight. These wing motions are also of interest for engineered micro air vehicles to achieve semi-autonomous landing by unskilled operators. The wing motion considered is a constant rotation rate pitch motion from 0 to 45 degrees of an aspect-ratio-4 flat-plate wing. The goal is to gain a better understanding of force generation mechanisms and their relationship to two- and three-dimensional vortical flow structures. Leading edge, trailing edge, and tip vortices form with large separated flow regions over the wing, however comparison with linear potential flow theory gives good agreement. The evolution of the leading edge vortex is delayed for pivot axes locations downstream of the leading edge. Large forces at the end of the motion slowly return to the steady state value over more than 30 convective times. The flow in the near wake shows a brief period of vortex shedding and strong three dimensional effects. Two different three-dimensional flow features are observed: A rapid development of three-dimensionality in the core of the leading and trailing edge vortices and a swirl motion in the near wake. However the impact of these three-dimensional flow features on force development is small.

  4. High-performance computing-based exploration of flow control with micro devices. (United States)

    Fujii, Kozo


    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator that controls flow separation is one of the promising technologies to realize energy savings and noise reduction of fluid dynamic systems. However, the mechanism for controlling flow separation is not clearly defined, and this lack of knowledge prevents practical use of this technology. Therefore, large-scale computations for the study of the DBD plasma actuator have been conducted using the Japanese Petaflops supercomputer 'K' for three different Reynolds numbers. Numbers of new findings on the control of flow separation by the DBD plasma actuator have been obtained from the simulations, and some of them are presented in this study. Knowledge of suitable device parameters is also obtained. The DBD plasma actuator is clearly shown to be very effective for controlling flow separation at a Reynolds number of around 10(5), and several times larger lift-to-drag ratio can be achieved at higher angles of attack after stall. For higher Reynolds numbers, separated flow is partially controlled. Flow analysis shows key features towards better control. DBD plasma actuators are a promising technology, which could reduce fuel consumption and contribute to a green environment by achieving high aerodynamic performance. The knowledge described above can be obtained only with high-end computers such as the supercomputer 'K'. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Silica Measurement with High Flow Rate Respirable Size Selective Samplers: A Field Study. (United States)

    Lee, Taekhee; Harper, Martin; Kashon, Michael; Lee, Larry A; Healy, Catherine B; Coggins, Marie A; Susi, Pam; O'Brien, Andrew


    High and low flow rate respirable size selective samplers including the CIP10-R (10 l min(-1)), FSP10 (11.2 l min(-1)), GK2.69 (4.4 l min(-1)), 10-mm nylon (1.7 l min(-1)), and Higgins-Dewell type (2.2 l min(-1)) were compared via side-by-side sampling in workplaces for respirable crystalline silica measurement. Sampling was conducted at eight different occupational sites in the USA and five different stonemasonry sites in Ireland. A total of 536 (268 pairs) personal samples and 55 area samples were collected. Gravimetric analysis was used to determine respirable dust mass and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine quartz mass. Ratios of respirable dust mass concentration, quartz mass concentration, respirable dust mass, and quartz mass from high and low flow rate samplers were compared. In general, samplers did not show significant differences greater than 30% in respirable dust mass concentration and quartz mass concentration when outliers (ratio 3.0) were removed from the analysis. The frequency of samples above the limit of detection and limit of quantification of quartz was significantly higher for the CIP10-R and FSP10 samplers compared to low flow rate samplers, while the GK2.69 cyclone did not show significant difference from low flow rate samplers. High flow rate samplers collected significantly more respirable dust and quartz than low flow rate samplers as expected indicating that utilizing high flow rate samplers might improve precision in quartz measurement. Although the samplers did not show significant differences in respirable dust and quartz concentrations, other practical attributes might make them more or less suitable for personal sampling. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2015.

  6. Highly Stable Anion Exchange Membranes for High-Voltage Redox-Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yushan


    In this work, multiple polymer backbones were screened for oxidation resistance and multiple chemistries were explored for tethering tris(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)phosphonium (9MeTTP+) to the selected polymer backbones. A new tethering strategy through brominated 9MeTTP+ cation was developed and used to obtain the desired 9MeTTP+−functionalized polysulfone (PSf) and hexafluoro polybenzimidazole (F6PBI) polymer. The crosslinked 9MeTTP+−functionalized hexafluoro polybenzimidazole (9MeTTP−F6PBI) polymer demonstrated excellent oxidation stability that met the go-no-go milestone of the first year. However, large-scale bromination inevitably involved multi-bromination products, which led to polymer crosslinking in the next tethering. A new synthesis strategy with diiodobutane as linker was developed to overcome the crosslinking problem. The prepared 9MeTTP+-F6PBI membrane without crosslinking showed only 3.58% water uptake and less than 1 mS/cm OH- conductivity in water at 20°C, possibly due to the hydrophobic 9MeTTP+ cation. In order to improve the conductivity, hydrophilic tris(2,4,6-trimethoxylphenyl)phosphonium (9MeOTTP+) cation was tethered to an F6PBI backbone, and a 9MeOTTP+-F6PBI PTFE reinforced membrane was prepared with 17.4% water uptake to increase the mechanical strength and durability in cerium (IV) solution. A 9MeOTTP+-F6PBI PTFE reinforced membrane had less than 20% conductivity loss during an accelerated stability test in 0.5 M cerium (IV) and 1.3 M HClO4 at 55°C for 100 hours. Moreover, a 9MeOTTP+-F6PBI PTFE reinforced membrane had more than double the lifetime of commercial FAS-30 and FAB-PK-130 AEMs during an accelerated stability test in 0.5 M cerium (IV) and 1.3 M HClO4 at 55°C. Low area specific resistance (ASR) of a 9MeOTTP+-F6PBI PTFE reinforced membrane in the sulfuric acid system was also achieved due to the high acid doping ability of the polymer structure. The cationic 9MeOTTP+-F6PBI PTFE reinforced membrane shows a cerium (IV

  7. Experimental investigation of high-incidence delta-wing flow control (United States)

    Buzica, Andrei; Bartasevicius, Julius; Breitsamter, Christian


    The possibility of extending the flight envelope for configurations with slender delta-shaped wings is investigated in this study by means of active flow control through pulsating jets from slot pairs distributed along the leading edge. The experiments comprise stereoscopic particle image velocimetry as well as force and moment measurements on a half-delta wing model. The analysis focuses on three high-incidence regimes: pre-stall, stall, and post-stall. This study also compares different perturbation methods: blowing with spatially constant and variable parameters, frequency and phase. At an incidence of 45°, the unison pulsed blowing facilitates the most significant flow transformation. Here, the separated shear layer reattaches on the wing's suction side, thus increasing the lift. Phase-averaged flow field measurements describe, in this particular case, the underlying physics of the flow-disturbance interaction.

  8. Parametric Approach to Assessing Performance of High-Lift Device Active Flow Control Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cai


    Full Text Available Active Flow Control is at present an area of considerable research, with multiple potential aircraft applications. While the majority of research has focused on the performance of the actuators themselves, a system-level perspective is necessary to assess the viability of proposed solutions. This paper demonstrates such an approach, in which major system components are sized based on system flow and redundancy considerations, with the impacts linked directly to the mission performance of the aircraft. Considering the case of a large twin-aisle aircraft, four distinct active flow control architectures that facilitate the simplification of the high-lift mechanism are investigated using the demonstrated approach. The analysis indicates a very strong influence of system total mass flow requirement on architecture performance, both for a typical mission and also over the entire payload-range envelope of the aircraft.

  9. Study on transient hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristic of high-speed mixed-flow pump (United States)

    Chen, T.; Sun, Y. B.; Liu, Y. L.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.


    In order to analyse the hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristic of a high-speed mixed-flow pump during transient operations, experimental studies were carried out. The transient hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristics of the mixed-flow pump with guide vane during start-up operation processes were tested on the pump performance test-bed. Performance tests of the pump were carried out under various inlet pressures and speed-changing operations. The real-time instantaneous external characteristics such as rotational speed, hydraulic head, flow rate, suction pressure and discharge pressure of the pump were measured. Based on the experimental results, the effect of fluid acceleration on the hydrodynamic performances and cavitation characteristics of the mixed-flow pump were analysed and evaluated.

  10. The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershov, S.V.; Rusanov, A.V. [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)


    The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)

  11. Land cover effects on infiltration and preferential flow pathways in the high rainfall zone of Madagascar (United States)

    Zwartendijk, Bob; van Meerveld, Ilja; Ravelona, Maafaka; Razakamanarivo, Herintsitohaina; Ghimire, Chandra; Bruijnzeel, Sampurno; Jones, Julia


    Shortened slash-and-burn cycles exhaust agricultural land and have resulted in extensive tracts of highly degraded land across the tropics. Land degradation typically results in decreased rainfall infiltration due to a reduced field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of the topsoil because of a progressive decline in soil organic matter, exposure to raindrop impact, surface sealing and compaction. This results, in turn, in enhanced surface runoff and erosion, and consequently less subsurface flow and groundwater recharge. On the other hand, natural vegetation regrowth or active reforestation can lead to a renewed accumulation of soil organic matter, macropore development and increased infiltration rates. As part of the P4GES project (Can Paying 4 Global Ecosystem Services values reduce poverty?;, we study the effects of land use change and reforestation on water resources in the Corridor Ankeniheny-Zahamena (CAZ) in eastern Madagascar. In this poster, we present the results of infiltration and preferential flow measurements in four different land uses in the southern part of the CAZ: (i) closed canopy forest, (ii) 3-14 year-old regrowth on fallow land (savokas), (iii) exhausted and severely degraded land (tany maty), and (iv) recently reforested sites (6-8 years old). The results show that infiltrability increases significantly after several years of forest regrowth after land abandonment, but it remains unclear whether active replanting decreases the time required for restoration of soil hydrological functioning. Preferential flow pathways differed strikingly between the respective land cover types: infiltration in mature forests was predominantly characterized by macropore flow (preferential flow pathways), whereas infiltration in exhausted agricultural land was dominated by matrix flow (few preferential flow pathways). Occurrence of preferential flow pathways in reforestation and fallow sites varied considerably. These results suggest that land

  12. Probability modeling of high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed, the upper reaches of Heihe River basin (United States)

    Li, Zhanling; Li, Zhanjie; Li, Chengcheng


    Probability modeling of hydrological extremes is one of the major research areas in hydrological science. Most basins in humid and semi-humid south and east of China are concerned for probability modeling analysis of high flow extremes. While, for the inland river basin which occupies about 35% of the country area, there is a limited presence of such studies partly due to the limited data availability and a relatively low mean annual flow. The objective of this study is to carry out probability modeling of high flow extremes in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in China, by using the peak over threshold (POT) method and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), in which the selection of threshold and inherent assumptions for POT series are elaborated in details. For comparison, other widely used probability distributions including generalized extreme value (GEV), Lognormal, Log-logistic and Gamma are employed as well. Maximum likelihood estimate is used for parameter estimations. Daily flow data at Yingluoxia station from 1978 to 2008 are used. Results show that, synthesizing the approaches of mean excess plot, stability features of model parameters, return level plot and the inherent independence assumption of POT series, an optimum threshold of 340m3/s is finally determined for high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed. The resulting POT series is proved to be stationary and independent based on Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test and autocorrelation test. In terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test and several graphical diagnostics such as quantile and cumulative density function plots, GPD provides the best fit to high flow extremes in the study area. The estimated high flows for long return periods demonstrate that, as the return period increasing, the return level estimates are probably more uncertain. The frequency of high flow extremes exhibits a very slight but not significant decreasing trend from 1978 to

  13. Flow field analysis of high-speed helium turboexpander for cryogenic refrigeration and liquefaction cycles (United States)

    Sam, Ashish Alex; Ghosh, Parthasarathi


    Turboexpander constitutes one of the vital components of Claude cycle based helium refrigerators and liquefiers that are gaining increasing technological importance. These turboexpanders which are of radial inflow in configuration are generally high-speed micro turbines, due to the low molecular weight and density of helium. Any improvement in efficiency of these machines requires a detailed understanding of the flow field. Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis (CFD) has emerged as a necessary tool for the determination of the flow fields in cryogenic turboexpanders, which is often not possible through experiments. In the present work three-dimensional transient flow analysis of a cryogenic turboexpander for helium refrigeration and liquefaction cycles were performed using Ansys CFX®, to understand the flow field of a high-speed helium turboexpander, which in turn will help in taking appropriate decisions regarding modifications of established design methodology for improved efficiency of these machines. The turboexpander is designed based on Balje's nsds diagram and the inverse design blade profile generation formalism prescribed by Hasselgruber and Balje. The analyses include the study of several losses, their origins, the increase in entropy due to these losses, quantification of losses and the effects of various geometrical parameters on these losses. Through the flow field analysis it was observed that in the nozzle, flow separation at the nozzle blade suction side and trailing edge vortices resulted in loss generation, which calls for better nozzle blade profile. The turbine wheel flow field analysis revealed that the significant geometrical parameters of the turbine wheel blade like blade inlet angle, blade profile, tip clearance height and trailing edge thickness need to be optimised for improved performance of the turboexpander. The detailed flow field analysis in this paper can be used to improve the mean line design methodology for turboexpanders used

  14. Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Large-Eddy Turbulent Flow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers (United States)

    Morgan, Philip E.


    This final report contains reports of research related to the tasks "Scalable High Performance Computing: Direct and Lark-Eddy Turbulent FLow Simulations Using Massively Parallel Computers" and "Devleop High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics Capability for RCS Prediction, Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media, and Dual-Use Applications. The discussion of Scalable High Performance Computing reports on three objectives: validate, access scalability, and apply two parallel flow solvers for three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flows; develop and validate a high-order parallel solver for Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) problems; and Investigate and develop a high-order Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model. The discussion of High-Performance Time-Domain Computational Electromagnetics reports on five objectives: enhancement of an electromagnetics code (CHARGE) to be able to effectively model antenna problems; utilize lessons learned in high-order/spectral solution of swirling 3D jets to apply to solving electromagnetics project; transition a high-order fluids code, FDL3DI, to be able to solve Maxwell's Equations using compact-differencing; develop and demonstrate improved radiation absorbing boundary conditions for high-order CEM; and extend high-order CEM solver to address variable material properties. The report also contains a review of work done by the systems engineer.

  15. Application and evaluation of LS-PIV technique for the monitoring of river surface velocities in high flow conditions


    Jodeau, M.; Hauet, A.; Paquier, A.; Le Coz, J.; Dramais, G.


    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) is used to measure the surface flow velocities in a mountain stream during high flow conditions due to a reservoir release. A complete installation including video acquisition from a mobile elevated viewpoint and artificial flow seeding has been developed and implemented. The LS-PIV method was adapted in order to take into account the specific constraints of these high flow conditions. Using a usual LS-PIV data processing, significant variations...

  16. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua


    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  17. Can hydraulic-modelled rating curves reduce uncertainty in high flow data? (United States)

    Westerberg, Ida; Lam, Norris; Lyon, Steve W.


    Flood risk assessments rely on accurate discharge data records. Establishing a reliable rating curve for calculating discharge from stage at a gauging station normally takes years of data collection efforts. Estimation of high flows is particularly difficult as high flows occur rarely and are often practically difficult to gauge. Hydraulically-modelled rating curves can be derived based on as few as two concurrent stage-discharge and water-surface slope measurements at different flow conditions. This means that a reliable rating curve can, potentially, be derived much faster than a traditional rating curve based on numerous stage-discharge gaugings. In this study we compared the uncertainty in discharge data that resulted from these two rating curve modelling approaches. We applied both methods to a Swedish catchment, accounting for uncertainties in the stage-discharge gauging and water-surface slope data for the hydraulic model and in the stage-discharge gauging data and rating-curve parameters for the traditional method. We focused our analyses on high-flow uncertainty and the factors that could reduce this uncertainty. In particular, we investigated which data uncertainties were most important, and at what flow conditions the gaugings should preferably be taken. First results show that the hydraulically-modelled rating curves were more sensitive to uncertainties in the calibration measurements of discharge than water surface slope. The uncertainty of the hydraulically-modelled rating curves were lowest within the range of the three calibration stage-discharge gaugings (i.e. between median and two-times median flow) whereas uncertainties were higher outside of this range. For instance, at the highest observed stage of the 24-year stage record, the 90% uncertainty band was -15% to +40% of the official rating curve. Additional gaugings at high flows (i.e. four to five times median flow) would likely substantially reduce those uncertainties. These first results show

  18. Comparison of clustering methods for high-dimensional single-cell flow and mass cytometry data. (United States)

    Weber, Lukas M; Robinson, Mark D


    Recent technological developments in high-dimensional flow cytometry and mass cytometry (CyTOF) have made it possible to detect expression levels of dozens of protein markers in thousands of cells per second, allowing cell populations to be characterized in unprecedented detail. Traditional data analysis by "manual gating" can be inefficient and unreliable in these high-dimensional settings, which has led to the development of a large number of automated analysis methods. Methods designed for unsupervised analysis use specialized clustering algorithms to detect and define cell populations for further downstream analysis. Here, we have performed an up-to-date, extensible performance comparison of clustering methods for high-dimensional flow and mass cytometry data. We evaluated methods using several publicly available data sets from experiments in immunology, containing both major and rare cell populations, with cell population identities from expert manual gating as the reference standard. Several methods performed well, including FlowSOM, X-shift, PhenoGraph, Rclusterpp, and flowMeans. Among these, FlowSOM had extremely fast runtimes, making this method well-suited for interactive, exploratory analysis of large, high-dimensional data sets on a standard laptop or desktop computer. These results extend previously published comparisons by focusing on high-dimensional data and including new methods developed for CyTOF data. R scripts to reproduce all analyses are available from GitHub (, and pre-processed data files are available from FlowRepository (FR-FCM-ZZPH), allowing our comparisons to be extended to include new clustering methods and reference data sets. © 2016 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC. © 2016 The Authors. Cytometry Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC.

  19. Clinical effect of Diskus dry-powder inhaler at low and high inspiratory flow-rates in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Auk, I L; Bojsen, K


    In vitro studies with the Diskus inhaler at low and high flow rates show consistent doses of drug as fine particles flow independency translates into flow-independent clinical effect when the device is used by patients...... at low (30 L x min[-1]) and high (90 L x min[-1]) flow rates. A pilot study in 129 children aged 3-10 yrs demonstrated that 99% of children of 3 yrs and above can generate a flow > or = 30 L x min(-1) through the device, while 26% performed > or = 90 L x min(-1). Eighteen children aged 8-15 yrs...... after salmeterol at either flow rates as compared to placebo. There was no significant difference in the protection from salmeterol on the day of low-flow inhalation versus the day of high-flow inhalation. Consistent in vitro fine particle dosing from the Diskus inhaler translates into a consistent...

  20. Engine panel seals for hypersonic engine applications: High temperature leakage assessments and flow modelling (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Ko, Frank


    A critical mechanical system in advanced hypersonic engines is the panel-edge seal system that seals gaps between the articulating horizontal engine panels and the adjacent engine splitter walls. Significant advancements in seal technology are required to meet the extreme demands placed on the seals, including the simultaneous requirements of low leakage, conformable, high temperature, high pressure, sliding operation. In this investigation, the seal concept design and development of two new seal classes that show promise of meeting these demands will be presented. These seals include the ceramic wafer seal and the braided ceramic rope seal. Presented are key elements of leakage flow models for each of these seal types. Flow models such as these help designers to predict performance-robbing parasitic losses past the seals, and estimate purge coolant flow rates. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted leakage rates over a wide range of engine simulated temperatures and pressures, showing good agreement.

  1. Flow-Based Systems for Rapid and High-Precision Enzyme Kinetics Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell


    Full Text Available Enzyme kinetics studies normally focus on the initial rate of enzymatic reaction. However, the manual operation of steps of the conventional enzyme kinetics method has some drawbacks. Errors can result from the imprecise time control and time necessary for manual changing the reaction cuvettes into and out of the detector. By using the automatic flow-based analytical systems, enzyme kinetics studies can be carried out at real-time initial rate avoiding the potential errors inherent in manual operation. Flow-based systems have been developed to provide rapid, low-volume, and high-precision analyses that effectively replace the many tedious and high volume requirements of conventional wet chemistry analyses. This article presents various arrangements of flow-based techniques and their potential use in future enzyme kinetics applications.

  2. Development of a micro flow-through cell for high field NMR spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael; McIntyre, Sarah K.


    A highly transportable micro flow-through detection cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been designed, fabricated and tested. This flow-through cell allows for the direct coupling between liquid chromatography (LC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) resulting in the possibility of hyphenated LC-NMR and GPC-NMR. The advantage of the present flow cell design is that it is independent and unconnected to the detection probe electronics, is compatible with existing commercial high resolution NMR probes, and as such can be easily implemented at any NMR facility. Two different volumes were fabricated corresponding to between {approx}3.8 and 10 {micro}L detection volume. Examples of the performance of the cell on different NMR instruments, and using different NMR detection probes were demonstrated.

  3. Rapid continuous flow synthesis of high-quality silver nanocubes and nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim


    We report a biphasic-liquid segmented continuous flow method for the synthesis of high-quality plasmonic single crystal silver nanocubes and nanospheres. The nanocubes were synthesized with controllable edge lengths from 20 to 48 nm. Single crystal nanospheres with a mean size of 29 nm were obtained by in-line continuous-flow etching of as-produced 39 nm nanocubes with an aqueous solution of FeNO3. In comparison to batch synthesis, the demonstrated processes represent highly scalable reactions, in terms of both production rate and endurance. The reactions were conducted in a commercially available flow-reactor system that is easily adaptable to industrial-scale production, facilitating widespread utilization of the procedure and the resulting nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  4. Numerical simulation of flow around a simplified high-speed train model using OpenFOAM (United States)

    Ishak, I. A.; Ali, M. S. M.; Shaikh Salim, S. A. Z.


    Detailed understanding of flow physics on the flow over a high-speed train (HST) can be accomplished using the vast information obtained from numerical simulation. Accuracy of any simulation in solving and analyzing problems related to fluid flow is important since it measures the reliability of the results. This paper describes a numerical simulation setup for the flow around a simplified model of HST that utilized open source software, OpenFOAM. The simulation results including pressure coefficient, drag coefficient and flow visualization are presented and they agreed well with previously published data. This shows that OpenFOAM software is capable of simulating fluid flows around a simplified HST model. Additionally, the wall functions are implemented in order to minimize the overall number of grid especially near the wall region. This resulted in considerably smaller numbers of mesh resolution used in the current study compared to previous work, which leads to achievement of much reasonable time simulation and consequently reduces the total computational effort without affecting the final outcome.

  5. Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yapici


    Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.

  6. Hydrodynamics of Highly Viscous Flow past a Compound Particle: Analytical Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhua Zhao


    Full Text Available To investigate the translation of a compound particle in a highly viscous, incompressible fluid, we carry out an analytic study on flow past a fixed spherical compound particle. The spherical object is considered to have a rigid kernel covered with a fluid coating. The fluid within the coating has a different viscosity from that of the surrounding fluid and is immiscible with the surrounding fluid. The inertia effect is negligible for flows both inside the coating and outside the object. Thus, flows are in the Stokes regime. Taking advantage of the symmetry properties, we reduce the problem in two dimensions and derive the explicit formulae of the stream function in the polar coordinates. The no-slip boundary condition for the rigid kernel and the no interfacial mass transfer and force equilibrium conditions at fluid interfaces are considered. Two extreme cases: the uniform flow past a sphere and the uniform flow past a fluid drop, are reviewed. Then, for the fluid coating the spherical object, we derive the stream functions and investigate the flow field by the contour plots of stream functions. Contours of stream functions show circulation within the fluid coating. Additionally, we compare the drag and the terminal velocity of the object with a rigid sphere or a fluid droplet. Moreover, the extended results regarding the analytical solution for a compound particle with a rigid kernel and multiple layers of fluid coating are reported.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With the aim to increase allowable blade loadings and enlarge stable operating range in highly loaded compressor, this work is carried out in order to explore the potential of passive control via slotted bladings in linear cascade configurations under both design and stall conditions. Through an extensive 2D-numerical study, the effects of location, width and slope of slots were analysed and the best configuration was identified. Based on the optimal slot, the 3D aerodynamic performances of cascade were studied and the influence of slotted blading to control endwall flow was investigated. Both 2D and 3D calculations are performed on steady RANS solver with standard k-epsilon turbulence model and low Mach number regime. The total loss coefficient, turning angle and flow visualizations on the blade and end-wall surfaces are adopted to describe the different configurations. The obtained results show, for 2D situation, that a maximum of 28.3% reduction in loss coefficient had been reached and the flow turning was increased with approximately 5°. Concerning 3D flow fields the slots marked their benefit at large incoming flow angles which delays the separation on both end wall and blade suction surface at mid span. However, at design conditions, the slotted blades are not able to control secondary flows near the wall and so, lose their potential.

  8. Synthesis of Fused Pyrimidinone and Quinolone Derivatives in an Automated High-Temperature and High-Pressure Flow Reactor. (United States)

    Tsoung, Jennifer; Bogdan, Andrew R; Kantor, Stanislaw; Wang, Ying; Charaschanya, Manwika; Djuric, Stevan W


    Fused pyrimidinone and quinolone derivatives that are of potential interest to pharmaceutical research were synthesized within minutes in up to 96% yield in an automated Phoenix high-temperature and high-pressure continuous flow reactor. Heterocyclic scaffolds that are either hard to synthesize or require multisteps are readily accessible using a common set of reaction conditions. The use of low-boiling solvents along with the high conversions of these reactions allowed for facile workup and isolation. The methods reported herein are highly amenable for fast and efficient heterocycle synthesis as well as compound scale-ups.

  9. Experimental and Analytic Study on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz


    Core bypass flow has been one of key issues in the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design for securing core thermal margins and achieving target temperatures at the core exit. The bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core occurs through the control element holes and the radial and axial gaps between the graphite blocks for manufacturing and refueling tolerances. These gaps vary with the core life cycles because of the irradiation swelling/shrinkage characteristic of the graphite blocks such as fuel and reflector blocks, which are main components of a core's structure. Thus, the core bypass flow occurs in a complicated multidimensional way. The accurate prediction of this bypass flow and counter-measures to minimize it are thus of major importance in assuring core thermal margins and securing higher core efficiency. Even with this importance, there has not been much effort in quantifying and accurately modeling the effect of the core bypass flow. The main objectives of this project were to generate experimental data for validating the software to be used to calculate the bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core, validate thermofluid analysis tools and their model improvements, and identify and assess measures for reducing the bypass flow. To achieve these objectives, tasks were defined to (1) design and construct experiments to generate validation data for software analysis tools, (2) determine the experimental conditions and define the measurement requirements and techniques, (3) generate and analyze the experimental data, (4) validate and improve the thermofluid analysis tools, and (5) identify measures to control the bypass flow and assess its performance in the experiment.

  10. Spatial connectivity in a highly heterogeneous aquifer: From cores to preferential flow paths (United States)

    Bianchi, M.; Zheng, C.; Wilson, C.; Tick, G.R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Gorelick, S.M.


    This study investigates connectivity in a small portion of the extremely heterogeneous aquifer at the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, Mississippi. A total of 19 fully penetrating soil cores were collected from a rectangular grid of 4 m by 4 m. Detailed grain size analysis was performed on 5 cm segments of each core, yielding 1740 hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates. Three different geostatistical simulation methods were used to generate 3-D conditional realizations of the K field for the sampled block. Particle tracking calculations showed that the fastest particles, as represented by the first 5% to arrive, converge along preferential flow paths and exit the model domain within preferred areas. These 5% fastest flow paths accounted for about 40% of the flow. The distribution of preferential flow paths and particle exit locations is clearly influenced by the occurrence of clusters formed by interconnected cells with K equal to or greater than the 0.9 decile of the data distribution (10% of the volume). The fraction of particle paths within the high-K clusters ranges from 43% to 69%. In variogram-based K fields, some of the fastest paths are through media with lower K values, suggesting that transport connectivity may not require fully connected zones of relatively homogenous K. The high degree of flow and transport connectivity was confirmed by the values of two groups of connectivity indicators. In particular, the ratio between effective and geometric mean K (on average, about 2) and the ratio between the average arrival time and the arrival time of the fastest particles (on average, about 9) are consistent with flow and advective transport behavior characterized by channeling along preferential flow paths. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. A high-throughput method for detection of DNA in chloroplasts using flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Delene J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of DNA in the chloroplasts of some plant species has been shown recently to decline dramatically during leaf development. A high-throughput method of DNA detection in chloroplasts is now needed in order to facilitate the further investigation of this process using large numbers of tissue samples. Results The DNA-binding fluorophores 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI, SYBR Green I (SG, SYTO 42, and SYTO 45 were assessed for their utility in flow cytometric analysis of DNA in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Fluorescence microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR were used to validate flow cytometry data. We found neither DAPI nor SYTO 45 suitable for flow cytometric analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA content, but did find changes in cpDNA content during development by flow cytometry using SG and SYTO 42. The latter dye provided more sensitive detection, and the results were similar to those from the fluorescence microscopic analysis. Differences in SYTO 42 fluorescence were found to correlate with differences in cpDNA content as determined by qPCR using three primer sets widely spaced across the chloroplast genome, suggesting that the whole genome undergoes copy number reduction during development, rather than selective reduction/degradation of subgenomic regions. Conclusion Flow cytometric analysis of chloroplasts stained with SYTO 42 is a high-throughput method suitable for determining changes in cpDNA content during development and for sorting chloroplasts on the basis of DNA content.

  12. Study of high viscous multiphase phase flow in a horizontal pipe (United States)

    Baba, Yahaya D.; Aliyu, Aliyu M.; Archibong, Archibong-Eso; Almabrok, Almabrok A.; Igbafe, A. I.


    Heavy oil accounts for a major portion of the world's total oil reserves. Its production and transportation through pipelines is beset with great challenges due to its highly viscous nature. This paper studies the effects of high viscosity on heavy oil two-phase flow characteristics such as pressure gradient, liquid holdup, slug liquid holdup, slug frequency and slug liquid holdup using an advanced instrumentation (i.e. Electrical Capacitance Tomography). Experiments were conducted in a horizontal flow loop with a pipe internal diameter (ID) of 0.0762 m; larger than most reported in the open literature for heavy oil flow. Mineral oil of 1.0-5.0 Pa.s viscosity range and compressed air were used as the liquid and gas phases respectively. Pressure gradient (measured by means differential pressure transducers) and mean liquid holdup was observed to increase as viscosity of oil is increased. Obtained results also revealed that increase in liquid viscosity has significant effects on flow pattern and slug flow features.

  13. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Quan Xie


    Full Text Available Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  14. Effects of shear on vortex shedding patterns in high Reynolds number flow: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Vortex shedding has been identified as a potential major source of loading on the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Plant Cold Water Pipe (CWP). To gain a better understanding of the vortex shedding phenomena, a series of model tests has been conducted. The results of this investigation are presented. The effects of current shear on vortex shedding patterns in high Reynolds number (R/sub e/) flow around a circular cylinder used to model the OTEC CWP are addressed. Tests were conducted in a wind tunnel on a 56-inch long, 6-inch diameter circular cylinder for various flow and shear conditions. Measurements were conducted to describe the frequencies of the eddies shed from the cylinder and to investigate the fluctuating surface pressure on the cylinder. From these tests it was determined that shedding for high R/sub e/ sheared flow is characterized by the formation of distinct cells of eddies with constant frequency, that pressure fluctuations on the surface of the cylinder are greater for sheared flow than unsheared flow, and that the mean surface pressures are generally independent of the magnitude of shear.

  15. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Bechsgaard, Thor


    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view...... (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter...... vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow anglein the ROI was 86.22◦ ± 6.66◦ with a true flow angle of 90◦. A relative velocity bias of −39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found...

  16. Material Derivative Measurements in High-Speed Flows by Four-Pulse Tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, K.; Scarano, F.


    A tomographic PIV system is introduced for the instantaneous measurement of the material derivative of velocity (VMD). The system is able to operate with very short temporal separation and is therefore suitable for applications in high-speed flows. The method of operation consists of the imaging of

  17. Modeling and experiments on differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, H. J. N.; Koppers, W. R.; van Rooij, G. J.; W. J. Goedheer,; Engeln, R.; D.C. Schram,; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Kleyn, A. W.


    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial

  18. The performance characteristics of lateral flow devices with 2 strains of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (United States)

    Lateral flow devices (LFD) are commercially available and provide a fast, highly specific, on-site test for avian influenza. Because of the low analytic sensitivity of LFD tests at low virus concentrations, targeted sampling of sick and dead birds has been proposed in order to increase detection pr...

  19. Long term high flow heated oxygen treatment in COPD – lung function and physical ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Ulla; Storgaard, Line; Hockey, Hans


    Introduction: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves survival in patients with COPD with resting hypoxemia. Despite this, a progressive loss of lung function and physical ability is expected in COPD. The AIRVO device delivers nasal high flow (NHF) warmed and humidified oxygen-enriched air, 20...

  20. Long-term nasal high flow treatment with oxygen in COPD - exacerbations, admissions and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Ulla; Storgaard, Line; Hockey, Hans


    Introduction: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves survival in patients with COPD with resting hypoxemia. Exacerbations (AECOPD) and hospital admissions are prevalent and have a negative impact on prognosis. The AIRVO device delivers nasal high flow (NHF) heated, humidified oxygenated air, 20...

  1. High-flow paediatric mandibular arteriovenous malformations: case reports and a review of current management. (United States)

    Kaderbhai, J; Breik, O; Heggie, A A; Penington, A J


    High-flow vascular malformations in the paediatric population are potentially life-threatening and are challenging to treat. This paper describes the management of three cases of mandibular arteriovenous malformations and reviews the contemporary management options for these serious lesions. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pressure-flow study analyses in patients treated with high energy thermotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; de Wildt, M. J.; Höfner, K.; Carter, S. S.; Debruyne, F. M.; Tubaro, A.


    We evaluated the urodynamic changes after high energy microwave thermotherapy in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic enlargement. A total of 120 patients was available for analysis with urodynamic investigation and pressure-flow studies before and 6 months after

  3. A high-order 3D spectral difference solver for simulating flows about rotating geometries (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Chunlei


    Fluid flows around rotating geometries are ubiquitous. For example, a spinning ping pong ball can quickly change its trajectory in an air flow; a marine propeller can provide enormous amount of thrust to a ship. It has been a long-time challenge to accurately simulate these flows. In this work, we present a high-order and efficient 3D flow solver based on unstructured spectral difference (SD) method and a novel sliding-mesh method. In the SD method, solution and fluxes are reconstructed using tensor products of 1D polynomials and the equations are solved in differential-form, which leads to high-order accuracy and high efficiency. In the sliding-mesh method, a computational domain is decomposed into non-overlapping subdomains. Each subdomain can enclose a geometry and can rotate relative to its neighbor, resulting in nonconforming sliding interfaces. A curved dynamic mortar approach is designed for communication on these interfaces. In this approach, solutions and fluxes are projected from cell faces to mortars to compute common values which are then projected back to ensures continuity and conservation. Through theoretical analysis and numerical tests, it is shown that this solver is conservative, free-stream preservative, and high-order accurate in both space and time.

  4. Cigarette smoke extract counteracts atheroprotective effects of high laminar flow on endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindy Giebe


    This study shows the activation of major atherosclerotic key parameters by CSEaq. Within this process, high laminar flow is likely to reduce the harmful effects of CSEaq to a certain degree. The identified molecular mechanisms might be useful for development of alternative therapy concepts.

  5. High resolution DNA flow cytometry of boar sperm cells in identification of boars carrying cytogenetic aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob; Christensen, Knud; Larsen, Jørgen K


    The cytogenetic quality of boars used for breeding determines the litter outcome and thus has large economical consequences. Traditionally, quality controls based on the examination of simple karyograms are time consuming and sometimes give uncertain results. As an alternative, the use of high-re......-resolution DNA flow cytometry on DAPI-stained sperm cell nuclei (CV...

  6. Multichannel quench-flow microreactor for high-troughput reaction kinetics monitoring on a chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bula, W.P.; Kristianto, K.; Kristianto, K.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Verboom, Willem; van den Berg, Albert; Reinhoudt, David


    A novel quench-flow microreactor with parallel reaction lines for high-throughput kinetic studies was designed, fabricated, and tested. The parallel organic reactions can be initiated, controlled and chemically quenched on the chip for each reaction line independently. The simultaneous conversion of

  7. Adrenomedullin alleviates pulmonary artery collagen accumulation in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by high blood flow. (United States)

    Pang, Lulu; Qi, Jianguang; Gao, Yang; Jin, Hongfang; Du, Junbao


    Collagen accumulation is one of the important pathologic changes in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Previous research showed that adrenomedullin (ADM) mitigates the development of pulmonary hypertension. The present study explored the role of ADM in the development of pulmonary artery collagen accumulation induced by high pulmonary blood flow, by investigating the effect of ADM [1.5 μg/(kg h)] subcutaneously administered by mini-osmotic pump on pulmonary hemodynamics, pulmonary vascular structure and pulmonary artery collagen accumulation and synthesis in rats with high pulmonary blood flow induced by aortocaval shunting. The results showed that ADM significantly decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and the ratio of right ventricular mass to left ventricular plus septal mass [RV/(LV+SP)], attenuated the muscularization of small pulmonary vessels and relative medial thickness (RMT) of pulmonary arteries in rats with high pulmonary blood flow. Meanwhile, ADM ameliorated pulmonary artery collagen deposition represented by a decrease in lung tissue hydroxyproline, collagens I and III content and pulmonary artery collagens I and III expression, reduced collagen synthesis represented by a decrease in lung tissue procollagens I and III mRNA expression. The results suggest that ADM plays a protective role in the development of pulmonary hypertension induced by high blood flow, by inhibiting pulmonary procollagen synthesis and alleviating pulmonary artery collagen accumulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-throughput tri-colour flow cytometry technique to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in bioassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiendrebeogo, Regis W; Adu, Bright; Singh, Susheel K


    distinction of early ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum from uninfected red blood cells (uRBC) remains a challenge. METHODS: Here, a high-throughput, three-parameter (tri-colour) flow cytometry technique based on mitotracker red dye, the nucleic acid dye coriphosphine O (CPO) and the leucocyte marker CD45...

  9. High resolution FISH on super-stretched flow-sorted plant chromosomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valárik, M.; Bartos, J.; Kovarova, P.; Kubalakova, M.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Dolezel, J.


    A novel high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) strategy, using super-stretched flow-sorted plant chromosomes as targets, is described. The technique that allows longitudinal extension of chromosomes of more than 100 times their original metaphase size is especially attractive for

  10. Optimizing transformations for automated, high throughput analysis of flow cytometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Andrew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a high throughput setting, effective flow cytometry data analysis depends heavily on proper data preprocessing. While usual preprocessing steps of quality assessment, outlier removal, normalization, and gating have received considerable scrutiny from the community, the influence of data transformation on the output of high throughput analysis has been largely overlooked. Flow cytometry measurements can vary over several orders of magnitude, cell populations can have variances that depend on their mean fluorescence intensities, and may exhibit heavily-skewed distributions. Consequently, the choice of data transformation can influence the output of automated gating. An appropriate data transformation aids in data visualization and gating of cell populations across the range of data. Experience shows that the choice of transformation is data specific. Our goal here is to compare the performance of different transformations applied to flow cytometry data in the context of automated gating in a high throughput, fully automated setting. We examine the most common transformations used in flow cytometry, including the generalized hyperbolic arcsine, biexponential, linlog, and generalized Box-Cox, all within the BioConductor flowCore framework that is widely used in high throughput, automated flow cytometry data analysis. All of these transformations have adjustable parameters whose effects upon the data are non-intuitive for most users. By making some modelling assumptions about the transformed data, we develop maximum likelihood criteria to optimize parameter choice for these different transformations. Results We compare the performance of parameter-optimized and default-parameter (in flowCore data transformations on real and simulated data by measuring the variation in the locations of cell populations across samples, discovered via automated gating in both the scatter and fluorescence channels. We find that parameter

  11. Prediction of forces and moments on finned bodies at high angle of attack in transonic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, W. L.


    This report describes a theoretical method for the prediction of fin forces and moments on bodies at high angle of attack in subsonic and transonic flow. The body is assumed to be a circular cylinder with cruciform fins (or wings) of arbitrary planform. The body can have an arbitrary roll (or bank) angle, and each fin can have individual control deflection. The method combines a body vortex flow model and lifting surface theory to predict the normal force distribution over each fin surface. Extensive comparisons are made between theory and experiment for various planform fins. A description of the use of the computer program that implements the method is given.

  12. Flow Field Dynamics in a High-g Ultra-Compact Combustor (United States)


    comparable. The v- shape was hypothesized to result from the shear layer interface between the cavity and core flows. Subsequent analyses by Parks [87...passage below. The oddly- shaped tracks in the upper right of the image were not particles , but rather an emissive flame structure that was unable such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Particle Streak Emission Velocimetry (PSEV), and high-speed video imagery. Furthermore, high-fidelity

  13. A Passenger Flow Risk Forecasting Algorithm for High-Speed Railway Transport Hub Based on Surveillance Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Xie


    Full Text Available Passenger flow risk forecasting is a vital task for safety management in high-speed railway transport hub. In this paper, we considered the passenger flow risk forecasting problem in high-speed railway transport hub. Based on the surveillance sensor networks, a passenger flow risk forecasting algorithm was developed based on spatial correlation. Computational results showed that the proposed forecasting approach was effective and significant for the high-speed railway transport hub.

  14. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei


    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l-1). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l-1 is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  15. Conventional Point-Velocity Records and Surface Velocity Observations for Estimating High Flow Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corato


    Full Text Available Flow velocity measurements using point-velocity meters are normally obtained by sampling one, two or three velocity points per vertical profile. During high floods their use is inhibited due to the difficulty of sampling in lower portions of the flow area. Nevertheless, the application of standard methods allows estimation of a parameter, α, which depends on the energy slope and the Manning roughness coefficient. During high floods, monitoring of velocity can be accomplished by sampling the maximum velocity, umax, only, which can be used to estimate the mean flow velocity, um, by applying the linear entropy relationship depending on the parameter, M, estimated on the basis of historical observed pairs (um, umax. In this context, this work attempts to analyze if a correlation between α and M holds, so that the monitoring for high flows can be addressed by exploiting information from standard methods. A methodology is proposed to estimate M from α, by coupling the “historical” information derived by standard methods, and “new” information from the measurement of umax surmised at later times. Results from four gauged river sites of different hydraulic and geometric characteristics have shown the robust estimation of M based on α.

  16. A Nonlinear k-ε Turbulence Model Applicable to High Pressure Gradient and Large Curvature Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyao Gu


    Full Text Available Most of the RANS turbulence models solve the Reynolds stress by linear hypothesis with isotropic model. They can not capture all kinds of vortexes in the turbomachineries. In this paper, an improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is proposed, which is modified from the RNG k-ε turbulence model and Wilcox's k-ω turbulence model. The Reynolds stresses are solved by nonlinear methods. The nonlinear k-ε turbulence model can calculate the near wall region without the use of wall functions. The improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is used to simulate the flow field in a curved rectangular duct. The results based on the improved nonlinear k-ε turbulence model agree well with the experimental results. The calculation results prove that the nonlinear k-ε turbulence model is available for high pressure gradient flows and large curvature flows, and it can be used to capture complex vortexes in a turbomachinery.

  17. Two-step protocol for preparing adherent cells for high-throughput flow cytometry. (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke


    We have developed a simple, cost-effective, and labor-efficient two-step protocol for preparing adherent cells for high-throughput flow cytometry. Adherent cells were grown on microplates, detached with 2.9 mM EDTA (pH 6.14) added directly to wells containing cell culture medium, stained, and then analyzed on a flow cytometer. This protocol bypasses washing, centrifugation, and transfer between plates, reducing the cell loss that occurs in standard multistep protocols. The method has been validated using six adherent cell lines, four commercially available dyes, and two antibodies; the results have been confirmed using two different flow cytometry (FC) instruments. Our approach has been used for estimating apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, and autophagy in response to exposure to pure compounds as well as plant and bacterial extracts.

  18. Secondary flows in the cooling channels of the high-performance light-water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurien, E.; Wintterle, Th. [Stuttgart Univ., Institute for Nuclear Technolgy and Energy Systems (IKE) (Germany)


    The new design of a High-Performance Light-Water Reactor (HPLWR) involves a three-pass core with an evaporator region, where the compressed water is heated above the pseudo-critical temperature, and two superheater regions. Due to the strong dependency of the supercritical water density on the temperature significant mass transfer between neighboring cooling channels is expected if the temperature is unevenly distributed across the fuel element. An inter-channel flow is then superimposed to the secondary flow vortices induced by the non-isotropy of turbulence. In order to gain insight into the resulting flow patterns as well as into temperature and density distributions within the various subchannels of the fuel element CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations for the 1/8 fuel element are performed. For simplicity adiabatic boundary conditions at the moderator box and the fuel element box are assumed. Our investigation confirms earlier results obtained by subchannel analysis that the axial mass flux is significantly reduced in the corner subchannel of this fuel element resulting in a net mass flux towards the neighboring subchannels. Our results provide a first estimation of the magnitude of the secondary flows in the pseudo-critical region of a supercritical light-water reactor. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that CFD is an efficient tool for investigations of flow patterns within nuclear reactor fuel elements. (authors)

  19. High-throughput DNA Stretching in Continuous Elongational Flow for Genome Sequence Scanning (United States)

    Meltzer, Robert; Griffis, Joshua; Safranovitch, Mikhail; Malkin, Gene; Cameron, Douglas


    Genome Sequence Scanning (GSS) identifies and compares bacterial genomes by stretching long (60 - 300 kb) genomic DNA restriction fragments and scanning for site-selective fluorescent probes. Practical application of GSS requires: 1) high throughput data acquisition, 2) efficient DNA stretching, 3) reproducible DNA elasticity in the presence of intercalating fluorescent dyes. GSS utilizes a pseudo-two-dimensional micron-scale funnel with convergent sheathing flows to stretch one molecule at a time in continuous elongational flow and center the DNA stream over diffraction-limited confocal laser excitation spots. Funnel geometry has been optimized to maximize throughput of DNA within the desired length range (>10 million nucleobases per second). A constant-strain detection channel maximizes stretching efficiency by applying a constant parabolic tension profile to each molecule, minimizing relaxation and flow-induced tumbling. The effect of intercalator on DNA elasticity is experimentally controlled by reacting one molecule of DNA at a time in convergent sheathing flows of the dye. Derivations of accelerating flow and non-linear tension distribution permit alignment of detected fluorescence traces to theoretical templates derived from whole-genome sequence data.

  20. A high-speed photographic system for flow visualization in a steam turbine (United States)

    Barna, G. J.


    A photographic system was designed to visualize the moisture flow in a steam turbine. Good performance of the system was verified using dry turbine mockups in which an aerosol spray simulated, in a rough way, the moisture flow in the turbine. Borescopes and fiber-optic light tubes were selected as the general instrumentation approach. High speed motion-picture photographs of the liquid flow over the stator blade surfaces were taken using stroboscopic lighting. Good visualization of the liquid flow was obtained. Still photographs of drops in flight were made using short duration flash sources. Drops with diameters as small as 30 micrometers (0.0012 in.) could be resolved. In addition, motion pictures of a spray of water simulating the spray off the rotor blades and shrouds were taken at normal framing rates. Specially constructed light tubes containing small tungsten-halogen lamps were used. Sixteen millimeter photography was used in all cases. Two potential problems resulting from the two-phase turbine flow (attenuation and scattering of light by the fog present and liquid accumulation on the borescope mirrors) were taken into account in the photographic system design but not evaluated experimentally.

  1. An experimental study of critical heat flux of flow boiling in minichannels at high reduced pressure (United States)

    Belyaev, A. V.; Dedov, A. V.; Varava, A. N.; Komov, A. T.


    This paper presents an experimental setup and experimental data for critical heat flux. The hydraulic loop of the experimental setup allows it to maintain stable flow parameters at the inlet of the test section at pressures up to 2.7 MPa and temperatures up to 200 °C. Experiments of hydrodynamics and heat transfer were performed for R113 and RC318 in two vertical channels with diameters of 1.36 and 0.95 mm and lengths of 200 and 100 mm, respectively. The inlet pressure-to-critical pressure ratio (reduced pressure) was pr = p/pcr = 0.15 ÷ 0.9, the mass flux ranges were between 700 and 4800 kg/(m2s), and inlet temperature varied from 30 to 180 °C. The primary regimes were obtained for conditions that varied from highly subcooled flows to saturated flows. For each regime with fixed parameters, the maximum possible heating power value was applied, with the maximum limited by the maximum output of the power supply, the onset of dryout, or wall temperatures exceeding 350 °C. The influence of flow conditions (i.e., mass flow rate, pressure, inlet temperature, and the channel diameter) on the critical heat flux is presented.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharge for High Speed Flow Control (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Ramakrishnan; Anandhanarayanan, Karupannasamy; Krishnamurthy, Rajah; Chakraborty, Debasis


    Numerical simulation of hypersonic flow control using plasma discharge technique is carried out using an in-house developed code CERANS-TCNEQ. The study is aimed at demonstrating a proof of concept futuristic aerodynamic flow control device. The Kashiwa Hypersonic and High Temperature wind tunnel study of plasma discharge over a flat plate had been considered for numerical investigation. The 7-species, 18-reaction thermo-chemical non-equilibrium, two-temperature air-chemistry model due Park is used to model the weakly ionized flow. Plasma discharge is modeled as Joule heating source terms in both the translation-rotational and vibrational energy equations. Comparison of results for plasma discharge at Mach 7 over a flat plate with the reference data reveals that the present study is able to mimic the exact physics of complex flow such as formation of oblique shock wave ahead of the plasma discharge region with a resultant rise in surface pressure and vibrational temperature up to 7000 K demonstrating the use of non-equilibrium plasma discharge for flow control at hypersonic speeds.

  3. Recognition and measurement gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical concentric annulus at high pressures (United States)

    Li, Hao; Sun, Baojiang; Guo, Yanli; Gao, Yonghai; Zhao, Xinxin


    The air-water flow characteristics under pressure in the range of 1-6 MPa in a vertical annulus were evaluated in this report. Time-resolved bubble rising velocity and void fraction were also measured using an electrical void fraction meter. The results showed that the pressure has remarkable effect on the density, bubble size and rise velocity of the gas. Four flow patterns (bubble, cap-bubble, cap-slug, and churn) were also observed instead of Taylor bubble at high pressure. Additionally, the transition process from bubble to cap-bubble was investigated at atmospheric and high pressures, respectively. The results revealed that the flow regime transition criteria for atmospheric pressure do not work at high pressure, hence a new flow regime transition model for annular flow channel geometry was developed to predict the flow regime transition, which thereafter exhibited high accuracy at high pressure condition.

  4. The roles of testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4 in male fertility-priapism and sexual behavior defects in TR4 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Bo-Ying


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reproductive efforts require the establishment of a situation favorable for reproduction that requires integration of both behavior and internal physiological events. TR4 nuclear receptor is known to be involved in male fertility via controlling spermatogenesis, yet its roles in regulating other biological events related to reproduction have not been completely revealed. Methods Male TR4 knockout (TR4-/- and wild type mice were used for the sexual behavior and penile dysfunction studies. Mice were sacrificed for histological examination and corresponding genes profiles were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Reporter gene assays were performed. Results We describe an unexpected finding of priapism in TR4-/- mice. As a transcriptional factor, we demonstrated that TR4 transcriptionally modulates a key enzyme regulating penis erection and neuronal nitric oxide synthese NOS (nNOS. Thereby, elimination of TR4 results in nNOS reduction in both mRNA and protein levels, consequently may lead to erectile dysfunction. In addition, male TR4-/- mice display defects in sexual and social behavior, with increased fear or anxiety, as well as reduced mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. Reduction of ER alpha, ER beta, and oxytocin in the hypothalamus may contribute to defects in sexual behavior and stress response. Conclusions Together, these results provide in vivo evidence of important TR4 roles in penile physiology, as well as in male sexual behavior. In conjunction with previous finding, TR4 represents a key factor that controls male fertility via regulating behavior and internal physiological events.

  5. High gene flow across large geographic scales reduces extinction risk for a highly specialised coral feeding butterflyfish. (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca J; Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S; Bay, Line K


    The vulnerability of ecologically specialised species to environmental fluctuations has been well documented. However, population genetic structure can influence vulnerability to environmental change and recent studies have indicated that specialised species may have lower genetic diversity and greater population structuring compared to their generalist counterparts. To examine whether there were differences in population genetic structure between a dietary specialist (Chaetodon trifascialis) and a dietary generalist (Chaetodon lunulatus) we compared the demographic history and levels of gene flow of two related coral-feeding butterflyfishes. Using allele frequencies of ≥11 microsatellite loci and >350 bases of mitochondrial control region sequence our analyses of C. trifascialis and C. lunulatus from five locations across the Pacific Ocean revealed contrasting demographic histories and levels of genetic structure. Heterozygosity excess tests, neutrality tests and mismatch distributions were all highly significant in the dietary specialist C. trifascialis (all P < 0.01), suggesting genetic bottlenecks have occurred in all locations. In contrast, we found little evidence of genetic bottlenecks for the dietary generalist C. lunulatus. High gene flow and low genetic structuring was detected among locations for C. trifascialis (amova: R(ST) = 0.0027, P = 0.371; Φ(ST) = 0.068, P < 0.0001). Contrary to our expectations, a greater level of genetic structuring between locations was detected for C. lunulatus (amova: R(ST) = 0.0277, Φ(ST) = 0.166, both P < 0.0001). These results suggest that dietary specialisation may affect demographic history through reductions in population size following resource declines, without affecting population structure through reductions in gene flow in the same way that habitat specialisation appears to. Although C. trifascialis is highly vulnerable to coral loss, the high gene flow detected here suggests populations will be able to recover

  6. Repair of a high-flow iliac arteriovenous fistula using a thoracic endograft. (United States)

    Cronin, Brett; Kane, Justin; Lee, William; Shriki, Jabi; Weaver, Fred A


    Open surgical repair of iliac arteriovenous fistulas is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, making endovascular repair an attractive alternative. This report describes a 39-year-old man who was admitted with two-pillow orthopnea, edema, and fatigue. He had sustained a gunshot wound to the pelvis 13 years previously. Six years after the gunshot wound, he was diagnosed with cardiomegaly and high-output congestive heart failure. A magnetic resonance angiography documented a large pelvic arteriovenous fistula. A diagnostic contrast angiogram confirmed a high-flow fistula between the left distal main internal iliac artery and left common iliac vein. A Gore TAG thoracic endoprosthesis (W. L. Gore and Assoc, Flagstaff, Ariz) was used to repair this large, high-flow internal iliac artery-common iliac vein arteriovenous fistula.

  7. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.


    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  8. Ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of monoamines: peak-splitting at high flow rates. (United States)

    Van Schoors, Jolien; Brouwer, Hendrik-Jan; Maes, Katrien; Michotte, Yvette; Van Eeckhaut, Ann


    The use of ion-pair ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrochemical detection (ECD) is of great interest for the fast and sensitive determination of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in microdialysis samples. However, when applying high flow rates in ion-pair UHPLC, other peaks than the initial compound peaks appear on the chromatogram. This peak-splitting phenomenon is caused by disturbed ion-pair retention mechanisms. The influence of several chromatographic parameters is investigated. Peak-splitting is delayed to higher flow rates when increasing the concentration of ion-pair reagent or buffering agent in the mobile phase, when decreasing the percentage of organic modifier in the mobile phase, when applying a stationary phase with a smaller amount of packing material or when increasing the separation temperature. One or a combination of these conditions can be applied to analyze the monoamine neurotransmitters using ion-pair UHPLC-ECD at high flow rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bonneville Second Powerhouse Tailrace and High Flow Outfall: ADCP and drogue release field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.


    The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating.

  10. High-beta equilibria in tokamaks with pressure anisotropy and toroidal flow (United States)

    Layden, B.; Hole, M. J.; Ridden-Harper, R.


    We extend previous analytical calculations of 2D high-β equilibria in order-unity aspect ratio tokamaks with toroidal flow to include pressure anisotropy, assuming guiding-center theory for a bi-Maxwellian plasma and the ideal MHD Ohm's law. Equilibrium solutions are obtained in the core region (which fills most of the plasma volume) and the boundary layer. We find that pressure anisotropy with p∥>p⊥ ( p∥diamagnetism relative to the isotropic case whenever an equilibrium solution exists. Sufficiently fast toroidal flows ( Ω>Ωmin ) were previously found to suppress the field-free region (diamagnetic hole) that exists in static isotropic high-β equilibria. We find that all equilibrium solutions with pressure anisotropy suppress the diamagnetic hole. For the static case with a volume-averaged toroidal beta of 70%, plasmas with max (p∥/p⊥)>α1=1.07 have equilibrium solutions. We find that α1 decreases with increasing toroidal flow speed, and above the flow threshold Ωmin we find α1=1 , so that all p∥>p⊥ plasmas have equilibrium solutions. On the other hand, for p∥diamagnetic hole in the isotropic case), equilibrium solutions exist for α2p⊥ , while the converse is true for p∥

  11. Impact of mountain permafrost on flow path and runoff response in a high alpine catchment (United States)

    Rogger, M.; Chirico, G. B.; Hausmann, H.; Krainer, K.; Brückl, E.; Stadler, P.; Blöschl, G.


    Permafrost in high alpine catchments is expected to disappear in future warmer climates, but the hydrological impact of such changes is poorly understood. This paper investigates the flow paths and the hydrological response in a 5 km2 high alpine catchment in the Ötztal Alps, Austria, and their changes resulting from a loss of permafrost. Spatial permafrost distribution, depth to the permafrost table, and depth to the bedrock were mapped by geophysical methods. Catchment runoff and meteorological variables were monitored from June 2008 to December 2011. These data were used along with field experience to infer conceptual schemes of the dominant flow paths in four types of hillslopes that differ in terms of their unconsolidated sediment characteristics and the presence of permafrost. The four types are: talus fans, rock glaciers, Little Ice Age (LIA) till, and pre-LIA till. Permafrost tends to occur in the first three types, but is absent from pre-LIA till. Based on these flow path concepts, runoff was simulated for present conditions and for future conditions when permafrost has completely disappeared. The simulations indicate that complete disappearance of permafrost will reduce flood peaks by up to 17% and increase runoff during recession by up to 19%. It is argued that change modeling needs to account for flow path types and their changes based on geophysical surveys and field investigations.

  12. High-resolution compact shear stress sensor for direct measurement of skin friction in fluid flow (United States)

    Xu, Muchen; Kim, Chang-Jin ``Cj''


    The high-resolution measurement of skin friction in complex flows has long been of great interest but also a challenge in fluid mechanics. Compared with indirect measurement methods (e.g., laser Doppler velocimetry), direct measurement methods (e.g., floating element) do not involve any analogy and assumption but tend to suffer from instrumentation challenges, such as low sensing resolution or misalignments. Recently, silicon micromachined floating plates showed good resolution and perfect alignment but were too small for general purposes and too fragile to attach other surface samples repeatedly. In this work, we report a skin friction sensor consisting of a monolithic floating plate and a high-resolution optical encoder to measure its displacement. The key for the high resolution is in the suspension beams, which are very narrow (e.g., 0.25 mm) to sense small frictions along the flow direction but thick (e.g., 5 mm) to be robust along all other directions. This compact, low profile, and complete sensor is easy to use and allows repeated attachment and detachment of surface samples. The sheer-stress sensor has been tested in water tunnel and towing tank at different flow conditions, showing high sensing resolution for skin friction measurement. Supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) (No. 1336966) and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (No. HR0011-15-2-0021).

  13. Validation and application of an high-order spectral difference method for flow induced noise simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo


    The main goal of this paper is to develop an efficient numerical algorithm to compute the radiated far field noise provided by an unsteady flow field from bodies in arbitrary motion. The method computes a turbulent flow field in the near fields using a high-order spectral difference method coupled with large-eddy simulation approach. The unsteady equations are solved by advancing in time using a second-order backward difference formulae scheme. The nonlinear algebraic system arising from the time discretization is solved with the nonlinear lowerupper symmetric GaussSeidel algorithm. In the second step, the method calculates the far field sound pressure based on the acoustic source information provided by the first step simulation. The method is based on the Ffowcs WilliamsHawkings approach, which provides noise contributions for monopole, dipole and quadrupole acoustic sources. This paper will focus on the validation and assessment of this hybrid approach using different test cases. The test cases used are: a laminar flow over a two-dimensional (2D) open cavity at Re = 1.5 × 10 3 and M = 0.15 and a laminar flow past a 2D square cylinder at Re = 200 and M = 0.5. In order to show the application of the numerical method in industrial cases and to assess its capability for sound field simulation, a three-dimensional turbulent flow in a muffler at Re = 4.665 × 10 4 and M = 0.05 has been chosen as a third test case. The flow results show good agreement with numerical and experimental reference solutions. Comparison of the computed noise results with those of reference solutions also shows that the numerical approach predicts noise accurately. © 2011 IMACS.

  14. Drag reduction using wrinkled surfaces in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flows (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth H.


    Inspired by the design of the ribbed structure of shark skin, passive drag reduction methods using stream-wise riblet surfaces have previously been developed and tested over a wide range of flow conditions. Such textures aligned in the flow direction have been shown to be able to reduce skin friction drag by 4%-8%. Here, we explore the effects of periodic sinusoidal riblet surfaces aligned in the flow direction (also known as a "wrinkled" texture) on the evolution of a laminar boundary layer flow. Using numerical analysis with the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics solver OpenFOAM, boundary layer flow over sinusoidal wrinkled plates with a range of wavelength to plate length ratios ( λ / L ), aspect ratios ( 2 A / λ ), and inlet velocities are examined. It is shown that in the laminar boundary layer regime, the riblets are able to retard the viscous flow inside the grooves creating a cushion of stagnant fluid that the high-speed fluid above can partially slide over, thus reducing the shear stress inside the grooves and the total integrated viscous drag force on the plate. Additionally, we explore how the boundary layer thickness, local average shear stress distribution, and total drag force on the wrinkled plate vary with the aspect ratio of the riblets as well as the length of the plate. We show that riblets with an aspect ratio of close to unity lead to the highest reduction in the total drag, and that because of the interplay between the local stress distribution on the plate and stream-wise evolution of the boundary layer the plate has to exceed a critical length to give a net decrease in the total drag force.

  15. Evaporation of bi-component droplets in a heated, highly turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, F.; Bazile, R. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, Toulouse (France)


    This work aims to understand the phenomena that occur in a combustion chamber where multi-component fuel droplets are injected. Many evaporation models exist but the influence of turbulence on spray vaporization is not yet well understood. This study gives a useful database to improve these models. The objective of the work is to measure the dispersion and the evaporation of bi-component (octane/3-pentanone) droplets and the resulting vapor mixing in a well-known, heated, highly turbulent channel flow. The carrier flow shows high turbulence levels, flat profiles for the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuations. The injected droplets have a large variety of behaviors due to the large polydispersion and to the turbulence. The evolution of 3-pentanone liquid concentration, mass flux, and droplet clusters are described. Mean concentration, fluctuations of concentration, and mixing of the vapor phase are characterized. (orig.)

  16. High-pressure plastic scintillation detector for measuring radiogenic gases in flow systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schell, W R; Yoon, S R; Tobin, M J


    Radioactive gases are emitted into the atmosphere from nuclear electric power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, from hospitals discarding xenon used in diagnostic medicine, as well as from nuclear weapons tests. A high-pressure plastic scintillation detector was constructed to measure atmospheric levels of such radioactive gases by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electron decays. Operational tests and calibrations were made that permit integration of the flow detectors into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification system (GASP). The equipment developed can be used for measuring fission gases released from nuclear reactor sources and/or as part of monitoring equipment for enforcing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The detector is being used routinely for in-line gas separation efficiency measurements, at the elevated operational pressures used for the high-pressure swing analysis system (2070 kPa) and at flow rates of 5-15 l/min . This paper presents the design features, opera...

  17. Feeding an infant with high arched palate by high flow rate bottle nipple. (United States)

    Eren, Abdulkadir; Bilgin, Huseyin; Kara, Semra


    For infants with high arched palate, feeding is one of the most immediate challenges faced by parents and caretakers. General suggestions for feeding in infants with cleft palate may be adapted to infants with high arched palate. These include oral feeding facilitation techniques and special feeding tools. Here we present a newborn with a high arched palate and serious feeding problems who was fed easily by a large size and a large hole nipple, ordinarily used for infants older than 6 months, instead of specialized feeding equipment.

  18. Titer plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors for high throughput applications: fabrication and testing (United States)

    Sang-Won Park, Daniel; Chen, Pin-Chuan; You, Byoung Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Datta, Proyag; Desta, Yohannes; Soper, Steven A.; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Murphy, Michael C.


    A high throughput, multi-well (96) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform, based on a continuous flow (CF) mode of operation, was developed. Each CFPCR device was confined to a footprint of 8 × 8 mm2, matching the footprint of a well on a standard micro-titer plate. While several CFPCR devices have been demonstrated, this is the first example of a high-throughput multi-well continuous flow thermal reactor configuration. Verification of the feasibility of the multi-well CFPCR device was carried out at each stage of development from manufacturing to demonstrating sample amplification. The multi-well CFPCR devices were fabricated by micro-replication in polymers, polycarbonate to accommodate the peak temperatures during thermal cycling in this case, using double-sided hot embossing. One side of the substrate contained the thermal reactors and the opposite side was patterned with structures to enhance thermal isolation of the closely packed constant temperature zones. A 99 bp target from a λ-DNA template was successfully amplified in a prototype multi-well CFPCR device with a total reaction time as low as ~5 min at a flow velocity of 3 mm s-1 (15.3 s cycle-1) and a relatively low amplification efficiency compared to a bench-top thermal cycler for a 20-cycle device; reducing the flow velocity to 1 mm s-1 (46.2 s cycle-1) gave a seven-fold improvement in amplification efficiency. Amplification efficiencies increased at all flow velocities for 25-cycle devices with the same configuration.

  19. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: II. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Staffelbach, G; Vermorel, O; Duchaine, F; Boussuge, J-F [Computational Fluid Dynamics Team, CERFACS, Toulouse, 31057 (France); Poinsot, T [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse, 31400 (France)], E-mail:


    Present regulations in terms of pollutant emissions, noise and economical constraints, require new approaches and designs in the fields of energy supply and transportation. It is now well established that the next breakthrough will come from a better understanding of unsteady flow effects and by considering the entire system and not only isolated components. However, these aspects are still not well taken into account by the numerical approaches or understood whatever the design stage considered. The main challenge is essentially due to the computational requirements inferred by such complex systems if it is to be simulated by use of supercomputers. This paper shows how new challenges can be addressed by using parallel computing platforms for distinct elements of a more complex systems as encountered in aeronautical applications. Based on numerical simulations performed with modern aerodynamic and reactive flow solvers, this work underlines the interest of high-performance computing for solving flow in complex industrial configurations such as aircrafts, combustion chambers and turbomachines. Performance indicators related to parallel computing efficiency are presented, showing that establishing fair criterions is a difficult task for complex industrial applications. Examples of numerical simulations performed in industrial systems are also described with a particular interest for the computational time and the potential design improvements obtained with high-fidelity and multi-physics computing methods. These simulations use either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods or large eddy simulation and deal with turbulent unsteady flows, such as coupled flow phenomena (thermo-acoustic instabilities, buffet, etc). Some examples of the difficulties with grid generation and data analysis are also presented when dealing with these complex industrial applications.

  20. Setup of an experimental device for high-speed debris flows generating 2D impulse waves


    Bateman Pinzón, Allen; Bregoli, Francesco; Medina Iglesias, Vicente César de; Rast, Manuel; Bentz, Clara


    Landslides and debris flows falling into reservoirs, natural lakes, fjords or seas can generate impulse waves, which can be assimilated to tsunami-water waves. Such wave’s behavior can be highly destructive regarding dams and other structures and infrastructures as well as people living along shorelines. Destructive observed past events, such Vajont Dam in Italy (1963) or Lituya Bay in Alaska (1958), are not enough to describe and finally properly prevent the phenomenon. Experimental studies ...

  1. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.


    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  2. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees


    Martínez Castroviejo, Ricardo


    The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees). Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in di...

  3. Robust simulations of viscoelastic flows at high Weissenberg numbers with the streamfunction/log-conformation formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    A new streamfunction/log-conformation formulation of incompressible viscoelastic flows is presented. The log-conformation representation guaranties the positive-definiteness of the conformation tensor and obviates the high Weissenberg number problem. The streamfunction is defined as a vector...... data from the literature for Weissenberg number 3 and below. Finally, the simulations at higher Weissenberg numbers 5 and 10 reveal a structural mechanism that sustains quasi-periodic elastic instabilities arising at the upstream corner of the moving lid....

  4. High-flow oxygen for treatment of cluster headache: a randomized trial. (United States)

    Cohen, Anna S; Burns, Brian; Goadsby, Peter J


    Cluster headache is an excruciatingly painful primary headache syndrome, with attacks of unilateral pain and cranial autonomic symptoms. The current licensed treatment for acute attacks is subcutaneous sumatriptan. To ascertain whether high-flow inhaled oxygen was superior to placebo in the acute treatment of cluster headache. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 109 adults (aged 18-70 years) with cluster headache as defined by the International Headache Society. Patients treated 4 headache episodes with high-flow inhaled oxygen or placebo, alternately. Patients were randomized to the order in which they received the active treatment or placebo. Patients were recruited and followed up between 2002 and 2007 at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, England. Inhaled oxygen at 100%, 12 L/min, delivered by face mask, for 15 minutes at the start of an attack of cluster headache or high-flow air placebo delivered alternately for 4 attacks. The primary end point was to render the patient pain free, or in the absence of a diary to have adequate relief, at 15 minutes. Secondary end points included rendering the patient pain free at 30 minutes, reduction in pain up to 60 minutes, need for rescue medication 15 minutes after treatment, overall response to the treatment and overall functional disability, and effect on associated symptoms. Fifty-seven patients with episodic cluster headache and 19 with chronic cluster headache were available for the analysis. For the primary end point the difference between oxygen, 78% (95% confidence interval, 71%-85% for 150 attacks) and air, 20% (95% confidence interval, 14%-26%; for 148 attacks) was significant (Wald test, chi(5)(2) = 66.7, P Treatment of patients with cluster headache at symptom onset using inhaled high-flow oxygen compared with placebo was more likely to result in being pain-free at 15 minutes. Identifier: ISRCTN94092997.

  5. F225 Numerical simulation of separated flow around a NACA0012 airfoil at high angle of attack


    手塚, 亜聖; Asei, Tezuka; 東大工; Dept. of Aero. & Astro., School of Eng., University of Tokyo


    Low frequency oscillation is observed in the flow around a NACA0012 airfoil at high angle of attack when the angle is close to the stalling angle. In the previous experimental study of flow visualization, separated flow and attached flow is alternately observed at the leading edge of the airfoil. In this study, the two-dimensional laminar flow around a NACA0012 airfoil is numerically calculated. The Reynolds number based on the chord length and freestream velocity is 1.3x10^5. It was observed...

  6. Hypersonic engine component experiments in high heat flux, supersonic flow environment (United States)

    Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.


    A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Even though progress has been made in the computational understanding of fluid dynamics and the physics/chemistry of high speed flight, there is also a need for experimental facilities capable of providing a high heat flux environment for testing component concepts and verifying/calibrating these analyses. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to fulfill this need. This 'Hot Gas Facility' is capable of providing heat fluxes up to 450 w/sq cm on flat surfaces and up to 5,000 w/sq cm at the leading edge stagnation point of a strut in a supersonic flow stream. Gas temperatures up to 3050 K can also be attained. Two recent experimental programs conducted in this facility are discussed. The objective of the first experiment is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Macrophotographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight. The objective of the second experiment is to assess the capability of cooling a porous surface exposed to a high temperature, high velocity flow environment and to provide a heat transfer data base for a design procedure. Experimental results from transpiration cooled surfaces in a supersonic flow environment are presented.

  7. Humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen in bronchiolitis reduces need for invasive ventilation but not intensive care admission. (United States)

    Goh, Chong Tien; Kirby, Lynette J; Schell, David N; Egan, Jonathan R


    To describe the changes to paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission patterns and ventilation requirements for children with bronchiolitis following the introduction of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen outside the PICU. Retrospective study comparing patients high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use (year 2008) to those immediately following the introduction of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use (year 2011) and those following further consolidation of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use outside the PICU (year 2013). Humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen use up to 1 L/kg/min in the hospital did not reduce PICU admission. Intubation rates were reduced from 22.2% in 2008 to 7.8% in 2013. There was a non-significant trend towards decreased length of stay in the PICU while hospital length of stay showed a significant decrease following the introduction of humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen. Age high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. Humidified high-flow nasal cannula oxygen utilised outside of the PICU in our institution for children with bronchiolitis did not reduce admission rates or length of stay to the PICU but was associated with a decreasing need for invasive ventilation and reduced hospital length of stay. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Evaluation of Computational Method of High Reynolds Number Slurry Flow for Caverns Backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The abandonment of salt caverns used for brining or product storage poses a significant environmental and economic risk. Risk mitigation can in part be address ed by the process of backfilling which can improve the cavern geomechanical stability and reduce the risk o f fluid loss to the environment. This study evaluate s a currently available computational tool , Barracuda, to simulate such process es as slurry flow at high Reynolds number with high particle loading . Using Barracuda software, a parametric sequence of simu lations evaluated slurry flow at Re ynolds number up to 15000 and loading up to 25%. Li mitations come into the long time required to run these simulation s due in particular to the mesh size requirement at the jet nozzle. This study has found that slurry - jet width and centerline velocities are functions of Re ynold s number and volume fractio n The solid phase was found to spread less than the water - phase with a spreading rate smaller than 1 , dependent on the volume fraction. Particle size distribution does seem to have a large influence on the jet flow development. This study constitutes a first step to understand the behavior of highly loaded slurries and their ultimate application to cavern backfilling.

  9. A SERS-based lateral flow assay biosensor for highly sensitive detection of HIV-1 DNA. (United States)

    Fu, Xiuli; Cheng, Ziyi; Yu, Jimin; Choo, Priscilla; Chen, Lingxin; Choo, Jaebum


    User-friendly lateral flow (LF) strips have been extensively used for point-of-care (POC) self-diagnostics, but they have some limitations in their detection sensitivity and quantitative analysis because they only identify the high cut-off value of a biomarker by utilizing color changes that are detected with the naked eye. To resolve these problems associated with LF strips, we developed a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based LF assay for the quantitative analysis of a specific biomarker in the low concentration range. Herein, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA was chosen as the specific biomarker. Raman reporter-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were employed as SERS nano tags for targeting and detecting the HIV-1 DNA marker, as opposed to using bare AuNPs in LF strips. It was possible to quantitatively analyze HIV-1 DNA with high sensitivity by monitoring the characteristic Raman peak intensity of the DNA-conjugated AuNPs. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of our SERS-based lateral flow assay was 0.24 pg/mL, which was at least 1000 times more sensitive compared to colorimetric or fluorescent detection methods. These results demonstrate the potential feasibility of the proposed SERS-based lateral flow assay to quantitatively detect a broad range of genetic diseases with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fully Integrated, Miniature, High-Frequency Flow Probe Utilizing MEMS Leadless SOI Technology (United States)

    Ned, Alex; Kurtz, Anthony; Shang, Tonghuo; Goodman, Scott; Giemette. Gera (d)


    This work focused on developing, fabricating, and fully calibrating a flowangle probe for aeronautics research by utilizing the latest microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), leadless silicon on insulator (SOI) sensor technology. While the concept of angle probes is not new, traditional devices had been relatively large due to fabrication constraints; often too large to resolve flow structures necessary for modern aeropropulsion measurements such as inlet flow distortions and vortices, secondary flows, etc. Mea surements of this kind demanded a new approach to probe design to achieve sizes on the order of 0.1 in. (.3 mm) diameter or smaller, and capable of meeting demanding requirements for accuracy and ruggedness. This approach invoked the use of stateof- the-art processing techniques to install SOI sensor chips directly onto the probe body, thus eliminating redundancy in sensor packaging and probe installation that have historically forced larger probe size. This also facilitated a better thermal match between the chip and its mount, improving stability and accuracy. Further, the leadless sensor technology with which the SOI sensing element is fabricated allows direct mounting and electrical interconnecting of the sensor to the probe body. This leadless technology allowed a rugged wire-out approach that is performed at the sensor length scale, thus achieving substantial sensor size reductions. The technology is inherently capable of high-frequency and high-accuracy performance in high temperatures and harsh environments.

  11. Simulation of flow around a slender body at high angles of attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obeid Osama


    Full Text Available LES of the flow around an ogive-cylinder body at high angles of attack were carried out to investigate the possibility of the development of asymmetric wake-vortex without the introduction of artificial perturbations. The study investigated the effect of grid resolution and scheme bias on the solution. The numerical solution was found to be sensitive to the bias in the numerical scheme. The simulation was carried for angles of attack α = 30°, 40°, 50°, 55°, and 60°. The simulation at α = 30° − 40° produced symmetric wake-vortex. At α = 50°, the wake-vortex is also symmetric but with vortex separation. At α = 60°, the wake-vortex becomes asymmetric. At 60°, the wake-vortex is highly asymmetric with vortex separation and breakdown. It was concluded that asymmetric flow around slender bodies at high angles of attack can be simulated in the absence geometrical or flow perturbations.

  12. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. Global-local approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi


    In this paper, we combine concepts of the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) and mode decomposition methods to construct a robust global-local approach for model reduction of flows in high-contrast porous media. This is achieved by implementing Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) techniques on a coarse grid computed using GMsFEM. The resulting reduced-order approach enables a significant reduction in the flow problem size while accurately capturing the behavior of fully-resolved solutions. We consider a variety of high-contrast coefficients and present the corresponding numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. This paper is a continuation of our work presented in Ghommem et al. (2013) [1] where we examine the applicability of POD and DMD to derive simplified and reliable representations of flows in high-contrast porous media on fully resolved models. In the current paper, we discuss how these global model reduction approaches can be combined with local techniques to speed-up the simulations. The speed-up is due to inexpensive, while sufficiently accurate, computations of global snapshots. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Correlation analysis of high precision blood flow imaging in secondary parathyroid function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ze Du


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of high precision blood flow imaging (Fine-Flow in secondary parathyroid function (SHPT in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD. Methods: A total of 95 MHD patients with SHPT in our hospital from January 2015 to June 2016 were selected as the research object. According to the Fine-Flow examination of parathyroid gland, 73 cases were divided into display group, 22 cases were not shown; Display group according to the hyperplasia of parathyroid diameter were divided into 1.5 cm group of 17 cases; display group according to the blood flow into the rich group of 41 cases, not rich group of 32 cases; according to whether calcification were divided into calcification group of 43 cases, non calcified group of 30 cases. CDFI was used for the anterior region of neck transverse and longitudinal scanning, check the thyroid and around the dorsal lobes.The size, echo, lesion number and blood flow were measured, parathyroid hormone (PTH, serum calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, and calculate the Ca and P product (Ca×P were measured. Results: PTH and Ca of the display group were significantly higher than that of the non display group, and differences in P and Ca×P were not statistically significant; Parathyroid diameter >1.5 cm PTH levels were significantly higher than the other three groups, diameter 1-1.5 cm group and >1.5 cm group Ca, diameter Ca×P was higher than that in group <5 cm and 0.5-1.0 cm group, difference in P of four groups was not statistical significant; group PTH, P, abundant blood flow Ca×P were not significantly higher than the rich group, difference in P of two groups was no statistical significance; group Ca was significantly higher than that of calcification calcification group, differences in PTH, P, Ca×P of the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: MHD patients with SHPT, parathyroid Fine-Flow display rate is high, and has the characteristic performance. Its operation is

  14. Implications of turbulent flow in connecting capillaries used in high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Halvorson, John; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Dittmann, Monika; Stoll, Dwight R


    The ongoing movement in HPLC toward the use of small columns packed with small particles for high speed separations results in eluted peaks with very small volumetric variances. Avoiding degradation of separation performance under these conditions requires careful consideration of all sources of extra-column peak dispersion. Recent trends towards decreased diameters of connecting capillaries and increased flow rates for analytical-scale separations can result in Reynolds numbers that exceed 2000. This raises the possibility of a transition from laminar to turbulent flow, thereby resulting in a higher than expected pressure drop across the capillary at a given flow rate. In this study we collected pressure drop data as a function of flow rate under many conditions relevant to modern HPLC. The variables studied included capillary diameter (50-120μm) and length (100-550mm), acetonitrile/water composition (0-100%), and temperature (20-80°C). Most of the work involved stainless steel capillaries, but a subset of experiments involved fused silica. We then used the experimental data to train a model that enables prediction of pressure drops for all of the conditions studied. We find that a single global friction factor profile is sufficient to predict pressure drops as a function of flow rate that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The quantitative accuracy of these predictions is generally quite good, with a mean prediction error of about 2% over the entire range of conditions studied. Predictions for some outlying capillaries are not as good, with errors as high as -40%. This variability is probably due mainly to capillary-to-capillary variability, especially in the wall roughness, which is difficult to characterize definitively. We believe the model described here will be very useful to practicing chromatographers for predicting the conditions under which turbulent flow might develop in their connecting capillaries, and the magnitude of the

  15. Plane-wave transverse oscillation for high-frame-rate 2-D vector flow imaging. (United States)

    Lenge, Matteo; Ramalli, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Cachard, Christian; Liebgott, Hervé


    Transverse oscillation (TO) methods introduce oscillations in the pulse-echo field (PEF) along the direction transverse to the ultrasound propagation direction. This may be exploited to extend flow investigations toward multidimensional estimates. In this paper, the TOs are coupled with the transmission of plane waves (PWs) to reconstruct high-framerate RF images with bidirectional oscillations in the pulse-echo field. Such RF images are then processed by a 2-D phase-based displacement estimator to produce 2-D vector flow maps at thousands of frames per second. First, the capability of generating TOs after PW transmissions was thoroughly investigated by varying the lateral wavelength, the burst length, and the transmission frequency. Over the entire region of interest, the generated lateral wavelengths, compared with the designed ones, presented bias and standard deviation of -3.3 ± 5.7% and 10.6 ± 7.4% in simulations and experiments, respectively. The performance of the ultrafast vector flow mapping method was also assessed by evaluating the differences between the estimated velocities and the expected ones. Both simulations and experiments show overall biases lower than 20% when varying the beam-to-flow angle, the peak velocity, and the depth of interest. In vivo applications of the method on the common carotid and the brachial arteries are also presented.

  16. A high-pressure plug flow reactor for combustion chemistry investigations (United States)

    Lu, Zhewen; Cochet, Julien; Leplat, Nicolas; Yang, Yi; Brear, Michael J.


    A plug flow reactor (PFR) is built for investigating the oxidation chemistry of fuels at up to 50 bar and 1000 K. These conditions include those corresponding to the low temperature combustion (i.e. the autoignition) that commonly occurs in internal combustion engines. Turbulent flow that approximates ideal, plug flow conditions is established in a quartz tube reactor. The reacting mixture is highly diluted by excess air to reduce the reaction rates for kinetic investigations. A novel mixer design is used to achieve fast mixing of the preheated air and fuel vapour at the reactor entrance, reducing the issue of reaction initialization in kinetic modelling. A water-cooled probe moves along the reactor extracting gases for further analysis. Measurement of the sampled gas temperature uses an extended form of a three-thermocouple method that corrects for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples to the enclosed PFR environment. Investigation of the PFR’s operation is first conducted using non-reacting flows, and then with isooctane oxidation at 900 K and 10 bar. Mixing of the non-reacting temperature and species fields is shown to be rapid. The measured fuel consumption and CO formation are then closely reproduced by kinetic modelling using an extensively validated iso-octane mechanism from the literature and the corrected gas temperature. Together, these results demonstrate the PFR’s utility for chemical kinetic investigations.

  17. Computational modelling of the gas flow from a high-enthalpy blast simulator (United States)

    Edwards, D. G.; Phan, K. C.; Hurdle, C. V.


    An Eulerian computer code based on the Flux-Corrected Transport algorithm has been develped to model the flow within and in the immediate vicinity of the RARDE (UK) High-Enthalpy Blast Simulator. The code incorporates a fully-second-order solution-scheme incorporating operator-splitting in the solution of multi-dimensional time-dependent flows. The computing mesh has been refined to make efficient use of the limited computing memory and processing power available to this project. The flow is one-dimensional in much the greater part of the facility: two-dimensional axi-symmetric flow is confined to the junctions between long tubes of constant diameter, and the computing mesh is configured accordingly. Early runs of the code have been based on a coarse computing mesh, for reasons of expedinency. Even so, results to date have confirmed may of the qualitative predictions concerning the behavior of the HEBSIM; comparisons with existing experimental data on wall-pressure histories at various stations within the facility show an encouraging measure of accord. Later runs will feature a more refined mesh, and it is hoped that design-recommendations will result from this more-realistic simulation exercise as an aid to the further developement of the HEBSIM facility.

  18. High frequency electromagnetism, heat transfer and fluid flow coupling in ANSYS multiphysics. (United States)

    Sabliov, Cristina M; Salvi, Deepti A; Boldor, Dorin


    The goal of this study was to numerically predict the temperature of a liquid product heated in a continuous-flow focused microwave system by coupling high frequency electromagnetism, heat transfer, and fluid flow in ANSYS Multiphysics. The developed model was used to determine the temperature change in water processed in a 915 MHz microwave unit, under steady-state conditions. The influence of the flow rates on the temperature distribution in the liquid was assessed. Results showed that the average temperature of water increased from 25 degrees C to 34 degrees C at 2 l/min, and to 42 degrees C at 1 l/min. The highest temperature regions were found in the liquid near the center of the tube, followed by progressively lower temperature regions as the radial distance from the center increased, and finally followed by a slightly higher temperature region near the tube's wall corresponding to the energy distribution given by the Mathieu function. The energy distribution resulted in a similar temperature pattern, with the highest temperatures close to the center of the tube and lower at the walls. The presented ANSYS Multiphysics model can be easily improved to account for complex boundary conditions, phase change, temperature dependent properties, and non-Newtonian flows, which makes for an objective of future studies.

  19. A threshold stress for high-temperature plastic flow in WC-CO cemented carbides (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul


    The logarithmic relationship between flow stress and strain rate in WC-Co cemented carbides is represented by a signoidal curve at a constant temperature and is divided into three regions, as in superplastic metals. The flow stress in region I has no dependence on both carbide grain size and binder content, indicative of the presence of a threshold stress for high-temperature plastic flow in cemented carbides. The threshold stress estimated by extrapolating the plot of ɛm against σ to zero strain rate has a strong dependence on temperature. The logarithmic plot of the effective stress compensated by the threshold stress against strain rate shows a single straight line for region I and region II at a constant temperature, which suggests that the regions I and II are controlled by the same deformation process i.e. the grain boundary sliding in WC/WC boundaries. A small addition of Cr3C2 and VC gives rise to the outstanding increase in flow stress in region I and subsequently results in the marked increase in the threshold stress. The origin of the threshold stress in WC-Co cemented carbides is closely related to the impurity elements or the intensional additives such as Cr3C2 and VC.

  20. Unstructured Grid Viscous Flow Simulation Over High-Speed Research Technology Concept Airplane at High-Lift Conditions (United States)

    Ghaffari, Farhad


    Numerical viscous solutions based on an unstructured grid methodology are presented for a candidate high-speed civil transport configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA), within the High-Speed Research (HSR) program. The numerical results are obtained on a representative TCA high-lift configuration that consisted of the fuselage and the wing, with deflected full-span leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps. Typical on-and off-surface flow structures, computed at high-lift conditions appropriate for the takeoff and landing, indicated features that are generally plausible. Reasonable surface pressure correlations between the numerical results and the experimental data are obtained at free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) = 0.25 and Reynolds number based on bar-c R(sub c) = 8 x 10(exp 6) for moderate angles of attack of 9.7 deg. and 13.5 deg. However, above and below this angle-of-attack range, the correlation between computed and measured pressure distributions starts to deteriorate over the examined angle-of-attack range. The predicted longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics are shown to correlate very well with existing experimental data across the examined angle-of-attack range. An excellent agreement is also obtained between the predicted lift-to-drag ratio and the experimental data over the examined range of flow conditions.

  1. Cadence® High High-Speed PCB Design Flow Workshop

    CERN Document Server


    Last release of Cadence High-Speed PCB Design methodology (PE142) based on Concept-HDL schematic editor, Constraint Manager, SPECCTRAQuest signal integrity analysis tool and ALLEGRO layout associated with SPECCTRA auto router tools, is now enough developed and stable to be taken into account for high-speed board designs at CERN. The implementation of this methodology, build around the new Constraint Manager program, is essential when you have to develop a board having a lot of high-speed design rules such as terminated lines, large bus structures, maximum length, timing, crosstalk etc.. that could not be under control by traditional method. On more conventional designs, formal aspect of the methodology could avoid misunderstanding between hardware and ALLEGRO layout designers, minimizing prototype iteration, development time and price. The capability to keep trace of the original digital designer intents in schematic or board layout, loading formal constraints in EDMS, could also be considered for LHC electro...

  2. Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow (United States)

    Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David


    A mathematical model and a solution algorithm is developed to study the physics of high temperature heat transfer and material ablation and identify the problems associated with the flow of hydrogen gas at very high temperatures and velocities through pipes and various components of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motors. Ablation and melting can be experienced when the inner solid surface of the cooling channels and the diverging-converging nozzle of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motor is exposed to hydrogen gas flow at temperatures around 2500 degrees Kelvin and pressures around 3.4 MPa. In the experiments conducted on typical NTR motors developed in 1960s, degradation of the cooling channel material (cracking in the nuclear fuel element cladding) and in some instances melting of the core was observed. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study based on two types of physics based mathematical models that were developed to simulate the thermal-hydrodynamic conditions that lead to ablation of the solid surface of a stainless steel pipe exposed to high temperature hydrogen gas near sonic velocities. One of the proposed models is one-dimensional and assumes the gas flow to be unsteady, compressible and viscous. An in-house computer code was developed to solve the conservations equations of this model using a second-order accurate finite-difference technique. The second model assumes the flow to be three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible and viscous. A commercial CFD code (Fluent) was used to solve the later model equations. Both models assume the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hydrogen gas to be temperature dependent. In the solution algorithm developed for this study, the unsteady temperature of the pipe is determined from the heat equation for the solid. The solid-gas interface temperature is determined from an energy balance at the interface which includes heat transfer from or to the interface by conduction, convection, radiation, and

  3. Computations of Separated High-Enthalpy Hypersonic Flows: Development of RANS and Variable-Resolution PANS Approaches Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a high fidelity computational approach for unsteady calculations of strongly separated non-equilibrium high-enthalpy hypersonic flows....

  4. High rates of gene flow by pollen and seed in oak populations across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Gerber

    Full Text Available Gene flow is a key factor in the evolution of species, influencing effective population size, hybridisation and local adaptation. We analysed local gene flow in eight stands of white oak (mostly Quercus petraea and Q. robur, but also Q. pubescens and Q. faginea distributed across Europe. Adult trees within a given area in each stand were exhaustively sampled (range [239, 754], mean 423, mapped, and acorns were collected ([17,147], 51 from several mother trees ([3], [47], 23. Seedlings ([65,387], 178 were harvested and geo-referenced in six of the eight stands. Genetic information was obtained from screening distinct molecular markers spread across the genome, genotyping each tree, acorn or seedling. All samples were thus genotyped at 5-8 nuclear microsatellite loci. Fathers/parents were assigned to acorns and seedlings using likelihood methods. Mating success of male and female parents, pollen and seed dispersal curves, and also hybridisation rates were estimated in each stand and compared on a continental scale. On average, the percentage of the wind-borne pollen from outside the stand was 60%, with large variation among stands (21-88%. Mean seed immigration into the stand was 40%, a high value for oaks that are generally considered to have limited seed dispersal. However, this estimate varied greatly among stands (20-66%. Gene flow was mostly intraspecific, with large variation, as some trees and stands showed particularly high rates of hybridisation. Our results show that mating success was unevenly distributed among trees. The high levels of gene flow suggest that geographically remote oak stands are unlikely to be genetically isolated, questioning the static definition of gene reserves and seed stands.

  5. Investigation on asymmetric flow over a blunt-nose slender body at high angle of attack (United States)

    Zhongyang, Qi; Yankui, Wang; Lei, Wang; Qian, Li


    The asymmetric vortices over a blunt-nose slender body are investigated experimentally and numerically at a high angle of attack (AoA, α = 50°) and a Reynolds number of Re D = 1.54 × 105 on the basis of an incoming free-stream velocity and diameter (D) of the model. A micro-perturbation in the form of a hemispherical protrusion with a radius of r = 0.012D is introduced and attached on the nose of the slender body to control the behavior of the asymmetric vortices. Given the predominant role of micro perturbation in the asymmetric vortex pattern, a square wave, which is singly periodic, is observed for side-force variation by setting the circumferential angle (θ) of the micro perturbation from 0° to 360°. The asymmetric vortex pattern and the corresponding side force are manageable and highly dependent on the location of perturbation. The flow structure over the blunt-nose slender body is clarified by building a physical model of asymmetric vortex flow structure in a regular state at a high AoA (α = 50°). This model is divided into several regions by flow structure development along the model body-axis, i.e., inception region at x/D ≤ 3.0, triple-vortex region at 3.0 ≤ x/D ≤ 6.0, four-vortex region at 6.0 ≤ x/D ≤ 8.5, and five-vortex region at 8.5 ≤ x/D ≤ 12. The model reveals a complicated multi-vortex system. The associated pressure distributions and flow characteristics are discussed in detail.

  6. Quasi-three dimensional hydraulic design and performance calculation of high specific speed mixed-flow pump (United States)

    Su, M.; Zhang, Y. X.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, H. C.


    According to the basic parameters of 211-80 high specific speed mixed-flow pump, based on the quasi-three dimensional flow theory, the hydraulic design of impeller and its matching spaced guide vanes for high specific speed mixed flow pump was completed, in which the iterative calculation of S 1, S 2 stream surfaces was employed to obtain meridional flow fields and the point-by-point integration method was employed to draw blade camber lines. Blades are thickened as well as blade leading edges are smoothed in the conformal mapping surface. Subsequently the internal fields of the whole flow passage of the designed pump were simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulent model. The results show that, compared with the 211-80 model, the hydraulic efficiency of the designed pump at the optimal flow rate increases 9.1%. The hydraulic efficiency of designed pump in low flow rate condition (78% designed flow rate) increases 6.46%. The hydraulic efficiency in high flow rate areas increases obviously and there is no bad phenomenon of suddenly decrease of hydraulic efficiency in model pump. From the distributions of velocity and pressure fields, it can be seen that the flow in impeller is uniform and the increase of pressure is gentle. There are no obvious impact phenomenon on impeller inlet and obvious wake shedding vortex phenomenon from impeller outlet to guide vanes inlet.

  7. Propagation and power flow of high-order three-Airy beams (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Chen, Yingkang; Wan, Lingyu


    We demonstrate experimentally propagation and evolution of high-order three-Airy beams in this letter. Our results show clearly that, a high-order three-Airy beam tends to evolve into a Laguerre-Gaussian-like beam, in consistence with previous prediction. Moreover, by analyzing the internal transverse power flow of three-Airy beams during propagation, we found that, as the order of three-Airy beams goes higher, the initial beam intensity distributes more in the "side lobes", and it takes longer propagation for the beams to reach a maximum peak intensity and then transform into patterns of corresponding Laguerre-Gaussian-like modes.

  8. Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer


    This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using the ex...... measurement is performed on a carotid bifurcation of a healthy individual. A 3-s acquisition during three heart cycles is captured. A consistent and repetitive vortex is observed in the carotid bulb during systoles....

  9. Numerical Study of Active Flow Control for a Transitional Highly-Loaded Low-Pressure Turbine (United States)


    high- altitude cruise, such low-pressure turbines may encounter Reynolds numbers, based upon blade axial chord and inlet conditions, below 25,000. In this...numerically for subsonic flow through a highly-loaded low-pressure turbine. At a nominal Reynolds number of 25,000 based upon axial chord and inlet conditions...Okiishi, T. H., Walker, G. J., Hodson, H. P., and Shin, H. W., “Boundary Layer Development in Axial Compressors and Turbines Part 1 of 4: Composite

  10. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback dye laser sensors for high frame rate refractometric imaging of dissolution and fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Gade, Carsten


    High frame rate refractometric dissolution and fluid flow monitoring in one and two dimensions of space with distributed feedback dye laser sensors is presented. The sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. © 2015 OSA.......High frame rate refractometric dissolution and fluid flow monitoring in one and two dimensions of space with distributed feedback dye laser sensors is presented. The sensors provide both low detection limits and high spatial resolution. © 2015 OSA....

  11. Inspiratory Tube Condensation During High-Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy: A Bench Study. (United States)

    Chikata, Yusuke; Unai, Kazuaki; Izawa, Masayo; Okuda, Nao; Oto, Jun; Nishimura, Masaji


    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy provides better humidification than conventional oxygen therapy. To allay loss of vapor as condensation, a servo-controlled heating wire is incorporated in the inspiratory tube, but condensation is not completely avoidable. We investigated factors that might affect condensation: thermal characteristics of the inspiratory tube, HFNC flow, and ambient temperature. We evaluated 2 types of HFNC tubes, SLH Flex 22-mm single tube and RT202. Both tubes were connected to a heated humidifier with water reservoir. HFNC flow was set at 20, 40, and 60 L/min, and FIO2 was set at 0.21. Air conditioning was used maintain ambient temperature at close to either 20 or 25°C. We weighed the tubes on a digital scale before (0 h) and at 3, 6, and 24 h after, turning on the heated humidifier, and calculated the amount of condensation by simple subtraction. The amount of distilled water used during 24 h was also recorded. At 25°C, there was little condensation, but at 20°C and HFNC flow of 20, 40, and 60 L/min for 24 h, the amount of condensation with the SLH was 50.2 ± 10.7, 44.3 ± 17.7, and 56.6 ± 13.9 mg, and the amount with the RT202 was 96.0 ± 35.1, 72.8 ± 8.2, and 64.9 ± 0.8 mg. When ambient temperature was set to 20°C, condensation with the RT202 was statistically significantly greater than with the SLH at all flow settings (P condensation in the tubes. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  12. Time-dependent convective flows with high viscosity contrasts under micro gravity conditions. (United States)

    Zaussinger, Florian; Egbers, Christoph; Krebs, Andreas; Schwarzbach, Felix; Kunze, Christian


    Thermal driven convection in spherical geometry is of main interest in geo- and astrophysical research. To capture certain aspects of temperature dependent viscosity we investigate the micro-gravity experiment GeoFlow-IIb, located on the ISS. This unique experimental setup consists of a bottom heated and top cooled spherical gap, filled with the silicon oil 1-Nonanol. However, rotation and varying temperature gradients can be applied, to spread the experimental parameter space. The main focus of the current mission is the investigation of time dependent convective flow structures. Since the ISS requirements makes it impossible to use tracer particles, the flow structures are captured by interferometry, whose outcome is analysed by an ground based adapted image processing technique. To guarantee valid results the experimental time of each parameter is in the order of the thermal time scale, which is about 40 min. We are presenting latest results of plume-like and sheet-like time-dependent convective patterns in the spherical shell, their evolution and temporal behaviour under high viscosity contrasts. Due to an unexpected nonlinear coupling between the temperature dependent viscosity of the working fluid and the applied dielectrophoretic force field, we are able to maintain a viscosity contrast of 50 and more. This gives the chance to compare cautiously our experimental results with theoretical assumptions of the mantle convection theory. Besides, numerical simulations in the same parameter regime are performed, which give the opportunity to deduce the internal structure of the experimental flow flied. The main focus of the presented results are the long time temporal evolution of convective plumes in the spherical gap, image capturing- and processing techniques and the deduction of the internal flow field based on planar interferometry pictures.

  13. Variable Trends in High Peak Flow Generation Across the Swedish Sub-Arctic (United States)

    Matti, B.; Dahlke, H. E.; Lyon, S. W.


    There is growing concern about increased frequency and severity of floods and droughts globally in recent years. Improving knowledge on the complexity of hydrological systems and their interactions with climate is essential to be able to determine drivers of these extreme events and to predict changes in these drivers under altered climate conditions. This is particularly true in cold regions such as the Swedish Sub-Arctic where independent shifts in both precipitation and temperature can have significant influence on extremes. This study explores changes in the magnitude and timing of the annual maximum daily flows in 18 Swedish sub-arctic catchments. The Mann-Kendall trend test was used to estimate changes in selected hydrological signatures. Further, a flood frequency analysis was conducted by fitting a Gumbel (Extreme Value type I) distribution whereby selected flood percentiles were tested for stationarity using a generalized least squares regression approach. Our results showed that hydrological systems in cold climates have complex, heterogeneous interactions with climate. Shifts from a snowmelt-dominated to a rainfall-dominated flow regime were evident with all significant trends pointing towards (1) lower flood magnitudes in the spring flood; (2) earlier flood occurrence; (3) earlier snowmelt onset; and (4) decreasing mean summer flows. Decreasing trends in flood magnitude and mean summer flows suggest permafrost thawing and are in agreement with the increasing trends in annual minimum flows. Trends in the selected flood percentiles showed an increase in extreme events over the entire period of record, while trends were variable under shorter periods. A thorough uncertainty analysis emphasized that the applied trend test is highly sensitive to the period of record considered. As such, no clear overall regional pattern could be determined suggesting that how catchments are responding to changes in climatic drivers is strongly influenced by their physical

  14. MWCNTs based high sensitive lateral flow strip biosensor for rapid determination of aqueous mercury ions. (United States)

    Yao, Li; Teng, Jun; Zhu, Mengya; Zheng, Lei; Zhong, Youhao; Liu, Guodong; Xue, Feng; Chen, Wei


    Here, we describe a disposable multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) labeled nucleic acid lateral flow strip biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of aqueous mercury ions (Hg(2+)). Unlike the conventional colloidal gold nanoparticle based strip biosensors, the carboxylated MWCNTs were selected as the labeling substrate because of its high specific surface area for immobilization of recognition probes, improved stability and enhanced detection sensitivity of the strip biosensor. Combining the sandwich-type of T-Hg(2+)-T recognition mechanism with the optical properties of MWCNTs on lateral flow strip, optical black bands were observed on the lateral flow strips. Parameters (such as membrane category, the MWCNTs concentration, the amount of MWCNT-DNA probe, and the volume of the test probe) that govern the sensitivity and reproducibility of the sensor were optimized. The response of the optimized biosensor was highly linear over the range of 0.05-1ppb target Hg(2+), and the detection threshold was estimated at 0.05 ppb within a 15-min assay time. The sensitivity was 10-fold higher than the conventional colloidal gold based strip biosensor. More importantly, the stability of the sensor was also greatly improved with the usage of MWCNTs as the labeling. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly Variable Cycle Nozzle Concept: Validation of Flow and Noise Predictions (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.


    Results from experimental and numerical studies of highly Variable Cycle (HVC) exhaust model were presented. The model was designed and fabricated under a Supersonics NRA awarded to Rolls-Royce. The model had a lobed mixer for the core stream nozzle, and elliptic fan stream nozzle, and an ejector. Experiments included far-field acoustic array, phased array, and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Numerical studies included flow simulations using the WIND-US code and far-field acoustic solutions using an acoustic analogy developed by Goldstein (2003) and Leib and Goldstein (2011). Far-field acoustic measurements showed increased noise levels over the round baseline nozzle when using non-static forward flight conditions. Phased array measurements showed noise sources near the ejector doors when tones were produced for small ejector door positions. Ejector door separation identified in the experiments was reproduced in the numerical flow simulations. Acoustic solutions were unable to match levels measured in the peak jet noise direction indicating additional development work is needed to predict noise from highly three-dimensional flows.

  16. A high-order semi-explicit discontinuous Galerkin solver for 3D incompressible flow with application to DNS and LES of turbulent channel flow (United States)

    Krank, Benjamin; Fehn, Niklas; Wall, Wolfgang A.; Kronbichler, Martin


    We present an efficient discontinuous Galerkin scheme for simulation of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations including laminar and turbulent flow. We consider a semi-explicit high-order velocity-correction method for time integration as well as nodal equal-order discretizations for velocity and pressure. The non-linear convective term is treated explicitly while a linear system is solved for the pressure Poisson equation and the viscous term. The key feature of our solver is a consistent penalty term reducing the local divergence error in order to overcome recently reported instabilities in spatially under-resolved high-Reynolds-number flows as well as small time steps. This penalty method is similar to the grad-div stabilization widely used in continuous finite elements. We further review and compare our method to several other techniques recently proposed in literature to stabilize the method for such flow configurations. The solver is specifically designed for large-scale computations through matrix-free linear solvers including efficient preconditioning strategies and tensor-product elements, which have allowed us to scale this code up to 34.4 billion degrees of freedom and 147,456 CPU cores. We validate our code and demonstrate optimal convergence rates with laminar flows present in a vortex problem and flow past a cylinder and show applicability of our solver to direct numerical simulation as well as implicit large-eddy simulation of turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 180 as well as 590.

  17. Domain Decomposition Preconditioners for Multiscale Flows in High-Contrast Media

    KAUST Repository

    Galvis, Juan


    In this paper, we study domain decomposition preconditioners for multiscale flows in high-contrast media. We consider flow equations governed by elliptic equations in heterogeneous media with a large contrast in the coefficients. Our main goal is to develop domain decomposition preconditioners with the condition number that is independent of the contrast when there are variations within coarse regions. This is accomplished by designing coarse-scale spaces and interpolators that represent important features of the solution within each coarse region. The important features are characterized by the connectivities of high-conductivity regions. To detect these connectivities, we introduce an eigenvalue problem that automatically detects high-conductivity regions via a large gap in the spectrum. A main observation is that this eigenvalue problem has a few small, asymptotically vanishing eigenvalues. The number of these small eigenvalues is the same as the number of connected high-conductivity regions. The coarse spaces are constructed such that they span eigenfunctions corresponding to these small eigenvalues. These spaces are used within two-level additive Schwarz preconditioners as well as overlapping methods for the Schur complement to design preconditioners. We show that the condition number of the preconditioned systems is independent of the contrast. More detailed studies are performed for the case when the high-conductivity region is connected within coarse block neighborhoods. Our numerical experiments confirm the theoretical results presented in this paper. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. Development of a TDLAS sensor for temperature and concentration of H2 O in high speed and high temperature flows (United States)

    Sheehe, Suzanne; O'Byrne, Sean


    The development of a sensor for simultaneous temperature concentration of H2 O and temperature in high speed flows is presented. H2 O is a desirable target sensing species because it is a primary product in combustion systems; both temperature and concentration profiles can be used to assess both the extent of the combustion and the flow field characteristics. Accurate measurements are therefore highly desirable. The sensor uses a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) scanned at 50 kHz from 7172 to 7186 cm-1. Temperatures and concentrations are extracted from the spectra by fitting theoretical spectra to the experimental data. The theoretical spectra are generated using GENSPECT in conjunction with line parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database. To validate the theoretical spectra, experimental spectra of H2 O were obtained at known temperatures (290-550 K) and pressures (30 torr) in a heated static gas cell. The results show that some theoretical lines deviate from the experimental lines. New line-strengths are calculated assuming that the line assignments and broadening parameters in HITRAN are correct. This data is essential for accurate H2 O concentration and temperature measurements at low pressure and high temperature conditions. US Air Force Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development Grant FA2386-16-1-4092.

  19. Motion of water droplets in the counter flow of high-temperature combustion products (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Strizhak, P. A.


    This paper presents the experimental studies of the deceleration, reversal, and entrainment of water droplets sprayed in counter current flow to a rising stream of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion gases. The initial droplets velocities 0.5-2.5 m/s, radii 10-230 μm, relative volume concentrations 0.2·10-4-1.8·10-4 (m3 of water)/(m3 of gas) vary in the ranges corresponding to promising high-temperature (over 1000 K) gas-vapor-droplet applications (for example, polydisperse fire extinguishing using water mist, fog, or appropriate water vapor-droplet veils, thermal or flame treatment of liquids in the flow of combustion products or high-temperature air; creating coolants based on flue gas, vapor and water droplets; unfreezing of granular media and processing of the drossed surfaces of thermal-power equipment; ignition of liquid and slurry fuel droplets). A hardware-software cross-correlation complex, high-speed (up to 105 fps) video recording tools, panoramic optical techniques (Particle Image Velocimetry, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, Interferometric Particle Imagine, Shadow Photography), and the Tema Automotive software with the function of continuous monitoring have been applied to examine the characteristics of the processes under study. The scale of the influence of initial droplets concentration in the gas flow on the conditions and features of their entrainment by high-temperature gases has been specified. The dependencies Red = f(Reg) and Red' = f(Reg) have been obtained to predict the characteristics of the deceleration of droplets by gases at different droplets concentrations.

  20. Motion of water droplets in the counter flow of high-temperature combustion products (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Strizhak, P. A.


    This paper presents the experimental studies of the deceleration, reversal, and entrainment of water droplets sprayed in counter current flow to a rising stream of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion gases. The initial droplets velocities 0.5-2.5 m/s, radii 10-230 μm, relative volume concentrations 0.2·10-4-1.8·10-4 (m3 of water)/(m3 of gas) vary in the ranges corresponding to promising high-temperature (over 1000 K) gas-vapor-droplet applications (for example, polydisperse fire extinguishing using water mist, fog, or appropriate water vapor-droplet veils, thermal or flame treatment of liquids in the flow of combustion products or high-temperature air; creating coolants based on flue gas, vapor and water droplets; unfreezing of granular media and processing of the drossed surfaces of thermal-power equipment; ignition of liquid and slurry fuel droplets). A hardware-software cross-correlation complex, high-speed (up to 105 fps) video recording tools, panoramic optical techniques (Particle Image Velocimetry, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, Interferometric Particle Imagine, Shadow Photography), and the Tema Automotive software with the function of continuous monitoring have been applied to examine the characteristics of the processes under study. The scale of the influence of initial droplets concentration in the gas flow on the conditions and features of their entrainment by high-temperature gases has been specified. The dependencies Red = f(Reg) and Red' = f(Reg) have been obtained to predict the characteristics of the deceleration of droplets by gases at different droplets concentrations.

  1. Improved forcing scheme in pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann methods for multiphase flow at arbitrarily high density ratios. (United States)

    Lycett-Brown, Daniel; Luo, Kai H


    The pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method has been widely used to simulate many multiphase flow applications. However, there still exist problems with reproducing realistic values of density ratio and surface tension. In this study, a higher-order analysis of a general forcing term is derived. A forcing scheme is then constructed for the pseudopotential method that is able to accurately reproduce the full range of coexistence curves. As a result, multiphase flow of arbitrarily high density ratios independent of the surface tension can be simulated. Furthermore, the interface width can be tuned to allow for grid refinement and systematic error reduction. Numerical results confirm that the proposed scheme enables independent control of density ratio, surface tension, and interface width simultaneously.

  2. Dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato, L.M.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail:; Henriques, J.C.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail:


    The aim of the present study is the numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of high-pressure natural-gas flow in pipelines. The numerical simulation was performed by solving the conservation equations, for one-dimensional compressible flow, using the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method, with third-order approximation in space and time. The boundary conditions were imposed using a new weak formulation based on the characteristic variables. The occurrence of pressure oscillations in natural-gas pipelines was studied as a result of the compression wave originated by the rapid closure of downstream shut-off valves. The effect of the partial reflection of pressure waves was also analyzed in the transition between pipes of different cross-sectional areas.

  3. A novel high-throughput drip-flow system to grow autotrophic biofilms of contrasting diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    . Thus, thicker biofilms are likely to host greater diversity. A system with 40 replicates has been constructed using flow-through polypropylene columns housing a defined number of single-sized glass beads supported by a stainless steel mesh. Biofilms consisting primarily of ammonia oxidizing and nitrite...... are often ill controlled and thus likely to be poorly reproducible. The purpose of this work is to develop a high-throughput continuous-flow system for growing replicate microbial biofilms of varying, but controlled, average thickness and associated community diversity. With these replicate biofilms......, the effect of community composition and diversity on various ecological processes can then be rigorously examined. We hypothesize that the increased loading, resulting in thicker biofilms, will decrease the drift in the community and impose limited environmental filtering by providing more diverse niches...

  4. Methods for Prediction of High-Speed Reacting Flows in Aerospace Propulsion (United States)

    Drummond, J. Philip


    Research to develop high-speed airbreathing aerospace propulsion systems was underway in the late 1950s. A major part of the effort involved the supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, engine. Work had also begun to develop computational techniques for solving the equations governing the flow through a scramjet engine. However, scramjet technology and the computational methods to assist in its evolution would remain apart for another decade. The principal barrier was that the computational methods needed for engine evolution lacked the computer technology required for solving the discrete equations resulting from the numerical methods. Even today, computer resources remain a major pacing item in overcoming this barrier. Significant advances have been made over the past 35 years, however, in modeling the supersonic chemically reacting flow in a scramjet combustor. To see how scramjet development and the required computational tools finally merged, we briefly trace the evolution of the technology in both areas.

  5. Multiscale Lattice Boltzmann method for flow simulations in highly heterogenous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun


    A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for flow simulations in highly heterogeneous porous media at both pore and Darcy scales is proposed in the paper. In the pore scale simulations, flow of two phases (e.g., oil and gas) or two immiscible fluids (e.g., water and oil) are modeled using cohesive or repulsive forces, respectively. The relative permeability can be computed using pore-scale simulations and seamlessly applied for intermediate and Darcy-scale simulations. A multiscale LBM that can reduce the computational complexity of existing LBM and transfer the information between different scales is implemented. The results of coarse-grid, reduced-order, simulations agree very well with the averaged results obtained using fine grid.

  6. Parameterised Model of 2D Combustor Exit Flow Conditions for High-Pressure Turbine Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schneider


    Full Text Available An algorithm is presented generating a complete set of inlet boundary conditions for Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (RANS CFD of high-pressure turbines to investigate their interaction with lean and rich burn combustors. The method shall contribute to understanding the sensitivities of turbine aerothermal performance in a systematic approach. The boundary conditions are based on a set of input parameters controlling velocity, temperature, and turbulence fields. All other quantities are derived from operating conditions and additional modelling assumptions. The algorithm is coupled with a CFD solver by applying the generated profiles as inlet boundary conditions. The successive steps to derive consistent flow profiles are described and results are validated against flow fields extracted from combustor CFD.

  7. Use of flow cytometry for high-throughput cell population estimates in fixed brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Young


    Full Text Available The numbers and types of cells in an area of cortex define its function. Therefore it is essential to characterize the numbers and distributions of total cells in areas of the cortex, as well as to identify numbers of subclasses of neurons and glial cells. To date, the large size of the primate brain and the lack of innovation in cell counting methods have been a roadblock to obtaining high-resolution maps of cell and neuron density across the cortex in humans and non-human primates. Stereological counting methods and the isotropic fractionator are valuable tools for estimating cell numbers, but are better suited to smaller, well-defined brain structures or to cortex as a whole. In the present study, we have extended our flow-cytometry based counting method, the flow fractionator (Collins et al., 2010a, to include high-throughput total cell population estimates in homogenized cortical samples. We demonstrate that our method produces consistent, accurate and repeatable cell estimates quickly. The estimates we report are in excellent agreement with estimates for the same samples obtained using a Neubauer chamber and a fluorescence microscope. We show that our flow cytometry-based method for total cell estimation in homogenized brain tissue is more efficient and more precise than manual counting methods. The addition of automated nuclei counting to our flow fractionator method allows for a fully automated, rapid characterization of total cells and neuronal and non-neuronal populations in human and non-human primate brains, providing valuable data to further our understanding of the functional organization of normal, aging and diseased brains.

  8. An automated analysis of highly complex flow cytometry-based proteomic data. (United States)

    Stuchlý, Jan; Kanderová, Veronika; Fišer, Karel; Cerná, Daniela; Holm, Anders; Wu, Weiwei; Hrušák, Ondřej; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Kalina, Tomáš


    The combination of color-coded microspheres as carriers and flow cytometry as a detection platform provides new opportunities for multiplexed measurement of biomolecules. Here, we developed a software tool capable of automated gating of color-coded microspheres, automatic extraction of statistics from all subsets and validation, normalization, and cross-sample analysis. The approach presented in this article enabled us to harness the power of high-content cellular proteomics. In size exclusion chromatography-resolved microsphere-based affinity proteomics (Size-MAP), antibody-coupled microspheres are used to measure biotinylated proteins that have been separated by size exclusion chromatography. The captured proteins are labeled with streptavidin phycoerythrin and detected by multicolor flow cytometry. When the results from multiple size exclusion chromatography fractions are combined, binding is detected as discrete reactivity peaks (entities). The information obtained might be approximated to a multiplexed western blot. We used a microsphere set with >1,000 subsets, presenting an approach to extract biologically relevant information. The R-project environment was used to sequentially recognize subsets in two-dimensional space and gate them. The aim was to extract the median streptavidin phycoerythrin fluorescence intensity for all 1,000+ microsphere subsets from a series of 96 measured samples. The resulting text files were subjected to algorithms that identified entities across the 24 fractions. Thus, the original 24 data points for each antibody were compressed to 1-4 integrated values representing the areas of individual antibody reactivity peaks. Finally, we provide experimental data on cellular protein changes induced by treatment of leukemia cells with imatinib mesylate. The approach presented here exemplifies how large-scale flow cytometry data analysis can be efficiently processed to employ flow cytometry as a high-content proteomics method. Copyright

  9. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: I. Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Montagnac, M; Vermorel, O; Staffelbach, G; Garcia, M; Boussuge, J-F [Computational Fluid Dynamics Team, CERFACS, Toulouse, 31057 (France); Gazaix, M [Computational Fluid Dynamics and Aero-acoustics Department, ONERA, Chatillon, 92320 (France); Poinsot, T [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse, 31400 (France)], E-mail:


    Efficient numerical tools coupled with high-performance computers, have become a key element of the design process in the fields of energy supply and transportation. However flow phenomena that occur in complex systems such as gas turbines and aircrafts are still not understood mainly because of the models that are needed. In fact, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions as found today in industry focus on a reduced or simplified version of the real system (such as a periodic sector) and are usually solved with a steady-state assumption. This paper shows how to overcome such barriers and how such a new challenge can be addressed by developing flow solvers running on high-end computing platforms, using thousands of computing cores. Parallel strategies used by modern flow solvers are discussed with particular emphases on mesh-partitioning, load balancing and communication. Two examples are used to illustrate these concepts: a multi-block structured code and an unstructured code. Parallel computing strategies used with both flow solvers are detailed and compared. This comparison indicates that mesh-partitioning and load balancing are more straightforward with unstructured grids than with multi-block structured meshes. However, the mesh-partitioning stage can be challenging for unstructured grids, mainly due to memory limitations of the newly developed massively parallel architectures. Finally, detailed investigations show that the impact of mesh-partitioning on the numerical CFD solutions, due to rounding errors and block splitting, may be of importance and should be accurately addressed before qualifying massively parallel CFD tools for a routine industrial use.

  10. High-Flow Nasal Interface Improves Oxygenation in Patients Undergoing Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Lucangelo


    Full Text Available During bronchoscopy hypoxemia is commonly found and oxygen supply can be delivered by interfaces fed with high gas flows. Recently, the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC has been introduced for oxygen therapy in adults, but they have not been used so far during bronchoscopy in adults. Forty-five patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving oxygen: 40 L/min through a Venturi mask (V40, N=15, nasal cannula (N40, N=15, and 60 L/min through a nasal cannula (N60, N=15 during bronchoscopy. Gas exchange and circulatory variables were sampled before (FiO2 = 0.21, at the end of bronchoscopy (FiO2 = 0.5, and thereafter (V40, FiO2 = 0.35. In 8 healthy volunteers oxygen was randomly delivered according to V40, N40, and N60 settings, and airway pressure was measured. At the end of bronchoscopy, N60 presented higher PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, and SpO2 than V40 and N40 that did not differ between them. In the volunteers (N60 median airway pressure amounted to 3.6 cmH2O. Under a flow rate of 40 L/min both the Venturi mask and HFNC behaved similarly, but nasal cannula associated with a 60 L/min flow produced the better results, thus indicating its use in mild respiratory dysfunctions.

  11. Using NIF to Test Theories of High-Pressure, High-Rate Plastic Flow in Metals (United States)

    Rudd, Robert E.; Arsenlis, A.; Cavallo, R. M.; Huntington, C. M.; McNaney, J. M.; Park, H. S.; Powell, P.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Remington, B. A.; Swift, D.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Yang, L.


    Precisely controlled plasmas are playing key roles both as pump and probe in experiments to understand the strength of solid metals at high energy density (HED) conditions. In concert with theoretical advances, these experiments have enabled a predictive capability to model material strength at Mbar pressures and high strain rates. Here we describe multiscale strength models developed for tantalum starting with atomic bonding and extending up through the mobility of individual dislocations, the evolution of dislocation networks and so on until the ultimate material response at the scale of an experiment. Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) probe strength in metals ramp compressed to 1-8 Mbar. The model is able to predict 1 Mbar experiments without adjustable parameters. The combination of experiment and theory has shown that solid metals can behave significantly differently at HED conditions. We also describe recent studies of lead compressed to 3-5 Mbar. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  12. An exact and consistent adjoint method for high-fidelity discretization of the compressible flow equations (United States)

    Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi

    Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme

  13. LES of High-Reynolds-Number Coanda Flow Separating from a Rounded Trailing Edge of a Circulation Control Airfoil (United States)

    Nichino, Takafumi; Hahn, Seonghyeon; Shariff, Karim


    This slide presentation reviews the Large Eddy Simulation of a high reynolds number Coanda flow that is separated from a round trailing edge of a ciruclation control airfoil. The objectives of the study are: (1) To investigate detailed physics (flow structures and statistics) of the fully turbulent Coanda jet applied to a CC airfoil, by using LES (2) To compare LES and RANS results to figure out how to improve the performance of existing RANS models for this type of flow.

  14. Susceptibility to enhanced chemical migration from depression-focused preferential flow, High Plains aquifer (United States)

    Gurdak, J.J.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; McMahon, P.B.


    Aquifer susceptibility to contamination is controlled in part by the inherent hydrogeologic properties of the vadose zone, which includes preferential-flow pathways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of seasonal ponding near leaky irrigation wells as a mechanism for depression-focused preferential flow and enhanced chemical migration through the vadose zone of the High Plains aquifer. Such a mechanism may help explain the widespread presence of agrichemicals in recently recharged groundwater despite estimates of advective chemical transit times through the vadose zone from diffuse recharge that exceed the historical period of agriculture. Using a combination of field observations, vadose zone flow and transport simulations, and probabilistic neural network modeling, we demonstrated that vadose zone transit times near irrigation wells range from 7 to 50 yr, which are one to two orders of magnitude faster than previous estimates based on diffuse recharge. These findings support the concept of fast and slow transport zones and help to explain the previous discordant findings of long vadose zone transit times and the presence of agrichemicals at the water table. Using predictions of aquifer susceptibility from probabilistic neural network models, we delineated approximately 20% of the areal extent of the aquifer to have conditions that may promote advective chemical transit times to the water table of practices.

  15. Highly Efficient Photocatalysts and Continuous-Flow Photocatalytic Reactors for Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Wastewater. (United States)

    Chang, Sujie; Yang, Xiaoqiu; Sang, Yuanhua; Liu, Hong


    One of the most important applications for photocatalysis is engineered water treatment that photodegrades organic pollutants in wastewater at low cost. To overcome the low efficiency of batch degradation methods, continuous-flow photocatalytic reactors have been proposed and have become the most promising method for mass water treatment. However, most commercial semiconductor photocatalysts are granular nanoparticles with low activity and a narrow active light wavelength band; this creates difficulties for direct use in continuous-flow photocatalytic reactors. Therefore, a high-performance photodegradation photocatalyst with proper morphology or structure is key for continuous photocatalytic degradation. Moreover, a well-designed photocatalytic device is another important component for continuous-flow photocatalysis and determines the efficiency of photocatalysis in practical water treatment. This review describes the basic design principles and synthesis of photocatalysts with excellent performance and special morphologies suitable for a filtering photocatalysis process. Certain promising continuous photodegradation reactors are also categorized and summarized. Additionally, selected scientific and technical problems that must be urgently solved are suggested. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A Low-Cost, High-Performance System for Fluorescence Lateral Flow Assays (United States)

    Lee, Linda G.; Nordman, Eric S.; Johnson, Martin D.; Oldham, Mark F.


    We demonstrate a fluorescence lateral flow system that has excellent sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The illumination system utilizes an LED, plastic lenses and plastic and colored glass filters for the excitation and emission light. Images are collected on an iPhone 4. Several fluorescent dyes with long Stokes shifts were evaluated for their signal and nonspecific binding in lateral flow. A wide range of values for the ratio of signal to nonspecific binding was found, from 50 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) to 0.15 for Brilliant Violet 605. The long Stokes shift of R-PE allowed the use of inexpensive plastic filters rather than costly interference filters to block the LED light. Fluorescence detection with R-PE and absorbance detection with colloidal gold were directly compared in lateral flow using biotinylated bovine serum albumen (BSA) as the analyte. Fluorescence provided linear data over a range of 0.4–4,000 ng/mL with a 1,000-fold signal change while colloidal gold provided non-linear data over a range of 16–4,000 ng/mL with a 10-fold signal change. A comparison using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the analyte showed a similar advantage in the fluorescent system. We believe our inexpensive yet high-performance platform will be useful for providing quantitative and sensitive detection in a point-of-care setting. PMID:25586412

  17. A Low-Cost, High-Performance System for Fluorescence Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Lee


    Full Text Available We demonstrate a fluorescence lateral flow system that has excellent sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The illumination system utilizes an LED, plastic lenses and plastic and colored glass filters for the excitation and emission light. Images are collected on an iPhone 4. Several fluorescent dyes with long Stokes shifts were evaluated for their signal and nonspecific binding in lateral flow. A wide range of values for the ratio of signal to nonspecific binding was found, from 50 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE to 0.15 for Brilliant Violet 605. The long Stokes shift of R-PE allowed the use of inexpensive plastic filters rather than costly interference filters to block the LED light. Fluorescence detection with R-PE and absorbance detection with colloidal gold were directly compared in lateral flow using biotinylated bovine serum albumen (BSA as the analyte. Fluorescence provided linear data over a range of 0.4–4,000 ng/mL with a 1,000-fold signal change while colloidal gold provided non-linear data over a range of 16–4,000 ng/mL with a 10-fold signal change. A comparison using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG as the analyte showed a similar advantage in the fluorescent system. We believe our inexpensive yet high-performance platform will be useful for providing quantitative and sensitive detection in a point-of-care setting.

  18. Entropy Generation in Flow of Highly Concentrated Non-Newtonian Emulsions in Smooth Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Pal


    Full Text Available Entropy generation in adiabatic flow of highly concentrated non-Newtonian emulsions in smooth tubes of five different diameters (7.15–26.54 mm was investigated experimentally. The emulsions were of oil-in-water type with dispersed-phase concentration (Φ ranging from 59.61–72.21% vol. The emulsions exhibited shear-thinning behavior in that the viscosity decreased with the increase in shear rate. The shear-stress (τ versus shear rate (˙γ data of emulsions could be described well by the power-law model: τ=K˙γn. The flow behavior index n was less than 1 and it decreased sharply with the increase in Φ whereas the consistency index K increased rapidly with the increase in Φ . For a given emulsion and tube diameter, the entropy generation rate per unit tube length increased linearly with the increase in the generalized Reynolds number ( Re_n on a log-log scale. For emulsions with Φ ≤65.15 % vol., the entropy generation rate decreased with the increase in tube diameter. A reverse trend in diameter-dependence was observed for the emulsion with Φ of 72.21% vol. New models are developed for the prediction of entropy generation rate in flow of power-law emulsions in smooth tubes. The experimental data shows good agreement with the proposed models.

  19. Low flow water quality in rivers; septic tank systems and high-resolution phosphorus signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, K.A. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Jordan, P., E-mail: [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Agricultural Catchments Programme, Teagasc, Wexford (Ireland); Cassidy, R. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Arnscheidt, J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Ward, C. [Blackwater Regional Partnership, Caledon, Tyrone, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)


    Rural point sources of phosphorus (P), including septic tank systems, provide a small part of the overall phosphorus budget to surface waters in agricultural catchments but can have a disproportionate impact on the low flow P concentration of receiving rivers. This has particular importance as the discharges are approximately constant into receiving waters and these have restricted dilution capacity during ecologically sensitive summer periods. In this study, a number of identified high impact septic systems were replaced with modern sequential batch reactors in three rural catchments during a monitoring period of 4 years. Sub-hourly P monitoring was conducted using bankside-analysers. Results show that strategic replacement of defective septic tank systems with modern systems and polishing filters decreased the low flow P concentration of one catchment stream by 0.032 mg TP L{sup -1} (0.018 mg TRP L{sup -1}) over the 4 years. However two of the catchment mitigation efforts were offset by continued new-builds that increased the density of septic systems from 3.4 km{sup -2} to 4.6 km{sup -2} and 13.8 km{sup -2} to 17.2 km{sup -2} and subsequently increased low flow P concentrations. Future considerations for septic system mitigation should include catchment carrying capacity as well as technology changes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Adams


    Full Text Available Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  1. Flow transport and gas mixing during invasive high frequency oscillatory ventilation. (United States)

    Alzahrany, Mohammed; Banerjee, Arindam; Salzman, Gary


    A large Eddy simulation (LES) based computational fluid dynamics study was performed to investigate gas transport and mixing in patient specific human lung models during high frequency oscillatory ventilation. Different pressure-controlled waveforms (sinusoidal, exponential and square) and ventilator frequencies (15, 10 and 6Hz) were used (tidal volume=50mL). The waveforms were created by solving the equation of motion subjected to constant lung wall compliance and flow resistance. Simulations were conducted with and without endotracheal tube to understand the effect of invasive management device. Variation of pressure-controlled waveform and frequency exhibits significant differences on counter flow pattern, which could lead to a significant impact on the gas mixing efficiency. Pendelluft-like flow was present for the sinusoidal waveform at all frequencies but occurred only at early inspiration for the square waveform at highest frequency. The square waveform was most efficient for gas mixing, resulting in the least wall shear stress on the lung epithelium layer thereby reducing the risk of barotrauma to both airways and the alveoli for patients undergoing therapy. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-order Large Eddy Simulations of Confined Rotor-Stator Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Viazzo, Stéphane; Serre, Eric; Randriamampianina, Anthony; Bontoux, Patrick; 10.1007/s10494-011-9345-0


    In many engineering and industrial applications, the investigation of rotating turbulent flow is of great interest. In rotor-stator cavities, the centrifugal and Coriolis forces have a strong influence on the turbulence by producing a secondary flow in the meridian plane composed of two thin boundary layers along the disks separated by a non-viscous geostrophic core. Most numerical simulations have been performed using RANS and URANS modelling, and very few investigations have been performed using LES. This paper reports on quantitative comparisons of two high-order LES methods to predict a turbulent rotor-stator flow at the rotational Reynolds number Re=400000. The classical dynamic Smagorinsky model for the subgrid-scale stress (Germano et al., Phys Fluids A 3(7):1760-1765, 1991) is compared to a spectral vanishing viscosity technique (S\\'everac & Serre, J Comp Phys 226(2):1234-1255, 2007). Numerical results include both instantaneous data and postprocessed statistics. The results show that both LES met...

  3. Oxygen therapy via high flow nasal cannula in pediatric intensive care unit. (United States)

    Oto, Arzu; Erdoğan, Seher; Boşnak, Mehmet


    The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of oxygen therapy via high flow nasal cannula in pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure. Patients who were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit and were administered high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy between January 2015 and January 2016 were enrolled. Arterial blood gas parameters, respiratory rates (RR), heart rates (HR), systolic, db > iastolic, and mean arterial pressures (SBP, DBP, MAP), dyspnea scores, fractional oxygen indices (FiO 2 ), and oxygen saturations (SatO 2 ) were recorded at baseline, 30 minutes, and 12 hours. The study enrolled a total of 50 patients of whom 24 (48%) were female and 26 (52%) were male. Statistically significant reductions occurred in mean HR and RR values at 30 minutes and 12 hours compared to those at 0 minute (p 2 values at 30 minutes and 12 hours compared to baseline (p 2 , PaO 2 , SBP, and DBP values at 0 minute, 30 minutes, and 12 hours were not significantly different from one another (p > 0.05). No significant correlations were found between treatment failure and age at admission; mean pediatric index of mortality (PIM II), pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM), pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD) and pediatric multiple organ dysfunction score (P-MODS); and HR, RR, SatO2, pH, PaCO2, PaO2, SBP, DBP, MAP, FiO2 at baseline (p > 0.05). Therapy was successful in 40 (80%) patients whereas there occurred a need for invasive ventilation in 10 (20%) patients. High flow nasal oxygen therapy can be used for patients with acute severe hypoxemic respiratory failure without concurrent hypercapnia when adequate equipment and monitorization tools exist.

  4. Coupling amplified DNA from flow-sorted chromosomes to high-density SNP mapping in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry facilitates sorting of single chromosomes and chromosome arms which can be used for targeted genome analysis. However, the recovery of microgram amounts of DNA needed for some assays requires sorting of millions of chromosomes which is laborious and time consuming. Yet, many genomic applications such as development of genetic maps or physical mapping do not require large DNA fragments. In such cases time-consuming de novo sorting can be minimized by utilizing whole-genome amplification. Results Here we report a protocol optimized in barley including amplification of DNA from only ten thousand chromosomes, which can be isolated in less than one hour. Flow-sorted chromosomes were treated with proteinase K and amplified using Phi29 multiple displacement amplification (MDA. Overnight amplification in a 20-microlitre reaction produced 3.7 – 5.7 micrograms DNA with a majority of products between 5 and 30 kb. To determine the purity of sorted fractions and potential amplification bias we used quantitative PCR for specific genes on each chromosome. To extend the analysis to a whole genome level we performed an oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA for interrogation of 1524 loci, of which 1153 loci had known genetic map positions. Analysis of unamplified genomic DNA of barley cv. Akcent using this OPA resulted in 1426 markers with present calls. Comparison with three replicates of amplified genomic DNA revealed >99% concordance. DNA samples from amplified chromosome 1H and a fraction containing chromosomes 2H – 7H were examined. In addition to loci with known map positions, 349 loci with unknown map positions were included. Based on this analysis 40 new loci were mapped to 1H. Conclusion The results indicate a significant potential of using this approach for physical mapping. Moreover, the study showed that multiple displacement amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes is highly efficient and representative which

  5. Improved Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometer Prototype for High Sensitivity Detection of Rare Circulating Cells In Vivo (United States)

    Pestana, Noah Benjamin

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations is important in many areas of pre-clinical and clinical biomedical research, for example, in the study of cancer metastasis or the immune response following tissue and organ transplants. Normally this is done "ex-vivo" by drawing and purifying a small volume of blood and then analyzing it with flow cytometry, hemocytometry or microfludic devices, but the sensitivity of these techniques are poor and the process of handling samples has been shown to affect cell viability and behavior. More recently "in vivo flow cytometry" (IVFC) techniques have been developed where fluorescently-labeled cells flowing in a small blood vessel in the ear or retina are analyzed, but the sensitivity is generally poor due to the small sampling volume. To address this, our group recently developed a method known as "Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometry" (DFFC) that allows detection and counting of rare circulating cells with diffuse photons, offering extremely high single cell counting sensitivity. In this thesis, an improved DFFC prototype was designed and validated. The chief improvements were three-fold, i) improved optical collection efficiency, ii) improved detection electronics, and iii) development of a method to mitigate motion artifacts during in vivo measurements. In combination, these improvements yielded an overall instrument detection sensitivity better than 1 cell/mL in vivo, which is the most sensitive IVFC system reported to date. Second, development and validation of a low-cost microfluidic device reader for analysis of ocular fluids is described. We demonstrate that this device has equivalent or better sensitivity and accuracy compared a fluorescence microscope, but at an order-of-magnitude reduced cost with simplified operation. Future improvements to both instruments are also discussed.

  6. Kaleidaseq: a Web-based tool to monitor data flow in a high throughput sequencing facility. (United States)

    Dedhia, N N; McCombie, W R


    Tracking data flow in high throughput sequencing is important in maintaining a consistent number of successfully sequenced samples, making decisions on scheduling the flow of sequencing steps, resolving problems at various steps and tracking the status of different projects. This is especially critical when the laboratory is handling a multitude of projects. We have built a Web-based data flow tracking package, called Kaleidaseq, which allows us to monitor the flow and quality of sequencing samples through the steps of preparation of library plates, plaque-picking, preparation of templates, conducting sequencing reactions, loading of samples on gels, base-calling the traces, and calculating the quality of the sequenced samples. Kaleidaseq's suite of displays allows for outstanding monitoring of the production sequencing process. The online display of current information that Kaleidaseq provides on both project status and process queues sorted by project enables accurate real-time assessment of the necessary samples that must be processed to complete the project. This information allows the process manager to allocate future resources optimally and schedule tasks according to scientific priorities. Quality of the sequenced samples can be tracked on a daily basis, which allows the sequencing laboratory to maintain a steady performance level and quickly resolve dips in quality. Kaleidaseq has a simple easy-to-use interface that allows access to all major functions and process queues from one Web page. This software package is modular and designed to allow additional processing steps and new monitoring variables to be added and tracked with ease. Access to the underlying relational database is through the Perl DBI interface, which allows for the use of different relational databases. Kaleidaseq is available for free use by the academic community from

  7. High-fidelity simulation of compressible flows for hypersonic propulsion applications (United States)

    Otis, Collin C.

    In the first part of this dissertation, the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. The SFMDF is a sub-grid scale closure and is simulated via a Lagrangian Monte Carlo solver. US3D is an Eulerian finite volume code and has proven very effective for compressible flow simulations. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent flows on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows. The consistency and accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. In the second part of this dissertation, a new methodology is developed for accurate capturing of discontinuities in multi-block finite difference simulations of hyperbolic partial differential equations. The fourth-order energy-stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory (ESWENO) scheme on closed domains is combined with simultaneous approximation term (SAT) weak interface and boundary conditions. The capability of the methodology is demonstrated for accurate simulations in the presence of significant and abrupt changes in grid resolution between neighboring subdomains. Results are presented for the solutions of linear scalar hyperbolic wave equations and the Euler equations in one and two dimensions. Strong discontinuities are passed across subdomain interfaces without significant distortions. It is demonstrated that the methodology provides stable and accurate solutions even when large differences in the grid-spacing exist, whereas strong imposition of the interface conditions causes noticeable oscillations. Keywords: Large eddy simulation, filtered density function, turbulent reacting flows, multi-block finite difference schemes, high-order numerical methods, WENO shock-capturing, computational fluid dynamics.

  8. "Pseudo washout" sign in high-flow hepatic hemangioma on gadoxetic acid contrast-enhanced MRI mimicking hypervascular tumor. (United States)

    Doo, Kyung Won; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Jongmee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min


    The purpose of this article is to describe the "pseudo washout" sign of high-flow hepatic hemangioma that mimics hypervascular tumor on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. High-flow hemangiomas might show relatively low signal intensity because of gadoxetic acid contrast uptake in the surrounding normal liver parenchyma during the equilibrium (3-minute delay) phase. Such findings are called pseudo washout and can mimic hypervascular hepatic tumors. However, high-flow hemangioma can be diagnosed by observing bright signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, arterial phase-dominant enhancement, pseudo washout sign during the equilibrium phase, and isointense or slightly increased signal intensity on subtraction images.

  9. High-Flow Vascular Malformation in the Sigmoid Mesentery Successfully Treated with a Combination of Transarterial and Transvenous Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, Minobu, E-mail:; Yagihashi, Kunihiro [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Okamoto, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kenji; Fujita, Yoshiyuki [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Japan); Kurihara, Yasuyuki [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)


    Mesenteric high-flow vascular malformation can cause various clinical symptoms and demand specific therapeutic interventions owing to its peculiar hemodynamics. We report a case of high-flow vascular malformation in the sigmoid mesentery which presented with ischemic colitis. The main trunk of the inferior mesenteric vein was occluded. After partially effective transarterial embolization, transvenous embolization was performed using a microballoon catheter advanced to the venous component of the lesion via the marginal vein. Complete occlusion of the lesion was achieved. Combination of transarterial and transvenous embolization may allow us to apply endovascular treatment to a wider variety of high-flow lesions in the area and possibly avoid the bowel resection.

  10. High-Order Ghost-Fluid Method for Compressible Flow in Complex Geometry (United States)

    Al Marouf, Mohamad; Samtaney, Ravi


    We present a high-order embedded boundary method for numerical solutions of the Compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary domains. A high-order ghost fluid method based on the PDEs multidimensional extrapolation approach of Aslam (J. Comput. Phys. 2003) is utilized to extrapolate the solution across the fluid-solid interface to impose boundary conditions. A fourth order accurate numerical time integration for the CNS is achieved by fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme, and a fourth order conservative finite volume scheme by McCorquodale & Colella (Comm. in App. Math. & Comput. Sci. 2011) is used to evaluate the fluxes. Resolution at the embedded boundary and high gradient regions is accomplished by applying block-structured adaptive mesh refinement. A number of numerical examples with different Reynolds number for a low Mach number flow over an airfoil and circular cylinder will be presented. Supported by OCRF-CRG grant at KAUST.

  11. Enabling high-rate electrochemical flow capacitors based on mesoporous carbon microspheres suspension electrodes (United States)

    Tian, Meng; Sun, Yueqing; Zhang, Chuanfang (John); Wang, Jitong; Qiao, Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Long, Donghui


    Electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) is a promising technology for grid energy storage, which combines the fast charging/discharging capability of supercapacitors with the scalable energy capacity of flow batteries. In this study, we report a high-power-density EFC using mesoporous carbon microspheres (MCMs) as suspension electrodes. By using a simple yet effective spray-drying technique, monodispersed MCMs with average particle size of 5 μm, high BET surface area of 1150-1267 m2 g-1, large pore volume of 2-4 cm3 g-1 and controllable mesopore size of 7-30 nm have been successfully prepared. The resultant MCMs suspension electrode shows excellent stability and considerable high capacitance of 100 F g-1 and good cycling ability (86% of initial capacitance after 10000 cycles). Specially, the suspension electrode exhibits excellent rate performance with 75% capacitance retention from 2 to 100 mV s-1, significantly higher than that of microporous carbon electrodes (20∼30%), due to the developed mesoporous channels facilitating for rapid ion diffusion. In addition, the electrochemical responses on both negative and positive suspension electrodes are studied, based on which an optimal capacitance matching between them is suggested for large-scale EFC unit.

  12. Cryostabilization of high-temperature superconducting magnets with subcooled flow in microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R.; Choi, U.S.


    Subcooled flow of liquid nitrogen in microchannels is proposed as a means to enhance the stability of a superconducting magnet. Analysis shows high current density or a low stabilizer fraction is obtainable in a cryostable magnet. Increase in stability (using the Stekley criterion) is directly related to coolant velocity and coolant channel aspect ratio, however, there is a corresponding increase in pressure drop of the system. Another constraint is the coolant temperature rise, which is found to be a function of coolant residence time and the coolant to conductor ratio.

  13. Data flow analysis of a highly parallel processor for a level 1 pixel trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancelo, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gottschalk, Erik Edward [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pavlicek, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wu, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    The present work describes the architecture and data flow analysis of a highly parallel processor for the Level 1 Pixel Trigger for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. First the Level 1 Trigger system is described. Then the major components are analyzed by resorting to mathematical modeling. Also, behavioral simulations are used to confirm the models. Results from modeling and simulations are fed back into the system in order to improve the architecture, eliminate bottlenecks, allocate sufficient buffering between processes and obtain other important design parameters. An interesting feature of the current analysis is that the models can be extended to a large class of architectures and parallel systems.

  14. Interventional radiography in management of high-flow arteriovenous malformation of maxilla: report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khambete, Neha; Risbud, Mukund [Vasantdada Patil Dental College and Hospital, Kavalapur (India); Mehta, Nikit [College of Medical Sciences, Dharwad (India)


    Arteriovenous malformations are extremely rare conditions in that can result from abnormalities in the structure of blood vessels, which may be potentially fatal. A 30-year-old female patient visited our hospital with a complaint of swelling on the right maxillary posterior gingiva along with the large port-wine stain on right side of face. On clinical examination, the swelling was compressible and pulsatile. Radiographic examination revealed a lytic lesion of maxilla. Diagnostic angiography revealed a high-flow arteriovenous malformation of maxilla which was treated by selective transarterial embolization of maxillary artery using polyvinyl alcohol particles.

  15. Interactive Data Exploration for High-Performance Fluid Flow Computations through Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Perovic, Nevena


    © 2014 IEEE. Huge data advent in high-performance computing (HPC) applications such as fluid flow simulations usually hinders the interactive processing and exploration of simulation results. Such an interactive data exploration not only allows scientiest to \\'play\\' with their data but also to visualise huge (distributed) data sets in both an efficient and easy way. Therefore, we propose an HPC data exploration service based on a sliding window concept, that enables researches to access remote data (available on a supercomputer or cluster) during simulation runtime without exceeding any bandwidth limitations between the HPC back-end and the user front-end.

  16. Investigation of flow and material induced hemolysis with a Couette type high shear system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, S.; Glasmacher, B. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. for Biomedical Engineering; IZKF ' BIOMAT' Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, Aachen (Germany); Paul, R.; Reul, H. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. for Biomedical Engineering; Mottaghy, K. [Inst. for Physiology, Aachen Univ. (Germany)


    Damage of red blood cells (hemolysis) in miniaturized pump systems for heart support is induced by contact with artificial surfaces and high mechanical shear forces. In vitro experiments with porcine blood under well defined material and flow conditions with a new Couette model showed hemolysis not starting until shear stresses of 400 Pa and exposure times of 400 ms. Hemolysis in general was much lower than predicted in earlier investigations. Heparinized blood revealed a more sensitive behaviour as compared to citrated blood (CPDA-1). (orig.)

  17. Liquid Hydrogen Regulated Low Pressure High Flow Pneumatic Panel AFT Arrow Analysis (United States)

    Jones, Kelley, M.


    Project Definition: Design a high flow pneumatic regulation panel to be used with helium and hydrogen. The panel will have two circuits, one for gaseous helium (GHe) supplied from the GHe Movable Storage Units (MSUs) and one for gaseous hydrogen (GH2) supplied from an existing GH2 Fill Panel. The helium will supply three legs; to existing panels and on the higher pressure leg and Simulated Flight Tanks (SFTs) for the lower pressure legs. The hydrogen line will pressurize a 33,000 gallon vacuum jacketed vessel.

  18. A study of high speed flows in an aircraft transition duct. Ph.D. Thesis - Iowa State Univ. (United States)

    Reichert, Bruce A.


    The study of circular-to-rectangular transition duct flows with and without inlet swirl is presented. A method was devised to create a swirling, solid body rotational flow with minimal associated disturbances. Details of the swirl generator design and construction are discussed. Coefficients based on velocities and total and static pressures measured in cross stream planes at four axial locations within the transition duct along with surface static pressures and surface oil film visualization are presented for both nonswirling and swirling incoming flows. A method was developed to acquire trace gas measurements within the transition duct at high flow velocities. Statistical methods are used to help interpret the trace gas results.

  19. Construction of Low Dissipative High Order Well-Balanced Filter Schemes for Non-Equilibrium Flows (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, Bjorn; Magin, Thierry; Shu, Chi-Wang


    The goal of this paper is to generalize the well-balanced approach for non-equilibrium flow studied by Wang et al. [26] to a class of low dissipative high order shock-capturing filter schemes and to explore more advantages of well-balanced schemes in reacting flows. The class of filter schemes developed by Yee et al. [30], Sjoegreen & Yee [24] and Yee & Sjoegreen [35] consist of two steps, a full time step of spatially high order non-dissipative base scheme and an adaptive nonlinear filter containing shock-capturing dissipation. A good property of the filter scheme is that the base scheme and the filter are stand alone modules in designing. Therefore, the idea of designing a well-balanced filter scheme is straightforward, i.e., choosing a well-balanced base scheme with a well-balanced filter (both with high order). A typical class of these schemes shown in this paper is the high order central difference schemes/predictor-corrector (PC) schemes with a high order well-balanced WENO filter. The new filter scheme with the well-balanced property will gather the features of both filter methods and well-balanced properties: it can preserve certain steady state solutions exactly; it is able to capture small perturbations, e.g., turbulence fluctuations; it adaptively controls numerical dissipation. Thus it shows high accuracy, efficiency and stability in shock/turbulence interactions. Numerical examples containing 1D and 2D smooth problems, 1D stationary contact discontinuity problem and 1D turbulence/shock interactions are included to verify the improved accuracy, in addition to the well-balanced behavior.

  20. Study on steric transition in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation and application to characterization of high-energy material. (United States)

    Dou, Haiyang; Lee, Yong-Ju; Jung, Euo Chang; Lee, Byung-Chul; Lee, Seungho


    In field-flow fractionation (FFF), there is the 'steric transition' phenomenon where the sample elution mode changes from the normal to steric/hyperlayer mode. Accurate analysis by FFF requires understanding of the steric transition phenomenon, particularly when the sample has a broad size distribution, for which the effect by combination of different modes may become complicated to interpret. In this study, the steric transition phenomenon in asymmetrical flow FFF (AF4) was studied using polystyrene (PS) latex beads. The retention ratio (R) gradually decreases as the particle size increases (normal mode) and reaches a minimum (Ri) at diameter around 0.5μm, after which R increases with increasing diameter (steric/hyperlayer mode). It was found that the size-based selectivity (Sd) tends to increase as the channel thickness (w) increases. The retention behavior of cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (commonly called 'research department explosive' (RDX)) particles in AF4 was investigated by varying experimental parameters including w and flow rates. AF4 showed a good reproducibility in size determination of RDX particles with the relative standard deviation of 4.1%. The reliability of separation obtained by AF4 was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Parametric Study of Electroosmotically Driven Flow of Power-Law Fluid in a Cylindrical Microcapillary at High Zeta Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Deng


    Full Text Available Due to the increasingly wide application of electroosmotic flow in micromachines, this paper investigates the electroosmotic flow of the power-law fluid under high zeta potential in a cylindrical microcapillary for different dimensionless parameters. The electric potential distribution inside a cylindrical microcapillary is presented by the complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation applicable to an arbitrary zeta potential. By solving the Cauchy momentum equation of power-law fluids, the velocity profile, the volumetric flow rate, the average velocity, the shear stress distribution and dynamic viscosity of electroosmotic flow of power-law fluids in a cylindrical microcapillary are studied for different low/high zeta potential, flow behavior index, dimensionless electrokinetic width. The velocity profile gradually changes from parabolic to plug-like shape as the flow behavior index decreases or as the dimensionless electrokinetic width increases. For shear thinning fluids, the viscosity is greater in the center of the microchannel than that near the channel wall, the reverse is true for the shear thickening fluids. Greater volumetric rate and average velocity can be achieved by enhancing the dimensionless electrokinetic width, flow behavior index and zeta potential. It is noted that zeta potential and flow behavior index are important parameters to adjust electroosmotic flow behavior in a cylindrical microcapillary.

  2. Study of vortex generator influence on the flow in the wake of high-lift system wing (United States)

    Bragin, N. N.; Ryabov, D. I.; Skomorokhov, S. I.; Slitinskaya, A. Yu.


    Passive vortex generators (VG) are known as one of the ways to improve the flow of the wings and other surfaces in the presence of flow separation. In particular, the VG are installed on the wings and nacelles of many foreign airplanes, including the most recent ones (for example, Boeing 787, Airbus A-350). The principle of the passive VG effects on flow is to transfer the kinetic energy of the external flow separation region by the vortices system arising from the flow VG themselves. For example, by increasing the angle of attack of the wing separation it is highly three-dimensional picture of the flow and sufficiently sensitive to external influences. Thus separated flow can be controlled when using the VG destroy large separation vortices. The VG effectiveness depends on many parameters. This is primarily the relative position of the second harmonic and the separation region on the wing and their size and position relative to each other, the orientation of the second harmonic relative to the local flow direction of the external flow, etc. Obviously, the VG effect will depend essentially on the intensity ratio of the second harmonic vortexes and nature of flow separation in the separation area. In the presence of intense flow separation the effect of conventional VG may be reduced or not occur at all. Until recently, investigations and selection of position of conventional VG were made only experimentally. Currently, the possibilities of calculation methods allow estimating the VG effect on the flow in the separation area. However, due to the phenomenon complexity the accuracy of these calculations is low. The experimental data are required to validate the computational methods, including information not only about the total impact, but also about the flow structure in the separation area. To obtain such information is the subject of this paper. In the test model of high-lift devices swept wing with modern supercritical profile the parametric studies were

  3. High-speed PIV measurements of the near-wall flow field over hairy surfaces (United States)

    Winzen, Andrea; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang


    The geometry of the barn owl wing, that is, the planform, the camber line, and the thickness distribution, differs significantly from the wing geometry of other bird species of comparable weight and size. Moreover, the owl wing possesses special features like a velvet-like surface, fringes on the trailing edge, and a serrated leading edge. The influence on the flow field of one of the specific adaptations of the owl wing, namely the velvet-like surface structure on the suction side, was analyzed via high-speed particle-image velocimetry. Measurements were performed in a Reynolds number range of 40,000 ≤ Re c ≤ 120,000 based on the chord length and angles of attack of 0° ≤ α ≤ 6°. As a reference, a clean wing model which possesses the geometry of a natural owl wing with its distinct nose region and large thickness in conjunction with a small chordwise position of the maximum thickness was measured. A separation bubble on the suction side of the wing was found to be the dominant flow feature. The results were compared with measurements performed with the same model geometry covered with two artificial surface structures that resemble the surface of the natural wing to investigate the influence of these surfaces on the flow field. The first artificial textile, referred to as velvet 1, was selected to imitate the filament length, density, and thus the softness of the natural surface. Velvet 2, the second artificial texture, possesses longer, softer filaments and a preferred filament direction. A strong influence of the surface structures on the flow field was found for both velvet structures. The velvet seems to force the transition process in the wall-bounded shear layer at higher Reynolds numbers by redistributing the turbulent kinetic energy and thus enables the flow to reattach earlier. This leads to a stabilization and in some cases even to a reduction of the size of the separation bubble on the suction side of the wing.

  4. Microbiological contamination in high and low flow oxygen humidifiers: A systematic review. (United States)

    de la Fuente-Sancho, I; Romeu-Bordas, Ó; Fernández-Aedo, I; Vallejo De la Hoz, G; Ballesteros-Peña, S


    To determine the risk of microbiological contamination with hospital use high- and low-flow bubbling humidifiers. A systematic literature review was carried out in 6 databases. Observational or experimental studies published between 1990 and 2016 were selected, written in English or Spanish, and in which microbiological contamination with hospital use high- and low-flow bubbling humidifiers was investigated. A total of 12 articles were included: 4 analyzed the water from reusable humidifiers, 4 analyzed the water from prefilled system humidifiers, and the rest compared samples from both models. Microbial contamination was observed in all studies in which reusable humidifiers were evaluated, usually involving common bacteria from the skin flora, while potential pathogenic species were notified in 2 studies. No microbial contamination was isolated from reusable humidifiers, regardless of whether they had been consecutively used over time by a single patient or by several patients. On one hand, there seems to be a low risk of contamination during the first weeks of use of prefilled humidifiers, which allows multiple use in different patients, without a risk of cross-contamination. On the other hand, it should be underscored that handling reusable humidifiers without correct aseptic measures can increase the risk of contamination; replacing reusable humidifiers with prefilled models therefore could be the safest option. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Significant Improvements in Pyranometer Nighttime Offsets Using High-Flow DC Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchenreiter, Mark; Michalski, J.J.; Long, C.N.; Habte, Aron


    Accurate solar radiation measurements using pyranometers are required to understand radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget, solar energy production, and to validate radiative transfer models. Ventilators of pyranometers, which are used to keep the domes clean and dry, also affect instrument thermal offset accuracy. This poster presents a high-level overview of the ventilators for single-black-detector pyranometers and black-and-white pyranometers. For single-black-detector pyranometers with ventilators, high-flow-rate (50-CFM and higher), 12-V DC fans lower the offsets, lower the scatter, and improve the predictability of nighttime offsets compared to lower-flow-rate (35-CFM), 120-V AC fans operated in the same type of environmental setup. Black-and-white pyranometers, which are used to measure diffuse horizontal irradiance, sometimes show minor improvement with DC fan ventilation, but their offsets are always small, usually no more than 1 W/m2, whether AC- or DC-ventilated.

  6. High-pressure plastic scintillation detector for measuring radiogenic gases in flow systems (United States)

    Schell, W. R.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.


    Radioactive gases are emitted into the atmosphere from nuclear electric power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, from hospitals discarding xenon used in diagnostic medicine, as well as from nuclear weapons tests. A high-pressure plastic scintillation detector was constructed to measure atmospheric levels of such radioactive gases by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electron decays. Operational tests and calibrations were made that permit integration of the flow detectors into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification system (GASP). The equipment developed can be used for measuring fission gases released from nuclear reactor sources and/or as part of monitoring equipment for enforcing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The detector is being used routinely for in-line gas separation efficiency measurements, at the elevated operational pressures used for the high-pressure swing analysis system (2070 kPa) and at flow rates of 5-15 l/min [1, 2]. This paper presents the design features, operational methods, calibration, and detector applications.

  7. High-Throughput Multiplex Flow Cytometry Screening for Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Light Chain Protease Inhibitors (United States)


    Given their medical importance, proteases have been studied by diverse approaches and screened for small molecule protease inhibitors. Here, we present a multiplexed microsphere-based protease assay that uses high-throughput flow cytometry to screen for inhibitors of the light chain protease of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTALC). Our assay uses a full-length substrate and several deletion mutants screened in parallel to identify small molecule inhibitors. The use of multiplex flow cytometry has the advantage of using full-length substrates, which contain already identified distal-binding elements for the BoNTALC, and could lead to a new class of BoNTALC inhibitors. In this study, we have screened 880 off patent drugs and bioavailable compounds to identify ebselen as an in vitro inhibitor of BoNTALC. This discovery demonstrates the validity of our microsphere-based approach and illustrates its potential for high-throughput screening for inhibitors of proteases in general. PMID:20035615

  8. Plasma flow reactor for steady state monitoring of physical and chemical processes at high temperatures (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Weisz, David G.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B.; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rose, Timothy P.


    We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 < T < 5000 K) and atmospheric pressure. The reactor consists of a glass tube that is attached to an inductively coupled argon plasma generator via an adaptor (ring flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.

  9. Numerical and Physical Modeling of the Response of Resonator Liners to Intense Sound and High Speed Grazing Flow Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative research program is proposed that numerically and physically models the response of resonator liners to intense sound and high speed grazing flow. The...

  10. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Pre-Concentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under...

  11. Fiber-optic flow sensors for high-temperature environment operation up to 800°C. (United States)

    Chen, Rongzhang; Yan, Aidong; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P


    This Letter presents an all-optical high-temperature flow sensor based on hot-wire anemometry. High-attenuation fibers (HAFs) were used as the heating elements. High-temperature-stable regenerated fiber Bragg gratings were inscribed in HAFs and in standard telecom fibers as temperature sensors. Using in-fiber light as both the heating power source and the interrogation light source, regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors were used to gauge the heat transfer from an optically powered heating element induced by the gas flow. Reliable gas flow measurements were demonstrated between 0.066  m/s and 0.66  m/s from the room temperature to 800°C. This Letter presents a compact, low-cost, and multiflexible approach to measure gas flow for high-temperature harsh environments.

  12. State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet (United States)

    State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet (Presented by Dr. Marilyn J. Aardema, Chief Scientific Advisor, Toxicology, Dr. Leon Stankowski, et. al. (6/28/2012)

  13. Thermodynamic Characteristic Study of a High-temperature Flow-rate Control Valve for Fuel Supply of Scramjet Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ZENG Wen TONG Zhizhong LI Songjing LI Hongzhou ZHANG Liang


    ... and increasing of leakage,to the valve.In this paper,a high-temperature flow-rate control valve,pilot-controlled by a pneumatic servo system is developed to control the fuel supply for scramjet...

  14. Contrasting climate change impact on river flows from high-altitude catchments in the Himalayan and Andes Mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    Mountain ranges are the world's natural water towers and provide water resources for millions of people. However, their hydrological balance and possible future changes in river flow remain poorly understood because of high meteorological variability, physical inaccessibility, and the complex

  15. Compact high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography system for multiphase flow studies. (United States)

    Bieberle, A; Nehring, H; Berger, R; Arlit, M; Härting, H-U; Schubert, M; Hampel, U


    In this paper, a compact high-resolution gamma-ray Computed Tomography (CompaCT) measurement system for multiphase flow studies and tomographic imaging of technical objects is presented. Its compact and robust design makes it particularly suitable for studies on industrial facilities and outdoor applications. Special care has been given to thermal ruggedness, shock resistance, and radiation protection. Main components of the system are a collimated (137)Cs isotopic source, a thermally stabilised modular high-resolution gamma-ray detector arc with 112 scintillation detector elements, and a transportable rotary unit. The CompaCT allows full CT scans of objects with a diameter of up to 130 mm and can be operated with any tilting angle from 0° (horizontal) to 90° (vertical).

  16. Control of microbial activity by flow injection analysis during high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Ding, T; Bilitewski, U; Schmid, R D; Korz, D J; Sanders, E A


    The application of an automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system for on-line determination of microbial activity, during high cell density cultivations of Escherichia coli is reported. Based on a bioelectrochemical principle, the FIA method used a redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) to facilitate electron transfer from the microorganisms to an electrochemical detector. Assays were carried out using a new sampling device which provided aseptic operation by use of a valve and chemical sterilisation. No sample dilution or pretreatment was necessary for biomass concentrations up to approx. 40 g l-1. The sample volume was 0.5 ml and the overall analysis time was 5 min. FIA signals were found to correlate well with the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Changes in metabolic activity due to low substrate levels or high inhibitor concentrations in the cultivation medium became obvious from the FIA signals.

  17. An implicit wetting and drying approach for non-hydrostatic flows in high aspect ratio domains

    CERN Document Server

    Candy, Adam S


    A wetting and drying approach for free surface flows governed by the three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic Navier-Stokes equations in high aspect ratio domains is developed. This has application in the modelling of inundation processes in geophysical domains, where dynamics takes place over a large horizontal extent relative to vertical resolution, such as in the evolution of a tsunami, or an urban fluvial flooding scenario. The approach is novel in that it solves for three dimensional dynamics in these very high aspect ratio domains, to include non-hydrostatic effects and accurately model dispersive processes. These become important in shallow regions with steep gradients, a particularly acute problem where man-made structures exist such as buildings or flood defences in an urban environment. It is implicit in time to allow efficient time integration over a range of mesh element sizes. Specific regularisation methods are introduced to improve conditioning of the full three-dimensional pressure Poisson problem i...

  18. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Flow Behavior in High Pressure Die Casting (United States)

    Saeedipour, Mahdi; Schneiderbauer, Simon; Pirker, Stefan; Bozorgi, Salar

    High pressure die casting (HPDC) is one of the most important and yet little known manufacturing methods especially during liquid metal injection and filling phase. During its application different problems can arise: on the one hand, wavy disintegration of the jet might result in cold shut defect in the final product, on the other hand a high degree of atomization may strongly increase the porosity defect. A numerical simulation using volume of fluid approach (VOF), is carried out to model the global spreading of liquid metal jet. The formation of droplets, which are usually smaller than the grid spacing in computational domain, is determined by a surface energy-based criterion. An Eulerian-Lagrangian framework is introduced to track and model the droplets after formation. Since liquid metal is hardly to access, we performed experiments based on water analogy to capture the flow regime changes and drop formation. The comparison between numerical results and experiments shows a very good agreement.

  19. Antibody-Functionalized Fluid-Permeable Surfaces for Rolling Cell Capture at High Flow Rates (United States)

    Mittal, Sukant; Wong, Ian Y.; Deen, William M.; Toner, Mehmet


    Adhesion-based cell capture on surfaces in microfluidic devices forms the basis of numerous biomedical diagnostics and in vitro assays. However, the performance of these platforms is partly limited by interfacial phenomena that occur at low Reynolds numbers. In contrast, cell homing to porous vasculature is highly effective in vivo during inflammation, stem cell trafficking, and cancer metastasis. Here, we show that a porous, fluid-permeable surface functionalized with cell-specific antibodies promotes efficient and selective cell capture in vitro. This architecture is advantageous due to enhanced transport as streamlines are diverted toward the surface. Moreover, specific cell-surface interactions are promoted due to reduced shear, allowing gentle cell rolling and arrest. Together, these synergistic effects enable highly effective cell capture at flow rates more than an order of magnitude larger than those provided by existing devices with solid surfaces. PMID:22385842

  20. Correlation of high flow nasal cannula outlet area with gas clearance and pressure in adult upper airway replicas. (United States)

    Moore, Charles P; Katz, Ira M; Caillibotte, Georges; Finlay, Warren H; Martin, Andrew R


    Primary benefits of high flow nasal cannula therapy include washout of carbon dioxide rich exhaled gas and increased airway pressures during tidal breathing. This work reports on the influence of high flow nasal cannula outlet area on upper airways gas clearance and tracheal pressures using measurements in five realistic adult nose-throat airway replicas. Two commercial high flow nasal cannulas and one generic nasal cannula of varying size were compared. 100% oxygen was supplied via cannulas at flow rates ranging from 30 to 90l/min to replicas originally filled with air, and oxygen concentrations at the larynx and trachea were compared over time. Additionally, and separately, replicas were connected to a mechanical lung simulator to simulate tidal breathing while undergoing high flow nasal cannula therapy, with tracheal pressure-time waveforms recorded. Faster gas clearance corresponded with higher flow rates (Pflow rates, tracheal positive end expiratory pressures increase was greater with the smallest cannula (∆PPEEP=785SD(185) Pa) compared to the largest cannula (∆PPEEP=380SD(120)Pa). Regression analysis indicates that positive end expiratory pressure is proportional to the square of flow velocities exiting the cannula and nares (R2=0.906). Since increased pressure and clearance rate have been associated with improved clinical outcomes in previous studies, our results suggest that smaller cannula outlet area may be preferable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using a high-flow nasal cannula provided superior results to low-flow oxygen delivery in moderate to severe bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Plebani, Anna M; Arturi, Elisa; Brusa, Danila; Esposito, Susanna; Dell'Era, Laura; Laicini, Emanuela A; Consonni, Dario; Agostoni, Carlo; Fossali, Emilio F


    An observational study was carried out on infants with moderate to severe bronchiolitis to compare the clinical outcomes following treatment with a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or standard low-flow oxygen. We enrolled subjects below 12 months of age who were affected by their first bronchiolitis episode. Non-formal randomisation, based on HFNC availability, was used to assign subjects to either the HFNC or standard oxygen groups. Respiratory rate, respiratory effort and the ability to feed were compared between the two groups at enrolment and at regular time points. The oxygen requirements and the length of hospital stay were also analysed. Overall, 36 of the 40 enrolled infants completed the study: 18 treated with HFNC (mean age 3.2 months, range 1.2-5.4 months) and 18 with low-flow oxygen delivery (mean age 3.6 months, range 1.3-5.0 months). Improvements in the respiratory rate, respiratory effort and ability to feed were significantly faster in the HFNC group than the low-flow oxygen group. The HNFC group needed oxygen supplementation for two days less than the other group and hospital stays were three days shorter. HFNC provided superior clinical outcomes for infants under 12 months with moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis compared to low-flow oxygen. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Saunders, Matthew J.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Zhu, Jingshu; Sklar, Larry A.; Graves, Steven W.


    This protocol describes microsphere-based protease assays for use in flow cytometry and high-throughput screening. This platform measures a loss of fluorescence from the surface of a microsphere due to the cleavage of an attached fluorescent protease substrate by a suitable protease enzyme. The assay format can be adapted to any site or protein specific protease of interest and results can be measured in both real time and as end point fluorescence assays on a flow cytometer. End point assays are easily adapted to microplate format for flow cytometry high-throughput analysis and inhibitor screening. PMID:20938917

  3. Stiffening-induced high pulsatility flow activates endothelial inflammation via a TLR2/NF-κB pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tan

    Full Text Available Stiffening of large arteries is increasingly used as an independent predictor of risk and therapeutic outcome for small artery dysfunction in many diseases including pulmonary hypertension. The molecular mechanisms mediating downstream vascular cell responses to large artery stiffening remain unclear. We hypothesize that high pulsatility flow, induced by large artery stiffening, causes inflammatory responses in downstream pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs through toll-like receptor (TLR pathways. To recapitulate the stiffening effect of large pulmonary arteries that occurs in pulmonary hypertension, ultrathin silicone tubes of variable mechanical stiffness were formulated and were placed in a flow circulatory system. These tubes modulated the simulated cardiac output into pulsatile flows with different pulsatility indices, 0.5 (normal or 1.5 (high. PAECs placed downstream of the tubes were evaluated for their expression of proinflammatory molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and MCP-1, TLR receptors and intracellular NF-κB following flow exposure. Results showed that compared to flow with normal pulsatility, high pulsatility flow induced proinflammatory responses in PAECs, enhanced TLR2 expression but not TLR4, and caused NF-κB activation. Pharmacologic (OxPAPC and siRNA inhibition of TLR2 attenuated high pulsatility flow-induced pro-inflammatory responses and NF-κB activation in PAECs. We also observed that PAECs isolated from small pulmonary arteries of hypertensive animals exhibiting proximal vascular stiffening demonstrated a durable ex-vivo proinflammatory phenotype (increased TLR2, TLR4 and MCP-1 expression. Intralobar PAECs isolated from vessels of IPAH patients also showed increased TLR2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that TLR2/NF-κB signaling mediates endothelial inflammation under high pulsatility flow caused by upstream stiffening, but the role of TLR4 in flow pulsatility-mediated endothelial

  4. Endothelial cell dynamics under pulsating flows: significance of high versus low shear stress slew rates (d(tau)/dt). (United States)

    Hsiai, Tzung K; Cho, Sung K; Honda, Henry M; Hama, Susan; Navab, Mohamad; Demer, Linda L; Ho, Chih-Ming


    Shear stress modulates endothelial cell (EC) remodeling via realignment and elongation. We provide the first evidence that the upstroke slopes of pulsatile flow, defined as shear stress slew rates (positive d(tau)/dt), affect significantly the rates at which ECs remodel. We designed a novel flow system to isolate various shear stress slew rates by precisely controlling the frequency, amplitude, and time-averaged shear stress (tau(ave)) of pulsatile flow. Bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) monolayers were exposed to three conditions: (1) pulsatile flow (1 Hz) at high slew rate (293 dyn/cm2 s), (2) pulsatile flow (1 Hz) at low slew rate (71 dyn/cm2s), and (3) steady laminar flow at d(tau)/dt = 0. All of the three conditions were operated at tau(ave) = 50 dyn/cm2. BAEC elongation and alignment were measured over 17 h. We were able to demonstrate the effects of shear stress slew rates ((tau)/dt) on EC remodeling at a fixed spatial shear stress gradient (d(tau)/dx). We found that pulsatile flow significantly increased the rates at which EC elongated and realigned, compared to steady flow at d(tau)/dt = 0. Furthermore, EC remodeling was faster in response to high than to low slew rates at a given tau(ave).

  5. Active control of massively separated high-speed/base flows with electric arc plasma actuators (United States)

    DeBlauw, Bradley G.

    The current project was undertaken to evaluate the effects of electric arc plasma actuators on high-speed separated flows. Two underlying goals motivated these experiments. The first goal was to provide a flow control technique that will result in enhanced flight performance for supersonic vehicles by altering the near-wake characteristics. The second goal was to gain a broader and more sophisticated understanding of these complex, supersonic, massively-separated, compressible, and turbulent flow fields. The attainment of the proposed objectives was facilitated through energy deposition from multiple electric-arc plasma discharges near the base corner separation point. The control authority of electric arc plasma actuators on a supersonic axisymmetric base flow was evaluated for several actuator geometries, frequencies, forcing modes, duty cycles/on-times, and currents. Initially, an electric arc plasma actuator power supply and control system were constructed to generate the arcs. Experiments were performed to evaluate the operational characteristics, electromagnetic emission, and fluidic effect of the actuators in quiescent ambient air. The maximum velocity induced by the arc when formed in a 5 mm x 1.6 mm x 2 mm deep cavity was about 40 m/s. During breakdown, the electromagnetic emission exhibited a rise and fall in intensity over a period of about 340 ns. After breakdown, the emission stabilized to a near-constant distribution. It was also observed that the plasma formed into two different modes: "high-voltage" and "low-voltage". It is believed that the plasma may be switching between an arc discharge and a glow discharge for these different modes. The two types of plasma do not appear to cause substantial differences on the induced fluidic effects of the actuator. In general, the characterization study provided a greater fundamental understanding of the operation of the actuators, as well as data for computational model comparison. Preliminary investigations

  6. High Lift Common Research Model for Wind Tunnel Testing: An Active Flow Control Perspective (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Melton, Latunia P.; Viken, Sally A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Koklu, Mehti; Hannon, Judith A.; Vatsa, Veer N.


    This paper provides an overview of a research and development effort sponsored by the NASA Advanced Air Transport Technology Project to achieve the required high-lift performance using active flow control (AFC) on simple hinged flaps while reducing the cruise drag associated with the external mechanisms on slotted flaps of a generic modern transport aircraft. The removal of the external fairings for the Fowler flap mechanism could help to reduce drag by 3.3 counts. The main challenge is to develop an AFC system that can provide the necessary lift recovery on a simple hinged flap high-lift system while using the limited pneumatic power available on the aircraft. Innovative low-power AFC concepts will be investigated in the flap shoulder region. The AFC concepts being explored include steady blowing and unsteady blowing operating in the spatial and/or temporal domain. Both conventional and AFC-enabled high-lift configurations were designed for the current effort. The high-lift configurations share the cruise geometry that is based on the NASA Common Research Model, and therefore, are also open geometries. A 10%-scale High Lift Common Research Model (HL-CRM) is being designed for testing at the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel during fiscal year 2018. The overall project plan, status, HL-CRM configurations, and AFC objectives for the wind tunnel test are described.

  7. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) measurement in supersonic flow with 4K high-speed camera (United States)

    Ota, M.; Kurihara, K.; Arimoto, H.; Shida, K.; Inage, T.


    The Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) technique is one of the novel measurement techniques and its application range is very wide. The principle of BOS is similar to that of the conventional schlieren technique, it exploits the bending of light ray caused by a refractive-index change corresponding to the density change in the medium. The BOS technique allows the quantitative measurement of density with very simple experimental setup and proper image analysis. Only a background and a digital camera are required for the experiment, so that even the real scale experiments can be realized. In recent years, the development of the high-speed camera is remarkable and so many high-speed phenomena can now be captured. To realize the precise measurement with BOS technique using high-speed camera, higher resolution (larger number of pixels) is desirable. In this paper, with a technical support from Nobby Tech Ltd., a 4K high-speed camera (4096 × 2160 pixels) is applied to the BOS measurement of the lateral jet/cross flow interaction filed in the supersonic wind tunnel test as a trial of the quantitative density measurement with higher resolution. The measurement system consists of a 4K high-speed camera and a pulsed laser for background illumination. A telecentric optical system is also employed to improve the spatial resolution of the measurement. The measurement results of BOS technique up to 1000 fps with higher resolution are discussed.

  8. MHD Modelling of Coronal Loops: Injection of High-Speed Chromospheric Flows (United States)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.


    Context. Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upward-moving fronts in the corona observed in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are probably not the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. Aims. We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. Methods. We simulated the propagation of a dense 104 K chromospheric jet upward along a coronal loop by means of a 2D cylindrical MHD model that includes gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction, and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool (approximately 0.8 MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet initial speed is 70 km per second, its initial density is 10(exp 11) per cubic centimeter, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We also explored other values of jet speed and density in 1D and different magnetic field values in 2D, as well as the jet propagation in a hotter (approximately 1.5 MK) background loop. Results. While the initial speed of the jet does not allow it to reach the loop apex, a hot shock-front develops ahead of it and travels to the other extreme of the loop. The shock front compresses the coronal plasma and heats it to about 10(exp 6) K. As a result, a bright moving front becomes visible in the 171 Angstrom channel of the SDO/AIA mission. This result generally applies to all the other explored cases, except for the propagation in the hotter loop. Conclusions. For a cool, low-density initial coronal loop, the post-shock plasma ahead of upward chromospheric flows might explain at least part of the observed correspondence between type II spicules and EUV emission excess.

  9. Continuous-flow single-molecule CE with high detection efficiency. (United States)

    Schiro, Perry G; Kuyper, Christopher L; Chiu, Daniel T


    This paper describes the use of two-beam line-confocal detection geometry for measuring the total mobility of individual molecules undergoing continuous-flow CE separation. High-sensitivity single-molecule confocal detection is usually performed with a diffraction limited focal spot (approximately 500 nm in diameter), which necessitates the use of nanometer-sized channels to ensure all molecules flow through the detection volume. To allow for the use of larger channels that are a few micrometers in width, we employed cylindrical optics to define a rectangular illumination area that is diffraction-limited (approximately 500 nm) in width, but a few micrometers in length to match the width of the microchannel. We present detailed studies that compare the performance of this line-confocal detection geometry with the more widely used point-confocal geometry. Overall, we found line-confocal detection to provide the highest combination of signal-to-background ratio and spatial detection efficiency when used with micrometer-sized channels. For example, in a 2 microm wide channel we achieved a 94% overall detection efficiency for single Alexa488 dye molecules when a 2 microm x 0.5 microm illumination area was used, but only 34% detection efficiency with a 0.5 microm-diameter detection spot. To carry out continuous-flow CE, we used two-beam fluorescent cross-correlation spectroscopy where the transit time of each molecule is determined by cross-correlating the fluorescence registered by two spatially offset line-confocal detectors. We successfully separated single molecules of FITC, FITC-tagged glutamate, and FITC-tagged glycine.

  10. Increase of economy of torque flow pump with high specific speed (United States)

    Gusak, A. G.; Krishtop, I. V.; German, V. F.; Baga, V. N.


    Torque flow pumps are widely spread types of energy machines, which are used in majority of modern branches of industry for pumping of dirty media. The main task of researchers of torque flow pumps is increase of such pumps effectiveness for higher feed. Hydraulic losses for torque flow pumps are caused by working process of such pumps and are inevitable. Decrease of losses can be obtained by means of optimization of hydraulic flow part geometry. Modern approach to design of pump outlet introduces new constructive solutions which can increase economy of torque flow pumps. The aim of this research is increase of economy of torque flow pumps by means of application of spatial outlet and investigation of its geometry on pump characteristics. Analytical and numerical methods of liquid flow research for hydraulic flow part of torque flow pump were used in this paper. Moreover, influence of hydraulic flow part geometry of different designs of “Turo” type torque flow pumps outlets on pump characteristics was investigated. Numerical research enabled to study process of energy transfer of torque flow pump and evaluate influence of geometrical dimensions of spatial spiral outlet on its characteristics. Besides numerical research confirmed introduced regularity of peripheral velocity distribution in outlet. Velocity moment distribution in outlet was obtained during implementation of numerical research. Implemented bench tests of torque flow pump prototypes enabled to obtain real characteristics of pump and confirm effectiveness of spatial geometry of outlet application for such pump.

  11. High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, M.


    Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

  12. Capillary flow in porous media under highly reduced gravity investigated through high altitude parabolic aircraft flights and NASA space shuttle flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wassmuth, F. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Stasiuk, E.N. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hart, D. [Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering, St. John' s, NF (Canada); Legros, J.C. [Brussels Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Smirnov, N.N. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Several enhanced oil recovery methods are being developed to economically recover waterflooded residual oil. The challenge is comparable to understanding the mechanisms involved when liquid contaminants in soil are filtered and mixed with groundwater and then transported by convective flows. Multiphase flow and trapping of fluids in porous media are greatly affected by wettability and capillary forces. However, fluid flow in porous media is also strongly governed by gravity effects. In this study, a series of high altitude aircraft parabolic flights were conducted in which capillary flow experiments were performed in porous media using different fluids. Three capillary flow experiments were conducted on a shuttle flight where gravity was not a factor. This paper presents a newly developed finite-difference numerical model for two-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow in a porous medium confined by a horizontal bottom, two vertical boundaries and a free surface. The model describes movement of fluid flow in response to applied pressure gradients. It also considers capillary flow caused by surface tension. The simulator can be used to predict the effect of changing properties such as gravitational acceleration, permeability, pore radii, surface tension, liquid viscosity and wettability. The study showed that interfacial phenomena in highly reduced gravity conditions can be applied to problems associated with fluid handling in various types of space vehicles. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew


    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  14. An Improved Discrete-Time Model for Heterogeneous High-Speed Train Traffic Flow (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Jia, Bin; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Xin-Gang


    This paper aims to present a simulation model for heterogeneous high-speed train traffic flow based on an improved discrete-time model (IDTM). In the proposed simulation model, four train control strategies, including departing strategy, traveling strategy, braking strategy, overtaking strategy, are well defined to optimize train movements. Based on the proposed simulation model, some characteristics of train traffic flow are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the departure time intervals, the station dwell time, the section length, and the ratio of fast trains have different influence on traffic capacity and train average velocity. The results can provide some theoretical support for the strategy making of railway departments. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2012CB725400, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 71222101, the Research Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety under Grant No. RCS2014ZT16, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities No. 2015YJS088, Beijing Jiaotong University

  15. High-angular-resolution NH3 observations of the bipolar flow source near NGC 2071 (United States)

    Takano, T.; Stutzki, J.; Winnewisser, G.; Fukui, Y.


    The bipolar flow source near NGC 2071 in the NH3 (J, K) = (1,1) and (2,2) lines with about 40 arcsec angular resolution is observed using the Effelsberg 100m telescope. The column density distribution of the NH3 molecule shows an elongated structure of about 0.4 pc x 0.15 pc orthogonal to the high velocity CO bipolar flow with a small velocity gradient of about 1.4 km/s per pc along its major axis. The rotation temperature determined from intensity ratio of the (2,2) and the (1,1) lines peaks around the central infrared sources, which implies heating of the ambient cloud by those sources. An analysis of the NH3 profiles suggests that part of the NH3 emission comes from a disturbed, dense gas probably stripped off from the quiescent clumpy clouds by the outflowing material from the central infrared source(s). This may be interpreted that the elongated structure of the dense cloud is a result of the disintegration of a parental cloud by the bipolar outflow rather than that the structure collimates an isotropic outflow into the bipolar directions.

  16. Segmented flow generation by chip reactors for highly parallelized cell cultivation (United States)

    Grodrian, A.; Metze, J.; Henkel, Thomas; Roth, M.; Kohler, Johann M.


    Micro system technology offers convenient tools for the production of handling devices for small liquid volumes which can be used in cell cultivation. Here, a modular system for the rapid generation of cell suspension aliquotes is presented. The system is used to produce and analyze high numbers of strongly separated cultural volumes. Selected clones may be retrieved from the system. Therefore, the principle of segmented flow is applies. Portions of aqueous culture medium containing one cell or very small cell ensembles are separated from each other by a nonmiscible liquid like dodecane or mineral oil. In addition, the oil separates the cultivation droplets from the innerside of the walls of chip channels and capillaries. This way, compatibility problems between cell wall surfaces and the chemical character of technical walls are excluded. The separated cultivation droplets are guided by micro flow transportation in different channel and chamber topologies. The whole system has the character of a serially working cell processing system. The aliquot generation can be speeded up to frequencies of about 30 Hz in each micro channel. That means, that about 105 individual cultural volumes can be produced per hour or about 2 million per day.

  17. Modelling stock order flows with non-homogeneous intensities from high-frequency data (United States)

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.; Korolev, Victor Yu.; Zeifman, Alexander I.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Chertok, Andrey V.; Evstafyev, Artem I.; Korchagin, Alexander Yu.


    A micro-scale model is proposed for the evolution of such information system as the limit order book in financial markets. Within this model, the flows of orders (claims) are described by doubly stochastic Poisson processes taking account of the stochastic character of intensities of buy and sell orders that determine the price discovery mechanism. The proposed multiplicative model of stochastic intensities makes it possible to analyze the characteristics of the order flows as well as the instantaneous proportion of the forces of buyers and sellers, that is, the imbalance process, without modelling the external information background. The proposed model gives the opportunity to link the micro-scale (high-frequency) dynamics of the limit order book with the macro-scale models of stock price processes of the form of subordinated Wiener processes by means of limit theorems of probability theory and hence, to use the normal variance-mean mixture models of the corresponding heavy-tailed distributions. The approach can be useful in different areas with similar properties (e.g., in plasma physics).

  18. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB (United States)

    Avilov, Mikhail; Aaron, Adam; Amroussia, Aida; Bergez, Wladimir; Boehlert, Carl; Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam; Colin, Catherine; Durantel, Florent; Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Graves, Van; Grygiel, Clara; Kramer, Jacob; Mittig, Wolfgang; Monnet, Isabelle; Patel, Harsh; Pellemoine, Frederique; Ronningen, Reginald; Schein, Mike


    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from 16O to 238U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  19. A high-resolution DNS study of compressible flow past an LPT blade in a cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Ranjan, Rajesh; Narasimha, Roddam


    Flow past a low pressure turbine blade in a cascade at $Re \\approx 52000$ and angle of incidence $\\alpha = 45.5^{0}$ is solved using a code developed in-house for solving 3D compressible Navier-Stokes equations. This code, named ANUROOP, has been developed in the finite volume framework using kinetic energy preserving second order central differencing scheme for calculating fluxes, and is compatible with hybrid grids. ANUROOP was verified and validated against several test cases with Mach numbers ranging from 0.1 (Taylor-Green vortex) to 1.5 (compressible turbulent channel flow). The code was found to be robust and stable, and the kinetic energy decay obeys the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A hybrid grid, with a high resolution hexahedral orthogonal mesh in the boundary layer and unstructured (also hexahedral) elements in the rest of the domain, is used for the turbine blade simulation. Total grid size (160 million) is approximately an order of magnitude higher than in previous simulations for the sam...

  20. Vertical multiphase flow correlations for high production rates and large tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggour, M.A.; Al-Yousef, H.Y. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Muraikhi, A.J.


    Numerous correlations exist for predicting pressure drop in vertical multiphase flow. These correlations, however, were all developed and tested under limited operating conditions that do not match the high production rates and large tubulars normally found in the Middle East fields. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of existing correlations and modifications of some correlations to determine and recommend the best correlation or correlations for various field conditions. More than 400 field data sets covering tubing sizes from 2 3/8 to 7 inches, oil rates up to 23,200 B/D, water cuts up to 95%, and gas/oil ratio (GOR) up to 927 scf/STB were used in this study. Considering all data combined, the Beggs and Brill correlation provided the best pressure predictions. However, the Hagedorn and Brown correlation was better for water cuts above 80%, while the Hasan and Kabir model was better for total liquid rates above 20,000 B/D. The Aziz correlation was significantly improved when the Orkiszewski flow-pattern transition criteria were used.