WorldWideScience

Sample records for high flow alarm

  1. Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm - Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS

  2. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a) A...

  3. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Manabu; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tani, Mamoru; Kobashi, Shuichi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  4. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Manabu; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tani, Mamoru; Kobashi, Shuichi

    1997-01-01

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Development of an alarm analysis system based on multi-level flow models for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiande; Yang Ming; Zhang Zhijian

    2008-01-01

    An alarm analysis system based on Multi-level Flow Models (MFM) was developed for a PWR NPP. By automatically identifying the primary root causes in complex fault situations, the workload of the operators can be reduced. In addition, because MFM also provides a set of graphical symbols that implies causalities, operators can confirm diagnosis results by semiotic analysis, and hence the understandability of the process of alarm analysis as well as the reliability of maintenance task can be increased. 19 cases of simulation data from RELAP5/MOD2 code were utilized for evaluating the performance of the proposed system. The simulation results show that the proposed alarm analysis system has a good ability to detect and diagnose accidents earlier in time before reactor trip. (authors)

  6. Alarming decline and range reduction of the highly threatened Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Great Bustard Otis tarda survey carried out in spring 2015 in Morocco confirmed the decline of this highly endangered population. Bustards were only seen at two of the seven leks occupied ten years ago. The total number of birds counted was 40-44, which represents a 40% decline over the last decade. The sex-ratio ...

  7. Alarm radiation dosimeter with improved integrating pulse ionization chamber and high voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Rochelle, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    An alarm dosimeter is described which features an improved integrating pulse ionization chamber of the type containing an hermetically sealed gas diode. Improved operation and miniaturization of the chamber are made possible by a ringing choke converter high voltage supply having a ripple-type output that insures discharge of the gas diode. (author)

  8. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  9. Intelligent software solution for reliable high efficiency/low false alarm border monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, W.; Iwatschenko, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Radioactivity Monitoring at border stations requires detection systems that are reliably operating under special conditions such as: different types and shapes of vehicles; different velocities; stop and go traffic. ESM has developed a solution that achieves under all such conditions the lowest possible detection limit and avoids false alarms generated by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). NBR (Natural Background Reduction) data evaluation - One of the main reasons for the success of the ESM gate monitors is the unique and proprietary NBR-technology of instantaneous discrimination of artificial and natural gamma radiation using large area plastic scintillators. Thus the FHT 1388 gate monitors show 2 unique features: Possible setting of different alarm levels for NORM and artificial gamma sources; Self adjusting compensation of the background shielding of the truck in respect to the detection of artificial sources. Both properties are a preposition for the highly sensitive detection of artificial gamma sources. While at scrap yards and steel mills usually all radioactivity (including NORM) must be detected, the main object of interest in respect to the measuring task at border stations, airports or harbours is clearly the detection of even very small signals of artificial radioactivity. The reliable rejection of the influence of natural radioactivity is of special importance in the case of detection of illicit trafficking, since construction material, fertilisers or soil often lead to much higher detector signals than the alarming levels for dangerous sources of interest. Beside the varying content of natural radioactivity in the load of a truck, different loads and trucks show different influence on the reduction of the ambient radiation due to the passing vehicle. Thus software approaches assuming a specific reduction of the background count rate (regarding relative magnitude and shape) must fail when trucks of different shape and load

  10. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  11. Advanced alarm management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Advanced Alarm Management System (AWARE) is one of the Man-Machine Design Interfaces (MMI) which has great flexibility with regard to hardware type and configuration, alarm system concept, plant scope, engineering scope and installation. The AWARE System provides the capability to better manage the quantity prioritization and presentation of real-time process alarm messages in the control room. The messages are specific, precise and dynamic. The AWARE System can provide a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must address at any one time, thus making the alarm message system a useful tool for the operators during situations that normally produce a high volume of messages as well as improving the clarity of the presentation of process abnormalities during small disturbances. The operating staff is now provided with the basis for a better understanding of the current plant state and for taking the appropriate control actions. (2 refs., 3 figs.)

  12. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  13. TMACS test procedure TP001: Alarm management. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure addresses the Alarm Management requirements of the TMACS. The features to be tested are: real-time alarming on high and low level and discrete alarms, equipment alarms, dead-band filtering, alarm display color coding, alarm acknowledgement, and alarm logging

  14. Development of radiation alarm monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung Jae Song; Myung Chan Lee; Jung Kwan Son

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Alarm Monitor is developed domestically in order to protect radiation workers from over exposure. The Radiation Alarm Monitor with microprocessor installed can record the information of radiation field before and after accidents. It can also provide the data to analyze the accident and to set a counterplan. It features a wide detection range of radiation (I OmR/h - I OOR/h), radiation work and data storage, portability, high precision (5%) due to calibration, and adaptation of a powerful alarm system. In order to protect workers from over exposure, light and sound alarm had been designed to initiate when accident occurs such as an unexpected change of radiation field such as radiation rate and accumulated dosed between 90 min. before the alarm and 30 min. after the alarm. In addition, the Radiation Alarm Monitor interfaces with computer so that the accident can be analyzed. After the testing conditions in other countries for the Radiation Alarm Monitor were compared, the most stringent test, ANSI N42. 17-A, was selected. The performance testing was car-ried out under various conditions of temperature, humidity, vibration and electromagnetic wave hindrance by Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). As a result, the Radiation Alan-n Monitor passed all test. Also, for the Radiation Alarm Monitor, environmental adaptability tests under the environmental conditions of NPP sites had been performed. The Radiation Alan-n Monitor had been reviewed by radiation workers at NPPs and their opinions had been collected. Operating procedure will be written and distributed to every NPP sites. Radiation Alarm Monitor will be modified for use under the specific environmental conditions of each site. It will be distributed to NPP sites and will be used by radiation workers

  15. Bilevel alarm monitoring multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes the operation of the Bilevel Alarm Monitoring Multiplexer used in the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) to transfer and control alarm signals being sent to the Nova 2 computer, the Memory Controlled Data Processor, and its own integral Display Panel. The multiplexer can handle 48 alarm channels and format the alarms into binary formats compatible with the destination of the alarm data

  16. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  17. High flow ceramic pot filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J

    2017-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h -1 ), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otazo, J; Fernandez, R

    2000-01-01

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  19. Optimal Alarm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  20. Charge-flow structures as polymeric early-warning fire alarm devices. M.S. Thesis; [metal oxide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechen, C. M.; Senturia, S. D.

    1977-01-01

    The charge-flow transistor (CFT) and its applications for fire detection and gas sensing were investigated. The utility of various thin film polymers as possible sensing materials was determined. One polymer, PAPA, showed promise as a relative humidity sensor; two others, PFI and PSB, were found to be particularly suitable for fire detection. The behavior of the charge-flow capacitor, which is basically a parallel-plate capacitor with a polymer-filled gap in the metallic tip electrode, was successfully modeled as an RC transmission line. Prototype charge-flow transistors were fabricated and tested. The effective threshold voltage of this metal oxide semiconductor was found to be dependent on whether surface or bulk conduction in the thin film was dominant. Fire tests with a PFI-coated CFT indicate good sensitivity to smouldering fires.

  1. A questionnaire comparison of two alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Steven G.

    1997-11-01

    A questionnaire was developed, based on guidelines for alarm system design given in NUREG/CR-6105. The intentions were both to develop a subjective instrument for rating the effectiveness of alarm systems and to learn lessons on alarm system design from a comparison of two systems. The questionnaire was administered to reactor operations staff at two locations with different alarm systems embedded in a simulation of the same underlying PWR power plant: Loviisa NPP and Halden Man-Machine Laboratory. The questionnaire, considered as a measuring instrument, had good to high reliability and moderate to good content validity. The questionnaire is considered suitable for further use in the shortened form resulting from this study. Further work is also recommended. The degree of reliability and validity also lend a degree of validation to the NUREG guidelines. The questionnaire was able to show differences between ratings of the two alarm systems. The Loviisa system showed more consistency with other control room features and was better at drawing the operators' attention to important alarms. Both systems were not rated particularly well on alarm prioritisation and spurious alarms. The Halden system was better at showing naturally occurring relationships between alarms. Some of these differences may have been due to the subjects' greater familiarity with the Loviisa alarm system. The results nevertheless show that the questionnaire can measure subjective responses to alarm systems. (author)

  2. Alarm management for storage and transportation terminals; Gerenciamento de alarmes para terminais de transferencia e estocagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldman, Rafael Noac [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, in many industrial segments, it has been taken into account the issues related to the high amount of alarms that are announced in the control rooms, even if the industrial process is under normal conditions. Recent studies and surveys have shown that the three major problems related to it are: alarms that remain active during normal operation; alarms that remain chattering during an operational period; the phenomenon called Alarm flood, that occurs when an extensive amount of alarms is announced and the operator does not have enough time to take effective actions. In order to reduce or to eliminate the two above mentioned causes, alarm analysis and housekeeping, called Alarm Rationalization, have been efficient in major cases, because such facts occur mainly due to inadequate limits definition and/or equipment and instruments out of service or in maintenance. Such alarms are called in the literature as bad-actors or villains, and their occurrences may reach up to 50% of the daily total amount of alarms. This paper aims to present the main results of a project named Alarm Management for Transfer and Storage Terminals. The project development is based on two different terminal surveys, in order not only to identify the most frequent causes of undesirable alarms, but also to generate design standards. The main phases of the project are: alarm rationalization based on bad-actors detection; generate a set of design and operation standards; generate an Alarm Philosophy document for the Terminals. (author)

  3. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  4. Alarm pocket dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, H; Kitamura, S [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    This instrument is a highly reliable pocket dosimeter which has been developed for personal monitoring use. The dosimeter generates an alarm sound when the exposure dose reaches a preset value. Using a tiny GM tube for a radiation detector and measuring the integrated dose by means of a digital counting method, this new pocket dosimeter has high accuracy and stability. Using a sealed alkali storage battery for the power supply, and with an automatic control charger, this dosimetry system is easy and economical to operate and maintain. Detectable radiation by the dosimeter are X and ..gamma.. rays. Standard preset dose values are 30, 50, 80 and 100 mR. Detection accuracy is betwen +10% and -20%. The dosimeter is continuously usable for more than 14 hours after charging for 2 hours. The dosimeter has the following features; good realiability, shock-proof loud and clear alarm sound, the battery charger also serves as a stock container for the dosimeters, and no switching operation required for the power supply due to the internal automatic switch. Therefore, the dosimetry system is very useful for personal monitoring management in many radiation industry establishments.

  5. High flow ceramic pot filters

    OpenAIRE

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6–19 L h−1), but initial LRVs for E. coli o...

  6. Functional alarming and information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper deals with two facets of the design and efficient utilisation by operating personnel of computer-based interfaces for monitoring and the supervisory control of complex industrial systems - e.g., power stations, chemical plants, etc. These are alarming and information retrieval both of which are extremely sensitive to computerisation. For example, the advent of computers for display requires that some means of assuring easy and rapid access to large amounts of relevant stored information be found. In this paper, alarming and information retrieval are linked together through a multilevel functional description of the target plant. This representation serves as a framework for structuring the access to information as well as defining associated ''alarms'' at the various descriptive levels. Particular attention is paid to the level where mass and energy flows and balances are relevant. It is shown that the number of alarms here is reduced considerably while information about content and interrelationships is enhanced - which at the same time eases the retrieval problem. (author)

  7. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  8. Reducing false asystole alarms in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekimpe, Remi; Heldt, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    High rates of false monitoring alarms in intensive care can desensitize staff and therefore pose a significant risk to patient safety. Like other critical arrhythmia alarms, asystole alarms require immediate attention by the care providers as a true asystole event can be acutely life threatening. Here, it is illustrated that most false asystole alarms can be attributed to poor signal quality, and we propose and evaluate an algorithm to identify data windows of poor signal quality and thereby help suppress false asystole alarms. The algorithm combines intuitive signal-quality features (degree of signal saturation and baseline wander) and information from other physiological signals that might be available. Algorithm training and testing was performed on the MIMIC II and 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge databases, respectively. The algorithm achieved an alarm specificity of 81.0% and sensitivity of 95.4%, missing only one out of 22 true asystole alarms. On a separate neonatal data set, the algorithm was able to reject 89.7% (890 out of 992) of false asystole alarms while keeping all 22 true events. The results show that the false asystole alarm rate can be significantly reduced through basic signal quality evaluation.

  9. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. High flow ceramic pot filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more

  11. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  12. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strączkiewicz, M; Barszcz, T; Jabłoński, A

    2015-01-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine. (paper)

  13. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  14. Security Alarm for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ismail

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A security alarm for motorcycle has been developed. This equipment consists of two parts. Part one is as a remote control, where it produces a radio signal with frequency of 37.5 MHz to turn on (activate or to turn off alarm. Part two consists of sensor, receiver to receive signal from part one, and alarm. This part two will be attached to motorcycle while part one will be kept as a key by the owner of motorcycle. This equipment has been tested in the laboratory and it worked well. When part two is activated by pushing the “set button” in part one, then any movement of part two (as a movement of motor cycle by about 20 cm from initial position will cause the alarm sounds continuously. The alarm will be off whenever the “reset button” in part one is pushed. Part one (a remote control can activate part two with a maximum of twelve meter separation apart. This shows that the equipment can be used as a security alarm to prevent the motorcycle to be stolen in the future.

  15. Criticality alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    In a critical alarm device comprising an n-number of radiation detectors and a 2/3 logic module, the 2/3 logic module comprises a rectifier inputting an output of an AC power and outputting it as a full wave-rectified, DC voltage, an analog/digital converter inputting the output from the rectifier, putting it to analog/digital conversion and continuously storing it into a memory, a latch circuit inputting critical signals from the 2/3 logic and holding them and outputting latch signals, and a means for outputting timing signals for data storage to a memory based on clocks at a predetermined period and outputting timing signals for stopping the data storage to the memory after passing a predetermined period from the inputting time point if the latch signals are inputted from the latch circuit. Then, judgement whether the generation of criticality is caused by an actual radiation detection or by noises from the power source is enabled, to provide extremely high reliability. (N.H.)

  16. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general......: Educational level influence contact with specialist care among patients with gynecological cancer alarm symptoms. Future studies should investigate inequalities in access to the secondary healthcare system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Interior intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system

  18. The LEP alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike alarm systems for previous accelerators, the LEP alarm system caters not only for the operation of the accelerator but also for technical services and provides the direct channel for personnel safety. It was commissioned during 1989 and has seen a continued development up to the present day. The system, comprising over 50 computers including 5 different platforms and 4 different operating systems, is described. The hierarchical structure of the software is outlined from the interface to the equipment groups, through the front end computers to the central server, and finally to the operator consoles. Reasons are given for choosing a conventional, as opposed to a 'knowledge based' approach. Finally, references are made to a prototype real time expert system for surveying the power converters of LEP, which was conducted during 1990 as part of the alarm development program. (author)

  19. Criticality accident alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the ''minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% 235 U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs

  20. Criticality alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention is utilized, for example, to a reprocessing facility for storing and processing nuclear fuels and measures and controls the nuclear fuel assembly system so as not to exceed criticality. That is, a conventional criticality alarm device applies a predetermined processing to neutron fluxes generated from a nuclear fuel assembly system containing nuclear fuels and outputs an alarm. The device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux supply source for increasing and decreasing neutron fluxes periodically and supplying them to nuclear fuel assemblies, (2) a detector for detecting neutron fluxes in the nuclear fuel assemblies, (3) a critical state judging section for judging the critical state of the nuclear fuel assemblies based on the periodically changing signals obtained from the detector (2) and (4) an alarm section for outputting criticality alarms depending on the result of the judgement. The device of the present invention can accurately recognize the critical state of the nuclear fuel assembly system and can forecast reaching of the nuclear fuel assembly to criticality or prompt neutron critical state. (I.S.)

  1. Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices

  2. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache R , IIS R , TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape R , Microsoft Internet Explorer R , Mozilla Firefox R , Opera R , and others. (authors)

  3. An experimental evaluation of alarm processing and display characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Brown, W.; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G.Jr.; Persensky, J.; Wachtel, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance. operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition. operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. Numerous strengths

  4. The false alarm hypothesis: Food allergy is associated with high dietary advanced glycation end-products and proglycating dietary sugars that mimic alarmins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Masilamani, Madhan; Li, Xiu-Min; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of food allergy has increased dramatically in the last few decades in westernized developed countries. We propose that the Western lifestyle and diet promote innate danger signals and immune responses through production of "alarmins." Alarmins are endogenous molecules secreted from cells undergoing nonprogrammed cell death that signal tissue and cell damage. High molecular group S (HMGB1) is a major alarmin that binds to the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are also present in foods. We propose the "false alarm" hypothesis, in which AGEs that are present in or formed from the food in our diet are predisposing to food allergy. The Western diet is high in AGEs, which are derived from cooked meat, oils, and cheese. AGEs are also formed in the presence of a high concentration of sugars. We propose that a diet high in AGEs and AGE-forming sugars results in misinterpretation of a threat from dietary allergens, promoting the development of food allergy. AGEs and other alarmins inadvertently prime innate signaling through multiple mechanisms, resulting in the development of allergic phenotypes. Current hypotheses and models of food allergy do not adequately explain the dramatic increase in food allergy in Western countries. Dietary AGEs and AGE-forming sugars might be the missing link, a hypothesis supported by a number of convincing epidemiologic and experimental observations, as discussed in this article. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations on high speed MHD liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Takasuke; Kamiyama, Shin-ichi.

    1982-01-01

    Lately, the pressure drop problem of MHD two-phase flow in a duct has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in conjunction with the problems of liquid metal MHD two-phase flow power-generating cycle or of liquid metal boiling two-phase flow in the blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor. Though many research results have been reported so far for MHD single-phase flow, the hydrodynamic studies on high speed two-phase flow are reported only rarely, specifically the study dealing with the generation of cavitation is not found. In the present investigation, the basic equation was derived, analyzing the high speed MHD liquid flow in a diverging duct as the one-dimensional flow of homogeneous two-phase fluid of small void ratio. Furthermore, the theoretical solution for the effect of magnetic field on cavitation-generating conditions was tried. The pressure distribution in MHD flow in a duct largely varies with load factor, and even if the void ratio is small, the pressure distribution in two-phase flow is considerably different from that in single-phase flow. Even if the MHD two-phase flow in a duct is subsonic flow at the throat, the critical conditions may be achieved sometimes in a diverging duct. It was shown that cavitation is more likely to occur as magnetic field becomes more intense if it is generated downstream of the throat. This explains the experimental results qualitatively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Alarm personal dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunomiya, Tomoya; Yamauchi, Hideshi; Shibata, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    Fuji Electric advanced the development of the conventional alarm personal dosemeter (APD) by adopting JIS Z 4312 (2002), which reflects IEC61526 (1998), and by improving the radiation performance characteristics, electromagnetic performance characteristics and mechanical performance characteristics of the APD (acquiring a CE marking). This new dosemeter will target overseas market in the future. The APD is a suitable dosemeter for detecting and monitoring radiation exposure to personnel working in the controlled areas of nuclear facilities, such as nuclear power stations. The APD product line includes 'gamma ray', 'gamma ray + beta ray' and 'gamma ray + neutron' models. (author)

  7. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and an extensive discussion of the various approaches used in predicting both free shear and wall bounded flows is presented. Experimental measurement techniques common to the compressible flow regime are introduced with particular emphasis on the unique challenges presented by high speed flows. Both experimental and numerical simulation work is supplied throughout to provide the reader with an overall perspective of current tre...

  8. Ecological alarm system for Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehser, L.

    1984-05-01

    At Itaipu, on the Rio Parana, Brazil and Paraguay are constructing the world's largest hydro-electric power plant with a capacity seven times as high as that of Assuan. An information system is intended to give fair warning in case of threatening ecological conditions. The computer-supported alarm system had four objectives: 1. presentation of the present ecological situation; 2. evaluation of the ecological risks; 3. warning about ecological deficits; 4. suggestions for establishing ecological stability. In a first step the available inventory data concerning soil, topography, vegetation and water were evaluated by expert groups according to their risk grade (0-4) and ecological weight (1-10). The product of these evaluations indicates the ecological deficit (0-40). At a threshold value of 30, the information system automatically signals ecological alarm and locates the centre of danger via computer-plotted maps and tables. The necessary data are supplied periodically by selected measurement stations. Quantification of ecological facts enables the persons who are responsible for decisions at Itaipu to recognize, avoid, or diminish elements of danger even if they have little or no ecological knowledge. The file of data that has been compiled so far should be extended parallel with the development in the Itaipu area. With the help of factor analysis connections of cause and effect can be detected in this extremely complex reservoir system which has hardly been explored yet.

  9. Alarm management a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hollifield, Bill R

    2011-01-01

    In this second edition, Alarm Management: A Comprehensive Guide, various problems of alarm systems are covered with precise guidance on how they come about and how to effectively correct them. It is written by individuals with vast experience in the different plants, processes, and environments requiring effective alarm management. The second edition is filled with good examples and explanations of procedures, with practical lists and tips on how one should proceed. It is based on hundreds of successful projects.

  10. Alarmingly high level of alcohol use among fishermen: A community based survey from a coastal area of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Thekkur, Pruthu; Manoj Kumar, A; Ramaswamy, Gomathi; Bharadwaj, Balaji; Roy, Gautam

    2016-08-01

    Though studies from western world have reported high prevalence of alcohol use among fishermen, there is lack of information from developing world. Hence this study was carried out among fishermen in a coastal area of southern India to 1) determine the prevalence of alcohol use among fishermen 2) describe the pattern of alcohol use 3) identify factors associated with alcohol use. A community based cross-sectional study was carried out among fishermen in a coastal village of Puducherry, India. House to hose survey was conducted, fishermen aged above 18 years and involved in catching fish at least once in last three months, were included. Data on age, marital status, education, monthly income, duration in fishing occupation, owning a boat or wager, frequency of fishing per month/week, number of hours spent in sea, alcohol use in past one year, age at initiation, type of alcohol drink and presence of alcohol users in family. In total, 304 participants were interviewed. Mean (SD) age of the participants was 41 (11) and 82% were involved in fishing for more than 10 years. Of 304 participants, 241 (79%) reported alcohol use in past one year. Of 241 participants who used alcohol, 89% reported alcohol consumption during fishing activity. In multivariate analysis, alcohol use in other family members was independently associated with alcohol use (aRR 21.4; 95% CI 6.8-67.4). Very high prevalence of alcohol use is seen among fishermen. Of those who consume alcohol, nine out of ten use during fishing activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...

  12. Alarm management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Elm, W.C.; Lipner, M.H.; Butterworth, G.E.; Easter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    An alarm management system is described, comprising: a light water pressurized nuclear power plant; sensors coupled to the plant indicating the state of the plant; a sensor signal processor, operatively connected to the sensors, for producing state signals indicating the state of the sensors monitoring the power plant from the sensor signals and for combining the state signals using rule based algorithms to produce abnormality indication signals; a message processor, operatively connected to the sensor signal processor for receiving the abnormality indication signals; a spatially dedicated parallel display for each function, operatively connected to the message processor, for displaying the portion of the messages simultaneously; and a serial display, operatively connected to the message processor, for displaying the message in the queues in priority order within category within function upon request, the message processor outputting messages from the queue to the parallel display as display space becomes available on the parallel display due to an abnormality being resolved

  13. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....

  14. Line supervision of alarm communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chritton, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explain the role and application of alarm communication link supervision in security systems such as for nuclear facilities. The vulnerabilities of the various types of alarm communication links will be presented. Throughout the paper, an effort has been made to describe only those technologies commercially available and to avoid speculative theoretical solutions

  15. Alarm processing - Ways to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirus, D [EDF - Septen Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleires, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    1997-09-01

    After a brief presentation of the main characteristics an efficient alarm system should have, a presentation of the N4 alarm processing and presentation is described in terms of reduction in alarm occurrence, alarm handling and operator presentation. The EDF experiments on the future alarm processing expected for the next generation of the French nuclear plants are then presented. This alarm system will manage the alarms functionally in order to present to the operators the real consequences on the whole plant of a dedicated alarm and try to imbed deeply the alarm presentation within the operating formats and the procedures. (author).

  16. Alarm processing - Ways to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirus, D.

    1997-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the main characteristics an efficient alarm system should have, a presentation of the N4 alarm processing and presentation is described in terms of reduction in alarm occurrence, alarm handling and operator presentation. The EDF experiments on the future alarm processing expected for the next generation of the French nuclear plants are then presented. This alarm system will manage the alarms functionally in order to present to the operators the real consequences on the whole plant of a dedicated alarm and try to imbed deeply the alarm presentation within the operating formats and the procedures. (author)

  17. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.H.; Sitton, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    An improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an ac motor or other electrical load is described. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage

  18. Modelling of high-enthalpy, high-Mach number flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrez, G; Lani, A; Panesi, M; Chazot, O; Deconinck, H

    2009-01-01

    A review is made of the computational models of high-enthalpy flows developed over the past few years at the von Karman Institute and Universite Libre de Bruxelles, for the modelling of high-enthalpy hypersonic (re-)entry flows. Both flows in local thermo-chemical equilibrium (LTE) and flows in thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) are considered. First, the physico-chemical models are described, i.e. the set of conservation laws, the thermodynamics, transport phenomena and chemical kinetics models. Particular attention is given to the correct modelling of elemental (LTE flows) and species (chemical non-equilibrium-CNEQ-flows) transport. The numerical algorithm, based on a state-of-the-art finite volume discretization, is then briefly described. Finally, selected examples are included to illustrate the capabilities of the developed solver. (review article)

  19. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  20. Numerical modelling of flow pattern for high swirling flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the interaction of two coaxial swirling jets. High swirl burners are suitable for lean flames and produce low emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the isothermal behaviour of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model is a Total Variation Diminishing and PISO is used to pressure velocity coupling. Transient analysis let identify the non-axisymmetric region of reverse flow. The center of instantaneous azimuthal velocities is not located in the axis of the chamber. The temporal sampling evidences this center spins around the axis of the device forming the precessing vortex core (PVC whose Strouhal numbers are more than two for Swirl numbers of one. Influence of swirl number evidences strong swirl numbers are precursor of large vortex breakdown. Influence of conical diffusers evidence the reduction of secondary flows associated to boundary layer separation.

  1. Some points of advanced alarm system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.

    1977-01-01

    A description of some of the more relevant questions relating to advanced alarm systems for nuclear power plant installations. The development of such alarm systems embodies three main tasks: development of formal alarm handling methods, design of alarm patterns, development of alarm analysis systems. The major aspects of these tests are dealt with and the close relation between the alarm analysis and the plant disturbance analysis procedure is emphasized. (author)

  2. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  3. Partial Cavity Flows at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiharju, Simo; Elbing, Brian; Wiggins, Andrew; Dowling, David; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Partial cavity flows created for friction drag reduction were examined on a large-scale. Partial cavities were investigated at Reynolds numbers up to 120 million, and stable cavities with frictional drag reduction of more than 95% were attained at optimal conditions. The model used was a 3 m wide and 12 m long flat plate with a plenum on the bottom. To create the partial cavity, air was injected at the base of an 18 cm backwards-facing step 2.1 m from the leading edge. The geometry at the cavity closure was varied for different flow speeds to optimize the closure of the cavity. Cavity gas flux, thickness, frictional loads, and cavity pressures were measured over a range of flow speeds and air injection fluxes. High-speed video was used extensively to investigate the unsteady three dimensional cavity closure, the overall cavity shape and oscillations.

  4. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.; Susnic, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2004-01-01

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  5. Production of sensitivity and false alarm rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zijie; Kang Wu; Chu Chengsheng; Hao Fanhua; Liu Xiaoya; Cao Lin; Hu Yongbo; Gong Jian; Xiang Yongchun; Zhang Jianhua; Yang Xiangdong

    2007-01-01

    The false alarm rate and sensitivity in nuclear material monitoring system are affected by alarm principle. Two different alarm principles are studied with theory and experiment analysis in this paper. Our research shows that theory analysis and experiment result are accordant very much. This study provides technology support for designing better alarm principle in nuclear material monitoring system. (authors)

  6. Reduction of false arrhythmia alarms using signal selection and machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerikäinen, L.M.; Vanschoren, J.; Rooijakkers, M.J.; Vullings, R.; Aarts, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that classifies whether a generated cardiac arrhythmia alarm is true or false. The large number of false alarms in intensive care is a severe issue. The noise peaks caused by alarms can be high and in a noisy environment nurses can experience stress and

  7. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs

  8. DTR, Taut Wire System: An alarm barrier with experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Taut Wire Fence Alarm System concept was developed and introduced more that fifteen years ago in Israel. A sudden expansion of the nations's border lines, the difficulty to monitor intrusions along those elongated lines and the need for timely as well as accurate armed response to an intrusion attempt dictated the need for an alarming barrier. Traditionally, protection of perimeters was accomplished by the installation of a fence or other type obstacles (man made or natural) and surveillance by manned patrols, fixed observation posts, and/or electronic devices. Defense planners recognized therefore the need for an alarming barrier. A concentrated effort by scientists solved the problem by developing the first Taut Wire Fence Alarm System in a configuration of an alarm barrier. The system was specified to have an extremely low false alarm rate (FAR/NAR), high probability of detection, the capability to follow various terrains, operability in a wide range of environmental conditions, a capability to delay an intruder, ease of installation by unskilled labor, and low maintenance requirements. The authors try here to explain the various constraints and considerations given during the design stages of the Taut Wire Alarm System so as to bring the present magnitude of users to a better understanding of the system's operation

  9. Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1980-01-01

    The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region

  10. Homogenization of High-Contrast Brinkman Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2015-04-16

    Modeling porous flow in complex media is a challenging problem. Not only is the problem inherently multiscale but, due to high contrast in permeability values, flow velocities may differ greatly throughout the medium. To avoid complicated interface conditions, the Brinkman model is often used for such flows [O. Iliev, R. Lazarov, and J. Willems, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 1350--1372]. Instead of permeability variations and contrast being contained in the geometric media structure, this information is contained in a highly varying and high-contrast coefficient. In this work, we present two main contributions. First, we develop a novel homogenization procedure for the high-contrast Brinkman equations by constructing correctors and carefully estimating the residuals. Understanding the relationship between scales and contrast values is critical to obtaining useful estimates. Therefore, standard convergence-based homogenization techniques [G. A. Chechkin, A. L. Piatniski, and A. S. Shamev, Homogenization: Methods and Applications, Transl. Math. Monogr. 234, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2007, G. Allaire, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 23 (1992), pp. 1482--1518], although a powerful tool, are not applicable here. Our second point is that the Brinkman equations, in certain scaling regimes, are invariant under homogenization. Unlike in the case of Stokes-to-Darcy homogenization [D. Brown, P. Popov, and Y. Efendiev, GEM Int. J. Geomath., 2 (2011), pp. 281--305, E. Marusic-Paloka and A. Mikelic, Boll. Un. Mat. Ital. A (7), 10 (1996), pp. 661--671], the results presented here under certain velocity regimes yield a Brinkman-to-Brinkman upscaling that allows using a single software platform to compute on both microscales and macroscales. In this paper, we discuss the homogenized Brinkman equations. We derive auxiliary cell problems to build correctors and calculate effective coefficients for certain velocity regimes. Due to the boundary effects, we construct

  11. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Ekaterina N.

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good 'alarm philosophy' on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  12. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Robin; Thorpe, Richard; Wilson, John

    2004-01-01

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice

  13. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Robin [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: enquiries@curvaceous.com; Thorpe, Richard [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom); Wilson, John [Curvaceous Software Limited, P.O. Box 43, Gerrards Cross, Bucks SL98UX (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-11

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice.

  14. A new method for defining and managing process alarms and for correcting process operation when an alarm occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robin; Thorpe, Richard; Wilson, John

    2004-11-11

    A new mathematical treatment of alarms that considers them as multi-variable interactions between process variables has provided the first-ever method to calculate values for alarm limits. This has resulted in substantial reductions in false alarms and hence in alarm annunciation rates in field trials. It has also unified alarm management, process control and product quality control into a single mathematical framework so that operations improvement and hence economic benefits are obtained at the same time as increased process safety. Additionally, an algorithm has been developed that advises what changes should be made to Manipulable process variables to clear an alarm. The multi-variable Best Operating Zone at the heart of the method is derived from existing historical data using equation-free methods. It does not require a first-principles process model or an expensive series of process identification experiments. Integral with the method is a new format Process Operator Display that uses only existing variables to fully describe the multi-variable operating space. This combination of features makes it an affordable and maintainable solution for small plants and single items of equipment as well as for the largest plants. In many cases, it also provides the justification for the investments about to be made or already made in process historian systems. Field Trials have been and are being conducted at IneosChlor and Mallinckrodt Chemicals, both in the UK, of the new geometric process control (GPC) method for improving the quality of both process operations and product by providing Process Alarms and Alerts of much high quality than ever before. The paper describes the methods used, including a simple visual method for Alarm Rationalisation that quickly delivers large sets of Consistent Alarm Limits, and the extension to full Alert Management with highlights from the Field Trials to indicate the overall effectiveness of the method in practice.

  15. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-01-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs

  16. A weighted dissimilarity index to isolate faults during alarm floods

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonnier, S; Gayet, P

    2015-01-01

    A fault-isolation method based on pattern matching using the alarm lists raised by the SCADA system during an alarm flood is proposed. A training set composed of faults is used to create fault templates. Alarm vectors generated by unknown faults are classified by comparing them with the fault templates using an original weighted dissimilarity index that increases the influence of the few alarms relevant to diagnose the fault. Different decision strategies are proposed to support the operator in his decision making. The performances are evaluated on two sets of data: an artificial set and a set obtained from a highly realistic simulator of the CERN Large Hadron Collider process connected to the real CERN SCADA system.

  17. Object oriented design in the AGSDCS alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The alarm subsystem of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Distributed Control System (AGSDCS) has been redesigned to enhance reliability, flexibility, and ease of maintenance. The alarm system is functionally divided into Alarm Generators, Alarm Displays, and a central Alarm Receiver. The task was simplified by defining a set of C++ classes that could be reused by all components of the alarm system. The AlarmData class represents instances of alarm conditions. The AlarmFilter class is used by both the Alarm Receiver and Alarm Displays to select the alarms that are of interest to a particular user. The AlarmDatabase class is used by the Alarm Receiver to manage the central alarm database. The Alarm Displays use the AlarmDatabase class to manage the local database representing the alarms on their screens. ((orig.))

  18. Accident alarm equipment for steam generator, especially liquid sodium heated steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Jung, J.; Banovec, J.

    1982-01-01

    The alarm equipment consists of a system of sensors mounted onto the steam generator and its accessories. Each of the sensors is used for a different accident characteristic, such as the flow of sodium, the acoustic spectrum, the concentration of hydrogen in sodium. The system of sensors is connected to the common accident alarm system. The equipment will not issue the alarm signal if it receives a message from only one sensor, only when the message is confirmed from other sensors. This excludes false alarm. (M.D.)

  19. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  20. False Alarms and Overmonitoring: Major Factors in Alarm Fatigue Among Labor Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey

    2018-06-08

    Nurses can be exposed to hundreds of alarms during their shift, contributing to alarm fatigue. The purposes were to explore similarities and differences in perceptions of clinical alarms by labor nurses caring for generally healthy women compared with perceptions of adult intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal ICU nurses caring for critically ill patients and to seek nurses' suggestions for potential improvements. Nurses were asked via focus groups about the utility of clinical alarms from medical devices. There was consensus that false alarms and too many devices generating alarms contributed to alarm fatigue, and most alarms lacked clinical relevance. Nurses identified certain types of alarms that they responded to immediately, but the vast majority of the alarms did not contribute to their clinical assessment or planned nursing care. Monitoring only those patients who need it and only those physiologic values that are warranted, based on patient condition, may decrease alarm burden.

  1. The perceived urgency of auditory warning alarms used in the hospital operating room is inappropriate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondor, Todd A; Finley, G Allen

    2003-03-01

    To examine the perceived urgency of 13 auditory warning alarms commonly occurring in the hospital operating room. Undergraduate students, who were naïve with respect to the clinical situation associated with the alarms, judged perceived urgency of each alarm on a ten-point scale. The perceived urgency of the alarms was not consistent with the actual urgency of the clinical situation that triggers it. In addition, those alarms indicating patient condition were generally perceived as less urgent than those alarms indicating the operation of equipment. Of particular interest were three sets of alarms designed by equipment manufacturers to indicate specific priorities for action. Listeners did not perceive any differences in the urgency of the 'information only', 'medium' and 'high' priority alarms of two of the monitors with all judged as low to moderate in urgency. In contrast, the high priority alarm of the third monitor was judged as significantly more urgent than its low and medium urgency counterparts. The alarms currently in use do not convey the intended sense of urgency to naïve listeners, and this holds even for two sets of alarms designed specifically by manufacturers to convey different levels of urgency.

  2. Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Hugo J.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

  3. Fire auto alarm system intelligent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chengbao

    1997-01-01

    The author gives the course and trend of the fire alarm system going to more computerized and more intelligent. It is described that only the system applied artificial intelligent and confusion control is the true intelligent fire alarm system. The author gives the detailed analysis on the signal treatment of artificial intelligent applied to analogue fire alarm system as well as the alarm system controlled by confusion technology and artificial nervous net

  4. Systems analysis of a security alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, A.

    1975-01-01

    When the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory found that its security alarm system was causing more false alarms and maintenance costs than LLL felt was tolerable, a systems analysis was undertaken to determine what should be done about the situation. This report contains an analysis of security alarm systems in general and ends with a review of the existing Security Alarm Control Console (SACC) and recommendations for its improvement, growth and change. (U.S.)

  5. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than paint and lamp lockers and similar small spaces, shall be fitted with an approved audible alarm in... required to be fitted with a delayed discharge. Such alarms shall be so arranged as to sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and the alarm shall depend...

  6. A proactive alarm reduction method and its human factors validation test for a main control room for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gwi-sook; Suh, Sang-moon; Kim, Sa-kil; Suh, Yong-suk; Park, Je-yun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A proactive alarm reduction method improves effectiveness on the alarm reduction. ► The method suppresses alarms based on the ECA rules and facts for the alarm reduction under an alarm flood situation. ► The alarm reduction logics are supplemented to a high hit ratio of the reduction logics during on-line operations. ► The method is validated by human factors validation test based on regulatory requirements. -- Abstract: Conventional alarm systems tend to overwhelm operators during a transient because of a large number of nearly simultaneous annunciator activations with varying degrees of relevance to operator tasks. Thus alarm processing techniques have developed to support operators in coping with the volume of alarms, to identify which alarms are significant, and to reduce the need for operators to infer the plant conditions. This paper proposes a proactive alarm reduction method for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) whereby based on the contents of the past operating effects alarm reduction is carried out during the next transient. We designed and implemented the proactive alarm reduction system and constructed the environment for the human factors validation test. Also, eight subjects actually working in a nuclear power plant (NPP) tested the practical effectiveness of the proposed proactive alarm reduction method according to the procedure of human factors validation test under a dynamic simulation of a partial scope for an NPP.

  7. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.W. Markman

    2001-01-01

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M andO 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M andO 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree

  8. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patricia R Harris,1,2 Jessica K Zègre-Hemsey,3,4 Daniel Schindler,5 Yong Bai,6 Michele M Pelter,2,7 Xiao Hu2,8 1Department of Nursing, School of Health and Natural Sciences, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, 5Intensive Care Unit, The Neuroscience Center, Sutter Eden Medical Center, Castro Valley, 6Hu Research Laboratory, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 7ECG Monitoring Research Lab, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, 8Physiological Nursing and Neurological Surgery, Affiliate Faculty of Institute for Computational Health Sciences Core Faculty UCB/UCSF Joint Bio-Engineering Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. Methods: This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and

  9. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  10. High flow concrete 2; Koryudo konkurito 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Hiroyasu [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-10

    Hashimoto et al. compared U-type repletion test that evaluation method of the consistency in design of mix of high workable concrete was proposed as a repletion test with the box test, and it was examined, and it had clarified the difference between the behavior in the test by the analysis of the shearing strain speed by the visualization as the technique, and the important proposal was done, when the evaluation method would be divided in future. Anchors showed that it analyzed it in order to quantitatively evaluate separating resistance-ness of the coarse aggregate, with model and proposes the analysis method on separating resistance-ness of high workable concrete according to the original model, and that the correlation is high. In the future, further examination was carried out on aggregate shapes and lees aggregate amount, etc. and intended to propose the technique which could be analyzed more high-precise. Branch pines examined the effect of the fineness modulus in addition to factors such as real width rate and particle size of a fine aggregate in the technique in which researchers have proposed the setting of class aggregate amount in the top in search of the optimum value. It can be expected that it is future effectively utilized, because it is a proposed equation which sufficiently added characteristics of the Tsumugi aggregate. Temple areas found and proposed that viscosity and of the optimum mortar minute in design of mix in high workable concrete for the dam for the downward flow hour differed from the case in which the 20 mm aggregate was used on the design of mix technique in using the 40 mm aggregate. It is the research which considered the application of high workable concrete to the concrete for the dam, and it seems to be very much useful to future popularization. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Ionization smoke detector and alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector particularly suited to residential use is disclosed. The detector is battery-operated and is connected with a non-latching, pulsating alarm circuit. The detector has a sensing chamber formed by a perforated metallic shell and an electrode within which an insulated radiation source is centrally positioned to generate an ionization current for detecting smoke or other similar aerosols. The alarm circuit provides a pulsating alarm signal when smoke levels above a pre-determined value are sensed. The alarm circuit also includes a low voltage detection circuit for sounding the alarm when the end of useful battery life is approaching. (Auth.)

  12. Semi-supervised detection of intracranial pressure alarms using waveform dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalzo, Fabien; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are usually set to trigger alarms when abnormal values are detected. Alarms are generated by threshold-crossing rules that lead to high false alarm rates. This is a recognized issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. Recently developed smart alarm models require alarms to be validated by experts during the training phase. The manual annotation process involved is time-consuming and virtually impossible to achieve for the thousands of alarms recorded in the ICU every week. To tackle this problem, we investigate in this study if the use of semi-supervised learning methods, that can naturally integrate unlabeled data samples in the model, can be used to improve the accuracy of the alarm detection. As a proof of concept, the detection system is evaluated on intracranial pressure (ICP) signal alarms. Specific morphological and trending features are extracted from the ICP signal waveform to capture the dynamic of the signal prior to alarms. This study is based on a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarms recorded from 108 neurosurgical patients. A comparative analysis is provided between kernel spectral regression (SR-KDA) and support vector machine (SVM) both modified for the semi-supervised setting. Results obtained during the experimental evaluations indicate that the two models can significantly reduce false alarms using unlabeled samples; especially in the presence of a restrained number of labeled examples. At a true alarm recognition rate of 99%, the false alarm reduction rates improved from 9% (supervised) to 27% (semi-supervised) for SR-KDA, and from 3% (supervised) to 16% (semi-supervised) for SVM. (paper)

  13. Alarm system for ABWR main control panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Saito, Koji [Toshiba Corp., Yokohoma (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    TOSHIBA has developed integrated digital control and instrumentation system for ABWR, which is the third-generation man machine interface system for main control room that we call A-PODIA (Advanced PODIA). A-Podia has been introduced the first actual ABWR plant in Japan. in A-PODIA, TOSHIBA has realized improvement of alarm system that all operator crews in the control room can recognize plant anomalies easily. The alarm system can recognize essential alarms for plant safety easily and understand annunciators with each integrated annunciators and their prioritized color easily by classifying alarms into plant-level essential annunciators, system-level integrated annunciators and equipment level individual annunciators with hierarchical structure. This paper describes conventional alarm system and the design philosophy, alarm system design and operation of ``Alarm System for ABWR Main Control Panels``. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab.

  14. Evaluating alternative responses to safeguards alarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alarms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to have stolen special nuclear material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms

  15. Alarm system for ABWR main control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Saito, Koji

    1997-01-01

    TOSHIBA has developed integrated digital control and instrumentation system for ABWR, which is the third-generation man machine interface system for main control room that we call A-PODIA (Advanced PODIA). A-Podia has been introduced the first actual ABWR plant in Japan. in A-PODIA, TOSHIBA has realized improvement of alarm system that all operator crews in the control room can recognize plant anomalies easily. The alarm system can recognize essential alarms for plant safety easily and understand annunciators with each integrated annunciators and their prioritized color easily by classifying alarms into plant-level essential annunciators, system-level integrated annunciators and equipment level individual annunciators with hierarchical structure. This paper describes conventional alarm system and the design philosophy, alarm system design and operation of ''Alarm System for ABWR Main Control Panels''. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  16. Video systems for alarm assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C.; Ebel, P.E.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. For the computation of turbulent compressible flows, current methods of averaging and filtering are presented so that the reader is exposed to a consistent development of applicable equation sets for both the mean or resolved fields as well as the transport equations for the turbulent stress field. For the measurement of turbulent compressible flows, current techniques ranging from hot-wire anemometry to PIV are evaluated and limitations assessed. Characterizing dynamic features of free shear flows, including jets, mixing layers and wakes, and wall-bounded flows, including shock-turbulence and shock boundary-layer interactions, obtained from computations, experiments and simulations are discussed. Key features: * Describes prediction methodologies in...

  19. An alarm multiplexer communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    A low cost Alarm Multiplexer Communication System (AMCS) has been developed to perform the security sensor monitoring and control functions and to provide remote relay control capability for integrated security systems. AMCS has a distributed multiplexer/repeater architecture with up to four dual communication loops and dual control computers that guarantee total system operation under any single point failure condition. Each AMCS can control up to 4096 sensors and 2048 remote relays. AMCS reports alarm status information to and is controlled by either one or two Host computers. This allows for independent operation of primary and backup security command centers. AMCS communicates with the Host computers over an asynchronous serial communication link and has a message protocol which allows AMCS to fully recover from lost messages or large blocks of data communication errors. This paper describes the AMCS theory of operation, AMCS fault modes, and AMCS system design methodology. Also, cost and timing information is presented. AMCS is being used and considered for several DOE and DOD facilities

  20. High Reynolds Number Liquid Flow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    25. .n Fig. 25, the dotted line represents data taken from Eckelmann’s study in the thick viscous sublaver of an oil channel. Scatter in the...measurements of the fundamental physical quantities are not only an essencial part in an understanding of multiphase flows but also in the measurement process...technique. One of the most yloei’ used techniques, however, is some form of flow visualization. This includes the use o: tufts, oil paint films

  1. Urethral alarm probe for permanent prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a urethral dosimetry system for real time dose verification along the urethra during permanent implant prostate brachytherapy. The urethral alarm uses 'spectroscopic dosimetry' to calculate the dose rate along the urethra in real time. The application of spectroscopic dosimetry for the urethral alarm probe was verified using Monte Carlo calculations. In phantom depth dose measurements as well as isotropy measurements were performed to verify the usefulness of the urethra alarm probe as an in vivo real time dosimeter. (author)

  2. Auditory backup alarms: distance-at-first-detection via in-situ experimentation on alarm design and hearing protection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Khaled; Casali, John G

    2012-01-01

    more time to react to approaching vehicles. The results of this study suggest that as the attenuation of the hearing protectors increases, precautions should be considered by safety professionals. This is because, as it was the case with the Bilsom passive earmuff and E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-passive steady state, high attenuation minimizes the detection distance and as a result on-foot workers will have less time to react to any approaching vehicle. The main effects of the type of backup alarm signal demonstrated a statistically-significant advantage of the standard backup alarm over the broadband backup alarm on detection distance in feet. The magnitude of the improvement produced by the standard backup alarm was 221.5 feet, a very large margin. For example, with a vehicle backing at 10 mph, the 221.5 ft decrease in detection distance with the Brigade alarm equates to the vehicle arriving 15 seconds sooner at the worker from the point at which its alarm was first heard.

  3. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Strey, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    .... Task I, Optimization of Sample Collection, focused on the collection of the putative alarm pheromone via axillary sweat samples obtained during reference (physical exercise) and arousal (skydive) conditions...

  4. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  5. The effectiveness of nurse education and training for clinical alarm response and management: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liqing; Plummer, Virginia; Cross, Wendy

    2017-09-01

    To identify the effectiveness of education interventions provided for nurses for clinical alarm response and management. Some education has been undertaken to improve clinical alarm response, but the evidence for evaluating effectiveness for nurse education interventions is limited. Systematic review. A systematic review of experimental studies published in English from 2005-2015 was conducted in four computerised databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Scopus). After identification, screening and appraisal using Joanna Briggs Institute instruments, quality research papers were selected, data extraction and analysis followed. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for alarm response and no articles were concerned with clinical alarm education for management. All had different types and methods of interventions and statistical pooling was not possible. Response accuracy, response time and perceptions were consistent when different interventions were adopted. A positive effect was identified when learning about general alarms, single alarms, sequential alarms and medium-level alarms for learning as the primary task. Nurses who were musically trained had a faster and more accurate alarm response. Simulation interventions had a positive effect, but the effect of education provided in the care unit was greater. Overall, clinical alarm awareness was improved through education activities. Nurses are the main users of healthcare alarms and work in complex environments with high numbers of alarms, including nuisance alarms and other factors. Alarm-related adverse events are common. The findings of a small number of experimental studies with diverse evidence included consideration of various factors when formulating education strategies. The factors which influence effectiveness of nurse education are nurse demographics, nurse participants with musical training, workload and characteristics of alarms. Education interventions based in clinical practice settings increase

  6. A High-Current, Stable Nonaqueous Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Duan, Wentao; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Li, Bin; Reed, David; Xu, Wu; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-14

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries are promising in pursuit of high-energy storage systems owing to the broad voltage window, but currently are facing key challenges such as poor cycling stability and lack of suitable membranes. Here we report a new nonaqueous all-organic flow chemistry that demonstrates an outstanding cell cycling stability primarily because of high chemical persistency of the organic radical redox species and their good compatibility with the supporting electrolyte. A feasibility study shows that Daramic® and Celgard® porous separators can lead to high cell conductivity in flow cells thus producing remarkable cell efficiency and material utilization even at high current operations. This result suggests that the thickness and pore size are the key performance-determining factors for porous separators. With the greatly improved flow cell performance, this new flow system largely addresses the above mentioned challenges and the findings may greatly expedite the development of durable nonaqueous flow batteries.

  7. The CANDU alarm analysis tool (CAAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, E C; Feher, M P; Lupton, L R [Control Centre Technology Branch, ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    AECL undertook the development of a software tool to assist alarm system designers and maintainers based on feedback from several utilities and design groups. The software application is called the CANDU Alarm Analysis Tool (CAAT) and is being developed to: Reduce by one half the effort required to initially implement and commission alarm system improvements; improve the operational relevance, consistency and accuracy of station alarm information; record the basis for alarm-related decisions; provide printed reports of the current alarm configuration; and, make day-to-day maintenance of the alarm database less tedious and more cost-effective. The CAAT assists users in accessing, sorting and recording relevant information, design rules, decisions, and provides reports in support of alarm system maintenance, analysis of design changes, or regulatory inquiry. The paper discusses the need for such a tool, outlines the application objectives and principles used to guide tool development, describes the how specific tool features support user design and maintenance tasks, and relates the lessons learned from early application experience. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs.

  8. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  9. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  10. The CANDU alarm analysis tool (CAAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.C.; Feher, M.P.; Lupton, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    AECL undertook the development of a software tool to assist alarm system designers and maintainers based on feedback from several utilities and design groups. The software application is called the CANDU Alarm Analysis Tool (CAAT) and is being developed to: Reduce by one half the effort required to initially implement and commission alarm system improvements; improve the operational relevance, consistency and accuracy of station alarm information; record the basis for alarm-related decisions; provide printed reports of the current alarm configuration; and, make day-to-day maintenance of the alarm database less tedious and more cost-effective. The CAAT assists users in accessing, sorting and recording relevant information, design rules, decisions, and provides reports in support of alarm system maintenance, analysis of design changes, or regulatory inquiry. The paper discusses the need for such a tool, outlines the application objectives and principles used to guide tool development, describes the how specific tool features support user design and maintenance tasks, and relates the lessons learned from early application experience. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  11. High flow nasal cannula for respiratory support in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered cannulae used to deliver oxygen or blended oxygen and air at flow rates of > 1 L\\/min. HFNC can be used to provide high concentrations of oxygen and may deliver positive end-expiratory pressure.

  12. Useful and usable alarm systems : recommended properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veland, Oeystein; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils T.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the result of a study on alarm systems conducted by IFE in Halden. The study was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The objective was to identify and formulate a set of important properties for useful and usable alarm systems. The study is mainly based on review of the latest international recognised guidelines and standards on alarm systems available at the time of writing, with focus on realistic solutions from research and best practice from different industries. In addition, IFE experiences gathered through specification and design of alarm systems and experimental activities in HAMMLAB and bilateral projects, have been utilized where relevant. The document presents a total of 43 recommendations divided into a number of general recommendations and more detailed recommendations on alarm generation, structuring, prioritisation, presentation and handling. (Author)

  13. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-03

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alarm processing system using AI techniques for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1990-01-01

    An alarm processing system (APS) has been developed using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The alarms of nuclear power plants (NPP's) are classified into the generalized and special alarms. The generalized alarms are also classified into the global and local alarms. For each type of alarms, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The local processing are based on 'model-based reasoning.' The global and special alarms are processed by using the general cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to the plant state and the consistencies between them

  15. Alarm analysis of secondary loop system based on MFM and SDG methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ning; Lu Gubing; Chen Pan

    2014-01-01

    The multilevel flow model (MFM) and the signed directed graph (SDG) were combined to analyze the alarm signals of the secondary loop system for nuclear power plant. The MFM was used to delaminate and describe nuclear power plant, and the SDG was used to analyze the logicality of the facility sign in the MFM. Two kinds of faults in the secondary loop system in nuclear power plant were simulated and the alarm signals were analyzed. The simulation results show that the fault source can be identified exactly and the transmit route of the alarm signals can be described clearly, which is helpful for operators to judge. (authors)

  16. High Reynolds number flows using liquid and gaseous helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to liquid and gaseous helium as test fluids, high Reynolds number test requirements in low speed aerodynamics, the measurement of subsonic flow around an appended body of revolution at cryogenic conditions in the NTF, water tunnels, flow visualization, the six component magnetic suspension system for wind tunnel testing, and recent aerodynamic measurements with magnetic suspension systems. Attention is also given to application of a flow visualization technique to a superflow experiment, experimental investigations of He II flows at high Reynolds numbers, a study of homogeneous turbulence in superfluid helium, and thermal convection in liquid helium

  17. Global flow of glasma in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J., E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2013-06-25

    We discuss the energy flow of the classical gluon fields created in collisions of heavy nuclei at collider energies. We show how the Yang–Mills analog of Faraday's Law and Gauss' Law predicts the initial gluon flux tubes to expand or bend. The resulting transverse and longitudinal structure of the Poynting vector field has a rich phenomenology. Besides the well-known radial and elliptic flow in transverse direction, classical quantum chromodynamics predicts a rapidity-odd transverse flow that tilts the fireball for non-central collisions, and it implies a characteristic flow pattern for collisions of non-symmetric systems A+B. The rapidity-odd transverse flow translates into a directed particle flow v{sub 1} which has been observed at RHIC and LHC. The global flow fields in heavy ion collisions could be a powerful check for the validity of classical Yang–Mills dynamics in high energy collisions.

  18. Experimental investigation on a high subsonic compressor cascade flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Haideng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of deepening the understanding of high-speed compressor cascade flow, this paper reports an experimental study on NACA-65 K48 compressor cascade with high subsonic inlet flow. With the increase of passage pressurizing ability, endwall boundary layer behavior is deteriorated, and the transition zone is extended from suction surface to the endwall as the adverse pressure gradient increases. Cross flow from endwall to midspan, mixing of corner boundary layer and the main stream, and reversal flow on the suction surface are caused by corner separation vortex structures. Passage vortex is the main corner separation vortex. During its movement downstream, the size grows bigger while the rotating direction changes, forming a limiting circle. With higher incidence, corner separation is further deteriorated, leading to higher flow loss. Meanwhile, corner separation structure, flow mixing characteristics and flow loss distribution vary a lot with the change of incidence. Compared with low aspect-ratio model, corner separation of high aspect-ratio model moves away from the endwall and is more sufficiently developed downstream the cascade. Results obtained present details of high-speed compressor cascade flow, which is rare in the relating research fields and is beneficial to mechanism analysis, aerodynamic optimization and flow control design.

  19. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  20. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Robert B.

    2018-04-17

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  1. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households.

  2. High speed digital holographic interferometry for hypersonic flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, G. M.; Jagdeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2013-06-01

    Optical imaging techniques have played a major role in understanding the flow dynamics of varieties of fluid flows, particularly in the study of hypersonic flows. Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques have been the flow diagnostic tools for the investigation of compressible flows since more than a century. However these techniques provide only the qualitative information about the flow field. Other optical techniques such as holographic interferometry and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been used extensively for extracting quantitative information about the high speed flows. In this paper we present the application of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique integrated with short duration hypersonic shock tunnel facility having 1 ms test time, for quantitative flow visualization. Dynamics of the flow fields in hypersonic/supersonic speeds around different test models is visualized with DHI using a high-speed digital camera (0.2 million fps). These visualization results are compared with schlieren visualization and CFD simulation results. Fringe analysis is carried out to estimate the density of the flow field.

  3. Reactor alarm system development and application issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J E; Oicese, G O [INVAP S.E. (Argentina)

    1997-09-01

    The new hardware and software technologies, and the need in research reactors for assistance systems in operation and maintenance, have given an appropriate background to develop a computer based system named ``Reactor Alarm System`` (RAS). RAS is a software package, user oriented, with emphasis on production, experiments and maintenance goals. It is designed to run on distributed systems conformed with microcomputers under QNX operating system. RAS main features are: (a) Alarm Panel Display; (b) Alarm Page; (c) Alarm Masking and Inhibition; (d) Alarms Color and Attributes; (e) Condition Classification; and (f) Arrangement Presentation. RAS design allows it to be installed as a part of a computer based Supervision and Control System in new installations or retrofit existing reactor instrumentation systems. The analysis of human factors during development stage and successive user feedback from different applications, brought out several RAS improvements: (a) Multiple-copy alarm summaries; (b) Improved alarm handling; (c) Extended dictionary; and (d) Enhanced hardware availability. It has proved successful in providing new capabilities for operators, and also has shown the continuous increase of user-demands, reflecting the expectations placed today on computer-based systems. (author). 6 figs, 1 tabs.

  4. Reactor alarm system development and application issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, J.E.; Oicese, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The new hardware and software technologies, and the need in research reactors for assistance systems in operation and maintenance, have given an appropriate background to develop a computer based system named ''Reactor Alarm System'' (RAS). RAS is a software package, user oriented, with emphasis on production, experiments and maintenance goals. It is designed to run on distributed systems conformed with microcomputers under QNX operating system. RAS main features are: a) Alarm Panel Display; b) Alarm Page; c) Alarm Masking and Inhibition; d) Alarms Color and Attributes; e) Condition Classification; and f) Arrangement Presentation. RAS design allows it to be installed as a part of a computer based Supervision and Control System in new installations or retrofit existing reactor instrumentation systems. The analysis of human factors during development stage and successive user feedback from different applications, brought out several RAS improvements: a) Multiple-copy alarm summaries; b) Improved alarm handling; c) Extended dictionary; and d) Enhanced hardware availability. It has proved successful in providing new capabilities for operators, and also has shown the continuous increase of user-demands, reflecting the expectations placed today on computer-based systems. (author). 6 figs, 1 tabs

  5. High energy density redox flow device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  6. High-temperature counter-flow recuperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudloff, F.

    1981-05-01

    The commercial potential of a helical recuperator design in recovering waste heat from industrial furnaces is reported. The helical recuperator concept consists of a cylindrical column with an interior helical interface which separates the preheat air and the combustion gas. The column operates in a teer flow mode and is formed from modular sections. The material evaluation consisted of exposing material samples to a soda-lime glass furnace environment for a fifteen week period. ECP-3, X-81, and Unichrome were the best suited for use in a soda-lime environment and ECP-3 was the best candidate with respect to manufacturing. Two potential design modifications were identified: a finned design and a double helix design. For materials that showed the greatest potential for use in the glass environment, the double helix design made from ECP-3 was the most economical producing payback periods of 6 to 14 years.

  7. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment

  8. Alarm criteria in radiation portal monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: tburr@lanl.gov; Gattiker, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Myers, Kary [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tompkins, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Risk Analysis and Decision Support Systems, Stop F609, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. These detectors collect counts that are used to determine whether to trigger an alarm. Several candidate alarm rules are evaluated, with attention to background suppression caused by the vehicle. Because the count criterion leads to many nuisance alarms and because background suppression by the vehicle is smaller for ratios of counts, analysis of a ratio criterion is included. Detection probability results that consider the effects of 5 factors are given for 2 signal-injection studies, 1 for counts, and 1 for count ratios.

  9. Alarm criteria in radiation portal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, Tom; Gattiker, James R.; Myers, Kary; Tompkins, George

    2007-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. These detectors collect counts that are used to determine whether to trigger an alarm. Several candidate alarm rules are evaluated, with attention to background suppression caused by the vehicle. Because the count criterion leads to many nuisance alarms and because background suppression by the vehicle is smaller for ratios of counts, analysis of a ratio criterion is included. Detection probability results that consider the effects of 5 factors are given for 2 signal-injection studies, 1 for counts, and 1 for count ratios

  10. Wallac automatic alarm dosimeter type RAD21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P. H.; Iles, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Automatic Alarm Dosimeter type RAD 21 is a batterypowered personal dosemeter and exposure rate alarm monitor, designed to be worn on the body, covering an exposure range from 0.1 to 999.9 mR and has an audible alarm which can be pre-set over the range 1 mR h -1 to 250 mR h -1 . The instrument is designed to measure x- and γ radiation over the energy range 50 keV to 3 MeV. The facilities and controls, the radiation, electrical, environmental and mechanical characteristics, and the manual, have been evaluated. (U.K.)

  11. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compressive flow behaviour of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass, with and without SiC particulate reinforcements, was studied. The LAS glass crystallized to spodumene during high-temperature testing. The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of crystalline ...

  12. Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikmen, E.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Sas, P.; Bergen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via

  13. High Frame Rate Synthetic Aperture 3D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    , current volumetric ultrasonic flow methods are limited to one velocity component or restricted to a reduced field of view (FOV), e.g. fixed imaging planes, in exchange for higher temporal resolutions. To solve these problems, a previously proposed accurate 2-D high frame rate vector flow imaging (VFI...

  14. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-12-01

    The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed.

  15. Effects of integrated designs of alarm and process information on diagnosis performance in digital nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; She, Manrong; Li, Zhizhong; Song, Fei; Sang, Wei

    2017-12-01

    In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPPs), operators frequently switch between alarm displays and system-information displays to incorporate information from different screens. In this study, we investigated two integrated designs of alarm and process information - integrating alarm information into process displays (denoted as Alarm2Process integration) and integrating process information into alarm displays (denoted as Process2Alarm integration). To analyse the effects of the two integration approaches and time pressure on the diagnosis performance, a laboratory experiment was conducted with ninety-six students. The results show that compared with the non-integrated case, Process2Alarm integration yields better diagnosis performance in terms of diagnosis accuracy, time required to generate correct hypothesis and completion time. In contrast, the Alarm2Process integration leads to higher levels of workload, with no improvement in diagnosis performance. The diagnosis performance of Process2Alarm integration was consistently better than that of Alarm2Process integration, regardless of the levels of time pressure. Practitioner Summary: To facilitate operator's synthesis of NPP information when performing diagnosis tasks, we proposed to integrate process information into alarm displays. The laboratory validation shows that the integration approach significantly improves the diagnosis performance for both low and high time-pressure levels.

  16. High definition graphics application in fluid flow simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancroft, G.; Merritt, F.; Buning, P.; Watson, V.

    1987-01-01

    NASA Ames is using high spatial/color-resolution computer graphics to interactively visualize flow fields generated by supercomputer solutions for the flow about such vehicles as the Space Shuttle. The scientist's viewing position in three-dimensional space can be interactively changed while the fluid flow is either frozen or moving in time. Animated sequences can then be made for workstation viewing with the aid of specialized software that allows easy editing and automatic tweening of the sequences. Attention is presently given to the software generating the three-dimensional flow field displays, as well as that for creating the animation sequences

  17. The research of nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Fang Fang

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces based on monolithic integrated circuit's nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device's software and hardware design. The system by G-M tube, high-pressured module, signal conditioning circuit, power source module, monolithic integrated circuit and wireless transmission module is composed. The device has low power consumption, high performance, high accuracy detection, easy maintenance, small size, simple operation, and other features, and has a broad application prospects. (authors)

  18. High Pressure Reverse Flow APS Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A design and test demonstration effort was undertaken to evaluate the concept of the reverse flow engine for the APS engine application. The 1500 lb (6672 N) thrust engine was designed to operate on gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen propellants at a mixture ratio of 4 and to achieve the objective performance of 435 sec (4266 Nsec/kg) specific impulse. Superimposed durability requirements called for a million-cycle capability with 50 hours duration. The program was undertaken as a series of tasks including the initial preliminary design, design of critical test components and finally, the design and demonstration of an altitude engine which could be used interchangeably to examine operating parameters as well as to demonstrate the capability of the concept. The program results are reported with data to indicate that all of the program objectives were met or exceeded within the course of testing on the program. The analysis effort undertaken is also reported in detail and supplemented with test data in some cases where prior definitions could not be made. The results are contained of these analyses as well as the test results conducted throughout the course of the program. Finally, the test data and analytical results were combined to allow recommendations for a flight weight design. This preliminary design effort is also detailed.

  19. Core surface flow modelling from high-resolution secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, R.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    -flux hypothesis, but the spectrum of the SV implies that a conclusive test of frozen-flux is not possible. We parametrize the effects of diffusion as an expected misfit in the flow prediction due to departure from the frozen-flux hypothesis; at low spherical harmonic degrees, this contribution dominates...... the expected departure of the SV predictions from flow to the observed SV, while at high degrees the SV model uncertainty is dominant. We construct fine-scale core surface flows to model the SV. Flow non-uniqueness is a serious problem because the flows are sufficiently small scale to allow flow around non......-series of magnetic data and better parametrization of the external magnetic field....

  20. The impact of recent changes in smoke alarm legislation on residential fire injuries and smoke alarm ownership in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Sherker, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional.

  1. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa

    2008-04-01

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working situations and is

  2. Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.B.; Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m/min) through galloping (75 m/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal treadmill speeds to determine if blood flows in the muscles reach a plateau as a function of running speed over the animals normal range of locomotory speeds. Muscle blood flows were measured with radiolabeled microspheres at 1 min of running at 75, 90, and 105 m/min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The data indicate that even at these relatively high treadmill speeds there was still no clear evidence of a plateau in blood flow in most of the hindlimb muscles. Flows in most muscles continued to increase as a function of speed. These observed patterns of blood flow vs. running speed may have resulted from the rigorous selection of rats that were capable of performing the high-intensity exercise and thus only be representative of a highly specific population of animals. On the other hand, the data could be interpreted to indicate that the cardiovascular potential during exercise is considerably higher in laboratory rats than has normally been assumed and that inadequate blood flow delivery to the muscles does not serve as a major limitation to their locomotory performance

  3. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy; alarming variables for postoperative bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawan H.A. Said

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: According to our present results stone complexity (GSS grade 3 and 4, history of ipsilateral renal stone surgery, and occurrence of intraoperative pelvicalyceal perforation are alarming variables for post-PCNL bleeding.

  4. Evaporation of polydispersed droplets in a highly turbulent channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, M.; Bazile, Rudy; Ferret, B.; Cazin, S. [INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Universite de Toulouse (France)

    2009-09-15

    A model experiment for the study of evaporating turbulent two-phase flows is presented here. The study focuses on a situation where pre-atomized and dispersed droplets vaporize and mix in a heated turbulent flow. The test bench consists in a channel flow with characteristics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence where fluctuations levels reach very high values (25% in the established zone). An ultrasonic atomizer allows the injection of a mist of small droplets of acetone in the carrier flow. The large range diameters ensure that every kind of droplet behavior with regards to turbulence is possible. Instantaneous concentration fields of the vaporized phase are extracted from fluorescent images (PLIF) of the two phase flow. The evolution of the mixing of the acetone vapor is analyzed for two different liquid mass loadings. Despite the high turbulence levels, concentration fluctuations remain significant, indicating that air and acetone vapor are not fully mixed far from the injector. (orig.)

  5. High order Poisson Solver for unbounded flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high order method for solving the unbounded Poisson equation on a regular mesh using a Green’s function solution. The high order convergence was achieved by formulating mollified integration kernels, that were derived from a filter regularisation of the solution field....... The method was implemented on a rectangular domain using fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to increase computational efficiency. The Poisson solver was extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution. This is achieved either by including the differential operator in the integration kernel...... the equations of fluid mechanics as an example, but can be used in many physical problems to solve the Poisson equation on a rectangular unbounded domain. For the two-dimensional case we propose an infinitely smooth test function which allows for arbitrary high order convergence. Using Gaussian smoothing...

  6. Topics in the numerical simulation of high temperature flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheret, R.; Dautray, R.; Desgraz, J.C.; Mercier, B.; Meurant, G.; Ovadia, J.; Sitt, B.

    1984-06-01

    In the fields of inertial confinement fusion, astrophysics, detonation, or other high energy phenomena, one has to deal with multifluid flows involving high temperatures, high speeds and strong shocks initiated e.g. by chemical reactions or even by thermonuclear reactions. The simulation of multifluid flows is reviewed: first are Lagrangian methods which have been successfully applied in the past. Then we describe our experience with newer adaptive mesh methods, originally designed to increase the accuracy of Lagrangian methods. Finally, some facts about Eulerian methods are recalled, with emphasis on the EAD scheme which has been recently extended to the elasto-plastic case. High temperature flows is then considered, described by the equations of radiation hydrodynamics. We show how conservation of energy can be preserved while solving the radiative transfer equation via the Monte Carlo method. For detonation, some models, introduced to describe the initiation of detonation in heterogeneous explosives. Finally we say a few words about instability of these flows

  7. Close-Spaced High Temperature Knudsen Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-15

    radiant heat source assembly was substituted for the brazed molybdenum one in order to achieve higher radiant heater temperatures . 2.1.4 Experimental...at very high temperature , and ground flat. The molybdenum is then chemically etched to the desired depth using an etchant which does not affect...RiB6 295 -CLSE PCED HIGH TEMPERATURE KNUDSEN FLOU(U) RASOR I AiASSOCIATES INC SUNNYVALE CA J 8 MCVEY 15 JUL 86 NSR-224 AFOSR-TR-87-1258 F49628-83-C

  8. Addressing the alarm analysis barrier - a tool for improving alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, E C; Basso, R A; Feher, M P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a software application tool for the initial specification and maintenance of the thousands of alarms in nuclear and other process control plants. The software program is used by system designers and maintainers to analyze, characterize, record and maintain the alarm information and configuration decisions for an alarm system. The tool provides a comprehensive design and information handling environment for: the existing alarm functions in current CANDU plants; the new alarm processing and presentation concepts developed under CANDU Owners Group (COG) sponsorship that are available to be applied to existing CANDU plants on a retrofit basis; and, the alarm functions to be implemented in new CANDU plants. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Addressing the alarm analysis barrier - a tool for improving alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.C.; Basso, R.A.; Feher, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a software application tool for the initial specification and maintenance of the thousands of alarms in nuclear and other process control plants. The software program is used by system designers and maintainers to analyze, characterize, record and maintain the alarm information and configuration decisions for an alarm system. The tool provides a comprehensive design and information handling environment for: the existing alarm functions in current CANDU plants; the new alarm processing and presentation concepts developed under CANDU Owners Group (COG) sponsorship that are available to be applied to existing CANDU plants on a retrofit basis; and, the alarm functions to be implemented in new CANDU plants. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  10. The flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M.F.; Samy, M.; Roberts, William L.; Mansour, Mohy S.

    2015-01-01

    The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work

  11. Stimulus-response time to alarms of the intra-aortic balloon pump: safe care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Serpa Franco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the sound alarms of the Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP during aortic counterpulsation therapy; to measure the stimulus-response time of the team to these; and to discuss the implications of increasing this time for patient safety from the alarm fatigue perspective. Method: This is an observational and descriptive study with quantitative and qualitative approach, case study type, carried out in a Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit. Results: The most audible IABP alarm was the one of high priority increased-reduced diastolic blood pressure. The stimulus-response time was 33.9 seconds on average. Conclusion: Managing the alarms of these equipment is essential to minimize the occurrence of the alarm fatigue phenomenon and to offer a safer assistance to patients who rely on this technology.

  12. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360 degree field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator

  13. Topologically protected loop flows in high voltage AC power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletta, T; Delabays, R; Jacquod, Ph; Adagideli, I

    2016-01-01

    Geographical features such as mountain ranges or big lakes and inland seas often result in large closed loops in high voltage AC power grids. Sizable circulating power flows have been recorded around such loops, which take up transmission line capacity and dissipate but do not deliver electric power. Power flows in high voltage AC transmission grids are dominantly governed by voltage angle differences between connected buses, much in the same way as Josephson currents depend on phase differences between tunnel-coupled superconductors. From this previously overlooked similarity we argue here that circulating power flows in AC power grids are analogous to supercurrents flowing in superconducting rings and in rings of Josephson junctions. We investigate how circulating power flows can be created and how they behave in the presence of ohmic dissipation. We show how changing operating conditions may generate them, how significantly more power is ohmically dissipated in their presence and how they are topologically protected, even in the presence of dissipation, so that they persist when operating conditions are returned to their original values. We identify three mechanisms for creating circulating power flows, (i) by loss of stability of the equilibrium state carrying no circulating loop flow, (ii) by tripping of a line traversing a large loop in the network and (iii) by reclosing a loop that tripped or was open earlier. Because voltages are uniquely defined, circulating power flows can take on only discrete values, much in the same way as circulation around vortices is quantized in superfluids. (paper)

  14. Turbulent behaviour of non-cohesive sediment gravity flows at unexpectedly high flow density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Megan; Baas, Jaco H.; Malarkey, Jonathan; Kane, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Experimental lock exchange-type turbidity currents laden with non-cohesive silica-flour were found to be highly dynamic at remarkably high suspended sediment concentrations. These experiments were conducted to produce sediment gravity flows of volumetric concentrations ranging from 1% to 52%, to study how changes in suspended sediment concentration affects the head velocities and run-out distances of these flows, in natural seawater. Increasing the volumetric concentration of suspended silica-flour, C, up to C = 46%, within the flows led to a progressive increase in the maximum head velocity. This relationship suggests that suspended sediment concentration intensifies the density difference between the turbulent suspension and the ambient water, which drives the flow, even if almost half of the available space is occupied by sediment particles. However, from C = 46% to C = 52% a rapid reduction in the maximum head velocity was measured. It is inferred that at C = 46%, friction from grain-to-grain interactions begins to attenuate turbulence within the flows. At C > 46%, the frictional stresses become progressively more dominant over the turbulent forces and excess density, thus producing lower maximum head velocities. This grain interaction process started to rapidly reduce the run-out distance of the silica-flour flows at equally high concentrations of C ≥ 47%. All flows with C tank, but the head velocities gradually reduced along the tank. Bagnold (1954, 1963) estimated that, for sand flows, grain-to-grain interactions start to become important in modulating turbulence at C > 9%. Yet, the critical flow concentration at which turbulence modulation commenced for these silica-flour laden flows appeared to be much higher. We suggest that Bagnold's 9% criterion cannot be applied to flows that carry fine-grained sediment, because turbulent forces are more important than dispersive forces, and frictional forces start to affect the flows only at concentrations just

  15. Close-Spaced High Temperature Knudsen Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-15

    study of discharge processes in Knudsen mode (collisionless), thermionic energy converters. Areas of research involve mechanism for reducing the...The mechanisms we have chosen to study are: reduction of space-charge through a very close inter- electrode gap (less than 10 microns); transport and...AD-AI4U 471 :NNTIM R~ A Rl M ,i; ,11 , i J)W R8 1070 1 I~ "i E~Hhhh IIt Ll ~ : RASOR ASSOCIATES, INC.- AFOSR.TR. 84-1070 NSR-22-2 CLOSE -SPACED HIGH

  16. Flow field design for high-pressure PEM electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    -water distributes. Water not only serves a reactant, it also aids in cooling due to its high specific heat capacity. The movement of liquid water at the anode is difficult to model, since it is highly coupled to the formation of gas bubbles. To capture the complex two-phase flow behaviour that takes place within...... micro-channels and porous media, our research group has developed an Euler-Euler model in the computational fluid dynamics modelling framework of ANSYS CFX. In addition to two-phase flow, the model accounts for turbulence, species transport in the gas phase, heat transport in all three phases (i.......e. solid, gas and liquid), as well as charge transport of electrons and ions. Our recent improvements have focused on the models ability to account for phase change and electrochemistry as well as the modelling of two-phase flow regimes. For comparison, an interdigitated and parallel channel flow field...

  17. Signatures of collective flow in high multiplicity pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kisiel, Adam

    2011-01-01

    A blast-wave parametrization, including a full set of hadronic resonances, is used to model a small system, with total particle multiplicity comparable to the one measured in the high-multiplicity pp collisions at the LHC. Calculations are preformed for three cases: with negligible, regular and strong radial flow on the blast-wave hypersurface. We investigate the effects of flow on inclusive p_T spectra as well as on 1D and 3D femtoscopic radii for pions. Special emphasis is put on the role of pions from resonance decays. In particular we show that they magnify the flow effects present in the blast-wave stage and significantly influence the shape of the correlation functions. A specific observable, the R^E_out/R^G_side ratio is proposed as a sensitive probe of the collective effects. Model results for the high multiplicity pp collisions, for scenarios with small and large radial flow are compared.

  18. Holography as a highly efficient RG flow I: Rephrasing gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Behr, Nicolas; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalisation of Wilsonian RG flow in a strongly interacting large $N$ quantum field theory. We firstly define a \\textit{highly efficient RG flow} as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale -- to achieve this it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective sin...

  19. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) [Reserved] ...

  1. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  2. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  3. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  4. Self-flowing underwater concrete mixtures for high rise structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Placement of conventional concrete mixtures in underwater construction results in a high percentage of material loss due to washout of cement paste. This paper presents the influence of anti washout admixture (AWA) on various properties of concrete. Eleven self-flowing concrete (SFC) mixtures using type II cement were proportioned. A combination of low water cement (w/c), high cement contents, anti washout admixtures, fly ash, and silica fume were used to enhance the resistance of fresh concrete to washout. The concrete mixtures proportioned to be highly flow able, self-leveling and cohesive. The water-cementitious materials ratios ranged between 0.356 and 0.392 which correspond a typical underwater concrete mixture. The concrete mixtures were tested for slump, slump flow, washout resistance and compressive strength. The compressive strength of each concrete mixture cast underwater was determined at 3, 7, 28 days and compared with the compressive strength of the same concrete mixture cast in normal condition (in air). Test results indicated that the use of an AWA facilitates the production of flow able concrete mixtures with the added benefit of lower washout loss. Concrete mixture proportioned using Type II cement and fly ash at level of replacement of 15% was found to develop self flowing concrete with better fresh and hardened properties and more resistant to washout. The self-flowing underwater concretes developed a 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 20 to 28 MPa

  5. Channel Geometry and Flood Flows: Quantifying over-bank flow dynamics during high-flow events in North Carolina's floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, J. P.; Duncan, J. M.; Vimal, S.; Band, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Natural riparian areas play numerous roles in the maintenance and improvement of stream water quality. Both restoration of riparian areas and improvement of hydrologic connectivity to the stream are often key goals of river restoration projects. These management actions are designed to improve nutrient removal by slowing and treating overland flow delivered from uplands and by storing, treating, and slowly releasing streamwater from overbank inundation during flood events. A major question is how effective this storage of overbank flow is at treating streamwater based on the cumulative time stream discharge at a downstream location has spent in shallower, slower overbank flow. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping Program maintains a detailed statewide Flood Risk Information System (FRIS) using HEC-RAS modeling, lidar, and detailed surveyed river cross-sections. FRIS provides extensive information regarding channel geometry on approximately 39,000 stream reaches (a slightly coarser spatial resolution than the NHD+v2 dataset) with tens of cross-sections for each reach. We use this FRIS data to calculate volume and discharge from floodplain riparian areas separately from in-channel flow during overbank events. Preliminary results suggest that a small percentage of total annual discharge interacts with the full floodplain extent along a stream reach due to the infrequency of overbank flow events. However, with the significantly different physical characteristics of the riparian area when compared to the channel itself, this overbank flow can provide unique services to water quality. Our project aims to use this information in conjunction with data from the USGS SPARROW program to target non-point source hotspots of Nitrogen and Phosphorus addition and removal. By better understanding the flow dynamics within riparian areas during high flow events, riparian restoration projects can be carried out with improved efficacy.

  6. An evaluation approach for alarm processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Dong-Young; Hwang, In-Koo; Park, Jae-Chang

    1997-01-01

    In light of the need to improve MMIS of NPPs, the advanced I and C research team of KAERI has embarked on developing an Alarm and Diagnosis-Integrated Operator Support System, called ADIOS, to filter or suppress unnecessary or nuisance alarms and diagnose abnormality of the plant process. ADIOS has been built in an object-oriented AI environment of G-2 expert system software tool, as presented in a companion paper. ADIOS then is evaluated according to the plan in three steps; (1) preliminary tests to refine the knowledge base and inference structure of ADIOS in such a dynamic environment, and also to evaluate the appropriateness of alarm-processing algorithms; (2) to ensure correctness, consistency, and completeness in the knowledge base using COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net); and (3) the cognitive performance evaluation using the Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model (SACOM) in the KAERI's Integrated Test Facility (ITF). (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  7. Behavioral alarm treatment for nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To investigate the efficacy of alarm treatment in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents with nocturnal enuresis and relate treatment success to age and type of clinical support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 32 weeks, 84 children and adolescents received alarm treatment together with weekly psychological support sessions for individual families or groups of 5 to 10 families. RESULTS: 71% of the participants achieved success, defined as 14 consecutive dry nights. The result was similar for children and adolescents and for individual or group support. The time until success was shorter for participants missing fewer support sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Alarm treatment was effective for the present sample, regardless of age or type of support. Missing a higher number of support sessions, which may reflect low motivation for treatment, increased the risk of failure.

  8. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Fault tolerant microcomputer based alarm annunciator for Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Dhruva alarm annunciator displays the status of 624 alarm points on an array of display windows using the standard ringback sequence. Recognizing the need for a very high availability, the system is implemented as a fault tolerant configuration. The annunciator is partitioned into three identical units; each unit is implemented using two microcomputers wired in a hot standby mode. In the event of one computer malfunctioning, the standby computer takes over control in a bouncefree transfer. The use of microprocessors has helped built-in flexibility in the system. The system also provides built-in capability to resolve the sequence of occurrence of events and conveys this information to another system for display on a CRT. This report describes the system features, fault tolerant organisation used and the hardware and software developed for the annunciation function. (author). 8 figs

  10. Plasma-Assisted Chemistry in High-Speed Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, Sergey B.; Yarantsev, Dmitry A.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Kochetov, Igor V.

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental problems related to the high-speed combustion are analyzed. The result of plasma-chemical modeling is presented as a motivation of experimental activity. Numerical simulations of the effect of uniform non-equilibrium discharge on the premixed hydrogen and ethylene-air mixture in supersonic flow demonstrate an advantage of such a technique over a heating. Experimental results on multi-electrode non-uniform discharge maintenance behind wallstep and in cavity of supersonic flow are presented. The model test on hydrogen and ethylene ignition is demonstrated at direct fuel injection to low-temperature high-speed airflow

  11. The alarm system of the SAPHIR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz-Coulon, H.C.

    1993-06-01

    In order to obtain an effective control of the different detector components an alarm system was built and implemented into the data acquisition system of the SAPHIR experiment. It provides an easy way of indicating errors by either adequate library calls or an appropriate hardware signal, both leading to an active alarm. This allows to react directly to any error detected by one of the specific control systems. In addition for selected kinds of errors the data run can be stopped automatically. Concept and construction of this system are described and some examples for its application are given. (orig.)

  12. Coincidence logic modules for criticality alarming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaief, C.C. III.

    1977-04-01

    A coincidence Logic Module and a companion contact closure Relay Module utilizing the NIM Standard have been developed for criticality alarming. The units provide an ALARM whenever two or more out of N detectors become activated. In addition, an ALERT is generated whenever one or more detectors is activated or when certain electronic component failures occur. The number of detector inputs (N) can be expanded in groups of six by adding modules. Serial and parallel redundancy were used to reduce the probability of system failure

  13. High frequency flow-structural interaction in dense subsonic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baw-Lin; Ofarrell, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Prediction of the detailed dynamic behavior in rocket propellant feed systems and engines and other such high-energy fluid systems requires precise analysis to assure structural performance. Designs sometimes require placement of bluff bodies in a flow passage. Additionally, there are flexibilities in ducts, liners, and piping systems. A design handbook and interactive data base have been developed for assessing flow/structural interactions to be used as a tool in design and development, to evaluate applicable geometries before problems develop, or to eliminate or minimize problems with existing hardware. This is a compilation of analytical/empirical data and techniques to evaluate detailed dynamic characteristics of both the fluid and structures. These techniques have direct applicability to rocket engine internal flow passages, hot gas drive systems, and vehicle propellant feed systems. Organization of the handbook is by basic geometries for estimating Strouhal numbers, added mass effects, mode shapes for various end constraints, critical onset flow conditions, and possible structural response amplitudes. Emphasis is on dense fluids and high structural loading potential for fatigue at low subsonic flow speeds where high-frequency excitations are possible. Avoidance and corrective measure illustrations are presented together with analytical curve fits for predictions compiled from a comprehensive data base.

  14. The Relationship between High Flow Nasal Cannula Flow Rate and Effort of Breathing in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Thomas; Kamerkar, Asavari; Hotz, Justin; Ross, Patrick A; Newth, Christopher J L; Khemani, Robinder G

    2017-10-01

    To use an objective metric of effort of breathing to determine optimal high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) flow rates in children flow rates of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 L/kg/minute. For a subgroup of patients, 2 different HFNC delivery systems (Fisher & Paykel [Auckland, New Zealand] and Vapotherm [Exeter, New Hampshire]) were compared. Twenty-one patients (49 titration episodes) were studied. The most common diagnoses were bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Overall, there was a significant difference in the percent change in PRP from baseline (of 0.5 L/kg/minute) with increasing flow rates for the entire cohort (P flow rates were increased (P = .001) than patients >8 kg. The optimal HFNC flow rate to reduce effort of breathing in infants and young children is approximately 1.5-2.0 L/kg/minute with more benefit seen in children ≤8 kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  16. Void fraction in horizontal bulk flow boiling at high flow qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, Fancisco J.; Monne, Carlos; Pascau, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new thermodynamic prediction of the vapor void fraction in bulk flow boiling, which is the core process of many energy conversion systems, is analyzed. The current heat balance is based on the flow quality, which is closely related to the measured void fraction, although some correlation for the vapor-liquid velocity ratio is needed. So here, it is suggested to work with the 'static' or thermodynamic quality, which is directly connected to the void fraction through the densities of the phases. Thus, the relation between heat and the mixture enthalpy (here based on the thermodynamic quality instead of the flow one) should be analyzed in depth. The careful void fraction data taken by Thom during the 'Cambridge project' for horizontal saturated flow boiling with high flow qualities (≤0.8) have been used for this analysis. As main results, first, we have found that the applied heat and the increment of the proposed thermodynamic enthalpy mixture throughout the heated duct do not agree, and for closure, a parameter is needed. Second, it has been checked that this parameter is practically equal to the classic velocity ratio or 'slip' ratio, suggesting that it should be included in a true thermodynamic heat balance. Furthermore, it has been clearly possible to improve the 'Cambridge project' correlations for the 'slip' ratio, here based on inlet pressure and water velocity, and heat flux. The calculated void fractions compare quite well with the measured ones. Finally, the equivalence of the suggested new heat balance with the current one through the 'slip' ratio is addressed. Highlighted is the same new energetic relation for saturated flow boiling that has been recently confirmed by the authors for Knights data, also taken during the 'Cambridge project', which include not only horizontal but also vertical upwards flows with moderate outlet flow quality (≤0.2)

  17. Void fraction in horizontal bulk flow boiling at high flow qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Fancisco J.; Monne, Carlos [Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad de Zaragoza-CPS, Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain); Pascau, Antonio [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza-CPS, Maria de Luna 3, 50018-Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    In this work, a new thermodynamic prediction of the vapor void fraction in bulk flow boiling, which is the core process of many energy conversion systems, is analyzed. The current heat balance is based on the flow quality, which is closely related to the measured void fraction, although some correlation for the vapor-liquid velocity ratio is needed. So here, it is suggested to work with the 'static' or thermodynamic quality, which is directly connected to the void fraction through the densities of the phases. Thus, the relation between heat and the mixture enthalpy (here based on the thermodynamic quality instead of the flow one) should be analyzed in depth. The careful void fraction data taken by Thom during the 'Cambridge project' for horizontal saturated flow boiling with high flow qualities ({<=}0.8) have been used for this analysis. As main results, first, we have found that the applied heat and the increment of the proposed thermodynamic enthalpy mixture throughout the heated duct do not agree, and for closure, a parameter is needed. Second, it has been checked that this parameter is practically equal to the classic velocity ratio or 'slip' ratio, suggesting that it should be included in a true thermodynamic heat balance. Furthermore, it has been clearly possible to improve the 'Cambridge project' correlations for the 'slip' ratio, here based on inlet pressure and water velocity, and heat flux. The calculated void fractions compare quite well with the measured ones. Finally, the equivalence of the suggested new heat balance with the current one through the 'slip' ratio is addressed. Highlighted is the same new energetic relation for saturated flow boiling that has been recently confirmed by the authors for Knights data, also taken during the 'Cambridge project', which include not only horizontal but also vertical upwards flows with moderate outlet flow quality ({<=}0.2). (author)

  18. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness

  19. Measurements of granular flow dynamics with high speed digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingeol [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The flow of granular materials is common to many industrial processes. This dissertation suggests and validates image processing algorithms applied to high speed digital images to measure the dynamics (velocity, temperature and volume fraction) of dry granular solids flowing down an inclined chute under the action of gravity. Glass and acrylic particles have been used as granular solids in the experiment. One technique utilizes block matching for spatially averaged velocity measurements of the glass particles. This technique is compared with the velocity measurement using an optic probe which is a conventional granular flow velocity measurement device. The other technique for measuring the velocities of individual acrylic particles is developed with correspondence using a Hopfield network. This technique first locates the positions of particles with pattern recognition techniques, followed by a clustering technique, which produces point patterns. Also, several techniques are compared for particle recognition: synthetic discriminant function (SDF), minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter, modified minimum average correlation energy (MMACE) filter and variance normalized correlation. The author proposes an MMACE filter which improves generalization of the MACE filter by adjusting the amount of averaged spectrum of training images in the spectrum whitening stages of the MACE filter. Variance normalized correlation is applied to measure the velocity and temperature of flowing glass particles down the inclined chute. The measurements are taken for the steady and wavy flow and qualitatively compared with a theoretical model of granular flow.

  20. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  1. A revival of the alarm system: Making the alarm list useful during incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J. E.; Oehman, B.; Calzada, A.; Nihlwing, C.; Jokstad, H.; Kristianssen, L. I.; Kvalem, J.; Lind, M.

    2006-01-01

    In control rooms there are often problems with information overload, which means that the operators may receive more information than they are able to interpret. The most serious information overload occurs in two types of situations. The first is when the operating state of the plant changes, which often gives raise to a shower of alarms and events. Such an alarm shower is expected, but can be dangerous, because it may hide other alarms originating from unrelated faults. The second problem occurs when a fault causes several consequential faults, leading to a so-called alarm cascade. Because the alarms seldom arrive in correct time order, it can be very difficult to analyze such a cascade, and the information overload occurs in exactly the moment when a potentially dangerous situation starts. In an ongoing project, GoalArt and IFE are cooperating in testing and evaluating GoalArt's methods for alarm reduction and root cause analysis. The testing comprises two specific algorithms, root cause analysis and state-based alarm priority. The GoalArt system has been integrated with the HAMBO simulator so that operators can evaluate the algorithms on-line. (authors)

  2. Mixing of high density solution in vertical upward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Hosogi, Nobuyoshi; Komada, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been performed in order to provide fundamental data and a numerical calculation model on the mixing of boric acid solution, injected from the standby liquid control system (SLCS), under a low natural circulation flow during an ATWS in a BWR. First, fundamental experiments on the mixing of high-density solution in vertically-upward water flow have been performed by using a small apparatus. Mixing patterns observed in the experiments have been classified to two groups, i.e. complete mixing (entrainment) and incomplete mixing (entrainment). In the complete mixing, the injected high-density solution is mixed (entrained) completely into the vertically-upward water flow. From the experiments, the minimum water flow rates in which the complete mixing (entrainment) is achieved have been obtained for various solution densities and solution injection rates. Secondly, two-dimensional numerical calculations have been performed. A continuity equation for total fluid, momentum equations in two directions and a continuity equation for solute are solved by using the finite difference method for discretization method and by following the MAC method for solution procedure. The calculations have predicted nearly the minimum water flow rate in which the complete mixing is achieved, while the calculations have been performed only for one combination of the solution density and solution injection rate until now. (author)

  3. Alarm handling systems and techniques developed to match operator tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, A; Moum, B R [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reaktor Projekt

    1997-09-01

    This paper covers alarm handling methods and techniques explored at the Halden Project, and describes current status on the research activities on alarm systems. Alarm systems are often designed by application of a bottom-up strategy, generating alarms at component level. If no structuring of the alarms is applied, this may result in alarm avalanches in major plant disturbances, causing cognitive overload of the operator. An alarm structuring module should be designed using a top-down approach, analysing operator`s tasks, plant states, events and disturbances. One of the operator`s main tasks during plant disturbances is status identification, including determination of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. The main support of this is provided through the alarm systems, the process formats, the trends and possible diagnosis systems. The alarm system should both physically and conceptually be integrated with all these systems. 9 refs, 5 figs.

  4. Alarm handling systems and techniques developed to match operator tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, A.; Moum, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers alarm handling methods and techniques explored at the Halden Project, and describes current status on the research activities on alarm systems. Alarm systems are often designed by application of a bottom-up strategy, generating alarms at component level. If no structuring of the alarms is applied, this may result in alarm avalanches in major plant disturbances, causing cognitive overload of the operator. An alarm structuring module should be designed using a top-down approach, analysing operator's tasks, plant states, events and disturbances. One of the operator's main tasks during plant disturbances is status identification, including determination of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. The main support of this is provided through the alarm systems, the process formats, the trends and possible diagnosis systems. The alarm system should both physically and conceptually be integrated with all these systems. 9 refs, 5 figs

  5. Transactions of the criticality alarm systems workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The first Criticality Alarm workshop was held by the US Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office in 1985. This second workshop is the first held on an international level. There were 98 persons in attendance. They represented the Department of Energy (DOE) field offices, DOE contractors, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC licensees, and agencies in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, and Japan. Topics were on practices experience, and development. A key value of the workshop was the sharing of critical alarm system experiences, problems, and advances in the state of the art. In addition, several Criticality Alarm Systems (CAS) equipment systems were exhibited. Papers were presented on: nature of criticality accidents; lessons learned from past accidents; application of ANS 8.3 standard; gamma and neutron detection systems; research and development in progress; testing at Oak Ridge and Los Alamos; methods used to place detectors; centralized readout feature; false alarms; trip-point settings; and testing and maintenance. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  6. 46 CFR 95.15-30 - Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... navigated, other than paint and lamp lockers and similar small spaces, shall be fitted with an approved... only for systems required to be fitted with a delayed discharge. Such alarms shall be so arranged as to sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and the...

  7. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula... unresolved beyond the time period specified for its resolution in the licensee's fundamental nuclear material...

  8. Object-oriented alarm-filtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsberg, D.R.; Wilkie, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses an alarm-filtering system (AFS) being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ultimate goal of this project is to place AFS into ATR's reactor control room to act as an aid during major plant transients. In addition, methods of alarm analysis are investigated based on functional relationships rather than on a historical approach utilizing cause-consequence trees. Artificial intelligence techniques, including object-oriented programming, are also demonstrated as useful in analyzing alarms and alarm sequences. After a brief description of the problem AFS addresses, this paper discusses the design constraints and human factors that influenced the development of the system. The reader is then presented with operational and architectural descriptions of the system as well as what directions the future development of AFS may take. The fact that AFS is being considered as a partial solution to the problems discussed in the next section demonstrates the viability of its underlying technology and approach. 10 refs

  9. An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, R. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

  10. High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylönen, A. T.

    2013-07-01

    Flow behaviour inside a rod bundle has been an active research topic since the early days of the nuclear power industry. Of particular interest in previous studies have been topics such as flow mixing, two-phase flow structure and mapping of two-phase flow transitions. The optimisation of fuel element design can only be achieved by truly understanding the nature of flow. The ultimate goal in this research is to enhance the heat transfer and increase the critical heat flux, which would improve the fuel economy. A better understanding of the flow would also improve nuclear safety as departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) can be predicted more accurately. The motivation for the current project (SUBFLOW) was to increase knowledge of the complex flow phenomena inside a rod bundle. A dedicated sub-channel flow test facility was designed and constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. An adiabatic test loop has an up-scaled (1:2.6) vertical fuel rod bundle model with a 4 × 4 geometry. For the very first time, the wire-mesh sensor measurement technique was implemented in a rod bundle as two 64×64 conductivity wire-mesh sensors were installed in the upper part of the test section. The measurement technique enables one to study single- and two-phase flow behaviour with high spatial and temporal resolution. The research topics addressed in this thesis cover a wide range of flow conditions with and without a spacer grid in a rod bundle. The experimental campaign was started by studying natural mixing of a passive scalar to characterise the development of turbulent diffusion in an injection sub-channel and, later on, cross-mixing between adjacent sub-channels. The results were also used in comparison with the in-house CFD code PSI-Boil that is being developed at PSI. The code could estimate the mixing inside the sub-channel and the transition to cross-mixing with a good accuracy. As a natural transition, the SUBFLOW experiments were continued by

  11. High-resolution flow structure measurements in a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylönen, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    Flow behaviour inside a rod bundle has been an active research topic since the early days of the nuclear power industry. Of particular interest in previous studies have been topics such as flow mixing, two-phase flow structure and mapping of two-phase flow transitions. The optimisation of fuel element design can only be achieved by truly understanding the nature of flow. The ultimate goal in this research is to enhance the heat transfer and increase the critical heat flux, which would improve the fuel economy. A better understanding of the flow would also improve nuclear safety as departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) can be predicted more accurately. The motivation for the current project (SUBFLOW) was to increase knowledge of the complex flow phenomena inside a rod bundle. A dedicated sub-channel flow test facility was designed and constructed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. An adiabatic test loop has an up-scaled (1:2.6) vertical fuel rod bundle model with a 4 × 4 geometry. For the very first time, the wire-mesh sensor measurement technique was implemented in a rod bundle as two 64×64 conductivity wire-mesh sensors were installed in the upper part of the test section. The measurement technique enables one to study single- and two-phase flow behaviour with high spatial and temporal resolution. The research topics addressed in this thesis cover a wide range of flow conditions with and without a spacer grid in a rod bundle. The experimental campaign was started by studying natural mixing of a passive scalar to characterise the development of turbulent diffusion in an injection sub-channel and, later on, cross-mixing between adjacent sub-channels. The results were also used in comparison with the in-house CFD code PSI-Boil that is being developed at PSI. The code could estimate the mixing inside the sub-channel and the transition to cross-mixing with a good accuracy. As a natural transition, the SUBFLOW experiments were continued by

  12. Thermal Mechanisms for High Amplitude Aerodynamic Flow Control (YIP 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    transport aircraft , much less cruise. The search for a perfect actuator continues, but progress has been limited by the often proprietary nature these...wave generation as a mechanism for high amplitude, high bandwidth actuation has been demonstrated, but the fundamental physics of how this...moving forward with such a definition. 15. SUBJECT TERMS active flow control, energy deposition, plasma actuation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  13. Flow visualization in models of high speed centrifugal separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerstedt, T.; Nabo, O.

    1987-01-01

    The modern centrifugal separator is a fluid machine where the high ''G'' forces set up by rotation are utilized to separate phases of different densities. The fluid dynamics of the separator is complex and poorly known. Hundred years of (practical) experience has, however, turned the separator into an efficient machine. The present report shows how straight forward visualization experiments in model rigs provide valuable information on the flow inside the separator. The report concentrates on describing the flow between the closely spaced discs in a separator disc stack

  14. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, M. C.; Wilmoth, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, was developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/ external flows. The VNAP2 program solves the two dimensional, time dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack Scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented.

  15. Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, M.C.; Wilmoth, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, has been developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/external flows. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented

  16. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs

  17. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  18. Automation in high-content flow cytometry screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, U; Wand, M P

    2009-09-01

    High-content flow cytometric screening (FC-HCS) is a 21st Century technology that combines robotic fluid handling, flow cytometric instrumentation, and bioinformatics software, so that relatively large numbers of flow cytometric samples can be processed and analysed in a short period of time. We revisit a recent application of FC-HCS to the problem of cellular signature definition for acute graft-versus-host-disease. Our focus is on automation of the data processing steps using recent advances in statistical methodology. We demonstrate that effective results, on par with those obtained via manual processing, can be achieved using our automatic techniques. Such automation of FC-HCS has the potential to drastically improve diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  19. Initial angular momentum and flow in high energy nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Rainer J.; Chen, Guangyao; Somanathan, Sidharth

    2018-03-01

    We study the transfer of angular momentum in high energy nuclear collisions from the colliding nuclei to the region around midrapidity, using the classical approximation of the color glass condensate (CGC) picture. We find that the angular momentum shortly after the collision (up to times ˜1 /Qs , where Qs is the saturation scale) is carried by the "β -type" flow of the initial classical gluon field, introduced by some of us earlier. βi˜μ1∇iμ2-μ2∇iμ1 (i =1 ,2 ) describes the rapidity-odd transverse energy flow and emerges from Gauss's law for gluon fields. Here μ1 and μ2 are the averaged color charge fluctuation densities in the two nuclei, respectively. Interestingly, strong coupling calculations using anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) techniques also find an energy flow term featuring this particular combination of nuclear densities. In classical CGC the order of magnitude of the initial angular momentum per rapidity in the reaction plane, at a time 1 /Qs , is |d L2/d η |≈ RAQs-3ɛ¯0/2 at midrapidity, where RA is the nuclear radius, and ɛ¯0 is the average initial energy density. This result emerges as a cancellation between a vortex of energy flow in the reaction plane aligned with the total angular momentum, and energy shear flow opposed to it. We discuss in detail the process of matching classical Yang-Mills results to fluid dynamics. We will argue that dissipative corrections should not be discarded to ensure that macroscopic conservation laws, e.g., for angular momentum, hold. Viscous fluid dynamics tends to dissipate the shear flow contribution that carries angular momentum in boost-invariant fluid systems. This leads to small residual angular momentum around midrapidity at late times for collisions at high energies.

  20. Perspectives on use of personal alarms by older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Johnston

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Kylie Johnston1, Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Michele Sutherland21International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide; 2Falls Prevention Unit, Department of Health, Government of South Australia, Adelaide, AustraliaBackground: Personal alarms are proposed as a reliable mechanism for older people to obtain assistance after falling. However, little is known about how older people feel about owning and using personal alarms.Aim: This paper reports on experiences of independently living older people, who have recently fallen, regarding alarm use and their independence.Method: Volunteers older than 65 years who had sustained a fall in the previous six months were sought via community invitations. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted to gain information about their fall and their perspectives on personal alarm use. Interviews were content-analyzed to identify key concepts and themes.Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted. Twenty callers owned personal alarms. Four subgroups of older fallers were identified; the first group used personal alarms effectively and were advocates for their benefits, the second group owned an alarm but did not use it effectively, the third group did not own alarms mostly because of cost, although were receptive to an alarm should one be provided, and the fourth group did not have an alarm and would not use it even if it was provided.Discussion: Personal alarms produce positive experiences when used effectively by the right people. The cost of personal alarms prohibits some older fallers from being effective alarm users. However, other elderly fallers remain unwilling to consider alarm use even if one was provided. In view of their cost, personal alarms should be targeted to people who will benefit most. ­Alternative strategies should be considered when alarms are unlikely to be used appropriately.Keywords: personal alarm devices, falls, older people, patient perspective

  1. Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. 1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. 2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. 3) A software tool, is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display

  2. High speed motion neutron radiography of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.H.; Wang, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    Current research in the area of two-phase flow utilizes a wide variety of sensing devices, but some limitations exist on the information which can be obtained. Neutron radiography is a feasible alternative to ''see'' the two-phase flow. A system to perform neutron radiographic analysis of dynamic events which occur on the order of several milliseconds has been developed at Oregon State University. Two different methods have been used to radiograph the simulated two-phase flow. These are pulsed, or ''flash'' radiography, and high speed movie neutron radiography. The pulsed method serves as a ''snap-shot'' with an exposure time ranging from 10 to 20 milliseconds. In high speed movie radiography, a scintillator is used to convert neutrons into light which is enhanced by an optical intensifier and then photographed by a high speed camera. Both types of radiography utilize the pulsing capability of the OSU TRIGA reactor. The principle difficulty with this type of neutron radiography is the fogging of the image due to the large amount of scattering in the water. This difficulty can be overcome by using thin regions for the two-phase flow or using heavy water instead of light water. The results obtained in this paper demonstrate the feasibility of using neutron radiography to obtain data in two-phase flow situations. Both movies and flash radiographs have been obtained of air bubbles in water and boiling from a heater element. The neutron radiographs of the boiling element show both nucleate boiling and film boiling. (Auth.)

  3. Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2016-04-19

    We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.

  4. Void fraction measurement system for high temperature flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teyssedou, A; Aube, F; Champagne, P [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Institut de Genie Energetique

    1992-05-01

    A {gamma}-ray absorption technique has been developed for measuring the axial distribution of the void fraction for high-temperature and high-pressure two-phase flows. The system is mounted on a moving platform driven by a high-power stepping motor. A personal computer (IBM AT) connected to a data acquisition system is used to control the displacement of the {gamma} source and detector, and to read the response of the detector. All the measurement procedures are carried out automatically by dedicated software developed for this purpose. (Author).

  5. High-flow priapism in acute lymphatic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Vogt, Susanna; Kaiser, Werner A. [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Bachstrasse 18, 07740, Jena (Germany); Kentouche, Karim; Doerfel, Claus; Zintl, Felix [Department of Paediatrics, University of Jena (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Priapism is defined as prolonged and persistent erection of the penis without sexual stimulation. It is associated with excessive hyperleukocytosis (e.g. in acute or chronic leukaemia); however, this complication is rarely seen in the pediatric population. We report a 12-year-old boy suffering from acute leukaemia presenting with, at first intermittent, but increasingly persistent erection. Doppler US revealed signs of high-flow priapism. MRI excluded intrapelvic tumour masses, and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography could not demonstrate an arteriovenous fistula or thrombosis. Cavernosal blood-gas measurement was in agreement with high-flow priapism. On the basis of the imaging findings, invasive therapeutic management was avoided in our patient with a successful outcome. (orig.)

  6. Characteristics of Multiplexed Grooved Nozzles for High Flow Rate Electrospray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2007-01-01

    The electrospray operated in the cone-jet mode can generate highly charged micro droplets in an almost uniform size at flow rates. Therefore, the multiplexing system which can retain the characteristics of the cone-jet mode is inevitable for the electrospray application. This experiment reports the multiplexed grooved nozzle system with the extractor. The effects of the grooves and the extractor on the performance of the electrospray were evaluated through experiments. Using the grooved nozzle, the stable cone-jet mode can be achieved at the each groove in the grooved mode. Furthermore, the number of nozzles per unit area is increased by the extractor. The multiplexing density is 12 jets per cm 2 at 30 mm distance from the nozzle tip to the ground plate. The multiplexing system for the high flow rate electrospray is realized with the extractor which can diminish the space charge effect without sacrificing characteristics of the cone-jet mode

  7. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  8. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...... Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices...

  9. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...... Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices...

  10. High-flow priapism in acute lymphatic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Vogt, Susanna; Kaiser, Werner A.; Kentouche, Karim; Doerfel, Claus; Zintl, Felix

    2004-01-01

    Priapism is defined as prolonged and persistent erection of the penis without sexual stimulation. It is associated with excessive hyperleukocytosis (e.g. in acute or chronic leukaemia); however, this complication is rarely seen in the pediatric population. We report a 12-year-old boy suffering from acute leukaemia presenting with, at first intermittent, but increasingly persistent erection. Doppler US revealed signs of high-flow priapism. MRI excluded intrapelvic tumour masses, and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography could not demonstrate an arteriovenous fistula or thrombosis. Cavernosal blood-gas measurement was in agreement with high-flow priapism. On the basis of the imaging findings, invasive therapeutic management was avoided in our patient with a successful outcome. (orig.)

  11. Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Denes, Ervin; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; von Haller, Barthelemy

    2012-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

  12. Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Denes, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

  13. The false alarm at Forsmark March 6th 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultaaker, Oe.

    1986-01-01

    118 households were interviewed by telephone. Additional interviews were made with the representatives of the nuclear plant, county alarming center, Radio Uppland and the authorities in question. Six out of ten households heard the false alarm. Less than one out of twenty believed that it was an alarm caused by real danger and seven out of ten think that there will be more false alarms. (G.B.)

  14. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  15. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-01-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies

  16. Technical guide to criticality alarm system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, B.

    2009-01-01

    An instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the technical aspects of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Dept. of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. The manual was structured such that it can be used by engineers designing completely new systems and by those who are working with existing facilities. Major design tasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. Regulatory and technical performance requirements were both addressed. (authors)

  17. Miniaturized heat flux sensor for high enthalpy plasma flow characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Lohlec, Stefan; Jullien, Pierre; Van Ootegemd, Bruno; Couzie, Jacques; Lasserre, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    An improved miniaturized heat flux sensor is presented aiming at measuring extreme heat fluxes of plasma wind tunnel flows. The sensor concept is based on an in-depth thermocouple measurement with a miniaturized design and an advanced calibration approach. Moreover, a better spatial estimation of the heat flux profile along the flow cross section is realized with this improved small sensor design. Based on the linearity assumption, the heat flux is determined using the impulse response of the sensor relating the heat flux to the temperature of the embedded thermocouple. The non-integer system identification (NISI) procedure is applied that allows a calculation of the impulse response from transient calibration measurements with a known heat flux of a laser source. The results show that the new sensor leads to radially highly resolved heat flux measurement for a flow with only a few centimetres in diameter, the so far not understood non-symmetric heat flux profiles do not occur with the new sensor design. It is shown that this former effect is not a physical effect of the flow, but a drawback of the classical sensor design. (authors)

  18. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section 78.47-75... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm required by § 72... FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b) [Reserved] [CGFR 66-33, 31 FR 15284, Dec. 6, 1966] ...

  20. The study of system function analysis method for success path alarm design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. K.; Shin, Y. C.

    1999-01-01

    The key benefit to the common use of the critical function approach for safety and mission functions is that monitoring methods expected to be used by operaotrs during emergency condition are used continuously during normal operation. For each critical safety function there exists two or more success paths. Information Processing System monitors the availability, operation state and performance of the critical function success paths. In this paper, We have studied System Function Analysis(SFA) for the design of Success Path Alarm(SPA) for applying in KNGR. In here, we thought that SFA will help the design of SPA. The SFA can be applicable to the design of SPA according to NUREG-0711, also can induce the algorithm for alarm of system, train and flow path. We present a method of system function analysis for designing Success Path Alarm

  1. Poison and alarm: the Asian hornet Vespa velutina uses sting venom volatiles as an alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya-Nan; Wen, Ping; Dong, Shi-Hao; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James C

    2017-02-15

    In colonial organisms, alarm pheromones can provide a key fitness advantage by enhancing colony defence and warning of danger. Learning which species use alarm pheromone and the key compounds involved therefore enhances our understanding of how this important signal has evolved. However, our knowledge of alarm pheromones is more limited in the social wasps and hornets compared with the social bees and ants. Vespa velutina is an economically important and widespread hornet predator that attacks honey bees and humans. This species is native to Asia and has now invaded Europe. Despite growing interest in V. velutina , it was unknown whether it possessed an alarm pheromone. We show that these hornets use sting venom as an alarm pheromone. Sting venom volatiles were strongly attractive to hornet workers and triggered attacks. Two major venom fractions, consisting of monoketones and diketones, also elicited attack. We used gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) to isolate 13 known and 3 unknown aliphatic ketones and alcohols in venom that elicited conspicuous hornet antennal activity. Two of the unknown compounds may be an undecen-2-one and an undecene-2,10-dinone. Three major compounds (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one and undecan-2-one) triggered attacks, but only nonan-2-one did so at biologically relevant levels (10 hornet equivalents). Nonan-2-one thus deserves particular attention. However, the key alarm releasers for V. velutina remain to be identified. Such identification will help to illuminate the evolution and function of alarm compounds in hornets. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  3. Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammy, Mo

    2010-01-01

    Active flow control is often used to manipulate flow instabilities to achieve a desired goal (e.g. prevent separation, enhance mixing, reduce noise, etc.). Instability frequencies normally scale with flow velocity scale and inversely with flow length scale (U/l). In a laboratory setting for such flow experiments, U is high, but l is low, resulting in high instability frequency. In addition, high momentum and high background noise & turbulence in the flow necessitate high amplitude actuation. Developing a high amplitude and high frequency actuator is a major challenge. Ironically, these requirements ease up in application (but other issues arise).

  4. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-02-09

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring.

  5. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanatorn Tanantong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs, the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring.

  6. Treatment of High-Flow Vascular Malformations by Venous Embolization Aided by Flow Occlusion Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, James E.; Mansfield, Averil O.; Allison, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Transvenous embolization techniques may be helpful as alternatives to the arterial route when treating high-flow vascular malformations. We present our experience using these techniques in four patients. Methods: In one patient the venous portion of the arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was punctured directly; in the other three patients it was catheterized via a retrograde venous approach. Flow occlusion techniques were utilized in all patients during embolization, which was performed with absolute alcohol or N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.Results: Excellent clinical and angiographic results were obtained, with obliteration of arteriovenous shunting in all patients. There were no complications.Conclusion: The embolization of certain AVMs using a venous approach is a safe and effective treatment

  7. Transient flow characteristics of a high speed rotary valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Patrick H.

    were experimentally mapped as a function of valve speed, inter-cylinder pressure ratios and volume ratios and the results were compared to compressible flow theoretical models. Specifically, the transient behavior suggested a short-lived loss-mode initiation closely resembled by shock tube theory followed by a quasi-steady flow regime resembling choked flow behavior. An empirical model was then employed to determine the useful range of the CCV design as applied to a four-stroke CIBAI engine cycle modeled using a 1-D quasi-steady numerical method, with particular emphasis on the cyclic timing of the CCV opening. Finally, a brief discussion of a high-temperature version of the CCV design is presented.

  8. High-speed solar wind flow parameters at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    To develop a set of constraints for theories of solar wind high-speed streams, a detailed study was made of the fastest streams observed at 1 AU during the time period spanning March 1971 through July 1974. Streams were accepted for study only if (1) the maximum speed exceeded 650 km s -1 ; (2) effects of stream-stream dynamical interaction on the flow parameters could be safely separated from the intrinsic characteristics of the high-speed regions; (3) the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the stream when mapped back to 20 solar radii by using a constant speed approximation was greater than 45degree in Carrington longitude; and (4) there were no obvious solar-activity-induced contaminating effects. Nineteen streams during this time interval satisfied these criteria. Average parameters at 1 AU for those portions of these streams above V=650 km s -1 are given.Not only is it not presently known why electrons are significantly cooler than the protons within high-speed regions, but also observed particle fluxes and convected energy fluxes for speed greater than 650 km s -1 are substantially larger than those values predicted by any of the existing theories of solar wind high-speed streams. More work is therefore needed in refining present solar wind models to see whether suitable modifications and/or combinations of existing theories based on reasonable coronal conditions can accommodate the above high-speed flow parameters

  9. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.

  10. Recommendations to alarm systems and lessons learned on alarm system implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerenssen, Aimar; Veland, Oeystein; Farbrot, Jan Erik; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils; Bye, Andreas

    2001-11-01

    Alarm systems have been of major concern within complex industrial processes for many years. Within the nuclear community, the TMI accident in 1979 was the first really serious event that showed also the importance of the man-machine aspects of the systems in general, and the alarm system in particular. The OECD Halden Reactor Project has been working with alarm systems since 1974. This report is an attempt to gather some of the knowledge that has been accumulated during the years in Halden, both in research and also in bilateral projects. Bilateral projects within this field have provided a practical basis of knowledge.A major part of this report consists of a set of recommendations, which reflect HRP's current understanding of how an alarm system should work. There are also recommendations on design methods. But also other issues are included, as system development and implementation experience, and experimental knowledge on the performance of alarm systems. Some open issues are also discussed. (Author). 54 refs., 15 figs

  11. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Bridi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue.METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds.RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons; that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour.CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security.

  12. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Adriana Carla; Louro, Thiago Quinellato; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue. METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds. RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons); that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour. CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security. PMID:25591100

  13. Alarm criteria for the fixed gamma radiation monitoring stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    For the type of measurement considered here, an alarm based on the dose excess has been shown to be a more certain method of indicating that a true alarm situation exists than an alarm based on the dose-rate exceeding a given dose-rate level. The method offers a number of advantages: Dose-rate levels can be recorded over long periods without any necessity of making manual changes in the alarm level due to seasonal variations in the background level. A relatively low level can be specified without an unnecessary number of false alarms being triggered by gamma-emitting radon daughters. (orig./HP)

  14. Development of electric power transmission line anomaly approaching alarm system. Sodensen ijo sekkin keiho sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusaba, Masaro; Tabata, Takatoshi; Miyazaki, Shusuke [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1989-03-30

    In order to plan preventive measures from the occurrence of electric power transmission line accident, a power transmission line anomaly approaching alarm system was developed to automatically alarm the operators and surveillants. The surveillance system, composed of camera, surveillance unit proper and alarm receiving portion, generates alarm and indicate hazard to the operators, when animal invades a hazardous area designated on the monitor. Wireless telegraph for the alarm transmission use used frequency around a 322MHz band with the Radio Ray law and preventive measures from noise, taken into consideration. The prototype is characterized by unnecessary ancillary fitting to the surveillance object, rare erroneous operations and high reliability. While the hazardous area can be simply designated, changed and released, as made by volume on the control panel. It is moreover easy to designate, as done by confirming the surveillance object on the display. It is also possible in multidimensional surveillance and easy to use on site. 7 figs.

  15. A Study on Performance Requirements for Advanced Alarm System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Duk Hyun; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Sim, Young Rok; Ko, Jong Hyun; Kim, Jung Seon; Jang, Gwi Sook; Park, Geun Ok

    2005-01-01

    A design goals of advanced alarm system is providing advanced alarm information to operator in main control room. To achive this, we applied computer based system to Alarm System. Because, It should apply data management and advanced alarm processing(ie. Data Base Mangegment System and S/W module for alarm processing). These are not impossible in analog based alarm system. And, preexitance research examples are made on digital computer. We have digital systems for test of advanced alarm system table and have tested and studied using by test equipment in the view point of the system performance, stability and security. In this paper, we discribed about general software architecture of preexitance research examples. Also, CPU performance and requirements of system software that served to accommodate it, stability and security

  16. Applying AI techniques to improve alarm display effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, J.M.; Birrer, S.A.; Crosberg, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Alarm Filtering System (AFS) addresses the problem of information overload in a control room during abnormal operations. Since operators can miss vital information during these periods, systems which emphasize important messages are beneficial. AFS uses the artificial intelligence (AI) technique of object-oriented programming to filter and dynamically prioritize alarm messages. When an alarm's status changes, AFS determines the relative importance of that change according to the current process state. AFS bases that relative importance on relationships the newly changed alarm has with other activated alarms. Evaluations of a alarm importance take place without regard to the activation sequence of alarm signals. The United States Department of Energy has applied for a patent on the approach used in this software. The approach was originally developed by EG and G Idaho for a nuclear reactor control room

  17. Computational Study of Nonequilibrium Chemistry in High Temperature Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Sriram

    Recent experimental measurements in the reflected shock tunnel CUBRC LENS-I facility raise questions about our ability to correctly model the recombination processes in high enthalpy flows. In the carbon dioxide flow, the computed shock standoff distance over the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) shape was less than half of the experimental result. For the oxygen flows, both pressure and heat transfer data on the double cone geometry were not correctly predicted. The objective of this work is to investigate possible reasons for these discrepancies. This process involves systematically addressing different factors that could possibly explain the differences. These factors include vibrational modeling, role of electronic states and chemistry-vibrational coupling in high enthalpy flows. A state-specific vibrational model for CO2, CO, O2 and O system is devised by taking into account the first few vibrational states of each species. All vibrational states with energies at or below 1 eV are included in the present work. Of the three modes of vibration in CO2 , the antisymmetric mode is considered separately from the symmetric stretching mode and the doubly degenerate bending modes. The symmetric and the bending modes are grouped together since the energy transfer rates between the two modes are very large due to Fermi resonance. The symmetric and bending modes are assumed to be in equilibrium with the translational and rotational modes. The kinetic rates for the vibrational-translation energy exchange reactions, and the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational-vibrational energy exchange reactions are based on experimental data to the maximum extent possible. Extrapolation methods are employed when necessary. This vibrational model is then coupled with an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code to study the expansion of CO2 in a nozzle. The potential role of low lying electronic states is also investigated. Carbon dioxide has a single excited state just below

  18. Supersonic plasma flow between high latitude conjugate ionospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The polar wind problem has been investigated for closed field lines in situations where one of the two conjugate ionospheric regions is fully illuminated by the sun and the other darkness (solstices at high latitudes). A supersonic flow between hemispheres is possible; the magnetospheric part of this flow must be symmetric with respect to the equator. The daytime fluxes are proportional to the neutral hydrogen density. Fluxes of the order of 10 8 cm -2 sec -1 are only possible with density considerably higher than given by CIRA models. For stationary solutions higher flow speeds are needed on the dark side than provided from the illuminated side. It is concluded that shock waves with upward velocities of about 5 km/sec would form above the dark ionosphere. This implies a reduction by a factor of 3 to 5 of the plasma influx into the dark hemisphere, whereby F-layer densities of only up to 2 x 10 4 cm -3 can be maintained. (orig.) [de

  19. High energy electron disinfection of sewage wastewater in flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, T; Arai, H; Hosono, M; Tokunaga, O; Machi, S [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kondoh, M; Minemura, T; Nakao, A; Seike, Y [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-01-01

    The disinfection of effluent municipal wastewaters by high-energy electrons in flow systems was studied using an experimental apparatus which has the maximum treatment capacity of 10.8 m{sup 3}/h. An electron accelerator with an accelerating voltage of 2 MV was used. The electron beam current was controlled to deliver the desired doses ranging from 0.05 to 1 kGy. Treatment times were in the range from 0.0022 to 0.051 s. Preliminary experiments with batch system using Petri dish of 100 ml showed that the effectiveness of electron irradiation on inactivation of coliforms was not influenced significantly by factors such as pH, SS, COD, DO and irradiation temperature. The dose required to produce 99.9% kill in the total population presented in wastewater were markedly affected by the thickness of water exposure to electron irradiation; that is, 0.39, 0.4 and 0.44 kGy for the depth of 5, 6 and 7 mm, respectively. The data obtained after a suitable correction for the doses due to the depth dose distribution showed no deviation from an experimental survival curve. Experiments with flow system indicated no measureable effect of the flow rate of wastewaters on the efficiency of disinfection in the range from 0.5 to 3.5 m/s. (author).

  20. High urinary flow in women with stress incontinence: corrected flow-age nomogram evaluation after a transobturator tape procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Narimoto, Kazutaka; Urata, Satoko; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Kuribayashi, Masato; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-07-01

    We noninvasively compared urinary flow in both pre- and post-transobturator tape (TOT) procedures in stress urinary incontinence (SUI) patients using previously reported corrected flow-age nomograms in healthy women. This retrospective cohort study included patients who underwent a successful TOT procedure to treat SUI. Non-instrumented uroflowmetry was performed before and 3 months after surgery. Corrected maximum flow rate (cQmax) and average flow rate (cQave) were calculated using Qmax/√voided volume (VV) and Qave/√VV respectively. The ratio of corrected flow to age-adjusted corrected flow in healthy women was calculated in each patient. Each parameter was compared against pre-TOT and 3-months post-TOT values. Sixty-two patients were eligible for study inclusion. All urinary flow parameters were significantly higher pre-TOT than at 3 months post-TOT. The number of patients with cQmax and cQave over mean flow-age nomogram, compared with healthy women, before the TOT procedure decreased 3 months post-TOT; however, in many patients, cQmax and cQave were higher than in the corrected flow-age nomogram post-TOT. No significant difference in the ratio of cQmax to age-adjusted cQmax between pre- and post-TOT in the normal urinary flow group was observed, but significantly decreased in the high urinary flow group 3 months after TOT. Urinary flow rates were higher in SUI patients compared with age-matched controls and successful TOT procedures normalized urinary flows in patients with high urinary flow. A simple evaluation of urinary flow using a corrected flow-age nomogram may be clinically useful in SUI patients.

  1. Implementation of the Integrated Alarm System for KOMAC facility using EPICS framework and Eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young-Gi; Kim, Jae-Ha; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2017-01-01

    The alarm detecting layer is the component that monitors alarm signals which are transported to the processing part through message queue. The main purpose of the processing part is to transfer the alarm signals connecting an alarm identification and state of the alarm to database system. The operation interface of system level signal links has been developed by EPICS framework. EPICS tools have been used for monitoring device alarm status. The KOMAC alarm system was developed for offering a user-friendly, intuitive user interface. The alarm system is implemented with EPICS IOC for alarm server, eclipse-mars integrated development tool for alarm viewer, and mariadb for alarm log. The new alarm system supports intuitive user interface on alarm information and alarm history. Alarm view has plans to add login function, user permission on alarm acknowledge, user permission of PV import, search and report function.

  2. In-Vivo High Dynamic Range Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2015-01-01

    example with a high dynamic velocity range. Velocities with an order of magnitude apart are detected on the femoral artery of a 41 years old healthy individual. Three distinct heart cycles are captured during a 3 secs acquisition. The estimated vector velocities are compared against each other within...... the heart cycle. The relative standard deviation of the measured velocity magnitude between the three peak systoles was found to be 5.11% with a standard deviation on the detected angle of 1.06◦ . In the diastole, it was 1.46% and 6.18◦ , respectively. Results proves that the method is able to estimate flow...

  3. A high-precision algorithm for axisymmetric flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gokhman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new algorithm for highly accurate computation of axisymmetric potential flow. The principal feature of the algorithm is the use of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates are used to write down the equations and to specify quadrilateral elements following the boundary. In particular, boundary conditions for the Stokes' stream-function are satisfied exactly. The velocity field is determined by differentiating the stream-function. We avoid the use of quadratures in the evaluation of Galerkin integrals, and instead use splining of the boundaries of elements to take the double integrals of the shape functions in closed form. This is very accurate and not time consuming.

  4. Security alarm communication and display systems development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has, as lead Department of Energy (DOE) physical security laboratory, developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. This paper briefly describes some of the systems developed and concludes with a discussion of technology relevant to those currently designing, developing, implementing, or procuring such a system. Development activities and the rapid evolution of computers over the last decade have resulted in a broad variety of capabilities to support most security system communication and display needs. The major task in selecting a system is becoming familiar with these capabilities and finding the best match to a specific need

  5. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft reg-sign Windows trademark or UNIX trademark--based X-Windows reg-sign, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors

  6. The Granular Blasius Problem: High inertial number granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    The classical Blasius problem considers the formation of a boundary layer through the change at x = 0 from a free-slip to a no-slip boundary beneath an otherwise steady uniform flow. Discrete particle model (DPM) simulations of granular gravity currents show that a similar phenomenon exists for a steady flow over a uniformly sloped surface that is smooth upstream (allowing slip) but rough downstream (imposing a no-slip condition). The boundary layer is a region of high shear rate and therefore high inertial number I; its dynamics are governed by the asymptotic behaviour of the granular rheology as I -> ∞ . The μ(I) rheology asserts that dμ / dI = O(1 /I2) as I -> ∞ , but current experimental evidence is insufficient to confirm this. We show that `generalised μ(I) rheologies', with different behaviours as I -> ∞ , all permit the formation of a boundary layer. We give approximate solutions for the velocity profile under each rheology. The change in boundary condition considered here mimics more complex topography in which shear stress increases in the streamwise direction (e.g. a curved slope). Such a system would be of interest in avalanche modelling. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship (Vriend).

  7. A Design of Alarm System in a Research Reactor Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jaekwan; Jang, Gwisook; Seo, Sangmun; Suh, Yongsuk

    2013-01-01

    The digital alarm system has become an indispensable design to process a large amount of alarms of power plants. Korean research reactor operated for decades maintains a hybrid alarm system with both an analog annunciator and a digital alarm display. In this design, several alarms are indicated on an analog panel and digital display, respectively, and it requires more attention and effort of the operators. As proven in power plants, a centralized alarm system design is necessary for a new research reactor. However, the number of alarms and operators in a research reactor is significantly lesser than power plants. Thus, simplification should be considered as an important factor for the operation efficiency. This paper introduces a simplified alarm system. As advances in information technology, fully digitalized alarm systems have been applied to power plants. In a new research reactor, it will be more useful than an analog or hybrid configuration installed in research reactors decades ago. However, the simplification feature should be considered as an important factor because the number of alarms and number of operators in a research reactor is significantly lesser than in power plants

  8. JOYO operation support system 'JOYCAT' based on intelligent alarm handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaoki, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Sato, Masuo; Yoshida, Megumu; Kaneko, Tomoko; Terunuma, Seiichi; Takatsuto, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Makoto.

    1992-01-01

    An operation support system for the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' was developed based on an intelligent alarm-handling. A specific feature of this system, called JOYCAT (JOYO Consulting and Analyzing Tool), is in its sequential processing structure that a uniform treatment by using design knowledge base is firstly applied for all activated alarms, and an exceptional treatment by using heuristic knowledge base is then applied only for the former results. This enables us to achieve real-time and flexible alarm-handling. The first alarm-handling determines the candidates of causal alarms, important alarms with which the operator should firstly cope, through identifying the cause-consequence relations among alarms based on the design knowledge base in which importance and activating conditions are described for each of 640 alarms in a frame format. The second alarm-handling makes the final judgement with the candidates by using the heuristic knowledge base described as production rules. Then, operation manuals concerning the most important alarms are displayed to operators. JOYCAT has been in commission since September of 1990, after a wide scope of validation tests by using an on-site full-scope training simulator. (author)

  9. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)

  10. Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs

  11. High temperature, high pressure gas loop - the Component Flow Test Loop (CFTL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Sanders, J.P.; Young, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    The high-pressure, high-temperature, gas-circulating Component Flow Test Loop located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was designed and constructed utilizing Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The quality assurance program for operating and testing is also based on applicable ASME standards. Power to a total of 5 MW is available to the test section, and an air-cooled heat exchanger rated at 4.4 MW serves as heat sink. The three gas-bearing, completely enclosed gas circulators provide a maximum flow of 0.47 m 3 /s at pressures to 10.7 MPa. The control system allows for fast transients in pressure, power, temperature, and flow; it also supports prolonged unattended steady-state operation. The data acquisition system can access and process 10,000 data points per second. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor components are being tested

  12. Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Seiler

    Full Text Available As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential

  13. ALARM, Thermohydraulics of BWR with Jet Pumps During LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, F.; Akimoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: ALARM-B2 which is an improved version of ALARM-B1 is a computer program to analyze thermo-hydraulic phenomena of BWR during a blowdown period under a large-break loss-of-coolant accident condition with special emphasis on the heat transfer phenomena in the core region. 2 - Method of solution: A so called volume-junction method is used to present fluid conservations. The primary system is divided into a number of special elements called 'control-volumes'. The system of partial differential equations describing fluid conservations for a stream-tube are integrated over a number of control volumes. The resulting set of simultaneous differential equations that is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, homogeneous and thermal- equilibrium flow is linearized and solved for a small time increment by a simple explicit numerical technique. The one-dimensional heat conduction equations describing temperature profiles within solid material are written in finite difference forms which are linearized and solved by the Crank-Nicholson implicit method. In order to simulate the blowdown heat transfer phenomena, the code has correlation packages for heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux. The heat generation in the core is given by a point reactor kinetics model with six groups of delayed neutrons and decay of eleven groups of fission products and actinides. The solution technique of the reactor kinetics is based on the Runge-Kutta method. ALARM-B2 has the models to simulate various components incorporated in BWRs such as jet pumps, recirculation pumps, steam separators, valves, and so on. The discharge and injection systems are modeled by leak and fill systems, respectively. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: As this has been developed to simulate a blowdown thermo-hydraulic transient during a large break LOCA, users must pay attention when applying the code to any medium or small break LOCAs or to later phases

  14. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS services and sites in WLCG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Perez, J. [UC, San Diego; Bonacorsi, D. [Bologna U.; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Sciaba, A. [CERN; Flix, J. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Kreuzer, P. [CERN; Fajardo, E. [Andes U., Bogota; Boccali, T. [INFN, Pisa; Klute, M. [MIT; Gomes, D. [Rio de Janeiro State U.; Kaselis, R. [Vilnius U.; Du, R. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Magini, N. [CERN; Butenas, I. [Vilnius U.; Wang, W. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS, the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  15. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina-Perez, J; Sciabà, A; Magini, N; Bonacorsi, D; Gutsche, O; Flix, J; Kreuzer, P; Fajardo, E; Boccali, T; Klute, M; Gomes, D; Kaselis, R; Butenas, I; Du, R; Wang, W

    2012-01-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  16. High throughput analysis of samples in flowing liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Grace, W. Kevin (Los Alamos, NM); Goodwin, Peter M. (Los Alamos, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Orden, Alan Van (Fort Collins, CO); Keller, Richard A. (White Rock, NM)

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method enable imaging multiple fluorescent sample particles in a single flow channel. A flow channel defines a flow direction for samples in a flow stream and has a viewing plane perpendicular to the flow direction. A laser beam is formed as a ribbon having a width effective to cover the viewing plane. Imaging optics are arranged to view the viewing plane to form an image of the fluorescent sample particles in the flow stream, and a camera records the image formed by the imaging optics.

  17. General methods for alarm reduction; Larmsanering med generella metoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnlund, Jonas; Bergquist, Tord; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2003-10-01

    The information in the control rooms has increased due to the technological advances in process control. Large industries produce large data quantities, where some information is unnecessary or even incorrect. The operator needs support from an advanced and well-adjusted alarm system to be able to separate a real event from a minor disturbance. The alarms must be of assistance and not a nuisance. An enhanced alarm situation qualifies an increased efficiency with fewer production disturbances and an improved safety. Yet, it is still unusual that actions are taken to improve the situation. An alarm cleanup with general methods can shortly be described as taking advantage of the control systems built-in functions, the possibility to modify or create function blocks and fine-tune the settings in the alarm system. In this project, we make use of an intelligent software, Alarm Cleanup Toolbox, that simulate different signal processing methods and tries to find improved settings on all the signals in the process. This is a fast and cost-efficient way to improve the overall alarm situation, and lays a foundation for more advanced alarm systems. An alarm cleanup has been carried out at Flintraennan district heating plant in Malmoe, where various signal processing methods has been implemented in a parallel alarm system. This made it possible to compare the two systems under the same conditions. The result is very promising, and shows that a lot of improvements can be achieved with very little effort. An analysis of the alarm system at Vattenreningen (the water purification process) at Heleneholmsverket in Malmoe has been carried out. Alarm Cleanup Toolbox has, besides suggesting improved settings, also found logical errors in the alarm system. Here, no implementation was carried out and therefore the results are analytical, but they validate the efficiency of the general methods. The project has shown that an alarm cleanup with general methods is cost-efficient, and that the

  18. High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Ramy

    To ensure the long-term sustainability of aviation, serious effort is underway to mitigate the escalating economic, environmental, and social concerns of the industry. Significant improvement to the energy efficiency of air transportation is required through the research and development of advanced and unconventional airframe and engine technologies. In the quest to reduce airframe drag, this thesis is concerned with the development and demonstration of an effective design tool for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of subsonic and transonic airfoils. The objective is to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization by incorporating and exploiting the phenomenon of laminar-turbulent transition in an efficient manner. A framework for the design and optimization of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) airfoils is developed and demonstrated with transition prediction capable of accounting for the effects of Reynolds number, freestream turbulence intensity, Mach number, and pressure gradients. First, a two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver has been extended to incorporate an iterative laminar-turbulent transition prediction methodology. The natural transition locations due to Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities are predicted using the simplified eN envelope method of Drela and Giles or, alternatively, the compressible form of the Arnal-Habiballah-Delcourt criterion. The boundary-layer properties are obtained directly from the Navier-Stokes flow solution, and the transition to turbulent flow is modeled using an intermittency function in conjunction with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The RANS solver is subsequently employed in a gradient-based sequential quadratic programming shape optimization framework. The laminar-turbulent transition criteria are tightly coupled into the objective and gradient evaluations. The gradients are obtained using a new augmented discrete-adjoint formulation for non-local transition

  19. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance

  20. Experimental evaluation of human-system interaction on alarm design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-H.; Lee, Y.-L.; Hwang, S.-L.; Yenn, T.-C.; Yu, Y.-C.; Hsu, C.-C.; Huang, H.-W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the practicability of automatic reset alarm system in Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) of Taiwan. The features of auto-reset alarm system include dynamic prioritization of all alarm signals and fast system reset. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of automatic/manual reset on operation time, situational awareness (SA), task load index (TLX), and subjective ratings. All participants, including Experts and Novices, took part in the experiment on the alarm system simulator with Load Rejection procedure. The experimental results imply that the auto-reset alarm system may be applied in an advanced control room under Load Rejection procedure, because all participants' operation time were reduced as well as Novice's SA were raised up. Nevertheless, to ensure operating safety in FNPP, the effects of the auto-reset alarm system in other procedures/special situations still need to be tested in the near future

  1. Framework for analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alrms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to possess stolen Special Nuclear Material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms

  2. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O' Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  3. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  4. Resolution of alarms for loss of bulk nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.; Davenport, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Under methods of material accountability considered in the NRC's Reform Amendment (Federal Register, 46(175):45144 to 45151 dated September 10, 1981) prompt detection of losses and resolution of alarms play a central role in the day-to-day activities of the Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System. This paper will discuss the two basic pathways of alarm resolution, namely, verification of the magnitude of the loss indicated by the initial alarm, and detection of deliberate or accidental accounting discrepancies. Progress along these pathways leads to a consensus that either (1) a loss occurred, (2) the original alarm was caused by MC and A error, or (3) the cause of the original alarm is uncertain. Three phases of response will be outlined and an example of response to alarms will be given for a mixed oxide powder processing control unit

  5. Study on flow regimes of high-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Peng; Chen Xiaoping; Liang Cai; Pu Wenhao; Zhou Yun; Xu Pan; Zhao Changsui

    2009-01-01

    High-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal is a key technology in the field of large-scale entrained bed coal gasification. Flow regime plays an important role in two-phase flow because it affects not only flow behavior and safety operation, but also the reliability of practical processes. Few references and experiences in high-pressure and dense-phase conveying are available, especially for the flow regimes. And because of the high stickiness and electrostatic attraction of pulverized coal to the pipe wall, it is very difficult to make out the flow regimes in the conveying pipe by visualization method. Thus quartz powder was chosen as the conveyed material to study the flow regime. High-speed digital video camera was employed to photograph the flow patterns. Experiments were conducted on a pilot scale experimental setup at the pressure up to 3.6MPa. With the decrease in superficial gas velocity, three distinguishable flow regimes were observed: stratified flow, dune flow and plug flow. The characteristics of pressure traces acquired by high frequency response pressure transmitter and their EMD (Empirical Mode Decomposition) characteristics were correlated strongly with the flow regimes. Combining high-speed photography and pressure signal analysis together can make the recognition of flow patterns in the high-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying system more accurate. The present work will lead to better understanding of the flow regime transition under high-pressure.

  6. High angle of attack aerodynamics subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rom, Josef

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamics of aircraft at high angles of attack is a subject which is being pursued diligently, because the modern agile fighter aircraft and many of the current generation of missiles must perform well at very high incidence, near and beyond stall. However, a comprehensive presentation of the methods and results applicable to the studies of the complex aerodynamics at high angle of attack has not been covered in monographs or textbooks. This book is not the usual textbook in that it goes beyond just presenting the basic theoretical and experimental know-how, since it contains reference material to practical calculation methods and technical and experimental results which can be useful to the practicing aerospace engineers and scientists. It can certainly be used as a text and reference book for graduate courses on subjects related to high angles of attack aerodynamics and for topics related to three-dimensional separation in viscous flow courses. In addition, the book is addressed to the aerodynamicist...

  7. High-flow nasal cannula therapy for adult patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lin, Ling; Pan, Konghan; Zhou, Jiancang

    2016-01-01

    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy has several physiological advantages over traditional oxygen therapy devices, including decreased nasopharyngeal resistance, washing out of the nasopharyngeal dead space, generation of positive pressure in the pharynx, increasing alveolar recruitment in the lungs, humidification of the airways, increased fraction of inspired oxygen and improved mucociliary clearance. Recently, the use of HFNC in treating adult critical illness patients has significantly increased, and it is now being used in many patients with a range of different disease conditions. However, there are no established guidelines to direct the safe and effective use of HFNC for these patients. This review article summarizes the available published literature on the positive physiological effects, mechanisms of action, and the clinical applications of HFNC, compared with traditional oxygen therapy devices. The available literature suggests that HFNC oxygen therapy is an effective modality for the early treatment of critically adult patients. PMID:27698207

  8. Interventional management of high-flow vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Robert J; Nassiri, Naiem; Drury, Jennifer E

    2013-03-01

    High-flow vascular malformations are among the most challenging lesions in the field of interventional radiology. For an optimal long-term result, the clinician must have a full understanding of the types of lesions, their natural history, appropriate diagnostic studies, indications for treatment, and all the treatment options, including surgery, embolization, laser, and pharmacotherapy. Surgery should, in general, be used primarily for lesions that are completely resectable or are so bulky that embolization would not provide a satisfactory result. Embolization techniques are directed at elimination of the nidus of the lesion, using a variety of penetrating embolic agents both by direct puncture and transcatheter approaches. This paper reviews the principles and techniques primarily involving embolization for lesions occurring in various parts of the body, emphasizing the lessons learned in treating more than 2000 patients over a 30-year period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flux flow and flux dynamics in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.H.; Turchinskaya, M.; Swartzendruber, L.J.; Roitburd, A.; Lundy, D.; Ritter, J.; Kaiser, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Because high temperature superconductors, including BYCO and BSSCO, are type 2 superconductors with relatively low H(sub c 1) values and high H(sub c 2) values, they will be in a critical state for many of their applications. In the critical state, with the applied field between H(sub c 1) and H(sub c 2), flux lines have penetrated the material and can form a flux lattice and can be pinned by structural defects, chemical inhomogeneities, and impurities. A detailed knowledge of how flux penetrates the material and its behavior under the influence of applied fields and current flow, and the effect of material processing on these properties, is required in order to apply, and to improve the properties of these superconductors. When the applied field is changed rapidly, the time dependence of flux change can be divided into three regions, an initial region which occurs very rapidly, a second region in which the magnetization has a 1n(t) behavior, and a saturation region at very long times. A critical field is defined for depinning, H(sub c,p) as that field at which the hysteresis loop changes from irreversible to reversible. As a function of temperature, it is found that H(sub c,p) is well described by a power law with an exponent between 1.5 and 2.5. The behavior of H(sub c,p) for various materials and its relationship to flux flow and flux dynamics are discussed

  10. From "E-flows" to "Sed-flows": Managing the Problem of Sediment in High Altitude Hydropower Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbud, C.; Lane, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    The connections between stream hydraulics, geomorphology and ecosystems in mountain rivers have been substantially perturbed by humans, for example through flow regulation related to hydropower activities. It is well known that the ecosystem impacts downstream of hydropower dams may be managed by a properly designed compensation release or environmental flows ("e-flows"), and such flows may also include sediment considerations (e.g. to break up bed armor). However, there has been much less attention given to the ecosystem impacts of water intakes (where water is extracted and transferred for storage and/or power production), even though in many mountain systems such intakes may be prevalent. Flow intakes tend to be smaller than dams and because they fill quickly in the presence of sediment delivery, they often need to be flushed, many times within a day in Alpine glaciated catchments with high sediment yields. The associated short duration "flood" flow is characterised by very high sediment concentrations, which may drastically modify downstream habitat, both during the floods but also due to subsequent accumulation of "legacy" sediment. The impacts on flora and fauna of these systems have not been well studied. In addition, there are no guidelines established that might allow the design of "e-flows" that also treat this sediment problem, something we call "sed-flows". Through an Alpine field example, we quantify the hydrological, geomorphological, and ecosystem impacts of Alpine water transfer systems. The high sediment concentrations of these flushing flows lead to very high rates of channel disturbance downstream, superimposed upon long-term and progressive bed sediment accumulation. Monthly macroinvertebrate surveys over almost a two-year period showed that reductions in the flushing rate reduced rates of disturbance substantially, and led to rapid macroinvertebrate recovery, even in the seasons (autumn and winter) when biological activity should be reduced

  11. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.

  12. Levels of alarm thresholds of meningitis outbreaks in Hamadan Province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadres, Mohammad; Karami, Manoochehr; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Esmailnasab, Nader; Pazhouhi, Khabat

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on syndromic data to determine levels of alarm thresholds to detection of meningitis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. Data on both confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis (fever and neurological symptom) form 21 March 2010 to 20 March 2012 were used in Hamadan Province, Iran. Alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak were determined using four different methods including absolute values or standard method, relative increase, statistical cutoff points and upper control limit of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) algorithm. Among 723 reported cases, 41 were diagnosed to have meningitis. Standard level of alarm thresholds for meningitis outbreak was determined as incidence of 5/100000 persons. Increasing 1.5 to two times in reported cases of suspected meningitis per week was known as the threshold levels according to relative increase method. An occurrence four cases of suspected meningitis per week that equals to 90th percentile was chosen as alarm thresholds by statistical cut off point method. The corresponding value according to EWMA algorithm was 2.57 i.e. three cases. Policy makers and staff of syndromic surveillance systems are highly recommended to apply the above different methods to determine the levels of alarm threshold.

  13. Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. (1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. Although very functional, this system is not portable or flexible; the software would have to be substantially rewritten for other applications. (2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. This package is based on a standardized choice of hardware, within which it is capable of building a system to order, automatically constructing graphics, data tables, alarm prioritization rules, and interfaces to peripherals. (3) A software tool, the User Interface Management System (UIMS), is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display. The object-oriented software of the UIMS achieves rapid prototyping of a new interface by standardizing to a class library of software objects instead of hardware objects

  14. Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wicks, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    An artificial intelligence system improves radar signal processor performance by increasing target probability of detection and reducing probability of false alarm in a severe radar clutter environment...

  15. Operator Performance Comparison of two VDT-based Alarm Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Oh, In-Suk; Sim, Bong-Shick; Koo, In-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Taek; Lee, Ki-Young; Park, Jong-Kyun

    1998-01-01

    This study is carried out to investigate performance differences between two alarm presentation methods from the viewpoint of human factors and to provide items to be improved. One of the alarm display methods considered in this study displays alarm lists on VDT combined with hardwired alarm panels. The other method displays alarms on plant mimic diagrams of VDT. This alarm display method has other features for operator aid with which operator can get detailed information on the activated alarm in the mimic diagrams, and the capability for alarm processing such as alarm reduction and prioritization. To compare the two display methods, a human factor experiment was performed with a plant simulator in the ITF (Integrated Test Facility) that plant operators run for 4 event scenarios. During the experiment, physiological measurements, system and operator action log, and audio/video recordings were collected. Operators subjective opinion was collected as well after the experiment. Time, error rate and situation awareness were major human factor criteria used for the comparison during the analysis stage of the experiment. No statistical significance was found in the results of our statistical comparison analysis. Several findings were identified, however, through the analysis of subjective opinions. (authors)

  16. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cette, W [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-09-01

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author).

  17. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, N.J.; Kim, I.S.; Hwang, I.K.; Lee, D.Y.; Ham, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  18. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cette, W.

    1997-01-01

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author)

  19. Testing alarm resolution procedures in a fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.W.; Razvi, J.

    1984-07-01

    Process monitoring data can be used for generating material loss estimates. The intent of using process control data is to enhance nuclear material control and accounting for the timely detection and resolution of discrepancies. The purpose of an alarm resolution system is to distinguish between system errors and an actual loss of nuclear material. A study has been performed to develop and test a site-specific set of alarm resolution procedures. The results of the study are described and include the frequency of alarms, the causes of alarms, the type of resolution, and the modeling of loss estimates. 3 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  20. Aspects of magnetohydrodynamic duct flow at high magnetic Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.B.

    1973-07-01

    The thesis is concerned with the performance of a flow coupler, which consists of an MHD generator coupled to an MHD pump so that one stream of fluid is induced to move by the motion of another. The flow coupler investigations include: the effects caused by eddy currents on the applied magnetic field and electric potential distribution, the velocity perturbation which occurs as a liquid flows through a magnetic field, devices in which large currents flow through a moving conductor and through an external circuit, and the movement of two conductors through the gap of a magnet. The expected performance of a flow coupler is calculated. (U.K.)

  1. High volume tidal or current flow harnessing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, A.M.

    1984-08-07

    Apparatus permitting the utilization of large volumes of water in the harnessing and extracting of a portion of the power generated by the rise and fall of ocean tides, ocean currents, or flowing rivers includes the provision of a dam, and a specialized single cavity chamber of limited size as compared with the water head enclosed by the dam, and an extremely high volume gating system in which all or nearly all of the water between the high and low levels on either side of the dam is cyclically gated through the single chamber from one side of the dam to the other so as to alternately provide positive air pressure and a partial vacuum within the single chamber. In one embodiment, the specialized chamber has a barrier at the bottom which divides the bottom of the chamber in half, large ports at the bottom of the chamber to permit inflow and outflow of high volumes of water, and ganged structures having a higher total area than that of corresponding ports, in which the structures form sluice gates to selectively seal off and open different sets of ports. In another embodiment, a single chamber is used without a barrier. In this embodiment, vertical sluice gates are used which may be activated automatically by pressures acting on the sluice gates as a result of ingested and expelled water.

  2. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  3. Kidkit guides children into alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of Embodied Habituation as an architectural approach to designing contextualized technologies. It does so by identifying Middle Ground Experiences acknowledging how spaces are inhabited with ambiguous qualities that affect people emotionally. The research is based...... on the development and evaluation of Kidkit, which is interactive furniture designed for young children who are going to visit a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries for the first time. Kidkit empowers the child to engage and be present by shaping Middle Ground Experiences in the hospital ward environment...... that is full of intimidating medical equipment and alarms. The evaluation results indicate collective rewards gained when children succeed in Embodied Habituation. Finally, the paper discusses how Middle Ground Experiences inevitably establish grounds for how we design for spatial experiences within...

  4. Aplikasi Sensor Cahaya Untuk Alarm Anti Pencuri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asita Shoman Muzaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kasus pencurian di rumah kosong yang ditinggal pergi oleh pemiliknya belakangan ini marak terjadi. Berangkat dari pemikiran ini penulis mencoba merancang alarm yang dapat mendeteksi pergerakan seseorang saat rumah dalam kondisi kosong, ditinggalkan oleh pemiliknya. Alat ini mempunyai prinsip kerja yaitu mendeteksi bayangan seseorang yang melewati titik tertentu. Perancangan dan pembuatan perangkat ini menggunakan sensor cahaya berupa LASER dan LDR yang dirangkai dengan transistor sebagai saklar otomatis serta LED dan telepon rumah untuk melakukan panggilan kepada nomor telepon pemilik rumah. Komponen yang dipakai dalam pembuatan perangkat ini antara lain IC LM7805, LASER pointer, resistor, transistor BC108, LED, relay dan telepon rumah. Perancangan dan pembuatan alat menggunakan software multisim 10.1 sebagai simulator rangkaian, dan software eagle 5.1.1 untuk mendesain jalur rangkaian pada papan PCB. Saat cahaya LASER tidak sampai ke LDR karena terhalang oleh sesuatu, maka rangkaian output yang berupa indikator LED dan panggilan dari telepon rumah akan aktif

  5. The flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-08-29

    The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work. The stability map of partial premixed flames illustrates that the flames are stable between two extinction limits. A low extinction limit when partial premixed flames approach non-premixed flame conditions, and a high extinction limit, with the partial premixed flames approach fully premixed flame conditions. These two limits showed that the most stable flame conditions are achieved at a certain degree of partial premixed. The stability is improved by adding air co-flow. As the air co-flow velocity increases the most stable flames are those that approach fully premixed. The turbulent flow field of three flames at 0, 5, 10 m/s co-flow velocity are investigated using Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) in order to explore the improvement of the flame stability due to the use of air co-flow. The three flames are all at a jet equivalence ratio (Φj) of 2, fixed level of partial premixing and jet Reynolds number (Rej) of 10,000. The use of co-flow results in the formation of two vortices at the cone exit. These vortices act like stabilization anchors for the flames to the nozzle tip. With these vortices in the flow field, the reaction zone shifts toward the reduced turbulence intensity at the nozzle rim of the cone. Interesting information about the structure of the flow field with and without co-flow are identified and reported in this work.

  6. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  7. Alarm management for process control a best-practice guide for design, implementation, and use of industrial alarm systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rothenberg, Douglas H

    2014-01-01

    No modern industrial enterprise, particularly in such areas as chemical processing, can operate without a secure, and reliable, network of automated monitors and controls. And those operations need alarm systems to alert engineers and managers the moment anything goes wrong or needs attention. This book, by one of the world's leading experts on industrial alarm systems, will provide A to Z coverage of designing, implementing, and maintaining an effective alarm network.

  8. Conversion of Low-Flow Priapism to High-Flow State Using T-Shunt with Tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Neil A; Tadros, Nicholas N; Hedges, Jason C

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . The three types of priapism are stuttering, arterial (high-flow, nonischemic), and venoocclusive (low-flow, ischemic). These are usually distinct entities and rarely occur in the same patient. T-shunts and other distal shunts are frequently combined with tunneling, but a seldom recognized potential complication is conversion to a high-flow state. Case Presentation . We describe 2 cases of men who presented with low-flow priapism episodes that were treated using T-shunts with tunneling that resulted with both men having recurrent erections shortly after surgery that were found to be consistent with high-flow states. Case 1 was a 33-year-old male with sickle cell anemia and case 2 was a 24-year-old male with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In both cases the men were observed over several weeks and both men returned to normal erectile function. Conclusions . Historically, proximal shunts were performed only in cases when distal shunts failed and carry a higher risk of serious complications. T-shunts and other distal shunts combined with tunneling are being used more frequently in place of proximal shunts. These cases illustrate how postoperative erections after T-shunts with tunneling can signify a conversion from low-flow to high-flow states and could potentially be misdiagnosed as an operative failure.

  9. Characteristics of high gradient insulators for accelerator and high power flow applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.

    1997-07-01

    The high gradient insulator has been demonstrated to operate at levels comparable or better than special geometry or coated insulators. Some patented insulator configurations allow for sophisticated accelerator structures, high power flow interfaces, and microwave applications not previously possible. Sophisticated manufacturing techniques available at AlliedSignal FM and T made this development possible. Bipolar and high power flow applications are specially suited for present insulator designs. The insulator shows a beneficial effect when used under RF fields or RF structures. These insulators can be designed, to a first approximation, from simple electron flight path equations. With a recently developed model of surface flashover physics the authors completed a set of design calculations that include effects such as layer density and dielectric/metal thickness. Experimental data, obtained in the last few years of development, is presented and reviewed. Several insulator fabrication characteristics, indicating critical design parameters, are also presented

  10. Flow visualization of bubble behavior under two-phase natural circulation flow conditions using high speed digital camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2013-07-01

    The The present work aims at identifying flow patterns and measuring interfacial parameters in two-phase natural circulation by using visualization technique with high-speed digital camera. The experiments were conducted in the Natural Circulation Circuit (CCN), installed at Nuclear Engineering Institute/CNEN. The thermo-hydraulic circuit comprises heater, heat exchanger, expansion tank, the pressure relief valve and pipes to interconnect the components. A glass tube is installed at the midpoint of the riser connected to the heater outlet. The natural circulation circuit is complemented by acquisition system of values of temperatures, flow and graphic interface. The instrumentation has thermocouples, volumetric flow meter, rotameter and high-speed digital camera. The experimental study is performed through analysis of information from measurements of temperatures at strategic points along the hydraulic circuit, besides natural circulation flow rates. The comparisons between analytical and experimental values are validated by viewing, recording and processing of the images for the flows patterns. Variables involved in the process of identification of flow regimes, dimensionless parameters, the phase velocity of the flow, initial boiling point, the phenomenon of 'flashing' pre-slug flow type were obtained experimentally. (author)

  11. Flow visualization of bubble behavior under two-phase natural circulation flow conditions using high speed digital camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian; Faccini, Jose L.H.

    2013-01-01

    The The present work aims at identifying flow patterns and measuring interfacial parameters in two-phase natural circulation by using visualization technique with high-speed digital camera. The experiments were conducted in the Natural Circulation Circuit (CCN), installed at Nuclear Engineering Institute/CNEN. The thermo-hydraulic circuit comprises heater, heat exchanger, expansion tank, the pressure relief valve and pipes to interconnect the components. A glass tube is installed at the midpoint of the riser connected to the heater outlet. The natural circulation circuit is complemented by acquisition system of values of temperatures, flow and graphic interface. The instrumentation has thermocouples, volumetric flow meter, rotameter and high-speed digital camera. The experimental study is performed through analysis of information from measurements of temperatures at strategic points along the hydraulic circuit, besides natural circulation flow rates. The comparisons between analytical and experimental values are validated by viewing, recording and processing of the images for the flows patterns. Variables involved in the process of identification of flow regimes, dimensionless parameters, the phase velocity of the flow, initial boiling point, the phenomenon of 'flashing' pre-slug flow type were obtained experimentally. (author)

  12. Computations of ideal and real gas high altitude plume flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiereisen, William J.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1988-01-01

    In the present work, complete flow fields around generic space vehicles in supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes are studied numerically. Numerical simulation is performed with a flux-split, time asymptotic viscous flow solver that incorporates a generalized equilibrium chemistry model. Solutions to generic problems at various altitude and flight conditions show the complexity of the flow, the equilibrium chemical dissociation and its effect on the overall flow field. Viscous ideal gas solutions are compared against equilibrium gas solutions to illustrate the effect of equilibrium chemistry. Improved solution accuracy is achieved through adaptive grid refinement.

  13. PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Stephen B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.

  14. Assessment method to predict the rate of unresolved false alarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, P.T.; Eggers, R.F.; Heaberlin, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    A method has been developed to predict the rate of unresolved false alarms of material loss in a nuclear facility. The computer program DETRES-1 was developed. The program first assigns the true values of control unit components receipts, shipments, beginning and ending inventories. A normal random number generator is used to generate measured values of each component. A loss estimator is calculated from the control unit's measured values. If the loss estimator triggers a detection alarm, a response is simulated. The response simulation is divided into two phases. The first phase is to simulate remeasurement of the components of the detection loss estimator using the same or better measurement methods or inferences from surrounding control units. If this phase of response continues to indicate a material loss, phase of response simulating a production shutdown and comprehensive cleanout is initiated. A new loss estimator is found, and tested against the alarm thresholds. If the estimator value is below the threshold, the original detection alarm is considered resolved; if above the threshold, an unresolved alarm has occurred. A tally is kept of valid alarms, unresolved false alarms, and failure to alarm upon a true loss

  15. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesJardin, R.; Machanik, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km 2 area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station

  16. Good alarm design plays a vital role in successful DCS implementation: Hard learned lessons from petrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.; Rothenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear operators are eager to update their automation infrastructure, but are apprehensive due to the consequences of failure. The process industries have learned that alarm design is critical to a successful Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation. This paper shares valuable insight into how alarms play a key role in successful management of upsets, help focus operator attention, and supply critical information during periods of high stress. (authors)

  17. Modeling of High-Velocity Flows in ITAM Impulse Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    were performed within the framework of the ISTC project Nos. 2109 and 3550 with direct participation of Dr. Jean-Claude Paulat [17, 18]. The ARES...the flow character in the boundary layer, namely, caused the laminar flow transition to the turbulent one. This work was sponsored by ISTC within

  18. Alarm systems a guide to design, management and procurement

    CERN Document Server

    Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association. London

    2013-01-01

    Alarm systems form an essential part of the operator interfaces to large modern industrial facilities. They provide vital support to the operators by warning them of situations that need their attention and have an important role in preventing, controlling and mitigating the effects of abnormal situations. Since it was first published in 1999, EEMUA 191 has become the globally accepted and leading guide to good practice for all aspects of alarm systems. The guide, developed by users of alarm systems with input from the GB Health and Safety Executive, gives comprehensive guidance on designing, managing and procuring an effective alarm system. The new Third Edition has been comprehensively updated and includes guidance on implementing the alarm management philosophy in practice; applications in geographically distributed processes; and performance metrics and KPIs.

  19. Dust mobilization by high-speed vapor flow under LOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Ebara, S.; Yokomine, T.; Shimizu, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the safety analysis on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the ingress of coolant (ICE) event and the loss of vacuum (LOVA) event are considered as one of the most serious accident. On the assumption of LOVA occurring after ICE, it is inferable that activated dusts are under the wet condition. Transport behavior of in-vessel activated dusts under the wet condition is not well understood in comparison with the dry case. In this study, we experimentally investigated the entrainment behavior of dust under LOVA after ICE. We measured dust entrainment by high-speed humid airflow with phase change. Graphite dusts and glass beads are used as substitutions for mobile inventory. The relations among the relative humidity, the entrainment of particles in the exhaust gas flow and the adhesion rate of dust particles on the pipe wall have been made clear, as has the distribution profile of dust deposition on the pipe wall. The entrainment ratio decreased as the relative humidity increased and increased as the initial pressure difference increased

  20. Geometry of power flows and convex-relaxed power flows in distribution networks with high penetration of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energies are increasingly integrated in electric distribution networks and will cause severe overvoltage issues. Smart grid technologies make it possible to use coordinated control to mitigate the overvoltage issues and the optimal power flow (OPF) method is proven to be efficient...... in the applications such as curtailment management and reactive power control. Nonconvex nature of the OPF makes it difficult to solve and convex relaxation is a promising method to solve the OPF very efficiently. This paper investigates the geometry of the power flows and the convex-relaxed power flows when high...

  1. Theoretical and numerical study of highly anisotropic turbulent flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Daumont, I.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of anisotropic statistical fluctuations in stationary, homogeneous turbulent flows. We address both problems of intermittency in anisotropic sectors, and the relative importance of isotropic and anisotropic fluctuations at different scales on a direct numerical

  2. High Reynolds number liquid layer flow with flexible walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK ... tions have potential application to aerodynamic and marine flows. .... Next, assume that the displacement of the free-surface induces a transverse pressure gradient.

  3. A model of objects based on KKS for the processing of alarms at the Angra 2 nuclear power plant; Um modelo de objetos baseado em KKS para o processamento de alarmes da usina nuclear de Angra 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Adriano da

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a new model of the alarm annunciation system of the Angra 2 nuclear power plant, using concepts of object based modeling and having as basic the Angra 2 Systems and Components Identification System - KKS. The present structure of the Computerized Alarm System - CAS of Angra 2 does not permit a fast visualization of the incoming alarms in case that a great number of them go off, because the monitors can only show 7 indications at a time. The herein proposed model permits a fast identification of the generated alarms, making possible for the operator to have a general view of the current nuclear power plant status. Its managing tree structure has an hierarchical dependence among its nodes, from where, the presently activated alarms are shown. Its man-machine interface is easy interaction and understand because it is based on structure well known by the Angra 2 operators which is the Angra 2 Systems and Components Identification System - KKS. The project was implemented in the format of an Angra 2 Alarms Supervision System (SSAA), and, for purpose of simulation, 5 system of the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant have been chosen. The data used in the project like measurement KKS, measurement limits, unity, setpoints, alarms text and systems flow diagrams, are actual data of the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The Visual Basic programming Language has been used, with emphasis to the object oriented programming, which and modification, without modifying the program code. Event hough using the Visual Basic for programming, the model has shown, for its purpose, a satisfactory real time execution. (author)

  4. High-Confidence Flow Accelerated Corrosion Screening Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Ha; Kim, Ji Hak; Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Na Young; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2008-01-01

    All carbon steel pipes with fluid traveling through it could potentially be threatened by flowing fluid have a potential threat of Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). FAC in a nuclear power plant (NPP) could cause not only pipe failure leading but fatalities sometimes. It is almost impossible to inspect all carbon steel pipes in NPPs, and FAC prediction programs such as CHECWORKS, WATHEC, and BRT-CICERO have limited capability to in predicting FAC area

  5. Simulator testing of the Westinghouse aware alarm management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, J P; Easter, J R; Roth, E M [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Over the last year, Westinghouse engineers and operators from the Beznau nuclear power station (KKB), owned by the Nordostschweizerische Krafwerke AG of Baden, Switzerland, have been installing and testing the Westinghouse AWARE Alarm Management System in Beznau/SNUPPS operator training simulator, owned and operated by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., in Waltz Mill, PA, USA. The testing has focused primarily on validating the trigger logic data base and on familiarizing the utility`s training department with the operation of the system in a real-time environment. Some of the tests have included plant process scenarios in which the computerized Emergency Procedures were available and used through the COMPRO (COMputerized PROcedures) System in conjunction with the AWARE System. While the results to date are qualitative from the perspective of system performance and improvement in message presentation, the tests have generally confirmed the expectations of the design. There is a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must deal with during major process abnormalities, yet at times of relative minor disturbances, some additional messages are available which add clarification, e.g., ``Pump Trouble`` messages. The ``flow`` of an abnormality as it progresses from one part of the plant`s processes to another is quite visible. Timing of the messages and the lack of message avalanching is proving to give the operators additional time to respond to messages. Generally, the anxiety level to ``do something`` immediately upon a reactor trip appears to be reduced. (author). 8 refs.

  6. Simulator testing of the Westinghouse aware alarm management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, J.P.; Easter, J.R.; Roth, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last year, Westinghouse engineers and operators from the Beznau nuclear power station (KKB), owned by the Nordostschweizerische Krafwerke AG of Baden, Switzerland, have been installing and testing the Westinghouse AWARE Alarm Management System in Beznau/SNUPPS operator training simulator, owned and operated by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., in Waltz Mill, PA, USA. The testing has focused primarily on validating the trigger logic data base and on familiarizing the utility's training department with the operation of the system in a real-time environment. Some of the tests have included plant process scenarios in which the computerized Emergency Procedures were available and used through the COMPRO (COMputerized PROcedures) System in conjunction with the AWARE System. While the results to date are qualitative from the perspective of system performance and improvement in message presentation, the tests have generally confirmed the expectations of the design. There is a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must deal with during major process abnormalities, yet at times of relative minor disturbances, some additional messages are available which add clarification, e.g., ''Pump Trouble'' messages. The ''flow'' of an abnormality as it progresses from one part of the plant's processes to another is quite visible. Timing of the messages and the lack of message avalanching is proving to give the operators additional time to respond to messages. Generally, the anxiety level to ''do something'' immediately upon a reactor trip appears to be reduced. (author). 8 refs

  7. Percutaneous Direct Puncture Embolization with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate for High-flow Priapism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokue, Hiroyuki, E-mail: tokue@s2.dion.ne.jp; Shibuya, Kei [Gunma University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Ueno, Hiroyuki [Isesaki Municipal Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tokue, Azusa; Tsushima, Yoshito [Gunma University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    There are many treatment options in high-flow priapism. Those mentioned most often are watchful waiting, Doppler-guided compression, endovascular highly selective embolization, and surgery. We present a case of high-flow priapism in a 57-year-old man treated by percutaneous direct puncture embolization of a post-traumatic left cavernosal arteriovenous fistula using N-butyl-cyanoacrylate. Erectile function was preserved during a 12-month follow-up. No patients with percutaneous direct puncture embolization for high-flow priapism have been reported previously. Percutaneous direct puncture embolization is a potentially useful and safe method for management of high-flow priapism.

  8. Electronic Instability at High Flux-Flow Velocities in High-Tc Superconducting Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doettinger, S. G.; Huebener, R. P.; Gerdemann, R.

    1994-01-01

    At high flux-flow velocities in type-II superconductors the nonequilibrium distribution of the quasiparticles leads to an electronic instability and an aburpt switching into a state with higher electric resistivity, as predicted by Larkin and Ovchinnikow (LO). We report the first obervation...... of this effect in a high-temperature superconductor, namely in epitaxial c-axis oriented films of YBa(2)Cu3O(7)-(delta). Using the LO therory, we have extracted from out results the inelastic quasiparticle scattering rare tau(in)(-1), which strongly decreases with decreasing temperature below T-c...

  9. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications. PMID:25938973

  10. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-11

    Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monitor use in an ICU would result in reducing alarm rate and in improving nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms. This quality improvement project took place in a 20-bed transplant/cardiac ICU with a total of 39 nurses. We implemented a unit-wide change of default alarm settings involving 17 parameters of the cardiac monitors. All nurses received an in-service education on monitor use. Alarm data were collected from the audit log of the cardiac monitors 10 weeks before and 10 weeks after the change in monitors' parameters. Nurses' attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms were measured using the Healthcare Technology Foundation National Clinical Alarms Survey, pre- and postintervention. Alarm rate was 87.86 alarms/patient day (a total of 64,500 alarms) at the preintervention period compared to 59.18 alarms/patient day (49,319 alarms) postintervention (P=.01). At baseline, Arterial Blood Pressure (ABP), Pair Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs), and Peripheral Capillary Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) alarms were the highest. ABP and SpO2 alarms remained among the top three at the postproject period. Out of the 39 ICU nurses, 24 (62%) provided complete pre- and postproject survey questionnaires. Compared to the preintervention survey, no remarkable changes in the postproject period were reported in nurses' attitudes. Themes in the narrative data were related to poor usability of cardiac monitors and the frequent alarms. The data showed great variation among nurses in terms of changing

  11. A Nuisance Alarm Data System for evaluation of intrusion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ream, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuisance Alarm Data System (NADS) was developed to gather long-term background alarm data on exterior intrusion detectors as part of their evaluation. Since nuisance alarms play an important part in the selection of intrusion detectors for use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, an economical and reliable way to monitor and record these alarms was needed. NADS consists of an IBM personal computer and printer along with other commercial units to communicate with the detectors, to gather weather data, and to record video for assessment. Each alarm, its assessment, and the weather conditions occurring at alarm time are placed into a data base that is used in the evaluation of the detector. The operating software is written in Turbo Pascal for easy maintenance and modification. A portable system, based on the NADS design, has been built and shipped to other DOE locations to do on-site alarm monitoring. This has been valuable for the comparison of different detectors in the on-site environment and for testing new detectors when the appropriate conditions do not exist or cannot be simulated at the Exterior Intrusion Detection Testbed

  12. Reducing hospital noise: a review of medical device alarm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkani, Avinash; Oakley, Barbara; Bauld, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Increasing noise in hospital environments, especially in intensive care units (ICUs) and operating rooms (ORs), has created a formidable challenge for both patients and hospital staff. A major contributing factor for the increasing noise levels in these environments is the number of false alarms generated by medical devices. This study focuses on discovering best practices for reducing the number of false clinical alarms in order to increase patient safety and provide a quiet environment for both work and healing. The researchers reviewed Pub Med, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar sources to obtain original journal research and review articles published through January 2012. This review includes 27 critically important journal articles that address different aspects of medical device alarms management, including the audibility, identification, urgency mapping, and response time of nursing staff and different solutions to such problems. With current technology, the easiest and most direct method for reducing false alarms is to individualize alarm settings for each patient's condition. Promoting an institutional culture change that emphasizes the importance of individualization of alarms is therefore an important goal. Future research should also focus on the development of smart alarms.

  13. Assessment of predation risk through conspecific alarm odors by spiny lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Strong “alarm odors” emanating from lethally injured conspecifics may indicate an imminent risk of predation to spiny lobsters. In laboratory trials,1 strong conspecific alarm odors elicited avoidance in Panulirus argus, a highly gregarious species that displays collective defense behavior, but not in Panulirus guttatus, a species that tends to aggregate when reproductive activity is high (spring) but not when it is low (late summer) and does not display collective defensive behavior. To reduce predation risk, however, lobsters may autotomize limbs, thus sustaining nonlethal injuries. I tested the response of these lobsters to scents emanating from intact, lethally-injured and non-lethally injured conspecifics. In P. argus, these scents elicited, respectively, attraction, avoidance and a random response, suggesting that, in P. argus, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors depends on their strength. In contrast, P. guttatus lobsters responded at random to scents of lethally injured conspecifics and showed a similar response to scents of intact and non-lethally injured conspecifics in the spring (attraction) and in the summer (random), reflecting the more cryptic defensive behavior of this species. Therefore, both species use conspecific alarm odors for risk-assessment, but each responds to these cues in the most effective way to reduce its risk of predation. PMID:19721871

  14. Assessment of predation risk through conspecific alarm odors by spiny lobsters: How much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2009-07-01

    Strong "alarm odors" emanating from lethally injured conspecifics may indicate an imminent risk of predation to spiny lobsters. In laboratory trials,1 strong conspecific alarm odors elicited avoidance in Panulirus argus, a highly gregarious species that displays collective defense behavior, but not in Panulirus guttatus, a species that tends to aggregate when reproductive activity is high (spring) but not when it is low (late summer) and does not display collective defensive behavior. To reduce predation risk, however, lobsters may autotomize limbs, thus sustaining nonlethal injuries. I tested the response of these lobsters to scents emanating from intact, lethally-injured and non-lethally injured conspecifics. In P. argus, these scents elicited, respectively, attraction, avoidance and a random response, suggesting that, in P. argus, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors depends on their strength. In contrast, P. guttatus lobsters responded at random to scents of lethally injured conspecifics and showed a similar response to scents of intact and non-lethally injured conspecifics in the spring (attraction) and in the summer (random), reflecting the more cryptic defensive behavior of this species. Therefore, both species use conspecific alarm odors for risk-assessment, but each responds to these cues in the most effective way to reduce its risk of predation.

  15. A model of objects based on KKS for the processing of alarms at the Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo Adriano da

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a new model of the alarm annunciation system of the Angra 2 nuclear power plant, using concepts of object based modeling and having as basic the Angra 2 Systems and Components Identification System - KKS. The present structure of the Computerized Alarm System - CAS of Angra 2 does not permit a fast visualization of the incoming alarms in case that a great number of them go off, because the monitors can only show 7 indications at a time. The herein proposed model permits a fast identification of the generated alarms, making possible for the operator to have a general view of the current nuclear power plant status. Its managing tree structure has an hierarchical dependence among its nodes, from where, the presently activated alarms are shown. Its man-machine interface is easy interaction and understand because it is based on structure well known by the Angra 2 operators which is the Angra 2 Systems and Components Identification System - KKS. The project was implemented in the format of an Angra 2 Alarms Supervision System (SSAA), and, for purpose of simulation, 5 system of the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant have been chosen. The data used in the project like measurement KKS, measurement limits, unity, setpoints, alarms text and systems flow diagrams, are actual data of the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant. The Visual Basic programming Language has been used, with emphasis to the object oriented programming, which and modification, without modifying the program code. Event hough using the Visual Basic for programming, the model has shown, for its purpose, a satisfactory real time execution. (author)

  16. High anisotropy of flow-aligned bicellar membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kogan, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, multi-lipid bicellar systems have emerged as promising membrane models. The fast orientational diffusion and magnetic alignability made these systems very attractive for NMR investigations. However, their alignment was so far achieved with a strong magnetic field, which limited their use with other methods that require macroscopic orientation. Recently, it was shown that bicelles could be aligned also by shear flow in a Couette flow cell, making it applicable to structural and biophysical studies by polarized light spectroscopy. Considering the sensitivity of this lipid system to small variations in composition and physicochemical parameters, efficient use of such a flow-cell method with coupled techniques will critically depend on the detailed understanding of how the lipid systems behave under flow conditions. In the present study we have characterized the flow alignment behavior of the commonly used dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/dicaproyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DHPC) bicelle system, for various temperatures, lipid compositions, and lipid concentrations. We conclude that at optimal flow conditions the selected bicellar systems can produce the most efficient flow alignment out of any lipid systems used so far. The highest degree of orientation of DMPC/DHPC samples is noticed in a narrow temperature interval, at a practical temperature around 25 C, most likely in the phase transition region characterized by maximum sample viscosity. The change of macroscopic orientation factor as function of the above conditions is now described in detail. The increase in macroscopic alignment observed for bicelles will most likely allow recording of higher resolution spectra on membrane systems, which provide deeper structural insight and analysis into properties of biomolecules interacting with solution phase lipid membranes. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  18. High frequency lateral flow affinity assay using superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago-Cachón, D., E-mail: dlagocachon@gmail.com [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Rivas, M., E-mail: rivas@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Martínez-García, J.C., E-mail: jcmg@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Este, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain); Oliveira-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: oliveiramyriam@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Julián Clavería 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Blanco-López, M.C., E-mail: cblanco@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Julián Clavería 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); García, J.A., E-mail: joseagd@uniovi.es [Dpto. de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Escuela de Marina, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijón (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    Lateral flow assay is one of the simplest and most extended techniques in medical diagnosis for point-of-care testing. Although it has been traditionally a positive/negative test, some work has been lately done to add quantitative abilities to lateral flow assay. One of the most successful strategies involves magnetic beads and magnetic sensors. Recently, a new technique of superparamagnetic nanoparticle detection has been reported, based on the increase of the impedance induced by the nanoparticles on a RF-current carrying copper conductor. This method requires no external magnetic field, which reduces the system complexity. In this work, nitrocellulose membranes have been installed on the sensor, and impedance measurements have been carried out during the sample diffusion by capillarity along the membrane. The impedance of the sensor changes because of the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. The results prove the potentiality of the method for point-of-care testing of biochemical substances and nanoparticle capillarity flow studies. - Highlights: • A method for quantification of Lateral Flow Assays is proposed. • MNP induce an increase of the impedance on a RF-current carrying copper sensor. • Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be detected flowing over the sensing element.

  19. High frequency lateral flow affinity assay using superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago-Cachón, D.; Rivas, M.; Martínez-García, J.C.; Oliveira-Rodríguez, M.; Blanco-López, M.C.; García, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral flow assay is one of the simplest and most extended techniques in medical diagnosis for point-of-care testing. Although it has been traditionally a positive/negative test, some work has been lately done to add quantitative abilities to lateral flow assay. One of the most successful strategies involves magnetic beads and magnetic sensors. Recently, a new technique of superparamagnetic nanoparticle detection has been reported, based on the increase of the impedance induced by the nanoparticles on a RF-current carrying copper conductor. This method requires no external magnetic field, which reduces the system complexity. In this work, nitrocellulose membranes have been installed on the sensor, and impedance measurements have been carried out during the sample diffusion by capillarity along the membrane. The impedance of the sensor changes because of the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. The results prove the potentiality of the method for point-of-care testing of biochemical substances and nanoparticle capillarity flow studies. - Highlights: • A method for quantification of Lateral Flow Assays is proposed. • MNP induce an increase of the impedance on a RF-current carrying copper sensor. • Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be detected flowing over the sensing element.

  20. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1988-01-01

    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  1. New Concept For Alarm Structure And Management In Dcs Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hegazy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to set new standard for good design and best practice to applied when any DCS ManufacturesSuppliers configure process alarm system in any oil refining oil and gas production gas-handling facilities gasification plant or any chemical processing plant and thereby to optimizeminimize unnecessary alarms from reporting to operator workstations CAD Control Alarm Display. These views based on the experience acquired and implemented during involvement with the commissioning and startup of two DCS projects in Mina Al-Ahmadi Refinery Kuwait.

  2. Design of SMART alarm system using main memory database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kue Sook; Seo, Yong Seok; Park, Keun Oak; Lee, Jong Bok; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2001-01-01

    To achieve design goal of SMART alarm system, first of all we have to decide on how to handle and manage alarm information and how to use database. So this paper analyses concepts and deficiencies of main memory database applied in real time system. And this paper sets up structure and processing principles of main memory database using nonvolatile memory such as flash memory and develops recovery strategy and process board structures using these. Therefore this paper shows design of SMART alarm system is suited functions and requirements

  3. High resolution solutions of the Euler equations for vortex flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murman, E.M.; Powell, K.G.; Rizzi, A.; Tel Aviv Univ., Israel)

    1985-01-01

    Solutions of the Euler equations are presented for M = 1.5 flow past a 70-degree-swept delta wing. At an angle of attack of 10 degrees, strong leading-edge vortices are produced. Two computational approaches are taken, based upon fully three-dimensional and conical flow theory. Both methods utilize a finite-volume discretization solved by a pseudounsteady multistage scheme. Results from the two approaches are in good agreement. Computations have been done on a 16-million-word CYBER 205 using 196 x 56 x 96 and 128 x 128 cells for the two methods. A sizable data base is generated, and some of the practical aspects of manipulating it are mentioned. The results reveal many interesting physical features of the compressible vortical flow field and also suggest new areas needing research. 16 references

  4. High Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy for Improving Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Joong Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea, its compliance is low. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are often required. High flow nasal cannula therapy uses an air compressor to deliver a constant flow of oxygen via the nasal cannula at a maximum of 60 L/m. It can produce positive end expiratory pressure and increase end expiratory pharyngeal pressure, which can help to alleviate upper airway obstruction. This is a case report of high flow nasal cannula therapy for a 71 year-old man. He had an obstructive sleep apnea and severe desaturation but failed to use continuous positive airway pressure. He underwent titration with high flow nasal cannula under polysomnography. Using high flow nasal cannula at an airflow of 45 L/m, his apnea-hypopnea, respiratory arousal and oxygen desaturation were improved. Importantly, he is very compliant with high flow nasal cannula therapy.

  5. Particle deposition in low-speed, high-turbulence flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Mads; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Ullum, U.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study considers the concentration of airborne particulate contaminants, such as spores of spoilage fungi, and their deposition on a surface, in a petri dish, and on a warm box-shaped product placed in a food-processing environment. Field measurements by standard...... field measurements. Particle deposition is shown to be associated with near-wall coherent structures. Flow reversal, simulated by impulsive start, is shown to give higher deposition rates than steady mean flows. Key word index: Spoilage fungi; spores; food processing plant; deposition flux; large eddy...

  6. AN APPROACH TO ALLEVIATE THE FALSE ALARM IN BUILDING CHANGE DETECTION FROM URBAN VHR IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building change detection from very-high-resolution (VHR urban remote sensing image frequently encounter the challenge of serious false alarm caused by different illumination or viewing angles in bi-temporal images. An approach to alleviate the false alarm in urban building change detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, as shadows casted by urban buildings are of distinct spectral and shape feature, it adopts a supervised object-based classification technique to extract them in this paper. Secondly, on the opposite direction of sunlight illumination, a straight line is drawn along the principal orientation of building in every extracted shadow region. Starting from the straight line and moving toward the sunlight direction, a rectangular area is constructed to cover partial shadow and rooftop of each building. Thirdly, an algebra and geometry invariant based method is used to abstract the spatial topological relationship of the potential unchanged buildings from all central points of the rectangular area. Finally, based on an oriented texture curvature descriptor, an index is established to determine the actual false alarm in building change detection result. The experiment results validate that the proposed method can be used as an effective framework to alleviate the false alarm in building change detection from urban VHR image.

  7. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  8. The use of high-flow nasal cannula in the pediatric emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine N. Slain

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To summarize the current literature describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children, the components and mechanisms of action of a high-flow nasal cannula system, the appropriate clinical applications, and its role in the pediatric emergency department. Sources: A computer-based search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar for literature on high-flow nasal cannula use in children was performed. Data summary: High-flow nasal cannula, a non-invasive respiratory support modality, provides heated and fully humidified gas mixtures to patients via a nasal cannula interface. High-flow nasal cannula likely supports respiration though reduced inspiratory resistance, washout of the nasopharyngeal dead space, reduced metabolic work related to gas conditioning, improved airway conductance and mucociliary clearance, and provision of low levels of positive airway pressure. Most data describing high-flow nasal cannula use in children focuses on those with bronchiolitis, although high-flow nasal cannula has been used in children with other respiratory diseases. Introduction of high-flow nasal cannula into clinical practice, including in the emergency department, has been associated with decreased rates of endotracheal intubation. Limited prospective interventional data suggest that high-flow nasal cannula may be similarly efficacious as continuous positive airway pressure and more efficacious than standard oxygen therapy for some patients. Patient characteristics, such as improved tachycardia and tachypnea, have been associated with a lack of progression to endotracheal intubation. Reported adverse effects are rare. Conclusions: High-flow nasal cannula should be considered for pediatric emergency department patients with respiratory distress not requiring immediate endotracheal intubation; prospective, pediatric emergency department-specific trials are needed to better determine responsive patient populations, ideal high-flow nasal cannula

  9. Changes in 900 MW PWR alarm processing policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pont, M [Electricite de France, Generation and Transmission, Nuclear Power Plant Operations, Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Following a brief description of the current 900 MW PWR alarm processing system, this document presents the feasibility study carried out within the scope of the Instrumentation and Control Refurbishment project (R2C). (author). 4 figs, tabs.

  10. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; McGinnis, B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs

  11. Changes in 900 MW PWR alarm processing policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pont, M.

    1997-01-01

    Following a brief description of the current 900 MW PWR alarm processing system, this document presents the feasibility study carried out within the scope of the Instrumentation and Control Refurbishment project (R2C). (author). 4 figs, tabs

  12. ARC Code TI: Optimal Alarm System Design and Implementation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system can robustly predict a level-crossing event that is specified over a fixed prediction horizon. The code contained in this packages provides...

  13. rf duress alarms: market survey and preliminary characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, B.L.

    1979-05-01

    This report represents the first phase of the duress alarm studies. Presented here are the results of an extensive market survey and some preliminary observations on the effectiveness of many system components

  14. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  15. Ship cabin leakage alarm based on ARM SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liyan

    2018-03-01

    If there is a leakage in the cabin of a sailing ship, it is a major accident that threatens the personnel and property of the ship. If we can’t take timely measures, there will be a devastating disaster. In order to judge the leakage of the cabin, it is necessary to set up a leakage alarm system, so as to achieve the purpose of detecting and alarming the leakage of the cabin, and avoid the occurrence of accidents. This paper discusses the design of ship cabin leakage alarm system based on ARM SCM. In order to ensure the stability and precision of the product, the hardware design of the alarm system is carried out, such as circuit design, software design, the programming of SCM, the software programming of upper computer, etc. It is hoped that it can be of reference value to interested readers.

  16. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section 97.37-50... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The...-inch letters “VENTILATION FAILURE IN VEHICULAR SPACE.” (b) [Reserved] [CGFR 66-33, 31 FR 15286, Dec. 6...

  17. [Citalopram, escitalopram and prolonged QT: warning or alarm?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enric; Vieira, Sara; Garcia-Moll, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The alerts issued by regulatory agencies on the potential cardiac toxicity of citalopram and escitalopram have caused alarm among clinicians. A review of the data concerning this topic shows that the alarm should be limited to patients with a history of syncope or poisoning. As a precautionary measure, an electrocardiogram should be performed on elderly patients. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. A study of reset mode in advanced alarm system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenn, T. C.; Hwang, S. L.; Huang, F. H.; Yu, A. C.; Hsu, C. C.; Huang, H. W.

    2006-01-01

    An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants. That leads to a new issue of human-automation interaction, which considers human operational performance in automated systems. In this research is the automation alarm reset in the advanced alarm system (AAS) of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. Since alarms are very crucial for the understanding of the status of the plant as well as the reset function of alarm system will be changed from fully manual to fully automatic, it is very important to test and evaluate the performance and the effect of reset modes in AAS. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the auto-reset alarm system on the plant performance and on operators' preference and task load. To develop a dynamic simulator as an AAS was conducted to compare manual and automatic reset function of alarm system on task performance and subjective ratings of task workload, comprehension, and preference. The simulation includes PCTRAN model and alarm software processing. The final results revealed that, using the auto-reset mode, participants had lower task load index (TLX) on effort in the first test trial and was more satisfied in multiple tasks condition. In contrast, using manual reset mode, participants were more satisfied on alarm handling, monitoring, and decision making. In other words, either reset mode in the study has unique features to assist operator, but is insufficient. The reset function in AAS therefore should be very flexible. Additionally, the experimental results also pointed out that the user interfaces need to be improved. Those experiences will be helpful for human factors verification and validation in the near future. (authors)

  19. Differential impact of flow and mouth leak on oropharyngeal humidification during high-flow nasal cannula: a neonatal bench study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Tim Leon; Czernik, Christoph; Bührer, Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd; Fischer, Hendrik Stefan

    2018-03-09

    Heated humidification is paramount during neonatal high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy. However, there is little knowledge about the influence of flow rate and mouth leak on oropharyngeal humidification and temperature. The effect of the Optiflow HFNC on oropharyngeal gas conditioning was investigated at flow rates of 4, 6 and 8 L min -1 with and without mouth leak in a bench model simulating physiological oropharyngeal air conditions during spontaneous breathing. Temperature and absolute humidity (AH) were measured using a digital thermo-hygrosensor. Without mouth leak, oropharyngeal temperature and AH increased significantly with increasing flow (P < 0.001). Mouth leak did not affect this increase up to 6 L min -1 , but at 8 L min -1 , temperature and AH plateaued, and the effect of mouth leak became statistically significant (P < 0.001). Mouth leak during HFNC had a negative impact on oropharyngeal gas conditioning when high flows were applied. However, temperature and AH always remained clinically acceptable.

  20. Development of alarm handling methods for boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukiharu, Ohga; Hiroshi, Seki; Setsuo, Arita [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Div., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    A method was developed to select important alarms in two steps: first, selection is based on the physical relationship between the alarms, and second, selection is according to the initial event. An approach combining a neural network and knowledge processing was proposed to identify the event rapidly. A prototype system was evaluated in the Kashiwazaki/Kariwa-4 Nuclear Power Plant during the startup test. The evaluation test confirmed that about 30% of the alarms are selected from among the many activated alarms. The second method, dealing with presentation, supports operators in their selection and confirmation of the required information for plant operation. The method selects and offers plant information in response to plant status changes and operators` demands. The selection procedure is based on the knowledge and data as structured by the plant functional structure; i.e. a means-ends abstraction hierarchy model. A prototype system was evaluated using a BWR simulator. The results showed that appropriate information items are automatically selected according to plant status changes and information on generated alarms is presented to operators together with the related trend graph and system diagram. Answers are generated in reply to the operators` demands and operators can confirm the generated alarms on each plant function, such as systems and components. 8 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs.

  1. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; D'Aquila, D.M.; McGinnis, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm system installed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant was tested extensively at critical facilities located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The ability of the neutron scintillator radiation detection units to respond to a minimum accident of concern as defined in Standard ANSI/ANS-83.-1986 was demonstrated. Detector placement and the established trip point are based on shielding calculations performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and criticality specialists at the Portsmouth plant. Based on these experiments and calculations, a detector trip point of 5 mrad/h in air is used. Any credible criticality accident is expected to produce neutron radiation fields >5 mrad/h in air at one or more radiation alarm locations. Each radiation alarm location has a cluster of three detectors that employs a two-out-of-three alarm logic. Earlier work focused on testing the alarm logic latching circuitry. This work was directed toward measurements involving the actual audible alarm signal delivered

  2. Do aphid colonies amplify their emission of alarm pheromone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2008-09-01

    When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement.

  3. Development of alarm handling methods for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga Yukiharu; Seki Hiroshi; Arita Setsuo

    1997-01-01

    A method was developed to select important alarms in two steps: first, selection is based on the physical relationship between the alarms, and second, selection is according to the initial event. An approach combining a neural network and knowledge processing was proposed to identify the event rapidly. A prototype system was evaluated in the Kashiwazaki/Kariwa-4 Nuclear Power Plant during the startup test. The evaluation test confirmed that about 30% of the alarms are selected from among the many activated alarms. The second method, dealing with presentation, supports operators in their selection and confirmation of the required information for plant operation. The method selects and offers plant information in response to plant status changes and operators' demands. The selection procedure is based on the knowledge and data as structured by the plant functional structure; i.e. a means-ends abstraction hierarchy model. A prototype system was evaluated using a BWR simulator. The results showed that appropriate information items are automatically selected according to plant status changes and information on generated alarms is presented to operators together with the related trend graph and system diagram. Answers are generated in reply to the operators' demands and operators can confirm the generated alarms on each plant function, such as systems and components. 8 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  4. High pressure axial flow fans for modern coal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrus, Vaclav [AHT Energetika s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic); Koci, Petr [ZVVZ Milevsko a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Brown coal fired power stations, located in Northern Bohemia, have mostly older boiler blocks with an output of 110 and 200 MWe. Flue gases are cleaned by the desulphurization plants installed between 1993 and 1997. Usually, each boiler block has two air fans and one to three flue gas fans. Flue gas fans operate in severe conditions; fan blades should be resistant to the flue gases containing sulphur and acid drops with the operating temperature at 170 C to 190 C. Additionally, flue gas also often contains ash particles. Currently, some boiler blocks are gradually being refurbished. New blocks with an electrical power output of 600 to 700 MWe are at the design stage. Submitted paper shows our design study of one stage axial flow fan for the new blocks. Results from the new aerodynamic research of the axial flow stages were used in the fan design. (orig.)

  5. Correlating data from different sensors to increase the positive predictive value of alarms: an empiric assessment [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/RKkXdB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Bitan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Alarm fatigue from high false alarm rate is a well described phenomenon in the intensive care unit (ICU. Progress to further reduce false alarms must employ a new strategy. Highly sensitive alarms invariably have a very high false alarm rate. Clinically useful alarms have a high Positive-Predictive Value. Our goal is to demonstrate one approach to suppressing false alarms using an algorithm that correlates information across sensors and replicates the ways that human evaluators discriminate artifact from real signal. Methods: After obtaining IRB approval and waiver of informed consent, a set of definitions, (hypovolemia, left ventricular shock, tamponade, hemodynamically significant ventricular tachycardia, and hemodynamically significant supraventricular tachycardia, were installed in the monitors in a 10 bed cardiothoracic ICU and evaluated over an 85 day study period. The logic of the algorithms was intended to replicate the logic of practitioners, and correlated information across sensors in a way similar to that used by practitioners. The performance of the alarms was evaluated via a daily interview with the ICU attending and review of the tracings recorded over the previous 24 hours in the monitor. True alarms and false alarms were identified by an expert clinician, and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using the standard definitions of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Results: Between 1 and 221 instances of defined events occurred over the duration of the study, and the positive predictive value of the definitions varied between 4.1% and 84%. Conclusions: Correlation of information across alarms can suppress artifact, increase the positive predictive value of alarms, and can employ more sophisticated definitions of alarm events than present single-sensor based systems.

  6. High-Fidelity Numerical Modeling of Compressible Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    using exact flux Jacobians. The data-parallel line relaxation (DPLR) method, based on the Gauss - Seidel line relaxation method of MacCormack,29 is...then employed to solve the resulting linear system. To improve performance on parallel systems, the DPLR method replaces the Gauss - Seidel sweeps with a...boundary-layer height and edge velocity), but that higher-moments, like secondary flow, required more iterations to converge . Since the medium and fine grids

  7. Study of flux flow in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Gomory, F.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field distribution and the hysteresis losses in superconductors with very large viscous forces are calculated for field amplitudes below and above the penetration field. Both the magnetic field and frequency dependence of the losses are changing with respect to the critical state model. The results are qualitatively confirmed by AC susceptibility measurements on YBaCuO superconductors, but the quantitative differences indicate that the flux flow effects are not so strong as expected and supposed by some theories

  8. A high performance magnetorheological valve with a meandering flow path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaduddin, Fitrian; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Azizi Abdul Rahman, Mohd; Zamzuri, Hairi; Ubaidillah; Ichwan, Burhanuddin

    2014-01-01

    The huge developments in the field of magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based devices will have a great influence on the future of mechatronic applications due to the ease of interfacing between electronic controls and the mechanical components that they provide. Among various MR fluid-based devices, an MR valve would be particularly significant for the development of other devices, if it could be successfully achieved. One of the most challenging obstacles to MR valve development is the difficulty of achieving device miniaturization while, at the same time, improving the achievable performance. This study demonstrates a novel design for an MR valve, using the meandering flow path approach in order to increase the effective area so that the MR fluid can be regulated within a small-sized valve. The meandering flow path is formed by combining multiple annular, radial and orifice flow channels. In order to analyze the valve performance, a mathematical model of the proposed MR valve is derived and combined with numerical simulation using the finite element method, with the intention of predicting the achievable pressure drop that can be generated by the valve. The predicted MR valve performances are then experimentally evaluated using an oscillation-disturbed bypass hydraulic cylinder. The simulation results show that the proposed MR valve design could yield substantial pressure drop improvement, which is confirmed by the experiment

  9. On the possibility of high-dispersed composite material obtaining in impulsive high-enthalpy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Brodyagin, A.G.; Ivanov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic possibility for the formation of TiC-Mo composite dispersed material in 1200-2800 K temperature interval and effect of H/Cl, C/Ti relation on the composite material composition are demonstrated. Investigation into the plasmo-chemical process of producing high-dispersed composite material in the pulsed regime has pointed out to a possibility of the product chemical composition regulation by changing the energy, flow-rate parameters and by conditions of component introduction into the plasmochemical reactor. Molybdenum-carbide composition powders produced are characterized by the particle size of ∼ 10 nm and high Mo and TiC distribution steadyness which allows one to exclude the stage of a long-term component mixing under the composition production

  10. Modeling Highly Buoyant Flows in the Castel Giorgio

    OpenAIRE

    Volpi, Giorgio; Magri, Fabien; Colucci, Francesca; Fisher, Thomas; De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2018-01-01

    The Castel Giorgio-Torre Alfina (CG-TA, central Italy) is a geothermal reservoir whose fluids are hosted in a carbonate formation at temperatures ranging between 120°C and 210°C. Data from deep wells suggest the existence of convective flow. We present the 3D numerical model of the CG-TA to simulate the undisturbed natural geothermal field and investigate the impacts of the exploitation process. The open source finite-element code OpenGeoSys is applied to solve the coupled systems of partial ...

  11. Analysis of impact of mixing flow on the pebble bed high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Chen; Li Fu; Guo Jiong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the mixing flow in the pebble flow on pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR) was analyzed in the paper. New code package MFVSOP which can simulate the mixing flow was developed. The equilibrium core of HTR-PM was selected as reference case, the impact of the mixing flow on the core parameters such as core power peak factor, power distribution was analyzed with different degree of mixing flow, and uncertainty analysis was carried out. Numerical results showed that the mixing flow had little impact on key parameters of pebble bed HTR, and the multiple-pass-operation-mode in pebble bed HTR can reduce the uncertainty arouse from the mixing flow. (authors)

  12. Attributions of cancer 'alarm' symptoms in a community sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina L Whitaker

    Full Text Available Attribution of early cancer symptoms to a non-serious cause may lead to longer diagnostic intervals. We investigated attributions of potential cancer 'alarm' and non-alarm symptoms experienced in everyday life in a community sample of adults, without mention of a cancer context.A questionnaire was mailed to 4858 adults (≥50 years old, no cancer diagnosis through primary care, asking about symptom experiences in the past 3 months. The word cancer was not mentioned. Target 'alarm' symptoms, publicised by Cancer Research UK, were embedded in a longer symptom list. For each symptom experienced, respondents were asked for their attribution ('what do you think caused it', concern about seriousness ('not at all' to 'extremely', and help-seeking ('did you contact a doctor about it': Yes/No.The response rate was 35% (n = 1724. Over half the respondents (915/1724; 53% had experienced an 'alarm' symptom, and 20 (2% cited cancer as a possible cause. Cancer attributions were highest for 'unexplained lump'; 7% (6/87. Cancer attributions were lowest for 'unexplained weight loss' (0/47. A higher proportion (375/1638; 23% were concerned their symptom might be 'serious', ranging from 12% (13/112 for change in a mole to 41% (100/247 for unexplained pain. Just over half had contacted their doctor about their symptom (59%, although this varied by symptom. Alarm symptoms were appraised as more serious than non-alarm symptoms, and were more likely to trigger help-seeking.Consistent with retrospective reports from cancer patients, 'alarm' symptoms experienced in daily life were rarely attributed to cancer. These results have implications for understanding how people appraise and act on symptoms that could be early warning signs of cancer.

  13. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons, to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive projection neurons are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system.

  14. Hybrid RANS/LES method for high Reynolds numbers, applied to atmospheric flow over complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2007-01-01

      The use of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to predict wall-bounded flows has presently been limited to low Reynolds number flows. Since the number of computational grid points required to resolve the near-wall turbulent structures increase rapidly with Reynolds number, LES has been unattainable...... for flows at high Reynolds numbers. To reduce the computational cost of traditional LES a hybrid method is proposed in which the near-wall eddies are modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense. Close to walls the flow is treated with the RANS-equations and this layer act as wall model for the outer flow handled...... by LES. The wellknown high Reynolds number two-equation k - ǫ turbulence model is used in the RANS layer and the model automatically switches to a two-equation k - ǫ subgrid-scale stress model in the LES region. The approach can be used for flow over rough walls. To demonstrate the ability...

  15. High resolution measurement of the velocity profiles of channel flows using the particle image velocimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizi Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    The high resolution velocity profiles of a uniform steady channel flow and a flow beneath waves were obtained using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The velocity profiles for each flow were calculated for both components. It is shown that the profiles obtained are very precise, displaying the point velocities from a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel up to the water surface across the water depth. In the case of the wave-induced flow, the profiles are shown under the respective wave phases and given in a plane representation. High resolution measurement of point velocities in a flow is achievable using PIV and invaluable when applied to a complex flow. (Author)

  16. Structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow in high temperature toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)

  17. Non-darcy flow behavior mean high-flux injection wells in porous and fractured formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yu-Shu

    2003-04-25

    This paper presents a study of non-Darcy fluid flow through porous and fractured rock, which may occur near wells during high-flux injection of waste fluids into underground formations. Both numerical and analytical models are used in this study. General non-Darcy flow is described using the Forchheimer equation, implemented in a three-dimensional, multiphase flow reservoir simulator. The non-Darcy flow through a fractured reservoir is handled using a general dual continuum approach, covering commonly used conceptual models, such as double porosity, dual permeability, explicit fracture, etc. Under single-phase flow conditions, an approximate analytical solution, as an extension of the Warren-Root solution, is discussed. The objectives of this study are (1) to obtain insights into the effect of non-Darcy flow on transient pressure behavior through porous and fractured reservoirs and (2) to provide type curves for well test analyses of non-Darcy flow wells. The type curves generated include various types of drawdown, injection, and buildup tests with non-Darcy flow occurring in porous and fractured reservoirs. In addition, non-Darcy flow into partially penetrating wells is also considered. The transient-pressure type curves for flow in fractured reservoirs are based on the double-porosity model. Type curves provided in this work for non-Darcy flow in porous and fractured reservoirs will find their applications in well test interpretation using a type-curve matching technique.

  18. Development of an Active Flow Control Technique for an Airplane High-Lift Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Dickey, Eric D.; Hartwich, Peter M.; Khodadoust, Abdi

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Active Flow Control methods used in conjunction with airplane high-lift systems. The project is motivated by the simplified high-lift system, which offers enhanced airplane performance compared to conventional high-lift systems. Computational simulations are used to guide the implementation of preferred flow control methods, which require a fluidic supply. It is first demonstrated that flow control applied to a high-lift configuration that consists of simple hinge flaps is capable of attaining the performance of the conventional high-lift counterpart. A set of flow control techniques has been subsequently considered to identify promising candidates, where the central requirement is that the mass flow for actuation has to be within available resources onboard. The flow control methods are based on constant blowing, fluidic oscillators, and traverse actuation. The simulations indicate that the traverse actuation offers a substantial reduction in required mass flow, and it is especially effective when the frequency of actuation is consistent with the characteristic time scale of the flow.

  19. The impact of Indian Ocean high pressure system on rainfall and stream flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Nasir, H.; Zia, S.S.; Ansari, W.A.; Salam, K.; Tayyab, N.

    2012-01-01

    Centre of Action approach is very useful in getting insight of rainfall and stream flow variability of specific region. Hameed et al. showed that Inter-annual variability of Gulf Stream north wall is influenced by low Icelandic pressure system and has more statistically significant correlation than North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with longitude of Icelandic low. This study also aims to explore possible relationships between rainfall and stream flow in Collie river catchment in Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) with Indian Ocean high pressure dynamics. The relationship between rainfall and stream flow with Indian Ocean high pressure system have been investigated using correlation analysis for early winter season (MJJA), lag correlation for MJJA versus SOND rainfall and stream flow are also calculated and found significant at 95% confidence level. By investigating the relationship between COA indices with rainfall and stream flow over the period 1976-2008, significant correlations suggests that rainfall and stream flow in Collie river basin is strongly influenced by COA indices. Multiple correlations between rainfall and stream flow with Indian Ocean high pressure (IOHPS and IOHLN) is 0.7 and 0.6 respectively. Centers of Action (COA) indices explain 51% and 36% of rainfall and stream flow respectively. The correlation between rainfall and stream flow with IOHPS is -0.4 and -0.3 whereas, with IOHLN is -0.47 and -0.52 respectively. (author)

  20. Alarm reduction with correlation analysis; Larmsanering genom korrelationsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Tord; Ahnlund, Jonas; Johansson, Bjoern; Gaardman, Lennart; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2004-09-01

    This project's main interest is to improve the overall alarm situation in the control rooms. By doing so, the operators working environment is less overstrained, which simplifies the decision-making. According to a study of the British refinery industry, the operators make wrong decisions in four times out of ten due to badly tuned alarm systems, with heavy expenses as a result. Furthermore, a more efficiently alarm handling is estimated to decrease the production loss with between three and eight percent. This sounds, according to Swedish standards, maybe a bit extreme, but there is no doubt about the benefits of having a well-tuned alarm system. This project can be seen as an extension of 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' (VARMEFORSK--835), where the process improvements were the result of suggestions tailored for every signal. Here, instead causal dependences in the process are examined. A method for this, specially designed to fit process signals, has been developed. It is called MLPC (Multiple Local Property Correlation) and could be seen as an unprejudiced way of increase the information value in the process. There are a number of ways to make use of the additional process understanding a correlation analysis provides. In the report some are mentioned, foremost aiming to improve the alarm situation for operators. Signals from two heating plants have been analyzed with MLPC. In simulations, with the use of the result from these analyses as a base, a large number of alarms have been successfully suppressed. The results have been studied by personal with process knowledge, and they are very positive to the use of MLPC and they express many benefits by the clarification of process relations. It was established in 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' that low pass filter are superior to mean value filter and time delay when trying to suppress alarms. As a result, a module for signal processing has been developed. The main purpose is

  1. High-Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Simulations on Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0192 High- Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Simulations on Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Grids Marsha Berger NEW YORK UNIVERSITY Final...TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 30/04/2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) High- Reynolds 4. TITLE AND...SUBTITLE High- Reynolds Number Viscous Flow Simulations on Embedded-Boundary Cartesian Grids 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1

  2. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981

  4. High Fidelity Simulations for Unsteady Flow Through the Orbiter LH2 Feedline Flowliner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, Dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter M2 feedline flowliner. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  5. A low-power high-flow shape memory alloy wire gas microvalve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradin, Henrik; Braun, Stefan; Stemme, Göran; Van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Clausi, Donato; Peirs, Jan; Reynaerts, Dominiek

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators for high gas flow control is investigated. A theoretical model for effective gas flow control is presented and gate microvalve prototypes are fabricated. The SMA wire actuator demonstrates the robust flow control of more than 1600 sccm at a pressure drop of 200 kPa. The valve can be successfully switched at over 10 Hz and at an actuation power of 90 mW. Compared to the current state-of-the-art high-flow microvalves, the proposed solution benefits from a low-voltage actuator with low overall power consumption. This paper demonstrate that SMA wire actuators are well suited for high-pressurehigh-flow applications. (paper)

  6. A case of atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm secondary to high flow state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Nicola; Esposito, Giovanni; Cefalì, Pietro; Setti, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are very rare and they are among the rarest of visceral artery aneurysms. Sometimes, the distribution of the blood flow due to chronic atherosclerotic occlusion of some arteries can establish an increased flow into a particular supplying district (high flow state). A high flow state in a stenotic inferior mesenteric artery in compensation for a mesenteric occlusive disease can produce a rare form of aneurysm. We report the case of an atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric aneurysm secondary to high flow state (association with occlusion of the celiac trunk and severe stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery), treated by open surgical approach. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  8. A new modified-serpentine flow field for application in high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singdeo, Debanand; Dey, Tapobrata; Gaikwad, Shrihari

    2017-01-01

    field design is proposed and its usefulness for the fuel cell applications are evaluated in a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The proposed geometry retains some of the features of serpentine flow field such as multiple bends, while modifications are made in its in-plane flow path...

  9. Advancement and Application of Multi-Phase CFD Modeling to High Speed Supercavitating Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    October 2008 - December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advancement and Application of Multi-Phase CFD Modeling to High Speed Supercavitating Flows...influence cavity hysteresis behavior. These observations are used to guide improved supercavitating -vehicle analyses including numerical predictions...experiments, and modeling 15. SUBJECT TERMS supercavitation , computational fluid dynamics, multiphase flow 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a

  10. Flow Control Research at NASA Langley in Support of High-Lift Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, William L., III; Jones, Gregory S.; Moore, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the efforts at NASA Langley to apply active and passive flow control techniques for improved high-lift systems, and advanced vehicle concepts utilizing powered high-lift techniques. The development of simplified high-lift systems utilizing active flow control is shown to provide significant weight and drag reduction benefits based on system studies. Active flow control that focuses on separation, and the development of advanced circulation control wings (CCW) utilizing unsteady excitation techniques will be discussed. The advanced CCW airfoils can provide multifunctional controls throughout the flight envelope. Computational and experimental data are shown to illustrate the benefits and issues with implementation of the technology.

  11. Qualifying Elbow Meters for High Pressure Flow Measurements in an Operating Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, A.M.; Maynard, K.J.; Ramundi, J.; Wiklung, E.

    2006-01-01

    To support the installation and use of elbow meters to measure the high pressure emergency coolant injection flow in an operating nuclear station, a test program was performed to qualify: (i) the 'hot' tapping procedure for field application and (ii) the use of elbow meters for accurate flow measurements over the full range of station ECI flow conditions. This paper describes the design conditions and major components of a flow loop used for the elbow meter calibrations. Typical test results are presented and discussed. (authors)

  12. Complex programmable logic device based alarm sequencer for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedkar, Ravindra; Solomon, J. Selva; KrishnaKumar, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex Programmable Logic Device based Alarm Sequencer is an instrument, which detects alarms, memorizes them and displays the sequences of occurrence of alarms. It caters to sixteen alarm signals and distinguishes the sequence among any two alarms with a time resolution of 1 ms. The system described has been designed for continuous operation in process plants, nuclear power plants etc. The system has been tested and found to be working satisfactorily. (author)

  13. A high-flow holweck pump for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseli, M.; Dinner, P.J.; Murdoch, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    Present concepts for power reactors require high pumping speed for the torus exhaust (10 5 -10 6 1/s) with low tritium inventories. Conventional approaches using Compound Cryopumps necessitate high tritium inventories and Turbomolecular pumps require large scale-up in throughput and are sensitive to eddy current heating of the rotor and sudden venting thrust. Cooling the gas to low temperature (20K) increases the gas density at the pump-entrance enough to obtain high throughputs from compact mechanical devices such as molecular drag pumps. A numerical model of such a pump and experimental results confirm the high pumping speed achievable with this concept. The model is used for extrapolation and optimisation of the design of a prototype. (orig.)

  14. High-Speed Thermal Characterization of Cryogenic Flows, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna proposes to continue development on a high-speed fiber optic sensor and readout system for cryogenic temperature measurements in liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid...

  15. Design criteria and principles for criticality detection and alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Clifton, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    The report gives design principles and criteria for criticality detection and alarm systems based on earlier work and revised in the light of more recent experience. In particular, account is taken of the developments which have taken place in the field of radiation detection and in the understanding of the different types of criticality excursion. General guidance is given on the principles to apply in deciding upon the need for a criticality system. The characteristics of a criticality incident are described in terms of the minimum incident of concern, and the radiation field. Criteria for the threshold of detection of a criticality incident are then derived and the methods of detection considered. The selection and siting of criticality detectors is discussed, and design principles are given for alarm systems. Finally, testing and post-alarm procedures are outlined, followed by a summary of the principal recommendations. The supporting Appendices include a discussion of reliability and a summary of radiation detector characteristics. (author)

  16. General multiplex centralized fire-alarm display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liqun; Chen Jinming

    2002-01-01

    The fire-alarm display system is developed, which can connect with each type of fire controllers produced in the factory and SIGMASYS controllers. It can display whole alarm information. The display system software gathers communication, database and multimedia, has functions of inspecting fire, showing alarm, storing data, searching information and so on. The drawing software lets the user expediently add, delete, move and modify fire detection or fire fighting facilities on the building floor maps. The graphic transform software lets the display use the vectorgraph produced by popular plotting software such as Auto CAD. The system software provides the administration function, such as log book of changing shift and managing workers etc.. The software executed on Windows 98 platform. The user interface is friendly and reliable in operation

  17. Development of a criticality monitoring and alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egey, Julio; Izraelevitch, Federico H.; Matatagui, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    In this work we are presenting the development of a Criticality Monitor and Alarm System (SIMAC). It monitors the burst of radiation produced during such an accident and triggers an alarm for evacuation in case the radiation exceeds a pre-established threshold. It consists of two subsystems, one for gamma rays and the other for neutrons. Each subsystem has three independent detectors modules. Each module is composed of an ion chamber plus its associated electronics, feeding a logic module that in turn would trigger the evacuation alarm. An additional feature is a PC interface for data acquisition. The radiation detectors are ion chambers working in current mode. The electronics associated to each detector can manage a wide signal range using a logarithmic converter. (author)

  18. Cigarette smoke extract counteracts atheroprotective effects of high laminar flow on endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindy Giebe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking and hemodynamic forces are key stimuli in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. High laminar flow has an atheroprotective effect on the endothelium and leads to a reduced response of endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors compared to regions with disturbed or low laminar flow. We hypothesize that the atheroprotective effect of high laminar flow could delay the development of endothelial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoking. Primary human endothelial cells were stimulated with increasing dosages of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSEaq. CSEaq reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The main mediator of cellular adaption to oxidative stress, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2 and its target genes heme oxygenase (decycling 1 (HMOX1 or NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1 were strongly increased by CSEaq in a dose-dependent manner. High laminar flow induced elongation of endothelial cells in the direction of flow, activated the AKT/eNOS pathway, increased eNOS expression, phosphorylation and NO release. These increases were inhibited by CSEaq. Pro-inflammatory adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1, selectin E (SELE and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2/MCP-1 were increased by CSEaq. Low laminar flow induced VCAM1 and SELE compared to high laminar flow. High laminar flow improved endothelial wound healing. This protective effect was inhibited by CSEaq in a dose-dependent manner through the AKT/eNOS pathway. Low as well as high laminar flow decreased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Whereas, monocyte adhesion was increased by CSEaq under low laminar flow, this was not evident under high laminar flow.This study shows the activation of major atherosclerotic key parameters by CSEaq. Within this process, high laminar flow is likely to reduce the harmful effects of CSEaq to a certain degree. The

  19. High bias gas flows increase lung injury in the ventilated preterm lamb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka P Bach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation of preterm babies increases survival but can also cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI, leading to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. It is not known whether shear stress injury from gases flowing into the preterm lung during ventilation contributes to VILI. METHODS: Preterm lambs of 131 days' gestation (term = 147 d were ventilated for 2 hours with a bias gas flow of 8 L/min (n = 13, 18 L/min (n = 12 or 28 L/min (n = 14. Physiological parameters were measured continuously and lung injury was assessed by measuring mRNA expression of early injury response genes and by histological analysis. Control lung tissue was collected from unventilated age-matched fetuses. Data were analysed by ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test when appropriate. RESULTS: High bias gas flows resulted in higher ventilator pressures, shorter inflation times and decreased ventilator efficiency. The rate of rise of inspiratory gas flow was greatest, and pulmonary mRNA levels of the injury markers, EGR1 and CTGF, were highest in lambs ventilated with bias gas flows of 18 L/min. High bias gas flows resulted in increased cellular proliferation and abnormal deposition of elastin, collagen and myofibroblasts in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: High ventilator bias gas flows resulted in increased lung injury, with up-regulation of acute early response genes and increased histological lung injury. Bias gas flows may, therefore, contribute to VILI and BPD.

  20. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can

  1. To stay or to go? Balancing the risk of reprocessing plant control room evacuation following a criticality alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Suzanne; McCrindle, David; Harris, Neil; Haworth, Justin

    2003-01-01

    Following a criticality alarm within the Magnox Separation Plant at Sellafield, there is a conflict of interest between the risks associated with complete evacuation versus continued manning of the control room. The historic emergency response policy would be to completely evacuate the control room upon a criticality alarm. If, however, the alarm was found to be false, the inevitable loss in control over the plant could have environmental, operational and radiological release consequences. Maintaining control room manning following a genuine alarm might, however, result in an avoidable high dose to an operator. Based upon the estimated dose equivalent to a control room operator for a range of criticality incident morphologies a risk analysis was undertaken. The results indicate that the differential risk between an operator who evacuates immediately and an operator who remains for a short time to complete diagnostic checks is very small. As a consequence a new emergency policy was therefore developed on plant which results in a relatively low risk to control room operators, but still allows control over the plant to be retained following a false criticality alarm. (author)

  2. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS services and sites in WLCG

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Perez, Jorge Amando

    2012-01-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator on duty at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is explo...

  3. Alerting the apathetic and reassuring the alarmed: communicating about radon risk in three communities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chess, C.; Hance, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    Public reaction to the risk from radon varied widely in three communities chosen for qualitative analysis. In Boyertown, PA, some residents were very alarmed, but most were apathetic toward this newly identified environmental risk. In Clinton, NJ, residents were concerned and worked with the mayor and the state to determine whether they were at risk and to disseminate information about mitigation of high indoor radon levels. Residents in Vernon, New Jersey were very alarmed and actively opposed the state's decision to site low-level radium wastes there. The qualitative study examines why reactions differed among the three communities, and extracts lessons for communicating about the risk from radon. These lessons should apply to communicating about other environmental hazards to individuals and communities

  4. Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome.

  5. Distributed error and alarm processing in the CMS data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The error and alarm system for the data acquisition of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at CERN was successfully used for the physics runs at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during first three years of activities. Error and alarm processing entails the notification, collection, storing and visualization of all exceptional conditions occurring in the highly distributed CMS online system using a uniform scheme. Alerts and reports are shown on-line by web application facilities that map them to graphical models of the system as defined by the user. A persistency service keeps a history of all exceptions occurred, allowing subsequent retrieval of user defined time windows of events for later playback or analysis. This paper describes the architecture and the technologies used and deals with operational aspects during the first years of LHC operation. In particular we focus on performance, stability, and integration with the CMS sub-detectors.

  6. PROLOG language application for alarm system realization in accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, I.; Vaguine, A.; Abe, I.; Nakahara, K.; Furukawa, K.; Kamikubota, N.

    1994-01-01

    Such PROLOG features as backtracking, matching and recursive data representation are powerful tools for ALARM system realization. Although the main idea is the possibility to describe some technical system in recursive form, backtracking and matching are ideal for processing recursive data structures. This paper represents a technique which would allow PROLOG language application for ALARM system realization using an example of the KEK LINAC magnet system. The technique is based on an object-oriented internal data representation in terms of objects, properties, relations and knowledge conception. In addition, each property value is characterized by a typical 'time life'. (author)

  7. AN AUTOMATIC CAR ANTI-THEFT ALARM SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Enokela; E.J. Ibanga

    2007-01-01

    The theft of cars and other automobiles by criminals has become so frequent in our society as to be classified as alarming. Most of the thefts are organized by gangs of robbers but sometimes individuals engage in this activity. The result usually, however, is that the persons from whom the vehicles have been stolen are left to grieve as many of these vehicles are never recovered. This paper describes a simple alarm system that can be easily installed in all kinds of vehicles. The system desc...

  8. Turbulent Scalar Transport Model Validation for High Speed Propulsive Flows, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort entails the validation of a RANS turbulent scalar transport model (SFM) for high speed propulsive flows, using new experimental data sets and...

  9. High Performance Redox Flow Batteries: An Analysis of the Upper Performance Limits of Flow Batteries Using Non-aqueous Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.-N.; Mench, M.M.; Zawodzinski, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) are a promising technology for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage. In this work, we use a recently achieved high-performance flow battery performance curve as a basis to assess the maximum achievable performance of a RFB employing non-aqueous solutions as active materials. First we show high performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), specifically a limiting situation in which the cell losses are ohmic in nature and derive from electrolyte conductance. Based on that case, we analyze the analogous limiting behavior of non-aqueous (NA) systems using a series of calculations assuming similar ohmic losses, scaled by the relative electrolyte resistances, with a higher voltage redox couple assumed for the NA battery. The results indicate that the NA battery performance is limited by the low electrolyte conductivity to a fraction of the performance of the VRFB. Given the narrow window in which the NARFB offers advantages, even for the most generous limiting assumptions related to performance while ignoring the numerous other disadvantageous aspects of these systems, we conclude that this technology is unlikely under present circumstances to provide practical large-scale energy storage solutions.

  10. Flux flow in high-Tc Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of achieving fluxon nucleation in nonhysteretic high-T(c) Josephson junctions due to the presence of inhomogeneities is investigated numerically. For a large range of parameters the I- V characteristics in presence of such discontinuities show a strong similarity with those obtain...

  11. Erectie bij een kleuter door "high-flow" -priapisme: spoedgeval.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    A healthy 5-year-old child was brought to the general practitioner with priapism that had been observed for a few days, without any other symptoms. Angiography revealed an arteriovenous fistula originating from the left A. dorsalis penis, which was successfully embolised. The diagnosis was ‘high

  12. Energy flow in high speed perforation and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Thiel, M.

    1980-01-01

    It is demonstrated that effects of long rod penetrators on targets can be modeled by introducing a high pressure (energy) column on the penetration path in place of the projectile. This energy can be obtained from the kinetic energy of the penetrator; the equations of state of the materials used and a Bernoulli penetration condition. The model is supported by detailed hydro calculations

  13. Discussion of various flow calculation methods in high-speed centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.; Cortet, C.

    1979-01-01

    The flow in high-speed centrifuges for the separation of uranium isotopes has been studied in the frame of linearized theory for long years. Three different methods have been derived for viscous compressible flow with small Ekman numbers and high Mach numbers: - numerical solution of flow equation by finite element method and Gaussian elimination (Centaure Code), - boundary layer theory using matched asymptotic expansions, - the so called eigenfunction method slightly modified. The mathematical assumptions, the easiness and the accuracy of the computations are compared. Numerical applications are performed successively for thermal countercurrent centrifuges with or without injections

  14. Phase-measuring laser holographic interferometer for use in high speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanta, William J.; Spring, W. Charles, III; Gross, Kimberly Uhrich; McArthur, J. Craig

    Phase-measurement techniques have been applied to a dual-plate laser holographic interferometer (LHI). This interferometer has been used to determine the flowfield densities in a variety of two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows. In particular, LHI has been applied in three different experiments: flowfield measurements inside a two-dimensional scramjet inlet, flow over a blunt cone, and flow over an indented nose shape. Comparisons of experimentally determined densities with computational results indicate that, when phase-measurement techniques are used in conjunction with state-of-the-art image-processing instrumentation, holographic interferometry can be a diagnostic tool with high resolution, high accuracy, and rapid data retrieval.

  15. On the peculiarities of LDA method in two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplavski, S. V.; Boiko, V. M.; Nesterov, A. U.

    2016-10-01

    Popular applications of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) in gas dynamics are reviewed. It is shown that the most popular method cannot be used in supersonic flows and two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles. A new approach to implementation of the known LDA method based on direct spectral analysis, which offers better prospects for such problems, is presented. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for gas-liquid jets. Owing to the progress in laser engineering, digital recording of spectra, and computer processing of data, the method is implemented at a higher technical level and provides new prospects of diagnostics of high-velocity dense two-phase flows.

  16. The Characteristics of Turbulence in Curved Pipes under Highly Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakli, A.; Örlü, R.; Tillmark, N.; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    High speed stereoscopic particle image velocimetry has been employed to provide unique data from a steady and highly pulsatile turbulent flow at the exit of a 90 degree pipe bend. Both the unsteady behaviour of the Dean cells under steady conditions, the so called "swirl switching" phenomenon, as well as the secondary flow under pulsations have been reconstructed through proper orthogonal decomposition. The present data set constitutes - to the authors' knowledge - the first detailed investigation of a turbulent, pulsatile flow through a pipe bend.

  17. Understanding heart rate alarm adjustment in the intensive care units through an analytical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Fidler

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR alarms are prevalent in ICU, and these parameters are configurable. Not much is known about nursing behavior associated with tailoring HR alarm parameters to individual patients to reduce clinical alarm fatigue.To understand the relationship between heart rate (HR alarms and adjustments to reduce unnecessary heart rate alarms.Retrospective, quantitative analysis of an adjudicated database using analytical approaches to understand behaviors surrounding parameter HR alarm adjustments. Patients were sampled from five adult ICUs (77 beds over one month at a quaternary care university medical center. A total of 337 of 461 ICU patients had HR alarms with 53.7% male, mean age 60.3 years, and 39% non-Caucasian. Default HR alarm parameters were 50 and 130 beats per minute (bpm. The occurrence of each alarm, vital signs, and physiologic waveforms was stored in a relational database (SQL server.There were 23,624 HR alarms for analysis, with 65.4% exceeding the upper heart rate limit. Only 51% of patients with HR alarms had parameters adjusted, with a median upper limit change of +5 bpm and -1 bpm lower limit. The median time to first HR parameter adjustment was 17.9 hours, without reduction in alarms occurrence (p = 0.57.HR alarms are prevalent in ICU, and half of HR alarm settings remain at default. There is a long delay between HR alarms and parameters changes, with insufficient changes to decrease HR alarms. Increasing frequency of HR alarms shortens the time to first adjustment. Best practice guidelines for HR alarm limits are needed to reduce alarm fatigue and improve monitoring precision.

  18. High-frequency counter-flow plasma synthetic jet actuator and its application in suppression of supersonic flow separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Li, Jun; Jin, Di; Tang, Mengxiao; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Lianghua

    2018-01-01

    We come up with a control strategy for suppression of supersonic flow separation based on high-frequency Counter-flow Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator (CPSJA). The main purpose of this investigation is to verify if its control authority can be enhanced by the jet/shock interaction. We use a blunt nose to generate a bow shock, a step on a flat plate to introduce a massive separation in a Mach 2 wind tunnel, and the CPSJA to generate Plasma Synthetic Jet (PSJ). In this study, pulsed capacitive discharge is provided for an array of CPSJAs, which makes the actuation (discharge) frequency f1 = 1 kHz, f2 = 2 kHz and f3 = 3 kHz. We use the high-speed schlieren imaging and fast response pressure transducers as well as a numerical simulation to investigate the quiescent PSJ properties, the interaction between the jet and bow shock, and its disturbance effect on the downstream separated region. The schlieren images show that PSJ is characterized by a succession of vortex rings; the jet strength weakens with the increase of frequency. A 4.5 mN jet thrust is found for all the frequencies. The simulation results show that jet/shock interaction produces vorticity in the vortex ring of the jet, enhancing turbulent mixing in PSJ so that a great deal of momentum is produced into the flow. We found the downstream flow is significantly disturbed by the enhanced actuation. Actuation with frequency of f2, f3 which is close to the natural frequency fn of the separation bubble suppresses the separation with the upstream laminar boundary layer being periodically attenuated, which has a better control effect than f1. The control effect is sensitive to the position where PSJ interacts with the shear layer, but the amount of energy deposited in one pulse is not crucial in a separation reduction in the experiment.

  19. Alarm Fatigue vs User Expectations Regarding Context-Aware Alarm Handling in Hospital Environments Using CallMeSmart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvoll, Terje; Arntsen, Harald; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Surveys and research show that mobile communication systems in hospital settings are old and cause frequent interruptions. In the quest to remedy this, an Android based communication system called CallMeSmart tries to encapsulate most of the frequent communication into one hand held device focusing on reducing interruptions and at the same time make the workday easier for healthcare workers. The objective of CallMeSmart is to use context-awareness techniques to automatically monitor the availability of physicians' and nurses', and use this information to prevent or route phone calls, text messages, pages and alarms that would otherwise compromise patient care. In this paper, we present the results from interviewing nurses on alarm fatigue and their expectations regarding context-aware alarm handling using CallMeSmart.

  20. Technical Evaluation Report, Part A - Vortex Flow and High Angle of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckring, James M.

    2003-01-01

    A symposium entitled Vortex Flow and High Angle of Attack was held in Loen, Norway, from May 7 through May 11, 2001. The Applied Vehicle Technology (AVT) panel, under the auspices of the Research and Technology Organization (RTO), sponsored this symposium. Forty-eight papers, organized into nine sessions, addressed computational and experimental studies of vortex flows pertinent to both aircraft and maritime applications. The studies also ranged from fundamental fluids investigations to flight test results, and significant results were contributed from a broad range of countries. The principal emphasis of this symposium was on "the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on military vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads." It was further observed by the program committee that "separation- induced vortex flows are an important part of the design and off-design performance of conventional fighter aircraft and new conventional or unconventional manned or unmanned advanced vehicle designs (UAVs, manned aircraft, missiles, space planes, ground-based vehicles, and ships)." The nine sessions addressed the following topics: vortical flows on wings and bodies, experimental techniques for vortical flows, numerical simulations of vortical flows, vortex stability and breakdown, vortex flows in maritime applications, vortex interactions and control, vortex dynamics, flight testing, and vehicle design. The purpose of this paper is to provide brief reviews of these papers along with some synthesizing perspectives toward future vortex flow research opportunities. The paper includes the symposium program. (15 refs.)

  1. Statistical study of high-latitude plasma flow during magnetospheric substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Provan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised the near-global imaging capabilities of the Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN radars, to perform a statistical superposed epoch analysis of high-latitude plasma flows during magnetospheric substorms. The study involved 67 substorms, identified using the IMAGE FUV space-borne auroral imager. A substorm co-ordinate system was developed, centred on the magnetic local time and magnetic latitude of substorm onset determined from the auroral images. The plasma flow vectors from all 67 intervals were combined, creating global statistical plasma flow patterns and backscatter occurrence statistics during the substorm growth and expansion phases. The commencement of the substorm growth phase was clearly observed in the radar data 18-20min before substorm onset, with an increase in the anti-sunward component of the plasma velocity flowing across dawn sector of the polar cap and a peak in the dawn-to-dusk transpolar voltage. Nightside backscatter moved to lower latitudes as the growth phase progressed. At substorm onset a flow suppression region was observed on the nightside, with fast flows surrounding the suppressed flow region. The dawn-to-dusk transpolar voltage increased from ~40kV just before substorm onset to ~75kV 12min after onset. The low-latitude return flow started to increase at substorm onset and continued to increase until 8min after onset. The velocity flowing across the polar-cap peaked 12-14min after onset. This increase in the flux of the polar cap and the excitation of large-scale plasma flow occurred even though the IMF Bz component was increasing (becoming less negative during most of this time. This study is the first to statistically prove that nightside reconnection creates magnetic flux and excites high-latitude plasma flow in a similar way to dayside reconnection and that dayside and nightside reconnection, are two separate time-dependent processes.

  2. High frequency components of tracheal sound are emphasized during prolonged flow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenhunen, M; Huupponen, E; Saastamoinen, A; Kulkas, A; Himanen, S-L; Rauhala, E

    2009-01-01

    A nasal pressure transducer, which is used to study nocturnal airflow, also provides information about the inspiratory flow waveform. A round flow shape is presented during normal breathing. A flattened, non-round shape is found during hypopneas and it can also appear in prolonged episodes. The significance of this prolonged flow limitation is still not established. A tracheal sound spectrum has been analyzed further in order to achieve additional information about breathing during sleep. Increased sound frequencies over 500 Hz have been connected to obstruction of the upper airway. The aim of the present study was to examine the tracheal sound signal content of prolonged flow limitation and to find out whether prolonged flow limitation would consist of abundant high frequency activity. Sleep recordings of 36 consecutive patients were examined. The tracheal sound spectral analysis was performed on 10 min episodes of prolonged flow limitation, normal breathing and periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing. The highest total spectral amplitude, implicating loudest sounds, occurred during flow-limited breathing which also presented loudest sounds in all frequency bands above 100 Hz. In addition, the tracheal sound signal during flow-limited breathing constituted proportionally more high frequency activities compared to normal breathing and even periodic apnea-hypopnea breathing

  3. Condensation shocks in high momentum two-phase flows in condensing injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, G.; Christensen, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study presents a phenomenological and mathematical model of condensation shocks in high momentum two-phase flows in condensing injectors. The characteristics of the shock were related to the mode of vapor bubble collapse. Using cavitation terminology, the bubble collapse can be classified as inertially controlled or thermally controlled. Inertial bubble collapse occurs rapidly whereas, a thermally controlled collapse results in a significantly longer collapse time. The interdependence between the bubble collapse mode and the momentum and pressure of the flow, was analyzed in this study. For low-temperature-high-velocity flows a steep pressure rise with complete condensation was obtained. For a high-temperature-low velocity flow with noncondensables, low pressure recovery with incomplete condensation was observed. These trends are in agreement with previous experimental observations

  4. Mode decomposition methods for flows in high-contrast porous media. A global approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Calo, Victor M.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2014-01-01

    We apply dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methods to flows in highly-heterogeneous porous media to extract the dominant coherent structures and derive reduced-order models via Galerkin projection. Permeability fields with high contrast are considered to investigate the capability of these techniques to capture the main flow features and forecast the flow evolution within a certain accuracy. A DMD-based approach shows a better predictive capability due to its ability to accurately extract the information relevant to long-time dynamics, in particular, the slowly-decaying eigenmodes corresponding to largest eigenvalues. Our study enables a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the applicability of these techniques for flows in high-contrast porous media. Furthermore, we discuss the robustness of DMD- and POD-based reduced-order models with respect to variations in initial conditions, permeability fields, and forcing terms. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Development experience and strategy for the combined algorithm on the alarm processing and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hak-Yeong

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, I presented the development experience on the alarm processing and fault diagnosis which has been achieved from early 1988 to late 1995. The scope covered is the prototype stage, the development stage of on-line operator-aid system, and an intelligent human-machine interface system. In the second part, I proposed a new method (APEXS) of multi-alarm processing to select the causal alarm(s) among occurred alarms by using the time information of each occurred alarm and alarm tree knowledge and the corresponding diagnosis method based on the selected causal alarm(s) by using the prescribed qualitative model. With more knowledge base about the plant and some modification suitable for real environment, APEXS will be able to adapt to a real steam power plant. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Study on the flow nonuniformity in a high capacity Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, X.; Zhi, X.; Duan, C.; Jiang, X.; Qiu, L.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    High capacity Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) have promising applications in high temperature superconductive motor and gas liquefaction. However, with the increase of cooling capacity, its performance deviates from well-accepted one-dimensional model simulation, such as Sage and Regen, mainly due to the strong field nonuniformity. In this study, several flow straighteners placed at both ends of the pulse tube are investigated to improve the flow distribution. A two-dimensional model of the pulse tube based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been built to study the flow distribution of the pulse tube with different flow straighteners including copper screens, copper slots, taper transition and taper stainless slot. A SPTC set-up which has more than one hundred Watts cooling power at 80 K has been built and tested. The flow straighteners mentioned above have been applied and tested. The results show that with the best flow straightener the cooling performance of the SPTC can be significantly improved. Both CFD simulation and experiment show that the straighteners have impacts on the flow distribution and the performance of the high capacity SPTC.

  7. Life-threatening false alarm rejection in ICU: using the rule-based and multi-channel information fusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyu; Zhao, Lina; Tang, Hong; Li, Qiao; Wei, Shoushui; Li, Jianqing

    2016-08-01

    False alarm (FA) rates as high as 86% have been reported in intensive care unit monitors. High FA rates decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient burdens and stresses. In this study, we proposed a rule-based and multi-channel information fusion method for accurately classifying the true or false alarms for five life-threatening arrhythmias: asystole (ASY), extreme bradycardia (EBR), extreme tachycardia (ETC), ventricular tachycardia (VTA) and ventricular flutter/fibrillation (VFB). The proposed method consisted of five steps: (1) signal pre-processing, (2) feature detection and validation, (3) true/false alarm determination for each channel, (4) 'real-time' true/false alarm determination and (5) 'retrospective' true/false alarm determination (if needed). Up to four signal channels, that is, two electrocardiogram signals, one arterial blood pressure and/or one photoplethysmogram signal were included in the analysis. Two events were set for the method validation: event 1 for 'real-time' and event 2 for 'retrospective' alarm classification. The results showed that 100% true positive ratio (i.e. sensitivity) on the training set were obtained for ASY, EBR, ETC and VFB types, and 94% for VTA type, accompanied by the corresponding true negative ratio (i.e. specificity) results of 93%, 81%, 78%, 85% and 50% respectively, resulting in the score values of 96.50, 90.70, 88.89, 92.31 and 64.90, as well as with a final score of 80.57 for event 1 and 79.12 for event 2. For the test set, the proposed method obtained the score of 88.73 for ASY, 77.78 for EBR, 89.92 for ETC, 67.74 for VFB and 61.04 for VTA types, with the final score of 71.68 for event 1 and 75.91 for event 2.

  8. High Mach flow associated with plasma detachment in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, A.; Hoshino, K.; Miyamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Recent new results of the high Mach flows associated with plasma detachment are presented on the basis of numerical simulations by a 2-D edge simulation code (the B2-Eirene code) and their comparisons with experiments in JT-60U W-shaped divertor plasma. High Mach flows appear near the ionization front away from the target plate. The plasma static pressure rapidly drops, while the total pressure is kept almost constant near the ionization front, because the ionization front near the X-point is clearly separated from the momentum loss region near the target plate. Redistribution from static to dynamic pressure without a large momentum loss is confirmed to be a possible mechanism of the high Mach flows. It has been also shown that the radial structure of the high Mach flow near the X point away from the target plate has a strong correlation with the DOD (Degree of Detachment) at the target plate. Also, we have made systematic analyses on the high Mach flows for both the 'Open' geometry and the 'W-shaped' geometry of JT-60U in order to clarify the geometric effects on the flows. (author)

  9. High resolution X-ray tomography for stationary multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, D.; Reinecke, N.; Petritsch, G.; Mewes, D.

    1998-01-01

    The high resolution which can be obtained by computer assisted tomography is used to investigate the liquid distribution and void fraction in random and structured packing. With a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4mm 2 it is possible even to detect thin liquid films on structured packings. The experimental set-up consists of a custom-built second generation tomograph. The imaged object consists of a column filled with either a random ceramic packing of spheres or a structured metal packing. The liquid and void fraction distribution in random and structured packings with a quiescent gaseous phase is visualized. The water/air system is used. The liquid distributor consists of a perforated plate. The experimental hold-up values averaged over the column cross-section are in good agreement with empirical equations. (author)

  10. Advanced power flow technologies for high current ICF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.P.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Two new technologies for raising the power density in high current, inertial confinement fusion accelerators have been developed in the past two years. Magnetic flashover inhibition utilizes the self-magnetic fields around the vacuum insulator surface to inhibit surface flashover; average electric fields of 40 Mv/m at magnetic fields of 1.1 T have been achieved. Self-magnetic insulation of long, vacuum transmission lines has been used to transport power at 1.6 x 10 14 W/m 2 over six meters and up to 1.6 x 10 15 W/m 2 over short distances in a radial anode-cathode feed. The recent data relevant to these new technologies and their implications for ICF will be explored

  11. High-resolution flow imaging of the carotid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.; Haacke, E.M.; Lenz, G.W.; Ross, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, high-contrast vascular images have been demonstrated using short TEs, gating and subtraction. However, to obtain short TE values, large gradients are required. This potentially limits the field of view, signal-to-noise- ratio, and resolution. Furthermore, gating in different parts of the cardiac cycle can lead to pixel misregistration. In this study, additional refocusing gradients were applied so that no velocity-dependent dephasing occurs at the echo restoring signal from moving blood. Two cardiac-gated sequences using the same trigger delay and one acquisition were obtained. Preliminary results indicate that good quality vascular images of the carotid bifurcation can be obtained with modifications of the spin-echo technique of with short TEs utilizing a gradient echo technique

  12. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  13. Survey of approaches for handling static analysis alarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muske, T.; Serebrenik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Static analysis tools have showcased their importance and usefulness in automated detection of code anomalies and defects. However, the large number of alarms reported and cost incurred in their manual inspections have been the major concerns with the usage of static analysis tools. Existing studies

  14. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... notification to assigned personnel whenever a deficiency exists in the system. The employer shall assure that... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...

  15. Chemical alarm in the termite Termitogeton planus (Rhinotermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolejšová, Klára; Krasulová, Jana; Kutalová, K.; Hanus, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, 11/12 (2014), s. 1269-1276 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : termites * soldiers * frontal gland * alarm pheromone * Rhinotermitidae * Termitogeton Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2014

  16. Communication interface of computerized automatic fire alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongmei; Zhu Liqun; Fang Shaohong; Du Chengbao

    1997-01-01

    The problems of communication between multiple single-chip computers and microcomputer have been solved by the way of hardware and software. The automatic fire alarm system is realized by using the serial port both on single-chip computer and microcomputer

  17. No more moody mornings : Alarm clock anticipates sleepers' emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensveen, S.; Overbeeke, K.; Van Kasteren, J.

    2002-01-01

    More eloquent alternatives to the harsh tones of the oldfashioned alarm-clock bells abound, including a newsreaders voice summing up last nights disasters, or a tape of your favourite early morning music. Still, getting out of bed has its difficult moments. All this could well change in the near

  18. Alarm management in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, Helio; Costa, Luciano [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For sure Alarm Management is not a new issue. EEMUA 191 has been around since 1999 and everyone has received visits from consultants in this area. Besides this regulators have requested that operators have a policy for it. However there are few papers showing actual pipeline operator experience in alarm management. In this paper we present the work developed in TRANSPETRO National Oil Control Center since 2006, where we operate 5509 km of crude oil and refined products pipelines. Since the beginning of the centralized operation in 2002, alarm management has been a concern but a systematic approach has been taken since 2006. Initially we will make a brief revision of the literature and show trends for regulations. Then we will show the tools and the approach we have taken. Finally, the further developments we see. The point that we want to discuss is that, it has been very difficult to implement the system in a linear way and we believe that companies that have huge legacy systems, the same probably will occur. Putting in simple words, our main conclusion is: Implementing an Alarm Management policy produces good results however probably sometimes is better not to follow strictly the traditional steps. (author)

  19. Automatic diagnosis of multiple alarms for reactor-control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmy, K.L.; Nomm, E.

    1981-01-01

    A system has been developed at the Savannah River Plant to help reactor operators respond to multiple alarms in a developing incident situation. The need for such systems has become evident in recent years, particularly after the three Mile Island incident

  20. Satellite Search and Rescue System Studies: Alarm and Position Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    alarm and position reporting ( ALPR ) techniques, and the operational or planned spacecraft which might be available for piggybacking the ALPR payload...Several system concepts were then developed to perform the ALPR functions. The candidates were screened and the preferred system concepts were chosen

  1. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  2. Intelligent Smoke Alarm System with Wireless Sensor Network Using ZigBee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The conflagration of fire is still a serious problem caused by humans, and houses are at a high risk of fire. Recently, people have used smoke alarms which only have one sensor to detect fire. Smoke is emitted in several forms in daily life. A single sensor is not a reliable way to detect fire. With the rapid advancement in Internet technology, people can monitor their houses remotely to determine the current condition of the house. This paper introduces an intelligent smoke alarm system that uses ZigBee transmission technology to build a wireless network, uses random forest to identify smoke, and uses E-charts for data visualization. By combining the real-time dynamic changes of various environmental factors, compared to the traditional smoke alarm, the accuracy and controllability of the fire warning are increased, and the visualization of the data enables users to monitor the room environment more intuitively. The proposed system consists of a smoke detection module, a wireless communication module, and intelligent identification and data visualization module. At present, the collected environmental data can be classified into four statuses, that is, normal air, water mist, kitchen cooking, and fire smoke. Reducing the frequency of miscalculations also means improving the safety of the person and property of the user.

  3. Schlieren study of a sonic jet injected into a supersonic cross flow using high-current pulsed LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giskes, Ella; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Segerink, Frans B.; Venner, Cornelis H.

    2017-01-01

    Benefiting from the development of increasingly advanced high speed cameras, flow visualization and analysis nowadays yield detailed data of the flow field in many applications. Notwithstanding this progress, for high speed and supersonic flows it is still not trivial to capture high quality images.

  4. Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Edwin van der; Baalen, Jary M. van; Pattynama, Peter M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

  5. Cavitation performance improvement of high specific speed mixed-flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T; Sun, Y B; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation performance improvement of large hydraulic machinery such as pump and turbine has been a hot topic for decades. During the design process of the pumps, in order to minimize size, weight and cost centrifugal and mixed-flow pump impellers are required to operate at the highest possible rotational speed. The rotational speed is limited by the phenomenon of cavitation. The hydraulic model of high-speed mixed-flow pump with large flow rate and high pumping head, which was designed based on the traditional method, always involves poor cavitation performance. In this paper, on the basis of the same hydraulic design parameters, two hydraulic models of high-speed mixed-flow pump were designed by using different methods, in order to investigate the cavitation and hydraulic performance of the two models, the method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was adopted for internal flow simulation of the high specific speed mixed-flow pump. Based on the results of numerical simulation, the influences of impeller parameters and three-dimensional configuration on pressure distribution of the blades' suction surfaces were analyzed. The numerical simulation results shows a better pressure distribution and lower pressure drop around the leading edge of the improved model. The research results could provide references to the design and optimization of the anti-cavitation blade.

  6. Experimental evaluation of permanent magnet probe flowmeter measuring high temperature liquid sodium flow in the ITSL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Uiju; Kim, Yun Ho [Nuclear engineering Department, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Tae-Joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Joong, E-mail: sungjkim@mit.edu [Nuclear engineering Department, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • An Instrument Test Sodium Loop (ITSL) has been built and tested in various conditions at KAERI. • Free fall of liquid sodium was conducted experimentally and numerically. • A Permanent Magnet Probe Flowmeter (PMPF) was experimented in the ITSL. • Excellent linearity of the PMPF was achieved under high temperature condition. - Abstract: The Instrument Test Sodium Loop (ITSL) installed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a medium-size experimental facility dedicated to obtaining relevant experimental data of liquid sodium flow characteristics under various thermal hydraulic conditions and sodium purification. The ITSL has been utilized to perform thermal flow measurement of the liquid sodium and to calibrate a Permanent Magnet Probe Flowmeter (PMPF). The primary objective of this study is to obtain liquid sodium flow rate given a wide temperature range using the PMPF. Non-stationary method was adopted for the calibration of the probe given the liquid sodium temperature range of 150–415 °C. A relationship between the measured voltage signal and flow rate was obtained successfully. It is observed that the calibration experiments result in excellent linear relationships between measured voltage and volumetric flow rate at various temperature conditions. Also a computational analysis using FlowMaster, is employed to facilitate the calibration process by predicting the liquid sodium flow rate. Finally the effect of the fluid temperature on thermal flow measurements is discussed in light of the obtained experimental data.

  7. Regional Groundwater Flow Assessment in a Prospective High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of nuclear energy will result in high-level radioactive waste (HLRW, which brings potential environmental dangers. Selecting a proper disposal repository is a crucial step in the development of nuclear energy. This paper introduces firstly the hydrogeological conditions of the Beishan area in China. Next, a regional groundwater model is constructed using a multiphase flow simulator to analyze the groundwater flow pattern in the Beishan area. Model calibration shows that the simulated and observed hydraulic heads match well, and the simulated regional groundwater flow pattern is similar to the surface flow pattern from the channel network, indicating that the groundwater flow is mainly dependent on the topography. In addition, the simulated groundwater storage over the period from 2003 to 2014 is similar to the trend derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite-derived results. Last, the established model is used to evaluate the influences of the extreme climate and regional faults on the groundwater flow pattern. It shows that they do not have a significant influence on the regional groundwater flow patterns. This study will provide a preliminary reference for the regional groundwater flow assessment in the site of the HLRW in China.

  8. Study on flow fields in high specific speed centrifugal compressor with unpinched vaneless diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Performance of centrifugal compressors strongly depends on their internal flow fields. CFD has become indispensable tool for getting the information about flow fields in centrifugal compressors. CFD codes are usually validated by some representative data or compared with calculated results by other CFD codes, in order to ensure their accuracies. However, learning their accuracies for all types of centrifugal compressor's specifications requires continuous works that compare experimental data obtained in developmental processes of various types of centrifugal compressors with CFD results. A prediction of a performance and a flow field of a centrifugal compressor by CFD is relatively accurate when the impact of separation and secondary flow on that flow field is weak, i.e. near design condition. Centrifugal compressors are deemed to have a wide operating range alongside high efficiencies at design points. Hence the prediction accuracy of CFD at off design conditions, where the impacts of separation and secondary flow on the flow field are strong, is critical for the design of the centrifugal compressors. This study therefore investigated the prediction accuracy of CFD using a centrifugal compressor whose geometry was intentionally changed to have a distorted flow field over a whole operating range, i.e. from choke to surge.

  9. Study on flow fields in high specific speed centrifugal compressor with unpinched vaneless diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hideaki [IHI Corporation, Yokoham (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Performance of centrifugal compressors strongly depends on their internal flow fields. CFD has become indispensable tool for getting the information about flow fields in centrifugal compressors. CFD codes are usually validated by some representative data or compared with calculated results by other CFD codes, in order to ensure their accuracies. However, learning their accuracies for all types of centrifugal compressor's specifications requires continuous works that compare experimental data obtained in developmental processes of various types of centrifugal compressors with CFD results. A prediction of a performance and a flow field of a centrifugal compressor by CFD is relatively accurate when the impact of separation and secondary flow on that flow field is weak, i.e. near design condition. Centrifugal compressors are deemed to have a wide operating range alongside high efficiencies at design points. Hence the prediction accuracy of CFD at off design conditions, where the impacts of separation and secondary flow on the flow field are strong, is critical for the design of the centrifugal compressors. This study therefore investigated the prediction accuracy of CFD using a centrifugal compressor whose geometry was intentionally changed to have a distorted flow field over a whole operating range, i.e. from choke to surge.

  10. Investigation on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-10-22

    Uncertainties associated with the core bypass flow are some of the key issues that directly influence the coolant mass flow distribution and magnitude, and thus the operational core temperature profiles, in the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR). Designers will attempt to configure the core geometry so the core cooling flow rate magnitude and distribution conform to the design values. The objective of this project is to study the bypass flow both experimentally and computationally. Researchers will develop experimental data using state-of-the-art particle image velocimetry in a small test facility. The team will attempt to obtain full field temperature distribution using racks of thermocouples. The experimental data are intended to benchmark computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes by providing detailed information. These experimental data are urgently needed for validation of the CFD codes. The following are the project tasks: • Construct a small-scale bench-top experiment to resemble the bypass flow between the graphite blocks, varying parameters to address their impact on bypass flow. Wall roughness of the graphite block walls, spacing between the blocks, and temperature of the blocks are some of the parameters to be tested. • Perform CFD to evaluate pre- and post-test calculations and turbulence models, including sensitivity studies to achieve high accuracy. • Develop the state-of-the art large eddy simulation (LES) using appropriate subgrid modeling. • Develop models to be used in systems thermal hydraulics codes to account and estimate the bypass flows. These computer programs include, among others, RELAP3D, MELCOR, GAMMA, and GAS-NET. Actual core bypass flow rate may vary considerably from the design value. Although the uncertainty of the bypass flow rate is not known, some sources have stated that the bypass flow rates in the Fort St. Vrain reactor were between 8 and 25 percent of the total reactor mass flow rate. If bypass flow rates are on the

  11. Characterising Dynamic Instability in High Water-Cut Oil-Water Flows Using High-Resolution Microwave Sensor Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Jin, Ningde; Han, Yunfeng; Ma, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-scale entropy algorithm was used to characterise the complex flow phenomena of turbulent droplets in high water-cut oil-water two-phase flow. First, we compared multi-scale weighted permutation entropy (MWPE), multi-scale approximate entropy (MAE), multi-scale sample entropy (MSE) and multi-scale complexity measure (MCM) for typical nonlinear systems. The results show that MWPE presents satisfied variability with scale and anti-noise ability. Accordingly, we conducted an experiment of vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut and collected the signals of a high-resolution microwave resonant sensor, based on which two indexes, the entropy rate and mean value of MWPE, were extracted. Besides, the effects of total flow rate and water-cut on these two indexes were analysed. Our researches show that MWPE is an effective method to uncover the dynamic instability of oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut.

  12. Multichannel readout ASIC design flow for high energy physics and cosmic rays experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A; Malankin, E

    2016-01-01

    In the large-scale high energy physics and astrophysics experiments multi-channel readout application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are widely used. The ASICs for such experiments are complicated systems, which usually include both analog and digital building blocks. The complexity and large number of channels in such ASICs require the proper methodological approach to their design. The paper represents the mixed-signal design flow of the ASICs for high energy physics and cosmic rays experiments. This flow was successfully embedded to the development of the read-out ASIC prototype for the muon chambers of the CBM experiment. The approach was approved in UMC CMOS MMRF 180 nm process. The design flow enable to analyse the mixed-signal system operation on the different levels: functional, behavioural, schematic and post layout including parasitic elements. The proposed design flow allows reducing the simulation period and eliminating the functionality mismatches on the very early stage of the design. (paper)

  13. A study on impulsive sound attenuation for a high-pressure blast flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kuk Jeong; Ko, Sung Ho; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present work addresses a numerical study on impulsive sound attenuation for a complex high-pressure blast flow field; these characteristics are generated by a supersonic propellant gas flow through a shock tube into an ambient environment. A numerical solver for analyzing the high pressure blast flow field is developed in this study. From numerical simulations, wave dynamic processes (which include a first precursor shock wave, a second main propellant shock wave, and interactions in the muzzle blasts) are simulated and discussed. The pressure variation of the blast flow field is analyzed to evaluate the effect of a silencer. A live firing test is also performed to evaluate four different silencers. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding blast wave and in designing silencers

  14. A study on impulsive sound attenuation for a high-pressure blast flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kuk Jeong [Agency for Defence Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sung Ho; Lee, Dong Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    The present work addresses a numerical study on impulsive sound attenuation for a complex high-pressure blast flow field; these characteristics are generated by a supersonic propellant gas flow through a shock tube into an ambient environment. A numerical solver for analyzing the high pressure blast flow field is developed in this study. From numerical simulations, wave dynamic processes (which include a first precursor shock wave, a second main propellant shock wave, and interactions in the muzzle blasts) are simulated and discussed. The pressure variation of the blast flow field is analyzed to evaluate the effect of a silencer. A live firing test is also performed to evaluate four different silencers. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding blast wave and in designing silencers

  15. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  16. Relaxed impact craters on Ganymede: Regional variation and high heat flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; Bland, Michael T.; Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2018-05-01

    Viscously relaxed craters provide a window into the thermal history of Ganymede, a satellite with copious geologic signs of past high heat flows. Here we present measurements of relaxed craters in four regions for which suitable imaging exists: near Anshar Sulcus, Tiamat Sulcus, northern Marius Regio, and Ganymede's south pole. We describe a technique to measure apparent depth, or depth of the crater with respect to the surrounding terrain elevation. Measured relaxation states are compared with results from finite element modeling to constrain heat flow scenarios [see companion paper: Bland et al. (2017)]. The presence of numerous, substantially relaxed craters indicates high heat flows-in excess of 30-40 mW m-2 over 2 Gyr, with many small (heat flows. Crater relaxation states are bimodal for some equatorial regions but not in the region studied near the south pole, which suggests regional variations in Ganymede's thermal history.

  17. Highly selective deuteration of pharmaceutically relevant nitrogen-containing heterocycles: a flow chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Mándity, István M; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    A simple and efficient flow-based technique is reported for the catalytic deuteration of several model nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds which are important building blocks of pharmacologically active materials. A continuous flow reactor was used in combination with on-demand pressure-controlled electrolytic D(2) production. The D(2) source was D(2)O, the consumption of which was very low. The experimental set-up allows the fine-tuning of pressure, temperature, and flow rate so as to determine the optimal conditions for the deuteration reactions. The described procedure lacks most of the drawbacks of the conventional batch deuteration techniques, and additionally is highly selective and reproducible.

  18. Nearly Interactive Parabolized Navier-Stokes Solver for High Speed Forebody and Inlet Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Liou, May-Fun; Jones, William H.; Trefny, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    A system of computer programs is being developed for the preliminary design of high speed inlets and forebodies. The system comprises four functions: geometry definition, flow grid generation, flow solver, and graphics post-processor. The system runs on a dedicated personal computer using the Windows operating system and is controlled by graphical user interfaces written in MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc.). The flow solver uses the Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations to compute millions of mesh points in several minutes. Sample two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations are demonstrated in the paper.

  19. Alarming levels of carboxyhemoglobin in banked blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Melissa; Labaze, Georges; Hanakova, Marcela; McCloskey, David; Wilner, George

    2009-06-01

    To determine the level of carboxyhemoglobin found in banked blood in the Albany, NY region. A retrospective descriptive analysis of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in a series of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units. The blood bank of a university tertiary care hospital in Albany, NY. All PRBC units considered for possible use in pediatric cardiac surgery were first analyzed for levels of COHb. Only those units with COHb levels of <1.5% were deemed acceptable for use during pediatric cardiac surgery. A sample of blood drawn from the sample side arm of each PRBC unit was analyzed on a Chiron 855 Blood Gas Analyzer (Chiron Inc, Emeryville, CA, now Siemens/Bayer RapidLab 865) to determine the level of COHb. The average COHb level was 0.78% (standard deviation +/- 1.48%), and out of the 468 units tested, 48 (10.3%) had COHb levels of 1.5% or greater. The highest recorded COHb level was 12%. The transfusion of PRBC units may artificially elevate readings of COHb and cause confusion over possible causes. Certain high-risk populations (eg, cyanotic neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass) may be especially at risk. Although levels of COHb in the US blood supply are dropping, institutions may want to consider analyzing COHb levels in their PRBC units before transfusion in these high-risk populations.

  20. Towards a comprehensive assessment and framework for low and high flow water risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motschmann, Alina; Huggel, Christian; Drenkhan, Fabian; León, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Driven by international organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) the past years have seen a move from a vulnerability concept of climate change impacts towards a risk framework. Risk is now conceived at the intersection of climate-driven hazard and socioeconomic-driven vulnerability and exposure. The concept of risk so far has been mainly adopted for sudden-onset events. However, for slow-onset and cumulative climate change impacts such as changing water resources there is missing clarity and experience how to apply a risk framework. Research has hardly dealt with the challenge of how to integrate both low and high flow risks in a common framework. Comprehensive analyses of risks related to water resources considering climate change within multi-dimensional drivers across different scales are complex and often missing in climate-sensitive mountain regions where data scarcity and inconsistencies represent important limitations. Here we review existing vulnerability and risk assessments of low and high flow water conditions and identify critical conceptual and practical gaps. Based on this, we develop an integrated framework for low and high flow water risks which is applicable to both past and future conditions. The framework explicitly considers a water balance model simulating both water supply and demand on a daily basis. We test and apply this new framework in the highly glacierized Santa River catchment (SRC, Cordillera Blanca, Peru), representative for many developing mountain regions with both low and high flow water risks and poor data availability. In fact, in the SRC, both low and high flow hazards, such as droughts and floods, play a central role especially for agricultural, hydropower, domestic and mining use. During the dry season (austral winter) people are increasingly affected by water scarcity due to shrinking glaciers supplying melt water. On the other hand during the wet season (austral summer) high flow water

  1. Prioritizing alarms from sensor-based detection models in livestock production - A review on model performance and alarm reducing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Katarina Sylow; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present, evaluate and discuss methods for reducing false alarms in sensor-based detection models developed for livestock production as described in the scientific literature. Papers included in this review are all peer-reviewed and present sensor-based detection...

  2. Magnetic field and force analysis of high Tc superconductor with flux flow and creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Miya, Kenzo

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the magnetic force analysis of high T c superconductor based on the flux flow and creep model. The introduction of the artificial conductivity, which is used in the conventional method, is not needed. The CPU time requirement of the calculations is considerably lower than that in the case of the conventional method. Thereby the vibration of a levitated permanent magnet was numerically analyzed by taking into account the flux flow and creep

  3. High-Order Multioperator Compact Schemes for Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Subsonic Airfoil Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel'ev, A. D.

    2018-02-01

    On the basis of high-order schemes, the viscous gas flow over the NACA2212 airfoil is numerically simulated at a free-stream Mach number of 0.3 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 103 to 107. Flow regimes sequentially varying due to variations in the free-stream viscosity are considered. Vortex structures developing on the airfoil surface are investigated, and a physical interpretation of this phenomenon is given.

  4. Application of PIV to the Measurement of High Speed Jet Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, L.

    1999-01-01

    The Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV, has been implemented for the investigation of high-speed jet flows at the NASA Langley Research Center. In this approach the velocity (displacement) is found as the location of a peak in the correlation map of particle images acquired in quick succession. In the study, the technique for the correct seeding of the flow field were developed and implemented and the operational parameters influencing the accuracy of the measurement have been optimized.

  5. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow...

  6. Retrofitting alarm prioritization at Bruce A: strategy development and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.; Hickey, D.; Babcock, B.

    1997-01-01

    A prioritization strategy for computer-displayed control room alarms has been developed for Bruce A to better assist operations staff in visually identifying key alarms and judging the relative importance of alarms. The strategy consists of assigning each alarm indicative of a problem to be addressed to one of five priority categories. Each alarm is assigned to an alarm category based on an off-line analysis of the consequence and response characteristics applicable to the alarm for three plant operating contexts. The colour of the alarm message is used to convey the priority category of each alarm in computer-based alarm displays. In addition, alarms indicative of non-problematic changes in the state of plant equipment and processes are given a separate colour assignment to visually differentiate them from alarms indicative of problems. This paper outlines the user-based approach employed in the prioritization strategy development, describes the key features of the prioritization strategy adopted, and discusses the initial experience in systematically determining the priority assignments for all 6000 computer-based alarms associated with each generating unit. (author)

  7. Influence of elbow curvature on flow structure at elbow outlet under high Reynolds number condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A., E-mail: ono.ayako@jaea.go.jp [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita 4002, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kimura, N.; Kamide, H.; Tobita, A. [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita 4002, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In the design of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), coolant velocity is beyond 9 m/s in the primary hot leg pipe of 1.27 m diameter. The Reynolds number in the piping reaches 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}. Moreover, a short-elbow is adopted in the hot leg pipe in order to achieve compact plant layout and to reduce plant construction cost. Therefore, the flow-induced vibration (FIV) arising from the piping geometry may occur in the short-elbow pipe. The FIV is due to the excitation source which is caused by the pressure fluctuation in the pipe. The pressure fluctuation in the pipe is closely related with the velocity fluctuation. As the first step of clarification of the FIV mechanism, it is important to grasp the mechanism of flow fluctuation in the elbow. In this study, water experiments with two types of elbows with different curvature ratios were conducted in order to investigate the interaction between flow separation and the secondary flow due to the elbow curvature. The experiments were conducted with the short-elbow and the long-elbow under Re = 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} and 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} conditions. The velocity fields in the elbows were measured using a high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The time-series of axial velocity fields and the cross-section velocity fields obtained by the high-speed PIV measurements revealed the unsteady and complex flow structure in the elbow. The flow separation always occurred in the short-elbow while the flow separation occurred intermittently in the long-elbow case. The circumferential secondary flows in clockwise and counterclockwise directions flowed forward downstream of reattachment point alternately in both elbows.

  8. High frame rate synthetic aperture vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Bechsgaard, Thor; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the first in vivo results of 2-D high frame rate vector velocity imaging for transthoracic cardiac imaging. Measurements are made on a healthy volunteer using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner connected to an intercostal phased-array probe. Two parasternal long-axis view (PLAX) are obtained, one centred at the aortic valve and another centred at the left ventricle. The acquisition sequence was composed of 3 diverging waves for high frame rate synthetic aperture flow imaging. For verification a phantom measurement is performed on a transverse straight 5 mm diameter vessel at a depth of 100 mm in a tissue-mimicking phantom. A flow pump produced a 2 ml/s constant flow with a peak velocity of 0.2 m/s. The average estimated flow angle in the ROI was 86.22° +/- 6.66° with a true flow angle of 90°. A relative velocity bias of -39% with a standard deviation of 13% was found. In-vivo acquisitions show complex flow patterns in the heart. In the aortic valve view, blood is seen exiting the left ventricle cavity through the aortic valve into the aorta during the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. In the left ventricle view, blood flow is seen entering the left ventricle cavity through the mitral valve and splitting in two ways when approximating the left ventricle wall. The work presents 2-D velocity estimates on the heart from a non-invasive transthoracic scan. The ability of the method detecting flow regardless of the beam angle could potentially reveal a more complete view of the flow patterns presented on the heart.

  9. Direct numerical simulation of reactor two-phase flows enabled by high-performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jun; Cambareri, Joseph J.; Brown, Cameron S.; Feng, Jinyong; Gouws, Andre; Li, Mengnan; Bolotnov, Igor A.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear reactor two-phase flows remain a great engineering challenge, where the high-resolution two-phase flow database which can inform practical model development is still sparse due to the extreme reactor operation conditions and measurement difficulties. Owing to the rapid growth of computing power, the direct numerical simulation (DNS) is enjoying a renewed interest in investigating the related flow problems. A combination between DNS and an interface tracking method can provide a unique opportunity to study two-phase flows based on first principles calculations. More importantly, state-of-the-art high-performance computing (HPC) facilities are helping unlock this great potential. This paper reviews the recent research progress of two-phase flow DNS related to reactor applications. The progress in large-scale bubbly flow DNS has been focused not only on the sheer size of those simulations in terms of resolved Reynolds number, but also on the associated advanced modeling and analysis techniques. Specifically, the current areas of active research include modeling of sub-cooled boiling, bubble coalescence, as well as the advanced post-processing toolkit for bubbly flow simulations in reactor geometries. A novel bubble tracking method has been developed to track the evolution of bubbles in two-phase bubbly flow. Also, spectral analysis of DNS database in different geometries has been performed to investigate the modulation of the energy spectrum slope due to bubble-induced turbulence. In addition, the single-and two-phase analysis results are presented for turbulent flows within the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core geometries. The related simulations are possible to carry out only with the world leading HPC platforms. These simulations are allowing more complex turbulence model development and validation for use in 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD) codes.

  10. Piezoelectric microvalve for precise control of gas flow at high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    We present a normally open piezoelectric actuated micro valve, based on the novel concept of micro and fine machining technology. This new design allows a wide controllable range for high flow at a high pressure difference between inlet and outlet. This promising combination of micro and fine

  11. Accurate Angle Estimator for High-Frame-rate 2-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for estimating 2-D flow angles using a high-frame-rate ultrasound method. The angle estimator features high accuracy and low standard deviation (SD) over the full 360° range. The method is validated on Field II simulations and phantom measurements using...

  12. High PRF ultrafast sliding compound doppler imaging: fully qualitative and quantitative analysis of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinbum; Jang, Won Seuk; Yoo, Yangmo

    2018-02-09

    Ultrafast compound Doppler imaging based on plane-wave excitation (UCDI) can be used to evaluate cardiovascular diseases using high frame rates. In particular, it provides a fully quantifiable flow analysis over a large region of interest with high spatio-temporal resolution. However, the pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) in the UCDI method is limited for high-velocity flow imaging since it has a tradeoff between the number of plane-wave angles (N) and acquisition time. In this paper, we present high PRF ultrafast sliding compound Doppler imaging method (HUSDI) to improve quantitative flow analysis. With the HUSDI method, full scanline images (i.e. each tilted plane wave data) in a Doppler frame buffer are consecutively summed using a sliding window to create high-quality ensemble data so that there is no reduction in frame rate and flow sensitivity. In addition, by updating a new compounding set with a certain time difference (i.e. sliding window step size or L), the HUSDI method allows various Doppler PRFs with the same acquisition data to enable a fully qualitative, retrospective flow assessment. To evaluate the performance of the proposed HUSDI method, simulation, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted under diverse flow circumstances. In the simulation and in vitro studies, the HUSDI method showed improved hemodynamic representations without reducing either temporal resolution or sensitivity compared to the UCDI method. For the quantitative analysis, the root mean squared velocity error (RMSVE) was measured using 9 angles (-12° to 12°) with L of 1-9, and the results were found to be comparable to those of the UCDI method (L  =  N  =  9), i.e.  ⩽0.24 cm s -1 , for all L values. For the in vivo study, the flow data acquired from a full cardiac cycle of the femoral vessels of a healthy volunteer were analyzed using a PW spectrogram, and arterial and venous flows were successfully assessed with high Doppler PRF (e.g. 5 kHz at L

  13. High PRF ultrafast sliding compound doppler imaging: fully qualitative and quantitative analysis of blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinbum; Jang, Won Seuk; Yoo, Yangmo

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast compound Doppler imaging based on plane-wave excitation (UCDI) can be used to evaluate cardiovascular diseases using high frame rates. In particular, it provides a fully quantifiable flow analysis over a large region of interest with high spatio-temporal resolution. However, the pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) in the UCDI method is limited for high-velocity flow imaging since it has a tradeoff between the number of plane-wave angles (N) and acquisition time. In this paper, we present high PRF ultrafast sliding compound Doppler imaging method (HUSDI) to improve quantitative flow analysis. With the HUSDI method, full scanline images (i.e. each tilted plane wave data) in a Doppler frame buffer are consecutively summed using a sliding window to create high-quality ensemble data so that there is no reduction in frame rate and flow sensitivity. In addition, by updating a new compounding set with a certain time difference (i.e. sliding window step size or L), the HUSDI method allows various Doppler PRFs with the same acquisition data to enable a fully qualitative, retrospective flow assessment. To evaluate the performance of the proposed HUSDI method, simulation, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted under diverse flow circumstances. In the simulation and in vitro studies, the HUSDI method showed improved hemodynamic representations without reducing either temporal resolution or sensitivity compared to the UCDI method. For the quantitative analysis, the root mean squared velocity error (RMSVE) was measured using 9 angles (-12° to 12°) with L of 1-9, and the results were found to be comparable to those of the UCDI method (L  =  N  =  9), i.e.  ⩽0.24 cm s-1, for all L values. For the in vivo study, the flow data acquired from a full cardiac cycle of the femoral vessels of a healthy volunteer were analyzed using a PW spectrogram, and arterial and venous flows were successfully assessed with high Doppler PRF (e.g. 5 kHz at L

  14. A randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of counseling and alarm device on HAART adherence and virologic outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Chung

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions that promote adherence to antiretroviral medications may decrease HIV treatment failure. Antiretroviral treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa confront increasing financial constraints to provide comprehensive HIV care, which include adherence interventions. This study compared the impact of counseling and use of an alarm device on adherence and biological outcomes in a resource-limited setting.A randomized controlled, factorial designed trial was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Antiretroviral-naïve individuals initiating free highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the form of fixed-dose combination pills (d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine were randomized to one of four arms: counseling (three counseling sessions around HAART initiation, alarm (pocket electronic pill reminder carried for 6 months, counseling plus alarm, and neither counseling nor alarm. Participants were followed for 18 months after HAART initiation. Primary study endpoints included plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count every 6 months, mortality, and adherence measured by monthly pill count. Between May 2006 and September 2008, 400 individuals were enrolled, 362 initiated HAART, and 310 completed follow-up. Participants who received counseling were 29% less likely to have monthly adherence <80% (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.01; p = 0.055 and 59% less likely to experience viral failure (HIV-1 RNA ≥5,000 copies/ml (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21-0.81; p = 0.01 compared to those who received no counseling. There was no significant impact of using an alarm on poor adherence (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65-1.32; p = 0.7 or viral failure (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.53-1.84; p = 1.0 compared to those who did not use an alarm. Neither counseling nor alarm was significantly associated with mortality or rate of immune reconstitution.Intensive early adherence counseling at HAART initiation resulted in sustained, significant impact on adherence and

  15. [Optimized resource mobilization and quality of treatment of severely injured patients through a structured trauma room alarm system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, C; Roessler, M; Kurlemann, T; Dresing, K; Stürmer, K M; Lehmann, W; Sehmisch, S

    2017-12-12

    The treatment of severely injured patients in the trauma resuscitation unit (TRU) requires an interdisciplinary and highly professional trauma team approach. The complete team needs to be waiting for the patient in the TRU on arrival. Treating severely injured patients in the TRU, the trauma team connects the initial preclinical emergency stabilization with the subsequent sophisticated treatment. Thus, the trauma team depends on concise information from the emergency personnel at the scene to provide its leader with further information as well as an accurate alarm including all departments necessary to stabilize the patient in the TRU. Aiming at an accurate and most efficient trauma team alarm, this study was designed to provide and analyze an alarm system which mobilizes the trauma team in a stepwise fashion depending on the pattern of injuries and the threat to life. The trauma team alarm system was analyzed in a prospective data acquisition at a level I trauma center over a period of 12 months. Evaluation followed the acquisition phase and provided comparison to the status prior to the establishment of the alarm system. All items underwent statistical testing using t‑tests (p  0.01). The duration from arrival of the patient in the TRU to the initial multislice computed tomography (CT) scan was reduced by 6 min while the total period of treatment in the TRU was reduced by 17 min. After the alarm system to gradually mobilize the trauma team was put into action, team members left the TRU if unneeded prior to finishing the initial treatment in only 4% of the cases. The patient fatality rate was 8.8% (injury severity score, ISS = 23 points) after establishment of the alarm system compared to 12.9% (ISS = 25 points) before. The implementation of an accurate and patient status-based alarm system to mobilize the trauma team can improve the quality of treatment while the duration of treatment of the severely injured patients in the TRU can be decreased. It

  16. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnoy, David, E-mail: david.portnoy@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the 'threat' set of

  17. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the 'threat' set of spectra

  18. Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra

  19. Stop the Noise: A Quality Improvement Project to Decrease Electrocardiographic Nuisance Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, Sue; Wahl, Sharon; Anthony, Anita; Shotts, Pam

    2015-08-01

    As many as 99% of alarm signals may not need any intervention and can result in patients' deaths. Alarm management is now a Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. To reduce the number of nuisance electrocardiographic alarm signals in adult patients on the medical cardiovascular care unit. A quality improvement process was used that included eliminating duplicative alarms, customizing alarms, changing electrocardiography electrodes daily, standardizing skin preparation, and using disposable electrocardiography leads. In the cardiovascular care unit, the mean number of electrocardiographic alarm signals per day decreased from 28.5 (baseline) to 3.29, an 88.5% reduction. Use of a bundled approach to managing alarm signals decreased the mean number of alarm signals in a cardiovascular care unit. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. A High Performance Pulsatile Pump for Aortic Flow Experiments in 3-Dimensional Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Rafeed A; Atlasman, Victor; Pathangey, Girish; Pracht, Nicholas; Adrian, Ronald J; Frakes, David H

    2016-06-01

    Aortic pathologies such as coarctation, dissection, and aneurysm represent a particularly emergent class of cardiovascular diseases. Computational simulations of aortic flows are growing increasingly important as tools for gaining understanding of these pathologies, as well as for planning their surgical repair. In vitro experiments are required to validate the simulations against real world data, and the experiments require a pulsatile flow pump system that can provide physiologic flow conditions characteristic of the aorta. We designed a newly capable piston-based pulsatile flow pump system that can generate high volume flow rates (850 mL/s), replicate physiologic waveforms, and pump high viscosity fluids against large impedances. The system is also compatible with a broad range of fluid types, and is operable in magnetic resonance imaging environments. Performance of the system was validated using image processing-based analysis of piston motion as well as particle image velocimetry. The new system represents a more capable pumping solution for aortic flow experiments than other available designs, and can be manufactured at a relatively low cost.

  1. On the POD based reduced order modeling of high Reynolds flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Fariduddin; Helenbrook, Brian; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2012-11-01

    Reduced-order modeling (ROM) of a high Reynolds fluid flow using the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was studied. Particular attention was given to incompressible, unsteady flow over a two-dimensional NACA0015 airfoil. The Reynolds number is 105 and the angle of attacked of the airfoil is 12°. For DNS solution, hp-finite element method is employed to drive flow samples from which the POD modes are extracted. Particular attention is paid on two issues. First, the stability of POD-ROM resimulation of the turbulent flow is studied. High Reynolds flow contains a lot of fluctuating modes. So, to reach a certain amount of error, more POD modes are needed and the effect of truncation of POD modes is more important. Second, the role of convergence rate on the results of POD. Due to complexity of the flow, convergence of the governing equations is more difficult and the influences of weak convergence appear in the results of POD-ROM. For each issue, the capability of the POD-ROM is assessed in terms of predictions quality of times upon which the POD model was derived. The results are compared with DNS solution and the accuracy and efficiency of different cases are evaluated.

  2. Evidence Support and Guidelines for Using Heated, Humidified, High-Flow Nasal Cannulae in Neonatology: Oxford Nasal High-Flow Therapy Meeting, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehr, Charles C; Yoder, Bradley A; Davis, Peter G; Ives, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Nasal high-flow therapy (nHFT) has become a popular form of noninvasive respiratory support in neonatal intensive care units. A meeting held in Oxford, UK, in June 2015 examined the evidence base and proposed a consensus statement. In summary, nHFT is effective for support of preterm infants following extubation. There is growing evidence evaluating its use in the primary treatment of respiratory distress. Further study is needed to assess which clinical conditions are most amenable to nHFT support, the most effective flow rates, and escalation and weaning strategies. Its suitability as first-line treatment needs to be further evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Holography as a highly efficient renormalization group flow. I. Rephrasing gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Nicolas; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2016-07-01

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalization of Wilsonian renormalization group (RG) flow in a strongly interacting large-N quantum field theory. We first define a highly efficient RG flow as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale. To achieve this, it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective single-trace operators. These redefinitions also absorb the contributions of the multitrace operators to these effective Ward identities. Thus, the background metric and external sources become effectively dynamical, reproducing the dual classical gravity equations in one higher dimension. Here, we focus on reconstructing the pure gravity sector as a highly efficient RG flow of the energy-momentum tensor operator, leaving the explicit constructive field theory approach for generating such RG flows to the second part of the work. We show that special symmetries of the highly efficient RG flows carry information through which we can decode the gauge fixing of bulk diffeomorphisms in the corresponding gravity equations. We also show that the highly efficient RG flow which reproduces a given classical gravity theory in a given gauge is unique provided the endpoint can be transformed to a nonrelativistic fixed point with a finite number of parameters under a universal rescaling. The results obtained here are used in the second part of this work, where we do an explicit field-theoretic construction of the RG flow and obtain the dual classical gravity theory.

  4. Development of high-frame rate neutron radiography and quantitative measurement method for multiphase flow research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NR) is one of the radiographic techniques which makes use of the difference in attenuation characteristics of neutrons in materials. Fluid measurement using the NR technique is a non-intrusive method which enables visualization of dynamic images of multiphase flow of opaque fluids and/or in a metallic duct. To apply the NR technique to multiphase flow research, high frame-rate NR was developed by combining up-to-date technologies for neutron sources, scintillator, high-speed video and image intensifier. This imaging system has several advantages such as a long recording time (up to 21 minutes), high-frame-rate (up to 1000 frames/s) imaging and there is no need for a triggering signal. Visualization studies of air-water two-phase flow in a metallic duct and molten metal-water interaction were performed at recording speeds of 250, 500 and 1000 frames/s. The qualities of the consequent images were sufficient to observe the flow pattern and behavior. It was also demonstrated that some characteristics of two-phase flow could be measured from these images in collaboration with image processing techniques. By utilizing geometrical information extracted from NR images, data on flow regime, bubble rise velocity, and wave height and interfacial area in annular flow were obtained. By utilizing attenuation characteristics of neutrons in materials, measurements of void profile and average void fraction were performed. It was confirmed that this new technique may have significant advantages both in visualizing and measuring high-speed fluid phenomena when other methods, such as an optical method and X-ray radiography, cannot be applied. (author)

  5. The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershov, S.V.; Rusanov, A.V. [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)

  6. Study on transient hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristic of high-speed mixed-flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T; Liu, Y L; Sun, Y B; Wang, L Q; Wu, D Z

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyse the hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristic of a high-speed mixed-flow pump during transient operations, experimental studies were carried out. The transient hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristics of the mixed-flow pump with guide vane during start-up operation processes were tested on the pump performance test-bed. Performance tests of the pump were carried out under various inlet pressures and speed-changing operations. The real-time instantaneous external characteristics such as rotational speed, hydraulic head, flow rate, suction pressure and discharge pressure of the pump were measured. Based on the experimental results, the effect of fluid acceleration on the hydrodynamic performances and cavitation characteristics of the mixed-flow pump were analysed and evaluated

  7. The new high resolution method of Godunov`s type for 3D viscous flow calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yershov, S V; Rusanov, A V [Ukranian National Academy of Sciences, Kahrkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The numerical method is suggested for the calculations of the 3D viscous compressible flows described by the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The method is based on the Godunov`s finite-difference scheme and it uses the ENO reconstruction suggested by Harten to achieve the uniformly high-order accuracy. The computational efficiency is provided with the simplified multi grid approach and the implicit step written in {delta} -form. The turbulent effects are simulated with the Baldwin - Lomax turbulence model. The application package FlowER is developed to calculate the 3D turbulent flows within complex-shape channels. The numerical results for the 3D flow around a cylinder and through the complex-shaped channels show the accuracy and the reliability of the suggested method. (author)

  8. Variable High Order Multiblock Overlapping Grid Methods for Mixed Steady and Unsteady Multiscale Viscous Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.

    2007-01-01

    Flows containing steady or nearly steady strong shocks in parts of the flow field, and unsteady turbulence with shocklets on other parts of the flow field are difficult to capture accurately and efficiently employing the same numerical scheme even under the multiblock grid or adaptive grid refinement framework. On one hand, sixth-order or higher shock-capturing methods are appropriate for unsteady turbulence with shocklets. On the other hand, lower order shock-capturing methods are more effective for strong steady shocks in terms of convergence. In order to minimize the shortcomings of low order and high order shock-capturing schemes for the subject flows,a multi- block overlapping grid with different orders of accuracy on different blocks is proposed. Test cases to illustrate the performance of the new solver are included.

  9. Parametric Approach to Assessing Performance of High-Lift Device Active Flow Control Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Active Flow Control is at present an area of considerable research, with multiple potential aircraft applications. While the majority of research has focused on the performance of the actuators themselves, a system-level perspective is necessary to assess the viability of proposed solutions. This paper demonstrates such an approach, in which major system components are sized based on system flow and redundancy considerations, with the impacts linked directly to the mission performance of the aircraft. Considering the case of a large twin-aisle aircraft, four distinct active flow control architectures that facilitate the simplification of the high-lift mechanism are investigated using the demonstrated approach. The analysis indicates a very strong influence of system total mass flow requirement on architecture performance, both for a typical mission and also over the entire payload-range envelope of the aircraft.

  10. High-energy redox-flow batteries with hybrid metal foam electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Nam-Jin; Lee, Seung-Wook; Kim, Ki Jae; Oh, Duk-Jin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-07-09

    A nonaqueous redox-flow battery employing [Co(bpy)3](+/2+) and [Fe(bpy)3](2+/3+) redox couples is proposed for use in large-scale energy-storage applications. We successfully demonstrate a redox-flow battery with a practical operating voltage of over 2.1 V and an energy efficiency of 85% through a rational cell design. By utilizing carbon-coated Ni-FeCrAl and Cu metal foam electrodes, the electrochemical reactivity and stability of the nonaqueous redox-flow battery can be considerably enhanced. Our approach intoduces a more efficient conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy and enhances long-term cell durability. The cell exhibits an outstanding cyclic performance of more than 300 cycles without any significant loss of energy efficiency. Considering the increasing demands for efficient energy storage, our achievement provides insight into a possible development pathway for nonaqueous redox-flow batteries with high energy densities.

  11. Preclinical evidence of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an effective alarm parameter under hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hua; Sun, Nannan; Mayevsky, Avraham; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological parameters has been provided. The aim of this study is to obtain the missing data in a systematic and reliable manner. We constructed four acute hypoxia models, including hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, and histogenous hypoxia, and measured NADH fluorescence, tissue reflectance, cerebral blood flow, respiration, and electrocardiography simultaneously from the induction of hypoxia until death. We found that NADH was not always the first onset parameter responding to hypoxia. The order of responses was mainly affected by the cause of hypoxia. However, NADH reached its alarm level earlier than the other monitored parameters, ranging from several seconds to >10 min. As such, we suggest that the NADH can be used as a hypoxia indicator, although the exact level that should be used must be further investigated. When the NADH alarm is detected, the body still has a chance to recover if appropriate and timely treatment is provided.

  12. Effects of high frequency fluctuations on DNS of turbulent open-channel flow with high Pr passive scalar transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Serizawa, Akimi

    2002-01-01

    In this study, investigation on effects of high frequency fluctuations on DNS of turbulent open-channel flows with high Pr passive scalar transport was conducted. As the results, although significant differences of energy spectra behaviors in temperature fields, are caused at high wave number region where insignificant area for velocity components, large difference dose not caused in mean and statistic behaviors in temperature component. But, if the buoyancy were considered, this temperature high-frequency fluctuations would be greatly changed mean and statistics behaviors from the difference of the accuracy and resolution at high wave number region. (author)

  13. High-efficiency particulate air filter behavior at high-speed flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, P.K.; Gregory, W.S.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.

    1984-04-01

    This paper presents a filter model based on the principle of fluid flow through porous media. The model includes both laminar and turbulent effects. The coefficients used in the model are determined empirically based on existing data. Deviation from the model is discussed

  14. Probability modeling of high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed, the upper reaches of Heihe River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanling; Li, Zhanjie; Li, Chengcheng

    2014-05-01

    Probability modeling of hydrological extremes is one of the major research areas in hydrological science. Most basins in humid and semi-humid south and east of China are concerned for probability modeling analysis of high flow extremes. While, for the inland river basin which occupies about 35% of the country area, there is a limited presence of such studies partly due to the limited data availability and a relatively low mean annual flow. The objective of this study is to carry out probability modeling of high flow extremes in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in China, by using the peak over threshold (POT) method and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), in which the selection of threshold and inherent assumptions for POT series are elaborated in details. For comparison, other widely used probability distributions including generalized extreme value (GEV), Lognormal, Log-logistic and Gamma are employed as well. Maximum likelihood estimate is used for parameter estimations. Daily flow data at Yingluoxia station from 1978 to 2008 are used. Results show that, synthesizing the approaches of mean excess plot, stability features of model parameters, return level plot and the inherent independence assumption of POT series, an optimum threshold of 340m3/s is finally determined for high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed. The resulting POT series is proved to be stationary and independent based on Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test and autocorrelation test. In terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test and several graphical diagnostics such as quantile and cumulative density function plots, GPD provides the best fit to high flow extremes in the study area. The estimated high flows for long return periods demonstrate that, as the return period increasing, the return level estimates are probably more uncertain. The frequency of high flow extremes exhibits a very slight but not significant decreasing trend from 1978 to

  15. Teaching methodology of the diagnosing process on the example of the fire alarm system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paś Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a method of teaching the process of diagnosing the technical and functional condition of the fire alarm system (SSP. The fire alarm system’s laboratory model is a representation of a real fire alarm system. The lecturer has the opportunity to inflict several different independent damage. The aim of the laboratory exercise is to familiarize students with the methodology and structure of the fire alarm system diagnosing process.

  16. PT-SAFE: a software tool for development and annunciation of medical audible alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Christopher L; McNeer, Richard R

    2012-03-01

    Recent reports by The Joint Commission as well as the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation have indicated that medical audible alarm effectiveness needs to be improved. Several recent studies have explored various approaches to improving the audible alarms, motivating the authors to develop real-time software capable of comparing such alarms. We sought to devise software that would allow for the development of a variety of audible alarm designs that could also integrate into existing operating room equipment configurations. The software is meant to be used as a tool for alarm researchers to quickly evaluate novel alarm designs. A software tool was developed for the purpose of creating and annunciating audible alarms. The alarms consisted of annunciators that were mapped to vital sign data received from a patient monitor. An object-oriented approach to software design was used to create a tool that is flexible and modular at run-time, can annunciate wave-files from disk, and can be programmed with MATLAB by the user to create custom alarm algorithms. The software was tested in a simulated operating room to measure technical performance and to validate the time-to-annunciation against existing equipment alarms. The software tool showed efficacy in a simulated operating room environment by providing alarm annunciation in response to physiologic and ventilator signals generated by a human patient simulator, on average 6.2 seconds faster than existing equipment alarms. Performance analysis showed that the software was capable of supporting up to 15 audible alarms on a mid-grade laptop computer before audio dropouts occurred. These results suggest that this software tool provides a foundation for rapidly staging multiple audible alarm sets from the laboratory to a simulation environment for the purpose of evaluating novel alarm designs, thus producing valuable findings for medical audible alarm standardization.

  17. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Plant experience with an expert system for alarm diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmy, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system called Diagnosis of Multiple Alarms (DMA) is in routine use at four nuclear reactors operated by the DuPont Company. The system is wired to plant alarm annunciators and does event-tree analysis to see if a pattern exists. Any diagnosis is displayed to the plant operator and the corrective procedure to be followed is also identified. The display is automatically superseded if a higher priority diagnosis is made. The system is integrated with operator training and procedures. Operating results have been positive. DMA has diagnosed several hard-to-locate small leaks. There have been some false diagnosis, and realistic plant environments must be considered in such expert systems. 2 refs., 5 figs

  19. Central display system of figures in fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shaohong; Zhu Zicheng; Zhu Liqun; Ren Yi; Yu Hongmei; Du Chengbao; Xie Guoxue

    1997-01-01

    A new type of 'central display system of figures in fire alarm' includes two parts: (1) software package of drawing picture; (2) real time processing and operate system (POS). Main function of the software package is to draw floor plane figures, fire-fighting facility signs and room numbers; and then all pictures are used in POS. Main functions of POS are to process fire alarm, faults and activation of fire fighting control facility, save and print reports, look over floor plane figures, look over concrete condition of fire fighting facilities, and to show appropriate prompt according to different case. This system realizes many functions, such as, control with mouse, operation with push-button, menu operation interface, flip windows to prompt, and chinese character. It have won acclaim for its amazing interface, its convenience to operate, its reliability and flexibility

  20. High-speed cell recognition algorithm for ultrafast flow cytometer imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanyue; Wang, Chao; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Yang, Sigang

    2018-04-01

    An optical time-stretch flow imaging system enables high-throughput examination of cells/particles with unprecedented high speed and resolution. A significant amount of raw image data is produced. A high-speed cell recognition algorithm is, therefore, highly demanded to analyze large amounts of data efficiently. A high-speed cell recognition algorithm consisting of two-stage cascaded detection and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classification is proposed. The first stage of detection extracts cell regions. The second stage integrates distance transform and the watershed algorithm to separate clustered cells. Finally, the cells detected are classified by GMM. We compared the performance of our algorithm with support vector machine. Results show that our algorithm increases the running speed by over 150% without sacrificing the recognition accuracy. This algorithm provides a promising solution for high-throughput and automated cell imaging and classification in the ultrafast flow cytometer imaging platform.

  1. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua

    2017-03-02

    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  2. Microturbulence and Flow Shear in High-performance JET ITB Plasma; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.V. Budny; A. Andre; A. Bicoulet; C. Challis; G.D. Conway; W. Dorland; D.R. Ernst; T.S. Hahm; T.C. Hender; D. McCune; G. Rewoldt; S.E. Sharapov

    2001-01-01

    The transport, flow shear, and linear growth rates of microturbulence are studied for a Joint European Torus (JET) plasma with high central q in which an internal transport barrier (ITB) forms and grows to a large radius. The linear microturbulence growth rates of the fastest growing (most unstable) toroidal modes with high toroidal mode number are calculated using the GS2 and FULL gyrokinetic codes. These linear growth rates, gamma (subscript lin) are large, but the flow-shearing rates, gamma (subscript ExB) (dominated by the toroidal rotation contribution) are also comparably large when and where the ITB exists

  3. Positivity-preserving space-time CE/SE scheme for high speed flows

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua; Parsani, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    We develop a space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme using a simple slope limiter to preserve the positivity of the density and pressure in computations of inviscid and viscous high-speed flows. In general, the limiter works with all existing CE/SE schemes. Here, we test the limiter on a central Courant number insensitive (CNI) CE/SE scheme implemented on hybrid unstructured meshes. Numerical examples show that the proposed limiter preserves the positivity of the density and pressure without disrupting the conservation law; it also improves robustness without losing accuracy in solving high-speed flows.

  4. Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru

    1981-01-01

    A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)

  5. Flow distribution of pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactors using large eddy simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhan Yesilyurt; Hassan, Y.A.

    2003-01-01

    A High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the renewed reactor designs to play a role in nuclear power generation. This reactor design concepts is currently under consideration and development worldwide. Since the HTGR concept offers inherent safety, has a very flexible fuel cycle with capability to achieve high burnup levels, and provides good thermal efficiency of power plant, it can be considered for further development and improvement as a reactor concept of generation IV. The combination of coated particle fuel, inert helium gas as coolant and graphite moderated reactor makes it possible to operate at high temperature yielding a high efficiency. In this study the simulation of turbulent transport for the gas through the gaps of the spherical fuel elements (fuel pebbles) will be performed. This will help in understanding the highly three-dimensional, complex flow phenomena in pebble bed caused by flow curvature. Under these conditions, heat transfer in both laminar and turbulent flows varies noticeably around curved surfaces. Curved flows would be present in the presence of contiguous curved surfaces. In the case of a laminar flow and of an appreciable effect of thermogravitional forces, the Nusselt (Nu) number depends significantly on the curvature shape of the surface. It changes with order of 10 times. The flow passages through the gap between the fuel balls have concave and convex configurations. Here the action of the centrifugal forces manifests itself differently on convex and concave parts of the flow path (suppression or stimulation of turbulence). The flow of this type has distinctive features. In such flow there is a pressure gradient, which strongly affects the boundary layer behavior. The transition from a laminar to turbulent flow around this curved flow occurs at deferent Reynolds (Re) numbers. Consequently, noncircular curved flows as in the pebble-bed situation, in detailed local sense, is interesting to be investigated. To the

  6. Application and evaluation of LS-PIV technique for the monitoring of river surface velocities in high flow conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jodeau , M.; Hauet , A.; Paquier , A.; Le Coz , J.; Dramais , G.

    2008-01-01

    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) is used to measure the surface flow velocities in a mountain stream during high flow conditions due to a reservoir release. A complete installation including video acquisition from a mobile elevated viewpoint and artificial flow seeding has been developed and implemented. The LS-PIV method was adapted in order to take into account the specific constraints of these high flow conditions. Using a usual LS-PIV data processing, significant variations...

  7. Design of reactor alarm instrument based on SOPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Lu Yi; Rong Ru

    2008-01-01

    The design of embedded alarm instrument in reactors based on Nios II CPU is introduced in this paper. This design uses the SOPC technology based on the Cyclone series FPGA as a digital bench, and connects the MPU and drivers and interface of times, RS232, sdram,and etc. into a FPGA chip. It is proved that the system achieves the design goals in primary experimentation. (authors)

  8. Seismic alarm system for Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, M.; Griesser, L.; Austin, G.E.; Tiurin, S.; Kuendig, C.

    2001-01-01

    A seismic alarm system will be installed at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. There are two reactors, both RMBK 1500 MW units. Each reactor is a water cooled, graphite moderated, channel type reactor. INPP has the most advanced version of the RMBK reactor design series. The first and second units of INPP went into service at the end of 1983 and in August 1987 respectively. Their design lifetime is approx. 30 years. The various buildings and plant have been designed for two earthquake levels, that is the design earthquake and the maximum possible earthquake with peak ground accelerations ranging from 1.2% to 10% of the acceleration due to gravity. Certain parts of the buildings and some of the equipment of the first and second units do not comply with Western seismic standards. As seismic strengthening of the existing buildings and equipment is not feasible economically, a reactor protection system based on an earthquake early warning system was recommended. This system essentially consists of six seismic stations encircling INPP at a radial distance of approx. 30 km and a seventh station at INPP. Each station includes three seismic substations each 500 m apart. The ground motion at each station is measured continuously by three accelerometers and one seismometer. Data is transmitted via telemetry to the control centre at INPP. Early warning alarms are generated if a seismic threshold is exceeded. This paper discusses the characteristics of INPP, the seismic alarm system presently under construction and the experience with other early warning and seismic alarm systems. (author)

  9. Process plant alarm diagnosis using synthesised fault tree knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenchard, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer based tools, to assist process plant operators in their task of fault/alarm diagnosis, has received much attention over the last twenty five years. More recently, with the emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, the research activity in this subject area has heightened. As a result, there are a great variety of fault diagnosis methodologies, using many different approaches to represent the fault propagation behaviour of process plant. These range in complexity from steady state quantitative models to more abstract definitions of the relationships between process alarms. Unfortunately, very few of the techniques have been tried and tested on process plant and even fewer have been judged to be commercial successes. One of the outstanding problems still remains the time and effort required to understand and model the fault propagation behaviour of each considered process. This thesis describes the development of an experimental knowledge based system (KBS) to diagnose process plant faults, as indicated by process variable alarms. In an attempt to minimise the modelling effort, the KBS has been designed to infer diagnoses using a fault tree representation of the process behaviour, generated using an existing fault tree synthesis package (FAULTFINDER). The process is described to FAULTFINDER as a configuration of unit models, derived from a standard model library or by tailoring existing models. The resultant alarm diagnosis methodology appears to work well for hard (non-rectifying) faults, but is likely to be less robust when attempting to diagnose intermittent faults and transient behaviour. The synthesised fault trees were found to contain the bulk of the information required for the diagnostic task, however, this needed to be augmented with extra information in certain circumstances. (author)

  10. Functional relationship based alarm processing system for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsberg, D.; Sebo, D.

    1986-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), two knowledge-based systems, Alarm Filtering System (AFS) and Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS), are being developed to address the problem of information overload faced by operators during major plant transients. This paper discusses those systems, their strengths and weaknesses, and how their basic methodologies can be combined into a system that can better support the operator in identifying the plant state

  11. Recent and proposed changes in criticality alarm system requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, V.L.

    1998-01-01

    Various changes in criticality alarm system (CAS) requirements of American Nuclear Society (ANS) standards, US Department of Energy (DOE) orders, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and guidance, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards or regulations were approved or proposed in the last 5 yr. Many changes interpreted or clarified existing requirements or accommodated technological or organizational developments. However, some changes could substantively affect CAS programs, including several changes originally thought to be editorial. These changes are discussed here

  12. Evaluation of personal alarm devices for fire fighters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharry, J.; da Roza, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Although three of the models of the personal alarm devices (PAD) tested had received letters of acceptability and compliance from the State of California/Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Cal/OSHA), it was found that none of the models met all of the Cal/OSHA specifications. Additional tests showed other deficiencies in the PADs' design. This points out the need for the purchaser or user of such devices to specify acceptance criteria and perform his own tests

  13. Cancer prevention and control: alarming challenges in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang; Wang, Hongyang

    2015-01-01

    China is geographically the third largest country in the world and the most populated low-to-middle-income country. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for some cancers in the USA and European countries have steadily decreased over the last decades, whereas the incidence and mortality of certain cancers in China have been increasing at an alarming speed. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in China have been accompanied by incredible changes in lifestyle and environment combined with an...

  14. Energy transformation, transfer, and release dynamics in high speed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secondly, a new high -order (4 th -order) convective flux formulation was developed that uses the tabulated information, yet produces a fully consistent...Klippenstein 2012 Comprehensive H2/O2 Kinetic Model for High - Pressure Combustion. Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 44:444-474. Cabot, W.H., A.W. Cook, P.L. Miller, D.E...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0054 Energy Transformation, Transfer, and Release Dynamics in High -Speed Turbulent Flows Paul Dimotakis CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE

  15. Cross-flow shearing effects on the trajectory of highly buoyant bent-over plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Ali; Kaye, Nigel Berkeley; Gollner, Michael J.

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of highly buoyant plumes in cross-flow is ubiquitous throughout both industrial and environmental phenomena. The rise of smoke from a chimney, wastewater discharge into river currents, and dispersion of wildfire plumes are only a few instances. There have been many previous studies investigating the behavior of jets and highly buoyant plumes in cross-flow. So far, however, very little attention has been paid to the role of shearing effects in the boundary layer on the plume trajectory, particularly on the rise height. Numerical simulations and dimensional analysis are conducted to characterize the near- and far-field behavior of a highly buoyant plume in a boundary layer cross-flow. The results show that shear in the cross-flow leads to large differences in the rise height of the plume in relation to a uniform cross-flow, especially at far-field. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.1200560. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the material are of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of NSF.

  16. Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

    2008-08-01

    When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans.

  17. 47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm...

  18. Development of the effectiveness measure for an advanced alarm system using signal detection theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.K.; Choi, S.S.; Hong, J.H.; Chang, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    Since many alarms which are activated during major process deviations or accidents in nuclear power plants can result in negative effects for operators, various types of advanced alarm systems that can select important alarms for the identification of process deviation have been developed to reduce the operator's workload. However, the irrelevant selection of important alarms could distract the operator from correct identification of process deviation. Therefore, to evaluate the effectiveness of the advanced alarm system, a tradeoff between the alarm reduction rate (how many alarms are reduced?) and informativeness (how many important alarms that are conducive to identifying process deviation are provided?) of an advanced alarm system should be considered. In this paper, a new measure is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of an advanced alarm system with regard to the identification of process deviation. Here, the effectiveness measure is the combination of informativeness measure and reduction rate, and the informativeness measure means the information processing capability performed by the advanced alarm system including wrong rejection and wrong acceptance, and it can be calculated using the signal detection theory (SDT). The effectiveness of the prototype alarm system was evaluated using the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario, and the validity of the effectiveness measure was investigated from two types of the operator response, such as the identification accuracy and the operator's preference for the identification of LOCA

  19. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  20. Moving Towards a Common Alarm Service for the LHC Era

    CERN Document Server

    Calderini, F; Stapley, N; Tyrell, M W

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the greatest technological challenges ever faced by accelerator builders. It is due for commissioning in 4 years and will have a lifetime well in excess of 10. The LHC will contain a completely heterogeneous mixture of industrial controls, both hardware and software, as well as dedicated, specialised, 'home' built systems. As part of the control infrastructure of such a complex machine, a number of 'services' will be essential as aids during operation, such as: logging / archiving, post-mortem, sequences, alarm system, etc. This paper describes the approach to be taken in order to define and provide the alarm service necessary for LHC. Details will be given of: the graceful transition from the current LEP alarm system; accommodating the SPS, PS and CERN's technical services; the technologies to be used; the approach of parallel investigations of industrial and 'home' builtsystems to ensure the best possible solution; and an indication of time scales to provide an oper...