WorldWideScience

Sample records for high energy showers

  1. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Smillie, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss in detail the arising description of the soft, collinear and hard regions by examples in pure QCD jet-production.

  2. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1984-09-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower.

  3. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  4. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss...

  5. A swimming pool array for ultra high energy showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.; Shoup, Anthony; Barwick, Steve; Goodman, Jordan A.

    1992-11-01

    A very preliminary design concept for an array using water Cherenkov counters, built out of commercially available backyard swimming pools, to sample the electromagnetic and muonic components of ultra high energy showers at large lateral distances is presented. The expected performance of the pools is estimated using the observed lateral distributions by scintillator and water Cherenkov arrays at energies above 1019 eV and simulations.

  6. Extensive Air Showers High Energy Phenomena and Astrophysical Aspects - A Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book

    CERN Document Server

    Grieder, Peter K.F

    2010-01-01

    Extensive air showers are a very unique phenomenon. In the more than six decades since their discovery by Auger et al. we have learned a great deal about these extremely energetic events and gained deep insights into high-energy phenomena, particle physics and astrophysics. In this Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book Peter K. F. Grieder provides the reader with a comprehensive view of the phenomenology and facts of the various types of interactions and cascades, theoretical background, experimental methods, data evaluation and interpretation, and air shower simulation. He discusses astrophysical aspects of the primary radiation and addresses the questions that continue to puzzle researchers. The book is divided into two parts, each in its own separate volume: Part I in Volume I deals mainly with the basic theoretical framework of the processes that determine an air shower and ends with a summary of ways to extract information on the primary radiation from air shower observations. It also presents a compi...

  7. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers with a single-pixel fluorescence telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujii, T.; Malacari, M.; Bertaina, M.; Casolino, E.; Dawson, B.; Horváth, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Jiang, J.; Mandát, Dušan; Matalon, A.; Matthews, J.N.; Motloch, P.; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Privitera, P.; Schovánek, Petr; Takizawa, Y.; Thomas, S.B.; Trávníček, Petr; Yamazaki, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 74, Feb (2016), s. 64-72 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultra-high energy cosmic rays * fluorescence detector * extensive air shower Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.257, year: 2016

  8. Detection of ultraviolet Cherenkov light from high energy cosmic ray atmospheric showers: A field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Peruzzo, L.; Sartori, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a test with a prototype apparatus aimed to detect the ultraviolet Cherenkov light in the wavelenght range 2000-2300A, emitted by high energy cosmic ray showers. The system consists of a gas proportional chamber, with TMAE vapour as the photosensitive element, placed on the focal plane of a 1.5 m diameter parabolic mirror. The test was done during the summer of 1989 with cosmic ray showers seen in coincidence with the EAS-TOP experiment, an extended atmospheric shower charged particle array now being exploited at Campo Imperatore, 1900 m above sea level, on top of the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory of INFN. The results were positive and show that a full scale ultraviolet Cherenkov experiment with good sensitivity, angular resolution and virtually no background from moonlight or even daylight can be envisaged. (orig.)

  9. New measurements and analysis of high-energy muons in cosmic ray extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Ghose, B.; Murkherjee, N.; Sanyal, S.; Chaudhuri, N.; Chhetri, R.; Basak, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Cosmic ray air shower structure measurements and measurement of density and energy of air shower muons of a wide energy range simultaneously in individual air showers by two magnet spectrographs are presented. The measured muon densities have been used to compare with some of the previous measurements on muon densities in air showers of nearly the same size. The measured muon densities have also been applied for distinguishing between various interaction models and between light and heavier air shower primaries. In the air shower size range 10 4 -10 6 particles the present measurements do not provide evidence for iron primaries and the different interaction models seem not to be distinguishable by air shower observations. (Author)

  10. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  11. Three-dimensional parametrization of photon-initiated high energy showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, A.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional parametrization of photon-initiated showers in a homogeneous absorber is presented. The form, suggested by a model assimilating the transverse shower development to a random walk process, displays a simple scaling with the primary energy, and is very suitable for numerical integration. The parameters are explicitly calculated for the case of showers in SF5 lead glass, and the results are compared with the explicit simulation by GEANT3.11. Fields of application are investigated. (orig.)

  12. Calculation of the TeV prompt muon component in very high energy cosmic ray showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bloise, C.; Forti, C.; Tanzini, A.

    1995-07-01

    HEMAS-DPM is a Monte Carlo for the simulation of very high energy cosmic ray showers, which includes the DPMJET-II code based on the two component Dual Parton Model. DPMJET-II provides also charm production in agreement with data and, for p exceeding 5 GeV/c, with perturbative QCD results in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. In this respect, a new scheme has been considered for the inclusive production of D mesons at large p in hadronic collisions in the frame work of perturbative fragmentation functions, allowing an analysis at the NLO (next to leading order) level which goes beyond the fixed O(α s 3 ) perturbative theory of open charm production. HEMAS-DPM has been applied to the calculation of the prompt muon component for E μ ≥1 TeV in air showers considering the two extreme cases of primary protons and Fe nuclei

  13. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray flux from data of very inclined showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans Peter

    2009-12-03

    This work describes the derivation of the energy dependent flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from data of very inclined air showers observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory. It focuses on the event class of very inclined air showers with zenith angles larger than 60 . The lateral ground profile of these showers is muon dominated and not radially symmetric around the shower axis due to geomagnetic deflections and other effects. The dependency of this profile on the direction, energy and mass of the cosmic ray is discussed with a mixture of detailed Monte-Carlo simulations and a simplified analytical model of the air shower cascade. It is found in agreement with other studies that the normalized shape of the muon density profile is approximately universal over the range of cosmic ray energies and masses measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory, that the amplitude of the profile is almost proportional to the cosmic ray energy, and that its shower-to-shower fluctuations are sensitive to the mass composition of the cosmic rays. (orig.)

  15. Numerical study of the electron and muon lateral distribution in atmospheric showers of high energy cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Atreidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateral distribution of an atmospheric shower depends on the characteristics of the high energy interactions and the type of the primary particle. The influence of the primary particle in the secondary development of the shower into the atmosphere, is studied by analyzing the lateral distribution of electron and muon showers having as primary particle, proton, photon or iron nucleus. This study of the lateral distribution can provide useful conclusions for the mass and energy of the primary particle. This paper compares the data that we get from simulations with CORSIKA program with experimental data and the theoretical NKG function expressing lateral electron and muon distribution. Then we modify the original NKG function to fit better to the simulation data and propose a method for determining the mass of the original particle started the atmospheric shower.

  16. Radiation dose distributions close to the shower axis calculated for high energy electron initiated electromagnetic showers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, S.; Gsponer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Absorbed radiation doses produced by 500, 1,000 and 10,000 MeV electron initiated electromagnetic showers in air have been calculated using a Monte Carlo program. The radial distributions of the absorbed dose near to the shower axis are found to be significantly narrower than predicted by simple analytical shower theory. For a 500 MeV, 10 kA, 100 ns electron beam pulse, the region in which the total dose is in excess of 1 krad and the dose rate in excess of 10 10 rad/s is a cigar-shaped envelope of radius 1 m and length 200 m. (orig.) [de

  17. Air shower array designed for cosmic ray variation measurements and high energy gamma ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, C; Navarra, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1981-08-15

    We describe an array for performing measurements of counting rates and arrival directions of extensive air showers at primary energy E/sub 0/ approx. equal to 3 x 10/sup 9/ eV. The aim of the research is to study the time variations and the anisotropies of cosmic rays and the observable gamma ray sources in the high energy region. The installation, composed of four large area scintillation counters and completely controlled by a microcomputer system, operates at mountain altitude (3500 m a.s.l.). The preanalysis of data, stability tests and periodic calibrations are performed by on-line programs. The method for obtaining the required stability and the corrections on temperature and gain variations are also described.

  18. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays: analysis of extensive air showers and their associated electromagnetic signal in the MHz domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenu, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes a review of the present results in the field of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. After a presentation of some results about the Fermi mechanism to accelerate cosmic rays, the author more particularly addresses the reconstruction of air showers, and the search for sources. He also addresses the radio signal emitted by air shower secondary positrons and electrons. He proposes an overview of the present knowledge on the basis of present experiments. Data show that the electric field is mainly due to the influence of the Earth magnetic field which acts on electrons and positrons, but more recently, the contribution due to electrons in excess seems to appear in data. The author reports the last advances in the field of simulation of the electric field, with notably the prediction of new signal produced by the disappearance of the air shower during its absorption by the soil [fr

  19. Shower and Slow Particle Productions in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at High Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayd, Hamdy M. M.; Rahim, Magda A.; Fakhraddin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of shower, grey, and black particles produced in interactions of 4 He, 12 C, 16 O, 22 Ne, and 28 Si with emulsion (Em) at 4.1–4.5 A GeV/c beam energies, and their dependence on target groups (H, CNO, and AgBr) is presented and has been reproduced by multisource thermal model. The multiplicity and the angular distributions of the three types of particles have been investigated. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding ones from the model. We found that the experimental data agrees with theoretical calculations using multisource thermal model

  20. Receiver system for radio observation of high-energy cosmic ray air showers and its behaviour in self trigger mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroemer, Oliver

    2008-04-01

    The observation of high-energy cosmic rays is carried out by indirect measurements. Thereby the primary cosmic particle enters into the earth's atmosphere and generates a cosmic ray air shower by interactions with the air molecules. The secondary particles arriving at ground level are detected with particle detector arrays. The fluorescence light from the exited nitrogen molecules along the shower axis is observed with reflector telescopes in the near-ultraviolet range. In addition to these well-established detection methods, the radio observation of the geosynchrotron emission from cosmic ray air showers is investigated at present as a new observation method. Geosynchrotron emission is generated by the acceleration of the relativistic electron-positron-pairs contained in the air shower by Lorentz forces in the earth's magnetic field. At ground level this causes a single pulse of the electric field strength with a continuous frequency spectrum ranging from a few MHz to above 100 MHz. In this work, a suitable receiver concept is developed based on the signal properties of the geosynchrotron emission and the analysis of the superposed noise and radio frequency interferences. As the required receiver system was not commercially available, it was designed in the framework of this work and realised as system including the antenna, the receiver electronics and suitable data acquisition equipment. In this concept considerations for a large scale radio detector array have already been taken into account, like low power consumption to enable solar power supply and cost effectiveness. The result is a calibrated, multi-channel, digital wideband receiver for the complete range from 40 MHz to 80 MHz. Its inherent noise and RFI suppression essentially results from the antenna directional characteristic and frequency selectivity and allows effective radio observation of cosmic ray air showers also in populated environment. Several units of this receiver station have been deployed

  1. Fractal Dimension of Particle Showers Measured in a Highly Granular Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Manqi; Bourdy, Vincent; Brients, Jean-Claude; Videau, Henri

    2014-01-01

    fractal dimension of showers measured in a high granularity calorimeter designed for a future lepton collider. The shower fractal dimension reveals detailed information of the spatial configuration of the shower. It is found to be characteristic of the type of interaction and highly sensitive to the nature of the incident particle. Using the shower fractal dimension, we demonstrate a particle identification algorithm that can efficiently separate electromagnetic showers, hadronic showers and non-showering tracks. We also find a logarithmic dependence of the shower fractal dimension on the particle energy.

  2. Simulation studies of the information content of muon arrival time observations of high energy extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.; Duma, M.; Badea, A. F.; Aiftimiei, C.; Rebel, M. H.; Oehlschlaeger, J.

    2001-01-01

    By extensive Monte Carlo calculations, using the air shower simulation code CORSIKA, EAS muon arrival time distributions and EAS time profiles up to 320 m distances from the shower centre have been generated, for proton, oxygen and iron induced showers using different hadronic interaction models as Monte Carlo generators. The model dependence and mass discriminating features have been scrutinized for three energy ranges, (1-1.7783) 10 15 eV, (1.-1.78) 10 16 eV and (1.78-3.16) 10 16 eV, by use of non-parametric statistical inference method applied to multidimensional distributions, correlating the EAS time quantities with different other EAS observables. The correlations of local muon arrival times with the local muon density and the shower age indicate a good mass separation quality at larger shower distances. The best discrimination was obtained by adding the correlation with N μ tr quantity. The comparison between 'local times', with reference to the first registered muon and 'global times' with reference to the arrival time of the shower core, indicates a slightly better mass discrimination in the case of muon 'global' time distributions. (authors)

  3. The Effect of a Non-Isotropic Flux of Very High Energy Cosmic Rays on the values of Mean Shower Maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudifar, Pantea; Tabari, Keihanak Rowshan

    2015-01-01

    In our previous works we described a statistical method to interpret the results of extensive air shower simulations. For an isotropically distributed flux of cosmic rays, we used this method to deduce diagrams of mean values of shower maxima versus energy decades. To have a more realistic result, we considered the effect of a non-isotropic flux of cosmic rays at different energy ranges. This effect was considered as a weight factor deduced from a set of observed data. We discussed about the effect of this weight factor on our final resulted diagrams of mean shower maxima and for different interaction models compared the resulted distributions of very high energy cosmic ray's mass composition

  4. The longitudinal development of showers induced by high-energy hadrons in an iron-sampling calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Milke, J; Apel, W D; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bercuci, A; Bertaina, M; Blümer, H; Bozdog, H; Büttner, C; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; Di Pierro, F; Dolla, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fessler, F; Ghia, P L; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Kampert, K H; Klages, H O; Kolotaev, Yu; Maier, G; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Müller, M; Navarra, G; Obenland, R; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Over, S; Petcu, M; Plewnia, S; Rebel, H; Risse, A; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Scholz, J; Stümpert, M; Thouw, T; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Valchierotti, S; Van Buren, J; Walkowiak, W; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zagromski, S; Zimmermann, D

    2005-01-01

    Occasionally cosmic-ray induced air showers result in single, unaccompanied hadrons at ground level. Such events are investigated with the 300 m2 hadron calorimeter of the KASCADE-Grande experiment. It is an iron sampling calorimeter with a depth of 11 hadronic interaction lengths read out by warm-liquid ionization chambers. The longitudinal shower development is discussed as function of energy up to 30 TeV and the results are compared with simulations using the GEANT/FLUKA code. In addition, results of test measurements at a secondary particle beam of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN up to 350 GeV are discussed.

  5. Studies of Muons in Extensive Air Showers from Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Surface Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, R.; Sagawa, H.; Fukushima, M.; Takeda, M.; Nonaka, T.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Sakurai, N.; Okuda, T.; Ogio, S.; Matthews, J. N.; Stokes, B.

    The number of muons in the air shower induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) has been measured with surface detector (SD) arrays of various experiments. Monte Carlo (MC) prediction of the number of muons in air showers depends on hadronic interaction models and the primary cosmic ray composition. By comparing the measured number of muons with the MC prediction, hadronic interaction models can be tested. The Pierre Auger Observatory reported that the number of muons measured by water Cherenkov type SD is about 1.8 times larger than the MC prediction for proton with QGSJET II-03 model. The number of muons in the Auger data is also larger than the MC prediction for iron. The Telescope Array experiment adopts plastic scintillator type SD, which is sensitive to the electromagnetic component that is the major part of secondary particles in the air shower. To search for the high muon purity condition in air showers observed by the TA, we divided air shower events into subsets by the zenith angle θ, the azimuth angle ϕ relative to the shower arrival direction projected onto the ground, and the distance R from shower axis. As a result, we found subsets with the high muon purity 65%, and compared the charge density between observed data and MC. The typical ratios of the charge density of the data to that of the MC are 1.71 ± 0.10 at 1870 m muon purity. These results imply that the excess of the charge density in the data is partly explained by the muon excess.

  6. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA ...

  7. A combined cosmic ray muon spectrometer and high energy air shower array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, M.L.; Ayres, D.S.; Halzen, F.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been detected at energies in excess of 10 20 eV, and individual sources have been conclusively identified as intense emitters of gamma rays at energies up to 10 16 eV. There is clearly a great deal of exciting astrophysics to be learned from such studies, but it has been suggested that there may be particle physics to be learned from the cosmic beam as well. Based in particular on the reports of surprisingly high fluxes of underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 modulated by the known orbital period, there have been several suggestions recently invoking stable supersymmetric particles produced at Cygnus X-3, enhanced muon production from high energy photons, quark matter, and ''cygnets.'' Although the underground muon results have been questioned, it may still be worthwhile to consider the possibility of new physics beyond the standard model with energy scale (G/sub F/)/sup -1/2/ ≥ 0.25 TeV. For example, there have been recent discussions on the experimental signatures to be observed from new high energy photon couplings to matter, exchanges between constituent quarks and leptons, and stable gluinos and photinos mixed in with the cosmic gamma ray flux. We describe here a possible detector to search for such effects. We utilize the possibility that point sources like Cygnus X-3 can be used to provide a directional time-modulated ''tagged'' high energy photon beam

  8. A wide dynamic range experiment to measure high energy γ-showers in air by detecting Cherenkov light in the middle ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Cervelli, F.; Chiarelli, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Giannetti, P.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Sestini, P.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Pisa Univ.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study high energy γ rays from localized cosmic sources is described. A number of Al mirrors reflects the Cherenkov light emitted by the showers into photosensitive gas chambers on the mirror focal plane. The use of gas chambers with large active areas allows a sensitivity superior to existing experiments to be reached. Pad readout gives the required angular accuracy. The chamber is sensitive to the middle ultraviolet Cherenkov light produced by the showers in the atmosphere. Since the ozone in the upper atmosphere absorbs the direct ultraviolet light from any outer source, the lower level atmosphere provides a large dark volume in which the Cherenkov radiation from the showers can be isolated. (orig.)

  9. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, C.O.A.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhofer, A.; Felis, I.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L.A.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schussler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6∘ for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with

  10. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Repond, J.; Smith, J.; Trojand, D.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Benyamna, M.; Carloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Gunter, C.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Marchesini, I.; Meyer, N.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Feege, N.; Haller, J.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Eckert, P.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Uozumi, S.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.M.; Bartsch, V.; Salvatore, F.; Laktineh, I.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Frey, A.; Kiesling, C.; Simon, F.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Marcisovsky, M.; Sicho, P.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.

    2011-01-01

    Application Specific Integrated Circuits, ASICs, similar to those envisaged for the readout electronics of the central calorimeters of detectors for a future lepton collider have been exposed to high-energy electromagnetic showers. A salient feature of these calorimeters is that the readout electronics will be embedded into the calorimeter layers. In this article it is shown that interactions of shower particles in the volume of the readout electronics do not alter the noise pattern of the ASICs. No signal at or above the MIP level has been observed during the exposure. The upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the frequency of faked signals is smaller than 1x10^{-5} for a noise threshold of about 60% of a MIP. For ASICs with similar design to those which were tested, it can thus be largely excluded that the embedding of the electronics into the calorimeter layers compromises the performance of the calorimeters.

  11. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-15

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  12. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  13. Shower fractal dimension analysis in a highly-granular calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, M

    2014-01-01

    We report on an investigation of the self-similar structure of particle showers recorded at a highly-granular calorimeter. On both simulated and experimental data, a strong correlation between the number of hits and the spatial scale of the readout channels is observed, from which we define the shower fractal dimension. The measured fractal dimension turns out to be strongly dependent on particle type, which enables new approaches for particle identification. A logarithmic dependence of the particle energy on the fractal dimension is also observed.

  14. World's largest air shower array now on track of super-high-energy cosmic-rays Pierre Auger Observatory seeks source of highest-energy extraterrestrial particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "With the completion of its hundredth surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina, this week became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. Managed by scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Pierre Auger project so far encompasses a 70-square-mile array of detectors that are tracking the most violent-and perhaps most puzzling- processes in the entire universe" (1 page).

  15. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the North Bengal University array. The differential size spectra at different atmospheric depths show a systematic shift of the knee towards smaller shower size with the increase in atmospheric depth. The measured values of spectral ...

  16. Air shower detection and the energy flow in electromagnetic cascades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor (Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (United States)); Vankov, H.P. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika)

    1992-02-01

    We study the longitudinal behaviour of the energy carried by the shower particles E{sub c} and its lateral distribution, give simple parametrizations of the results of Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the advantages of shower detectors that measure directly E{sub c}. (author).

  17. A method of simulation of large air showers of cosmic radiation. Application to High Energy Physics and to Astrophysics (10"1"3 - 10"2"1 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevielle, Jean-Noel

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of large air showers and the field of high energy physics and of astrophysics. The author discusses fluctuations undergone by large showers, and reports the development of a simulation method which is used for the determination of the morphology of these large air showers, that is their longitudinal and lateral development. Simulation results are compared with experimental results, and the influence of fluctuations is discussed. The author reports the application of the simulation method to high energy physics and to astrophysics, notably through an example of use of the simulation method in application to the Kiel Group experiment performed at the Pic du Midi. Possible developments are then discussed [fr

  18. CaloGAN: Simulating 3D high energy particle showers in multilayer electromagnetic calorimeters with generative adversarial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Michela; de Oliveira, Luke; Nachman, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The precise modeling of subatomic particle interactions and propagation through matter is paramount for the advancement of nuclear and particle physics searches and precision measurements. The most computationally expensive step in the simulation pipeline of a typical experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the detailed modeling of the full complexity of physics processes that govern the motion and evolution of particle showers inside calorimeters. We introduce CaloGAN, a new fast simulation technique based on generative adversarial networks (GANs). We apply these neural networks to the modeling of electromagnetic showers in a longitudinally segmented calorimeter and achieve speedup factors comparable to or better than existing full simulation techniques on CPU (100 ×-1000 × ) and even faster on GPU (up to ˜105× ). There are still challenges for achieving precision across the entire phase space, but our solution can reproduce a variety of geometric shower shape properties of photons, positrons, and charged pions. This represents a significant stepping stone toward a full neural network-based detector simulation that could save significant computing time and enable many analyses now and in the future.

  19. Creation of the NUR mountain-level installation aimed at registration of super-high-energy showers in cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chubenko, A P; Martyanov, I S; Sadykov, K; Zastrozhnova, N N

    2002-01-01

    Description of the NUR installation aimed at registration of extensive air showers (EAS) is presented. The installation is sited near Almaty at a height of 3340 m above sea level at the Jusaly Kezen pass to the Tien Shan foothills. The distinctive characteristic of the installation from other similar existing ones is its location at a mountain slope under a 30 deg. angle relative to the horizon. Due to this orientation, the accuracy of measurement of EAS incidence angles exceeding 40 deg. increases significantly.

  20. Search for neutrino generated air shower candidates with energy ≥ 1019 eV and Zenith angle θ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knurenko, Stanislav; Petrov, Igor; Sabourov, Artem

    2017-06-01

    The description of the methodology and results of searching for air showers generated by neutral particles such as high energy gamma quanta and astroneutrinos are presented. For this purpose, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the data: the electron, the muon and the EAS Cerenkov light, and their response time in scintillation and Cherenkov detectors. Air showers with energy more than 5·1018 eV and zenith angle θ ≥ 55∘ are selected and analyzed. Search results indicate a lack of air shower events formed by gamma-rays or high-energy neutrinos, but it does not mean that such air showers do not exist in nature; for example, experiments that recorded showers having a marked low muon content, i.e., "Muonless", are likely to be candidates for showers produced by neutral primary particles.

  1. Studying High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2006-01-01

    Most cosmic-ray air shower arrays have focused on detecting electromagnetic shower particles and low energy muons. A few groups (most notably MACRO + EASTOP and SPASE + AMANDA) have studied the high energy muon component of showers. However, these experiments had small solid angles, and did not study muons far from the core. The IceTop + IceCube combination, with its 1 km 2 muon detection area can study muons far from the shower core. IceCube can measure their energy loss (dE/dx), and hence their energy. With the energy, and the known distribution of production heights, the transverse momentum (p T ) spectrum of high p T muons can be determined. The production of the semuons is calculable in perturbative QCD, so the measured muon spectra can be used to probe the composition of incident cosmic-rays

  2. Depth of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Induced Air Shower Maxima Measured by the Telescope Array Black Rock and Long Ridge FADC Fluorescence Detectors and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; di Matteo, A.; Fujii, T.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, M.; Furlich, G.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jeong, H. M.; Jeong, S. M.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kishigami, S.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lee, K. H.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Mayta, R.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, R.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Oda, H.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Okuda, T.; Omura, Y.; Ono, M.; Onogi, R.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sahara, R.; Saito, K.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakurai, N.; Scott, L. M.; Seki, T.; Sekino, K.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takagi, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Wong, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zhezher, Y.; Zundel, Z.; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) observatory utilizes fluorescence detectors and surface detectors (SDs) to observe air showers produced by ultra high energy cosmic rays in Earth’s atmosphere. Cosmic-ray events observed in this way are termed hybrid data. The depth of air shower maximum is related to the mass of the primary particle that generates the shower. This paper reports on shower maxima data collected over 8.5 yr using the Black Rock Mesa and Long Ridge fluorescence detectors in conjunction with the array of SDs. We compare the means and standard deviations of the observed {X}\\max distributions with Monte Carlo {X}\\max distributions of unmixed protons, helium, nitrogen, and iron, all generated using the QGSJet II-04 hadronic model. We also perform an unbinned maximum likelihood test of the observed data, which is subjected to variable systematic shifting of the data {X}\\max distributions to allow us to test the full distributions, and compare them to the Monte Carlo to see which elements are not compatible with the observed data. For all energy bins, QGSJet II-04 protons are found to be compatible with TA hybrid data at the 95% confidence level after some systematic {X}\\max shifting of the data. Three other QGSJet II-04 elements are found to be compatible using the same test procedure in an energy range limited to the highest energies where data statistics are sparse.

  3. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Folger, F.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T.; Bruijn, R.; Melis, K.; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Coleiro, A.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M.; Donzaud, C.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Haren, H. van; Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B.; Marinelli, A.; Mele, R.; Vivolo, D.; Migliozzi, P.; Organokov, M.; Pradier, T.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tayalati, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6 "c"i"r"c"l"e for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with reconstructed shower energies above 10 TeV are observed. This is consistent with the expectation of about 5 events from atmospheric backgrounds, but also compatible with diffuse astrophysical flux measurements by the IceCube collaboration, from which 2-4 additional events are expected. A 90% C.L. upper limit on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux with a value per neutrino flavour of E"2 . Φ"9"0"% = 4.9 . 10"-"8 GeV . cm"-"2 . s"-"1 . sr"-"1 is set, applicable to the energy range from 23 TeV to 7.8 PeV, assuming an unbroken E"-"2 spectrum and neutrino flavour equipartition at Earth. (orig.)

  4. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Universite de Haute Alsace, Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposicio, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Folger, F.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia) c/Catedratico Jose Beltran, 2, 46980, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [LAM, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruijn, R.; Melis, K. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Science, 077125, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Celli, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Chiarusi, T. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coleiro, A. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia) c/Catedratico Jose Beltran, 2, 46980, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [CNRS, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Geoazur, UCA, Sophia Antipolis (France); Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Donzaud, C. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Eberl, T. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, B.P.717, Oujda (Morocco); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Gay, P. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont Universite, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Giordano, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Glotin, H. [LSIS, Aix Marseille Universite CNRS ENSAM LSIS UMR 7296, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon CNRS LSIS UMR 7296, La Garde (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (Netherlands); Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (RU); Lefevre, D. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille Cedex 9 (FR); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (FR); Leonora, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (IT); Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (FR); Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Marinelli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (IT); Mele, R.; Vivolo, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT); Migliozzi, P. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Organokov, M.; Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, Strasbourg (FR); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed V in Rabat, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (MA)

    2017-06-15

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6 {sup circle} for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with reconstructed shower energies above 10 TeV are observed. This is consistent with the expectation of about 5 events from atmospheric backgrounds, but also compatible with diffuse astrophysical flux measurements by the IceCube collaboration, from which 2-4 additional events are expected. A 90% C.L. upper limit on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux with a value per neutrino flavour of E{sup 2} . Φ{sup 90%} = 4.9 . 10{sup -8} GeV . cm{sup -2} . s{sup -1} . sr{sup -1} is set, applicable to the energy range from 23 TeV to 7.8 PeV, assuming an unbroken E{sup -2} spectrum and neutrino flavour equipartition at Earth. (orig.)

  5. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N.K.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Gallus, Petr; Havránek, Miroslav; Janata, Milan; Lednický, Denis; Marčišovský, Michal; Polák, Ivo; Popule, Jiří; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Šícho, Petr; Smolík, Jan; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, Jul (2016), 1-37, č. článku P06013. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14033; GA MŠk 7E12050 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hadron shower s * scintillator calorimeters * simulation of shower s Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  6. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvach, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2012), s. 859-862 ISSN 0304-4289. [International Symposium on Lepton-Photon Interactions at High Energies /25./. Mumbai, 22.08.2011-27.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : International Linear Collider * particle flow algorithm * calorimeter resolution Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012

  7. Large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Huihai

    2010-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project focuses mainly on the study of 40 GeV-1 PeV gamma ray astronomy and 10 TeV-1 EeV cosmic ray physics. It consists of a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array with 40 000 m 2 muon detectors, 90,000m 2 water Cerenkov detector array, 5 000 m 2 shower core detector array and an air Cerenkov/fluorescence telescope array. Prototype detectors are designed with some of them already in operation. A prototype array of 1% size of LHAASO will be built at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory and used to coincidently measure cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. (authors)

  8. Testing hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies with air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 19 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 192001. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * testing hadronic Interactions * ultrahigh energies * air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  9. High performance interactive graphics for shower reconstruction in HPC, the DELPHI barrel electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, C.

    1990-01-01

    Complex software for shower reconstruction in DELPHI barrel electromagnetic calorimeter which deals, for each event, with great amounts of information, due to the high spatial resolution of this detector, needs powerful verification tools. An interactive graphics program, running on high performance graphics display system Whizzard 7555 from Megatek, was developed to display the logical steps in showers and their axes reconstruction. The program allows both operations on the image in real-time (rotation, translation and zoom) and the use of non-geometrical criteria to modify it (as the use of energy) thresholds for the representation of the elements that compound the showers (or of the associated lego plots). For this purpose graphics objects associated to user parameters were defined. Instancing and modelling features of the native graphics library were extensively used

  10. The time structure of hadronic showers in highly granular calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.J.; Chefdeville, M.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Gallus, Petr; Havránek, Miroslav; Janata, Milan; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lednický, Denis; Marčišovský, Michal; Polák, Ivo; Popule, Jiří; Tomášek, Lukáš; Tomášek, Michal; Růžička, Pavel; Šícho, Petr; Smolík, Jan; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, Jul (2014), s. 1-24 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14033 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hadronic calorimeter s * hadronic showers * hadronic physics models * hilicon photomultiplier Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.399, year: 2014

  11. Energy determination of cosmic ray showers in surface arrays using signal inference at a single distance from the core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, G. [Space Plasmas and AStroparticle Group, Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Alcala Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona km. 33, Alcala de Henares E-28871 (Spain)], E-mail: germanrosmagan@yahoo.es; Medina-Tanco, G. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Circuito Exteriror S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Peral, L. del [Space Plasmas and AStroparticle Group, Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Alcala Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona km. 33, Alcala de Henares E-28871 (Spain); D' Olivo, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Circuito Exteriror S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Arqueros, F. [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria 28040, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez-Frias, M.D. [Space Plasmas and AStroparticle Group, Dpto. Fisica, Universidad de Alcala Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona km. 33, Alcala de Henares E-28871 (Spain)

    2009-09-21

    In most high energy cosmic ray surface arrays, the primary energy is currently determined from the value of the lateral distribution function at a fixed distance from the shower core, r{sub 0}. The value of r{sub 0} is mainly related to the geometry of the array and is, therefore, considered as fixed independently of the shower energy or direction. We argue, however, that the dependence of r{sub 0} on energy and zenith angle is not negligible. Therefore, in the present work we propose a new characteristic distance, which we call r{sub opt}, specifically determined for each individual shower, with the objective of optimizing the energy reconstruction. This parameter may not only improve the energy determination, but also allow a more reliable reconstruction of the shape and position of rapidly varying spectral features. We show that the use of a specific r{sub opt} determined on a shower-to-shower basis, instead of using a fixed characteristic value, is of particular benefit in dealing with the energy reconstruction of events with saturated detectors, which are in general a large fraction of all the events detected by an array as energy increases. Furthermore, the r{sub opt} approach has the additional advantage of applying the same unified treatment for all detected events, regardless of whether they have saturated detectors or not.

  12. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: mean number in highly inclined events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2015), , "032003-1"-"032003-12" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * air shower s * ultrahigh energies * cosmic rays * detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  13. Energy Sources for Yotta-TeV Iceberg Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAyeal, Douglas [University of Chicago

    2013-05-01

    In late February of 2002, warming climate along the Antarctic Peninsula triggered a macroscopic particle acceleration event that smashed a 350 Gkg floating ice shelf, called the Larsen B. The particle shower released by the acceleration involved on the order of >10^6 iceberg particles accelerated to an aggregate total kinetic energy of ~10^17 J (100 Mt TNT equivalent). The explosion was so extreme that it caught glaciological science by surprise (an injury to the egos of glaciologists worldwide) and caused glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula formerly buttressed by the missing ice shelf to surge (yielding a small increment to sea level rise). In this presentation, I shall describe research, both experimental and field oriented, that has revealed the energy source for this explosive event. I shall also describe how climate warming has the capacity to trigger this type of ice-shelf collapse. A review of the geologic record of ice-rafted debris on the ocean floor suggests that extreme, explosive ice-shelf collapse may be a ubiquitous catastrophe that has happened regularly in the past as part of glacial/interglacial climate cycles.

  14. The Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in Highly Granular Calorimeters with Tungsten and Steel Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Arfaoui, A.; Benoit, M.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Fagot, A.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Ete, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kozlov, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouene, J.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Chai, J.S.; Song, H.S.; Lee, S.H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic time structure of hadronic showers influences the timing capability and the required integration time of hadronic calorimeters in particle physics experiments, and depends on the active medium and on the absorber of the calorimeter. With the CALICE T3B experiment, a setup of 15 small plastic scintillator tiles read out with Silicon Photomultipliers, the time structure of showers is measured on a statistical basis with high spatial and temporal resolution in sampling calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers. The results are compared to GEANT4 (version 9.4 patch 03) simulations with different hadronic physics models. These comparisons demonstrate the importance of using high precision treatment of low-energy neutrons for tungsten absorbers, while an overall good agreement between data and simulations for all considered models is observed for steel.

  15. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Marčišovský, Michal; Šícho, Petr; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 654, č. 1 (2011), s. 97-109 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042; GA MŠk LA08032 Grant - others:EC(XE) RII3-CT-2006-026126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : lepton collider * electromagnetic calorimeter * embedded electronics * fake hits Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://arxiv.org/pdf/arXiv:1102.3454v2

  16. Arrival-time distribution of muons in extensive air showers at energies of 1017 eV to 1018 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, P.R.; Mann, D.M.; Nash, W.F.; O'Connell, B.; Strutt, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of measurements of the rise-time of muon scintillator responses recorded from extensive air showers detected at Haverah Park are described. A high-speed storage oscilloscope recording system has been used to study both the average characteristics of muon time spreads and the fluctuations in arrival-time distributions between individual showers. The average muon time spreads are found to be a function of core distance, zenith angle and muon threshold energy. There is evidence that velocity delays are an important contribution to the muon rise-times for detectors with threshold energies < approximately 500 MeV. Significant fluctuations in the muon time spreads between individual showers are found. The average characteristics of the muon arrival-time distributions are also compared with the shower computer simulations. (author)

  17. Monte-Carlo simulation of electromagnetic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, Ts.A.

    1984-01-01

    The universal ELSS-1 program for Monte Carlo simulation of high energy electromagnetic showers in homogeneous absorbers of arbitrary geometry is written. The major processes and effects of electron and photon interaction with matter, particularly the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect, are taken into account in the simulation procedures. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Some characteristics of shower detectors and electromagnetic showers for energies up 1 TeV are calculated

  18. Milagro: A low energy threshold extensive air shower array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnis, C.

    1994-12-31

    Observations of high-energy gamma rays from astronomical sources have revolutionized our view of the cosmos. Gamma rays with energies up to {approximately}10 GeV can be observed directly with space-based instruments. Above 100 GeV the low flux of gamma rays requires one to utilize ground-based instruments. Milagro is a new type of gamma-ray detector based on water Cerenkov technology. This new design will enable to continuously observe the entire overhead sky, and be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above {approximately}250 GeV. These attributes make Milagro an ideal detector for the study of high-energy transient phenomenon.

  19. An analytic initial-state parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. Physik; Reuter, J.; Schmidt, S.; Wiesler, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We present a new algorithm for an analytic parton shower. While the algorithm for the final-state shower has been known in the literature, the construction of an initial-state shower along these lines is new. The aim is to have a parton shower algorithm for which the full analytic form of the probability distribution for all branchings is known. For these parton shower algorithms it is therefore possible to calculate the probability for a given event to be generated, providing the potential to reweight the event after the simulation. We develop the algorithm for this shower including scale choices and angular ordering. Merging to matrix elements is used to describe high-energy tails of distributions correctly. Finally, we compare our results with those of other parton showers and with experimental data from LEP, Tevatron and LHC. (orig.)

  20. An analytic initial-state parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, W.

    2011-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for an analytic parton shower. While the algorithm for the final-state shower has been known in the literature, the construction of an initial-state shower along these lines is new. The aim is to have a parton shower algorithm for which the full analytic form of the probability distribution for all branchings is known. For these parton shower algorithms it is therefore possible to calculate the probability for a given event to be generated, providing the potential to reweight the event after the simulation. We develop the algorithm for this shower including scale choices and angular ordering. Merging to matrix elements is used to describe high-energy tails of distributions correctly. Finally, we compare our results with those of other parton showers and with experimental data from LEP, Tevatron and LHC. (orig.)

  1. The CASTOR shower library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundim Filho, Luiz Martins; Carvalho, Wagner de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: CASTOR (Centaur And Strange Object Research) is an electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic (HAD) calorimeter, based on tungsten and quartz plates, operating in the CMS Detector (Compact Muon Solenoid) at LHC. The calorimeter detects Cerenkov radiation and is positioned around the beam pipe in the very forward region of CMS (at 14.38 m from the interaction point), covering the pseudo-rapidity range between -6.6 ≤ η≤-5.1 . It is longitudinally segmented into 14 sections, 2 for the EM and 12 for the HAD parts and is 16-fold azimuthally symmetric around the beam pipe. A Shower Library is needed for CASTOR Monte Carlo simulation, as the full simulation of showers takes a long time and the high multiplicity of particles in the forward region makes this simulation very time consuming. The Shower Library is used as a look-up table in the form of a ROOT file, so that when a simulated particle enters the detector with a certain energy and direction, characterized by the azimuthal angle φ and the pseudo-rapidity η, instead of making the full simulation of the shower in CASTOR, it is substituted by one already stored in the Shower Library. Showers corresponding to two types of particles are included in the Shower Library: electrons (or photons) and charged pions. The software implemented to make the Shower Library is described, as well as the validation of this library and timing studies. This package has been developed in the context of the official software of the CMS Collaboration, CMSSW. (author)

  2. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Kraaij, E.van der; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Gil, E.Cortina; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Negra, R.Della; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Donckt, M.Vander; Zoccarato, Y.; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.-C; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Lorenzo, S.Conforti di; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; der Kolk, N.van; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Taille, Ch de la; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the three dimensional substructure of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter. The high granularity of the detector is used to find track segments of minimum ionising particles within hadronic showers, providing sensitivity to the spatial structure and the details of secondary particle production in hadronic cascades. The multiplicity, length and angular distribution of identified track segments are compared to GEANT4 simulations with several different shower models. Track segments also provide the possibility for in-situ calibration of highly granular calorimeters.

  3. Frozen-shower simulation of electromagnetic showers in the ATLAS forward calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gasnikova, Ksenia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulation of calorimeter response for high energy electromagnetic particles is essential for the LHC experiments. Detailed simulation of the electromagnetic showers using Geant4 is however very CPU intensive and various fast simulation methods were proposed instead. The frozen shower simulation substitutes the full propagation of the showers for energies below 1~GeV by showers taken from a pre-simulated library. The method is used for production of the main ATLAS Monte Carlo samples, greatly improving the production time. The frozen showers describe shower shapes, sampling fraction, sampling and noise-related fluctuations very well, while description of the constant term, related to calorimeter non-uniformity, requires a careful choice of the shower library binning. A new method is proposed to tune the binning variables, using multivariate techniques. The method is tested and optimized for the description of the ATLAS forward calorimeter.

  4. Ultra high-energy cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longley, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Soudan 2 surface-underground cosmic ray experiment can simultaneously measure surface shower size, underground muon multiplicity, and underground muon separation for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers. These measurements are sensitive to the primary composition. Analysis for energies from 10 1 to 10 4 TeV favors a light flux consisting of predominantly H and He nuclei

  5. New estimates of extensive-air-shower energies on the basis of signals in scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyutin, N. V.; Dedenko, L. G., E-mail: ddn@dec1.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    New formulas for estimating the energy of inclined extensive air showers (EASs) on the basis of signals in detectors by means of an original method and detailed tables of signals induced in scintillation detectors by photons, electrons, positrons, and muons and calculated with the aid of the GEANT4 code package were proposed in terms of the QGSJETII-04, EPOS LHC, and GHEISHA models. The parameters appearing in the proposed formulas were calculated by employing the CORSIKA code package. It is shown that, for showers of zenith angles in the range of 20◦–45◦, the standard constant-intensity-cut method, which is used to interpret data from the Yakutsk EAS array, overestimates the shower energy by a factor of 1.2 to 1.5. It is proposed to employ the calculated VEM (Vertical Equivalent Muon) signal units of 10.8 and 11.4 MeV for, respectively, ground-based and underground scintillation detectors and to take into account the dependence of signals on the azimuthal angle of the detector position and fluctuations in the development of showers.

  6. Resonant scattering and charm showers in ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Electron antineutrinos with energy of about 7 x 10 to the 6th GeV have much-enhanced cross sections due to W-boson production off electrons. Possible signals due to cosmic-ray sources are estimated. Higher-energy antineutrinos can efficiently produce a W accompanied by radiation. Another possibility, which could lead to shadowing at modest depths, is resonant production of a charged Higgs particle. The importance of muon production by charm showers in rock is pointed out.

  7. Arrival time distributions of electrons in air showers with primary energies above 10 (18)eV observed at 900m above sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    Detection of air showers with primary energies above 10 to the 19th power eV with sufficient statistics is extremely important in an astrophysical aspect related to the Greisen cut off and the origin of such high energy cosmic rays. Recently, a method is proposed to observe such giant air showers by measuring the arrival time distributions of air-shower particles at large core distances with a mini array. Experiments to measure the arrival time distributions of muons were started in 1981 and those of electrons in early 1983 in the Akeno air-shower array (930 gcm cm squared atmospheric depth, 900m above sea level). During the time of observation, the detection area of the Akeno array was expanded from 1 sq km to sq km in 1982 and to 20 sq km in 1984. Now the arrival time distribution of electrons and muons can be measured for showers with primary energies above 1019eV at large core distances.

  8. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; d´Orfeuil, B.R.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 662, Sup. 1 (2012), "S118"-"S123" ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : MIDAS (Microwave Detector of Air Showers) * extensive air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2012

  9. Measurement of the radiation energy in the radio signal of extensive air showers as a universal estimator of cosmic-ray energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 24 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 241101. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays * air showers Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  10. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value

    2015-01-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence

  11. The Geant4-Based ATLAS Fast Electromagnetic Shower Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; Butler, B; Cheung, S L; Dell'Acqua, A; Di Simone, A; Ehrenfeld, W; Gallas, M V; Glasow, A; Hughes, E; Marshall, Z; Müller, J; Placakyte, R; Rimoldi, A; Savard, P; Tsulaia, V; Waugh, A; Young, C C; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    We present a three-pronged approach to fast electromagnetic shower simulation in ATLAS. Parameterisation is used for high-energy, shower libraries for medium-energy, and an averaged energy deposition for very low-energy particles. We present a comparison between the fast simulation and full simulation in an ATLAS Monte Carlo production.

  12. Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time

  13. Some dipole shower studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabouat, Baptiste; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2018-03-01

    Parton showers have become a standard component in the description of high-energy collisions. Nowadays most final-state ones are of the dipole character, wherein a pair of partons branches into three, with energy and momentum preserved inside this subsystem. For initial-state showers a dipole picture is also possible and commonly used, but the older global-recoil strategy remains a valid alternative, wherein larger groups of partons share the energy-momentum preservation task. In this article we introduce and implement a dipole picture also for initial-state radiation in Pythia, and compare with the existing global-recoil one, and with data. For the case of Deeply Inelastic Scattering we can directly compare with matrix element expressions and show that the dipole picture gives a very good description over the whole phase space, at least for the first branching.

  14. Separation of gamma and hadron initiated air showers with energies between 20 and 500 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arqueros, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Karle, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Lorenz, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Martinez, S. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas; Plaga, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Rozanska, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-04-24

    The discrimination between air showers initiated by {gamma} rays and by hadrons is one of the fundamental problems in experimental cosmic-ray physics. The physics of this `{gamma}/hadron separation` is discussed in this paper. We restrict ourselves to the energy range from about 20 to 500 TeV, and take only the information contained in the lateral Cerenkov light distribution and the number of electrons at the detector level into consideration. An understanding of the differences between air showers generated by {gamma} rays and those due to hadrons leads us to formulate suitable observables for the separation process. Angle integrating Cerenkov arrays (AICA) offer a promising new approach to ground-based {gamma}-ray astronomy in the energy region from about 20 to 500 TeV. In order to establish this technique, an efficient suppression of the overwhelming hadronic background radiation is required. As an example for our general discussion, we present one method for {gamma}/hadron separation in AICAs called ``LES``. It is based on the simultaneous determination of the shower size and some characteristic parameters of the lateral distribution of the Cerenkov light. The potential inherent within this technique is demonstrated in quantitative detail for the existing ``AIROBICC`` AICA. We also propose an objective measure of the intrinsic sensitivity of a detection scheme in ground-based {gamma}-ray astronomy, the ``reduced quality factor``. It is shown that AICAs may reach a sensitivity to {gamma}-ray point sources in the high VHE range similar to that of the Cerenkov-telescope imaging technique in the low VHE region. (orig.)

  15. Separation of gamma and hadron initiated air showers with energies between 20 and 500 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arqueros, F.; Lorenz, E.; Martinez, S.; Rozanska, M.

    1995-01-01

    The discrimination between air showers initiated by γ rays and by hadrons is one of the fundamental problems in experimental cosmic-ray physics. The physics of this 'γ/hadron separation' is discussed in this paper. We restrict ourselves to the energy range from about 20 to 500 TeV, and take only the information contained in the lateral Cerenkov light distribution and the number of electrons at the detector level into consideration. An understanding of the differences between air showers generated by γ rays and those due to hadrons leads us to formulate suitable observables for the separation process. Angle integrating Cerenkov arrays (AICA) offer a promising new approach to ground-based γ-ray astronomy in the energy region from about 20 to 500 TeV. In order to establish this technique, an efficient suppression of the overwhelming hadronic background radiation is required. As an example for our general discussion, we present one method for γ/hadron separation in AICAs called ''LES''. It is based on the simultaneous determination of the shower size and some characteristic parameters of the lateral distribution of the Cerenkov light. The potential inherent within this technique is demonstrated in quantitative detail for the existing ''AIROBICC'' AICA. We also propose an objective measure of the intrinsic sensitivity of a detection scheme in ground-based γ-ray astronomy, the ''reduced quality factor''. It is shown that AICAs may reach a sensitivity to γ-ray point sources in the high VHE range similar to that of the Cerenkov-telescope imaging technique in the low VHE region. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of ionization losses of shower electrons in electron-photon shower developed in liquid xenon by gamma quanta in the energy range 1600-3400 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhrymenko, L.S.; Slowinski, B.; Strugalski, Z.; Sredniawa, B.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the investigation of differential distributions of ionization losses and the corresponding fluctuations for shower electrons in the longitudinal development of electron-photon showers produced by gamma-quanta of energies Esub(γ)=1600-3400 MeV in liquid xenon are given. A simple and convenient from the methodical point of view two-parametric function, approximating the observed distribution has been obtained. The independence of the fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons on the energy of gamma-quanta in the investigated interval of Esub(γ) values has been found

  17. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A 1019 eV shower with a zenith angle of 67°, which arrives at the surface detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average (2.68 ±0.04 ±0.48 (sys))×107 muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. The logarithmic gain d ln Nμ/d ln E of muons with increasing energy between 4 ×1018 eV and 5 ×1019 eV is measured to be (1.029 ±0.024 ±0.030 (sys)) .

  18. A new way of air shower detection: measuring the properties of cosmic rays with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays impinging onto the atmosphere of the Earth initiate cascades of secondary particles: extensive air showers. Many of the particles in a shower are electrons and positrons. During the development of the air shower and by interacting with the geomagnetic field, the

  19. The radio emission pattern of air showers as measured with LOFAR—a tool for the reconstruction of the energy and the shower maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, Gia

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of the radio emission of air showers is finely sampled with the Low-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). A set of 382 measured air showers is used to test a fast, analytic parameterization of the distribution of pulse powers. Using this parameterization we are able to reconstruct the shower axis and

  20. What do we learn about hadronic interactions at ultrahigh energies from extensive air shower observations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    2002-01-01

    The interpretation of extensive air shower (EAS) observations needs a sufficiently accurate knowledge of the interactions driving the cascade development in the atmosphere. While the electromagnetic and weak interaction parts do not provide principal problems, the hadronic interaction is a subject of uncertainties and debates, especially in the ultrahigh energy region extending the energy limits of man made accelerators and experimental knowledge from collider experiments. Since the EAS development is dominantly governed by soft processes, which are presently not accessible to a perturbative QCD treatment, one has to rely on QCD inspired phenomenological interaction models, in particular on string-models based on the Gribov-Regge theory like QGSJET, VENUS and SYBILL. Recent results of the EAS experiments KASCADE are scrutinized in terms of such models used as generators in the Monte Carlo EAS simulation code CORSIKA. (author)

  1. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  2. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  3. Aspects of perturbative QCD in Monte Carlo shower models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The perturbative QCD content of Monte Carlo models for high energy hadron-hadron scattering is examined. Particular attention is given to the recently developed backwards evolution formalism for initial state parton showers, and the merging of parton shower evolution with hard scattering cross sections. Shower estimates of K-factors are discussed, and a simple scheme is presented for incorporating 2 → QCD cross sections into shower model calculations without double counting. Additional issues in the development of hard scattering Monte Carlo models are summarized. 69 references, 20 figures

  4. Measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.; van Kessel, L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy reconstruction of extensive air showers measured with the LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is presented in detail. LORA is a particle detector array located in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate and independent

  5. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  6. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye

    2009-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E∼10 15 eV to 6x10 19 eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10 15 and ∼10 19 eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  7. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye [Shafer Institute for Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk 677980 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivanov@ikfia.ysn.ru

    2009-06-15

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E{approx}10{sup 15} eV to 6x10{sup 19} eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10{sup 15} and {approx}10{sup 19} eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  8. Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV determined from air showers observed at 5200 m a.s.l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, C.; Mejia, G.R.; Yoshii, H.; Toyoda, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Energy spectra of primary cosmic rays from 10 16 eV to 10 19 eV have been determined from electron-sizes as well as from muon-sizes of the same air showers observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. The spectrum from electron-sizes is significantly higher than that from muon-sizes. The discrepancy is discussed and an explanation is given under the assumption of possible existence of copious direct production of photons besides the production of charged and neutral pions at these high energies. The spectra are also compared with those by other groups and the discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  9. An air shower array for LOFAR: LORA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Aar, G. V.; Akker, M. V. D.; Bähren, L.; Corstanje, A.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; James, C.; Mevius, M.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Ter Veen, S.

    2011-01-01

    LOFAR is a new form of radio telescope which can detect radio emission from air showers induced by very high-energy cosmic rays. It can also look for radio emission from particle cascades on the Moon induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays or neutrinos. To complement the radio detection, we are

  10. Detrended analysis of shower track distribution in nucleus-nucleus interactions at CERN SPS energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mali, P.; Manna, S.K.; Haldar, P.K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Singh, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the charged particle density fluctuations in "1"6O+Ag(Br) and "3"2S+Ag(Br) interactions at 200A GeV incident energy in the laboratory frame by using the detrended methods. These methods can extract (multi)fractal properties of the underlying distributions after filtering out the average trend of fluctuations associated. Multifractal parameters obtained from data analysis are systematically compared with event samples generated by the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model, where Bose–Einstein correlation (BEC) effect is mimicked via a charge reassignment algorithm implemented as an after burner. Both the experimental and the simulated data are subjected to two different statistical techniques namely the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) analysis. The results indicate that for both the interactions considered the pseudorapidity distributions of the shower tracks are multifractal in nature. Qualitatively, both methods of analysis and both interactions considered, result in similar behavior of multifractal parameters. We do however notice significant quantitative differences in certain cases.

  11. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  12. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    IceTop is a km 2 scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10 11 m 2 s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of the mixed

  13. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  14. On the production of shower particles from light (Cno) and heavy (Ag Br) emulsion nuclei at Dubna energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Nagdy, M.S.; Abdel-Waged, Kh; Abdel-Halim, S.M.; Khalil, E.I.

    2000-01-01

    The reaction cross sections for p, d, He, C, Mg and S beams with different chemical components of emulsion nuclei at 4.5 A GeV/c have been studied with high statistics, and were compared with the calculations according to Glauber model. The multiplicity distributions of shower produced particles from these interactions with light and heavy emulsion nuclei are analyzed in terms of the negative binomial and Poisson distribution laws

  15. Experimental study of the effect of hadron shower leakage on the energy response and resolution of ATLAS hadron barrel prototype calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.A.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Rumyantsev, V.S.; Bogush, A.A.; Karapetyan, G.; Nessi, M.

    1996-01-01

    The hadronic shower longitudinal and lateral leakages and their effect on the pion response and energy resolution of ATLAS iron-scintillator barrel hadron prototype calorimeter have been investigated. The results are based on 100 GeV pion beam data at incidence angle Θ=10 deg. The fraction of the energy leaking out at the back of this calorimeter amounts to 1.8 % and agrees with the one for a conventional iron-scintillator calorimeter. Unexpected behaviour of the energy resolution as a function of leakage is observed: 6 % lateral leakage leads to 18 % improving of energy resolution in compare with the showers without leakage. 22 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Microwave detection of air showers with the MIDAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privitera, Paolo; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Reyes, L.C.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E.M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave emission from Extensive Air Showers could provide a novel technique for ultra-high energy cosmic rays detection over large area and with 100% duty cycle. We describe the design, performance and first results of the MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers) detector, a 4.5 m parabolic dish with 53 feeds in its focal plane, currently installed at the University of Chicago.

  17. Time structure of cascade showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Takao

    1984-01-01

    Interesting results have been reported on the time structure of the electromagnetic components of air showers which have been obtained by using recent fast electronic circuit technology. However, these analyses and explanations seem not very persuasive. One of the reasons is that there is not satisfactory theoretical calculation yet to explain the delay of electromagnetic components in cascade processes which are the object of direct observation. Therefore, Monte Carlo calculation was attempted for examining the relationship between the altitude at which high energy γ-ray is generated up in the air and the time structure of cascade showers at the level of observation. The investigation of a dominant factor over the delay of electromagnetic components indicated that the delay due to the multiple scattering of electrons was essential. The author used the analytical solution found by himself of C. N. Yang's equation for the study on the delay due to multiple scattering. The results were as follows: The average delay time and the spread of distribution of electromagnetic cascades were approximately in linear relationship with the mass of a material having passed in a thin uniform medium; the rise time of arrival time distribution for electromagnetic cascade showers was very steep under the condition that they were generated up in the air and observed on the ground; the subpeaks delayed by tens of ns in arrival time may sometimes appear due to the perturbation in electromagnetic cascade processes. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic showers. Part 1: Comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, Ts.A.; Mamidjanyan, E.A.; Sanossyan, Kh.N.

    1992-01-01

    Hadronic showers are simulated by the MARS 10 code and compared with various experimental results obtained at high-energy accelerators. Good agreement between the experiment and the simulations is observed. MARS 10 is a fast and reliable instrument for numerical studies of the average characteristics of hadronic showers. 16 refs

  19. The parametrized simulation of electromagnetic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, S.

    1992-09-01

    The simulation of electromagnetic showers in calorimeters by detailed tracking of all secondary particles is extremely computer time consuming. Without loosing considerably in precision, the use of parametrizations for global shower properties may reduce the computing time by factors of 10 1 to 10 4 , depending on the energy, the degree of parametrization, and the complexity in the material description and the cut off energies in the detailed simulation. To arrive at a high degree of universality, parametrizations of individual electromagnetic showers in homogeneous media are developed, taking the dependence of the shower development on the material into account. In sampling calorimeters, the inhomogeneous material distribution leads to additional effects which can be taken into account by geometry dependent terms in the parametrization of the longitudinal and radial energy density distributions. Comparisons with detailed simulations of homogeneous and sampling calorimeters show very good agreement in the fluctuations, correlations, and signal averages of spatial energy distributions. Verifications of the algorithms for the simulation of the H1 detector are performed using calorimeter test data for different moduls of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter. Special attention has been paid to electron pion separation, which is of great importance for physics analysis. (orig.) [de

  20. Extensive Air Showers: from the muonic smoking guns to the hadronic backbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazon L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive Air Showers are complex macroscopic objects initiated by single ultra-high energy particles. They are the result of millions of high energy reactions in the atmosphere and can be described as the superposition of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The hadronic cascade is the air shower backbone, and it is mainly made of pions. Decays of neutral pions initiate electromagnetic cascades, while the decays of charged pions produce muons which leave the hadronic core and travel many kilometers almost unaffected. Muons are smoking guns of the hadronic cascade: the energy, transverse momentum, spatial distribution and depth of production are key to reconstruct the history of the air shower. In this work, we overview the phenomenology of muons on the air shower and its relation to the hadronic cascade. We briefly review the experimental efforts to analyze muons within air showers and discuss possible paths to use this information.

  1. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. I. Measurements at energies above 10.sup.17.8./sup.  eV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 12 (2014), "122005-1"-"122005-25" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : astroparticle physics * Pierre Auger Observatory * cosmic rays * air showers * depth of maximum * Xmax Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  2. High-precision measurements of extensive air showers with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J. D.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; Haungs, A.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.; Zilles, A.

    2015-01-01

    As of 2023, the Square Kilometre Array will constitute the world's largest radio telescope, offering unprecedented capabilities for a diverse science programme in radio astronomy. At the same time, the SKA will be ideally suited to detect extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth's

  3. Percolation Effects in Very-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias de Deus, J.; Santo, M.C. Espirito; Pimenta, M.; Pajares, C.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic ray data at high energies present a number of well-known puzzles. At very high energies (E∼10 20 eV) there are indications of a discrepancy between ground array experiments and fluorescence detectors. On the other hand, the dependence of the depth of the shower maximum X max with the primary energy shows a change in slope (E∼10 17 eV) which is usually explained assuming a composition change. Both effects could be accounted for in models predicting that above a certain energy showers would develop deeper in the atmosphere. In this Letter we argue that this can be done naturally by including percolation effects in the description of the shower development, which cause a change in the behavior of the inelasticity K above E≅10 17 eV

  4. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N. K.; Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range of 10–80 GeV/ c . Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP-BERT and FTFP-BERT physics lists from GEANT4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h / e , are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  5. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, G.; Watson, N.K.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H.L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Doren, B.van; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J.Berenguer; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; der Kolk, N.van; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Cizel, J.B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; de Freitas, P.Mora; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Taille, Ch.de la; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-06-23

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range from 10 to 80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from Geant4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  6. Ultra high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowczyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data on ultra high energy γ-rays are reviewed and a comparison of the properties of photon and proton initiated shower is made. The consequences of the existence of the strong ultra high energy γ-ray sources for other observations is analysed and possible mechanisms for the production of ultra high energy γ-rays in the sources are discussed. It is demonstrated that if the γ-rays are produced via cosmic ray interactions the sources have to produce very high fluxes of cosmic ray particles. In fact it is possible that a small number of such sources can supply the whole Galactic cosmic ray flux

  7. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV measured with the LOFAR radboud air shower array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T. N G; Van Kessel, L.

    2015-01-01

    The LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is an array of 20 plastic scintillation detectors installed in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands to measure extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The primary goals of LORA are to trigger the read-out

  8. Reconstruction of showers at TeV energy by the CLUE Experiment and its application to recent data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Cresti, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Bigongiari, C.; Cocca, E.; Lucchesi, D.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Scribano, A.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.; Zetti, F.; Liello, F.

    1999-01-01

    The CLUE UV Cerenkov telescope array has started to take data with 8 telescopes in January 1998. The UV Cerenkov images obtained by the CLUE experiment are very different with respect to the visible case, and a new method for reconstructing the shower direction has been worked out. The shower reconstruction is shown and an application to recent data is given

  9. Reconstruction of showers at TeV energy by the CLUE Experiment and its application to recent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Cresti, M.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sbarra, C.; Bigongiari, C.; Cocca, E.; Lucchesi, D.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Scribano, A.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.; Zetti, F.; Liello, F

    1999-03-01

    The CLUE UV Cerenkov telescope array has started to take data with 8 telescopes in January 1998. The UV Cerenkov images obtained by the CLUE experiment are very different with respect to the visible case, and a new method for reconstructing the shower direction has been worked out. The shower reconstruction is shown and an application to recent data is given.

  10. Cosmic Rays and Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    We begin with a brief introduction of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and its main features. At energies higher than 105 GeV cosmic rays are detected by the showers they initiate in the atmosphere. We continues with a brief description of the energy spectrum and composition derived from air shower data.

  11. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews research done on theoretical high energy physics. Areas of discussion are: chiral symmetry; quantum chromodynamics; quark-gluon plasma; particle decay of kaons; photonuclear reactions from cosmic ray showers; symmetry breaking and other related topics

  12. Shocks from high-energy nuclear-interacting particles in the mountain Chakaltajya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    Experimental investigations of extensive air showers at the height of 5200 m above the sea level have been performed. The behaviour of high energy nuclear active particles in the cores of the showers has been studied using the nuclear knock-on method. The cross section of the proton inelastic interaction with the air is shown to increase with energy in the energy range of 3-9 TeV.

  13. An analytic parton shower. Algorithms, implementation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Sebastian

    2012-06-15

    The realistic simulation of particle collisions is an indispensable tool to interpret the data measured at high-energy colliders, for example the now running Large Hadron Collider at CERN. These collisions at these colliders are usually simulated in the form of exclusive events. This thesis focuses on the perturbative QCD part involved in the simulation of these events, particularly parton showers and the consistent combination of parton showers and matrix elements. We present an existing parton shower algorithm for emissions off final state partons along with some major improvements. Moreover, we present a new parton shower algorithm for emissions off incoming partons. The aim of these particular algorithms, called analytic parton shower algorithms, is to be able to calculate the probabilities for branchings and for whole events after the event has been generated. This allows a reweighting procedure to be applied after the events have been simulated. We show a detailed description of the algorithms, their implementation and the interfaces to the event generator WHIZARD. Moreover we discuss the implementation of a MLM-type matching procedure and an interface to the shower and hadronization routines from PYTHIA. Finally, we compare several predictions by our implementation to experimental measurements at LEP, Tevatron and LHC, as well as to predictions obtained using PYTHIA. (orig.)

  14. An analytic parton shower. Algorithms, implementation and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian

    2012-06-01

    The realistic simulation of particle collisions is an indispensable tool to interpret the data measured at high-energy colliders, for example the now running Large Hadron Collider at CERN. These collisions at these colliders are usually simulated in the form of exclusive events. This thesis focuses on the perturbative QCD part involved in the simulation of these events, particularly parton showers and the consistent combination of parton showers and matrix elements. We present an existing parton shower algorithm for emissions off final state partons along with some major improvements. Moreover, we present a new parton shower algorithm for emissions off incoming partons. The aim of these particular algorithms, called analytic parton shower algorithms, is to be able to calculate the probabilities for branchings and for whole events after the event has been generated. This allows a reweighting procedure to be applied after the events have been simulated. We show a detailed description of the algorithms, their implementation and the interfaces to the event generator WHIZARD. Moreover we discuss the implementation of a MLM-type matching procedure and an interface to the shower and hadronization routines from PYTHIA. Finally, we compare several predictions by our implementation to experimental measurements at LEP, Tevatron and LHC, as well as to predictions obtained using PYTHIA. (orig.)

  15. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning? : A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow,

  16. DCT Trigger in a High-Resolution Test Platform for the Detection of Very Inclined Showers in Pierre Auger Surface Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Wiedeński, Michał

    2017-06-01

    We present first results from a trigger based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) operating in new front-end boards with a Cyclone V E field-programmable gate array (FPGA) deployed in seven test surface detectors in the Pierre Auger Test Array. The patterns of the ADC traces generated by very inclined showers (arriving at 70° to 90° from the vertical) were obtained from the Auger database and from the CORSIKA simulation package supported by the Auger OffLine event reconstruction platform that gives predicted digitized signal profiles. Simulations for many values of the initial cosmic ray angle of arrival, the shower initialization depth in the atmosphere, the type of particle, and its initial energy gave a boundary on the DCT coefficients used for the online pattern recognition in the FPGA. Preliminary results validated the approach used. We recorded several showers triggered by the DCT for 120 Msamples/s and 160 Msamples/s.

  17. The electromagnetic shower library for the Stockholm AMANDA Monte Carlo program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qin.

    1996-05-01

    The Shower Library has been applied in the simulation for the AMANDA experiment which measures up-going muons induced by high energy neutrinos at the South Pole. With a detector measuring Cherenkov radiation in mind, only the information of the Cherenkov photons from the showers were stored in the library in the version of the program described here. The library contains 1000 electromagnetic showers with energies from 0.1 GeV to 100 GeV in steps according to a flat logarithmic distribution. 11 refs, 18 figs

  18. Composition sensitivity of the Auger observatory through inclined showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ave, M.; Watson, A.A.; Hinton, J.A.; Vazquez, R.A.; Zas, E.

    2003-01-01

    We report a calculation of the expected rate of inclined air showers induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays to be obtained by the Auger Southern Observatory assuming different mass compositions. We describe some features that can be used to distinguish photons at energies as high as 10 20 eV. The discrimination of photons at such energies will help to test some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

  19. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  20. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  1. Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodh, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived

  2. The “Carpet-3” air shower array to search for diffuse gamma rays with energy Eγ>100TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhappuev, D. D.; I, V. B. Petkov V.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Lidvansky, A. S.; Volchenko, V. I.; Volchenko, G. V.; Gorbacheva, E. A.; Dzaparova, I. M.; Klimenko, N. F.; Kurenya, A. N.; Mikhilova, O. I.; Khadzhiev, M. M.; Yanin, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    At present an experiment for measuring the flux of cosmic diffuse gamma rays with energy higher than 100 TeV (experiment “Carpet-3”) is being prepared at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences. The preparation of the experiment implies considerable enlargement of the area of both muon detector and surface part of the shower array. At the moment the plastic scintillation counters with a total continuous area of 410 m2 are installed in the muon detector (MD) underground tunnels, and they are totally equipped with electronics. Adjusting of the counters and their electronic circuits is in progress. Six modules of shower detectors (out of twenty planned to be installed) have already been placed on the surface of the MD absorber. A new liquid scintillation detector is developed for modules of the ground -surface part of the array, whose characteristics are presented. It is shown that the “Carpet-3” air shower array will have the best sensitivity to the flux of primary gamma rays with energies in the range 100TeV - 1PeV, being quite competitive in gamma-ray astronomy at such energies.

  3. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.J.; Chefdeville, M.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Gallus, Petr; Havránek, Miroslav; Janata, Milan; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lednický, Denis; Marčišovský, Michal; Polák, Ivo; Popule, Jiří; Tomášek, Lukáš; Růžička, Pavel; Šícho, Petr; Smolík, Jan; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, Sep (2013), s. 1-22 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA09042 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : calorimeters * detector modelling and simulations * analysis and statistical methods Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013

  4. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.; Martinec, E.J.; Sachs, R.G.

    1989-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on theoretical High Energy Physics research done by the researchers at University of Chicago. Some topics covered are: lepton production; kaon decay; Higgs boson production; electric dipole moment of the neutron; string models; supersymmetry; and cosmic ray shower

  5. Shower library technique for fast simulation of showers in calorimeters of the H1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raičević, N.; Glazov, A.; Zhokin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fast simulation of showers in calorimeters is very important for particle physics analysis since shower simulation typically takes significant amount of the simulation time. At the same time, a simulation must reproduce experimental data in the best possible way. In this paper, a fast simulation of showers in two calorimeters of the H1 experiment is presented. High speed and good quality of shower simulation is achieved by using a shower library technique in which the detector response is simulated using a collection of stored showers for different particle types and topologies. The library is created using the GEANT programme. The fast simulation based on shower library is compared to the data collected by the H1 experiment

  6. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, E; Boudreau, J; Mueller, J; Tsulaia, V; Butler, B; Young, C C; Cheung, S L; Savard, P; Dell'Acqua, A; Simone, A D; Gallas, M V; Ehrenfeld, W; Glazov, A; Placakyte, R; Marshall, Z; Rimoldi, A; Waugh, A

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterisation is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to ∼ 1GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper

  7. Cosmic ray radio emission as air shower detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curutiu, Alexandru; Rusu, Mircea; Isar, Gina; Zgura, Sorin

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of radio-detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (within the 10 to 100 MHz range) are discussed. Currently, air showers are detected by various methods, mainly based on particle detectors (KASCADE, Auger) or optical detection (Cerenkov radiation). Recently,to detect radio emission from cosmic ray air showers a method using electromagnetic radiation in low frequency domain (LOFAR) was proposed. We are investigating this possibility, using simulation codes created to investigate electromagnetic radiation of intricate antennae structure, for example fractal antennas. Some of the preliminary results will be communicated in this session. (authors)

  8. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K.; Vankov, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution (η) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10 19.5 eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis

  9. Simulation Study on Identifiability of UHE Gamma-ray Air Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Y.; Inoue, N.; Miyazawa, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Vankov, H.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgaria Academy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-01-15

    The chemical composition of Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) comic rays is one of unsolved mysteries, and its study will give us fruitful information on the origin and acceleration mechanism of UHE cosmic rays. Especially, a detection of UHE gamma-rays by hybrid experiments, such as AUGER and TA, will be a key to solve these questions. The characteristics of UHE gamma-ray showers have been studied by comparing the lateral and longitudinal structures of shower particles calculated with AIRES and our own simulation code, so far. There are apparent differences in a slope of lateral distribution ({eta}) and a depth of shower maximum (Xmax) between gamma-ray and proton induced showers because UHE gamma-ray showers are affected by the LPM effect and the geomagnetic cascading process in an energy region of >10{sup 19.5}eV. Different features between gamma-ray and proton showers are pointed out from the simulation study and an identifiability of gamma-ray showers from proton ones is also discussed by the method of Neural-Network-Analysis.

  10. Reweighting Parton Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Johannes; Richardson, Peter; Siódmok, Andrzej; Webster, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the possibility of reweighting parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions for scale variations in the parton-shower algorithm. The method is based on a generalization of the Sudakov veto algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using example physical distributions. Implementations are available for both the parton-shower modules in the Herwig 7 event generator.

  11. The MIDAS experiment: A prototype for the microwave emission of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monasor, M.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bodgan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Genat, J.F.; Facal San Luis, P.; Mills, E.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Wayne, S.; Reyes, L.C.; Santos, E.M.; Privitera, P.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2011-01-01

    Recent measurements suggest that extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) emit signals in the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum caused by the collisions of the free-electrons with the atmospheric neutral molecules in the plasma produced by the passage of the shower. Such emission is isotropic and could allow the detection of air showers with 100% duty cycle and a calorimetric-like energy measurement, a significant improvement over current detection techniques. We have built MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers), a prototype of microwave detector, which consists of a 4.5 m diameter antenna with a cluster of 53 feed-horns in the 4 GHz range. The details of the prototype and first results will be presented.

  12. Studies on muon showers underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; Castagnoli, C; Dardo, M; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Picchi, P; Visentin, R [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Sitte, K [Freiburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1976-08-21

    The 4 m/sup 2/ spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, and to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm/sup 2/ of rock.

  13. Studies on muon showers underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, L.; Castagnoli, C.; Dardo, M.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Visentin, R.; Sitte, K.

    1976-01-01

    The 4 m 2 spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, adn to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm 2 of rock

  14. pp interactions in extended air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendi Kohara A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the recently constructed analytic representation for the pp scattering amplitudes, we present a study of p-air cross sections, with comparison to the data from Extensive Air Shower (EAS measurements. The amplitudes describe with precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies, and its theoretical basis, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permit reliable extrapolation to higher energies and to asymptotic ranges. The comparison with cosmic ray data is very satisfactory in the whole pp energy interval from 1 to 100 TeV. High energy asymptotic behaviour of cross sections is investigated in view of the geometric scaling property of the amplitudes. The amplitudes predict that the proton does not behave as a black disk even at asymptotically high enegies, and we discuss possible non-trivial consequences of this fact for pA collision cross sections at higher energies.

  15. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  16. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We report here on progress made for the period from December 1, 1992 (the date of submission of our latest progress report) to November 30, 1993 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-92ER40717. The new results from the SMC experiment have generated a buzz of theoretical activity. Our involvement with the D0 experiment and the upgrade has increased substantially during the past two years so that we now have six people heavily committed and making what can only be described as a large and disproportionate impact on D0 physics output. Some of the new developments made here at Rice in Neural Network and Probability Density Estimation techniques for data analysis promise to have applications both in D0 and beyond. We report a load of new results from our high-p t jet photoproduction experiment. In addition we have been working on KTeV, albeit without having adequate funding for this work. Progress on the theoretical front has been nothing short of amazing, as is reported herein. In a grand lecture tour during this sabbatical year, Paul Stevenson has already reported his breakthroughs at ten institutions, including CERN, Oxford, Cambridge, Rutherford Lab, Imperial College, and Durham University. The group at Rice University has had an exceptionally productive year and we are justifiably proud of the progress which is reported here

  17. Delayed hadrons in air showers observed in Chacaltaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Fumio

    1984-01-01

    Bolivian Air Shower Joint Experiment group has studied high energy interaction by measuring the aspect of vertical growth of air showers of 10 16 eV or more at Mt. Chacaltaya Space Physics Observatory at 5200 m above sea level and atmospheric depth of 550 g/cm 2 . The aspect of vertical growth of electrons from about 100 g/cm 2 to about 400 g/cm 2 of atmospheric depth obtained by the measured results of the time of arrival distribution of air Cherenkov radiation at Mt. Chacaltaya agreed with the one predicted from the enhanced 1/2 power of E model. Since the vertical growth of electrons and muons in about 10 17 eV air showers from the atmospheric apex was difficult to give the unified explanation with known interaction models, the University of Tokyo group has proposed a two-component model for air shower growth. If this second component is formed from heavy particles or heavy quantum state as parents, it should be observed as the component which arrives later in air shower. Thus, the measurement and experiment on the delayed hadrons in air showers have been started. In this paper, the experiment, analysis and results are reported. It is clear that the parent particles which caused such a phenomenon were not pions which were multiply generated by the interaction generally known. Therefore, an exact simulating calculation must be performed and compared with the experimental results to obtain the final conclusion from the measured results of this time. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Air shower measurements with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horneffer, A.; Bähren, L.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.R.; Kuijpers, J.; Lafebre, S.; Nigl, A.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.

    2009-01-01

    Air showers from cosmic rays emit short, intense radio pulses. The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is a new radio telescope, that is being built in the Netherlands and Europe. Designed primarily as a radio interferometer, the core of LOFAR will have a high density of radio antennas, which will be

  19. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  20. Method for high precision reconstruction of air shower Xmax using two-dimensional radio intensity profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, Gia

    2014-01-01

    The mass composition of cosmic rays contains important clues about their origin. Accurate measurements are needed to resolve longstanding issues such as the transition from Galactic to extra-Galactic origin and the nature of the cutoff observed at the highest energies. Composition can be studied by

  1. Sunshine and light showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Sunshine and light showers are forecast for the Oscar winning actor Cate Blanchett as she increasingly greens her lifestyle. She is installing solar panels to power her Sydney home and has cut her showers back to a maximum of four minutes to help save water in drought-stricken Australia. And that is only a beginning, for she is also greening her main place of work, is campaigning on solar power and climate change, and has committed to other changes in her life to save energy and water. Blanchett - who sprang to fame in the title role of the film Elisabeth ten years ago - learned conservation when growing up in Melbourne in the 1970s from her grandmother who had lived through the Great Depression and, as a result, insisted in recycling and on letting nothing go to waste. She grew up to win an Oscar for her role in Martin Scorsese's The Aviator, amid a host of other top awards, and was spurred into environmental activism by reading about her country's growing water crisis. She says: 'As I see it, there is no greater challenge we face as a species than dealing with climate change and its effects. I care about it because of my children. I want to safeguard their future. It is an inescapable problem, but also provides us with an opportunity to change for the better. To change the way we consume, the way we think, and the way we behave. By assuming responsibility, we protect and respect the generations behind us.' Together with her husband, playwright Andrew Upton, she has started by setting out to 'greenovate' their home: powering it with solar energy, using natural air flows rather than air conditioning to cool it, and recycling grey water. The couple also plan to extend the improvements to the Sydney Theatre Company, where they are joint artistic directors, with the aim of running off-grid for a whole season. 'I really love a refreshing shower,' she says, but has installed a timer to stop them after four minutes. Indeed she tries to make them even shorter

  2. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.D.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R. [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Bähren, L.; Falcke, H. [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Pierro, F. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului no. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); De Souza, V. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, Pq. Arnold Schmidt, São Carlos (Brazil); Fuchs, B. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gemmeke, H. [Institut für Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Grupen, C., E-mail: frank.schroeder@kit.edu [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany); and others

    2014-09-01

    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles smaller than 45{sup o}, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of approximately hyperbolic shape. The simulations predict a slightly steeper wavefront towards East than towards West, but this asymmetry is negligible against the measurement uncertainties of LOPES. At axis distances ∼> 50 m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is limited by measurement uncertainties to approximately 140 g/c {sup 2}. But the simulations indicate that under better conditions this method might yield an accuracy for the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, X{sub max}, better than 30 g/c {sup 2}. This would be competitive with the established air-fluorescence and air-Cherenkov techniques, where the radio technique offers the advantage of a significantly higher duty-cycle. Finally, the hyperbolic wavefront can be used to reconstruct the shower geometry more accurately, which potentially allows a better reconstruction of all other shower parameters, too.

  3. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    During the past seven years, the DREAM collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development ${(dual}$ ${readout}$), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contirbutions of nuclear evaporation neutrons to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in "invisible energy". We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrat...

  4. Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Smith, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    At our current understanding of elementary particle physics, the fundamental constituents are the photon, quarks, gluons and leptons with a few highly forecasted heavy bosons. Calorimeters are essential for detecting all of these particles. Quarks and gluons fragment into many particles - at high energies, so many particles that one may not want to measure each one separately. This group of both charged and neutral particles can only be measured by calorimeters. The energy of an electron needs to be measured by a calorimeter and muon identification is enhanced by the recognition of a minimum ionizing particle passing through the calorimeter. Sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers - are reviewed. What follows is a very cursory overview of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First, the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then, examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described. 21 references

  5. Calculations with off-shell matrix elements, TMD parton densities and TMD parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Marcin; Hameren, Andreas van; Kutak, Krzysztof; Sapeta, Sebastian [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Jung, Hannes [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Serino, Mirko [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel)

    2018-02-15

    A new calculation using off-shell matrix elements with TMD parton densities supplemented with a newly developed initial state TMD parton shower is described. The calculation is based on the KaTie package for an automated calculation of the partonic process in high-energy factorization, making use of TMD parton densities implemented in TMDlib. The partonic events are stored in an LHE file, similar to the conventional LHE files, but now containing the transverse momenta of the initial partons. The LHE files are read in by the Cascade package for the full TMD parton shower, final state shower and hadronization from Pythia where events in HEPMC format are produced. We have determined a full set of TMD parton densities and developed an initial state TMD parton shower, including all flavors following the TMD distribution. As an example of application we have calculated the azimuthal de-correlation of high p{sub t} dijets as measured at the LHC and found very good agreement with the measurement when including initial state TMD parton showers together with conventional final state parton showers and hadronization. (orig.)

  6. Final state dipole showers and the DGLAP equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2009-01-01

    We study a parton shower description, based on a dipole picture, of the final state in electron-positron annihilation. In such a shower, the distribution function describing the inclusive probability to find a quark with a given energy depends on the shower evolution time. Starting from the exclusive evolution equation for the shower, we derive an equation for the evolution of the inclusive quark energy distribution in the limit of strong ordering in shower evolution time of the successive parton splittings. We find that, as expected, this is the DGLAP equation. This paper is a response to a recent paper of Dokshitzer and Marchesini that raised troubling issues about whether a dipole based shower could give the DGLAP equation for the quark energy distribution.

  7. Fγ: A new observable for photon-hadron discrimination in hybrid air shower events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechciol, M.; Risse, M.; Ruehl, P.; Settimo, M.; Younk, P. W.; Yushkov, A.

    2018-01-01

    To search for ultra-high-energy photons in primary cosmic rays, air shower observables are needed that allow a good separation between primary photons and primary hadrons. We present a new observable, Fγ, which can be extracted from ground-array data in hybrid events, where simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal and the lateral shower profile are performed. The observable is based on a template fit to the lateral distribution measured by the ground array with the template taking into account the complementary information from the measurement of the longitudinal profile, i.e. the primary energy and the geometry of the shower. Fγ shows a very good photon-hadron separation, which is even superior to the separation given by the well-known Xmax observable (the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum). At energies around 1 EeV (10 EeV), Fγ provides a background rejection better than 97.8 % (99.9 %) at a signal efficiency of 50 %. Advantages of the observable Fγ are its technical stability with respect to irregularities in the ground array (i.e. missing or temporarily non-operating stations) and that it can be applied over the full energy range accessible to the air shower detector, down to its threshold energy. Furthermore, Fγ complements nicely to Xmax such that both observables can well be combined to achieve an even better discrimination power, exploiting the rich information available in hybrid events.

  8. A hydrophone prototype for ultra high energy neutrino acoustic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrufo, A.; Plotnikov, A.; Yershova, O.; Anghinolfi, M.; Piombo, D.

    2009-01-01

    The design of an air-backed fiber-optic hydrophone is presented. With respect to the previous models this prototype is optimized to provide a bandwidth sufficiently large to detect acoustic signals produced by high energy hadronic showers in water. In addiction to the geometrical configuration and to the choice of the materials, the preliminary results of the measured performances in air are presented.

  9. A hydrophone prototype for ultra high energy neutrino acoustic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrufo, A. [University of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 (Italy)], E-mail: cotrufo@ge.infn.it; Plotnikov, A.; Yershova, O. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, GmbH Planckstrasse1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Anghinolfi, M.; Piombo, D. [INFN, University of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    The design of an air-backed fiber-optic hydrophone is presented. With respect to the previous models this prototype is optimized to provide a bandwidth sufficiently large to detect acoustic signals produced by high energy hadronic showers in water. In addiction to the geometrical configuration and to the choice of the materials, the preliminary results of the measured performances in air are presented.

  10. QGSJET-II: physics, recent improvements, and results for air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapchenko S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of high energy hadronic and nuclear interactions by the QGSJET-II generator is discussed. Recent updates related to the treatment of nonlinear effects inthe interaction dynamics and to the model calibration with new LHC data are described. A special attention is devoted to the predictions of the new model version forcharacteristics of extensive air showers initiated by high energy cosmic rays. In particular, an improved description of charge exchange processes in pion collisionsis discussed and the respective enhancement of the shower muon content is analyzed.

  11. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  12. Progress in high-energy cosmic ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E.

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in our knowledge about high-energy cosmic rays, with an emphasis on the interpretation of the different observational results. We discuss the effects that are relevant to shape the cosmic ray spectrum and the explanations proposed to account for its features and for the observed changes in composition. The physics of air-showers is summarized and we also present the results obtained on the proton-air cross section and on the muon content of the showers. We discuss the cosmic ray propagation through magnetic fields, the effects of diffusion and of magnetic lensing, the cosmic ray interactions with background radiation fields and the production of secondary neutrinos and photons. We also consider the cosmic ray anisotropies, both at large and small angular scales, presenting the results obtained from the TeV up to the highest energies and discuss the models proposed to explain their origin.

  13. Parameterized Shower Simulation in Lelaps: a Comparison with Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langeveld, Willy G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The detector simulation toolkit Lelaps[1] simulates electromagnetic and hadronic showers in calorimetric detector elements of high-energy particle detectors using a parameterization based on the algorithms originally developed by Grindhammer and Peters[2] and Bock et al.[3]. The primary motivations of the present paper are to verify the implementation of the parameterization, to explore regions of energy where the parameterization is valid and to serve as a basis for further improvement of the algorithm. To this end, we compared the Lelaps simulation to a detailed simulation provided by Geant4[4]. A number of different calorimeters, both electromagnetic and hadronic, were implemented in both programs. Longitudinal and radial shower profiles and their fluctuations were obtained from Geant4 over a wide energy range and compared with those obtained from Lelaps. Generally the longitudinal shower profiles are found to be in good agreement in a large part of the energy range, with poorer results at energies below about 300 MeV. Radial profiles agree well in homogeneous detectors, but are somewhat deficient in segmented ones. These deficiencies are discussed

  14. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Hans

    2017-06-01

    IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  15. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembinski Hans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  16. A large air shower array to search for astrophysical sources emitting γ-rays with energies ≥1014 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borione, A.; Covault, C.E.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Krimm, H.A.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Sanders, H.; Catanese, M.; Ciampa, D.; Green, K.D.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; Van der Velde, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the technical details and the performance of a large array which detects both the electron and muon components in extensive air showers with energies ≥10 14 eV. The array was designed to search for γ-rays from astrophysical sources. The background of cosmic rays is reduced by the selection of muon poor events. The array consists of 1089 scintillation detectors on the surface covering an area of 0.23 km 2 and 1024 scintillation counters of 2.5 m 2 each, buried 3 m below the surface for muon detection. Each of the surface detectors has its own local electronics and local data storage controlled by a microprocessor. The array is located at Dugway, Utah USA (40.2 N, 112.8 W) where the average atmospheric depth is 870 g/cm 2 . ((orig.))

  17. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  18. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

  19. Monte Carlo benchmark calculations of energy deposition by electron/photon showers up to 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T.A.; Halbleib, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Over the past several years the TIGER series of coupled electron/photon Monte Carlo transport codes has been applied to a variety of problems involving nuclear and space radiations, electron accelerators, and radioactive sources. In particular, they have been used at Sandia to simulate the interaction of electron beams, generated by pulsed-power accelerators, with various target materials for weapons effect simulation, and electron beam fusion. These codes are based on the ETRAN system which was developed for an energy range from about 10 keV up to a few tens of MeV. In this paper we will discuss the modifications that were made to the TIGER series of codes in order to extend their applicability to energies of interest to the high energy physics community (up to 1 GeV). We report the results of a series of benchmark calculations of the energy deposition by high energy electron beams in various materials using the modified codes. These results are then compared with the published results of various experimental measurements and other computational models

  20. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  1. Radio morphing - towards a full parametrisation of the radio signal from air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilles, A.; Charrier, D.; Kotera, K.; Le Coz, S.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Medina, C.; Niess, V.; Tueros, M.; de Vries, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, radio detection of air showers has been established as a detection technique for ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere with energies far beyond LHC energies. Today’s second-generation of digital radio-detection experiments, as e.g. AERA or LOFAR, are becoming competitive in comparison to already standard techniques e.g. fluorescence light detection. Thanks to a detailed understanding of the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers, simulations of the radio signal are already successfully tested and applied in the reconstruction of cosmic rays. However the limits of the computational power resources are easily reached when it comes to computing electric fields at the numerous positions requested by large or dense antenna arrays. In the case of mountainous areas as e.g. for the GRAND array, where 3D shower simulations are necessary, the problem arises with even stronger acuity. Therefore we developed a full parametrisation of the emitted radio signal on the basis of generic shower simulations which will reduce the simulation time by orders of magnitudes. In this talk we will present this concept after a short introduction to the concept of the radio detection of air-shower induced by cosmic rays.

  2. Space-Time Development of Electromagnetic and Hadronic Showers and Perspectives for Novel Calorimetric Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Benaglia, Andrea; Lecoq, Paul; Wenzel, Hans; Para, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The performance of hadronic calorimeters will be a key parameter at the next generation of High Energy Physics accelerators. A detector combining fine granularity with excellent timing information would prove beneficial for the reconstruction of both jets and electromagnetic particles with high energy resolution. In this work, the space and time structure of high energy showers is studied by means of a Geant4-based simulation toolkit. In particular, the relevant time scales of the different physics phenomena contributing to the energy loss are investigated. A correlation between the fluctuations of the energy deposition of high energy hadrons and the time development of the showers is observed, which allows for an event-by-event correction to be computed to improve the energy resolution of the calorimeter. These studies are intended to set the basic requirements for the development of a new-concept, total absorption time-imaging calorimeter, which seems now within reach thanks to major technological advanceme...

  3. ATLAS and ultra high energy cosmic ray physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfold James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction to extended air shower cosmic ray physics the current and future deployment of forward detectors at ATLAS is discussed along with the various aspects of the current and future ATLAS programs to explore hadronic physics. The emphasis is placed on those results and future plans that have particular relevance for high-energy, and ultra high-energy, cosmic ray physics. The possible use of ATLAS as an “underground” cosmic muon observatory is briefly considered.

  4. Dependence of Xmax and multiplicity of electron and muon on different high energy interaction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rastegarzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Different high energy interaction models are the applied in CORSIKA code to simulate Extensive Air Showers (EAS generated by Cosmic Rays (CR. In this work the effects of QGSJET01, QGSJETII, DPMJET, SIBYLL models on Xmax and multiplicity of secondary electrons and muons at observation level are studied.

  5. Statistical modeling in phenomenological description of electromagnetic cascade processes produced by high-energy gamma quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slowinski, B.

    1987-01-01

    A description of a simple phenomenological model of electromagnetic cascade process (ECP) initiated by high-energy gamma quanta in heavy absorbents is given. Within this model spatial structure and fluctuations of ionization losses of shower electrons and positrons are described. Concrete formulae have been obtained as a result of statistical analysis of experimental data from the xenon bubble chamber of ITEP (Moscow)

  6. Ultra high energy interaction models for Monte Carlo calculations: what model is the best fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    We briefly outline two methods for extension of hadronic interaction models to extremely high energy. Then we compare the main characteristics of representative computer codes that implement the different models and give examples of air shower parameters predicted by those codes.

  7. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  8. Detection of elusive radio and optical emission from cosmic-ray showers in the 1960s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegan, David J.

    2012-01-01

    During the 1960s, a small but vibrant community of cosmic ray physicists, pioneered novel optical methods of detecting extensive air showers (EAS) in the Earth's atmosphere with the prime objective of searching for point sources of energetic cosmic γ-rays. Throughout that decade, progress was extremely slow. Attempts to use the emission of optical Cherenkov radiation from showers as a basis for TeV gamma-ray astronomy proved difficult and problematical, given the rather primitive light-collecting systems in use at the time, coupled with a practical inability to reject the overwhelming background arising from hadronic showers. Simultaneously, a number of groups experimented with passive detection of radio emission from EAS as a possible cheap, simple, stand-alone method to detect and characterise showers of energy greater than 10 16 eV. By the end of the decade, it was shown that the radio emission was quite highly beamed and hence the effective collection area for detection of high energy showers was quite limited, diminishing the effectiveness of the radio signature as a stand-alone shower detection channel. By the early 1970s much of the early optimism for both the optical and radio techniques was beginning to dissipate, greatly reducing research activity. However, following a long hiatus both avenues were in time revived, the optical in the early 1980s and the radio in the early 2000s. With the advent of digital logic hardware, powerful low-cost computing, the ability to perform Monte Carlo simulations and above all, greatly improved funding, rapid progress became possible. In time this work proved to be fundamental to both High Energy γ-ray Astronomy and Neutrino Astrophysics. Here, that first decade of experimental investigation in both fields is reviewed.

  9. Detection of elusive radio and optical emission from cosmic-ray showers in the 1960s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegan, David J., E-mail: david.fegan@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2012-01-11

    During the 1960s, a small but vibrant community of cosmic ray physicists, pioneered novel optical methods of detecting extensive air showers (EAS) in the Earth's atmosphere with the prime objective of searching for point sources of energetic cosmic {gamma}-rays. Throughout that decade, progress was extremely slow. Attempts to use the emission of optical Cherenkov radiation from showers as a basis for TeV gamma-ray astronomy proved difficult and problematical, given the rather primitive light-collecting systems in use at the time, coupled with a practical inability to reject the overwhelming background arising from hadronic showers. Simultaneously, a number of groups experimented with passive detection of radio emission from EAS as a possible cheap, simple, stand-alone method to detect and characterise showers of energy greater than 10{sup 16} eV. By the end of the decade, it was shown that the radio emission was quite highly beamed and hence the effective collection area for detection of high energy showers was quite limited, diminishing the effectiveness of the radio signature as a stand-alone shower detection channel. By the early 1970s much of the early optimism for both the optical and radio techniques was beginning to dissipate, greatly reducing research activity. However, following a long hiatus both avenues were in time revived, the optical in the early 1980s and the radio in the early 2000s. With the advent of digital logic hardware, powerful low-cost computing, the ability to perform Monte Carlo simulations and above all, greatly improved funding, rapid progress became possible. In time this work proved to be fundamental to both High Energy {gamma}-ray Astronomy and Neutrino Astrophysics. Here, that first decade of experimental investigation in both fields is reviewed.

  10. The time development of hadronic showers and the T3B experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    photons on the light sensor could be determined with sub-nanosecond precision. Embedded in a custom calibration and analysis framework, this allows for a precise study of shower timing on the nanosecond level. The T3B experiment could prove an increased contribution of the delayed shower component in tungsten with respect to steel via a detailed study of the time distribution of energy depositions. In addition, it is observed that the relative importance of late energy depositions increases with radial distance from the shower axis. This increase is substantially more pronounced in tungsten with respect to steel. It could be shown that the standard hadronic shower model QGSPBERT, used for shower simulations at the LHC as well as for most CLIC physics studies, overestimates the delayed shower evolution systematically, while high precision extensions using precise neutron tracking models can reproduce the shower timing adequately. No significant difference in the delayed shower contribution was observed for different particle energies in a range between 60 GeV and 180 GeV.

  11. The time development of hadronic showers and the T3B experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldner, Christian

    2013-06-06

    , the time of arrival of photons on the light sensor could be determined with sub-nanosecond precision. Embedded in a custom calibration and analysis framework, this allows for a precise study of shower timing on the nanosecond level. The T3B experiment could prove an increased contribution of the delayed shower component in tungsten with respect to steel via a detailed study of the time distribution of energy depositions. In addition, it is observed that the relative importance of late energy depositions increases with radial distance from the shower axis. This increase is substantially more pronounced in tungsten with respect to steel. It could be shown that the standard hadronic shower model QGSPBERT, used for shower simulations at the LHC as well as for most CLIC physics studies, overestimates the delayed shower evolution systematically, while high precision extensions using precise neutron tracking models can reproduce the shower timing adequately. No significant difference in the delayed shower contribution was observed for different particle energies in a range between 60 GeV and 180 GeV.

  12. The ultimate air shower observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing an international air shower observatory in the Himalayas is explored. A site at about 6500 m elevation (450 g/cm 2 ) would provide more definitive measurements of composition and early interaction properties of primaries above 10 16 eV than can be achieved with existing arrays. By supplementing a surface array with a Fly's Eye and muon detectors, information on the highest energy cosmic rays may be gained which is not possible in any other way. Potential sites, technical aspects, and logistical problems are explored

  13. Effects of massive photons from the dark sector on the muon content in extensive air showers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebr, Jan; Nečesal, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 725, 4-5 (2013), s. 185-189 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : dark matter * bremsstrahlung * extensive air shower * muon production Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.019, year: 2013

  14. The Hisparc cosmic ray experiment : data acquisition and reconstruction of shower direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D.; Fokkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of cosmic ray physics is a century old and an exciting area of research. When cosmic ray particles enter our atmosphere they collide with air molecules creating new high-energy particles. These particles participate in further collisions and the entire process is known as an air shower.

  15. Electron-photon shower distribution function tables for lead, copper and air absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Messel, H

    2013-01-01

    Electron-Photon Shower Distribution Function: Tables for Lead, Copper and Air Absorbers presents numerical results of the electron-photon shower distribution function for lead, copper, and air absorbers. Electron or photon interactions, including Compton scattering, elastic Coulomb scattering, and the photo-electric effect, are taken into account in the calculations. This book consists of four chapters and begins with a review of both theoretical and experimental work aimed at deducing the characteristics of the cascade produced from the propagation of high energy electrons and photons through

  16. Extensive air showers and diffused Cherenkov light detection: The ULTRA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnetta, G.; Assis, P.; Biondo, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Uv Light Transmission and Reflection in the Atmosphere (ULTRA) experiment has been designed to provide quantitative measurements of the backscattered Cherenkov signal associated to the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) at the impact point on the Earth surface. The knowledge of such information will test the possibility to detect the diffused Cherenkov light spot from space within the Ultra high-energy cosmic ray observation. The Cherenkov signal is necessary to give an absolute reference for the track, allowing the measurement of the shower maximum and easing the separation between neutrino and hadronic showers. In this paper we discuss the experimental set-up with detailed information on the detection method; the in situ and laboratory calibrations; the simulation of the expected detector response and finally the preliminary results on the detector performance

  17. A background-free detector for cosmic ray showers in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzione, A.; Angelini, F.; Bedeschi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bertolucci, E.; Chiarelli, G.; Mariotti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Smith, D.A.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Resvanis, L.; Voulgaris, G.; Ypsilantis, T.; Tripp, R.; Torres, S.; Biral, A.R.P.; Chinellato, J.A.; Turtelli, A.; Bartoli, B.; Sinnis, G.; Weekes, D.; Cresti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pesci, A.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Luksys, M.; Chuang, K.W.; Kerrick, A.; O'Neil, T.J.; Tumer, T.; Zych, A.D.; Bicchi, P.; Meucci, M.; Moi, L.; Paoletti, R.; Rigato, M.; Scribano, A.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Cence, R.J.; Hayes, C.; Hudson, J.; Kelley, L.; Learned, J.G.; Paluselli, D.; Stenger, V.J.

    1992-01-01

    A detector of new design is planned to detect Cherenkov light in high energy cosmic ray showers. It is based on the detection of the middle-UV radiation by TMAE photosensitive chambers, giving detailed imaging of the shower, combined with the beneficial background screening of the ozone in the upper atmosphere. This allows us to greatly improve the duty-cycle, the sensitivity and the range of observations with respect to traditional Cherenkov experiments in the visible. A further advantage is the achievable big angular aperture which makes it possible to search for new sources with an efficiency similar to extensive air shower experiments. Details of the technique and achievable physics goals are presented. (orig.)

  18. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes due to cosmic ray shower electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate the relativistic runaway electron avalanches, RREA, that are presumed to be the cause of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes and their powerful accompanying Ionization/Excitation Flashes. We show here results of LEPTRACK simulations of RREA by the interaction of MeV energy electrons/positrons and photons in cosmic ray showers traversing plausible electric field geometries expected in storm clouds. The input beams of MeV shower products were created using the CORSIKA software package from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. We present images, videos and plots showing the different Ionization, Excitation and gamma-ray photon density fields produced, along with their time and spatial profile evolution, which depend critically on where the line of shower particles intercept the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons in the shower, which make up a significant fraction of shower products, in particular their apparent "orbiting" within a high altitude negative induced shielding charge layer, which has been conjectured to produce a signature microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question posed is if this conjectured positron emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to show if a TGF originates in the macro E-fields of storm clouds or the micro E-fields of lightning leaders where this positron "orbiting" is not likely to occur.

  19. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  20. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  1. Constraints on violation of Lorentz invariance from atmospheric showers initiated by multi-TeV photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsov, Grigory; Satunin, Petr; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: grisha@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: satunin@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: Sergey.Sibiryakov@cern.ch [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    Parameterizing hypothetical violation of Lorentz invariance at high energies using the framework of effective quantum field theory, we discuss its effect on the formation of atmospheric showers by very-high-energy gamma rays. In the scenario where Lorentz invariance violation leads to a decrease of the photon velocity with energy the formation of the showers is suppressed compared to the Lorentz invariant case. Absence of such suppression in the high-energy part of spectrum of the Crab nebula measured independently by HEGRA and H.E.S.S. collaborations is used to set lower bounds on the energy scale of Lorentz invariance violation. These bounds are competitive with the strongest existing constraints obtained from timing of variable astrophysical sources and the absorption of TeV photons on the extragalactic background light. They will be further improved by the next generation of multi-TeV gamma-ray observatories.

  2. What is a parton shower?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2017-05-01

    We consider idealized parton shower event generators that treat parton spin and color exactly, leaving aside the choice of practical approximations for spin and color. We investigate how the structure of such a parton shower generator is related to the structure of QCD. We argue that a parton shower with splitting functions proportional to αs can be viewed not just as a model, but as the lowest order approximation to a shower that is defined at any perturbative order. To support this argument, we present a formulation for a parton shower at order α k s for any k. Since some of the input functions needed are specified by their properties but not calculated, this formulation does not provide a useful recipe for an order α k s parton shower algorithm. However, in this formulation we see how the operators that generate the shower are related to operators that specify the infrared singularities of QCD.

  3. Clan properties in parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugoccioni, R.; Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.

    1994-01-01

    By considering clans as genuine elementary sub-processes, i.e., intermediate parton sources in the Simplified Parton Shower model, a generalized version of this model is defined. It predicts analytically clan properties at parton level in agreement with the general trends observed experimentally at hadronic level and in Monte Carlo simulations both at partonic and hadronic level. In particular the model shows a linear rising in rapidity of the average number of clans at fixed energy of the initial parton and its subsequent bending for rapidity intervals at the border of phase space, and approximate energy independence of the average number of clans in fixed rapidity intervals. The energy independence becomes stricter by properly normalizing the average number of clans (orig.)

  4. Clan properties in parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy)); Giovannini, A. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy)); Lupia, S. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy))

    1994-11-01

    By considering clans as genuine elementary sub-processes, i.e., intermediate parton sources in the Simplified Parton Shower model, a generalized version of this model is defined. It predicts analytically clan properties at parton level in agreement with the general trends observed experimentally at hadronic level and in Monte Carlo simulations both at partonic and hadronic level. In particular the model shows a linear rising in rapidity of the average number of clans at fixed energy of the initial parton and its subsequent bending for rapidity intervals at the border of phase space, and approximate energy independence of the average number of clans in fixed rapidity intervals. The energy independence becomes stricter by properly normalizing the average number of clans (orig.)

  5. Search for PeVatrons at the Galactic Center using a radio air-shower array at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal V, A.; Schroeder, F.G. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haungs, A.; Huege, T. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    The South Pole, which hosts the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, has a complete and around-the-clock exposure to the Galactic Center. Hence, it is an ideal location to search for gamma rays of PeV energy coming from the Galactic Center. However, it is hard to detect air showers initiated by these gamma rays using cosmic-ray particle detectors due to the low elevation of the Galactic Center. The use of antennas to measure the radio footprint of these air showers will help in this case, and would allow for a 24/7 operation time. So far, only air showers with energies well above 10{sup 16} eV have been detected with the radio technique. Thus, the energy threshold has to be lowered for the detection of gamma-ray showers of PeV energy. This can be achieved by optimizing the frequency band in order to obtain a higher level of signal-to-noise ratio. With such an approach, PeV gamma-ray showers with high inclination can be measured at the South Pole. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  7. The search for extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, D.; Chau, J.; Galindo, F.; Huaman, A.; Solano, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the status of the project to detect extended air showers at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We report on detected anomalous signals and present a toy model to estimate at what altitudes we might expect to see air shower signals. According to this model, a significant number of high altitude horizontal air showers could be observed by radar techniques.

  8. Phenomenon of energy concentration in super-high energy γ-hadron families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Zhiqiang; Xue Liang; Li Jinyu; Zhang Xueyao; Feng Cunfeng; Fu Yu; Li Jie; Cao Peiyuan; Zhang Naijian; He Mao; Wang Chengrui; Ren Jingru; Lu Suiling

    2000-01-01

    The family events observed with iron emulsion chambers at Mt. Kanbala are analyzed and compared with the simulations by the COSMOS code and CORSIKA code respectively. A detailed study on the production of super-high energy γ-hadron families with energy concentration behavior is carried out. The preliminary conclusions are: 1) the energy concentration behavior of super-high energy γ-hadron families is the external embodiment of high energy central shower clusters contained in the families. 2) the mean lateral spread of these clusters is about 0.37 cm. 3) the frequency of this phenomenon appeared under the conditions of R≤10 mm and X 10 ≥90% is (20.5 +- 3.1)%. 4) compared to the COSMOS code based on the phenomenological multi-cluster model, the simulation by the CORSIKA code that adopts SIBYLL model is closer to the analytical results of experiment

  9. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  10. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  11. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veberič Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  12. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1990-02-01

    Our scientific goal is to discover and study by means of gamma-ray astronomy those regions of the universe where particles are accelerated to extreme energies. The atmospheric Cherenkov technique provides a unique and potentially sensitive window in the region of 10 11 to approximately 10 14 eV for this purpose. The Whipple Observatory Collaboration is currently engaged in the development of a Cherenkov camera which has the ultimate capability of distinguishing gamma-ray showers from the numerous cosmic-ray background showers by imaging the Cherenkov light from each shower. We have recently demonstrated the potential of the imaging technique with our 18 sigma detection of TeV photons from the Crab Nebula using a camera of 10 elements, pixel spacing 0.25 degrees. This detection represents a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity compared to a non-imaging detector. The next step in the development of the detector is to obtain a second large reflector, similar to the present 10 meter instrument, for stereoscopic viewing of showers. This project, named GRANITE, is now approved by DOE. With GRANITE it should be possible to probe more deeply in space by a factor of 7, and to fully investigate the possibility of new physics which has been suggested by reports of anomalous radiation from Hercules X-1. 18 refs

  13. Results from Pion-Carbon Interactions Measured by NA61/SHINE for Improved Understanding of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Herve, Alexander

    2015-07-21

    The interpretation of extensive air shower measurements, produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, relies on the correct modeling of the hadron-air interactions that occur during the shower development. The majority of hadronic particles are produced at equivalent beam energies below the TeV range. NA61/SHINE is a fixed target experiment using secondary beams produced at CERN at the SPS. Hadron-hadron interactions have been recorded at beam momenta between 13 and 350 GeV/c with a wide-acceptance spectrometer. In this contribution we present measurements of the spectra of charged pions and the $\\rho^0$ production in pion-carbon interactions, which are essential for modeling of air showers.

  14. Study of electromagnetic and hadronic showers with liquid-argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschnabel, K.

    1978-05-01

    High energy electrons, pions and protons have been detected by two liquid-argon calorimeters. Measurements of the linearity and energy resolution of the detectors have been performed. As one of the detectors consisted of 80 sections, the spatial development of hadronic cascades could be studied. The results are in reasonable agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations. The spatial and angular resolutions of the detector have been evaluated. Using their different longitudinal shower development, electrons and hadrons could be separated. (orig.) [de

  15. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  16. High energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  17. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  18. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  19. Reconstruction of extensive air showers using the MIDAS molecular Bremsstrahlung detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Andre Ramos de; Bonifazi, Carla; Santos, Edivaldo Moura; Soares, Elvis do Amaral; Mello Neto, Joao Ramos Torres de; Almeida, Rogerio Menezes de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The weakly ionized plasma created in the atmosphere after the passage of an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) gives rise to the emission of continuous radiation known as Molecular Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR) as free electrons scatter off neutral nitrogen (and less frequently oxygen) molecules. The isotropic and unpolarized nature of MBR rises the possibility of an EAS detection similar to that using fluorescence telescopes to capture the ultraviolet light emitted by the ionized nitrogen molecules. The MBR emission, however, falls into the centimeter wavelength range, requiring the use of radio/microwave antennas instead of optical telescopes. In order to test the feasibility of the technique, the MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) Collaboration has built a prototype detector where a parabolical reflector illuminates a multi-pixel camera of commercial TV satellite C-band (3.4-4.2 GHz) feeds. This work addresses the geometrical reconstruction of EAS induced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using the MIDAS detector. The reconstruction chain is similar to that currently applied to the Auger Fluorescence detector events. We have simulated the shower MBR emission assuming two different scenarios: coherent and incoherent emission, i.e., radiation intensity scaling quadratically and linearly with the energy of the primary particle. The MIDAS prototype detector's response is then simulated. Finally, given the simulated events in real data format, we reconstruct the shower's arrival direction, including direction uncertainties and estimate the expected rate of observed events. (author)

  20. Test of a proportional tube modulus used to localize the electromagnetic showers in a calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are given results of a test in an electron-hadron beam (5-92 GeV) of the prototype of a position detector. This position detector consists of proportional tubes with charge division readout; it will be used in the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter ('bouchon') of the UA1 experiment at CERN (pantip collisions at a center of mass energy of 540 GeV). This detector gives the position of the showers, and also a coarse value of their energy. Results about properties of the tubes (saturation phenomena, position and energy accuracies) and, then, results about the development of high energy electromagnetic showers in lead-plastic sandwich are given here [fr

  1. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  2. Migration of Monte Carlo simulation of high energy atmospheric showers to GRID infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Adolfo; Contreras, Jose Luis [Grupo de Altas EnergIas Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear Universidad Complutense de Madrid Avenida Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid - Spain (Spain); Calle, Ignacio de la; Ibarra, Aitor; Tapiador, Daniel, E-mail: avazquez@gae.ucm.e [INSA. IngenierIa y Servicios Aeroespaciales S.A. Paseo Pintor Rosales 34, 28008 Madrid - Spain (Spain)

    2010-04-01

    A system to run Monte Carlo simulations on a Grid environment is presented. The architectural design proposed uses the current resources of the MAGIC Virtual Organization on EGEE and can be easily generalized to support the simulation of any similar experiment, such as that of the future European planned project, the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The proposed system is based on a Client/Server architecture, and provides the user with a single access point to the simulation environment through a remote graphical user interface, the Client. The Client can be accessed via web browser, using web service technology, with no additional software installation on the user side required. The Server processes the user request and uses a database for both data catalogue and job management inside the Grid. The design, first production tests and lessons learned from the system will be discussed here.

  3. Migration of Monte Carlo simulation of high energy atmospheric showers to GRID infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Adolfo; Contreras, Jose Luis; Calle, Ignacio de la; Ibarra, Aitor; Tapiador, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A system to run Monte Carlo simulations on a Grid environment is presented. The architectural design proposed uses the current resources of the MAGIC Virtual Organization on EGEE and can be easily generalized to support the simulation of any similar experiment, such as that of the future European planned project, the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The proposed system is based on a Client/Server architecture, and provides the user with a single access point to the simulation environment through a remote graphical user interface, the Client. The Client can be accessed via web browser, using web service technology, with no additional software installation on the user side required. The Server processes the user request and uses a database for both data catalogue and job management inside the Grid. The design, first production tests and lessons learned from the system will be discussed here.

  4. Ultra-high energy signals from Hercules X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The expectation that high-energy neutrinos are emitted from astrophysical objects depends strongly on the observation of those objects in gamma-rays, especially at TeV and PeV energies. A search for bursts of gamma-ray events from Hercules X-1 at energies above 50 TeV yielded two significant bursts, both occurring on UT 24 July 1986. The events were pulsed with a period of 1.23568 s, significantly different from estimates of the pulsar period at that time. The probability that the signal is a random background fluctuation is about 2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/, not including the fact that there were two other independent observations of the source at nearly the same time. The muon content of the burst events is anomalous when compared with expectations of gamma-ray showers, perhaps signalling the onset of new physics at these energies. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Electromagnetic-shower development in concrete and the punchthrough effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikocki, S.; Poirier, J.

    1987-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo calculations of the cascade curves in a concrete absorber for showers initiated by photons with energies from 10 MeV to 100 GeV. As an application of these curves, we estimate the punchthrough effect of photons and electrons in extensive-air-shower arrays which use a concrete absorber to identify muons. The results indicate that this effect is negligible

  6. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic showers. Part 3: The ANI prototype calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, Ts.A.; Mamidjanyan, E.A.; Sanossyan, Kh.N.

    1992-01-01

    Hadronic showers initiated by 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20, 22 and 30 eV incident protons in the ANI prototype calorimeter are simulated. The energy deposition (longitudinal and lateral) for these showers are calculated. Lateral shower profiles for 0.5, 5 and 20 TeV primary energies are presented and parametrized. The leakage from the calorimeter is estimated. 19 refs

  7. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic showers. Part 3: The ANI prototype calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amatuni, Ts A; Mamidjanyan, E A; Sanossyan, Kh N

    1993-12-31

    Hadronic showers initiated by 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 20, 22 and 30 eV incident protons in the ANI prototype calorimeter are simulated. The energy deposition (longitudinal and lateral) for these showers are calculated. Lateral shower profiles for 0.5, 5 and 20 TeV primary energies are presented and parametrized. The leakage from the calorimeter is estimated. 19 refs.

  8. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  9. The Roland Maze Project - school-based extensive air shower network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, J.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Lewandowski, R.; Swarzynski, J.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Wibig, T.

    2006-01-01

    We plan to construct the large area network of extensive air shower detectors placed on the roofs of high school buildings in the city of Lodz. Detection points will be connected by INTERNET to the central server and their work will be synchronized by GPS. The main scientific goal of the project are studies of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Using existing town infrastructure (INTERNET, power supply, etc.) will significantly reduce the cost of the experiment. Engaging high school students in the research program should significantly increase their knowledge of science and modern technologies, and can be a very efficient way of science popularisation. We performed simulations of the projected network capabilities of registering Extensive Air Showers and reconstructing energies of primary particles. Results of the simulations and the current status of project realisation will be presented

  10. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  11. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  12. High-energy electron irradiation of NdFeB permanent magnets: Dependence of radiation damage on the electron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizen, Teruhiko; Asano, Yoshihiro; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Seike, Takamitsu; Aoki, Tsuyoshi; Fukami, Kenji; Hosoda, Naoyasu; Yonehara, Hiroto; Takagi, Tetsuya; Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Takashi; Kitamura, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    High-energy electron-beam bombardment of Nd 2 Fe 14 B-type permanent magnets induces radiation damage characterized by a drop in the magnetic field. Experiments carried out at the SPring-8 booster synchrotron, with 4, 6, and 8 GeV electrons, show that the drop in magnetic field is energy dependent. Electromagnetic shower simulations suggest that most of the radiation damage happens in a small region around the irradiation axis, and that the contribution of neutrons with large scattering angles or with low energies to the magnetic field change is small

  13. High-energy electron irradiation of NdFeB permanent magnets: Dependence of radiation damage on the electron energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizen, Teruhiko [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)]. E-mail: bizen@spring8.or.jp; Asano, Yoshihiro [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Marechal, Xavier-Marie [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Seike, Takamitsu [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Aoki, Tsuyoshi [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, Kenji [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hosoda, Naoyasu [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yonehara, Hiroto [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takagi, Tetsuya [JASRI SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, Toru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tanaka, Takashi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kitamura, Hideo [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2007-05-11

    High-energy electron-beam bombardment of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-type permanent magnets induces radiation damage characterized by a drop in the magnetic field. Experiments carried out at the SPring-8 booster synchrotron, with 4, 6, and 8 GeV electrons, show that the drop in magnetic field is energy dependent. Electromagnetic shower simulations suggest that most of the radiation damage happens in a small region around the irradiation axis, and that the contribution of neutrons with large scattering angles or with low energies to the magnetic field change is small.

  14. Modelling of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    Cosmic rays entering the Earth's atmosphere induce extensive air showers consisting of up to billions of secondary particles. Among them, a multitude of electrons and positrons are generated. These get deflected in the Earth's magnetic field, creating time-varying transverse currents. Thereby, the air shower emits coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range measured by radio antenna arrays on the ground such as LOPES at the KIT. This detection method provides a possibility to study cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV. At this time, the radio technique undergoes the change from prototype experiments to large scale application. Thus, a detailed understanding of the radio emission process is needed more than ever. Before starting this work, different models made conflicting predictions on the pulse shape and the amplitude of the radio signal. It turned out that a radiation component caused by the variation of the number of charged particles within the air shower was missed in several models. The Monte Carlo code REAS2 superposing the radiation of the individual air shower electrons and positrons was one of those. At this time, it was not known how to take the missing component into account. For REAS3, we developed and implemented the endpoint formalism, a universal approach, to calculate the radiation from each single particle. For the first time, we achieve a good agreement between REAS3 and MGMR, an independent and completely different simulation approach. In contrast to REAS3, MGMR is based on a macroscopic approach and on parametrisations of the air shower. We studied the differences in the underlying air shower models to explain the remaining deviations. For comparisons with LOPES data, we developed a new method which allows "top-down" simulations of air showers. From this, we developed an air shower selection criterion based on the number of muons measured with KASCADE to take shower-to-shower fluctuations for a single event analysis into account. With

  15. An experimental high energy physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The CLEO detector accumulated, (∼480,000 B-mesons) the world's largest sample of B decays, before being shutdown in May 1988 for the installation of CLEO II. This data sample came from 335 pb -1 accumulated at the Υ(4S). The Cornell Electron Storage Ring set new luminosity records, reaching 3.5 pb -1 in a single day. These data are being intensively analyzed and 21 papers were given at the Baltimore APS meeting. Among the highlights are: confirmation of B 0 bar B 0 mixing; discovery of the charm-strange baryon Ξ c 0 ; limits on b → u decay; and non-observation of B → p bar pπ(π), which was reported by the ARGUS collaboration. The construction of CLEO II is proceeding on schedule. The new 1.5 T superconducting magnet has passed all tests and all of the detector elements have been installed. This includes a 7800 CsI crystals electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The data from the Gamma Ray Astrophysics experiment show a significant signal for high energy gamma ray emission from Cygnus X-3 and also confirm the previously reported anomalous period from Her X-1. Meanwhile, the old 6 mirror telescope has been refitted with 26 high resolution mirrors and improved fast electronics. GRANDE, the next generation detector based on the water Cherenkov technique, has been formally proposed to HEPAP. The detector will search for neutrino emission in the southern hemisphere and gamma radiation in the northern hemisphere

  16. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berat, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km 2 . Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported

  17. Radio detection of extensive air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berat, C., E-mail: berat@lpsc.in2p3.fr [LPSC, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory explores the potential of radio-detection techniques to measure extensive air showers (EAS) induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To study in detail the mechanisms responsible for radio emission in the MHz range, the Auger Engineering Radio Array has been installed at the Observatory. Presently consisting of 24 radio-detection stations, this number will grow to 150 units covering an area of almost 20 km{sup 2}. Novel detection techniques based on the GHz emission from the EAS are currently being studied. AMBER (Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer) and MIDAS (Microwave Detection of Air Showers) are prototypes for a large imaging dish antenna. In EASIER (Extensive Air Shower Identification using Electron Radiometer), the microwave emission is detected by antenna horns located on each surface detector. MIDAS is a self-triggering system while AMBER and EASIER use the trigger from the Auger detectors to record the emission. The status of these radio-detection R and D efforts at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be reported.

  18. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  19. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report discusses research by Columbia University staff in high energy physics. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: lattice gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; parity doublets; solitons; baryon number violation; black holes; magnetic monopoles; gluon plasma; Chern-Simons theory; and the inflationary universe

  20. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklorsky, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)

  1. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  2. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  3. High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] High Energy Physics Home Division ES&H Personnel Collider Physics Cosmic Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theory & Computing Detector R&D Electronic Design Mechanical Design Neutrino Physics Theoretical Physics Seminars HEP Division Seminar HEP Lunch Seminar HEP

  4. Application of the image calorimeter in the high energy gamma astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolino, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata`, Rome (Italy); Carlson, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fuglesang, C. [ESA-EAC, Cologne (Germany); Ozerov, Yu.V.; Zemskov, V.M.; Zverev, V.G.; Galper, A.M. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The capability of registration of the primary high energy cosmic ray gamma emission by a gamma-telescope made of an image calorimeter is shown in this paper. The problem of triggering and off-line identification of primary particles by the analysis of the electromagnetic showers induced in the calorimeter is under consideration. The estimations of the background flux of delayed secondaries induced by nuclear interactions are presented too.

  5. What is a parton shower?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2017-05-15

    We consider idealized parton shower event generators that treat parton spin and color exactly, leaving aside the choice of practical approximations for spin and color. We investigate how the structure of such a parton shower generator is related to the structure of QCD. We argue that a parton shower with splitting functions proportional to αs can be viewed not just as a model, but as the lowest order approximation to a shower that is defined at any perturbative order. To support this argument, we present a formulation for a parton shower at order α{sup k}{sub s} for any k. Since some of the input functions needed are specified by their properties but not calculated, this formulation does not provide a useful recipe for an order α{sup k}{sub s} parton shower algorithm. However, in this formulation we see how the operators that generate the shower are related to operators that specify the infrared singularities of QCD.

  6. Meteor showers an annotated catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Meteor showers are among the most spectacular celestial events that may be observed by the naked eye, and have been the object of fascination throughout human history. In “Meteor Showers: An Annotated Catalog,” the interested observer can access detailed research on over 100 annual and periodic meteor streams in order to capitalize on these majestic spectacles. Each meteor shower entry includes details of their discovery, important observations and orbits, and gives a full picture of duration, location in the sky, and expected hourly rates. Armed with a fuller understanding, the amateur observer can better view and appreciate the shower of their choice. The original book, published in 1988, has been updated with over 25 years of research in this new and improved edition. Almost every meteor shower study is expanded, with some original minor showers being dropped while new ones are added. The book also includes breakthroughs in the study of meteor showers, such as accurate predictions of outbursts as well ...

  7. Optimization of an FPGA Trigger Based on an Artificial Neural Network for the Detection of Neutrino-Induced Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Głas, Dariusz; Pytel, Krzysztof; Wiedeński, Michał

    2017-06-01

    Neutrinos play a fundamental role in the understanding of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. They interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere generating extensive air showers. However, the very low rate of events potentially generated by neutrinos is a significant challenge for detection techniques and requires both sophisticated algorithms and high-resolution hardware. Air showers initiated by protons and muon neutrinos at various altitudes, angles, and energies were simulated in CORSIKA and the Auger OffLine event reconstruction platforms, giving analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) patterns in Auger water Cherenkov detectors on the ground. The proton interaction cross section is high, so proton “old” showers start their development early in the atmosphere. In contrast to this, neutrinos can generate “young” showers deeply in the atmosphere relatively close to the detectors. Differences between “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers are visible in attenuation factors of ADC waveforms. For the separation of “old” proton and “young” neutrino ADC traces, many three-layer artificial neural networks (ANNs) were tested. They were trained in MATLAB (in a dedicated way -only “old” proton and “young” neutrino showers as patterns) by simulated ADC traces according to the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Unexpectedly, the recognition efficiency is found to be almost independent of the size of the networks. The ANN trigger based on a selected 8-6-1 network was tested in the Cyclone V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7, the heart of prototype front-end boards developed for testing new algorithms in the Pierre Auger surface detectors.

  8. Design and expected performance of a novel hybrid detector for very-high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Blanco, A.; Conceição, R.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; De Angelis, A.; Doro, M.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Matthiae, G.; Pimenta, M.; Shellard, R.; Tomé, B.

    2018-05-01

    Current detectors for Very-High-Energy γ-ray astrophysics are either pointing instruments with a small field of view (Cherenkov telescopes), or large field-of-view instruments with relatively large energy thresholds (extensive air shower detectors). In this article, we propose a new hybrid extensive air shower detector sensitive in an energy region starting from about 100 GeV. The detector combines a small water-Cherenkov detector, able to provide a calorimetric measurement of shower particles at ground, with resistive plate chambers which contribute significantly to the accurate shower geometry reconstruction. A full simulation of this detector concept shows that it is able to reach better sensitivity than any previous gamma-ray wide field-of-view experiment in the sub-TeV energy region. It is expected to detect with a 5σ significance a source fainter than the Crab Nebula in one year at 100 GeV and, above 1 TeV a source as faint as 10% of it. As such, this instrument is suited to detect transient phenomena making it a very powerful tool to trigger observations of variable sources and to detect transients coupled to gravitational waves and gamma-ray bursts.

  9. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  10. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K.J.; Wenzel, W.A.; Videau, H.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5x10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions. (orig.)

  11. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  12. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2014), "012012-1"-"012012-15" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * detector * cosmic rays * muons * air shower s Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  13. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 12 (2014), "122006-1"-"122006-12" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * air- shower * fluorescence telescopes Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  14. New meteor showers – yes or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukal, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    The development of meteor astronomy associated with the development of CCD technology is reflected in a huge increase in databases of meteor orbits. It has never been possible before in the history of meteor astronomy to examine properties of meteors or meteor showers. Existing methods for detecting new meteor showers seem to be inadequate in these circumstances. The spontaneous discovery of new meteor showers leads to ambiguous specifications of new meteor showers. There is a duplication of already discovered meteor showers and a division of existing meteor showers based on their own criteria. The analysis in this article considers some new meteor showers in the IAU MDC database.

  15. High energy physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Described are modern views on the particle structure and particle interactions at high energies. According to the latest data recieved, all particles can be classified in three groups: 1) strong interacting hadrons; 2) leptons, having no strong interactions; 3) photon. The particle structure is described in a quark model, and with the use of gluons. The elementary particle theory is based on the quantum field theory. The energy increase of interacting particles enables to check the main theory principles, such as conventions for causality, relativistic invariance and unitarity. Investigations of weak interactions are of great importance. The progress in this field is connected with unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For weak interactions promissing are the experiments with colliding electron-proton rings. The new data, especially at higher energies, will lead to a further refinement of the nature of particles and their interactions

  16. Results from the AMANDA high-energy neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biron, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector. The complete data set from 1997 was analyzed. For E μ > 10 TeV, the detector exceeds 10,000 m 2 in effective area between declinations of 25 and 90 degrees. Neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions were used to verify the overall sensitivity of the coincident events between the SPASE air shower array and the AMANDA detector. Preliminary flux limits from point source candidates are presented. For declinations larger than +45 degrees, our results compare favourably to existing limits for sources in the Southern sky. We also present the current status of the searches for high-energy neutrino emission from diffusely distributed sources, GRBs, and WIMPs from the center of the Earth

  17. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  18. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  19. Penetrating particles in horizontal air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlenberg, J.; Boehm, E.

    1975-01-01

    Particle density and arrival time of muons has been measured in Horizontal Air Showers. 5,600 showers have been recorded in 7,800 hours. Using stringent selection criteria 155 showers have been found horizontal (zenith angle larger 70 0 ) in the size range 4.1 > lg N > 5.5. The muons observed in these showers can be explained by purely electromagnetic origin of horizontal showers. (orig.) [de

  20. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required

  1. Results of fractal analysis of the Kiel extensive air shower data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Samorski, M.

    1998-01-01

    For years there has been a problem in cosmic ray studies of how to distinguish individual extensive air showers (EAS) originating from primary protons, heavy nuclei or primary photons. In this paper results of experimental data obtained from the fractal analysis of particle density distributions in individual EAS detected in the range of shower sizes N e between 1.4x10 5 -5x10 6 by the old Kiel experiment are presented. The Lipschitz-Hoelder exponent distributions of EAS detected by the Kiel experiment are discussed. The examples of EAS most probably originating from primary protons, heavy nuclei and high-energy gamma-rays are presented. The lateral distributions of charged particle densities at small distances, angular and size spectra and the mass composition of primary cosmic ray particles around the 'knee' of the energy spectrum are discussed. The Monte Carlo simulation data illustrating the problem of interest are also shown. (author)

  2. Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal Effect for High-Energy Electrons Observed with Emulsion Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Kenji; Yanagisawa, K; Kobayashi, T; Sato, Y; Nishimura, J

    We have performed high-energy electron observations using balloon-borne emulsion chambers, and derived the cosmic-ray electron spectrum in the energy range from 30 GeV to 3 TeV. For the calibration of the emulsion chambers, we have also carried out beam tests of 50 GeV, 200 GeV, and 250 GeV electrons at CERN-SPS. The Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect predicts the reduction of amplitude for bremsstrahlung photon emission. It affects to the depth of the first electron-positron pair of the electron-induced shower, the so-called shower starting point. In the emulsion chambers, we can measure the shower starting points for high- energy electrons with the position resolution of 1 m m. From the observations of accelerator-beam electrons of 200 GeV and 250 GeV, and cosmic-ray electrons above 400 GeV, we found the direct evidence of suppression of the bremsstrahlung cross sections due to the LPM effect.

  3. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    Brief reports are given on the work of several professors. The following areas are included: quantum chromodynamics calculations using numerical lattice gauge theory and a high-speed parallel computer; the ''spin wave'' description of bosonic particles moving on a lattice with same-site exclusion; a high-temperature expansion to 13th order for the O(4)-symmetric φ 4 model on a four-dimensional F 4 lattice; spin waves and lattice bosons; superconductivity of C 60 ; meson-meson interferometry in heavy-ion collisions; baryon number violation in the Standard Model in high-energy collisions; hard thermal loops in QCD; electromagnetic interactions of anyons; the relation between Bose-Einstein and BCS condensations; Euclidean wormholes with topology S 1 x S 2 x R; vacuum decay and symmetry breaking by radiative corrections; inflationary solutions to the cosmological horizon and flatness problems; and magnetically charged black holes

  4. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  5. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  6. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This progress report presents a review of research done over the past five years by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This research has been centered at Fermilab where we have had a continuing involvement with both the Tevatron collider and fixed-target programs. In 1988 we began extensive detector R ampersand D for the SSC through its Major Subsystem Program. Duke has been an active member of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) since its formation. These last five years has also been used to finish the analysis of data from a series of hybrid bubble chamber experiments which formed the core of Duke's research program in the early 1980's

  7. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  8. Summary of super high energy events and exotic phenomena in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this report, the features of superhigh energy events and exotic phenomena are presented. The examples obtained with emulsion chambers show clear trend of change in the hadron interaction characteristics with energy. The scaling law is violated in the very high energy region above 10 15 eV. In the energy region from 10 to 100 TeV, there is mild violation of scaling. The cosmic ray data on the diffusion of high energy particles in the atmosphere was used to study the mild violation of scaling. It is not easy to discuss the violation in the energy region higher than 10 15 eV, because such event can be obtained very rarely. The only method is the observation of extensive air showers. The relation of average transverse momenta to primary cosmic ray energy was compared with some accelerator data. The cosmic ray data tend to show smaller momentum values. The energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons can be measured by the underground observation, the observation of muon-production burst with emulsion chambers, or the observation of horizontal air showers. Analysis of this spectrum shows that there is an upper limit for the direct production of muons at primary energy of several times of 10 14 eV. Other support for the change of interaction character at 10 14 eV is seen. Possible examples of heavy lepton events were found in the deep underground observation. In deep underground observation, anomalous showers with energy content larger than several hundred GeV were observed. Comment on the long tail nuclear cascade is presented. Some experiments for future are introduced. (Kato, T.)

  9. The Effect of New Shower Facilities on Physical Activity Behaviors of Employees: A Quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W

    2017-02-01

    This quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of new workplace showers on physical activity behaviors in a sample of downtown employees in Austin, TX. The study design was quasi-experimental with 2 comparison groups. Data were collected via internet-based surveys before and 4 months after shower installation at 1 worksite. Differences across study groups in the ranks of change in past-week minutes of physical activity from baseline to follow-up were assessed. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for reporting an increase of ≥10 min past-week physical activity and workday physical activity among those with new showers and existing showers relative to those with no showers were also assessed. No significant differences in changes in physical activity from baseline to follow-up across study groups were found. One-quarter of participants with new workplace showers and 46.9% of those with existing workplace showers at baseline reported ever using the showers. This prospective study did not find significant changes in employee physical activity 4 months after installation of worksite showers. Worksite shower users were highly active at baseline, suggesting a possible early adopter effect, with potential for diffusion. Future studies may benefit from longer exposure times and larger samples.

  10. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  11. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Ramos de Castro, A.; Reyes, L. C.; Richardson, M.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.; Zhou, J.

    2013-08-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4-4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope - to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle - were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. JACEE results on very high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczynski, H.

    1996-01-01

    Direct observations of cosmic ray interactions in emulsion chambers of the JACEE experiment at energies above 1 TeV/nucleon are presented. An analysis of two decay of short lived particles produced in cosmic ray interactions is described. The known decay modes of bottom and charged particles do not account satisfactorily for the observations. This could possibly indicate a new decay channel of a heavy particle. The JACEE results support the hypothesis of existence of a long-flying component in cosmic ray showers. An interaction event was observed which may be the first direct observation of (mini)anticentauro interaction. (author)

  13. Heat recovery from shower water; Warmteterugwinning uit douchewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidemans, J. [Hei-Tech, Emmen (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    With a payback period of several years, heat recovery from shower water in swimming pools but also in, for example, apartment buildings are an attractive form of energy saving. Possible are savings from 30 to 50% on energy, which is tested and proved by measurements in the heat exchanger of showers in a swimming pool in Denmark. [Dutch] Met een terugverdientijd van enkele jaren is warmteterugwinning uit douchewater in zwembaden maar ook in bijvoorbeeld sporthallen en appartementengebouwen een aantrekkelijke vorm van energiebesparing. Er kan een besparing worden gerealiseerd van 30 tot 50% op het energiegebruik van het douchewater. Metingen aan een douchewarmtewisselaar in een zwembad in Denemarken tonen dit aan.

  14. Pion and proton showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Lima, J.G.R.; Salcido, R.; Zutshi, V.; Salvatore, F.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Tomita, T.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Lucaci-Timoce, A. -I.; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Tran, H.L.; Buhmann, P.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wing, M.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J. Berenguer; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chistov, R.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Matthieu, A.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Jeans, D.; Weber, S.

    2015-04-28

    Showers produced by positive hadrons in the highly granular CALICE scintillatorsteel analogue hadronic calorimeter were studied. The experimental data were collected at CERN and FNAL for single particles with initial momenta from 10 to 80 GeV/c. The calorimeter response and resolution and spatial characteristics of shower development for proton- and pion-induced showers for test beam data and simulations using GEANT4 version 9.6 are compared.

  15. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb - 1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989

  16. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  17. Reconstruction of inclined shower coordinates in electromagnetic calorimeters based on lead glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.N.; Mochalov, V.V.; Solov'ev, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    A method for reconstructing the coordinates of inclined showers in lead glass electromagnetic calorimeters is described. Such showers are generated by photons with energies of 0.5-4.0 GeV that are incident on the detector at angles of as great as 30 deg. An analytical expression for the description of the actual photon coordinate in the calorimeter versus the coordinates of the shower center of gravity is proposed. Using this expression, it is possible to reconstruct the coordinates of inclined electromagnetic showers over wide ranges of angles and energies. The dependences of the spatial resolution on the photon energy and angle are determined. The longitudinal fluctuations of the shower length and their effect on the spatial resolution of the calorimeter are discussed [ru

  18. Simulation of ultra-high energy photon propagation in the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, P.; Góra, D.; Heck, D.; Klages, H.; PeĶala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.

    2005-12-01

    The identification of primary photons or specifying stringent limits on the photon flux is of major importance for understanding the origin of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays. UHE photons can initiate particle cascades in the geomagnetic field, which leads to significant changes in the subsequent atmospheric shower development. We present a Monte Carlo program allowing detailed studies of conversion and cascading of UHE photons in the geomagnetic field. The program named PRESHOWER can be used both as an independent tool or together with a shower simulation code. With the stand-alone version of the code it is possible to investigate various properties of the particle cascade induced by UHE photons interacting in the Earth's magnetic field before entering the Earth's atmosphere. Combining this program with an extensive air shower simulation code such as CORSIKA offers the possibility of investigating signatures of photon-initiated showers. In particular, features can be studied that help to discern such showers from the ones induced by hadrons. As an illustration, calculations for the conditions of the southern part of the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. Catalogue identifier:ADWG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWG Program obtainable: CPC Program Library, Quen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer on which the program has been thoroughly tested:Intel-Pentium based PC Operating system:Linux, DEC-Unix Programming language used:C, FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data:Recipes, http://www.nr.com]. Nature of the physical problem:Simulation of a cascade of particles initiated by UHE photon passing through the geomagnetic field above the Earth's atmosphere. Method of solution: The primary photon is tracked until its conversion into ee pair or until it reaches the upper atmosphere. If conversion occurred each individual particle in the resultant preshower is checked for either bremsstrahlung radiation (electrons) or

  19. Investigating the Cherenkov light lateral distribution function for primary proton and iron nuclei in extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rubaiee, A.A.; Hashim, U.; Al-Douri, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The lateral distribution function (LDF) of Cherenkov radiation in extensive air showers (EAS) was simulated by CORSIKA program for the conditions of Yakutsk Cherenkov array at high energy range (10 13 -10 16 eV) for two primary particles (p and Fe) for different zenith angles. Using Breit-Wigner function for analyzing Cherenkov light LDF, a parameterization of Cherenkov light LDF was reconstructed by depending on CORSIKA simulation as a function of primary energy. The comparison between the estimated Cherenkov light LDF and the LDF that was measured on the Yakutsk EAS array gives the ability of particle identification that initiated the shower and determination of particle's energy around the knee region. The extrapolation of approximated Cherenkov light LDF for energies 20 and 30 PeV was obtained for primary particles (p and Fe)

  20. Initial test results of an ionization chamber shower detector for a LHC luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datte, P.; Beche, J.-F.; Haguenauer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manghisoni, M.; Millaud, J.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, L.; Riot, V.; Schmickler, H.; Speziali, V.; Turner, W.

    2002-01-01

    A novel, segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for optimization of the luminosity of the LHC. The ionization chambers are to be installed in the front quadrupole and zero degree neutral particle absorbers in the high luminosity IRs and sample the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. In this paper we report the initial results of our second test of this instrumentation in an SPS external proton beam. Single 300 GeV protons are used to simulate the hadronic/electromagnetic shower produced by the forward collision products from the interaction regions of the LHC. The capability of instrumentations to measure the luminosity of individual bunches in a 40 MHz bunch train is demonstrated

  1. Investigating the physics performance of air shower universality at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Ariel; Schulz, Alexander; Roth, Markus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Recent updates to the air shower universality reconstruction of surface detector data at the Pierre Auger Observatory have reduced the bias and improved the resolution of mass-sensitive variables: the depth of shower maximum and the relative number of muons. For better-informed studies of a possible anisotropy in the arrival direction of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, a quantification of the power of these parameters to separate a proton-like signal from background is presented. The analysis is furthered with an outlook to the detector's overall sensitivity to a proton-like signal as well as a projection of our ability to distinguish between different astrophysical flux scenarios.

  2. High energy magnetic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La 2 CuO 4 , which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)

  3. Cosmic Ray-Air Shower Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study has been initiated to observe from space the highest energy cosmic rays above 1021 eV. A satellite observatory concept, the Maximum-energy Auger (Air)-Shower Satellite (MASS), is recently renamed as the Orbital Wide-angle Collector (OWL) by taking its unique feature of using a very wide field-of-view (FOV) optics. A huge array of imaging devices (about 10(exp 6) pixels) is required to detect and record fluorescent light profiles of cosmic ray cascades in the atmosphere. The FOV of MASS could extend to as large as about 60 in. diameter, which views (500 - 1000 km) of earth's surface and more than 300 - 1000 cosmic ray events per year could be observed above 1020 eV. From far above the atmosphere, the MASS/OWL satellite should be capable of observing events at all angles including near horizontal tracks, and would have considerable aperture for high energy photon and neutrino observation. With a large aperture and the spatial and temporal resolution, MASS could determine the energy spectrum, the mass composition, and arrival anisotropy of cosmic rays from 1020 eV to 1022 eV; a region hitherto not explored by ground-based detectors such as the Fly's Eye and air-shower arrays. MASS/OWL's ability to identify cosmic neutrinos and gamma rays may help providing evidence for the theory which attributes the above cut-off cosmic ray flux to the decay of topological defects. Very wide FOV optics system of MASS/OWL with a large array of imaging devices is applicable to observe other atmospheric phenomena including upper atmospheric lightning. The wide FOV MASS optics being developed can also improve ground-based gamma-ray observatories by allowing simultaneous observation of many gamma ray sources located at different constellations.

  4. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-09-15

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors.

  5. Potentially lethal effects of astrophysical high energy explosive events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarauza, Dario; Martin, Osmel; Rolando Cardenas

    2007-01-01

    In this work we compare the biological extinction risks posed by different types of high energy explosive events, if they occur at distances close enough to inhabited planets. These events are several kinds of supernovae and gamma ray bursts. We mainly consider the ozone depletion, leaving other effects, as photon retransmission and muon showers, for future work. In order to estimate the damage on ozonosphere, we use a simple analytical model for ozone depletion. We also mention some hints to look for the signatures of these events on Earth biogeochemical record, and evaluate the possibility of applying these results to the astrobiologically interesting sample of stars gathered by Porto de Mello, del Peloso and Ghezzi. (Author)

  6. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  7. Electron shower transverse profile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lednev, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    A method to measure the shower transverse profile is described. Calibration data of the lead-glass spectrometer GAMS collected in a wide electron beam without any additional coordinate detector are used. The method may be used for the measurements in both cellular- and projective-type spectrometers. The results of measuring the 10 GeV electron shower profile in the GAMS spectrometer, without optical grease between the lead-glass radiators and photomultipliers, are approximated with an analytical function. The estimate of the coordinate accuracy is obtained. 5 refs., 8 figs

  8. New detection technologies for ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böser Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    in dense media provides another promising approachfor the identification of the sources of cosmic rays. The low event rates and large required target volumes limit the experimental methods to far-ranging signatures .from the cascade, such as acoustic emission from the quasi-instantaneous energy deposit or Cherenkov emission from the charged particles in the cascade. Searching for optical Cherenkov photons in a cubic-kilometer of Antarctic ice, the IceCube experiment has recently found an excess of high-energy neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range.Yet its effective volume is too small to detect the GZK flux predicted from interaction of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background. Seeking to increase the observed target volume, radio observations of the rim of the moon have energy thresholds well beyond the EeV scale and thus are more likely to find interactions of charged cosmic rays than GZK neutrinos. The currently best sensitivity to this flux is provided from searches for GHz radio emission of neutrino-induced cascades in the antarctic ice from the ANITA ballon experiment. While no high-energy neutrinos have been found, a geomagnetic emission component from air-showers

  9. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10 5 Z's by the end of 1989 and 10 6 in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry

  10. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  11. Restoration of parameters of high-energy cascades in Cherenkov water calorimeter with a dense array of quasispherical modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomyakov, V. A.; Bogdanov, A. G.; Kindin, V. V.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Khokhlov, S. S.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    2015-01-01

    A problem concerning the restoration of the parameters of a cascade shower with an unknown axis originating by muons in a Cherenkov water calorimeter is considered. A method for estimating the direction and geometric position of the cascade’s axis, which is based on the analysis of responses of quasispherical modules, and the criteria of selection of the events with cascades among the events with a large energy liberation are proposed. The method and the criteria are tested on events with cascades generated by near-horizontal muons of high energies detected by a DECOR coordinate-track detector. The preliminary results of measurements of the energy spectrum of cascade showers are presented

  12. A deep learning-based reconstruction of cosmic ray-induced air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, M.; Glombitza, J.; Walz, D.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method of reconstructing air showers induced by cosmic rays using deep learning techniques. We simulate an observatory consisting of ground-based particle detectors with fixed locations on a regular grid. The detector's responses to traversing shower particles are signal amplitudes as a function of time, which provide information on transverse and longitudinal shower properties. In order to take advantage of convolutional network techniques specialized in local pattern recognition, we convert all information to the image-like grid of the detectors. In this way, multiple features, such as arrival times of the first particles and optimized characterizations of time traces, are processed by the network. The reconstruction quality of the cosmic ray arrival direction turns out to be competitive with an analytic reconstruction algorithm. The reconstructed shower direction, energy and shower depth show the expected improvement in resolution for higher cosmic ray energy.

  13. Experimental Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays and their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampert Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The XVII International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions, held in August of 2012 in Berlin, was the first one in the history of the Symposium,where a plethora of high precision LHC data with relevance for cosmic ray physics was presented. This report aims at giving a brief summary of those measurements andit discusses their relevance for observations of high energy cosmic rays. Enormous progress has been made also in air shower observations and in direct measurements of cosmic rays, exhibiting many more structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum than just a simple power law with a knee and an ankle. At the highest energy, the flux suppression may not be dominated by the GZK-effect but by the limiting energy of a nearby source or source population. New projects and application of new technologies promise further advances also in the near future. We shall discuss the experimental and theoretical progress in the field and its prospects for coming years.

  14. Bursts of the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission at high and ultra-high energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidvansky A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by the ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes and 100 TeV (EAS arrays are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, maybe the difference between “flares” and “waves” recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by the AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  15. High energy neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjon, R.; Breynat, G.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a generator of fast neutrons only slightly contaminated by neutrons of energy less than 15 MeV, comprising a source of charged particles of energy equal to at least 15 MeV, a target made of lithium deuteride, and means for cooling the target. The target comprises at least two elements placed in series in the path of the charged particles and separated from each other, the thickness of each of the elements being selected as a function of the average energy of the charged particles emitted from the source and the energy of the fast neutrons to be generated such that neutrons of energy equal to at least 15 MeV are emitted in the forward direction in response to the bombardment of the target from behind by the charged particles. The target cooling means comprises means for circulating between and around the elements a gas which does not chemically react with lithium deuteride

  16. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  17. Shower development of particles with momenta from 1 to 10 GeV in the CALICE Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Lam, C B; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Blazey, G C; Dyshkant, A; Lima, J G R; Zutshi, V; Hostachy, J-Y; Morin, L; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Feege, N.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Wing, M; Salvatore, F; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouene, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-01-10

    Lepton colliders are considered as options to complement and to extend the physics programme at the Large Hadron Collider. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an $e^+e^-$ collider under development aiming at centre-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. For experiments at CLIC, a hadron sampling calorimeter with tungsten absorber is proposed. Such a calorimeter provides sufficient depth to contain high-energy showers, while allowing a compact size for the surrounding solenoid. A fine-grained calorimeter prototype with tungsten absorber plates and scintillator tiles read out by silicon photomultipliers was built and exposed to particle beams at CERN. Results obtained with electrons, pions and protons of momenta up to 10 GeV are presented in terms of energy resolution and shower shape studies. The results are compared with several GEANT4 simulation models in order to assess the reliability of the Monte Carlo predictions relevant for a future experiment at CLIC.

  18. Renewable Energy Riding High

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is putting greater emphasis on green energy as it tries to clean up industry and meet target for cuts in carbon emissions over the past two years, China has already leapfrogged competitors from Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United States to become the world's largest maker of wind turbines and solar panels. At the same time, the country is also taking steps to build more nuclear reactors and energy-efficient coal power plants.

  19. The UCD/FLWO extensive air shower array at Mt. Hopkins Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, G. H.; Fegan, D. J.; McKeown, P. K.; Weekes, T. C.

    The design and operation of an extensive air shower (EAS) array being installed around the 10-m optical Cerenkov reflector at F.L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy are described. The advantages of an EAS array colocated with a Cerenkov facility at a mountain location are reviewed; the arrangement of the 13 1-sq m scintillation detectors in the array is indicated; the signal-processing and data-acquisition procedures are explained; and preliminary calibration data indicating an effective energy threshold of 60 TeV are presented.

  20. Shower Counters for SLAC experiments E142/E143

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, H; Grenier, P; Le Meur, J; Lombard, R; Lugol, J C; Marroncle, J; Morgenstern, J; Mouly, J P; Paul, B; Staley, F; Terrien, Y [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee; Breton, V; Comptour, C; Crouau, M; Fonvieille, H; Roblin, Y; Savinel, G [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France); Gearhart, R [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The two electromagnetic calorimeters each made of 200 lead glass blocks used at SLAC to discriminate between electrons and pions and to measure electron energies are described. Procedures to reconstruct electron showers and to calibrate calorimeters are treated as well as the calorimeter performance. (author). 6 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Results on reuse of reclaimed shower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Reysa, Richard P.; Irbe, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Water Recovery System that has been used in conjunction with a microgravity whole body shower to test a closed loop shower water reclamation system applicable to the NASA Space Station employs a Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem. Attention is given to the suitability of a Space Shuttle soap for such crew showers, the effects of shower water on the entire system, and the purification qualities of the recovered water. The chemical pretreatment of the shower water for microorganism control involved activated carbon, mixed ion exchange resin beds, and iodine bactericide dispensing units. The water was recycled five times, demonstrating the feasibility of reuse.

  2. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  3. BROOKHAVEN: High energy gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1992-01-01

    On April 24, Brookhaven's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) started to deliver gold ions at 11.4 GeV per nucleon (2,000 GeV per ion) to experimenters who were delighted not only to receive the world's highest energy gold beam but also to receive it on schedule

  4. Energy and flux measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays observed during the first ANITA flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoorlemmer, H.; Belov, K.; Romero-Wolf, A.; García-Fernández, D.; Bugaev, V.; Wissel, S. A.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Barwick, S. W.; Beatty, J. J.; Besson, D. Z.; Binns, W. R.; Carvalho Jr., W. R.; Chen, C.; Chen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Connolly, A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; DuVernois, M. A.; Field, R. C.; Goldstein, D.; Gorham, P. W.; Hast, C.; Huege, T.; Heber, C. L.; Hoover, S.; Israel, M. H.; Javaid, A.; Kowalski, J.; Lam, J.; Learned, J. G.; Link, J. T.; Lusczek, E.; Matsuno, S.; Mercurio, B. C.; Miki, C.; Miočinović, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nam, J.; Naudet, C. J.; Ng, J.; Nichol, R. J.; Palladino, K.; Rauch, B. F.; Roberts, J.; Reil, K.; Rotter, B.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Saltzberg, D.; Seckel, D.; Urdaneta, D.; Varner, G. S.; Vieregg, A. G.; Walz, D.; Wu, F.; Zas, E.

    2016-04-01

    The first flight of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment recorded 16 radio signals that were emitted by cosmic-ray induced air showers. The dominant contribution to the radiation comes from the deflection of positrons and electrons in the geomagnetic field, which is beamed in the direction of motion of the air shower. For 14 of these events, this radiation is reflected from the ice and subsequently detected by the ANITA experiment at a flight altitude of ~36 km. In this paper, we estimate the energy of the 14 individual events and find that the mean energy of the cosmic-ray sample is 2.9 × 1018 eV, which is significantly lower than the previous estimate. By simulating the ANITA flight, we calculate its exposure for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We estimate for the first time the cosmic-ray flux derived only from radio observations and find agreement with measurements performed at other observatories. In addition, we find that the ANITA data set is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations for the total number of observed events and with the properties of those events.

  5. Towards autonomous radio detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, Th.

    2010-01-01

    The radio-detection of extensive air showers, investigated for the first time in the 1960's, obtained promising results but plagued by the technical limitations. At that time, H.R. Allan summed up the state of the art in an extensive review article whose conclusions and predictions are still used today. Set up in 2001 at the Nancay Observatory, the CODALEMA experiment was built first as a demonstrator and successfully showed the feasibility of the radio-detection of extensive air showers. Radically modified in 2005, it allowed to obtain a clear energy correlation, and put in evidence an unambiguous signature of the geomagnetic origin of the electric field emission process associated to the air shower. The switch towards large areas is the next step of the technique's development. Therefore, the autonomy of the detectors becomes essential. After test prototypes installed in 2006 at the Pierre Auger Observatory, a generation of new autonomous detectors was developed. Their first results will be presented. This work is also dedicated to the issues related to the radio-detection technique: the antenna response, the sensitivity, the surrounding effects, the monitoring of a big array. The determination of the shower characteristics independently of other detectors such as the lateral distribution, the energy correlation and the frequency spectrum of the radio transient will be discussed. (author)

  6. Impact of atmospheric effects on the energy reconstruction of air showers observed by the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku P02006. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Cherenkov detectors * data analysis * large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * systematic effects Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  7. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  8. High Energy Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Propellants used in rockets, pyrotechnics used in festivities, explosives used for .... In World War II, Wernher von Braun designed the. V-2 rockets which were ... A. Solid Propellants. A solid propellant is made from low or diluted high explosives.

  9. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  10. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  11. Ordering variable for parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  12. Reconstruction of the characteristics of gamma showers and contribution to the data analysis of the experiment Celeste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herault, N.

    2000-04-01

    The detection of high energy gamma radiation is an important tool for the study of violent events occurring somewhere in the galaxies and produced by pulsars or active nuclei. Since the beginning of the nineties, a new technology is used: the ground-based detection of Cerenkov light emitted by the air shower issuing from very high energy gamma radiation. Celeste (Cerenkov low energy sampling and timing experiment) is the last of a series of experiments: Asgat, Themistocle and Cat, that have been performed on the site of the decommissioned solar plant Themis. Alike Asgat and Themistocle, Celeste is based on the same method of parting the light wave front but uses the important 54 m 2 surface mirrors of the ancient solar plant to collect it. The processing of the different accurate moments at which the Cerenkov light has reached each mirror allows the reconstruction of the tail of the shower. This installation is expected to collect more Cerenkov light and to allow physicists to reach the 30 to 300 GeV energy range that has been till now largely unexplored in gamma astronomy. The first chapter is dedicated to the various methods for detecting gamma radiation, either satellite on-board experiments or ground-based detection systems. The second chapter presents the experiment Celeste and explains how this experiment could bring new information about astrophysical concerns. The third chapter deals with the detailed technical description of the installation, especially the optical and electronic systems. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the reconstruction of gamma showers, the determination of their direction is a delicate problem. The fifth chapter presents the characteristics of the background noise coming from hadronic showers. The sixth chapter is dedicated to the calibration of the detector and it gives its first preliminary results. (A.C.)

  13. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors

  14. High-energy communication

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Communication Group

    2015-01-01

    On Wednesday at 10.40 a.m., the LHC operators declared “stable beams” after two years of technical stop and a few months of commissioning. It was an exciting day for all the teams involved, including those who worked on communicating the news to the public and the media on multiple platforms.   CERN’s most successful tweet on 3 June featured collision images from ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb and was shared 800 times by the Twitter audience. Live blogging, social media posts, a live webcast, and a constant outpouring of photos and videos: Wednesday morning was a crazy time for the communication teams from CERN, the experiments and various institutes around the world. Even though the event started very early in the morning (the live CCC blog started at 7 a.m. and the live webcast at 8.20 a.m.), the public and the media tuned in to follow and generously cover the start of the LHC’s physics run at an unprecedented energy of 13 TeV. The statistics showed th...

  15. Real-time image parameterization in high energy gamma-ray astronomy using transputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punch, M.; Fegan, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, significant advances in Very-High-Energy gamma-ray astronomy have been made by parameterization of the Cherenkov images arising from gamma-ray initiated showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A prototype system to evaluate the use of Transputers as a parallel-processing elements for real-time analysis of data from a Cherenkov imaging camera is described in this paper. The operation of and benefits resulting from such a system are described, and the viability of an applicaiton of the prototype system is discussed

  16. Search for emission of ultra high energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A search for emission of ultra-high energy gamma radiation from 13 active galactic nuclei that were detected by EGRET, using the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array, is described. The data set has been searched for continuous emission, emission on the time scale of one week, and for on the time scale of out day. No evidence for emission from any of the AGN on any of the time scales examined was found. The 90% C.L. upper limit to the continuous flux from Mrk 421 above 50 TeV is 7.5 x 10 -14 cm -2 s -1

  17. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  18. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  19. Extensive air showers accompanied by γ-ray families with summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/≥10 TeV and general extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Y.; Hamayasu, C.; Mitsumune, T.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive air showers (EAS's) accompanied by families of high-energy cascade showers were observed at Mt. Norikura (738 g cm/sup -2/). 99 families of γ-ray- and hadron-origin showers with total energies summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/≥10 TeV were obtained. The success rate of the combination between families and EAS's reaches to almost 90% (87 events). The families are associated with young EAS's, with mean age parameter s∼0.7, whose sizes distribute widely over three orders of magnitude up to 10 8 . The size spectrum of the family-associated EAS's coincides with the general EAS's in the size region above 5 x 10 6 but the former drops rapidly from the latter below this critical size. From the absolute intensity of summationE/sub γ//sub ,//sub H/ spectrum the proton fraction in the primary cosmic rays is deduced to be (14 +- 5)%, with an error of one standard deviation, in the primary energies (5 x 10/sup 14/)--10/sup 16/ eV, in comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation assuming an adequate interaction model. This agrees with the result obtained by the work with other mountain data and is also compatible with the result inferred from the size spectrum gap between the family-associated EAS's and the general EAS's in the region below the critical size

  20. Measurement of horizontal air showers with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambeitz, Olga

    2017-03-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range. AERA consists of more than 150 antenna stations distributed over 17 km2. Together with the Auger surface detector, the fluorescence detector and the underground muon detector (AMIGA), AERA is able to measure cosmic rays with energies above 1017 eV in a hybrid detection mode. AERA is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60° zenith angle, however, using the reconstruction of horizontal air showers with the Auger surface array, very inclined showers can also be measured. In this contribution an analysis of the AERA data in the zenith angle range from 62° to 80° will be presented. CoREAS simulations predict radio emission footprints of several km2 for horizontal air showers, which are now confirmed by AERA measurements. This can lead to radio-based composition measurements and energy determination of horizontal showers in the future and the radio detection of neutrino induced showers is possible.

  1. PCR nuclear composition at 1-20 PeV according to lateral distributions of all EAS and EAS accompanied high-energy-gamma rays and hadrons in EC at Tien-Shan level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterova, N.M.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shaulov, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    The Tien-Shan array Adron data are presented on electron-photon component lateral distributions (age parameter S) of extensive air showers of cosmic rays. The data are given as a dependence on the electron size N e for all showers and for showers accompanied by high-energy gamma rays and hadrons in X-ray films. N e characterizes the energy of primary-cosmic-ray nuclei E 0 . Later events are generated by primary photons chiefly. That allows judging on the proton role with E 0 change. S distributions point to the considerable part of light nuclei, protons mainly, at the region above knee of the spectrum at N e > 10 6 up to N e = 5 x 10 6 (E 0 ∼ 10 PeV) at least [ru

  2. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R ampersand D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z 0 decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka's program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino

  3. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stasielak, J; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Chiavassa, A; Engel, R; Haungs, A; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Ludwig, M; Mathys, S; Neunteufel, P; Pekala, J; Rautenberg, J; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Šmída, R; Unger, M; Weber, M; Werner, F; Wilczyński, H; Wochele, J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  4. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for UHE Cosmic Rays Showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Nyklíček, Michal; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 5 (2011), 266-276 ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : trigger * cosmic ray shower s Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.216, year: 2011 http://www.auger.org/technical_info/pdfs/PerroneLTP_Published.pdf

  5. HERWIRI1.0: MC realization of IR-improved DGLAP-CS parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, S.; Majhi, S.; Ward, B.F.L.; Yost, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo data showing the comparison between the parton shower generated by the standard Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi-Callan-Symanzik (DGLAP-CS) kernels and that generated with the new IR-improved DGLAP-CS kernels recently developed by one of us. We do this in the context of HERWIG6.5 by implementing the new kernels therein to generate a new MC, HERWIRI1.0, for hadron-hadron interactions at high energies. We discuss possible phenomenological implications for precision LHC theory. We also present comparisons with FNAL data.

  6. High energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piroue, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this research is to understand the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. At this time, the following activities are underway: e + e - interactions and Z 0 physics at CERN; studies to upgrade the L3 detector at LHC; very high statistics charm physics at Fermilab; search for the H particle at BNL; search for the fifth force; rare kaon decay experiments at BNL; study of B-meson physics at hadron colliders; e + e - pair creation by light at SLAC; R ampersand D related to SSC experiments and the GEM detector; and theoretical research in elementary particle physics and cosmology. The main additions to the activities described in detail in the original grant proposal are (1) an experiment at SLAC (E-144) to study strong-field QED effects in e-laser and γ-laser collisions, and (2) a search for the H particle at BNL (E-188). The R ampersand D efforts for the GEM detector have also considerably expanded. In this paper we give a brief status report for each activity currently under way

  7. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z degrees resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant α s for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e + e - → ν bar νγ. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R ampersand D work on BaF 2 by joining the GEM collaboration

  8. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  9. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  10. Study of the hadron shower profiles with the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.A.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Rumyantsev, V.S.; Nessi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The lateral and longitudinal profiles of the hadronic showers detected by ATLAS iron-scintillator tile hadron calorimeter with longitudinal tile configuration have been investigated. The results are based on 100 GeV pion beam data. Due to the beam scan provided many different beam impact locations with cells it is succeeded to obtain detailed picture of transverse shower behavior. The underlying radial energy densities for four depths and for overall calorimeter have been reconstructed. The three-dimensional hadronic shower parametrization has been suggested

  11. Monte Carlo studies of high-transverse-energy hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    A four-jet Monte Carlo calculation has been used to simulate hadron-hadron interactions which deposit high transverse energy into a large-solid-angle calorimeter and limited solid-angle regions of the calorimeter. The calculation uses first-order QCD cross sections to generate two scattered jets and also produces beam and target jets. Field-Feynman fragmentation has been used in the hadronization. The sensitivity of the results to a few features of the Monte Carlo program has been studied. The results are found to be very sensitive to the method used to ensure overall energy conservation after the fragmentation of the four jets is complete. Results are also sensitive to the minimum momentum transfer in the QCD subprocesses and to the distribution of p/sub T/ to the jet axis and the multiplicities in the fragmentation. With reasonable choices of these features of the Monte Carlo program, good agreement with data at Fermilab/CERN SPS energies is obtained, comparable to the agreement achieved with more sophisticated parton-shower models. With other choices, however, the calculation gives qualitatively different results which are in strong disagreement with the data. These results have important implications for extracting physics conclusions from Monte Carlo calculations. It is not possible to test the validity of a particular model or distinguish between different models unless the Monte Carlo results are unambiguous and different models exhibit clearly different behavior

  12. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas; quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  14. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-15

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'.

  15. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress in the following research in high energy physics: The crystal ball experiment; delco at PEP; proton decay experiment; MACRO detector; mark III detector; SLD detector; CLEO II detector; and the caltech L3 group

  16. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin

    1989-01-01

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'

  17. Problems of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some problems of high energy physics are discussed. The main attention is paid to describibg the standard model. The model comprises quantum chromodynamics and electroweak interaction theory. The problem of CP breaking is considered as well. 8 refs.; 1 tab

  18. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2009 physics pp. 3–60. Developments in high energy theory .... and operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), this ma- ...... [2] S Dodelson, Modern cosmology (Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2003).

  19. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas: quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  20. A measurement of the muon number in showers using inclined events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The average muon content of measured showers with zenith angles between 62∘ and 80∘ detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory is obtained as a function of shower energy using a reconstruction method specifically designed for inclined showers and the hybrid character of the detector. The reconstruction of inclined showers relies on a comparison between the measured signals at ground and reference patterns at ground level from which an overall normalization factor is obtained. Since inclined showers are dominated by muons this factor gives the relative muon size. It can be calibrated using a subsample of showers simultaneously recorded with the fluorescence detector (FD and the surface detector (SD which provides an independent calorimetric measurement of the energy. The muon size obtained for each shower becomes a measurement of the relative number of muons with respect to the reference distributions. The precision of the measurement is assessed using simulated events which are reconstructed using exactly the same procedure. We compare the relative number of muons versus energy as obtained to simulations. Proton simulations with QGSJETII show a factor of 2.13 ± 0.04(stat ± 0.11(sys at 1019eV without significant variations in the energy range explored between 4 × 1018eV to 7 × 1019eV. We find that none of the current shower models, neither for proton nor for iron primaries, are able to predict as many muons as are observed.

  1. Small changes in the atmospheric electric field from extensive air showers. [E > 10/sup 16/ eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, G; Dardo, M [Turin Univ. (Italy); Pavese, P; Piano, A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1977-05-28

    The authors present data on small changes in the atmospheric electric field related to the passage of extensive air showers initiated by primary particles of energy >=10/sup 16/ eV. Such changes were detected by electrometric methods in conjunction with a particle shower array.

  2. IceVeto. An extension of IceTop to veto air showers for neutrino astronomy with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffenberg, Jan; Kemp, Julian; Raedel, Leif; Rongen, Martin; Schaufel, Merlin; Stahlberg, Martin; Hansmann, Bengt; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen University, Physikalische Institut III b (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceCube is the world's largest high-energy neutrino observatory, built at the geographic South Pole. For neutrino astronomy, a large background-free sample of well-reconstructed astrophysical neutrinos is essential. The main background for this signal are muons and neutrinos which are produced in cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The coincident detection of these air showers by the surface detector IceTop has been proven to be a powerful veto for atmospheric neutrinos and muons in the field of view of the southern hemisphere. This motivates a significant extension of IceTop. First estimates indicate that such a veto detector will more than double the discovery potential of current point source analyses. Here, we present the motivation and capabilities of different technologies based on simulations and measurements.

  3. Measurements in the Forward Phase-Space with the CMS Experiment and their Impact on Physics of Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083313; Quast, Günter; Ulrich, Ralf

    2015-11-18

    The astrophysical interpretation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is based on detection of extensive air showers in indirect measurements. Hadronic interaction models that are needed for such analyses require parameters to be adjusted to collider data since soft particle production cannot be calculated from first principles. Within this work, the program CRMC was developed that unifies all air shower hadronic interaction models and supports the output formats used by collider experiments. Almost all LHC experiments have adopted the use these hadronic interaction models thanks to CRMC. The program can even be used in detector simulations to make direct comparison to reconstructed quantities from which the cosmic ray and the particle physics communities benefit immensely. Furthermore, nuclear effects were studied with the CMS experiments at the LHC. The production cross section was derived in recent proton-lead collision data at sqrt(s(NN)) = 5.02 TeV in order to study nuclear effects. The measurement constrain...

  4. Parton showers with quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations.

  5. Parton showers with quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations

  6. Air shower simulation for background estimation in muon tomography of volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Béné

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of background for the radiography of volcanoes using atmospheric muons comes from the accidental coincidences produced in the muon telescopes by charged particles belonging to the air shower generated by the primary cosmic ray. In order to quantify this background effect, Monte Carlo simulations of the showers and of the detector are developed by the TOMUVOL collaboration. As a first step, the atmospheric showers were simulated and investigated using two Monte Carlo packages, CORSIKA and GEANT4. We compared the results provided by the two programs for the muonic component of vertical proton-induced showers at three energies: 1, 10 and 100 TeV. We found that the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of the muons were in good agreement for the two codes.

  7. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  8. Very high-energy {gamma}-ray observations of the Crab nebula and other potential sources with the GRAAL experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arqueros, F.A.; Ballestrin, J.; Berenguel, M.; Borque, D.M.; Camacho, E.F.; Diaz, M.; Enriquez, R.; Gebauer, H.J.; Plaga, R.

    2001-07-01

    The Gamma Ray Astronomy at Almeria (GRAAL) experiment uses 63 heliostat-mirrors with a total mirror area of {approx}2500 m''2 from the CESA-1 field to collect Cherenkov light from air showers. The detector is located in a central solar tower and detects photon-induced showers with an energy threshold of 250{+-}110 GeV and an asymptotic effective detection area of about 15000 m''2. Data sets taken in the period September 1999-September 2000 in the direction of the Crab pulsar and the active galaxy 3C 454.3 were analysed for high energy {gamma}-ray emission. Evidence for {gamma}-ray flux from the Crab pulsar with an integral flux of 2.2{+-}0.4 (stat) ''1.9{sub 1}.5 (syst x 10''-9 cm''-2 s''-1) above threshold and a significance of 4.5 {sigma} in a total (usable) observing time of 7 hours and 10 minutes on source was found. No evidence for emission from the other sources was seen. The effect of the field-of-view restricted to the central part of a detected air shower on the lateral distribution and iming properties of Cherenkov light and their effect on an efficient {gamma}-hadron separation are discussed. (Author) 6 refs.

  9. Mass production of extensive air showers for the Pierre Auger Collaboration using Grid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Bahilo, Julio; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    When ultra-high energy cosmic rays enter the atmosphere they interact producing extensive air showers (EAS) which are the objects studied by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of particles involved in an EAS at these energies is of the order of billions and the generation of a single simulated EAS requires many hours of computing time with current processors. In addition, the storage space consumed by the output of one simulated EAS is very high. Therefore we have to make use of Grid resources to be able to generate sufficient quantities of showers for our physics studies in reasonable time periods. We have developed a set of highly automated scripts written in common software scripting languages in order to deal with the high number of jobs which we have to submit regularly to the Grid. In spite of the low number of sites supporting our Virtual Organization (VO) we have reached the top spot on CPU consumption among non LHC (Large Hadron Collider) VOs within EGI (European Grid Infrastructure).

  10. Meteoroid Environment Modeling: the Meteoroid Engineering Model and Shower Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2017-01-01

    The meteoroid environment is often divided conceptually into meteor showers plus a sporadic background component. The sporadic complex poses the bulk of the risk to spacecraft, but showers can produce significant short-term enhancements of the meteoroid flux. The Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has produced two environment models to handle these cases: the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) and an annual meteor shower forecast. Both MEM and the forecast are used by multiple manned spaceflight projects in their meteoroid risk evaluation, and both tools are being revised to incorporate recent meteor velocity, density, and timing measurements. MEM describes the sporadic meteoroid complex and calculates the flux, speed, and directionality of the meteoroid environment relative to a user-supplied spacecraft trajectory, taking the spacecraft's motion into account. MEM is valid in the inner solar system and offers near-Earth and cis-lunar environments. While the current version of MEM offers a nominal meteoroid environment corresponding to a single meteoroid bulk density, the next version of MEMR3 will offer both flux uncertainties and a density distribution in addition to a revised near-Earth environment. We have updated the near-Earth meteor speed distribution and have made the first determination of uncertainty in this distribution. We have also derived a meteor density distribution from the work of Kikwaya et al. (2011). The annual meteor shower forecast takes the form of a report and data tables that can be used in conjunction with an existing MEM assessment. Fluxes are typically quoted to a constant limiting kinetic energy in order to comport with commonly used ballistic limit equations. For the 2017 annual forecast, the MEO substantially revised the list of showers and their characteristics using 14 years of meteor flux measurements from the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). Defunct or insignificant showers were removed and the temporal profiles of many showers

  11. High energy physics in Poland: the first 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab

  12. Survey costs associated with the replacement of electric showers for solar heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes; Araujo, Jose Euripedes de

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the benefits of replacing electric shower for solar water heaters, and a consequent drop in peak demand for electric power generation and residential consumption in the economy. For this, will be shown the lifting of solar radiation per square meter in Brazil, studied in 250 locations, the most representative in terms of solar energy in this country. The costs presented are associated with replacement of 5 million, 10 million and 20 million electric showers. (author)

  13. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  14. Search for ultra-high energy photons with AMIGA muon counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Nicolas Martin [Instituto de Tecnologias en Deteccion y Astroparticulas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie. (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The study of the composition of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CR) is one of the topical problems of astroparticle physics. The discovery of UHE photons, i.e. photons with energies around 1 EeV, in primary cosmic rays could be of particular interest for the field of astroparticle physics, and also for fundamental physics, since they are tracers of the highest-energy processes in the Universe. For the search for UHE photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), several parameters have been proposed to distinguish between primary hadrons and photons. One of the most promising approaches to search for primary gamma rays is the study of the muon component in extensive air showers (EAS) produced in the interaction between the CR and the nuclei in the atmosphere. The number of muons in showers induced by gamma primaries is an order of magnitude lower than the hadronic primaries counterpart. The AMIGA extension of the PAO, consisting of an array of buried scintillators counters, allows the study of the muons produced during the EAS development. In this talk, the sensitivity of the muon counters to photon-initiated EAS and the possible discrimination procedures are discussed using dedicated EAS simulations with software package CORSIKA, including the detector response using the Offline package developed by the Pierre Auger Collaboration.

  15. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  16. Scaling analysis of meteorite shower mass distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Meibom, A.; Bohr, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    Meteorite showers are the remains of extraterrestrial objects which are captivated by the gravitational field of the Earth. We have analyzed the mass distribution of fragments from 16 meteorite showers for scaling. The distributions exhibit distinct scaling behavior over several orders of magnetude......; the observed scaling exponents vary from shower to shower. Half of the analyzed showers show a single scaling region while the orther half show multiple scaling regimes. Such an analysis can provide knowledge about the fragmentation process and about the original meteoroid. We also suggest to compare...... the observed scaling exponents to exponents observed in laboratory experiments and discuss the possibility that one can derive insight into the original shapes of the meteoroids....

  17. Measurement of muon content in inclined air showers above 4 x 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Hans; Roth, Markus [IKP, Karlsruhe Institut of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarguee, Argentina, is sensitive to air showers up to almost horizontal angles of incidence. Air showers with zenith angles between 60 and 80 degrees are suited to measure the muon component of the shower with the Auger Surface Detector since the primary electromagnetic component gets absorbed in the atmosphere before the shower reaches ground. Some of those events are also observed by the Fluorescence Detector which allows us to determine the total energy of the shower independent of the Surface Detector. Based on these hybrids events the size of muon component for a given cosmic ray energy is determined, which can then be compared to model predictions. We present an update of this analysis.

  18. The differences in delay times for air showers initiated by 100 TeV gamma rays and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikocki, S.; Poirier, J.; Linsley, J.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo; Wrotniak, A.; Maryland Univ., College Park

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in the time delay distributions between showers initiated by gamma rays and by protons. The results of Monte Carlo calculations of atmospheric showers initiated by gamma rays and protons at an energy of 100 TeV show systematic differences. These differences are negligible at small distances from the core of the showers; at larger distances the effects become large. However, at large distances the particle densities are small at an energy of 100 TeV and the subsequent statistical fluctuations would make an identification of gamma-ray showers unreliable. However, these large effects should be included in corrections for the curvature of gamma-ray and proton shower fronts. (author)

  19. High energy proton PIXE [HEPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) have been widespread and detailed in recent years and despite the fact that most data obtained are from low energy 1-3 MeV experiments, the value of higher energy proton work with its emphasis on K X-ray emission has become more marked as time has progressed. The purpose of this review paper is to outline the history of analysis using high energy protons and to compare and contrast the results obtained with those from lower energy analysis using more firmly established analytical techniques. The work described will concentrate exclusively on proton induced processes and will attempt to outline the rationale for selecting an energy, greater than 20 and up to 70 MeV protons for initiating particles. The relative ease and accuracy of the measurements obtained will be addressed. Clearly such X-ray studies should be seen as complementing low energy work in many instances rather than competing directly with them. However, it will be demonstrated that above a Z value of approximately 20, K X-ray analysis using high energy protons is the only way to go in this type of analysis. (author)

  20. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  1. On the Impact of Tsallis Statistics on Cosmic Ray Showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abrahão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the Tsallis nonextensive statistics introduced by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in p-Air ultrahigh energy interactions on observables of cosmic ray showers, such as the slant depth of the maximum Xmax and the muon number on the ground Nμ. The results show that these observables are significantly affected by temperature fluctuations and agree qualitatively with the predictions of Heitler model.

  2. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Física de Partículas, Campus Sur, Universidad, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Amaral Soares, E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boháčová, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Bonifazi, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Física de Partículas, Campus Sur, Universidad, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2013-08-11

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4–4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope – to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle – were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. -- Highlights: • The MIDAS objective is to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays using microwaves. • GHz radiation could provide a powerful alternative to current detection methods. • The MIDAS prototype explores the potential of the microwave technique.

  3. The MIDAS telescope for microwave detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Amaral Soares, E.; Berlin, A.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, implementation and data taking performance of the MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment, a large field of view imaging telescope designed to detect microwave radiation from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. This novel technique may bring a tenfold increase in detector duty cycle when compared to the standard fluorescence technique based on detection of ultraviolet photons. The MIDAS telescope consists of a 4.5 m diameter dish with a 53-pixel receiver camera, instrumented with feed horns operating in the commercial extended C-Band (3.4–4.2 GHz). A self-trigger capability is implemented in the digital electronics. The main objectives of this first prototype of the MIDAS telescope – to validate the telescope design, and to demonstrate a large detector duty cycle – were successfully accomplished in a dedicated data taking run at the University of Chicago campus prior to installation at the Pierre Auger Observatory. -- Highlights: • The MIDAS objective is to detect ultra high energy cosmic rays using microwaves. • GHz radiation could provide a powerful alternative to current detection methods. • The MIDAS prototype explores the potential of the microwave technique

  4. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the tradition, the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics are presented under a common header, they are: Department of Particle Theory (Dept 5); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept 11); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept 12); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept 13); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). The research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY) is also presented. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy (UMM). This location, close to the Jagiellonian University (JU), facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the UMM. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of the activities is teaching and training students from the academic community in Cracow. Joint research, teaching and academic training in the high energy physics are carried out within the M. Miesowicz

  5. Methods for Probing New Physics at High Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Peter B.

    Octavian Micu in Romania on the detectability of quantum black holes in extensive air showers. The next was with Luis Anchordoqui, Haim Goldberg, Thomas Paul, Luiz da Silva, Brian Vlcek, and Tom Weiler on placing limits on Weinberg's Higgs portal, originally written to explain anomalous Neff values, from direct detection and collider experiments which was published in Physical Review D. The final was completed at Fermilab with Stephen Parke and Hisakazu Minakata on a perturbative description of neutrino oscillations in matter which was published in the Journal of High Energy Physics, and the code behind this paper is publicly available.

  6. Longitudinal development of muons in large air showers studies from the arrival time distributions measured at 900m above sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Enoki, T.; Suga, K.; Nishi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival time distributions of muons with energies above 1.0GeV and 0.5GeV have been measured in the Akeno air-shower array to study the longitudinal development of muons in air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 17th power to 10 to the 18th power ev. The average rise times of muons with energies above 1.0GeV at large core distances are consistent with those expected from very high multiplicity models and, on the contrary, with those expected from the low multiplicity models at small core distances. This implies that the longitudinal development at atmospheric depth smaller than 500 cm square is very fast and that at larger atmospheric depths is rather slow.

  7. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    OpenAIRE

    Fedynitch, Anatoli; Tjus, Julia Becker; Desiati, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to...

  8. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. Constraining Microwave Emission from Extensive Air Showers via the MIDAS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Matthew; Privitera, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are accelerated by the most energetic processes in the universe. Upon entering Earth’s atmosphere they produce particle showers known as extensive air showers (EASs). Observatories like the Pierre Auger Observatory sample the particles and light produced by the EASs through large particle detector arrays or nitrogen fluorescence detectors to ascertain the fundamental properties of UHECRs. The large sample of high quality data provided by the Pierre Auger Observatory can be attributed to the hybrid technique which utilizes the two aforementioned techniques simultaneously; however, the limitation of only being able to observe nitrogen fluorescence from EASs on clear moonless nights yields a limited 10% duty cycle for the hybrid technique. One proposal for providing high quality data at increased statistics is the observation of isotropic microwave emission from EASs, as such emission would be observed with a 100% duty cycle. Measurements of microwave emission from laboratory air plasmas conducted by Gorham et al. (2008) produced promising results indicating that the microwave emission should be observable using inexpensive detectors. The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment was built at the University of Chicago to characterize the isotropic microwave emission from EASs and has collected 359 days of observational data at the location of the Pierre Auger experiment. We have performed a time coincidence analysis between this data and data from Pierre Auger and we report a null result. This result places stringent limits on microwave emission from EASs and demonstrates that the laboratory measurements of Gorham et al. (2008) are not applicable to EASs, thus diminishing the feasibility of using isotropic microwave emission to detect EASs.

  10. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  11. GRASP. Development of an event reconstruction method using a gamma ray air shower parameterisation and applications to γ-ray sources with H.E.S.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillert, Andreas

    2014-07-24

    The H.E.S.S. experiment, with its high sensitivity and large field-of-view, is an ideal instrument to survey the Milky Way in VHE γ-rays. An accurate reconstruction of the γ-ray direction as well as a strong reduction of the hadronic background is essential for the analysis of the data. In this work a reconstruction algorithm is developed that applies a fit of pixel amplitudes to an expected image obtained from a Gamma Ray Air Shower Parameterisation (GRASP). This parameterisation was obtained using Monte Carlo air shower simulations by parameterising the angular Cherenkov photon distribution with suitable analytical functions. Furthermore, it provides new classifying variables to differentiate γ-ray induced air showers from hadronic ones. The reconstruction of air shower parameters is achieved by a maximum likelihood fit and improves the angular resolution by 20-30% with respect to traditional image moment analysis methods. In combination with a MVA-based background rejection method using these new classifying variables the sensitivity can be improved by about 70%. An analysis of the Pulsar Wind Nebula MSH 15-5-2 and investigation of its morphology and spectral properties show an indication of energy dependent morphology in VHE γ-rays.

  12. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  13. Research in High Energy Physics at Duke University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V. [PI; Goshaw, Al [Co-PI; Kruse, Mark [Co-PI; Oh, Seog [Co-PI; Scholberg, Kate [Co-PI; Walter, Chris [Co-PI

    2013-07-29

    This is the Closeout Report for the research grant in experimental elementary particle physics, carried out by the Duke University High Energy Physics (HEP) group. We re- port on physics results and detector development carried out under this grant, focussing on the recent three-year grant period (2010 to 2013). The Duke HEP group consisted of seven faculty members, two senior scientists, ve postdocs and eight graduate students. There were three thrusts of the research program. Measurements at the energy frontier at CDF and ATLAS were used to test aspects of elementary particle theory described by the Stan- dard Model (SM) and to search for new forces and particles beyond those contained within the SM. The neutrino sector was explored using data obtained from a large neutrino detector located in Japan, and R & D was conducted on new experiments to be built in the US. The measurements provided information about neutrino masses and the manner in which neutri- nos change species in particle beams. Two years ago we have started a new research program in rare processes based on the Mu2E experiment at Fermilab. This research is motivated by the search for the ! e transition with unprecedented sensitivity, a transition forbidden in the standard model but allowed in supersymmetric and other models of new physics. The high energy research program used proton and antiproton colliding beams. The experiments were done at the Fermilab Tevatron (proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV) and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (proton-proton collisions at 7-8 TeV). The neutrino program used data obtained from the Super-Kamiokande detec- tor. This water- lled Cherenkov counter was used to detect and measure the properties of neutrinos produced in cosmic ray showers, and from neutrino beams produced from acceler- ators in Japan. The Mu2E experiment will use a special stopped muon beam to be built at Fermilab.

  14. Research in High Energy Physics at Duke University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshaw, Alfred; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kruse, Mark; Oh, Seog; Scholberg, Kate; Walter, Chris

    2013-07-29

    This is the Closeout Report for the research grant in experimental elementary particle physics, carried out by the Duke University High Energy Physics (HEP) group. We re- port on physics results and detector development carried out under this grant, focussing on the recent three-year grant period (2010 to 2013). The Duke HEP group consisted of seven faculty members, two senior scientists, five postdocs and eight graduate students. There were three thrusts of the research program. Measurements at the energy frontier at CDF and ATLAS were used to test aspects of elementary particle theory described by the Stan- dard Model (SM) and to search for new forces and particles beyond those contained within the SM. The neutrino sector was explored using data obtained from a large neutrino detector located in Japan, and R & D was conducted on new experiments to be built in the US. The measurements provided information about neutrino masses and the manner in which neutri- nos change species in particle beams. Two years ago we have started a new research program in rare processes based on the Mu2E experiment at Fermilab. This research is motivated by the search for the {mu} {yields} e transition with unprecedented sensitivity, a transition forbidden in the standard model but allowed in supersymmetric and other models of new physics. The high energy research program used proton and antiproton colliding beams. The experiments were done at the Fermilab Tevatron (proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV) and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (proton-proton collisions at 7-8 TeV). The neutrino program used data obtained from the Super-Kamiokande detector. This water-filled Cherenkov counter was used to detect and measure the properties of neutrinos produced in cosmic ray showers, and from neutrino beams produced from acceler- ators in Japan. The Mu2E experiment will use a special stopped muon beam to be built at Fermilab.

  15. Measurement of the time development of particle showers in a uranium scintillator calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, A.; Hervas, L.; Parsons, J.A.; Sciulli, F.; Sippach, W.; Wai, L.

    1992-11-01

    We report on the time evolution of particle showers, as measured in modules of the uranium-scintillator barrel calorimeter of the ZEUS detector. The time development of hadronic showers differs significantly from that of electromagnetic showers, with about 40% of the response to hadronic showers arising from energy depositions which occur late in the shower development. The degree of compensation and the hadronic energy resolution were measured as a function of integration time, giving a value of e/π=1.02±0.01 for a gate width of 100 ns. The possibilities for electron-hadron separation based on the time structure of the shower were studied, with pion rejection factors in excess of 100 being achieved for electron efficiencies greater than 60%. The custom electronics used to perform these measurements samples the calorimeter signal at close to 60 MHz, stores all samples for a period of over 4 μs using analog switched capacitor pipelines, and digitizes the samples for triggered events with 12-bit ADC's. (orig.)

  16. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. π0, rho0 ω0 production in high energy neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, J.

    1980-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with the hadronic shower in the neutrino and antineutrino interactions of the high energy charged-current type. The π 0 particles issued from this hadronic shower are analysed and the rho 0 and ω 0 production rate are determined in view to try to understand the quark fragmentation process, that is to say the QCD theory relative to the quark confinement problem. The experimental device is described in the chapter II. Chapter III is dealing with the analysis of the exposures obtained with this device, together with the incident neutrino energy determination methods and a general description of the final data characteristics. The π 0 production is studied from the decay γ observed in the bubble chamber. The existing different methods are analyzed and compared with the used one. The π 0 properties are studied in detail. In chapter 5, the rho 0 and ω 0 resonance production rate is calculated, using the previous chapter results. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the thesis conclusions [fr

  18. Search for very-high-energy emission from Gamma-ray Bursts using the first 18 months of data from the HAWC Gamma-ray Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    The HAWC collaboration; Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Rojas, D. Avila; Solares, H. A. Ayala; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Bernal, A.; Braun, J.

    2017-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-ray Observatory is an extensive air shower detector operating in central Mexico, which has recently completed its first two years of full operations. If for a burst like GRB 130427A at a redshift of 0.34 and a high-energy component following a power law with index -1.66, the high-energy component is extended to higher energies with no cut-off other than from extragalactic background light attenuation, HAWC would observe gamma rays with a peak ene...

  19. Resistive Plate Chamber Digitization in a Hadronic Shower Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Z.

    2016-06-28

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadron Calorimeter (SDHCAL) technological prototype is a sampling calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chamber detectors with a three-threshold readout as the active medium. This technology is one of the two options proposed for the hadron calorimeter of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The prototype was exposed to beams of muons, electrons and pions of different energies at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. To be able to study the performance of such a calorimeter in future experiments it is important to ensure reliable simulation of its response. In this paper we present our prototype simulation performed with GEANT4 and the digitization procedure achieved with an algorithm called SimDigital. A detailed description of this algorithm is given and the methods to determinate its parameters using muon tracks and electromagnetic showers are explained. The comparison with hadronic shower data shows a good agreement up to 50 GeV. Discrepancies are ...

  20. Producing EGS4 shower displays with the Unified Graphics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The EGS4 Code System has been coupled with the SLAC Unified Graphics System in such a manner as to provide a means for displaying showers on UGS77-supported devices. This is most easily accomplished by attaching an auxiliary subprogram package (SHOWGRAF) to existing EGS4 User Codes and making use of a graphics display or a post-processor code called EGS4PL. SHOWGRAF may be used to create shower displays directly on interactive IBM 5080 color display devices, supporting three-dimensional rotations, translations, and zoom features, and providing illustration of particle types and energies by color and/or intensity. Alternatively, SHOWGRAF may be used to record a two-dimensional projection of the shower in a device-independent graphics file. The EGS4PL post-processor may then be used to convert this file into device-dependent graphics code for any UGS77-supported device. Options exist within EGS4PL that allow for two-dimensional translations and zoom, for creating line structure to indicate particle types and energies, and for optional display of particles by type. All of this is facilitated by means of the command processor EGS4PL EXEC together with new options (5080 and PDEV) with the standard EGS4IN EXEC routine for running EGS4 interactively under VM/SP. 6 refs

  1. Multiprocessors for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the role, status and progress of multiprocessor projects relevant to high energy physics. A short overview of the large variety of multiprocessors architectures is given, with special emphasis on machines suitable for experimental data reconstruction. A lot of progress has been made in the attempt to make the use of multiprocessors less painful by creating a ''Parallel Programming Environment'' supporting the non-expert user. A high degree of usability has been reached for coarse grain (event level) parallelism. The program development tools available on various systems (subroutine packages, preprocessors and parallelizing compilers) are discussed in some detail. Tools for execution control and debugging are also developing, thus opening the path from dedicated systems for large scale, stable production towards support of a more general job mix. At medium term, multiprocessors will thus cover a growing fraction of the typical high energy physics computing task. (orig.)

  2. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; Butler, B; Cheung, S L; Dell'Acqua, A; Di Simone, A; Ehrenfeld, W; Gallas, M V; Glazov, A; Marshall, Z; Müller, J; Placakyte, R; Rimoldi, A; Savard, P; Tsulaia, V; Waugh, A; Young, C C

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime.

  3. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  4. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  5. An ionization chamber shower detector for the LHC luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Beche, J F; Datte, P S; Haguenauer, Maurice; Manfredi, P F; Millaud, J E; Placidi, Massimo; Ratti, L; Re, V; Riot, V J; Schmickler, Hermann; Speziali, V; Turner, W C

    2000-01-01

    The front IR quadrupole absorbers (TAS) and the IR neutral particle absorbers (TAN) in the high luminosity insertions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) each absorb approximately 1.8 TeV of forward collision products on average per pp interaction (~235 W at design luminosity 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). This secondary particle flux can be exploited to provide a useful storage ring operations tool for optimization of luminosity. A novel segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for sampling the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The system design choices have been strongly influenced by optimization of signal to noise ratio and by the very high radiation environment. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. Data on each bunch are to be separately accumulated over multiple bunch crossings until the desire...

  6. Instrumentation in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation in high energy physics is a wide and advanced domain which cannot be covered in a single lesson. The main basic physics processes for charged and neutral particles are recalled with the definition of a few concepts needed to understand or design a detector. The application of these principles to charged particle measurement devices (momentum), light detection or energy measurement are presented mostly with examples from collider experiments. The particle identification which is often the combination of different techniques in a same experiment is also discussed. Finally in a very short section, a few considerations about electronics/processing with their impact on the detector performance are given

  7. Study of the lateral and temporal distributions of particles in the extensive air shower front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, G.; Brancus, I. M.; Mitrica, B.; Badea, A. F.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Sima, O.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the influence of the primary particle (mass and energy) on the development of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) a study has been performed on simulated events. A number of showers have been simulated using CORSIKA simulation program for different primary particles (p, C, Fe) and different energies (5.62x10 16 and 10 17 eV). The arrival time distributions of particles arriving at ground (detector level) have been studied for different primary energies and masses. Arrival time quartiles have been calculated and compared for different primaries. Arrival time distributions for different distances to shower core and different threshold energies have been compared. To obtain information about the influence of the primary particle on the shape of the lateral distribution of detected shower particles, the simulated lateral density distribution has been approximated with a parametric Lateral Density Function (LDF). The interaction of the shower particles with the detectors has been simulated and the energy deposited in the detectors has been evaluated. This method was used for obtaining the reconstructed (equivalent to the experimental) lateral density distribution, afterwards approximated with the same LDF. To check the quality of the fit and to investigate the sensitivity to fitting conditions, the study was done for three radial ranges, 40-200 m, 350-650 m, 0-1000 m. The total number of particles in the shower front and the truncated number of particles (in the fitting range) have been reconstructed to be compared with the real number of particles from CORSIKA simulations and to investigate the potential use of these parameters in a multiparametric study of extensive air showers. (authors)

  8. Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Smith, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers. A very cursory overview is presented of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described

  9. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  10. Ultra high energy gamma rays and observations with CYGNUS/MILAGRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.D.; Yodh, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    This talk discusses high-energy observations of the Crab pulsar/nebula and the pulsar in the X-ray binary, Hercules X-1, and makes the case for continued observations with ground-based γ-ray detectors. The CYGNUS Air Shower Array has a wide field of view on monitors several astrophysical γ-ray sources at the same time, many of which are prime objects observed by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and air Cerenkov telescopes. This array and the future MILAGRO Water Cerenkov Detector can perform observations that are simultaneous with similar experiments to provide confirmation of emission, and can measure source spectra at a range of high energies previously unexplored

  11. Workshop on Non-Imaging Cherenkov at High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The non-Imaging Cherenkov air shower measurement technique holds great promise in furthering our understanding the Knee-to-Ankle region of the cosmic ray spectrum. In particular, this technique offers a unique way to determine the evolution of the cosmic ray nuclear composition, and an example is given by the recent spectrum results of the Tunka Collaboration. With this in mind, we are organizing a workshop, to be held at the University of Utah, to bring together the various practitioners of this cosmic ray measurement technique to share simulations, analyses, detector designs, and past experimental results amongst the community. The workshop will also be in support of our effort, NICHE, to extend the reach of the TA/TALE detector systems down to the Knee. We anticipate that the workshop will result in a white paper on the scientific importance of these high-energy cosmic ray measurements and on using the Cherenkov technique to accomplish them. Our goal is to have contributions from members of the previous ge...

  12. Extensive Air Showers with unusual structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beznosko Dmitriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23500 Extensive Air Showers (EAS with energies above ∼ 1016 eV have been detected during the ∼3500 hours of the Horizon-T (HT detectors system operations before Aug. 2016. Among these EAS, more than a thousand had an unusual spatial and temporary structure that showed pulses with several maxima (modals or modes from several detection points of the HT at the same time. These modes are separated in time from each other starting from tens to thousands of ns. These EAS have been called multi-modal. Analysis shows that the multi-modal EAS that have been detected by Horizon-T have the following properties: 1. Multi-modal EAS have energy above ∼1017 eV. 2. Pulses with several modes are located at large distances from the EAS axis. An overview of the collected data will be provided. General comments about the unusual structure of the multi-modal EAS will be presented.

  13. A study of the air-shower response of current-limited spark chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.R.; Hodson, A.L.; Bull, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of current-limited spark chambers (discharge chambers) and their relative response to shower electrons and photons are investigated. A stack of six horizontal 1m x 10 cm discharge chambers, above one another, is triggered by air showers falling on an adjacent discharge-chamber array. Particular combinations of discharges show that the efficiency of the chambers is very high and that a significant fraction of the discharges is due to incident photons

  14. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with advanced computing applications in physics, and in particular in high energy physics environments. The main subjects covered are networking; vector and parallel processing; and embedded systems. Also examined are topics such as operating systems, future computer architectures and commercial computer products. The book presents solutions that are foreseen as coping, in the future, with computing problems in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. In the experimental environment the large amounts of data to be processed offer special problems on-line as well as off-line. For on-line data reduction, embedded special purpose computers, which are often used for trigger applications are applied. For off-line processing, parallel computers such as emulator farms and the cosmic cube may be employed. The analysis of these topics is therefore a main feature of this volume

  15. Harvard University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The mainly experimental research program in high energy physics at Harvard is summarized in a descriptive fashion according to the following outline: Proton endash antiproton colliding beam program at Fermilab -- CDF (forward/backward electromagnetic calorimeters -- FEM, central muon extension -- CMX, gas calorimetry and electronics development, front-end electronics upgrades, software development, physics analysis, timetable), electron -- positron collisions in the upsilon region -- CLEO (the hardware projects including CLEO II barrel TOF system and silicon drift detector R ampersand D, physics analysis), search for ν μ to ν τ oscillations with the NOMAD experiment at CERN, the solenoidal detector collaboration at the SSC, muon scattering at FNAL -- E665, the L3 experiment, and phenomenological analysis of high-energy bar pp cross sections. 149 refs

  16. A high energy physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional open-quotes Hidden Symmetries close quotes are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover open-quotes New Physicsclose quotes associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given

  17. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.

    1989-01-01

    We review the efforts of the Notre Dame non accelerator high energy physics group. Our major effort has been directed toward the IMB deep underground detector. Since the departure of the Michigan group our responsibilities to the group have grown. We are also very active in pursuing physics with the IMB 3 detector. Currently we are studying proton decay, point neutrino sources and neutrino oscillations with the contained event sample

  18. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs

  19. High Energy Physics in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A thorough survey of the present and possible future activities and resources in high energy physics in the CERN Member States has been carried out by a Working Group of ECFA (European Committee for Future Accelerators) under the Chairmanship of John Mulvey. The aim has been to obtain a view of the present European scene and to see whether it looks well adapted to the effective exploitation of possible future machines in Europe (particular LEP) and the rest of the world

  20. Shower development of particles with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the CALICE scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Chefdeville, M.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Marshall, J.S.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Alipour Tehrani, N.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Tran, H.L.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Thiebault, A.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cizel, J-B.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Nanni, J.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Chen, S.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Kozakai, C.; Nakanishi, H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2015-12-10

    We present a study of showers initiated by electrons, pions, kaons, and protons with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the highly granular CALICE analogue scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter. The data were recorded at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron in 2011. The analysis includes measurements of the calorimeter response to each particle type as well as measurements of the energy resolution and studies of the longitudinal and radial shower development for selected particles. The results are compared to Geant4 simulations (version 9.6.p02). In the study of the energy resolution we include previously published data with beam momenta from 1 GeV to 10 GeV recorded at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in 2010.

  1. Comet showers and Nemesis, the death star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The recently proposed hypothesis that the periodic extinctions of terrestrial species are the result of comet showers catalyzed by a hypothetical distant solar companion, Nemesis, a tale of global death by comet bombardment of the earth, is discussed

  2. High energy electron positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; Υ Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the Υ; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles

  3. Astrophysics at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, Felix; Bergstroem, Lars; Dermer, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Presents three complementary lectures on very-high-energy astrophysics given by worldwide leaders in the field. Reviews the recent advances in and prospects of gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Prepares readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors. With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA's Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergstroem presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.

  4. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Following our long-time tradition we will present under a common header the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics: Department of Particle Theory (Dept. V); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept XI); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept XII); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept XIII); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). At the end we will list our common activities: lectures and courses as well as seminars. Our research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluation of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY, Hamburg) is also carried out. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy. This location, close to the Jagiellonian University, facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the University of Mining and Metallurgy. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of our activities is teaching and training students from

  5. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  6. Application of an image intensifier to the study on hadrons in air shower, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushima, Itsuro; Kawasumi, Norio; Hashimoto, Katsumi; Machida, Masaharu

    1975-01-01

    As the apparatus for observing cosmic ray air shower, the particle detection apparatus combining spark chamber, scintillator and photomultiplier tube is frequently used, but the exact detection of particle number is impossible with it when particle density is large. The authors have carried out the experiment to measure nuclear active particles in air shower and to grasp the central part of air shower as energy flow by utilizing an image intensifier tube. On the roof of building S, a laboratory was built, and a core detector of 2 m x 2 m area, 13 AS detectors of 0.25 m 2 and an AS detector of 1 m 2 were installed. The gate of the II was opened by utilizing coincidence pulses, and the position and amount of scintillation in the core detector was taken into a camera through the II. The time of observation was 289 hours, and the time of II operation was 113 hours. Total number of air shower recorded was 218 cases, and the centers of 120 cases among them were determined in the AS detectors at four corners. The centers of 39 cases were within the area of the core detector. In the coincident counting of air shower and burst carried out in the present experiment, the total delay time from the arrival of air shower to the gate pulse actuating the II was 1.6 sec. The core of air shower of about 10 6 size and 1.3 age was caught by this method. The problems for future are the determination of core position for the air shower of smaller size, and the meaning of spot images of II. (Kako, I.)

  7. Radio detection of cosmic ray induced air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliescher, Stefan, E-mail: fliescher@physik.rwth-aachen.de [3. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen, University (Germany)

    2012-01-11

    AERA - the Auger Engineering Radio Array - is currently being set up at the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA will explore the potential of the radio-detection technique to cosmic ray induced air showers with respect to the next generation of large-scale surface detectors. As AERA is co-located with the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the observation of air showers in coincidence with the Auger surface and fluorescence detector will allow to study the radio emission processes in detail and to calibrate the radio signal. Finally, the combined reconstruction of shower parameters with three independent techniques promises new insights into the nature of cosmic rays in the transition region from 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 19} eV. Besides the detection of coherent radiation in the MHz frequency range, the setups AMBER - Air-shower Microwave Bremsstrahlung Experimental Radiometer - and MIDAS - MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers - prepare to check the possibility to detect air showers due the emission of molecular bremsstrahlung in the GHz range at the Auger site. This article presents the status of the radio-detection setups and discusses their physics potential as well as experimental challenges. Special focus is laid on the first stage of AERA which is the startup to the construction of a 20 km{sup 2} radio array.

  8. High energy overcurrent protective device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical loads connected to capacitance elements in high voltage direct current systems are protected from damage by capacitance discharge overcurrents by connecting between the capacitance element and the load, a longitudinal inductor comprising a bifilar winding wound about a magnetic core, which forms an incomplete magnetic circuit. A diode is connected across a portion of the bifilar winding which conducts a unidirectional current only. Energy discharged from the capacitance element is stored in the inductor and then dissipated in an L-R circuit including the diode and the coil winding. Multiple high voltage circuits having capacitance elements may be connected to loads through bifilar windings all wound about the aforementioned magnetic core.

  9. Monte-Carlo simulation of hadronic shower Part 2: The PION calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amatuni, Ts A; Mamidjanyan, E A; Sanossyan, Kh N

    1993-12-31

    Hadronic showers for four energy intervals from 0,5 to 5 TeV have been simulated using the MARS 10 code and the experimental energy and angle distributions of cosmic ray hadrons incident on the PION iron-ionization calorimeter. The longitudinal energy depositions are compared with the experimental results and satisfactory agreement is observed. The average characteristics of hadronic showers initiated by 0,3, 0,5, 1, 2,5, 10 and 20 TeV incident protons, neutrons and pions are studied and parametrizations for the longitudinal and transverse shower profiles are obtained. A new formula for the lateral profile is proposed. The leakage and albedo from the PION calorimeter and the energy spectra of the leakage and albedo particles are also estimated. 29 refs.

  10. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  11. Fully NLO Parton Shower in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, M.; Jadach, S.; Slawinska, M.; Gituliar, O.; Kusina, A.; Placzek, W.

    2011-01-01

    The project of constructing a complete NLO-level Parton Shower Monte Carlo for the QCD processes developed in IFJ PAN in Krakow is reviewed. Four issues are discussed: (1) the extension of the standard inclusive collinear factorization into a new, fully exclusive scheme; (2) reconstruction of the LO Parton Shower in the new scheme; (3) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the hard process and (4) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the evolution (ladder) part. (authors)

  12. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Alekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Alvarez, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Berlin, A. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d& #x27; Orfeuil, B. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2012-01-11

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20{sup Degree-Sign } Multiplication-Sign 10{sup Degree-Sign} region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  13. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facal San Luis, P.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.R.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d’Orfeuil, B.

    2012-01-01

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20 ° ×10 ° region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  14. Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water saving is a key issue in rapidly developing countries, such as Vietnam, that face various water resource management challenges. This study investigated water-use patterns in a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. It aimed to quantify the efficiency of water-saving devices through modeling toilet and shower usage patterns, including water consumption. The shift in hourly consumption of cold and hot water was also identified. Analysis revealed that, on average, a full toilet flush occurs 3.3 times/day, a half flush 3.0 times/day, water consumption due to shower usage is 48.1 L/day, showering time is 7.3 min/day and the shower water temperature is 37.7 °C. Shifting levels of hot and cold water use revealed high activity in the morning time and that there are two peaks, occurring in the morning and at night.

  15. Fractal dimension analysis in a highly granular calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, M; Brient, J.C; Jeans, D; Videau, H

    2015-01-01

    The concept of “particle flow” has been developed to optimise the jet energy resolution by distinguishing the different jet components. A highly granular calorimeter designed for the particle flow algorithm provides an unprecedented level of detail for the reconstruction of calorimeter showers and enables new approaches to shower analysis. In this paper the measurement and use of the fractal dimension of showers is described. The fractal dimension is a characteristic number that measures the global compactness of the shower. It is highly dependent on the primary particle type and energy. Its application in identifying particles and estimating their energy is described in the context of a calorimeter designed for the International Linear Collider.

  16. Extensive air showers, lightnings and thunderstorm ground enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.

    2016-01-01

    For the lightning research, we monitor the particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs) initiated by the runaway electrons, and Extensive Air Showers (EASs) originated from high energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Besides, we monitor the near-surface electric field and the atmospheric discharges with the help of a network of electric field mills. The Aragats “electron accelerator” produced plenty of TGE and lightning events in spring 2015. Using 1-sec time series, we investigated the relation of lightnings and particle fluxes. Lightning flashes often terminated the particle flux; during some of TGEs the lightning would terminate the particle flux 3 times after successive recovery. It was postulated that a lightning terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of TGE or on the decay phase of it; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just on a maximum of its development. We discuss the possibility that a huge EAS facilitates lightning leader to find its path to the ground. (author)

  17. QED radiative correction for the single-W production using a parton shower method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.; Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Tobimatsu, K.; Munehisa, T.

    2001-01-01

    A parton shower method for the photonic radiative correction is applied to single W-boson production processes. The energy scale for the evolution of the parton shower is determined so that the correct soft-photon emission is reproduced. Photon spectra radiated from the partons are compared with those from the exact matrix elements, and show a good agreement. Possible errors due to an inappropriate energy-scale selection or due to the ambiguity of the energy-scale determination are also discussed, particularly for the measurements on triple gauge couplings. (orig.)

  18. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier G.

    2015-08-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m) from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  19. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Javier G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  20. IV. Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this proceedings the results on high energy spin physics are summarized. The theory of spin phenomenon and the experimental results at intermediate energy and at high energy spin physics and new technical developments in polarization experiments are presented

  1. Developments in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Roy, Probir

    2009-01-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics background, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the standard model, and proposals - including the radical paradigm of string theory - have been made to go beyond the standard model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors. (author)

  2. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project settings are close to ideal, including a very capable national utility company, Electra, a conventional power supply system based on imported heavy fuel and gas oil, and favourable wind conditions with an estimated annual average of 9.3 m/s at the hub height of the wind turbines. With the applied case study assumptions, simulations with WINSYS over the lifetime of the assessed wind power investment show that investments up to 4.2 MW are economically viable. The economic optimum is found at 2.4 MW reaching an internal rate of return of almost 8% p.a. This 2.4 MW of wind power would, together with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h. (Author)

  3. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  4. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, Richard; Nural, Akchurin

    2013-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report on the project Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. The project was carried out by a consortium of US and Italian physicists, led by Dr. Richard Wigmans (Texas tech University). This consortium built several particle detectors and tested these at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The idea arose to use scintillating crystals as dual-readout calorimeters. Such crystals were of course already known to provide excellent energy resolution for the detection of particles developing electromagnetic (em) showers. The efforts to separate the signals from scintillating crystals into scintillation and Cerenkov components led to four different methods by which this could be accomplished. These methods are based on a) the directionality, b) spectral differences, c) the time structure, and d) the polarization of the signals

  5. Development and data analysis of a radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belletoile, A.

    2007-10-01

    The radio-detection of cosmic rays was first attempted in the sixties. Unfortunately at that time, the results suffered from poor reproducibility and the technique was abandoned in favour of direct particle and fluorescence detection. Taking advantage of recent technological improvements the radio-detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays is being reinvestigated. In this document, first, we remind the reader of the global problematic of cosmic rays. Then, the several mechanisms involved in the emission of an electric field associated with extensive air showers are discussed. The CODALEMA (cosmic detection array with logarithmic electro magnetic antenna) experiment that aims to demonstrate the feasibility of cosmic ray radio-detection, is extensively described along with the first experimental results. A radio-detection test experiment implanted at the giant detector Pierre Auger is presented. It should provide inputs to design the future detector using this technique at extreme energies. (author)

  6. Influence of the atmosphere on the space detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreggia, S.

    2007-06-01

    EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is a project of ultra-high energy (> 10 20 eV) cosmic rays detection from space. Its concept relies on the observation of fluorescence and Cerenkov photons emitted by extensive air showers from a telescope located on the International Space Station. A simulation software has been developed to study the characteristics of this innovative concept of detection. It deals with the different steps of the detection chain: extensive air shower development, emission of fluorescence and Cerenkov light, and radiative transfer to the telescope. A Monte-Carlo code has been implemented to simulate the propagation of photons through the atmosphere, dealing with multiple scattering in clear sky conditions as well as in presence of aerosols and clouds. With this simulation program, the impact of atmospheric conditions on the performance of a space-located detector has been studied. The precise treatment of photons propagation through the atmosphere has permitted to quantify the scattered light contribution to the detected signal. (author)

  7. Cooperative observations of air showers in Tasmania looking for anisotropies in 10 to the 13th - 10 to the 14th eV primaries /COALA project/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.; Humble, J. E.; Jacklyn, R. M.; Vrana, A.; Murakami, K.; Fujii, Z.; Yamada, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Ueno, H.; Nagashima, K.; Kondo, I.

    Observations of cosmic ray air showers in Tasmania beginning in 1981 are discussed. The shower array consists of 18 unit trays of 4-sq m proportional counters deployed over an area of 20 m x 160 m, and showers around a median primary energy of 5 x 10 to the 13th are to be observed. The observations are carried out in order to catch cosmic ray flows in a stereoscopic manner with simultaneous observations in the northern hemisphere, and the shower frequency in a fundamental coincidence mode is expected to be about 16,000 events per year.

  8. Duke University high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and Χ meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report

  9. Particle production in very-high-energy cosmic-ray emulsion chamber events: Usual and unusual events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.G.S.; Halzen, F.; Salles, C.

    1995-01-01

    We show that a simple scaling model of very forward particle production, consistent with accelerator and air shower data, can describe the overall features of the very-high-energy interactions recorded with emulsion chambers. The rapidity and transverse momentum distribution of the secondaries are quantitatively reproduced. This is somewhat surprising after numerous claims that the same data implied large scaling violations or new dynamics. Interestingly, we cannot describe some of the Centauro events, suggesting that these events are anomalous independently of their well-advertised unusual features such as the absence of neutral secondaries

  10. Performance characteristics of a shower cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaoni; Liu Zhenyan; Li Dandan

    2007-01-01

    This study was prompted by the need to design towers for applications in which, due to salt deposition on the packing and subsequent blockage, the use of tower packing is not practical. In contrast to conventional cooling towers, the cooling tower analyzed in this study is void of fill. By means of efficient atomization nozzles, a shower cooling tower (SCT) is possible to be applied in industry, which, in terms of water cooling, energy saving and equipment investing, is better than conventional packed cooling towers. However, no systematic thermodynamic numerical method could be found in the literature up to now. Based on the kinetic model and mass and heat transfer model, this paper has developed a one dimensional model for studying the motional process and evaporative cooling process occurring at the water droplet level in the SCT. The finite difference approach is used for three motional processes to obtain relative parameters in each different stage, and the possibility of the droplets being entrained outside the tower is fully analyzed. The accuracy of this model is checked by practical operational results from a full scale prototype in real conditions, and some exclusive factors that affect the cooling characteristics for the SCT are analyzed in detail. This study provides the theoretical foundation for practical application of the SCT in industry

  11. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  12. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  13. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  14. Analytic calculation of radio emission from parametrized extensive air showers : A tool to extract shower parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; de Vries, K. D.; Hare, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    The radio intensity and polarization footprint of a cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower is determined by the time-dependent structure of the current distribution residing in the plasma cloud at the shower front. In turn, the time dependence of the integrated charge-current distribution in the

  15. Analytic calculation of radio emission from parametrized extensive air showers: A tool to extract shower parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, O.; Trinh, T. N. G.; de Vries, K. D.; Hare, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    The radio intensity and polarization footprint of a cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower is determined by the time-dependent structure of the current distribution residing in the plasma cloud at the shower front. In turn, the time dependence of the integrated charge-current distribution in the plasma cloud, the longitudinal shower structure, is determined by interesting physics which one would like to extract, such as the location and multiplicity of the primary cosmic-ray collision or the values of electric fields in the atmosphere during thunderstorms. To extract the structure of a shower from its footprint requires solving a complicated inverse problem. For this purpose we have developed a code that semianalytically calculates the radio footprint of an extensive air shower given an arbitrary longitudinal structure. This code can be used in an optimization procedure to extract the optimal longitudinal shower structure given a radio footprint. On the basis of air-shower universality we propose a simple parametrization of the structure of the plasma cloud. This parametrization is based on the results of Monte Carlo shower simulations. Deriving the parametrization also teaches which aspects of the plasma cloud are important for understanding the features seen in the radio-emission footprint. The calculated radio footprints are compared with microscopic CoREAS simulations.

  16. Study of the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and analysis of the associated hadronic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, X.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), i.e. E ≥ 1 EeV, raise many questions about their origin and constitute a challenge to modern physics. These cosmic rays entering the atmosphere dissipate their huge energy by generating a shower of secondary particles whose development is significantly different depending on the nature of the primaries. The study of the composition of UHECR is therefore a major interest both in understanding the hadronic processes which govern the evolution of showers and in identifying the sources of this radiation. Given its hybrid structure and the size of its unmatched network of ground detectors, the Pierre Auger Observatory can provide clear answers to the issues raised by UHECR. In this thesis, we are particularly interested in the muon component of air showers. First, we show how the hadronic parameters define the production of muons. Then we present an original method to extract this muon component and deduce the implications on the composition of UHECR. The results of this approach suggest a transition from a heavy composition to a light one when the energy increases. Finally, we address the measurement of cosmic-air cross section and present the first results derived from the Pierre Auger Observatory data. (author)

  17. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  18. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  19. A multi-transputer system for parallel Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, H.J.; Heck, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Schatz, G.; Thouw, T.

    1989-01-01

    A multiprocessor computer system has been brought into operation at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. It is dedicated to Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The architecture consists of two independently working VMEbus systems each with a 68020 microprocessor as host computer and twelve T800 transputers for parallel processing. The two systems are linked via Ethernet for data exchange. The T800 transputers are equipped with 4 Mbyte RAM each, sufficient to run rather large codes. The host computers are operated under UNIX 5.3. On the transputers compilers for PARALLEL FORTRAN, C, and PASCAL are available. The simple modular architecture of this parallel computer reflects the single purpose for which it is intended. The hardware of the multiprocessor computer is described as well as the way how the user software is handled and distributed to the 24 working processors. The performance of the parallel computer is demonstrated by well-known benchmarks and by realistic Monte Carlo simulations of air showers. Comparisons with other types of microprocessors and with large universal computers are made. It is demonstrated that a cost reduction by more than a factor of 20 is achieved by this system as compared to universal computer. (orig.)

  20. New approach to parton shower Monte Carlo event generators for precision QCD theory: HERWIRI1.0(31)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, S.; Ward, B. F. L.; Majhi, S.; Yost, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    By implementing the new IR-improved Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi-Callan-Symanzik (DGLAP-CS) kernels recently developed by one of us in the HERWIG6.5 environment we generate a new Monte Carlo (MC), HERWIRI1.0(31), for hadron-hadron scattering at high energies. We use MC data to illustrate the comparison between the parton shower generated by the standard DGLAP-CS kernels and that generated by the new IR-improved DGLAP-CS kernels. The interface to MC-NLO, MC-NLO/HERWIRI, is illustrated. Comparisons with FNAL data and some discussion of possible implications for LHC phenomenology are also presented.

  1. Duke University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    The research program of the Duke High Energy Physics Group is described in this Progress Report and a separate Proposal containing their plans for 1994. These two documents are supplemented by compilations of selected publications, thesis abstracts, and the curriculum vitae of the eleven Ph.D. physicists who are carrying out this research program. This Progress Report contains a review of the research which has been done over the first half (1992 and 1993 to date) of the current three-year DOE grant, plus some earlier research to establish a broader perspective of the research interests. High energy physics research at Duke has three components. The first, Task A, is based upon experiments carried out at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider. The group is finishing the analysis of data from their first collider experiment (E735), a study of inclusive particle production from bar p p collisions at √ bar s = 1.8 TeV. The second component of the research, Task B, deals primarily with heavy flavor physics. The third part of the research program, Task D, deals with preparation for research at the SSC. The authors have been active in the development of tracking detectors for the SSC since 1989, and are now concentrating on the design and construction of straw tube drift chambers for the solenoid detector

  2. Spinoff from high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This year the CERN Courier is featuring the spinoff and technological benefits arising from research in fundamental physics. After initial illustrations in applied data processing sectors, this article by Hans Hoffman of CERN examines the rationale and underlying objectives of the 'new awareness' of the market value of basic science. He is the Chairman of a new panel on the subject set up recently by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The other members are: Oscar Barbalat of CERN, Hans Christian Dehne of DESY, Sin-ichi Kurakawa of KEK, Gennady Kulipanov of the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk), Anthony Montgomery, formerly of the SSC, A. H. Walenta of Siegen, Germany, and Zhongqiang Yu of IHEP Beijing. High energy physics - the quest to find and understand the structure of matter - is mainly seen as an essential part of human culture. However this basic science increasingly has to jostle for funding attention with other branches of science. Applied sciences aim for a rapid transformation of investment cash into viable market products. In times of economic difficulties this is attractive to funding agencies and governments, and economic usefulness and technological relevance also become criteria for a basic science like high energy physics.

  3. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics of the evolution of the early universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including studies of the nature of dark matter and the signature of annihilations in the galactic halo, where the resulting γ-ray fluxes are potentially observable, and in stars, where stellar evolution may be affects. We will develop constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon, examining the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in both flat and curved cosmological models, and implications for observations of large-scale galaxy clustering and structure formation theories. We will also study spectral distortions in the microwave background radiation that are produced by exotic particle decays in the very early universe. We expect such astrophysical considerations to provide fruitful insights both into high-energy particle physics and into possible cosmological for the early universe

  4. Cooperative observations of air showers in Tasmania looking for anisotropies in 1013 - 1014 eV primaries (COALA project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, A.G.; Fenton, K.B.; Humble, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray air showers (median primary energy: 5.10 13 eV) in Tasmania have been planned to start during 1981. The observations will be carried out through collaboration of the Hobart and Nagoya groups, in order to catch cosmic ray flows in a somewhat stereoscopic manner with simultaneous observations in the northern hemisphere (Mt. Norikura). The air shower array consists of 18 unit trays of 4 m 2 proportional counters deployed over an area of 20 m x 160 m. The shower frequency in a fundamental coincidence mode is expected to be about 16,000 events per hour

  5. Cherenkov light based measurement of extensive air showers around the knee with the HEGRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; Barrio, J.A.; Belgarian, A.S.; Bernloehr, K.; Bojahr, H.; Contreras, J.L.; Cortina, J.; Daum, A.; Deckers, T.; Denninghoff, S.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, V.; Gonzales, J.C.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hemberger, M.; Hermann, G.; Hess, M.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hohl, H.; Horns, D.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kirstein, O.; Koehler, C.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmayer, H.; Kranich, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Lampeitl, H.; Lindner, A.; Lorenz, E.; Magnussen, N.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Padilla, L.; Panter, M.; Petry, D.; Plaga, R.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Prahl, J.; Prosch, C.; Puehlhofer, G.; Rauterberg, G.; Renault, C.; Rhode, W.; Roehring, A.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schmele, D.; Schroeder, F.; Stamm, W.; Voelk, H.J.; Wiebel-Sooth, B

    1999-03-01

    Data of the wide angle atmospheric Cherenkov light detector array AIROBICC and the scintillator matrix of the HEGRA air shower detector complex are combined to determine the energy spectrum and coarse composition of charged cosmic rays in the energy interval from 300 TeV to 10 PeV.

  6. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  7. Dynamics of high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    During last several years, a new framework to describe strong interaction physics has emerged, i.e. quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is the simplest field theory which incorporates color-dependent force among quarks. This force is generated by the exchange of colored vector gluons coupled to the quarks in gauge-invariant manner. The theory is closely related to the most successful quantum field theory, QED, and the only but very important difference is the gauge group involved. Although the theory is well defined, precisely what it predicts is not yet clearly known. However, at very high energy or momentum transfer Q, the effective coupling between quarks and gluons decreases toward zero with increasing Q 2 , and the calculation of a process involving high Q 2 is possible by the use of perturbation theory. In this paper, many applications of QCD to the processes involving high momentum transfer are examined. The effective coupling resulting from strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the scale violation in deep inelastic lepton scattering, large mass muon pair production, quark and gluon fragmentation functions, large transverse momentum meson and jet production in hadron-hadron collision, and the search for three-jet events are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  8. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  9. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  10. On Micro VAX farms and shower libraries: Monte Carlo techniques developed for the D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to predict correctly the effects of cracks and dead material in a nearly hermetic calorimeter, hadronic and electromagnetic showers need to be simulated accurately on a particle by particle basis. Tracking all the particles of all showers in the calorimeter leads to very large CPU times (typically 5 hours on a VAX780) for events at √(s) = 2TeV. Parametrizing the energy deposition of electromagnetic particles in showers with energy below 200 MeV results in event times of the order of 1 hour on a VAX780. This is still unacceptably large. The D0 collaboration then employed a farm of 16 MicroVax II's to get acceptable throughputs. The calorimeter hit patterns of each individual track was output, to be summed up by a later job. These individual hit patterns were entered into a random access shower library file, which was then used for subsequent Monte Carlo simulations. This shower library technique results in further speed-ups of a factor of 60 without degrading the quality of simulation significantly

  11. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions, we define Xmaxμ as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of Xmaxμ as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  12. Biofilms on Hospital Shower Hoses: Characterization and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the source of drinking water used in hospitals is commonly, biofilms on water pipelines are refuge to bacteria that survive different disinfection strategies. Drinking water (DW) biofilms are well known to harbor opportunistic pathogens, however, these biofilm communities remain poorly characterized by culture-independent approaches that circumvent the limitations of conventional monitoring efforts. Hence, the frequency of pathogens in DW biofilms and how biofilm members withstand high doses of disinfectants and/or chlorine residuals in the water supply remain speculative, but directly impact public health. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of microbial communities growing on five hospital shower hoses using both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Two different sequence-based methods were used to characterize the bacterial fractions: 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacterial cultures and next generation sequencing of metagenomes. Based on the metagenomic data, we found that Mycobacterium-like species was the abundant bacterial taxa that overlapped among the five samples. We also recovered the draft genome of a novel Mycobacterium species, closely related to opportunistic pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. rhodesiae and M. tusciae, in addition to other, less abundant species. In contrast, the cultured fraction was mostly affiliated to Proteobacteria, such as members of the Sphingomonas, Blastomonas and Porph

  13. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  14. Parton shower evolution with subleading color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2012-02-01

    Parton shower Monte Carlo event generators in which the shower evolves from hard splittings to soft splittings generally use the leading color approximation, which is the leading term in an expansion in powers of 1/N c 2 , where N c =3 is the number of colors. We introduce a more general approximation, the LC+ approximation, that includes some of the color suppressed contributions. There is a cost: each generated event comes with a weight. There is a benefit: at each splitting the leading soft x collinear singularity and the leading collinear singularity are treated exactly with respect to color. In addition, an LC+ shower can start from a state of the color density matrix in which the bra state color and the ket state color do not match. (orig.)

  15. Parton shower evolution with subleading color

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2012-02-15

    Parton shower Monte Carlo event generators in which the shower evolves from hard splittings to soft splittings generally use the leading color approximation, which is the leading term in an expansion in powers of 1/N{sub c}{sup 2}, where N{sub c}=3 is the number of colors. We introduce a more general approximation, the LC+ approximation, that includes some of the color suppressed contributions. There is a cost: each generated event comes with a weight. There is a benefit: at each splitting the leading soft x collinear singularity and the leading collinear singularity are treated exactly with respect to color. In addition, an LC+ shower can start from a state of the color density matrix in which the bra state color and the ket state color do not match. (orig.)

  16. Modeling of the Atmospheric Response to the Leonid Meteor Showers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNeil, William

    1998-01-01

    ... showers of recent years. The model allows for ablation, deposition, diffusion and chemical dynamics, thereby permitting the computation of the modifications in the layers due to the showers in a self-consistent manner, based...

  17. Caging in high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of caging high energy reactions is considered. It is noted that there is no easy and unambiguous way, short of a complete and very tedious product and mechanistic analysis, which is feasible only for very few systems, to determine the contribution made by caging. It is emphasized that some products resulting from the hot reaction with a certain substrate may be formed via caging while others are not. In research on the mechanism of caging the results of Roots work on the reactions of hot 18 F with the CF 3 CH 3 system seem to provide evidence for caging, with 18 F being the caged moiety, thus proceeding via a radical--radical recombination mechanism. Their work with H 2 S additive also seems to indicate that scavenging via hydrogen abstraction from H 2 S to form does not interfere with the radical--radical recombination consistent with Bunkers molecular approach to explain the cage effects. In other research a series of observations resulting from stereochemical and combined stereochemical density variation techniques seem to favor a caged-complex. It is clear that a more conclusive answer can only be reached by more systematic studies, utilizing the whole range of nuclear reactions such as (n,2n), (n,γ) and E.C. processes in mechanistically well defined systems to elucidate the effect of variations in the recoil energies, by carrying out studies in different solvents or host substances to assess the effect of the physical parameters, such as molecule size and intermolecular interactions on the escape probability or caging efficiencies

  18. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1989-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale--free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry-breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large-scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions, massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study of the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  19. [High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1988-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry--breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large--scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation in galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  20. Quantum Sensing for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; et al.

    2018-03-29

    Report of the first workshop to identify approaches and techniques in the domain of quantum sensing that can be utilized by future High Energy Physics applications to further the scientific goals of High Energy Physics.

  1. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The μ + μ - collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged

  2. Lasers and future high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-02-01

    Future high energy colliders, directions for particle physics and relationship to new technology such as lasers are discussed. Experimental approaches to explore New Physics with emphasis on the utility of high energy colliders are also discussed

  3. Angular distributions for the charged components in a cascade shower induced by 350 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Itoh, H.; Murakami, A.; Muto, T.

    1978-01-01

    The angular distributions of secondary electrons contained in a cascade shower are studied by using a streamer chamber. The primary electrons with energy of about 350 MeV are incident on a lead converter of various thickness. The angular data are analyzed for the number of electrons in a shower, and for the converter thickness. The obtained distributions show a systematic agreement with the Monte Carlo calculations presented by Messel and Crawford. (Auth.)

  4. Measurement of parton shower observables with OPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of QCD coherence is presented based on a sample of about 397,000 e+e- hadronic annihilation events collected at √s = 91 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The study is based on four recently proposed observables that are sensitive to coherence effects in the perturbative regime. The measurement of these observables is presented, along with a comparison with the predictions of different parton shower models. The models include both conventional parton shower models and dipole antenna models. Different ordering variables are used to investigate their influence on the predictions.

  5. Shower reconstruction in the CLUE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C. E-mail: bigongiari@pd.infn.it; Ciocci, M.A.; Cosulich, D.; Cresti, M.; Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Liello, F.; Malakhov, N.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sartori, P.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smogailov, E.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N

    2001-04-01

    The CLUE experiment studies primary cosmic rays (E{>=}2 TeV) by detecting UV (190-230 nm) Cherenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Since atmospheric absorption in the UV range is higher than in the visible range, CLUE cannot apply algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic-ray direction. In this paper, we present a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. Preliminary results of the source analysis using this new method are shown.

  6. Shower reconstruction in the CLUE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Ciocci, M.A.; Cosulich, D.; Cresti, M.; Dokoutchaeva, V.; Kartashov, D.; Liello, F.; Malakhov, N.; Mariotti, M.; Marsella, G.; Menzione, A.; Paoletti, R.; Parlavecchio, G.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Pegna, R.; Rosso, F.; Sacco, R.; Saggion, A.; Sartori, G.; Sartori, P.; Sbarra, C.; Scribano, A.; Smogailov, E.; Stamerra, A.; Turini, N.

    2001-01-01

    The CLUE experiment studies primary cosmic rays (E≥2 TeV) by detecting UV (190-230 nm) Cherenkov light produced by atmospheric showers. Since atmospheric absorption in the UV range is higher than in the visible range, CLUE cannot apply algorithms normally used in IACT experiments to determine primary cosmic-ray direction. In this paper, we present a new method developed by CLUE. The algorithm performances were evaluated using simulated showers. Preliminary results of the source analysis using this new method are shown

  7. Implementing NLO DGLAP evolution in parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank; Prestel, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    We present a parton shower which implements the DGLAP evolution of parton densities and fragmentation functions at next-to-leading order precision up to effects stemming from local four-momentum conservation. The Monte-Carlo simulation is based on including next-to-leading order collinear splitting functions in an existing parton shower and combining their soft enhanced contributions with the corresponding terms at leading order. Soft double counting is avoided by matching to the soft eikonal. Example results from two independent realizations of the algorithm, implemented in the two event generation frameworks Pythia and Sherpa, illustrate the improved precision of the new formalism.

  8. SEARCH FOR SOURCES OF HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRONS WITH FOUR YEARS OF DATA FROM THE ICETOP DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005 (Australia); Abraham, K. [Physik-department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J. A.; Ansseau, I. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ahrens, M. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Anton, G. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Andeen, K. [Department of Physics, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Anderson, T. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Argüelles, C.; Axani, S. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Auffenberg, J. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bay, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2016-10-20

    IceTop is an air-shower array located on the Antarctic ice sheet at the geographic South Pole. IceTop can detect an astrophysical flux of neutrons from Galactic sources as an excess of cosmic-ray air showers arriving from the source direction. Neutrons are undeflected by the Galactic magnetic field and can typically travel 10 ( E /PeV) pc before decay. Two searches are performed using 4 yr of the IceTop data set to look for a statistically significant excess of events with energies above 10 PeV (10{sup 16} eV) arriving within a small solid angle. The all-sky search method covers from −90° to approximately −50° in declination. No significant excess is found. A targeted search is also performed, looking for significant correlation with candidate sources in different target sets. This search uses a higher-energy cut (100 PeV) since most target objects lie beyond 1 kpc. The target sets include pulsars with confirmed TeV energy photon fluxes and high-mass X-ray binaries. No significant correlation is found for any target set. Flux upper limits are determined for both searches, which can constrain Galactic neutron sources and production scenarios.

  9. Hadron dynamics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storrow, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    The nine lectures give a very brief introduction to hadron dynamics at high energies. They concentrate on basic concepts such as Regge poles, duality and geometrical ideas, and simple applications of these ideas to the problem of understanding data. To some extent two body phenomenology is emphasized at the expense of multiparticle final states and when the latter have been considered they have concentrated on inclusive reactions. One lecture discussed data on 2-2 reactions in order to provide the motivation for Regge pole theory, then two lectures are devoted to basic concepts. Then duality is introduced and shown to provide reasonable restrictions on a pole model. A lecture is then devoted to discussing geometrical ideas i.e. the t-dependence of data is looked at from an s-channel point of view. The section on two-body phenomenology is then concluded by discussing applications of the above ideas to two reactions-pion-nucleon scattering and np charge exchange scattering. The remaining three lectures are devoted to multiparticle reactions. Exclusive reactions are considered briefly and then the remainder of the course is concerned with inclusive reactions. The concepts of scaling and limiting fragmentation are discussed and Mueller's generalised optical theorem introduced and then applied in various kinematic limits. (author)

  10. Future Extensive Air Shower arrays: From Gamma-Ray Astronomy to Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciascio Giuseppe Di

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite large progresses in building new detectors and in the analysis techniques, the key questions concerning the origin, acceleration and propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays are still open. A number of new EAS arrays is in progress. The most ambitious and sensitive project between them is LHAASO, a new generation multi-component experiment to be installed at very high altitude in China (Daocheng, Sichuan province, 4400 m a.s.l.. The experiment will face the open problems through a combined study of photon- and charged particle-induced extensive air showers in the wide energy range 1011 – 1018 eV. In this paper the status of the experiment will be summarized, the science program presented and the outlook discussed in comparison with leading new projects.

  11. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  12. Experimental studies of elementary particle interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1992-01-01

    In the past year, our research program encompassed four major areas: the UA-6 experiment at CERN, the CDF (Collider Detector at Fermilab) experiment at Fermilab, the SDC (Solenoidal Detector Collaboration) experiment of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider), and an R ampersand D project for the development of High Pressure Gas Calorimetry for high luminosity colliders. The UA-6 experiment studies direct-γ and J/ψ production in pp and bar pp interactions at √s = 22.5 GeV. In the CDF experiment we have concentrated in the plug calorimeter upgrade program, which involves replacing the plug and forward calorimetry with a more compact calorimeter based on scintillator tiles being readout with wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers. In the SDC experiment, we have taken primary responsibility for the Preshower/Shower-Maximum detectors. We wrote the original shower-maximum proposal for the SDC and have contributed to detector simulations, scintillator/WLS-fiber light yield measurements, building prototype preshower and shower-maximum detectors and measuring their performance in a test beam, and developing novel photosensitive devices to read out the fibers. The High Pressure Gas Calorimeter project has been very successful. A prototype parallel plate iron based electromagnetic calorimeter was designed, constructed and tested in an electron beam at Fermilab. The results were very encouraging. We are presently working on a new design, which would be more suitable for the construction of economical, large scale calorimeters, such as those needed for the forward region of SDC and FAD

  13. High energy physics and grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuansong

    2004-01-01

    The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)

  14. Preliminary results from the Chicago air shower array and the Michigan muon array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H.A.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Green, K.D.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large area surface array designed to detect extensive air showers (EAS) produced by primaries with energy ∼100 TeV. It operates in coincidence with the underground Michigan Muon Array (MIA). Preliminary results are presented from a search for steady emission and daily emission from three astrophysical sources: Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. There is no evidence for a significant signal from any of these sources in the 1989 data

  15. A discrimination technique for extensive air showers based on multiscale, lacunarity and neural network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliaro, Antonio; D'Ali Staiti, G.; D'Anna, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method for the identification of extensive air showers initiated by different primaries. The method uses the multiscale concept and is based on the analysis of multifractal behaviour and lacunarity of secondary particle distributions together with a properly designed and trained artificial neural network. In the present work the method is discussed and applied to a set of fully simulated vertical showers, in the experimental framework of ARGO-YBJ, to obtain hadron to gamma primary separation. We show that the presented approach gives very good results, leading, in the 1-10 TeV energy range, to a clear improvement of the discrimination power with respect to the existing figures for extended shower detectors.

  16. Modelling of an RF plasma shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanasova, M.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Mihailova, D.B.; Benova, E.; Degrez, G.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A capacitive radiofrequency (RF) discharge at atmospheric pressure is studied by means of a time-dependent, two-dimensional fluid model. The plasma is created in a stationary argon gas flow guided through two perforated electrodes, hence resembling a shower. The inner electrode, the electrode facing

  17. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2016-05-01

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α s that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  18. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α{sub s} that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  19. The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.D.; Delay, R.S.; Dion, G.M.; Lu, X.Q.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States)); Berley, D.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Gupta, S.; Krakauer, D.A.; Stark, M.J.; Talaga, R.L. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)); Burman, R.L.; Butterfield, K.; Cady, R.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sinnis, C.; Stanislaus, S.; Thompson, T.N.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Zhang, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Ellsworth, R.W. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The CYGNUS extensive air-shower experiment is described. The design criteria, construction and operation details, and performance characteristics are presented. A discussion of the data analysis techniques is given. Finally, several enhancements and improvements in the apparatus are described. (orig.).

  20. Systematic improvement of QCD parton showers

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Jan; Hoeth, Hendrik; Krauss, Frank; Schonherr, Marek; Schumann, Steffen; Siegert, Frank; Zapp, Korinna

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we will give a brief overview of the progress that has been achieved in the field of combining matrix elements and parton showers. We exemplify this by focusing on the case of electron--positron collisions and by reporting on recent developments as accomplished within the Sherpa event generation framework.

  1. E143 experiment. Shower counter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Grenier, P.

    1994-01-01

    The calibration procedure for the shower counters used in the E143 experiment is described. It has been developed during january 1994 in view of being used for the quick analysis. The method is explained and the results obtained on a given run are presented. (author)

  2. Shower development of particles with momenta from 10 to 100 GeV in the CALICE Scintillator-Tungsten HCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Lucaci-Timoce, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the showers initiated by high momentum (10 ≤ pbeam ≤ 100 GeV) electrons, pions and protons in the highly granular CALICE analogue scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter. The data were taken at the CERN SPS in 2011. The analysis includes measurements of the calorimeter response to each particle type and studies of the longitudinal and radial shower development. The results are compared to several GEANT4 simulation models.

  3. High density energy storage capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Howland, M.M.; Hutzler, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Nova laser system will use 130 MJ of capacitive energy storage and have a peak power capability of 250,000 MW. This capacitor bank is a significant portion of the laser cost and requires a large portion of the physical facilities. In order to reduce the cost and volume required by the bank, the Laser Fusion Program funded contracts with three energy storage capacitor producers: Aerovox, G.E., and Maxwell Laboratories, to develop higher energy density, lower cost energy storage capacitors. This paper describes the designs which resulted from the Aerovox development contract, and specifically addresses the design and initial life testing of a 12.5 kJ, 22 kV capacitor with a density of 4.2 J/in 3 and a projected cost in the range of 5 cents per joule

  4. States of high energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.

    1988-02-01

    The transverse energy, E/sub tau/ spectra for O 16 and S 32 incident for various elements at 200 GeVnucleon are shown. The target and projectile dependencies of the data are discussed. The energy density achieved is estimated. For O 16 on Tungsten the multiplicity spectrum is also presented as well as the pseudorapidity spectra as a function of the transverse energy. The multiplicity cross section dσdN as measured in the backward hemisphere (0.9 < /eta/ < 2.9/ is found to be very similar in shape to the transverse energy distribution dσdE/tau/ reflecting the particular geometry of nucleus nucleus nucleus collisions. The dependence on the atomic mass of the target, A/sub tau/ and projectile A/sub p/ is not what one would expect from naive considerations

  5. Measurement of photon showers in lead produced by electrons of 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeringer, H.; Eyss, H.J. von; Schoch, B.

    1976-01-01

    The photon energy spectra induced by 150 MeV electrons in lead were measured in the energy range from 40 MeV up to the primary electron energy. The target thickness was varied between 0.1 and 2.5 radiation lengths X 0 . The photons were analyzed by use of a technique based on deuteron photodisintegration. Differential and integral shower spectra are presented and compared with Monte Carlo calculations of Nagel and Messel et al., both interpolated to our primary energy of 150 MeV. The measured spectra show good agreement with these Monte Carlo calculations for the thickest target of 2.5X 0 and with calculated bremsstrahlung spectra for the thinnest target of 0.1X 0 . Considerable discrepancies, however, are found for medium target thicknesses in the range 0 . Around the shower maxima, the shower spectra are narrower and the maxima are shifted about 0.3-0.4X 0 to lower target thicknesses, furthermore the number of photons at the shower maxima are up to 50% higher than calculated. (Auth.)

  6. Energy reconstruction of hadrons in highly granular combined ECAL and HCAL systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses the hadronic energy reconstruction of two combined electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter systems using physics prototypes of the CALICE collaboration: the silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (Si-W ECAL) and the scintillator-SiPM based analog hadron calorimeter (AHCAL); and the scintillator-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ScECAL) and the AHCAL. These systems were operated in hadron beams at CERN and FNAL, permitting the study of the performance in combined ECAL and HCAL systems. Two techniques for the energy reconstruction are used, a standard reconstruction based on calibrated sub-detector energy sums, and one based on a software compensation algorithm making use of the local energy density information provided by the high granularity of the detectors. The software compensation-based algorithm improves the hadronic energy resolution by up to 30% compared to the standard reconstruction. The combined system data show comparable energy resolutions to the one achieved for data with showers starting only in the AHCAL and therefore demonstrate the success of the inter-calibration of the different sub-systems, despite of their different geometries and different readout technologies.

  7. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  8. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colalillo Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  9. Leakage current of amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes made by ion shower doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Joon; Cho, Gyuseong; Choi, Joonhoo; Jung, Kwan-Wook

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we report the leakage current of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n photodiodes, of which the p layer is formed by ion shower doping. The ion shower doping technique has an advantage over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in the fabrication of a large-area amorphous silicon flat-panel detector. The leakage current of the ion shower diodes shows a better uniformity within a 30 cmx40 cm substrate than that of the PECVD diodes. However, it shows a higher leakage current of 2-3 pA/mm 2 at -5 V. This high current originates from the high injection current at the p-i junction

  10. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1984-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities in hadronic collision have been measured for all energies up to √s = 540 GeV in the center of mass. Similar measurements in e + e - annihilation cover the much smaller range - up to √s = 40 GeV. Data are also available from deep inelastic neutrino scattering up to √s approx. 10 GeV. The experiments measure the mean charged multiplicity , the rapidity density at y = O, and the distributions in prong number. The mean number of photons associated with the events can be used to measure the π 0 and eta 0 multiplicities. Some information is also available on the charged pion, kaon, and nucleon fractions as well as the K 0 and Λ 0 rates and for the higher energy data, the identically equal fraction. We review this data and consider the implications of extrapolations to SSC energies. 13 references

  11. High education and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie; Stefanescu, Petre

    1998-01-01

    The Faculty of Energy of the University 'Politecnica' in Bucharest is the only faculty in Romania in the field of nuclear energy education. With an experience of more than 29 years, the Faculty of Energy offers the major 'Nuclear Power Plants', which students graduate after a 5-year education as engineers in the Nuclear Power Plant major. Among the principal objectives of the development and reshape of the Romanian education system was mentioned the upgrading of organizational forms by introducing the transfer credit system, and starting in the fall '97 by accrediting Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Master education. As a result of co-operation and assistance offered by TEMPUS-SENECA program, the new major is shaped and endowed with a modern curriculum harmonized with UE and IAEA requirements and a modern and performing laboratory. This way the Romanian higher education offers a fully correct and concordant structure with UE countries education. (authors)

  12. Determination of the Antares sensitivity to the cosmic neutrinos diffuse flux using contained showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denans, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Antares collaboration has chosen to build an underwater telescope in the Mediterranean sea, at a depth of 2500 m, to detect high energy (> 100 GeV) cosmic neutrinos. This detector is composed of 12 vertical lines with 900 photomultipliers. Neutrinos are detected thanks to the Cherenkov light produced in water by charged particles created in neutrino interactions near the detector. The aim of this work is the study of Antares performance for the detection of the electronic neutrino interaction in the instrumented volume using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The method allows the determination of the incident energy with an excellent resolution (20 %) which is much smaller than what is obtained from muons induced by muonic neutrino interactions at several kilometers below the detector. This work has consisted in studying the reconstruction of contained showers of particles in the detector resulting from charged current interactions of electronic neutrinos. This mode of detection has been used for the study of the diffuse neutrino flux, resulting from the neutrino emission of unresolved sources and that can be isolated from the atmospheric neutrino background at high energy. The Antares sensitivity is found to be 5.10 -7 GeV.cm -2 .s -1 .sr -1 after 1 year of data recording for energies above 3 TeV and for a model with an E -2 energy spectrum. (author)

  13. Studies on a modular high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyto, D.

    1994-04-01

    Aim of the present thesis is the optimization of components for the construction of a high-energy photon spectrometer of pure CsI for the detection of the neutral pseudoscalar mesons π 0 , η, and η' at COSY. These mesons are distinguished by their decay into two γ quanta and can therefore be detected by means of a photon spectrometer. A concept of a 2-arm shower counter of pure CsI is presented. Conclusions on the energy resolution of such a calorimeter shall yield a test module, which is constructed of 5.5 CsI(pure) pyramide trunk, each of which possesses a length of 30 cm and an angular acceptance of 6 .6 . The geometry of the moduls is formed in such a way that its extension to a 2-arm shower counter is possible at any time. Hitherto 14 by teflon foils wrapped up crystals for the test module were tested. Their energy resolution varies at 0.66 MeV between 20 and 25 % FWHM. Furthermore a method was found, which allows to trim the position dependence to the required values. So for the position dependence of a crystal even a value of 1.1 % could be reached. The energy resolution amounted thereby to 22 % FWHM. A measurement of the energy resolution with 20 MeV protons yielded a value of 7 %. For the energy calibration of the single detector elements in a dynamic range between 1 MeV and 12 GeV with low-energy γ sources the charge response function of the photoelectron multiplier to be applied in the test module was determined in dependence on the light intensity. The measurement resulted that the photomultiplier at 40 MeV (related to a CsI(pure) reference crystal with an about twofold so high efficiency of the detectable light in comparison to the long pyramide trunks) deviates by 4 % and at 300 MeV by 38 % from the linear behaviour, while it at 500 MeV shows a deviation of 50 %

  14. OBSERVATION OF COSMIC-RAY ANISOTROPY WITH THE ICETOP AIR SHOWER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M. G. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia (Australia); Abbasi, R.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Baker, M. [Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Abdou, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J. A. [Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Universite de Geneve, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Altmann, D. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bai, X. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bay, R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beattie, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Beatty, J. J. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bechet, S. [Science Faculty CP230, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Tjus, J. Becker [Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2013-03-01

    We report on the observation of anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays at PeV energies. The analysis is based on data taken between 2009 and 2012 with the IceTop air shower array at the south pole. IceTop, an integral part of the IceCube detector, is sensitive to cosmic rays between 100 TeV and 1 EeV. With the current size of the IceTop data set, searches for anisotropy at the 10{sup -3} level can, for the first time, be extended to PeV energies. We divide the data set into two parts with median energies of 400 TeV and 2 PeV, respectively. In the low energy band, we observe a strong deficit with an angular size of about 30 Degree-Sign and an amplitude of (- 1.58 {+-} 0.46{sub stat} {+-} 0.52{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at a location consistent with previous observations of cosmic rays with the IceCube neutrino detector. The study of the high energy band shows that the anisotropy persists to PeV energies and increases in amplitude to (- 3.11 {+-} 0.38{sub stat} {+-} 0.96{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}.

  15. Measurement of the very-forward energy spectrum in pp collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV with CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Sebastian; Akbiyik, Melike; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Ulrich, Ralf; Woehrmann, Hauke [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The energy spectrum dN/dE in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=13 TeV is measured with the CASTOR calorimeter of CMS at pseudorapidities -5.2>η>-6.6. The spectrum of the total energy, as well as the hadronic and electromagnetic energy, is presented and compared to models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. The performance also of model used to describe ultra-high energy cosmic ray air showers is tested, and the possible impact of the measurement on the air shower development is illustrated.

  16. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  17. Hadronic energy resolution of a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter using software compensation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Blaising, J.J.; Drancourt, C.; Espargiliere, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Buanes, T.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Goto, T.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Benyamna, M.; Carloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Gottlicher, P.; Gunter, C.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Marchesini, I.; Ramilli, M.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.M.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Balagura, V.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Dolgoshein, B.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Smirnov, S.; Kiesling, C.; Pfau, S.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2012-01-01

    SPS. The energy resolution for single hadrons is determined to be approximately 58%/ √E/GeV. This resolution is improved to approximately 45%/ √E/GeV with software compensation techniques. These techniques take advantage of the event-by-event information about the substructure of hadronic showers which is provided by the imaging capabilities of the calorimeter. The energy reconstruction is improved either with corrections based on the local energy density or by applying a single correction factor to the event energy sum derived from a global measure of the shower energy density. The application of the compensation algorithms to GEANT4 simulations yield resolution improvements comparable to those observed for real data.

  18. The LAGO Collaboration: Searching for high energy GRB emissions in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, H.; Lago Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    During more than a decade Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB a cosmological phenomena of tremendous power) have been extensively studied in the keV - MeV energy range. However, the higher energy emission still remains a mystery. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (L.A.G.O.) is an international collaboration started in 2005 aiming at a better understanding of the GRB by studying their emission at high energies (> 1 GeV), where the fluxes are low and measurements by satellites are difficult. This is done using the Single Particle Technique, by means of ground-based Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at sites of high altitude. At those altitudes it is possible to detect air showers produced by high energy photons from the GRB, i. e. a higher rate of events on a short time scale, of the order of the second. The Pierre Auger Observatory could detect such GRB given its large number of detectors, but at 1400 m.a.s.l. the expected signal is quite small. At higher altitudes, similar performance is expected with only a very small number of WCD. As of 2011, high altitude WCD are in operation at Sierra Negra (Mexico, 4650 m.a.s.l.), Chacaltaya (Bolivia, 5200 m.a.s.l.), Maracapomacocha (Peru, 4200 m.a.s.l.), and new WCDs are being installed in Venezuela (Pico Espejo, 4750 m.a.s.l.), Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Guatemala. Most of the new WCDs will not be at high enough altitude to detect GRB, never the less it will allow obtaining valuable measurements of secondaries at ground level, which are relevant for solar physics. The LAGO sensitivity to GRB is determined from simulations (under a sudden increase of 1 GeV - 1 TeV photons from a GRB) of the gamma initiated particle shower in the atmosphere and the WCD response to secondaries. We report on WDC calibration and operation at high altitude, GRB detectability, background rates, search for bursts in several months of preliminary data, as well as search for signals at ground level when satellite burst is reported, all these show the

  19. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  20. Moderate energy ions for high energy density physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives the results of a preliminary exploration of whether moderate energy ions (≅0.3-3 MeV/amu) could be useful as modest-cost drivers for high energy density physics experiments. It is found that if the target thickness is chosen so that the ion beam enters and then leaves the target in the vicinity of the peak of the dE/dX (stopping power) curve, high uniformity of energy deposition may be achievable while also maximizing the amount of energy per beam particle deposited within the target

  1. High energy neutrinos from Cyg X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.P.; Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.

    1985-07-01

    Assuming that the UHE air showers from Cyg X-3 are produced by photons, we calculate the expected neutrino emission from a model which produces the γ-rays in the atmosphere of the Cyg X-3 companion. We discuss the possibility of detecting such neutrinos in underground detectors and the constraints that such a signal places on the use of this model in other particle production scenarios. 16 refs., 5 figs

  2. Harvard University High Energy Physics progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The principal goals of this work are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. The program is based at Harvard's High Energy Physics Laboratory, which has offices, computing facilities, and engineering support, and both electronics and machine shops

  3. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  5. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  6. Recent Results on Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays from the Telescope Array

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    TA's recent results on Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) are reported. The energy spectrum based on 20k events above 10^18.2 eV demonstrates a clear dip at 10^18.7 eV and a cutoff at 10^19.7 eV , the shape and the energies of which are well described by the GZK process: energy loss of extra-galactic protons by the interaction with the CMB and IR background. The primary composition obtained from the shower maximum analysis using the hybrid technique is consistent with 100% proton or light nuclei, and inconsistent with 100% iron up to 10^19.3 eV. Above the GZK cutoff energy, a large flux enhancement of medium size (radius=20deg) is observed in the direction of Ursa-Major. The chance probability of this hotspot appearing from the isotropic flux is 4.0sigma. The center of the hotspot is 19 deg off from the Super-Galactic Plane, and no obvious candidate of UHECRs is known in this direction.

  7. Renewable energy at high altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltramo, R.; Cuzzolin, B.

    2000-01-01

    Improving environmental performance by paying greater attention to the environment factor is becoming the prime objective of many companies and organizations in general. But not theirs alone. Even the tourism sector is making a number of efforts in this direction. This is the case, for example, of the Regina Margherita Refuge located on Point Gnifetti on the Monte Rosa massif, where a research project called Crest was conducted. This was a study on the feasibility of meeting the refuge's energy sources, that is, by using a photovoltaic or hybrid (wind-based and photovoltaic) energy production system. A plant thus able to exploit the landscape and meteorological characteristics typical of a mountain refuge, saving money and reducing the pollution load [it

  8. High-energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, James Watson

    1996-01-01

    Recently two cosmic rays with energy in excess of 2 1020 eV have been recorded. These are some 108 times more energetic than the protons produced by accelerators on earth. There is no credible understanding of the mechanism of acceleration by known a Because of the short mean free path in the cosmic background radiation they must come from nearby distances on a cosmological scale (< 50 Mpc). Their magnetic rigidity suggests that they should point to their source. Lectures will cover the present available data on the highest energy cosmic rays, their detection, possible acceleration mechanisms, their propagation in the galaxy and in extra galactic space and design of new detectors where simulations of air show ers play an important role.

  9. Hadronic vs. electromagnetic pulse shape discrimination in CsI(Tl) for high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, S.; Roney, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    Pulse shape discrimination using CsI(Tl) scintillators to perform neutral hadron particle identification is explored with emphasis towards application at high energy electron-positron collider experiments. Through the analysis of the pulse shape differences between scintillation pulses from photon and hadronic energy deposits using neutron and proton data collected at TRIUMF, it is shown that the pulse shape variations observed for hadrons can be modelled using a third scintillation component for CsI(Tl), in addition to the standard fast and slow components. Techniques for computing the hadronic pulse amplitudes and shape variations are developed and it is shown that the intensity of the additional scintillation component can be computed from the ionization energy loss of the interacting particles. These pulse modelling and simulation methods are integrated with GEANT4 simulation libraries and the predicted pulse shape for CsI(Tl) crystals in a 5 × 5 array of 5 × 5 × 30 cm3 crystals is studied for hadronic showers from 0.5 and 1 GeV/c KL0 and neutron particles. Using a crystal level and cluster level approach for photon vs. hadron cluster separation we demonstrate proof-of-concept for neutral hadron detection using CsI(Tl) pulse shape discrimination in high energy electron-positron collider experiments.

  10. Shower characteristics of particles with momenta up to 100 GeV in the CALICE scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073690

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of showers initiated by 1–100 GeV positrons, pions, kaons, and protons in the highly granular CALICE analogue scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter. The data were taken at the CERN PS and SPS. The analysis includes measurements of the calorimeter response to each particle type and studies of the longitudinal and radial shower development. The results are compared to several Geant4 simulation models.

  11. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  12. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  13. High energy physics and cloud computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Liu Baoxu; Sun Gongxing; Chen Gang

    2011-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been a strong promoter of computing technology, for example WWW (World Wide Web) and the grid computing. In the new era of cloud computing, HEP has still a strong demand, and major international high energy physics laboratories have launched a number of projects to research on cloud computing technologies and applications. It describes the current developments in cloud computing and its applications in high energy physics. Some ongoing projects in the institutes of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, including cloud storage, virtual computing clusters, and BESⅢ elastic cloud, are also described briefly in the paper. (authors)

  14. Radio-detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Analysis, simulation and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, V.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the use of giant detectors suitable for low flux beyond 1018 eV, the origin of ultra energy cosmic rays, remains unclear. In the 60', the radio-detection of air shower is proposed as a complementary technique to the ground particle detection and to the fluorescence method. A revival of this technique took place in the 2000's in particular with CODALEMA experiment. The first results show both a strong dependence of the signal to the geomagnetic field and a strong correlation between energy estimated by the radio-detectors and by particle detectors. The new generation of autonomous detectors created by the CODALEMA collaboration indicates that it is now possible to detect air showers autonomously. Due to the expected performances (a nearly 100% duty cycle, a signal generated by the complete shower, simplicity and low cost of a detector), it is possible to consider to deploy this technique for the future large arrays. In order to interpret experimental data, a simulation tool, SELFAS, is developed in this wok. This simulation code allowed us to highlight the existence of a second radio-emission mechanism. A first interpretation of the longitudinal profile as an observable of a privileged instant of the shower development is also proposed, which could give an estimation of the nature of the primary. (author)

  15. High-Energy Astrophysics with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, John; HAWC Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, under construction at Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico, consists of a 22500 square meter area of water Cherenkov detectors: water tanks instrumented with light-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The experiment is used to detect energetic secondary particles reaching the ground when a 50 GeV to 100 TeV cosmic ray or gamma ray interacts in the atmosphere above the experiment. By timing the arrival of particles on the ground, the direction of the original primary particle may be resolved with an error of between 1.0 (50 GeV) and 0.1 (10 TeV) degrees. Gamma-ray primaries may be distinguished from cosmic ray background by identifying the penetrating particles characteristic of a hadronic particle shower. The instrument is 10% complete and is performing as expected, with 30% of the channels anticipated by the summer of 2013. HAWC will complement existing Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes and space-based gamma-ray telescopes with its extreme high-energy sensitivity and its large field-of-view. The observatory will be used to study particle acceleration in Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Supernova Remnants, Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma-ray Bursts. Additionally, the instrument can be used to probe dark matter annihilation in halo and sub-halos of the galaxy. We will present the sensitivity of the HAWC instrument in the context of the main science objectives. We will also present the status of the deployment including first data from the instrument and prospects for the future.

  16. Measurement of pion and proton response and longitudinal shower profiles up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths with the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav; Přibyl, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 615, č. 2 (2010), s. 158-181 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * calorimetry * test-beam * Monte Carlo simulation * GEANT4 * hadronic shower development * pion–proton response Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TJM-4Y95RDG-1&_user=625012&_coverDate=04%2F01%2F2010&_alid=1542842401&_rdoc=19&_fmt=high&_o

  17. Further investigation on the performance of a shower cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaoni; Liu Zhenyan

    2008-01-01

    This study was prompted by the need to design towers for applications in which, due to salt deposition on the packing and subsequent blockage, the use of tower packing is not practical. In the previous model we presented [Qi Xiaoni, Liu Zhenyan, Li Dandan. Performance characteristics of a shower cooling tower. Energy Convers Manage 2007;48(1):193-203.], three critical assumptions were made to reduce the complexity and computational time, which can also reduce the models' accuracy. Accurate modelling of the operating process is a determining factor both for designing the shower cooling tower (SCT) and for optimising its operation. In this paper, we derive a new model without applying the three assumptions. According to the condition of the outlet air, the governing equations consider two cases, including the supersaturated and unsaturated states. This model is used to predict the performance of a full scale SCT located in China with different conditions for validation. The differences in the heat and mass transfer analyses of the two models are described at different atmospheric conditions

  18. Photocatalytic Treatment of Shower Water Using a Pilot Scale Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Boyjoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of shower water deserves special consideration for reuse not only because of its low pollutant loading but also because it is produced in large quantities. In this study, a pilot scale study of photocatalytic degradation of impurities in real shower water was performed in a 31 L volume reactor using titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst. The reactor was operated in a continuous slurry recirculation mode. Several operational parameters were studied including the slurry initial pH, catalyst concentration, air flow rate, and slurry recirculation rate. Up to 57% of total organic carbon (TOC elimination was obtained after 6 hours of treatment (for 3.0 slurry initial pH, 0.07 gL−1 catalyst concentration, 1.8 Lmin−1 air flow rate, and 4.4 Lmin−1 slurry recirculation rate. This study showed that photocatalysis could be successfully transposed from bench scale to pilot scale. Furthermore, the ease of operation and the potential to use solar energy make photocatalysis an attractive prospect with respect to treatment of grey water.

  19. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  20. The Data Acquisition System of the Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofverberg, P.; Johansson, H.; Pearce, M.; Rydstrom, S.; Wikstrom, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array (SEASA) project is deploying an array of plastic scintillator detector stations on school roofs in the Stockholm area. Signals from GPS satellites are used to time synchronise signals from the widely separated detector stations, allowing cosmic ray air showers to be identified and studied. A low-cost and highly scalable data acquisition system has been produced using embedded Linux processors which communicate station data to a central server running a MySQL database. Air shower data can be visualised in real-time using a Java-applet client. It is also possible to query the database and manage detector stations from the client. In this paper, the design and performance of the system are described