WorldWideScience

Sample records for high energetic materials

  1. Modeling of high energy laser ignition of energetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung-cheol; Kim, Ki-hong; Yoh, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a model for simulating high energy laser heating and ignition of confined energetic materials. The model considers the effect of irradiating a steel plate with long laser pulses and continuous lasers of several kilowatts and the thermal response of well-characterized high explosives for ignition. Since there is enough time for the thermal wave to propagate into the target and to create a region of hot spot in the high explosives, electron thermal diffusion of ultrashort (femto- and picosecond) lasing is ignored; instead, heat diffusion of absorbed laser energy in the solid target is modeled with thermal decomposition kinetic models of high explosives. Numerically simulated pulsed-laser heating of solid target and thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine, triaminotrinitrobenzene, and octahydrotetranitrotetrazine are compared to experimental results. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement

  2. Thermal Energetic Reactor with High Reproduction of Fission Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Kotov

    2012-01-01

    On the base of thermal reactors with high fission materials reproduction world atomic power engineering development supplying higher power and requiring smaller speed of raw uranium mining, than in the variant with fast reactors, is possible.

  3. Stabilized super-thermite colloids: A new generation of advanced highly energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; Gaber Zaky, M.; Radwan, Mostafa; Mostafa, Sherif F.

    2017-10-01

    One of the great impetus of nanotechnology on energetic materials is the achievement of nanothermites (metal-oxide/metal) which are characterized by massive heat output. Yet, full exploitation of super-thermites in highly energetic systems has not been achieved. This manuscript reports on the sustainable fabrication of colloidal Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles for thermite applications. TEM micrographs demonstrated mono-dispersed Fe2O3 and CuO with an average particle size of 3 and 15 nm respectively. XRD diffractograms demonstrated highly crystalline materials. SEM micrographs demonstrated a great tendency of the developed oxides to aggregate over drying process. The effective integration and dispersion of mono-dispersed colloidal thermite particles into energetic systems are vital for enhanced performance. Aluminum is of interest as highly energetic metal fuel. In this paper, synthesized Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles were re-dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with aluminum nanoparticles using ultrasonic prope homogenizer. The colloidal thermite peraticles can be intgegrated into highly energetic system for subsequent nanocomposite development. Thanks to stabilization of colloidal CuO nanoparticles in IPA which could offer intimate mixing between oxidizer and metal fuel. The stabilization mechanism of CuO in IPA was correlated to steric stabilization with solvent molecules. This approach eliminated nanoparticle drying and the re-dispersion of dry aggregates into energetic materials. This manuscript shaded the light on the real development of colloidal thermite mixtures and their integration into highly energetic systems.

  4. Thermal Energetic Reactor with High Reproduction of Fission Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Existing thermal reactors are energy production scale limited because of low portion of raw uranium usage. Fast reactors are limited by reprocessing need of huge mass of raw uranium at the initial stage of development. The possibility of development of thermal reactors with high fission materials reproduction, which solves the problem, is discussed here. Neutron losses are decreased, uranium-thorium fuel with artificial fission materials equilibrium regime is used, additional in-core and out-core neutron sources are used for supplying of high fission materials reproduction. Liquid salt reactors can use dynamic loading regime for this purpose. Preferable construction is channel type reactor with heavy water moderator. Good materials for fuel element shells and channel walls are zirconium alloys enriched by 90Zr. Water cooled reactors with usage 12% of raw uranium and liquid metal cooled reactors with usage 25% of raw uranium are discussed. Reactors with additional neutron sources obtain full usage of raw uranium with small additional energy expenses. On the base of thermal reactors with high fission materials reproduction world atomic power engineering development supplying higher power and requiring smaller speed of raw uranium mining, than in the variant with fast reactors, is possible.

  5. Simulation of Metal Particulates in High Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-28

    temperatures and pressures disintegrate the carbon- fiber casing, thus not producing any fragments. These carbon-fiber casing warheads are a solution...Polymer-Bonded Explosive (PBX) and Livermore’s High-Energy Explosive (LX) are examples of ex- plosives that use “ plastic ” as a binder material. Other...simulation data to empirical data does not provide any benefit to this research due to the complexity of plastically bonded explosives like PBX9501. The

  6. Photoactive energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, David E.; Hanson, Susan Kloek; Scharff, Robert Jason; Veauthier, Jacqueline Marie; Myers, Thomas Winfield

    2018-02-27

    Energetic materials that are photoactive or believed to be photoactive may include a conventional explosive (e.g. PETN, nitroglycerine) derivatized with an energetic UV-absorbing and/or VIS-absorbing chromophore such as 1,2,4,5-tetrazine or 1,3,5-triazine. Absorption of laser light having a suitably chosen wavelength may result in photodissociation, decomposition, and explosive release of energy. These materials may be used as ligands to form complexes. Coordination compounds include such complexes with counterions. Some having the formula M(L).sub.n.sup.2+ were synthesized, wherein M is a transition metal and L is a ligand and n is 2 or 3. These may be photoactive upon exposure to a laser light beam having an appropriate wavelength of UV light, near-IR and/or visible light. Photoactive materials also include coordination compounds bearing non-energetic ligands; in this case, the counterion may be an oxidant such as perchlorate.

  7. Theoretical study of energetic interactions between high temperature molten materials and a low temperature fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical models are developed to predict the hydrodynamical transients resulting from the energetic interactions between a high temperature molten material and a low temperature liquid coolant. Initially, the molten material at high temperature and pressure is separated from the low temperature fluid by a solid metal barrier. Upon contact between the molten material and solid barrier, thermal attack occurs eventually resulting in a loss of barrier integrity. Subsequently, the molten material is injected into the liquid pool resulting in energetic interactions. The analytical models integrate a wide variety of potentially mutually-interacting transport phenomena which dominate the transient process into a deterministic scheme to predict the hydrodynamic transient process into a deterministic scheme to predict the hydrodynamic transient process. The model calculations are compared with the existing experimental results to show its engineering accuracy and adequacy in predicting such energetic interactions. Two models are formulated to bracket the transport of molten material to the rupture site for the reactor system. The stratified model minimized the rate of transport of material to the break location while the dispersed model maximized such transport. These two models are applied to a reference pressure tube reactor to evaluate the pressure transients and the potential structural damages as a result of a postulated severe primary coolant blockage in a power channel

  8. Insensitive high-energy energetic structural material of tungsten-polytetrafluoroethylene-aluminum composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energetic structural material is a kind of materials that are inert under normal conditions but could produce exothermic chemical reaction when subjected to impact. This report shows a kind of energetic structural material of tungsten (W-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE-aluminum (Al with density of 4.12 g/cm3, excellent ductility and dynamic compressive strength of 96 MPa. Moreover, 50W-35PTFE-15Al (wt% can exhibit a high reaction energy value of more than 2 times of TNT per unit mass and 5 times of TNT per unit volume, respectively, but with excellent insensitivity compared with traditional explosives. Under thermal conditions, the W-PTFE-Al composite can keep stable at 773 K. Under impact loading, when the strain rate up to ∼4820 s−1 coupled with the absorbed energy per unit volume of 120 J/cm3, deflagration occurs and combustion lasts for 500 μs. During impact compressive deformation, the PTFE matrix is elongated into nano-fibers, thus significantly increases the reaction activity of W-PTFE-Al composites. The nano-fiber structure is necessary for the reaction of W-PTFE-Al composites. The formation of PTFE nano-fibers must undergo severe plastic deformation, and therefore the W-PTFE-Al composites exhibit excellent insensitivity and safety. Furthermore, the reaction mechanisms of W-PTFE-Al composites in argon and in air are revealed.

  9. Energetic materials under high pressures and temperatures: stability, polymorphism and decomposition of RDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreger, Z A

    2012-01-01

    A recent progress in understanding the response of energetic crystal of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) to high pressures and temperatures is summarized. The optical spectroscopy and imaging studies under static compression and high temperatures provided new insight into phase diagram, polymorphism and decomposition mechanisms at pressures and temperatures relevant to those under shock compression. These results have been used to aid the understanding of processes under shock compression, including the shock-induced phase transition and identification of the crystal phase at decomposition. This work demonstrates that studies under static compression and high temperatures provide important complementary route for elucidating the physical and chemical processes in shocked energetic crystals.

  10. Safer energetic materials by a nanotechnological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Benny; Comet, Marc; Spitzer, Denis

    2011-09-01

    Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity.Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details for the preparation of the V2O5@CNF/Al nanothermite; X-ray diffractogram of the V2O5@CNF/Al combustion residue; installation instructions and source code for the nt-timeline program. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10292c

  11. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe2O3/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe 2 O 3 /MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe 2 O 3 (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe 2 O 3 (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe 2 O 3 /MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe 2 O 3 nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials. - Graphical abstract: The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe 2 O 3 (oxide) nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A facile spontaneous electrostatic assembly strategy without surfactant was adopted. • The fuels and oxidizers assembled into densely packed nanostructured composites. • The assembled nanostructured energetic materials have excellent performance. • This high performance energetic material can be scaled up for practical application. • This strategy can be applied into other nanostructured

  12. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2005-05-17

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  13. Segregation and redistribution of end-of-process energetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, R.A.; Cummins, B.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    A system recovering then recycling or reusing end-of-process energetic materials has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The system promotes separating energetic materials with high potential for reuse or recycling from those that have no further value. A feature of the system is a computerized electronic bulletin board for advertising the availability of surplus and recovered energetic materials and process chemicals to LLNL researchers, and for posting energetic materials, ''want ads.'' The system was developed and implemented to promote waste minimization and pollution prevention at LLNL

  14. High-resolution simulations of cylindrical void collapse in energetic materials: Effect of primary and secondary collapse on initiation thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Schmidt, Martin J.; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-04-01

    Void collapse in energetic materials leads to hot spot formation and enhanced sensitivity. Much recent work has been directed towards simulation of collapse-generated reactive hot spots. The resolution of voids in calculations to date has varied as have the resulting predictions of hot spot intensity. Here we determine the required resolution for reliable cylindrical void collapse calculations leading to initiation of chemical reactions. High-resolution simulations of collapse provide new insights into the mechanism of hot spot generation. It is found that initiation can occur in two different modes depending on the loading intensity: Either the initiation occurs due to jet impact at the first collapse instant or it can occur at secondary lobes at the periphery of the collapsed void. A key observation is that secondary lobe collapse leads to large local temperatures that initiate reactions. This is due to a combination of a strong blast wave from the site of primary void collapse and strong colliding jets and vortical flows generated during the collapse of the secondary lobes. The secondary lobe collapse results in a significant lowering of the predicted threshold for ignition of the energetic material. The results suggest that mesoscale simulations of void fields may suffer from significant uncertainty in threshold predictions because unresolved calculations cannot capture the secondary lobe collapse phenomenon. The implications of this uncertainty for mesoscale simulations are discussed in this paper.

  15. Energetic materials and methods of tailoring electrostatic discharge sensitivity of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Wallace, Ronald S.; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Collins, Eric S.

    2016-11-01

    An energetic material comprising an elemental fuel, an oxidizer or other element, and a carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods, where the carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods are substantially homogeneously dispersed in the energetic material. Methods of tailoring the electrostatic discharge sensitivity of an energetic material are also disclosed.

  16. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun, E-mail: yjluo@bit.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials. - Graphical abstract: The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A facile spontaneous electrostatic assembly strategy without surfactant was adopted. • The fuels and oxidizers assembled into densely packed nanostructured composites. • The assembled nanostructured energetic materials have excellent performance. • This high performance energetic material can be scaled up for practical application. • This

  17. Modeling Thermal Ignition of Energetic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerri, Norman J; Berning, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This report documents an attempt to computationally simulate the mechanics and thermal regimes created when a threat perforates an armor envelope and comes in contact with stowed energetic material...

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G.

    Over the years new generations of propellants and explosives are being developed. High performance and pollution prevention issues have become the subject of interest in recent years. Desired properties of these materials are a halogen-free, nitrogen and oxygen rich molecular composition with high density and a positive heat of formation. The dinitramide anion is a new oxy anion of nitrogen and forms salts with variety of metal, organic and inorganic cations. Particular interest is in ammonium dinitramide (ADN, NH4N(NO 2)2) which is a potentially useful energetic oxidizer. ADN is considered as one of the most promising substitutes for ammonium perchlorate (AP, NH4ClO4) in currently used composite propellants. It is unique among energetic materials in that it has no carbon or chlorine; its combustion products are not detrimental to the atmosphere. Unquestionable advantage of ADN over AP is the significant improvement in the performance of solid rocket motors by 5-15%. The present thesis is centered on the experimental results along with discussion of some of the most pertinent aspects related to the synthesis and characterization of few dinitramide salts. The chemistry, mechanism and kinetics of the formation of dinitramide salts by nitration of deactivated amines are investigated. The evaluation of the thermal and spectral properties along with the adsorption and thermal decomposition characteristics of the dinitramide salts are also explored in this thesis.

  19. Reactive thermal waves in energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Reactive thermal waves (RTWs) arise in several energetic material applications, including self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), high explosive cookoff, and the detonation of heterogeneous explosives. In this paper I exmaine ideal RTWs, by which I mean that (1) material motion is neglected, (2) the state dependence of reaction is Arrhenius in the temperature, and (3) the reaction rate is modulated by an arbitrary mass-fraction-based reaction progress function. Numerical simulations demonstrate that one's natural intuition, which is based mainly upon experience with inert materials and which leads one to expect diffusion processes to become relatively slow after a short time period, is invalid for high energy, state-sensitive reactive systems. Instead, theory predicts that RTWs can propagate at very high speeds. This result agrees with estimates for detonating heterogeneous explosives, which indicate that RTWs must spread from hot-spot nucleation sites at rates comparable to the detonation speed in order to produce experimentally-observed reaction zone thicknesses. Using dimensionless scaling and further invoking the high activation energy approximation, I obtain an analytic formula for the steady plane RTW speed from numerical calculations. I then compute the RTW speed for real explosives, and discuss aspects of their behavior.

  20. A multi-scale methodology to model damage, deformation and ignition of highly-filled energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivier, G. [Paris Univ., Paris (France). LMT Cachan; CEA Le Ripault, Monts (France); Trumel, H. [CEA Le Ripault, Monts (France); Hild, F. [Paris Univ., Paris (France). LMT Cachan

    2009-07-01

    The kinetic energy that occurs when energetic materials are impacted can be converted to heat through dissipative deformation processes while the macroscopic temperature remains unaffected. In this study, a thermodynamics-based approach was used to model the elasto-plastic behaviour that occurs during the deformation process of microstructures. Macroscopic material was modelled as a statistical distribution of unit cells containing a crack grain embedded in an elastic mortar-like matrix. A mesoscopic unit cell model was also developed under confined shear. The study demonstrated that stored energy is a non-negligible part of the total energy of the system, and that stored energy can be released during the unloading process. It was concluded that the mesoscopic analysis of the cracked cell demonstrates that continuum thermodynamics can be used to predict hot spots induced by friction. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  2. Nano Engineered Energetic Materials (NEEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    Dryer, FL; Aksay, IA, Functionalized Graphene Sheet Colloids for Enhanced Fuel/Propellant Combustion, ACS NANO 3, 13, 3945-3954, 2009. 16. Weismiller...loading) which was not observed in other heterogeneous mixtures. Additional details on nano fuels (including graphene ) with liquid oxidizers can be...to the high reflectance of some samples black high temperature spray paint was used on ends of the samples to decrease ignition delay times and

  3. Computational Chemistry Toolkit for Energetic Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    industry are aggressively engaged in efforts to develop multiscale modeling and simulation methodologies to model and analyze complex phenomena across...energetic materials design. It is hoped that this toolkit will evolve into a collection of well-integrated multiscale modeling methodologies...Experimenta Theoreticala This Work 1-5-Diamino-4- methyl- tetrazolium nitrate 8.4 41.7 47.5 1-5-Diamino-4- methyl- tetrazolium azide 138.1 161.6

  4. Cutting and machining energetic materials with a femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeske, Frank; Benterou, Jerry; Lee, Ronald; Roos, Edward [Energetic Materials Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2003-04-01

    A femtosecond (fs) laser has been used as a tool for solving many problems involving access, machining, disassembly, inspection and avoidance of undesirable hazardous waste streams in systems containing energetic materials. Because of the unique properties of the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with matter, the femtosecond laser can be used to safely cut these energetic materials in a precise manner without creating an unacceptable waste stream. Many types of secondary high explosives (HE) and propellants have been cut with the laser for a variety of applications ranging from disassembly of aging conventional weapons (demilitarization), inspection of energetic components of aging systems to creating unique shapes of HE for purposes of initiation and detonation physics studies. Hundreds of samples of energetic materials have been cut with the fs laser without ignition and, in most cases, without changing the surface morphology of the cut surfaces. The laser has also been useful in cutting nonenergetic components in close proximity to energetic materials. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Erosion tests of materials by energetic particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.E.; Tsai, C.C.; Sluss, F.; Becraft, W.R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The internal components of magnetic fusion devices must withstand erosion from and high heat flux of energetic plasma particles. The selection of materials for the construction of these components is important to minimize contamination of the plasma. In order to study various materials' comparative resistance to erosion by energetic particles and their ability to withstand high heat flux, water-cooled copper swirl tubes coated or armored with various materials were subjected to bombardment by hydrogen and helium particle beams. Materials tested were graphite, titanium carbide (TiC), chromium, nickel, copper, silver, gold, and aluminum. Details of the experimental arrangement and methods of application or attachment of the materials to the copper swirl tubes are presented. Results including survivability and mass losses are discussed.

  6. Multiphase Combustion of Metalized Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    on thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient for consolidated aluminum nanoparticles, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, (06...28. Stacy, S.C., Zhang, X., Pantoya, M.L., Weeks, B., Effect of Density on Thermal Conductivity and Absorption Coefficient for Consolidated Aluminum...energetic powder to ESD stimuli generated from a piezo electric crystal ( PZT ). Results show that a high PZT dielectric strength leads to faster

  7. Flexible energetic materials and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaps, Ronald J.

    2018-03-06

    Energetic compositions and methods of forming components from the compositions are provided. In one embodiment, a composition includes aluminum, molybdenum trioxide, potassium perchlorate, and a binder. In one embodiment, the binder may include a silicone material. The materials may be mixed with a solvent, such as xylene, de-aired, shaped and cured to provide a self-supporting structure. In one embodiment, one or more reinforcement members may be added to provide additional strength to the structure. For example, a weave or mat of carbon fiber material may be added to the mixture prior to curing. In one embodiment, blade casting techniques may be used to form a structure. In another embodiment, a structure may be formed using 3-dimensional printing techniques.

  8. Enhancing Reactivity in Structural Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumac, Nick

    2017-06-01

    In many structural energetic materials, only a small fraction of the metal oxidizes, and yet this provides a significant boost in the overall energy release of the system. Different methodologies to enhance this reactivity include alloying and geometric modifications of microstructure of the reactive material (RM). In this presentation, we present the results of several years of systematic study of both chemical (alloy) and mechanical (geometry) effects on reactivity for systems with typical charge to case mass ratios. Alloys of aluminum with magnesium and lithium are considered, as these are common alloys in aerospace applications. In terms of geometric modifications, we consider surface texturing, inclusion of dense additives, and inclusion of voids. In all modifications, a measurable influence on output is observed, and this influence is related to the fragment size distribution measured from the observed residue. Support from DTRA is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Nanostructured energetic materials derived from sol-gel chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R L; Tillotson, T M; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E

    2000-01-01

    Initiation and detonation properties are dramatically affected by an energetic material's microstructural properties. Sol-gel chemistry allows intimacy of mixing to be controlled and dramatically improved over existing methodologies. One material goal is to create very high power energetic materials which also have high energy densities. Using sol-gel chemistry we have made a nanostructured composite energetic material. Here a solid skeleton of fuel, based on resorcinol-formaldehyde, has nanocrystalline ammonium perchlorate, the oxidizer, trapped within its pores. At optimum stoichiometry it has approximately the energy density of HMX. Transmission electron microscopy indicated no ammonium perchlorate crystallites larger than 20 nm while near-edge soft x-ray absorption microscopy showed that nitrogen was uniformly distributed, at least on the scale of less than 80 nm. Small-angle neutron scattering studies were conducted on the material. Those results were consistent with historical ones for this class of nanostructured materials. The average skeletal primary particle size was on the order of 2.7 nm, while the nanocomposite showed the growth of small 1 nm size crystals of ammonium perchlorate with some clustering to form particles greater than 10 nm

  10. Shock interactions with heterogeneous energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington, Cole D.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Damm, David L.

    2018-03-01

    The complex physical phenomenon of shock wave interaction with material heterogeneities has significant importance and nevertheless remains little understood. In many materials, the observed macroscale response to shock loading is governed by characteristics of the microstructure. Yet, the majority of computational studies aimed at predicting phenomena affected by these processes, such as the initiation and propagation of detonation waves in explosives or shock propagation in geological materials, employ continuum material and reactive burn model treatment. In an effort to highlight the grain-scale processes that underlie the observable effects in an energetic system, a grain-scale model for hexanitrostilbene (HNS) has been developed. The measured microstructures were used to produce synthetic computational representations of the pore structure, and a density functional theory molecular dynamics derived equation of state (EOS) was used for the fully dense HNS matrix. The explicit inclusion of the microstructure along with a fully dense EOS resulted in close agreement with historical shock compression experiments. More recent experiments on the dynamic reaction threshold were also reproduced by inclusion of a global kinetics model. The complete model was shown to reproduce accurately the expected response of this heterogeneous material to shock loading. Mesoscale simulations were shown to provide a clear insight into the nature of threshold behavior and are a way to understand complex physical phenomena.

  11. Ultrafast Vibrational Spectrometer for Engineered Nanometric Energetic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dlott, Dana

    2002-01-01

    The proposer requested funding for laser equipment that would be used to study engineered nanometric energetic materials consisting of nanometer metal particles, passivation layers and oxidizing binders...

  12. Energetic materials: crystallization, characterization and insensitive plastic bonded explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijden, Antoine E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Yves L.M.; Marino, Emanuela; Bouma, Richard H.B.; Scholtes, Gert J.H.G.; Duvalois, Willem [TNO Defence, Security and Safety, P. O. Box 45, 2280 AA Rijswijk (Netherlands); Roelands, Marc C.P.M. [TNO Science and Industry, P. O. Box 342, 7300 AH Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    The product quality of energetic materials is predominantly determined by the crystallization process applied to produce these materials. It has been demonstrated in the past that the higher the product quality of the solid energetic ingredients, the less sensitive a plastic bonded explosive containing these energetic materials becomes. The application of submicron or nanometric energetic materials is generally considered to further decrease the sensitiveness of explosives. In order to assess the product quality of energetic materials, a range of analytical techniques is available. Recent attempts within the Reduced-sensitivity RDX Round Robin (R4) have provided the EM community a better insight into these analytical techniques and in some cases a correlation between product quality and shock initiation of plastic bonded explosives containing (RS-)RDX was identified, which would provide a possibility to discriminate between conventional and reduced sensitivity grades. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Energetic Materials Effects on Essential Soil Processes: Decomposition of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    availabilities of their respective food sources (bacteria and fungi ), were also unaffected-or-increasing in soil with CL-20 treatments. This is...ENERGETIC MATERIALS EFFECTS ON ESSENTIAL SOIL PROCESSES: DECOMPOSITION OF ORCHARD...GRASS (DACTYLIS GLOMERATA) LITTER IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH ENERGETIC MATERIALS ECBC-TR-1199 Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini

  14. Probing the Dynamics of Ultra-Fast Condensed State Reactions in Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekiel, Nicholas William

    2012-01-01

    Energetic materials (EMs) are substances with a high amount of stored energy and the ability to release that energy at a rapid rate. Nanothermites and green organic energetics are two classes of EMs which have gained significant interest as they each have desirable properties over traditional explosives. These systems also possess downfalls, which…

  15. Use of energetic ion beams in materials synthesis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    A brief review of the use energetic ion beams and related techniques for the synthesis, processing, and characterization of materials is presented. Selected opportunity areas are emphasized with examples, and references are provided for more extensive coverage. (author)

  16. Prospective Symbiosis of Green Chemistry and Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchurov, Ilya V; Zharkov, Mikhail N; Fershtat, Leonid L; Makhova, Nina N; Zlotin, Sergey G

    2017-10-23

    A global increase in environmental pollution demands the development of new "cleaner" chemical processes. Among urgent improvements, the replacement of traditional hydrocarbon-derived toxic organic solvents with neoteric solvents less harmful for the environment is one of the most vital issues. As a result of the favorable combination of their unique properties, ionic liquids (ILs), dense gases, and supercritical fluids (SCFs) have gained considerable attention as suitable green chemistry media for the preparation and modification of important chemical compounds and materials. In particular, they have a significant potential in a specific and very important area of research associated with the manufacture and processing of high-energy materials (HEMs). These large-scale manufacturing processes, in which hazardous chemicals and extreme conditions are used, produce a huge amount of hard-to-dispose-of waste. Furthermore, they are risky to staff, and any improvements that would reduce the fire and explosion risks of the corresponding processes are highly desirable. In this Review, useful applications of almost nonflammable ILs, dense gases, and SCFs (first of all, CO 2 ) for nitration and other reactions used for manufacturing HEMs are considered. Recent advances in the field of energetic (oxygen-balanced and hypergolic) ILs are summarized. Significant attention is paid to the SCF-based micronization techniques, which improve the energetic performance of HEMs through an efficient control of the morphology and particle size distribution of the HEM fine particles, and to useful applications of SCFs in HEM processing that makes them less hazardous. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Chemical rocket propulsion a comprehensive survey of energetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shimada, Toru; Sinditskii, Valery; Calabro, Max

    2017-01-01

    Developed and expanded from the work presented at the New Energetic Materials and Propulsion Techniques for Space Exploration workshop in June 2014, this book contains new scientific results, up-to-date reviews, and inspiring perspectives in a number of areas related to the energetic aspects of chemical rocket propulsion. This collection covers the entire life of energetic materials from their conceptual formulation to practical manufacturing; it includes coverage of theoretical and experimental ballistics, performance properties, as well as laboratory-scale and full system-scale, handling, hazards, environment, ageing, and disposal. Chemical Rocket Propulsion is a unique work, where a selection of accomplished experts from the pioneering era of space propulsion and current technologists from the most advanced international laboratories discuss the future of chemical rocket propulsion for access to, and exploration of, space. It will be of interest to both postgraduate and final-year undergraduate students in...

  18. Theoretical Studies of Small-System Thermodynamics in Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-06

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This is a comprehensive theoretical research program to investigate the fundamental principles of small-system thermodynamics ...a.k.a. nanothermodynamics). The proposed work is motivated by our desire to better understand the fundamental dynamics and thermodynamics of...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Theoretical Studies of Small-System Thermodynamics in Energetic Materials The views, opinions

  19. Chemical physics of decomposition of energetic materials. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Lev P

    2004-01-01

    The review is concerned with analysis of the results obtained in the kinetic and mechanistic studies on decomposition of energetic materials (explosives, powders and solid propellants). It is shown that the state-of-the art in this field is inadequate to the potential of modern chemical kinetics and chemical physics. Unsolved problems are outlined and ways of their solution are proposed.

  20. Ultrafast Vibrational Spectrometer for Engineered Nanometric Energetic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dlott, Dana

    2002-01-01

    .... The needed equipment was ordered and installed, and assembled into a working SFG set up that has been tested on a model system consisting of a self assembled monolayer of alkane on gold. The next step will be to finish integrating the carbon dioxide laser system and to begin looking at aluminum based energetic materials.

  1. New fluidized bed reactor for coating of energetic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Huijser, T.; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    The process of altering and changing the properties of the energetic materials by coating has been studied extensively by several scientific groups. According to the desired application different coating techniques have been developed and applied to achieve satisfactory results. Among the already

  2. Environmentally benign destruction of waste energetic materials (EMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R. L.; Donahue, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    Studies by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers during 1991-1997 involving various methods for the destruction of waste generated by pyrotechnic, explosive and propellant materials are described. The methods assessed and evaluated include controlled incineration (CI), wet air oxidation (WAO), and hydrothermal oxidation (HTO), using a U.S. Army triple-base propellant as the initial common standard for all destructor comparative testing. All three of these methods has special feed line restrictions requiring mechanical diminution and comminution of the energetic material which, for safety reasons, cannot be used with contaminated heterogeneous production wastes. Supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, alkaline hydrolysis, electrolysis and fluid cutting with very high pressure water jets and liquid nitrogen are alternate technologies that were evaluated as pre-treatment for production wastes. Wet air oxidation and electrochemical reduction studies were conducted using the U.S. Navy double propellant NOSIH-AA2, which contains a lead-based ballistic modifier. Wet air oxidation and hydrothermal oxidation studies were done using potassium dinitramide phase-stabilized nitrate as an oxidizer. All of these technologies are considered to be suitable for the environmentally benign destruction of pyrotechnic materials, including fireworks. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Very High Performance High Nitrogen Energetic Ingredients and Energetic Polymers for Structural Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES SoUoWtoo^ 14. ABSTRACT This project investigated new energetic materials for use with a triazole cured binder system ...The reaction was repeated using two equivalents of KH. An even more insoluble product was obtained. Figure 8 and 9 show the C-13 and N-15 CP/MAS...Sonnenberg, M. Hada, M. Ehara, K. Toyota , R. Fukuda, J. Hasegawa, M. Ishida, T. Nakajima, Y. Honda , O. Kitao, H. Nakai, T. Vreven, J. A. Montgomery, Jr

  4. Papers of 5. Scientific-Technical Seminar: Material Study for Electric Power Stations and Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The review of material research designed for energetic use has been done. The special emphasis have been put on the steels and alloys with desirable mechanical and corrosion properties in high temperature and pressure conditions. The methods for testing and non-destructive diagnostics of materials and welded joints have been also presented and discussed

  5. Synthesis and Investigation of Advanced Energetic Materials Based on Bispyrazolylmethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dennis; Gottfried, Jennifer L; Klapötke, Thomas M; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Witkowski, Tomasz G

    2016-12-23

    Herein we present the preparation and characterization of three new bispyrazolyl-based energetic compounds with great potential as explosive materials. The reaction of sodium 4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazolate (5) with dimethyl iodide yielded bis(4-amino-3,5-dinitropyrazolyl)methane (6), which is a secondary explosive with high heat resistance (T dec =310 °C). The oxidation of this compound afforded bis(3,4,5-trinitropyrazolyl)methane (7), which is a combined nitrogen- and oxygen-rich secondary explosive with very high theoretical and estimated experimental detonation performance (V det (theor)=9304 m s -1 versus V det (exp)=9910 m s -1 ) in the range of that of CL-20. Also, the thermal stability (T dec =205 °C) and sensitivities of 7 are auspicious. The reaction of 6 with in situ generated nitrous acid yielded the primary explosive bis(4-diazo-5-nitro-3-oxopyrazolyl)methane (8), which showed superior properties to those of currently used diazodinitrophenol (DDNP). © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Three-dimensional simulations of void collapse in energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    The collapse of voids in porous energetic materials leads to hot-spot formation and reaction initiation. This work advances the current knowledge of the dynamics of void collapse and hot-spot formation using 3D reactive void collapse simulations in HMX. Four different void shapes, i.e., sphere, cylinder, plate, and ellipsoid, are studied. For all four shapes, collapse generates complex three-dimensional (3D) baroclinic vortical structures. The hot spots are collocated with regions of intense vorticity. The differences in the vortical structures for the different void shapes are shown to significantly impact the relative sensitivity of the voids. Voids of high surface area generate hot spots of greater intensity; intricate, highly contorted vortical structures lead to hot spots of corresponding tortuosity and therefore enhanced growth rates of reaction fronts. In addition, all 3D voids are shown to be more sensitive than their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. The results provide physical insights into hot-spot formation and growth and point to the limitations of 2D analyses of hot-spot formation.

  7. 2007 Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Technology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-18

    Assessment – EIPT chair rotates each calendar year between NAVAIR and NAVSEA Page 9 Networks for collaboration Technology Oriented: Energetic Materials...Analysis IM Explosive Fill for 120mm and/or 155mm Arena Test & Qualificationr t lifi ti Must Show Improvement Review of Filter 1 Data for 3...Arena Test & Qualificationr t lifi ti Must Show Improvement PM-CAS Common Low-cost IM Explosives Program “Funnel” framework to progressively screen

  8. Surface Thermometry of Energetic Materials by Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    at 34 yttrium- aluminum -garnet (Dy:YAG). The simplified energy diagram of Dy:YAG is shown in Fig. 1. Absorbed laser light (at 355 nrm) can 5 excite the...the thermometric technique on a surface similar to that of an energetic material, a thermal-setting plastic supplied by Buehler, Ltd., was employed...temperature over the temperature range of interest. The rare-earth ion dysprosium (Dy) doped into a yttrium- aluminum -garnet (YAG) crystal was I determined

  9. Molecular Modeling of Energetic Materials: The Parameterization and Validation of Nitrate Esters in the COMPASS Force Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunte, Steven

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical and other condensed phase properties of energetic materials using atomistic simulation techniques, the COMPASS force field has been expanded to include high-energy nitro functional groups...

  10. Effects of void anisotropy on the ignition and growth rates of energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Sen, Oishik; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Initiation of heterogeneous energetic materials is thought to occur at hot spots; reaction fronts propagate from sites of such hot spots into the surrounding material resulting in complete consumption of the material. Heterogeneous materials, such as plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) and pressed materials contain numerous voids, defects and interfaces at which hot spots can occur. Amongst the various mechanisms of hot spot formation, void collapse is considered to be the predominant one in the high strain rate loading conditions. It is established in the past the shape of the voids has a significant effect on the initiation behavior of energetic materials. In particular, void aspect ratio and orientations play an important role in this regard. This work aims to quantify the effects of void aspect ratio and orientation on the ignition and growth rates of chemical reaction from the hot spot. A wide range of aspect ratio and orientations is considered to establish a correlation between the ignition and growth rates and the void morphology. The ignition and growth rates are obtained from high fidelity reactive meso-scale simulations. The energetic material considered in this work is HMX and Tarver McGuire HMX decomposition model is considered to capture the reaction mechanism of HMX. The meso-scale simulations are performed using a Cartesian grid based Eulerian solver SCIMITAR3D. The void morphology is shown to have a significant effect on the ignition and growth rates of HMX.

  11. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, A L

    2010-03-08

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to overpressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  12. Reaction path of energetic materials using THOR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, L.; Campos, J.; Portugal, A.

    1998-07-01

    The method of predicting reaction path, using THOR code, allows for isobar and isochor adiabatic combustion and CJ detonation regimes, the calculation of the composition and thermodynamic properties of reaction products of energetic materials. THOR code assumes the thermodynamic equilibria of all possible products, for the minimum Gibbs free energy, using HL EoS. The code allows the possibility of estimating various sets of reaction products, obtained successively by the decomposition of the original reacting compound, as a function of the released energy. Two case studies of thermal decomposition procedure were selected, calculated and discussed—pure Ammonium Nitrate and its based explosive ANFO, and Nitromethane—because their equivalence ratio is respectively lower, near and greater than the stoicheiometry. Predictions of reaction path are in good correlation with experimental values, proving the validity of proposed method.

  13. Preliminary Hazard Analysis of Supercritical Fluid Separation of Energetic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and elsewhere, particularly at the Phasex Corporation, Lawrence, MA, has demonstrated the feasibility of separating the energetic moieties by use of supercritical CO2...

  14. Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.M.

    1999-01-18

    The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

  15. Unreacted equation of states of typical energetic materials under static compression: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhaoyang; Zhao Jijun

    2016-01-01

    The unreacted equation of state (EOS) of energetic materials is an important thermodynamic relationship to characterize their high pressure behaviors and has practical importance. The previous experimental and theoretical works on the equation of state of several energetic materials including nitromethane, 1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX), hexanitrostilbene (HNS), hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW or CL-20), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105), triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (DADNE or FOX-7), and trinitrotoluene (TNT) are reviewed in this paper. The EOS determined from hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic compressions are discussed and compared. The theoretical results based on ab initio calculations are summarized and compared with the experimental data. (topical review)

  16. Criticality conditions of heterogeneous energetic materials under shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Anas; Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Sen, Oishik; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Shock interaction with the microstructural heterogeneities of energetic materials can lead to the formation of locally heated regions known as hot spots. These hot spots are the potential sites where chemical reaction may be initiated. However, the ability of a hot spot to initiate chemical reaction depends on its size, shape and strength (temperature). Previous study by Tarver et al. has shown that there exists a critical size and temperature for a given shape (spherical, cylindrical, and planar) of the hot spot above which reaction initiation is imminent. Tarver et al. assumed a constant temperature variation in the hot spot. However, the meso-scale simulations show that the temperature distribution within a hot spot formed from processes such as void collapse is seldom constant. Also, the shape of a hot spot can be arbitrary. This work is an attempt towards development of a critical hot spot curve which is a function of loading strength, duration and void morphology. To achieve the aforementioned goal, mesoscale simulations are conducted on porous HMX material. The process is repeated for different loading conditions and void sizes. The hot spots formed in the process are examined for criticality depending on whether they will ignite or not. The metamodel is used to obtain criticality curves and is compared with the critical hot spot curve of Tarver et al.

  17. Structure and Stability of Deflagrations in Porous Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    stephen B. Margolis; Forman A. Williams

    1999-03-01

    Theoretical two-phase-flow analyses have recently been developed to describe the structure and stability of multi-phase deflagrations in porous energetic materials, in both confined and unconfined geometries. The results of these studies are reviewed, with an emphasis on the fundamental differences that emerge with respect to the two types of geometries. In particular, pressure gradients are usually negligible in unconfined systems, whereas the confined problem is generally characterized by a significant gas-phase pressure difference, or overpressure, between the burned and unburned regions. The latter leads to a strong convective influence on the burning rate arising from the pressure-driven permeation of hot gases into the solid/gas region and the consequent preheating of the unburned material. It is also shown how asymptotic models that are suitable for analyzing stability may be derived based on the largeness of an overall activation-energy parameter. From an analysis of such models, it is shown that the effects of porosity and two-phase flow are generally destabilizing, suggesting that degraded propellants, which exhibit greater porosity than their pristine counterparts, may be more readily subject to combustion instability and nonsteady deflagration.

  18. Experimental Study on Reaction Characteristics of PTFE/Ti/W Energetic Materials under Explosive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal/fluoropolymer composites represent a new category of energetic structural materials that release energy through exothermic chemical reactions initiated under shock loading conditions. This paper describes an experiment designed to study the reaction characteristics of energetic materials with low porosity under explosive loading. Three PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene/Ti/W mixtures with different W contents are processed through pressing and sintering. An inert PTFE/W mixture without reactive Ti particles is also prepared to serve as a reference. Shock-induced chemical reactions are recorded by high-speed video through a narrow observation window. Related shock parameters are calculated based on experimental data, and differences in energy release are discussed. The results show that the reaction propagation of PTFE/Ti/W energetic materials with low porosity under explosive loading is not self-sustained. As propagation distance increases, the energy release gradually decreases. In addition, reaction failure distance in PTFE/Ti/W composites is inversely proportional to the W content. Porosity increased the failure distance due to higher shock temperature.

  19. High dynamic range emission measurements of shocked energetic materials: Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Will P.; Dlott, Dana D.

    2016-06-01

    A new emission apparatus with high time resolution and high dynamic range was used to study shock-induced ignition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in the form of ultrafine powder (4 ± 3 μm particle size), over a range of impact velocities (0.8-4.3 km s-1) and impact durations (2.5-16 ns). A graybody model was used to extract graybody emissivities and time-dependent temperatures from a few ns to 100 μs. The emission transients consisted of three parts: a 6700 K nanosecond burst during the shocks, a 4000-4500 K temperature spike near 0.3 μs followed by a ˜3300 K tail extending out to ˜100 μs. These temperatures varied remarkably little with impact velocity and duration, while the emission intensities and emissivities changed by over an order of magnitude. The emissivity changes were interpreted with a hot spot model, where hot spot temperatures reached a maximum of 6700 K and the hot spot volume fractions increased from 5% to 100% as impact velocity increased from 1 to 3 km s-1. Changing shock durations in the 2.5-16 ns range had noticeable effects on the microsecond emission. The 0.3 μs temperature spike was much smaller or absent with 2.5 ns shocks, but prominent with longer durations. An explanation for these effects was put forth that invoked the formation of carbon-rich clusters during the shock. In this view, cluster formation was minimal with 2.5 ns shocks, but longer-duration shocks produced increasingly larger clusters, and the 0.3 μs temperature spikes represented cluster ignition.

  20. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of detonation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jennifer; Bukowski, Eric

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser with sufficient energy to exceed the breakdown threshold of a material generates a laser-induced plasma with high peak temperatures, pressures, and shock velocities. Depending on the laser parameters and material properties, nanograms to micrograms of material is ablated, atomized, ionized and excited in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion into the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The estimated detonation velocities using LASEM agree well with published experimental values. A comparison of the measured shock velocities for various energetic materials including RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that reducing the amount of hydrogen present in B formulations increases the resulting detonation velocities

  1. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for solid state dosimetric systems of high-energetic ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.

    1997-01-01

    The application possibilities of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors use as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energetic (E > 1 MeV) dosimetric systems are analysed. It is shown that investigated materials are characterized by more wide region of registered absorbed doses and low temperature threshold of radiation information bleaching in comparison with well-known analogies based on coloring oxide glasses. (author)

  2. Energetics of highly kinked step edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the step edge free energy, the step edge stiffness and dimensionless inverse step edge stiffness of the highly kinked < 010> oriented step on a (001) surface of a simple square lattice within the framework of a solid-on-solid model. We have found an exact expression for the step

  3. The quest for greater chemical energy storage in energetic materials: Grounding expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C. Michael; Fajardo, Mario E.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the performance of modern energetic materials based on organic chemistry has plateaued, with only ˜ 40% improvements realized over the past half century. This fact has stimulated research on alternative chemical energy storage schemes in various U.S. government funded "High Energy Density Materials" (HEDM) programs since the 1950's. These efforts have examined a wide range of phenomena such as free radical stabilization, metallic hydrogen, metastable helium, polynitrogens, extended molecular solids, nanothermites, and others. In spite of the substantial research investments, significant improvements in energetic material performance have not been forthcoming. This paper discusses the lessons learned in the various HEDM programs, the different degrees of freedom in which to store energy in materials, and the fundamental limitations and orders of magnitude of the energies involved. The discussion focuses almost exclusively on the topic of energy density and only mentions in passing other equally important properties of explosives and propellants such as gas generation and reaction rate.

  4. Report for MaRIE Drivers Workshop on needs for energetic material's studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Paul Elliott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Energetic materials (i.e. explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics) have complex mesoscale features that influence their dynamic response. Direct measurement of the complex mechanical, thermal, and chemical response of energetic materials is critical for improving computational models and enabling predictive capabilities. Many of the physical phenomena of interest in energetic materials cover time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. Examples include chemical interactions in the reaction zone, the distribution and evolution of temperature fields, mesoscale deformation in heterogeneous systems, and phase transitions. This is particularly true for spontaneous phenomena, like thermal cook-off. The ability for MaRIE to capture multiple length scales and stochastic phenomena can significantly advance our understanding of energetic materials and yield more realistic, predictive models.

  5. Study of thermal sensitivity and thermal explosion violence of energetic materials in the LLNL ODTX system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Zhang, M X; Lorenz, T K; Reynolds, J G; Fried, L; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2014-01-01

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 °C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. Recent ODTX experimental data are reported in the paper.

  6. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Sander, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6 mm±0.4 mm exists below which ignition by CO 2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29 W/cm 2 and 38 W/cm 2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials

  7. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. N.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Sander, R. K.

    2005-03-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6mm±0.4mm exists below which ignition by CO2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29W /cm2 and 38W/cm2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  8. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, TG (Thermogravimetry, VST (Vacuum stability test and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished. In this paper, the compatibility of two very important high explosives used in ammunition, RDX (Cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine and HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine was studied with the materials: fluoroelastomer (Viton and powdered aluminum (Al, using DSC and VST methods. The criteria to judge the compatibility between materials is based on a standardization agreement (STANAG 4147, 2001, and the final conclusion is that explosives and this materials are compatible, but in DSC it was observed that the peak of decomposition temperature of the admixture of RDX with Al decreased in 3º C and another peak appeared after the decomposition peak.

  9. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    agent (GA). During a reaction the GA generates nucleation sites that promote the formation of bubbles. As the reaction wave passes, the gas pockets...studies have shown iodine producing reactive materials are effective against spore forming bacteria, but are sensitive to the relative humidity in the...testing environment. Results from tests run in relative high humidity environments show a decreased ability of iodine to effectively neutralize

  10. Delay in solar energetic particle onsets at high heliographic latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dalla

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulysses observations have shown that solar energetic particles (SEPs can easily reach high heliographic latitudes. To obtain information on the release and propagation of SEPs prior to their arrival at Ulysses, we analyse the onsets of nine large high-latitude particle events. We measure the onset times in several energy channels, and plot them versus inverse particle speed. This allows us to derive an experimental path length and time of release from the solar atmosphere. We repeat the procedure for near-Earth observations by Wind and SOHO. We find that the derived path lengths at Ulysses are 1.06 to 2.45 times the length of a Parker spiral magnetic field line connecting the spacecraft to the Sun. The time of particle release from the Sun is between 100 and 350 min later than the release time derived from in-ecliptic measurements. We find no evidence of correlation between the delay in release and the inverse of the speed of the CME associated with the event, or the inverse of the speed of the corresponding interplanetary shock. The main parameter determining the magnitude of the delay appears to be the difference in latitude between the flare and the footpoint of the spacecraft.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles, flares and mass ejections

  11. Energetic Particles at High Latitudes of the Heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming

    2004-01-01

    Ulysses has by now made two complete out-of-ecliptic orbits around the sun. The first encounter of the solar poles occurred in 1994-1995, when the sun was near the minimum of its activity cycle, while the second one was in 2000-2001, when the sun was at solar maximum. To our surprise, energetic particles of all origins at high latitude are not much different from those we observe near the ecliptic for at least these two phases of solar cycle. The latitude gradients of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays are positive but small at the 1994-1995 solar minimum and almost zero at the 2000-2001 solar maximum, while temporal solar cycle variation dominates their flux variation at all latitudes. Solar energetic particles from all large gradual events can be seen at both Ulysses and Earth no matter how large their spatial separations from the solar event are, and the particle flux often reaches a uniform level in the entire inner heliosphere within a few days after event onset and remains so throughout the decay phase that can sometimes last over a month. Energetic particles accelerated by low-latitude CIRs can appear at high latitudes, far beyond the latitudinal range of CIRs. All these observations suggest that latitudinal transport of energetic particles is quite easy. In addition, because the average magnetic field is radial at the pole, The Ulysses observations indicate that parallel diffusion and drift in the radial direction need to be reduced at the poles relative to their equatorial values. To achieve such behaviors of particle transport, the heliospheric magnetic field needs a significant latitudinal component at the poles. A non-zero latitudinal magnetic field component can be produced by latitudinal motion of the magnetic field line in solar corona, which can be in form of either random walk suggested by Jokipii or large scale systematic motion suggested by Fisk

  12. Energetic optimization of regenerative braking for high speed railway systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilli, Amedeo; Meli, Enrico; Nocciolini, Daniele; Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of longitudinal dynamics of the High-speed train ETR1000 is presented. • The model includes on board traction and braking subsystems. • Interactions between overhead line and power line are modelled. • The model is validated on real experimental data. • An energy storage strategy for a high-speed line is proposed. - Abstract: The current development trend in the railway field has led to an ever increasing interest for the energetic optimization of railway systems (especially considering the braking phases), with a strong attention to the mutual interactions between the loads represented by railway vehicles and the electrical infrastructure, including all the sub-systems related to distribution and smart energy management such as energy storage systems. In this research work, the authors developed an innovative coupled modelling approach suitable for the analysis of the energetic optimization of railway systems and based on the use of the new object oriented language Matlab-Simscape™, which presents several advantages with respect to conventional modelling tools. The proposed model has been validated considering an Italian Direct Current High-speed line and the High-speed train ETR 1000. Furthermore, the model has been used to perform an efficiency analysis, considering the use of energy storage devices. The results obtained with the developed model show that the use of energy recovery systems in high-speed railway can provide great opportunities of energy savings.

  13. Amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors for solid state dosimetric systems of high-energetic ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Pedagogical University, Czestochowa (Poland)]|[Institute of Materials, Lvov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The application possibilities of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors use as radiation-sensitive elements of high-energetic (E > 1 MeV) dosimetric systems are analysed. It is shown that investigated materials are characterized by more wide region of registered absorbed doses and low temperature threshold of radiation information bleaching in comparison with well-known analogies based on coloring oxide glasses. (author). 16 refs, 1 tab.

  14. Near-Resonant Thermomechanics of Energetic and Mock Energetic Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    record frequency responses and operational deflection shapes. Simultaneously, a FLIR A325 infrared camera was used to capture the temperature...distribution of the top surface of the plate using infrared thermography. The experimental setup is depicted in Figure 4. The results obtained from this and...the inelastic behavior of many materials like metals [12,13], concrete [14], soils [15], metal matrix composites [16], filled rubber [17], Asphalt

  15. Recent advances in the molten salt technology for the destruction of energetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-11-01

    The DOE has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The authors have demonstrated the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for the treatment of explosives and explosive-containing wastes on a 1.5 kilogram of explosive per hour scale and are currently building a 5 kilogram per hour unit. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic material waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a crucible containing a molten salt, in this case a eutectic mixture of Na, K, and Li carbonates. The following pure component DOE and DoD explosives have been destroyed in LLNL's experimental unit at their High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K-6, NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following formulations were also destroyed: Comp B, LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, PBX-9404, and XM46, a US Army liquid gun propellant. In this 1.5 kg/hr unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NOx were found to be well below 1T. In addition to destroying explosive powders and molding powders the authors have also destroyed materials that are typical of real world wastes. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the information obtained on the smaller unit, the authors have constructed a 5 kg/hr MSD unit, incorporating LLNL's advanced chimney design. This unit is currently under shakedown tests and evaluation

  16. Novel Method to Characterize and Model the Multiaxial Constitutive and Damage Response of Energetic Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshige, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rabbi, Md Fazle [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Kaneshige, Michael J. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Mach, Robert [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Catzin, Carlos A. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Stewart, Calvin M. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Simulant polymer bonded explosives are widely used to simulate the mechanical response of real energetic materials. In this paper, the fracture resistance of a simulant polymer bo nded explosive (PBX) is experimentally investigated. The simulant is composed of 80 wt.% soda lime glass beads (SLGB) and 20 wt.% high impact Polystyrene 825 (HIPS). Brazilian disk tests are performed to characterize the tensile and compressive properties. Fracture toughness and energy tests are performed in the semi - circular bending (SCB) configuration on 80, 81, 82, and 83 wt % SLGB compositions. Digital image correlation is performed to record the surface displacements and calculate surface strains during testing. The m icromechanical behavior of ductile and brittle fracture are evaluated using digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surface. It is determined that (i) the manufacturing process produces a credible simulant of PBX properties, and (ii) the SCB test measures fracture resistance with a reasonable coefficient of variation.

  17. Investigations on deflagration to detonation transition in porous energetic materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The research carried out by this contract was part of a larger effort funded by LANL in the areas of deflagration to detonation in porous energetic materials (DDT) and detonation shock dynamics in high explosives (DSD). In the first three years of the contract the major focus was on DDT. However, some researchers were carried out on DSD theory and numerical implementation. In the last two years the principal focus of the contract was on DSD theory and numerical implementation. However, during the second period some work was also carried out on DDT. The paper discusses DDT modeling and DSD modeling. Abstracts are included on the following topics: modeling deflagration to detonation; DSD theory; DSD wave front tracking; and DSD program burn implementation.

  18. Pressure Dependent Decomposition Kinetics of the Energetic Material HMX up to 3.6 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E A; Zaug, J M; Burnham, A K

    2009-05-29

    The effect of pressure on the thermal decomposition rate of the energetic material HMX was studied. HMX was precompressed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and heated at various rates. The parent species population was monitored as a function of time and temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Decomposition rates were determined by fitting the fraction reacted to the extended-Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth model and the Friedman isoconversional method. The results of these experiments and analysis indicate that pressure accelerates the decomposition at low to moderate pressures (i.e. between ambient pressure and 1 GPa) and decelerates the decomposition at higher pressures. The decomposition acceleration is attributed to pressure enhanced autocatalysis whereas the deceleration at high pressures is attributed pressure inhibiting bond homolysis step(s), which would result in an increase in volume. These results indicate that both {beta} and {delta} phase HMX are sensitive to pressure in the thermally induced decomposition kinetics.

  19. Nano-Aluminum Reaction with Nitrogen in the Burn Front of Oxygen-Free Energetic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappan, B. C.; Son, S. F.; Moore, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-particulate aluminum metal was added to the high nitrogen energetic material triaminoguanidium azotetrazolate (TAGzT) in order to determine the effects on decomposition behavior. Standard safety testing (sensitivity to impact, spark and friction) are reported and show that the addition of nano-Al actually decreases the sensitivity of the pure TAGzT. Thermo-equilibrium calculations (Cheetah) indicate that the all of the Al reacts to form AlN in TAGzT decomposition, and the calculated specific impulses are reported. T-Jump/FTIR spectroscopy was performed on the neat TAGzT. Emission spectra were collected to determine the temperature of AlN formation in combustion. Burning rates were also collected, and the effects of nano-Al on rates are discussed

  20. Papers of 4. Scientific-Technical Seminar: Material Study for Electric Power Stations and Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The research on the materials commonly used in electric power stations and energetics have been summarized in the course of the seminar. Especially a different kinds of steels have been investigated from the view point of their desirable mechanical and corrosion properties

  1. Spallation products induced by energetic neutrons in plastic detector material

    CERN Document Server

    Grabisch, K; Enge, W; Scherzer, R

    1977-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate plastic detector sheets were irradiated with secondary neutrons of the 22 GeV/c proton beam at the CERN accelerator. He, Li and Be particles which are produced in nuclear interactions of the neutrons with the target elements C, N and O of the plastic detector material are measured. Preliminary angle and range distributions and isotropic abundances of the secondary particles are discussed. (6 refs).

  2. 2009 Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Technology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-14

    Government Civilian (Non-DOD/MOD) u Trade/Professional Assn. u Educator /Academia u Professional Services u Non-Defense Business u Other...synthesis; Available starting materials; Not yet commercialised Initial selection refined to 5, subsequently 3 candidates: • Oxadiazole (CL-14); hexahydro...is an integral part of OSD’s Educational Outreach Program in providing an ongoing source of scientific and engineering talent for government R&D labs

  3. Plasma synthesis of hard materials with energetic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Othon R.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in plasma synthesis of hard materials using metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition are described. We have produced and characterized a variety of films including doped and undoped DLC (diamond-like carbon) and metal carbides. By using multiple plasma sources operated either synchronously or asynchronously, different metal plasma species can be either blended or linked so as to form mixed-composition films or multilayer structures, and by control of the depositing ion energy, interfaces can be made sharp or graded and the film morphology and microstructure can be widely tailored. Plasma compositional uniformity is important to produce homogeneous films, and therefore effective mixing of plasma streams produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arcs is very important. Specific systems described here include amorphic diamond, and TiC. We outline the deposition technique employed in this investigation, and summarize the results of the characterization of the films

  4. Chemistry of high-energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapoetke, Thomas M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (US). Center of Energetic Concepts Development (CECD)

    2011-07-01

    The graduate-level textbook Chemistry of High-Energy Materials provides an introduction to and an overview of primary and secondary (high) explosives as well as propellant charges, rocket propellants and pyrotechnics. After a brief historical overview, the main classes of energetic materials are discussed systematically. Thermodynamic aspects, as far as relevant to energetic materials, are discussed, as well as modern computational approaches to predict performance and sensitivity parameters. The most important performance criteria such as detonation velocity, detonation pressure and heat of explosion, as well as the relevant sensitivity parameters suc as impact and friction sensitivity and electrostatic discharge sensitivity are explored in detail. Modern aspects of chemical synthesis including lead-free primary explosives and high-nitrogen compounds are also included in this book together with a discussion of high-energy materials for future defense needs. The most important goal of this book, based on a lecture course which has now been held at LMU Munich for over 12 years, is to increase knowledge and know-how in the synthesis and safe handling of high-energy materials. Society needs now as much as ever advanced explosives, propellant charges, rocket propellants and pyrotechnics to meet the demands in defense and engineering. This book is first and foremost aimed at advanced students in chemistry, engineering and materials sciences. However, it is also intended to provide a good introduction to the chemistry of energetic materials and chemical defense technology for scientists in the defense industry and government-run defense organizations. (orig.)

  5. Trapping and re-emission of energetic hydrogen and helium ions in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Sadae

    1981-01-01

    The experimental results on the trapping and re-emission of energetic hydrogen and helium ions in materials are explained. The trapping of deuterium and helium in graphite saturates at the concentration of 10 18 ions/cm 2 . The trapping rate of hydrogen depends on the kinds of target materials. In the case of the implantation in Mo over 3 x 10 16 H/cm 2 , hydrogen is hardly trapped. On the other hand, the trapping of hydrogen in Ti, Zr and Ta which form solid solution is easily made. The hydrogen in these metals can diffuse toward the inside of metals. The deuterium retained in 316 SS decreased with time. The trapping rate reached saturation more rapidly at higher implantation temperature. The effective diffusion constant for the explanation of the re-emission process is 1/100 as small as the ordinary value. The radiation damage due to helium irradiation affects on the trapping of deuterium in Mo. The temperature dependence of the trapping rate can be explained by the diffusion model based on the Sievert's law. The re-emission of helium was measured at various temperature. At low temperature, the re-emission was low at first, then the rate increased. At high temperature, the re-emission rate was high from the beginning. (Kato, T.)

  6. Construct 3D porous hollow Co3O4 micro-sphere: A potential oxidizer of nano-energetic materials with superior reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zheng, Bo; Qiao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhang, Long; Li, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Xingquan; Yang, Guangcheng

    2018-06-01

    High energy density and rapid reactivity are the future trend for nano-energetic materials. Energetic performance of nano-energetic materials depends on the interfacial diffusion and mass transfer during the reacted process. However, the development of desired structure to significantly enhance reactivity still remains challenging. Here we focused on the design and preparation of 3D porous hollow Co3O4 micro-spheres, in which gas-blowing agents (air) and maximize interfacial interactions were introduced to enhance mass transport and reduce the diffusion distance between the oxidizer and fuel (Aluminum). The 3D hierarchical Co3O4/Al based nano-energetic materials show a low-onset decomposition temperature (423 °C), and high heat output (3118 J g-1) resulting from porous and hollow nano-structure of Co3O4 micro-spheres. Furthermore, 3D hierarchical Co3O4/Al arrays were directly fabricated on the silicon substrate, which was fully compatible with silicon-based microelectromechanical systems to achieve functional nanoenergetics-on-a-chip. This approach provides a simple and efficient way to fabricate 3D ordered nano-energetic arrays with superior reactivity and the potential on the application in micro-energetic devices.

  7. Fast Reacting Nano Composite Energetic Materials: Synthesis and Combustion Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    nanoenergetic composites finding extensive use in ordnance and industrial applications, because of its high heat of combustion (~32 kJ/g) (S. H. Fischer ...2011. Farley, Cory. "Reactions of Aluminum with Halogen Containing Oxides." Dissertation. Lubbock, TX, May 2013. Gesner, Jeff , Michelle Pantoya, and...characteristics of novel hybrid nanoenergetic formulations." Combustion and Flame 158 (2011): 964- 978. S. H. Fischer , M. C. Grubelich. "Theoretical

  8. Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beulow, S.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Harradine, D.M.; Robinson, J.M.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Funk, K.A.; McInroy, R.E.; Sanchez, J.A.; Spontarelli, T.

    1993-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is a relatively low-temperature process that can give high destruction efficiencies for a variety of hazardous chemical wastes. Results are presented examining the destruction of high explosives and propellants in supercritical water and the use of low temperature, low pressure hydrolysis as a pretreatment process. Reactions of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), nitroguanidine (NQ), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are examined in a flow reactor operated at temperatures between 400 degrees C and 650 degrees C. Explosives are introduced into the reactor at concentrations below the solubility limits. For each of the compounds, over 99.9% is destroyed in less than 30 seconds at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The reactions produce primarily N 2 , N 2 O,CO 2 , and some nitrate and nitrite ions. The distribution of reaction products depends on reactor pressure, temperature, and oxidizer concentration. Kinetics studies of the reactions of nitrate and nitrite ions with various reducing reagents in supercritical water show that they can be rapidly and completely destroyed at temperatures above 525 degrees C. The use of slurries and hydrolysis to introduce high concentrations of explosives into a supercritical water reactor is examined. For some compounds the rate of reaction depends on particle size. The hydrolysis of explosives at low temperatures (<100 degrees C) and low pressures (<1 atm) under basic conditions produces water soluble, non-explosive products which are easily destroyed by supercritical water oxidation. Large pieces of explosives (13 cm diameter) have been successfully hydrolyzed. The rate, extent, and products of the hydrolysis depend on the type and concentration of base. Results from the base hydrolysis of triple base propellant M31A1E1 and the subsequent supercritical water oxidation of the hydrolysis products are presented

  9. Hot spots in energetic materials generated by infrared and ultrasound, detected by thermal imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S; Dlott, Dana D

    2014-02-01

    We have observed and characterized hot spot formation and hot-spot ignition of energetic materials (EM), where hot spots were created by ultrasonic or long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) exposure, and were detected by high-speed thermal microscopy. The microscope had 15-20 μm spatial resolution and 8.3 ms temporal resolution. LWIR was generated by a CO2 laser (tunable near 10.6 μm or 28.3 THz) and ultrasound by a 20 kHz acoustic horn. Both methods of energy input created spatially homogeneous energy fields, allowing hot spots to develop spontaneously due to the microstructure of the sample materials. We observed formation of hot spots which grew and caused the EM to ignite. The EM studied here consisted of composite solids with 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine crystals and polymer binders. EM simulants based on sucrose crystals in binders were also examined. The mechanisms of hot spot generation were different with LWIR and ultrasound. With LWIR, hot spots were most efficiently generated within the EM crystals at LWIR wavelengths having longer absorption depths of ∼25 μm, suggesting that hot spot generation mechanisms involved localized absorbing defects within the crystals, LWIR focusing in the crystals or LWIR interference in the crystals. With ultrasound, hot spots were primarily generated in regions of the polymer binder immediately adjacent to crystal surfaces, rather than inside the EM crystals.

  10. A Coupled Damage and Reaction Model for Simulating Energetic Material Response to Impact Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAER, MELVIN R.; DRUMHELLER, D.S.; MATHESON, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Baer-Nunziato multiphase reactive theory for a granulated bed of energetic material is extended to allow for dynamic damage processes, that generate new surfaces as well as porosity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is employed to constrain the constitutive forms of the mass, momentum, and energy exchange functions as well as those for the mechanical damage model ensuring that the models will be dissipative. The focus here is on the constitutive forms of the exchange functions. The mechanical constitutive modeling is discussed in a companion paper. The mechanical damage model provides dynamic surface area and porosity information needed by the exchange functions to compute combustion rates and interphase momentum and energy exchange rates. The models are implemented in the CTH shock physics code and used to simulate delayed detonations due to impacts in a bed of granulated energetic material and an undamaged cylindrical sample

  11. Study on Energetic Ions Behavior in Plasma Facing Materials at Lower Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Y.; Sugiyama, T.; Akahori, S.; Kodama, H.; Tega, E.; Sasaki, M.; Oyaidu, M.; Kimura, H.; Okuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus equipped with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) was constructed to study interactions of energetic hydrogen isotopes with plasma facing materials. It is a remarkable feature of the apparatus that energetic ion implantation is carried out at around 150K to study reactions of energetic ions with matrix by suppressing the reactions of thermalized ions. Using this apparatus, TDS experiments for pyrolytic graphite implanted with energetic D 2 ions at 173 and 373K were carried out. The experimental results suggest that the deuterium implanted was released through a four-step release processes, involving three D 2 and one CD x (x = 2, 3 and 4) desorption processes. Two deuterium and CD x desorption processes were observed in the temperature range from 700 to 1200 K. In addition, a new deuterium desorption process was observed for the deuterium-implanted sample at 173 K. This has never been observed for deuterium-implanted graphite implanted at temperatures higher than room temperature

  12. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  13. Toxicity Determinations for Five Energetic Materials, Weathered and Aged in Soil, to the Collembolan Folsomia Candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    obtained from the Soil Fauna and Ecotoxicology Research Unit, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute (Silkeborg...AND AGED IN SOIL , TO THE COLLEMBOLAN FOLSOMIA CANDIDA ECBC-TR-1273 Carlton T. Phillips Ronald T. Checkai Roman G. Kuperman Michael Simini...for Five Energetic Materials, Weathered and Aged in Soil , to the Collembolan Folsomia candida 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. Seeded Reaction Waves in Composites: Fast Structure Transforming Materials that Respond to Energetic Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    change in the structure of the capsule system . The temperatures at which the capsules undergo transformation are in accordance with the results in DSC...Structure- Transforming Materials that Respond to Energetic Stimuli Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00014-13-1-0170 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd...encapsulated super- cooled fluids into a polymer matrix allows for rapid changes in mechanical properties. Frontal polymerization within a microvascular

  15. Prediction of detonation and JWL eos parameters of energetic materials using EXPLO5 computer code

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peter, Xolani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic Organization Cape Town, South Africa 27-29 September 2016 1 PREDICTION OF DETONATION AND JWL EOS PARAMETERS OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS USING EXPLO5 COMPUTER CODE X. Peter*, Z. Jiba, M. Olivier, I.M. Snyman, F.J. Mostert and T.J. Sono.... Nowadays many numerical methods and programs are being used for carrying out thermodynamic calculations of the detonation parameters of condensed explosives, for example a BKW Fortran (Mader, 1967), Ruby (Cowperthwaite and Zwisler, 1974) TIGER...

  16. Sensitivity Characterization of Pressed Energetic Materials using Flyer Plate Mesoscale Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal; Udaykumar, H. S.

    Heterogeneous energetic materials like pressed explosives have complicated microstructure and contain various forms of heterogeneities such as pores, micro-cracks, energetic crystals etc. It is widely accepted that the presence of these heterogeneities can affect the sensitivity of these materials under shock load. The interaction of shock load with the microstructural heterogeneities may leads to the formation of local heated regions known as ``hot spots''. Chemical reaction may trigger at the hot spot regions depending on the hot spot temperature and the duration over which the temperature can be maintained before phenomenon like heat conduction, rarefaction waves withdraws energy from it. There are different mechanisms which can lead to the formation of hot spots including void collapse. The current work is focused towards the sensitivity characterization of two HMX based pressed energetic materials using flyer plate mesoscale simulations. The aim of the current work is to develop mesoscale numerical framework which can perform simulations by replicating the laboratory based flyer plate experiments. The current numerical framework uses an image processing approach to represent the microstructural heterogeneities incorporated in a massively parallel Eulerian code SCIMITAR3D. The chemical decomposition of HMX is modeled using Henson-Smilowitz reaction mechanism. The sensitivity characterization is aimed towards obtaining James initiation threshold curve and comparing it with the experimental results.

  17. Molten salt destruction as an alternative to open burning of energetic material wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput unit to test the destruction of energetic materials using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) process. We have modified the unit described in the earlier references to inject energetic waste material continuously into the unit. In addition to the HMX, other explosives we have destroyed include RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. We have also destroyed a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyl ammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, we have destroyed a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10 (HMX/Viton), LX-16 (PETN/FPC461, LX-17 (TATB/Kel F), and PBX-9404 (HMX)/CEF/Nitro cellulose). Our experiments have demonstrated that energetic materials can be safely and effectively treated by MSD.We have also investigated the issue of steam explosions in molten salt units, both experimentally and theoretically, and concluded that steam explosions can be avoided under proper design and operating conditions. We are currently building a larger unit (nominal capacity 5 kg/hr,) to investigate the relationship between residence time, temperature, feed concentration and throughputs, avoidance of back-burn, a;nd determination of the products of combustion under different operating conditions

  18. The viability and performance characterization of nano scale energetic materials on a semiconductor bridge (SCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Gianna Sophia

    The move from conventional energetic composites to nano scale energetic mixtures (nano energetics) has shown dramatic improvement in energy release rate and sensitivity to ignition. A possible application of nano energetics is on a semiconductor bridge (SCB). An SCB typically requires a tenth of the energy input as compared to a bridge wire design with the same no-fire and is capable of igniting in tens of microseconds. For very low energy applications, SCBs can be manufactured to extremely small sizes and it is necessary to find materials with particle sizes that are even smaller to function. Reactive particles of comparable size to the bridge can lead to problems with ignition reliability for small bridges. Nano-energetic composites and the use of SCBs have been significantly studied individually, however, the process of combining nano energetics with an SCB has not been investigated extensively and is the focus of this work. Goals of this study are to determine if nano energetics can be used with SCBs to further reduce the minimum energy required and improve reliability. The performance of nano-scale aluminum (nAl) and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) with nitrocellulose (NC), Fluorel(TM) FC 2175 (chemically equivalent to VitonRTM) and Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as binders where quantified initially using the SenTest(TM) algorithm at three weight fractions (5, 7, and 9%) of binder. The threshold energy was calculated and compared to previous data using conventional materials such as zirconium potassium chlorate (ZPC), mercuric 5-Nitrotetrazol (DXN-1) and titanium sub-hydride potassium per-chlorate (TSPP). It was found that even though there where only slight differences in performance between the binders with nAl/Bi2O 3 at any of the three binder weight fractions, the results show that these nano energetic materials require about half of the threshold energy compared to conventional materials using an SCB with an 84x42 mum bridge. Binder limit testing was conducted to

  19. Identification of high-energetic particles by transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struczinski, W.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis gives a comprehensive survey on the application of the transition radiation for the particle identification. After a short historical review on the prediction and the detection of the transition radiation its theoretical foundations are more precisely explained. They form the foundations for the construction of an optimal transition radiation detector the principal construction of which is described. The next chapter shows some experiments by which the main predictions of the transition-radiation theory are confirmed. Then the construction and operation of two transition-radiation detectors are described which were applied at the ISR respectively SPS in the CERN in Geneva in complex experiments. The detector applied at the ISR served for the e ± identification. With two lithium radiators which were followed by xenon-filled proportional chambers an e/π separation of ≅ 10 -2 could be reached. The transition-radiation detector applied in the SPS was integrated into the European Hybrid Spectrometer. It served for the identification of high-energetic pions (> or approx. 90 GeV) against kaons and protons. With twenty units of carbon-fiber radiators which were followed by xenon-filled proportional chambers a π/K, p separation of better than 1:20 for momenta above 100 GeV could be reached. The cluster-counting method is then presented. Finally, a survey on the contemporary status in the development of transition-radiation detectors for the e/π separation is given. It is shown that by an about half a meter long detector the radiators of which consist of carbon fibers an e/π separation in the order of magnitude of ≅ 10 -2 can be reached. (orig./HSI) [de

  20. Creating high energy density in nuclei with energetic antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of creating a phase change in nuclear matter using energetic antiprotons and antideuterons is examined. It is found that energy densities of the order of 2 GeV/c can be obtained for periods of approx.2 fm/c with the proper experimental selection of events. 10 refs., 7 figs

  1. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  2. Interaction of energetic ions with high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, D.O.; Edie, D.; Grinenko, A.; Vorberger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The talk will review the importance of energetic ions in different inertial confinement fusion scenarios: i) heavy ion beams are very efficient drivers that can deliver the energy for compression in indirect as well as direct drive approaches; ii) the interaction of α-particles, that are created in a burning plasma, with the surrounding cold plasma is essential for creating a burn wave; iii) laser-produced ion beams are also a strong candidate to create the hot spot needed for fast ignition. In all applications the ions interact with dense matter that is characterized by strongly coupled ions and (possibly) partially degenerate electrons. Moreover, the coupling between beam ions and target electrons can be strong as well. Under these conditions, standard approaches for the beam-plasma interactions process are known to fail. The presentation will demonstrate how advanced models for the energy loss of ions in dense plasmas can resolve the issues mentioned above. These models are largely built on quantum kinetic theory that is able to describe degeneracy and strong coupling in a systematic way. In particular, strong interactions require a quantum description for electron-ion collisions in dense plasma environments, which is done by direct solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Degeneracy and collective excitations can be included via the Lenard-Balescu description where strong interactions may be included via a pseudo-potential approach. Finally, results are shown for all three fusion applications described above. The effects related to strong coupling and degeneracy mainly concern the end of the stopping range where the beam ion dose not have enough energy to excite all possible degrees of freedom and, thus, certain processes are frozen out. However, we also find a significant reduction of the range for swift heavy ions in the GeV-range when stopping in dense matter is considered. The stopping range of α-particles in the

  3. Experimental flame speed in multi-layered nano-energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manesh, Navid Amini; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan [Department of Mechanical, Material and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2010-03-15

    This paper deals with the reaction of dense Metastable Intermolecular Composite (MIC) materials, which have a higher density than conventional energetic materials. The reaction of a multilayer thin film of aluminum and copper oxide has been studied by varying the substrate material and thicknesses. The in-plane speed of propagation of the reaction was experimentally determined using a time of- flight technique. The experiment shows that the reaction is completely quenched for a silicon substrate having an intervening silica layer of less than 200 nm. The speed of reaction seems to be constant at 40 m/s for silica layers with a thickness greater than 1 {mu}m. Different substrate materials such as glass and photoresist were also used. (author)

  4. GAP pre-polymer, as an energetic binder and high performance additive for propellants and explosives: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet S. Eroglu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In preparation of energetic composite formulations, functionally terminated pre-polymers have been used as binder. After physically mixing the pre-polymers with oxidizing components, metallic fuel, burning rate modifier and other minor ingredients, they are cured with a suitable curing agent to provide physical and chemical stability. These pre-polymers could be functionalized with carboxyl, epoxide or hydroxyl groups at varying average chain functionalities. For carboxyl-terminated pre-polymers, an epoxy functional curing agents could be used. If the pre-polymer possesses hydroxyl groups, isocyanate functional curing agents are the most suitable curing agents in terms of easy and efficient processing. Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP is one of the well-known low-molecular weight energetic liquid pre-polymer, which was developed to use as energetic binder, high performance additive and gas generator for high performance smokeless composite propellant and explosive formulations. Linear or branched GAP can be synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of corresponding poly(epichlorohydrin (PECH with sodium azide through replacement of chloromethyl groups of PECH with pendant energetic azido-methyl groups on the polyether main chain. Positive heat of formation (+957 kJ/kg enables exothermic and rapid decomposition of GAP producing fuel rich gases. Its polyether main chain provides GAP with relatively low glass transition temperature (Tg= - 48 oC and presence of hydroxyl functional groups allows it to have easy processing in curing with isocyanate curing agents to form covalently crosslinked polyurethane structure. These outstanding properties of GAP enable it to be used as energetic polymeric binder and high performance additive in preparation of energetic materials and low vulnerable explosives.

  5. High pressure study of a highly energetic nitrogen-rich carbon nitride, cyanuric triazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laniel, Dominique; Desgreniers, Serge [Laboratoire de physique des solides denses, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Downie, Laura E. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Smith, Jesse S. [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Savard, Didier; Murugesu, Muralee [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2014-12-21

    Cyanuric triazide (CTA), a nitrogen-rich energetic material, was compressed in a diamond anvil cell up to 63.2 GPa. Samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. A phase transition occurring between 29.8 and 30.7 GPa was found by all three techniques. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative of the low pressure phase were determined by fitting the 300 K isothermal compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Due to the strong photosensitivity of CTA, synchrotron generated x-rays and visible laser radiation both lead to the progressive conversion of CTA into a two dimensional amorphous C=N network, starting from 9.2 GPa. As a result of the conversion, increasingly weak and broad x-ray diffraction lines were recorded from crystalline CTA as a function of pressure. Hence, a definite structure could not be obtained for the high pressure phase of CTA. Results from infrared spectroscopy carried out to 40.5 GPa suggest the high pressure formation of a lattice built of tri-tetrazole molecular units. The decompression study showed stability of the high pressure phase down to 13.9 GPa. Finally, two CTA samples, one loaded with neon and the other with nitrogen, used as pressure transmitting media, were laser-heated to approximately 1100 K and 1500 K while compressed at 37.7 GPa and 42.0 GPa, respectively. In both cases CTA decomposed resulting in amorphous compounds, as recovered at ambient conditions.

  6. Real time in-situ sensing of damage evolution in nanocomposite bonded surrogate energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengezer, Engin C.; Seidel, Gary D.

    2016-04-01

    The current work aims to explore the potential for in-situ structural health monitoring in polymer bonded energetic materials through the introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the binder phase as a means to establish a significant piezoresistive response through the resulting nanocomposite binder. The experimental effort herein is focused towards electro-mechanical characterization of surrogate materials in place of actual energetic (explosive) materials in order to provide proof of concept for the strain and damage sensing. The electrical conductivity and the piezoresistive behavior of samples containing randomly oriented MWCNTs introduced into the epoxy (EPON 862) binder of 70 wt% ammonium perchlorate-epoxy hybrid composites are quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. Brittle failure going through linear elastic behavior, formation of microcracks leading to reduction in composite load carrying capacity and finally macrocracks resulting in eventual failure are observed in the mechanical response of MWNT-ammonium perchlorateepoxy hybrid composites. Incorporating MWNTs into local polymer binder improves the effective stiffness about 40% compared to neat ammonium perchlorate-polymer samples. The real time in-situ relative change in resistance for MWNT hybrid composites was detected with the applied strains through piezoresistive response.

  7. The HZE radiation problem. [highly-charged energetic galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Radiation-exposure limits have yet to be established for missions envisioned in the framework of the Space Exploration Initiative. The radiation threat outside the earth's magnetosphere encompasses protons from solar particle events and the highly charged energetic particles constituting galactic cosmic rays; radiation biology entails careful consideration of the extremely nonuniform patterns of such particles' energy deposition. The ability to project such biological consequences of exposure to energetic particles as carcinogenicity currently involves great uncertainties from: (1) different regions of space; (2) the effects of spacecraft structures; and (3) the dose-effect relationships of single traversals of energetic particles.

  8. Study of the degradation process of polyimide induced by high energetic ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation focuses on the radiation hardness of Kapton under extreme radiation environment conditions. To study ion-beam induced modifications, Kapton foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (e.g. Ti, Mo, Au, and U) within a large fluence regime (1 x 10 10 -5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 ). The irradiated Kapton foils were analysed by means of infrared and UV/Vis spectroscopy, tensile strength measurement, mass loss analysis, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For testing the radiation stability of Kapton at the cryogenic operation temperature (5-10 K) of the superconducting magnets, additional irradiation experiments were performed at the Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL, France) focusing on the online analysis of the outgassing process of small volatile degradation fragments. The investigations of the electrical properties analysed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy exhibit a different trend: high fluence irradiations with light ions (e.g. Ti) lead to a slight increase of the conductivity, whereas heavy ions (e.g. Sm, Au) cause a drastic change already in the fluence regime of nonoverlapping tracks (5 x 10 10 ions/cm 2 ). Online analysis of the outgassing process during irradiation at cryogenic temperatures shows the release of a variety of small gaseous molecules (e.g. CO, CO 2 , and short hydro carbons). Also a small amount of large polymer fragments is identified. The results allow the following conclusions which are of special interest for the application of Kapton as insulating material in a high-energetic particle radiation environment. a) The material degradation measured with the optical spectroscopy and tensile strength tests are scalable with the dose deposited by the ions. The high correlation of the results allows the prediction of the mechanical degradation with the simple and non-destructive infrared spectroscopy. The degradation curve points to a critical material degradation which

  9. Study of the degradation process of polyimide induced by high energetic ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severin, Daniel

    2008-09-19

    The dissertation focuses on the radiation hardness of Kapton under extreme radiation environment conditions. To study ion-beam induced modifications, Kapton foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (e.g. Ti, Mo, Au, and U) within a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10}-5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). The irradiated Kapton foils were analysed by means of infrared and UV/Vis spectroscopy, tensile strength measurement, mass loss analysis, and dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For testing the radiation stability of Kapton at the cryogenic operation temperature (5-10 K) of the superconducting magnets, additional irradiation experiments were performed at the Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL, France) focusing on the online analysis of the outgassing process of small volatile degradation fragments. The investigations of the electrical properties analysed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy exhibit a different trend: high fluence irradiations with light ions (e.g. Ti) lead to a slight increase of the conductivity, whereas heavy ions (e.g. Sm, Au) cause a drastic change already in the fluence regime of nonoverlapping tracks (5 x 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}). Online analysis of the outgassing process during irradiation at cryogenic temperatures shows the release of a variety of small gaseous molecules (e.g. CO, CO{sub 2}, and short hydro carbons). Also a small amount of large polymer fragments is identified. The results allow the following conclusions which are of special interest for the application of Kapton as insulating material in a high-energetic particle radiation environment. a) The material degradation measured with the optical spectroscopy and tensile strength tests are scalable with the dose deposited by the ions. The high correlation of the results allows the prediction of the mechanical degradation with the simple and non-destructive infrared spectroscopy. The degradation curve points to a

  10. Investigation of the imaging properties of inorganic scintillation screens using high energetic ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberwirth, Alice [TU Darmstadt (Germany); JWG Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Forck, Peter; Sieber, Thomas [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Ensinger, Wolfgang; Lederer, Stephan [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Kester, Oliver [JWG Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic scintillation screens are a common diagnostics tool in heavy ion accelerators. In order to investigate the imaging properties of various screen materials, four different material compositions were irradiated at GSI, using protons up to Uranium ions as projectiles. Beams were extracted from SIS18 with high energy (300 MeV/u) in slow and fast extraction mode. During irradiation the scintillation response of the screens was simultaneously recorded by two different optical setups to investigate light output, profile characteristics and emission spectra. It was observed, that fast extracted beams induce in general lower light output than slow extracted beams, while the light output per deposited energy decreases with atomic number. The analysis of the spectral emission as well as investigations with classical optical methods showed no significant defect-building in all materials, not even under irradiation with increasing beam intensity or over long time periods. The investigated scintillation screens can be considered as stable under irradiation with high energetic heavy ion pulses and are appropriate for beam diagnostics applications in future accelerator facilities like FAIR. Characteristic properties and application areas of the screens are presented in the poster.

  11. High temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Role of Defects in Detonation Sensitivity of Energetic Materials: Development of Techniques for Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    materials. The initial work was focused on design and construction of an apparatus for injecting defects into the crystals using PZT ceramics ...in the energy partitioning (Table 2), which offers some insight into the nature of the energetic texture of crystalline materials not apparent in

  13. Large-Scale Reactive Atomistic Simulation of Shock-induced Initiation Processes in Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aidan

    2013-06-01

    Initiation in energetic materials is fundamentally dependent on the interaction between a host of complex chemical and mechanical processes, occurring on scales ranging from intramolecular vibrations through molecular crystal plasticity up to hydrodynamic phenomena at the mesoscale. A variety of methods (e.g. quantum electronic structure methods (QM), non-reactive classical molecular dynamics (MD), mesoscopic continuum mechanics) exist to study processes occurring on each of these scales in isolation, but cannot describe how these processes interact with each other. In contrast, the ReaxFF reactive force field, implemented in the LAMMPS parallel MD code, allows us to routinely perform multimillion-atom reactive MD simulations of shock-induced initiation in a variety of energetic materials. This is done either by explicitly driving a shock-wave through the structure (NEMD) or by imposing thermodynamic constraints on the collective dynamics of the simulation cell e.g. using the Multiscale Shock Technique (MSST). These MD simulations allow us to directly observe how energy is transferred from the shockwave into other processes, including intramolecular vibrational modes, plastic deformation of the crystal, and hydrodynamic jetting at interfaces. These processes in turn cause thermal excitation of chemical bonds leading to initial chemical reactions, and ultimately to exothermic formation of product species. Results will be presented on the application of this approach to several important energetic materials, including pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). In both cases, we validate the ReaxFF parameterizations against QM and experimental data. For PETN, we observe initiation occurring via different chemical pathways, depending on the shock direction. For PETN containing spherical voids, we observe enhanced sensitivity due to jetting, void collapse, and hotspot formation, with sensitivity increasing with void size. For ANFO, we

  14. Ignition and Reaction Analysis of High Loading Nano-Al/Fluoropolymer Energetic Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid binder system for extrudable composite propellant,” International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion, Vol. 11...Vol. 27, No. 5, 2002, pp. 262-266. 6 Wang, Y., Travas-Sejdic, J., Steiner, R., “Polymer gel electrolyte supported with microporous polyolefin

  15. Computational Study on Substituted s-Triazine Derivatives as Energetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas D. Ghule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available s-Triazine is the essential candidate of many energetic compounds due to its high nitrogen content, enthalpy of formation and thermal stability. The present study explores s-triazine derivatives in which different -NO2, -NH2 and -N3 substituted azoles are attached to the triazine ring via C-N linkage. The density functional theory is used to predict geometries, heats of formation and other energetic properties. Among the designed compounds, -N3 derivatives show very high heats of formation. The densities for designed compounds were predicted by using the crystal packing calculations. Introduction of -NO2 group improves density as compared to -NH2 and -N3, their order of increasing density can be given as NO2>N3>NH2. Analysis of the bond dissociation energies for C-NO2, C-NH2 and C-N3 bonds indicates that substitutions of the -N3 and -NH2 group are favorable for enhancing the thermal stability of s-triazine derivatives. The nitro and azido derivatives of triazine are found to be promising candidates for the synthetic studies.

  16. Source Characterization Model (SCM): A Predictive Capability for the Source Terms of Residual Energetic Materials from Burning and/or Detonation Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Robert C; Kolb, Charles E; Conant, John A; Zhang, John; Dussault, David M; Rush, Tamera L; Conway, Brooke E; Morris, James W; Touma, Joe

    2004-01-01

    .... Detonation of energetic materials produces a wide range of air and surface pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, acid gases, and particulate matter...

  17. Building energetic material from novel salix leaf-like CuO and nano-Al through electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yan Jun; Li, Xueming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an energetic material was prepared by depositing nano-Al on CuO arrays via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), which offers a feasible route for nano-Al integration. The morphology and structure of the CuO arrays and Al/CuO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The CuO arrays were homogenously salix leaf-like structure with a width of ⁓150 to 200 nm. The energy density of Al/CuO composites was approximate to 1454.5 J/g by integrating the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) plot and the combustion performance was recorded by a high-speed camera. Moreover, the combustion flames were violent and the whole reaction process only lasted 72.2 ms, indicating that the energy of the Al/CuO nanothermite can be released effectively.

  18. Some new high energy materials and their formulations for specialized applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Jai Prakash [Directorate of Materials, DRDO HQrs, ' B' Wing, Sena Bhavan, New Delhi - 110 011 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Energetic materials form an integral part of most weapon systems and a large number of new high-energy materials: thermally stable explosives, high-performance explosives, melt-castable explosives, insensitive high explosives and energetic binders have been reported in the literature in recent years. Some explosive formulations based on these new energetic materials are also vaguely reported. This paper examines these materials and their formulations from the point of view of stability, reliability, safety and specific applications. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Search for New Highly Energetic Phases under Compression and Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Micromechanical Modeling of Martensitic Phase Transformations (keynote lecture). International Symposium on Plasticity󈧍, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin ...Unprecedented Materials Properties, Mechanisms, and Phenomena. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, April, 16, 2012 (invited lecture

  20. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  1. Low-energetic hadron interactions in a highly granular calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feege, Nils

    2011-12-01

    experiment where a re-calibration after installation is not feasible on short time scales. In addition, procedures to identify dead, noisy, and unstable cells in the AHCAL, which affect the detector performance especially at low particle energies, are introduced. The analysis of low-energetic electron data (1 GeV to 20 GeV) presented in this thesis aims at evaluating the AHCAL performance, checking the detector calibration, and validating the understanding of both the detector and the simulations in this energy range. Detailed comparisons between pion data at low energies (2 GeV to 30 GeV) and different models implemented in the Geant4 simulation toolkit are presented as well. This analysis allows for validating the simulations and studying the features of individual models and gives indications for possible refinements of the simulation of hadron cascades. The energy range covered by this analysis is particularly important because it includes the validity limits of several of the investigated models. The imaging capabilities of the AHCAL are exploited to extend the range of comparisons from the overall detector response to topological cascade features. (orig.)

  2. Low-energetic hadron interactions in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feege, Nils

    2011-12-15

    collider experiment where a re-calibration after installation is not feasible on short time scales. In addition, procedures to identify dead, noisy, and unstable cells in the AHCAL, which affect the detector performance especially at low particle energies, are introduced. The analysis of low-energetic electron data (1 GeV to 20 GeV) presented in this thesis aims at evaluating the AHCAL performance, checking the detector calibration, and validating the understanding of both the detector and the simulations in this energy range. Detailed comparisons between pion data at low energies (2 GeV to 30 GeV) and different models implemented in the Geant4 simulation toolkit are presented as well. This analysis allows for validating the simulations and studying the features of individual models and gives indications for possible refinements of the simulation of hadron cascades. The energy range covered by this analysis is particularly important because it includes the validity limits of several of the investigated models. The imaging capabilities of the AHCAL are exploited to extend the range of comparisons from the overall detector response to topological cascade features. (orig.)

  3. High temperature materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A lab facility for measuring elastic moduli up to 1700 C was constructed and delivered. It was shown that the ultrasonic method can be used to determine elastic constants of materials from room temperature to their melting points. The ease in coupling high frequency acoustic energy is still a difficult task. Even now, new coupling materials and higher power ultrasonic pulsers are being suggested. The surface was only scratched in terms of showing the full capabilities of either technique used, especially since there is such a large learning curve in developing proper methodologies to take measurements into the high temperature region. The laser acoustic system does not seem to have sufficient precision at this time to replace the normal buffer rod methodology.

  4. Advanced carbon-based material C60 modification using partially ionized cluster and energetic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yuancheng; Ren Zhongmin; Ning Zhifeng; Xu Ning; Li Fuming

    1997-01-01

    Two processes have been undertaken using Partially ionized cluster deposition (PICBD) and energetic ion bombardment beams deposition (IBD) respectively. C 60 films deposited by PICBD at V=0 and 65 V, which result in highly textured close-packed structure in orientation (110) and being more polycrystalline respectively, the resistance of C 60 films to oxygen diffusion contamination will be improved. In the case of PICBD, the ionized C 60 soccer-balls molecules in the evaporation beams will be fragmented in collision with the substrate under the elevated accelerating fields Va. As a new synthetic IBD processing, two low energy (400 and 1000 eV) nitrogen ion beams have been used to bombard C 60 films to synthesize the carbon nitride films

  5. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  6. Stability of quasi-steady deflagrations in confined porous energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander M. Telengator; Stephen B. Margolis; Forman A. Williams

    2000-03-01

    Previous analyses have shown that unconfined deflagrations propagating through both porous and nonporous energetic materials can exhibit a thermal/diffusive instability that corresponds to the onset of various oscillatory modes of combustion. For porous materials, two-phase-flow effects, associated with the motion of the gas products relative to the condensed material, play a significant role that can shift stability boundaries with respect to those associated with the nonporous problem. In the present work, additional significant effects are shown to be associated with confinement, which produces an overpressure in the burned-gas region that leads to reversal of the gas flow and hence partial permeation of the hot gases into the unburned porous material. This results in a superadiabatic effect that increases the combustion temperature and, consequently, the burning rate. Under the assumption of gas-phase quasi-steadiness, an asymptotic model is presented that facilitates a perturbation analysis of both the basic solution, corresponding to a steadily propagating planar combustion wave, and its stability. The neutral stability boundaries collapse to the previous results in the absence of confinement, but different trends arising from the presence of the gas-permeation layer are predicted for the confined problem. Whereas two-phase-flow effects are generally destabilizing in the unconfined geometry, the effects of increasing overpressure and hence combustion temperature associated with confinement are shown to be generally stabilizing with respect to thermal/diffusive instability, analogous to the effects of decreasing heat losses on combustion temperature and stability in single-phase deflagrations.

  7. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  8. Data on trapping and re-emission of energetic hydrogen isotopes and helium in materials, supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Sadae; Sugizaki, Yasuaki; Ozawa, Kunio; Nakai, Yohta.

    1984-05-01

    This is the supplement to the data on trapping and re-emission of energetic hydrogen isotopes and helium in materials (JAERI-M 82-118). It contains 32 data up to end of 1982, dividing it into following 6 sections: 1) Dose Dependence, 2) Target Material Dependence, 3) Target Temperature Dependence, 4) Incident Energy Dependence, 5) Damage Effects and 6) Ion-Induced Release. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional Mesoscale Simulations of Detonation Initiation in Energetic Materials with Density-based Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas; Jost, A. M.; Zhang, Ju; Sridharan, P.; Amadio, G.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we present three-dimensional mesoscale simulations of detonation initiation in energetic materials. We solve the reactive Euler equations, with the energy equation augmented by a power deposition term. The reaction rate at the mesoscale is modelled using a density-based kinetics scheme, adapted from standard Ignition and Growth models. The deposition term is based on previous results of simulations of pore collapse at the microscale, modelled at the mesoscale as hot-spots. We carry out three-dimensional mesoscale simulations of random packs of HMX crystals in a binder, and show that the transition between no-detonation and detonation depends on the number density of the hot-spots, the initial radius of the hot-spot, the post-shock pressure of an imposed shock, and the amplitude of the power deposition term. The trends of transition at lower pressure of the imposed shock for larger number density of pore observed in experiments is reproduced. Initial attempts to improve the agreement between the simulation and experiments through calibration of various parameters will also be made.

  10. Disposal of energetic materials by alkaline pressure hydrolysis and combined techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunte, G.; Krause, H.H.; Hirth, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    Due to the reduction of armament and especially due to the German reunification we are met by objective of the diposal of energetic materials. Environmentally friendly disposal methods available for the different propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics are urgently needed. The main component of gun and rocket propellants is the energetic polymer nitrocellulose. One method to dispose nitrocellulose containing propellants is the combination of rapid chemical destruction by pressure hydrolysis and the biological degradation of the reaction mixture. The study describes the results of pressure hydrolysis of different gun and rocket propellants. Under alkaline conditions (propellant to NaOH ratio 2.3:1; reaction temperature 150 C; pressure below 30 bar) biological degradable reaction products were formed. The main products in the liquid phase were simple mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Dependent on the reaction conditions 30-50% of the nitrogen content of the propellants was transformed to nitrite and nitrate. The gaseous nitrogen containing products were N{sub 2} (16-46%), N{sub 2}O (2-23%), NO{sub x} (0-5%). Overall 40%-60% of the propellant nitrogen was transformed to gaseous products. In the solid residues a nitrogen content between 2% and 9% was found. The residues were mostly due to additives used in propellant manufacturing. In the case of nitrocellulose pressure hydrolysis below 30 bar and reaction temperature about 150 C are sufficient. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nicht zuletzt aufgrund der in den letzten Jahren erfolgten Abruestungsmassnahmen sowie auch der Wiedervereinigung beider deutscher Staaten ergab sich die Problematik der Entsorgung von energetischen Materialien. Alternativ zur Verbrennung besteht Bedarf an der Entwicklung von Entsorgungsverfahren, die eine umweltfreundliche Entsorgung von Treibladungspulvern, Raketenfesttreibstoffen oder pyrotechnischen Komponenten ermoeglichen. Eine interessante Methode zur Beseitigung von auf Nitrocellulose basierenden

  11. Molecular Theory of Detonation Initiation: Insight from First Principles Modeling of the Decomposition Mechanisms of Organic Nitro Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyshevsky, Roman V; Sharia, Onise; Kuklja, Maija M

    2016-02-19

    This review presents a concept, which assumes that thermal decomposition processes play a major role in defining the sensitivity of organic energetic materials to detonation initiation. As a science and engineering community we are still far away from having a comprehensive molecular detonation initiation theory in a widely agreed upon form. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical methods allow for a constructive and rigorous approach to design and test the theory or at least some of its fundamental building blocks. In this review, we analyzed a set of select experimental and theoretical articles, which were augmented by our own first principles modeling and simulations, to reveal new trends in energetic materials and to refine known existing correlations between their structures, properties, and functions. Our consideration is intentionally limited to the processes of thermally stimulated chemical reactions at the earliest stage of decomposition of molecules and materials containing defects.

  12. Molecular Theory of Detonation Initiation: Insight from First Principles Modeling of the Decomposition Mechanisms of Organic Nitro Energetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Tsyshevsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a concept, which assumes that thermal decomposition processes play a major role in defining the sensitivity of organic energetic materials to detonation initiation. As a science and engineering community we are still far away from having a comprehensive molecular detonation initiation theory in a widely agreed upon form. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical methods allow for a constructive and rigorous approach to design and test the theory or at least some of its fundamental building blocks. In this review, we analyzed a set of select experimental and theoretical articles, which were augmented by our own first principles modeling and simulations, to reveal new trends in energetic materials and to refine known existing correlations between their structures, properties, and functions. Our consideration is intentionally limited to the processes of thermally stimulated chemical reactions at the earliest stage of decomposition of molecules and materials containing defects.

  13. The role of energetic ions from plasma in the creation of nanostructured materials and stable polymer surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilek, M.M.M.; Newton-McGee, K.; McKenzie, D.R.; McCulloch, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processes for the synthesis of new materials as thin films have enabled the production of a wide variety of new materials. These include meta-stable phases, which are not readily found in nature, and more recently, materials with structure on the nanoscale. Study of plasma synthesis processes at the fundamental level has revealed that ion energy, depositing flux and growth surface temperature are the critical parameters affecting the microstructure and the properties of the thin film materials formed. In this paper, we focus on the role of ion flux and impact energy in the creation of thin films with nanoscale structure in the form of multilayers. We describe three synthesis strategies, based on the extraction of ions from plasma sources and involving modulation of ion flux and ion energy. The microstructure, intrinsic stress and physical properties of the multilayered samples synthesized are studied and related back to the conditions at the growth surface during deposition. When energetic ions of a non-condensing species are used, it is possible to place active groups on the surfaces of materials such as polymers. These active groups can then be used as bonding sites in subsequent chemical attachment of proteins or other macromolecules. If the energy of the non-condensing ions is increased to a few keV then modified layers buried under the surface can be produced. Here we describe a method by which the aging effect, which is often observed in plasma surface modifications on polymers, can be reduced and even eliminated using high energy ion bombardment

  14. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, E.P.; Strathman, M.D.; Reed, D.A.; Odom, R.W.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10 10 ), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 μm for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 μm) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 μm has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  15. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, E P [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Strathman, M D [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Reed, D A [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Odom, R W [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Morse, D H [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Pontau, A E [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10[sup 10]), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 [mu]m for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 [mu]m) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 [mu]m has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  16. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  17. A population of highly energetic transient events in the centres of active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankare, E.; Kotak, R.; Mattila, S.; Lundqvist, P.; Ward, M. J.; Fraser, M.; Lawrence, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Meikle, W. P. S.; Bruce, A.; Harmanen, J.; Hutton, S. J.; Inserra, C.; Kangas, T.; Pastorello, A.; Reynolds, T.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Smith, K. W.; Valenti, S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent all-sky surveys have led to the discovery of new types of transients. These include stars disrupted by the central supermassive black hole, and supernovae that are 10-100 times more energetic than typical ones. However, the nature of even more energetic transients that apparently occur in the innermost regions of their host galaxies is hotly debated1-3. Here we report the discovery of the most energetic of these to date: PS1-10adi, with a total radiated energy of 2.3 × 1052 erg. The slow evolution of its light curve and persistently narrow spectral lines over ˜ 3 yr are inconsistent with known types of recurring black hole variability. The observed properties imply powering by shock interaction between expanding material and large quantities of surrounding dense matter. Plausible sources of this expanding material are a star that has been tidally disrupted by the central black hole, or a supernova. Both could satisfy the energy budget. For the former, we would be forced to invoke a new and hitherto unseen variant of a tidally disrupted star, while a supernova origin relies principally on environmental effects resulting from its nuclear location. Remarkably, we also discover that PS1-10adi is not an isolated case. We therefore surmise that this new population of transients has previously been overlooked due to incorrect association with underlying central black hole activity.

  18. High frequency fishbone driven by passing energetic ions in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, L. M.; Fu, G. Y.; Shen, Wei

    2017-05-01

    High frequency fishbone instability driven by passing energetic ions was first reported in the Princeton beta experiment with tangential neutral-beam-injection (Heidbrink et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 835-8). It could play an important role for ITER-like burning plasmas, where α particles are mostly passing particles. In this work, a generalized energetic ion distribution function and finite drift orbit width effect are considered to improve the theoretical model for passing particle driving fishbone instability. For purely passing energetic ions with zero drift orbit width, the kinetic energy δ {{W}k} is derived analytically. The derived analytic expression is more accurate as compared to the result of previous work (Wang 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 5286-8). For a generalized energetic ion distribution function, the fishbone dispersion relation is derived and is solved numerically. Numerical results show that broad and off-axis beam density profiles can significantly increase the beam ion beta threshold {βc} for instability and decrease mode frequency.

  19. Evaluating the Bulk Lorentz Factors of Outflow Material: Lessons Learned from the Extremely Energetic Outburst GRB 160625B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Shuai; Liang, Yun-Feng; Jin, Zhi-Ping; He, Hao-Ning; Liao, Neng-Hui; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming, E-mail: liangyf@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2017-02-10

    GRB 160625B is an extremely bright outburst with well-monitored afterglow emission. The geometry-corrected energy is high, up to ∼5.2 × 10{sup 52} erg or even ∼8 × 10{sup 52} erg, rendering it the most energetic GRB prompt emission recorded so far. We analyzed the time-resolved spectra of the prompt emission and found that in some intervals there were likely thermal-radiation components and the high energy emission was characterized by significant cutoff. The bulk Lorentz factors of the outflow material are estimated accordingly. We found out that the Lorentz factors derived in the thermal-radiation model are consistent with the luminosity-Lorentz factor correlation found in other bursts, as well as in GRB 090902B for the time-resolved thermal-radiation components, while the spectral cutoff model yields much lower Lorentz factors that are in tension with the constraints set by the electron pair Compton scattering process. We then suggest that these spectral cutoffs are more likely related to the particle acceleration process and that one should be careful in estimating the Lorentz factors if the spectrum cuts at a rather low energy (e.g., ∼tens of MeV). The nature of the central engine has also been discussed, and a stellar-mass black hole is favored.

  20. Evidence against the energetic cost hypothesis for the short introns in highly expressed genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Deng-Ke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana, highly expressed genes have shorter introns than weakly expressed genes. A popular explanation for this is selection for transcription efficiency, which includes two sub-hypotheses: to minimize the energetic cost or to minimize the time cost. Results In an individual human, different organs may differ up to hundreds of times in cell number (for example, a liver versus a hypothalamus. Considered at the individual level, a gene specifically expressed in a large organ is actually transcribed tens or hundreds of times more than a gene with a similar expression level (a measure of mRNA abundance per cell specifically expressed in a small organ. According to the energetic cost hypothesis, the former should have shorter introns than the latter. However, in humans and mice we have not found significant differences in intron length between large-tissue/organ-specific genes and small-tissue/organ-specific genes with similar expression levels. Qualitative estimation shows that the deleterious effect (that is, the energetic burden of long introns in highly expressed genes is too negligible to be efficiently selected against in mammals. Conclusion The short introns in highly expressed genes should not be attributed to energy constraint. We evaluated evidence for the time cost hypothesis and other alternatives.

  1. Molecular and Material Approaches to Overcome Kinetic and Energetic Constraints in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Thomas [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-08-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a lot of interest as they proffer the possibility of extremely inexpensive and efficient solar energy conversion. The excellent performance of the most efficient DSSCs relies on two main features: 1) a high surface area nanoparticle semiconductor photoanode to allow for excellent light absorption with moderate extinction molecular dyes and 2) slow recombination rates from the photoanode to I3- allowing good charge collection. The I3-/I- couple, however, has some disadvantages, notably the redox potential limits the maximum open-circuit voltage, and the dye regeneration requires a large driving force which constrains the light harvesting ability. Thus, the design features that allow DSSCs to perform as well as they do also prevent further significant improvements in performance. As a consequence, the most efficient device configuration, and the maximum efficiency, has remained essentially unchanged over the last 16 years. Significant gains in performance are possible; however it will likely require a substantial paradigm shift. The general goal of this project is to understand the fundamental role of dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC, components (sensitizer, redox shuttle, and photoanode) involved in key processes in order to overcome the kinetic and energetic constraints of current generation DSSCs. For example, the key to achieving high energy conversion efficiency DSSCs is the realization of a redox shuttle which fulfills the dual requirements of 1) efficient dye regeneration with a minimal driving force and 2) efficient charge collection. In current generation DSSCs, however, only one or the other of these requirements is met. We are currently primarily interested in understanding the physical underpinnings of the regeneration and recombination reactions. Our approach is to systematically vary the components involved in reactions and interrogate them with a

  2. 1-Amine-1,2,3-triazolium salts with oxidizing anions: A new family of energetic materials with good performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2018-04-01

    A series of 1-amino-1,2,3-triazole (ATZ) based energetic nitrogen-rich salts are prepared by using acid-base neutralization reaction (1:1 M ratio), and fully characterized. Structures of the salts are recrystallized and determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which dominated by a strong hydrogen-bond influence with the densities ranging from 1.692 to 1.868 g cm-3. Thermal behaviors have characterized by using the DSC and TG-DTG technologies. The enthalpies of formation have calculated by using Gaussian 03. The detonation parameters of the salts are determined by using the K-J method, and most salts show promising detonation performances (D: 6699-8231 m s-1, P: 19.2-30.7 GPa), among which the salt of 1-amino-1,2,3-triazolium trinitrophloroglucinate has a detonation properties comparable to RDX. The sensitivities results provided the salts as insensitive energetic materials.

  3. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energetics of flattened carbon nonoshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, L.N.; Bursill, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    When examined under a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, carbon soot produced alongside buckytubes in an arc-discharge is found to contain a small percentage of flattened carbon shells. These objects are shown to be small graphite flakes which eliminated their dangling bonds by terminating their edges with highly curved junctions. Ideal models for these structures are presented, and their energy estimated. The calculations show that the establishment of highly curved junctions is energetically favourable for a graphite flake in an inert atmosphere. Flattened shells also appear more stable than their 'inflated' counterparts (fullerene 'onions' and buckytubes) when the shell dimensions obey specific criteria.(authors)

  4. Ab initio Defect Energetics in LaBO3 Perovskite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Kleis, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Perovskite materials of the form ABO3 are a promising family of compounds for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Study of the physics of these compounds under SOFC conditions with ab initio methods is particularly challenging due to high temperatures, exchange of oxygen with O2 gas...

  5. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Milroy, R. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Yang, X.; Garate, E. G.; Gota, H.; Korepanov, S.; Necas, A.; Roche, T.; Smirnov, A.; Trask, E.

    2015-04-01

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  6. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  7. Toxicity of Nitro-Heterocyclic and Nitroaromatic Energetic Materials to Folsomia candida in a Natural Sandy Loam Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    these tests. Acetone (CAS: 67-64-1; high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] grade) was used for preparing EM solutions during the soil amendments... chromatography grade, purity: 99.9%) was used in the HPLC determinations. Certified standards of the energetics (AccuStandard, Inc., New Haven, CT) were used...H.; Van Gestel, C.A.M. Handbook of Soil Invertebrate Toxicity Tests; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, 1998. McLellan, W.L.; Hartley, W.R.; Brower

  8. High Performance Macromolecular Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forest, M

    2002-01-01

    .... In essence, most commercial high-performance polymers are processed through fiber spinning, following Nature and spider silk, which is still pound-for-pound the toughest liquid crystalline polymer...

  9. High Energy Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Propellants used in rockets, pyrotechnics used in festivities, explosives used for .... In World War II, Wernher von Braun designed the. V-2 rockets which were ... A. Solid Propellants. A solid propellant is made from low or diluted high explosives.

  10. Computational and Experimental Study of Energetic Materials in a Counterflow Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki (Technical Monitor); Urban, David (Technical Monitor); Smooke, M. D.; Parr, T. P.; Hanson-Parr, D. M.; Yetter, R. A.; Risha, G.

    2004-01-01

    thermal wave penetration into the liquid, these experiments were found feasible, but not used for obtaining quantitative data. Microgravity experiments are needed to eliminate the dripping and boiling phenomena of these systems at normal gravity. Microgravity tests in the NASA Glenn 2.2 second drop tower were performed (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of performing propellant experiments using the NASA Glenn microgravity facilities, (2) to develop the operational procedures for safe handing of the energetic materials and disposal of their toxic combustion by-products and (3) to obtain initial measurements of the AP burning rate and flame structure under microgravity conditions. Experiments were conducted on the CH4/AP system previously studied at normal gravity using a modified design of the counterflow burner and a NASA Glenn Pig Rig, i.e., one of the existing drop rigs for general-purpose usage. In these experiments, the AP burning rate was measured directly with a linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) and video imaging of the flame structure was recorded ignition was achieved by hot wires stretched across the AP surfaces. Initial drop tower combustion data show that with the same burner separation distance and flow conditions of the normal gravity experiments, the AP burning rate is approximately a factor of two lower. This difference is likely a result of radiation effects, but further tests with longer test times need to be conducted to verify that steady state conditions were achieved under microgravity conditions.

  11. Interchannel interactions in high-energetic radiationless transitions of neon-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, S.; Zschornack, G.; Musiol, G.; Soff, G.

    1990-07-01

    Relativistic K-LL Auger transition rates in intermediate coupling including interchannel interactions are presented for nine ions in the neon-isoelectronic sequence up to uranium. For neutral neon a comparison with experimental data is given. We demonstrate for the first time, that intercontinuum interactions result in a remarkable redistribution of individual transition rates even in high-energetic transitions. For instance, channel mixing shifts the K-L 1 L 1 rate by about 4% and the K-L 3 L 3 (J = 0) rate by about 11% in neon-like uranium, while total Auger rates are almost not affected. (orig.)

  12. Ionization of water clusters by fast Highly Charged Ions: Stability, fragmentation, energetics and charge mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, S; Maisonny, R; Capron, M; Bernigaud, V; Cassimi, A; Gervais, B; Grandin, J-P; Huber, B A; Manil, B; Rousseau, P; Tarisien, M; Adoui, L; Lopez-Tarifa, P; AlcamI, M; MartIn, F; Politis, M-F; Penhoat, M A Herve du; Vuilleumier, R; Gaigeot, M-P; Tavernelli, I

    2009-01-01

    We study dissociative ionization of water clusters by impact of fast Ni ions. Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) is used to obtain information about stability, energetics and charge mobility of the ionized clusters. An unusual stability of the (H 2 O) 4 H ''+ ion is observed, which could be the signature of the so called ''Eigen'' structure in gas phase water clusters. High charge mobility, responsible for the formation of protonated water clusters that dominate the mass spectrum, is evidenced. These results are supported by CPMD and TDDFT simulations, which also reveal the mechanisms of such mobility.

  13. The production of Higgs bosons in high-energetic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, M.

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this diploma thesis was to produce the Higgs boson in high-energetic, peripheral heavy-ion collisions by purely electromagnetic processes. In order to take only peripheral collisions into consideration and to avoid the strong hadronic background of central collisions the equivalent-photon method for the case of the Higgs boson was extended concerning an impact-parameter study. By this it was possible to exclude the contribution of central collisions by cut in the impact parameter at b=2R, in order to determine thus the production rate for purely peripheral collisions. (orig./HSI) [de

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of interactions between energetic dust and plasma-facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Guo-jian; Li, Xiao-chun; Xu, Qian; Yang, Zhong-shi; Luo, Guang-nan

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between dust and plasma-facing material (PFM) relate to the lifetime of PFM and impurity production. Series results have been obtained theoretically and experimentally but more detailed studies are needed. In present research, we investigate the evolution of kinetic, potential and total energy of plasma-facing material (PFM) in order to understand the dust/PFM interaction process. Three typical impacting energy are selected, i.e., 1, 10 and 100 keV/dust for low-, high- and hyper-energy impacting cases. For low impacting energy, dust particles stick on PFM surface without damaging it. Two typical time points exist and the temperature of PFM grows all the time but PFM structure experience a modifying process. Under high energy case, three typical points appear. The temperature curve fluctuates in the whole interaction process which indicates there are dust/PFM and kinetic/potential energy exchanges. In the hyper-energy case in present simulation, the violence dust/PFM interactions cause sputtering and crater investigating on energy evolution curves. We further propose the statistics of energy distribution. Results show that about half of impacting energy consumes on heating plasma-facing material meanwhile the other half on PFM structure deformation. Only a small proportion becomes kinetic energy of interstitial or sputtering atoms.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of interactions between energetic dust and plasma-facing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Guo-jian, E-mail: niugj@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Li, Xiao-chun; Xu, Qian; Yang, Zhong-shi [Hefei Center Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Luo, Guang-nan [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Hefei Center Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of CAS, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    The interactions between dust and plasma-facing material (PFM) relate to the lifetime of PFM and impurity production. Series results have been obtained theoretically and experimentally but more detailed studies are needed. In present research, we investigate the evolution of kinetic, potential and total energy of plasma-facing material (PFM) in order to understand the dust/PFM interaction process. Three typical impacting energy are selected, i.e., 1, 10 and 100 keV/dust for low-, high- and hyper-energy impacting cases. For low impacting energy, dust particles stick on PFM surface without damaging it. Two typical time points exist and the temperature of PFM grows all the time but PFM structure experience a modifying process. Under high energy case, three typical points appear. The temperature curve fluctuates in the whole interaction process which indicates there are dust/PFM and kinetic/potential energy exchanges. In the hyper-energy case in present simulation, the violence dust/PFM interactions cause sputtering and crater investigating on energy evolution curves. We further propose the statistics of energy distribution. Results show that about half of impacting energy consumes on heating plasma-facing material meanwhile the other half on PFM structure deformation. Only a small proportion becomes kinetic energy of interstitial or sputtering atoms.

  16. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  17. High power laser research and development at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soures, J.M.; McCrory, R.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    As part of its research mission - to investigate the interaction of intense radiation with matter - the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of Rochester is developing a number of high-peak power and high-average-power laser systems. In this paper we highlight some of the LLE work on solid-state laser research, development and applications. Specifically, we discuss the performance and operating characteristics of Omega, a twenty-four beam, 4000 Joule, Nd:glass laser system which is frequently tripled using the polarization mismatch scheme. We also discuss progress in efforts to develop high-average-power solid-state laser systems with active-mirror and slab geometries and to implement liquid-crystal devices in high-power Nd:glass lasers. Finally we present results from a program to develop a compact, ultrahigh-peak-power solid-state laser using the concept of frequency chirped pulse amplification

  18. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Shock-Induced Reactions in Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kohl, Ian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knepper, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farrow, Darcie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this work, shock-induced reactions in high explosives and their chemical mechanisms were investigated using state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical techniques. Experimentally, ultrafast shock interrogation (USI, an ultrafast interferometry technique) and ultrafast absorption spectroscopy were used to interrogate shock compression and initiation of reaction on the picosecond timescale. The experiments yielded important new data that appear to indicate reaction of high explosives on the timescale of tens of picoseconds in response to shock compression, potentially setting new upper limits on the timescale of reaction. Theoretically, chemical mechanisms of shock-induced reactions were investigated using density functional theory. The calculations generated important insights regarding the ability of several hypothesized mechanisms to account for shock-induced reactions in explosive materials. The results of this work constitute significant advances in our understanding of the fundamental chemical reaction mechanisms that control explosive sensitivity and initiation of detonation.

  19. New highly efficient piezoceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantsiger, A.Ya.; Razumovskaya, O.N.; Reznichenko, L.A.; Grineva, L.D.; Devlikanova, R.U.; Dudkina, S.I.; Gavrilyachenko, S.V.; Dergunova, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    New high efficient piezoceramic materials with various combination of parameters inclusing high Curie point for high-temperature transducers using in atomic power engineering are worked. They can be used in systems for heated matters nondestructive testing, controllers for varied industrial power plants and other high-temperature equipment

  20. Energetic M1 transitions as a probe of nuclear collectivity at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1987-01-01

    At ORNL, we have recently utilized the Spin Spectrometer setup to investigate the differential effects of increasing spin and excitation energy on nuclear shape and collectivity in 158 Yb. Along the yrast line of this and other N = 88 nuclei, weakly prolate shapes gradually give way to triaxial, and then finally to non-collective oblate shapes as the spin approaches 40 h-bar. However, above the yrast line, large deformation and collectivity once again sets in. This is evidenced by the emergence of a broad quadrupole structure (E/sub γ/ ≅ 1.2 MeV) in the continuum gamma-ray spectra that grows with increasing temperature. The short (sub ps) lifetimes of these transitions attest to the collective nature of these structures. The emergence and growth of the quadrupole structure at high excitation energies is closely correlated with the appearance of energetic (E/sub γ/ ≅ 2.5 MeV), fast M1 transitions which form another broad structure in the continuum spectra. From the centroid of the M1 bump, a quadrupole deformation parameter of 0.35 is inferred. Because of this sensitivity, these energetic M1 transitions provide a unique probe of nuclear shape in the excitation energy range of ≅ 3 to 10 MeV. 6 refs., 2 figs

  1. Energetic evaluation of high pressure PEM electrolyzer systems for intermediate storage of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensmann, B.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, R.; Peña Arias, I.K.; Sundmacher, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three pathways for high pressure hydrogen production by means of water electrolysis are energetically compared. Besides the two classic paths, comprising either the pressurization of the product gas (path I) or the mechanical pressurization of the feed water (path II), a third path is discussed. It involves the electrochemical co-compression during the electrolysis. The energetic evaluation is based on a uniform model description of the different hydrogen production pathways. It consists of integral, steady-state balances for energy, entropy and mass as well as a modern equation of state. From this the reversible energy demand is used to identify the inherent thermodynamic drawbacks of the pathways. The additional consideration of irreversibilities allows for the determination of efficiency losses due to device specific characteristics. For hydrogen delivery pressures of up to 40 bar the classical pathways are out-performed by path III. Since the hydrogen is already produced at elevated pressure this eliminates the need for an energy consuming mechanical hydrogen compression and spares the additional energy demand due to the oxygen pressurization. However, with increasing pressure differences the hydrogen back-diffusion strongly decreases the Faradaic efficiency of the asymmetric electrolyzer that has to be compensated by an additional energy supply

  2. Intense energetic electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high-resolution observations from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N; Dewey, Ryan M; Lawrence, David J; Goldsten, John O; Peplowski, Patrick N; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Anderson, Brian J; Ho, George C; McNutt, Ralph L; Raines, Jim M; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C

    2016-03-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer, as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X-Ray Spectrometer and Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work greatly extends our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near-tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently "injected" onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary nightside. The electrons populate the plasma sheet and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and prenoon sectors, at times executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form "quasi-trapped" populations.

  3. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  4. Initial mechanisms for the decomposition of electronically excited energetic materials: 1,5′-BT, 5,5′-BT, and AzTT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Bing; Yu, Zijun; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of nitrogen-rich energetic materials 1,5′-BT, 5,5′-BT, and AzTT (1,5′-Bistetrazole, 5,5′-Bistetrazole, and 5-(5-azido-(1 or 4)H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)tetrazole, respectively), following electronic state excitation, is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The N 2 molecule is observed as an initial decomposition product from the three materials, subsequent to UV excitation, with a cold rotational temperature (<30 K). Initial decomposition mechanisms for these three electronically excited materials are explored at the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) level. Potential energy surface calculations at the CASSCF(12,8)/6-31G(d) level illustrate that conical intersections play an essential role in the decomposition mechanism. Electronically excited S 1 molecules can non-adiabatically relax to their ground electronic states through (S 1 /S 0 ) CI conical intersections. 1,5′-BT and 5,5′-BT materials have several (S 1 /S 0 ) CI conical intersections between S 1 and S 0 states, related to different tetrazole ring opening positions, all of which lead to N 2 product formation. The N 2 product for AzTT is formed primarily by N–N bond rupture of the –N 3 group. The observed rotational energy distributions for the N 2 products are consistent with the final structures of the respective transition states for each molecule on its S 0 potential energy surface. The theoretically derived vibrational temperature of the N 2 product is high, which is similar to that found for energetic salts and molecules studied previously

  5. Energetic high-voltage breakdowns in vacuum over a large gap for ITER neutral beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villecroze, F., E-mail: Frederic.villecroze@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Christin, L.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Simonin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Schunke, B.; Svensson, L.; Hemsworth, R.; Boilson, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We performed energetic high voltage breakdowns up to 370 kV with a stored energy of 1 kJ. ► No breakdowns at 200 kV could be produced over a gap of 85 mm using 100 cm{sup 2} copper electrodes. ► Electrodes damage was visible after the experiment. ► The number of arcs impacts is orders of magnitude above the number of breakdowns. -- Abstract: CEA has undertaken tests to study the resilience of copper electrodes in vacuum against energetic high-voltage breakdowns using external capacitors to provide the energy. Earlier tests succeeded in dissipating a maximum of 150 J in a 30 mm gap, limited by the equivalent series resistance (ESR) in the external capacitors. Using new ones with an ESR that is a factor of 10 lower it was unsuccessfully tried to produce breakdowns at 200 kV over the 85 mm gap, despite the use of a UV flash lamp and a “field enhancement ring” (FER) that locally increased the electric field on the cathode by 50%. Consequently, the breakdowns had to be produced by raising the voltage to 300–350 kV while maintaining the gap at 85 mm. During these tests, single breakdowns dissipated up to 1140 J in the 85 mm vacuum gap. Inspection of the electrodes revealed that substantial amounts of copper appear have been evaporated from the anode and deposited on to the cathode. Also electrode deconditioning occurred.

  6. Spectrophotometric and chromatographic determination of insensitive energetic materials: HNS and NTO, in the presence of sensitive nitro-explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ziya; Uzer, Ayşem; Tekdemir, Yasemin; Erçağ, Erol; Türker, Lemi; Apak, Reşat

    2012-02-15

    As there are no molecular spectroscopic determination methods for the most widely used insensitive energetic materials, 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexanitrostilbene (HNS) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one (NTO), in the presence of sensitive nitro-explosives, two novel spectrophotometric methods were developed. For HNS and TNT mixtures, both analytes react with dicyclohexylamine (DCHA) forming different colored charge-transfer complexes, which can be resolved by derivative spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric method for NTO measures the 416-nm absorbance of its yellow-colored Na(+)NTO(-) salt formed with NaOH. TNT, if present, is pre-extracted into IBMK as its Meisenheimer anion forming an ion-pair with the cationic surfactant cetyl pyridinium (CP(+)) in alkaline medium, whereas the unextracted NTO is determined in the aqueous phase. The molar absorptivity (ε, L mol(-1)cm(-1)) and limit of quantification (LOQ, mg L(-1)) are as follows: for HNS, ε=2.75 × 10(4) and LOQ=0.48 (in admixture with TNT); for NTO, ε=6.83 × 10(3) and LOQ=0.73. These methods were not affected from nitramines and nitrate esters in synthetic mixtures or composite explosives. The developed methods were statistically validated against HPLC, and the existing chromatographic method was modified so as to enable NTO determination in the presence of TNT. These simple, low-cost, and versatile methods can be used in criminology, remediation/monitoring of contaminated sites, and kinetic stability modeling of munitions containing desensitized energetic materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High concentrations of H2O2 make aerobic glycolysis energetically more favourable than cellular respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over eight decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2 above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP in response to the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources. This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  8. Conditioning ad energetic utilization of wooden materials for landscape conservation; Aufbereitung und Energetische Nutzung von holzigem Landschaftspflegematerial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letalik, Christian [C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany). Abt. Festbrennstoffe

    2013-10-01

    It has become common practice to energetically recover ligneous materials from landscape conservation activities in heat (and power) generation plants. The treatment of green cuttings along roads, railways or power supply lines is state of the art. Such landscaping materials are ligneous green residues e.g. from tree lopping in orchard meadows or shrub hedges - there are about 45,000 kilometers of hedgerows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, alone. Shredder machines disintegrate the materials into any required size. By means of adjustable perforated baskets on the disintegrating engine and subsequent sieving steps, homogenous fuels of defined dimensions and low shares of fines can be provided, whichever required. Depending on the water content, such wood chips contain about 20% less energy (calorific value) than comparable forest wood chips. It is important, however, that mineral fine particles like sand, soil or small stones are being sieved out before the combustion because they do not only decrease the calorific value and hence the boiler performance but also cause problems in the combustion areas resulting in higher costs for maintenance, cleaning and ash utilization. Composting plants are regularly well-equipped. They use well-proven management concepts for the material flow to merely condition as much landscape cuttings into fuels, enable the aerobe composting process with less ligneous and more humid materials to continue. For both compost and wood fuels there is sufficient demand resulting in increasing revenues. The EEG amendment 2012 classifies landscape conservation materials as raw materials of remuneration class II (= 8 ct/kWhel on top of the basic remuneration). This is likely to further increment the demand for ligneous fuel from landscape conservation. According to the EEG 2012 there will no longer be power plants without reasonable heat concepts. (orig.)

  9. Papers of 6. Scientific-Technical Seminar Material Study for Electric Power Stations and Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power station. The normalization problems in power station and gas pipelines according to the prescription of UE are also discussed. (author)

  10. Surface characterization of an energetic material, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), having a thin coating achieved through a starved addition microencapsulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, C.M.

    1986-05-07

    The objective of this research was to: (1) determine the nature of a thin coating on an explosive material which was applied using a starved addition microencapsulation technique, (2) understand the coating/crystal bond, and (3) investigate the wettability/adhesion of plastic/solvent combinations using the coating process. The coating used in this work was a Firestone Plastic Company copolymer (FPC-461) of vinylchloride/trifluorochloroethylene in a 1.5/1.0 weight ratio. The energetic explosive examined was pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN). The coating process used was starved addition followed by a solvent evaporation technique. Surface analytical studies, completed for characterization of the coating process, show (1) evidence that the polymer coating is present, but not continuous, over the surface of PETN; (2) the average thickness of the polymer coating is between 16-32 A and greater than 44 A, respectively, for 0.5 and 20 wt % coated PETN; (3) no changes in surface chemistry of the polymer or the explosive material following microencapsulation; and (4) the presence of explosive material on the surface of 0.5 wt % FPC-461 coated explosives. 5 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  12. Ignition criterion for heterogeneous energetic materials based on hotspot size-temperature threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, A.; Kim, S.; Horie, Y.; Zhou, M.

    2013-02-01

    A criterion for the ignition of granular explosives (GXs) and polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) under shock and non-shock loading is developed. The formulation is based on integration of a quantification of the distributions of the sizes and locations of hotspots in loading events using a cohesive finite element method (CFEM) developed recently and the characterization by Tarver et al. [C. M. Tarver et al., "Critical conditions for impact- and shock-induced hot spots in solid explosives," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 5794-5799 (1996)] of the critical size-temperature threshold of hotspots required for chemical ignition of solid explosives. The criterion, along with the CFEM capability to quantify the thermal-mechanical behavior of GXs and PBXs, allows the critical impact velocity for ignition, time to ignition, and critical input energy at ignition to be determined as functions of material composition, microstructure, and loading conditions. The applicability of the relation between the critical input energy (E) and impact velocity of James [H. R. James, "An extension to the critical energy criterion used to predict shock initiation thresholds," Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 21, 8-13 (1996)] for shock loading is examined, leading to a modified interpretation, which is sensitive to microstructure and loading condition. As an application, numerical studies are undertaken to evaluate the ignition threshold of granular high melting point eXplosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,2,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX) and HMX/Estane PBX under loading with impact velocities up to 350 ms-1 and strain rates up to 105 s-1. Results show that, for the GX, the time to criticality (tc) is strongly influenced by initial porosity, but is insensitive to grain size. Analyses also lead to a quantification of the differences between the responses of the GXs and PBXs in terms of critical impact velocity for ignition, time to ignition, and critical input energy at ignition. Since the framework permits

  13. Modification of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses: What is energetically and mechanically meaningful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M., E-mail: nadezhda.bulgakova@hilase.cz [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zhukov, Vladimir P. [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, 6 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marx Ave., 630073, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sonina, Svetlana V. [Novosibirsk State University, 1 Koptuga Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Meshcheryakov, Yuri P. [Design and Technology Branch of Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Tereshkovoi street 29, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-21

    A comprehensive analysis of laser-induced modification of bulk glass by single ultrashort laser pulses is presented which is based on combination of optical Maxwell-based modeling with thermoelastoplastic simulations of post-irradiation behavior of matter. A controversial question on free electron density generated inside bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses in modification regimes is addressed on energy balance grounds. Spatiotemporal dynamics of laser beam propagation in fused silica have been elucidated for the regimes used for direct laser writing in bulk glass. 3D thermoelastoplastic modeling of material relocation dynamics under laser-induced stresses has been performed up to the microsecond timescale when all motions in the material decay. The final modification structure is found to be imprinted into material matrix already at sub-nanosecond timescale. Modeling results agree well with available experimental data on laser light transmission through the sample and the final modification structure.

  14. Energetics Laboratory Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...

  15. Papers of 7. Scientific-Technical Seminar Material Study for Electric Power Stations and Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The report is the assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power station and gas pipelines. The normalization problems in the power station and in the gas pipelines according to the prescription of UE are also discussed. (author)

  16. 2016 Energetic Materials Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar Research Area 7: Chemical Sciences 7.0 Chemical Sciences (Dr. James K. Parker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Energetic Materials" 8:45 pm - 8:55 pm Discussion 8:55 pm - 9:20 pm Michael Zdilla (Temple University, USA) "Expedition to Breach the CHNO Ceiling by...Introduction by Discussion Leader 9:15 am - 9:45 am Ryan Austin (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) "Investigating the Crystal -Level

  17. Toward a Modular Ionic Liquid Platform for the Custom Design of Energetic Materials: Understanding How the Dual Nature of Ionic Liquids Relates Key Physical Properties to Target Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Separations to Advanced Materials to Pharmaceuticals: Energetic and API Examples from the Ionic Liquid Cookbook" Presented by R. D. Rogers, before the 2nd...3322 (s), 3219 (s), 3144 (s), 1687 (m), 1571 (s), 1516 (s), 1468 (m), 1435 (m), 1380 (s), 1277 (s), 1205 (s), 1139 (s), 1104 (w), 1043 (w), 1014 (s

  18. 1999 Summer Research Program for High School Juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-10-09

    oak-B202--During the summer of 1999, 12 students from Rochester-area high schools participated in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics' Summer High School Research Program. The goal of this program is to excite a group of high school students about careers in the areas of science and technology by exposing them to research in a state-of-the-art environment. Too often, students are exposed to ''research'' only through classroom laboratories that have prescribed procedures and predictable results. In LLE's summer program, the students experience all of the trials, tribulations, and rewards of scientific research. By participating in research in a real environment, the students often become more enthusiastic about careers in science and technology. In addition, LLE gains from the contributions of the many highly talented students who are attracted to the program. The students spent most of their time working on their individual research projects with members of LLE's technical staff. The projects were related to current research activities at LLE and covered a broad range of areas of interest including laser modeling, diagnostic development, chemistry, liquid crystal devices, and opacity data visualization. The students, their high schools, their LLE supervisors and their project titles are listed in the table. Their written reports are collected in this volume. The students attended weekly seminars on technical topics associated with LLE's research. Topics this year included lasers, fusion, holography, optical materials, global warming, measurement errors, and scientific ethics. The students also received safety training, learned how to give scientific presentations, and were introduced to LLE's resources, especially the computational facilities. The program culminated with the High School Student Summer Research Symposium on 25 August at which the students presented the results of their research to an audience that

  19. Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K. [and others

    1995-04-03

    The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

  20. ELM triggering by energetic particle driven mode in wall-stabilized high-β plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, G.; Aiba, N.; Shinohara, K.; Asakura, N.; Isayama, A.; Oyama, N.

    2013-01-01

    In the JT-60U high-β plasmas above the no-wall β limit, a triggering of an edge localized mode (ELM) by an energetic particle (EP)-driven mode has been observed. This EP-driven mode is thought to be driven by trapped EPs and it has been named EP-driven wall mode (EWM) on JT-60U (Matsunaga et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 045001). When the EWM appears in an ELMy H-mode phase, ELM crashes are reproducibly synchronized with the EWM bursts. The EWM-triggered ELM has a higher repetition frequency and less energy loss than those of the natural ELM. In order to trigger an ELM by the EP-driven mode, some conditions are thought to be needed, thus an EWM with large amplitude and growth rate, and marginal edge stability. In the scrape-off layer region, several measurements indicate an ion loss induced by the EWM. The ion transport is considered as the EP transport through the edge region. From these observations, the EP contributions to edge stability are discussed as one of the ELM triggering mechanisms. (paper)

  1. Using high-intensity laser-generated energetic protons to radiograph directly driven implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Stoeckl, C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nilson, P.; Sangster, T. C.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A.; Patel, P.

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of petawatt-class lasers with kilojoule-picosecond pulses, such as OMEGA EP [L. Waxer et al., Opt. Photonics News 16, 30 (2005), 10.1364/OPN.16.7.000030], provides a new diagnostic capability to study inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density (HED) plasmas. Specifically, petawatt OMEGA EP pulses have been used to backlight OMEGA implosions with energetic proton beams generated through the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. This allows time-resolved studies of the mass distribution and electromagnetic field structures in ICF and HED plasmas. This principle has been previously demonstrated using Vulcan to backlight six-beam implosions [A. J. Mackinnon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 045001 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.045001]. The TNSA proton backlighter offers better spatial and temporal resolution but poorer spatial uniformity and energy resolution than previous D3He fusion-based techniques [C. Li et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E725 (2006), 10.1063/1.2228252]. A target and the experimental design technique to mitigate potential problems in using TNSA backlighting to study full-energy implosions is discussed. The first proton radiographs of 60-beam spherical OMEGA implosions using the techniques discussed in this paper are presented. Sample radiographs and suggestions for troubleshooting failed radiography shots using TNSA backlighting are given, and future applications of this technique at OMEGA and the NIF are discussed.

  2. Using high-intensity laser-generated energetic protons to radiograph directly driven implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Stoeckl, C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Nilson, P.; Sangster, T. C.; Le Pape, S.; Mackinnon, A.; Patel, P.

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of petawatt-class lasers with kilojoule-picosecond pulses, such as OMEGA EP [L. Waxer et al., Opt. Photonics News 16, 30 (2005)], provides a new diagnostic capability to study inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density (HED) plasmas. Specifically, petawatt OMEGA EP pulses have been used to backlight OMEGA implosions with energetic proton beams generated through the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. This allows time-resolved studies of the mass distribution and electromagnetic field structures in ICF and HED plasmas. This principle has been previously demonstrated using Vulcan to backlight six-beam implosions [A. J. Mackinnon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 045001 (2006)]. The TNSA proton backlighter offers better spatial and temporal resolution but poorer spatial uniformity and energy resolution than previous D 3 He fusion-based techniques [C. Li et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 10E725 (2006)]. A target and the experimental design technique to mitigate potential problems in using TNSA backlighting to study full-energy implosions is discussed. The first proton radiographs of 60-beam spherical OMEGA implosions using the techniques discussed in this paper are presented. Sample radiographs and suggestions for troubleshooting failed radiography shots using TNSA backlighting are given, and future applications of this technique at OMEGA and the NIF are discussed.

  3. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10 5 ) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10 3 , similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.

  4. Long-wave, infrared laser-induced breakdown (LIBS) spectroscopy emissions from energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2012-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown great promise for applications in chemical, biological, and explosives sensing and has significant potential for real-time standoff detection and analysis. In this study, LIBS emissions were obtained in the mid-infrared (MIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions for potential applications in explosive material sensing. The IR spectroscopy region revealed vibrational and rotational signatures of functional groups in molecules and fragments thereof. The silicon-based detector for conventional ultraviolet-visible LIBS operations was replaced with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector for MIR-LWIR spectral detection. The IR spectral signature region between 4 and 12 μm was mined for the appearance of MIR and LWIR-LIBS emissions directly indicative of oxygenated breakdown products as well as dissociated, and/or recombined sample molecular fragments. Distinct LWIR-LIBS emission signatures from dissociated-recombination sample molecular fragments between 4 and 12 μm are observed for the first time.

  5. Surface damage of TFTR protective plate candidate materials by energetic D+ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the surface damage of ATJ graphite, V, Cu, and Type 316 stainless steel under 60-keV D + irradiation. The irradiations were conducted in the pulsed mode. For a total accumulated dose of 8.1 x 10 18 ions/cm 2 , blisters were readily seen for Cu surfaces, but no blisters were observed on Type 316 stainless steel and vanadium surfaces. For the case of ATJ graphite, the surface damage was observed in the form of ridges and grooves. In the case of copper, many large blisters with diameters ranging from 3.5 μm to 46 μm are observed in addition to some small ones (average diameter approx. 2 μm. The blister density of the large blisters is the highest in the case of copper (1.1 x 10 5 blisters/cm 2 ). These observations of blister formation are related to the differences in the premeability of deuterium in these materials. An examination of the cross section of the ridges in fractured samples of graphite indicates that they are not hollow. The mechanisms of formation of these ridges is not clear at present. 1 figure

  6. Solar cycle variations of the energetic H/He intensity ratio at high heliolatitudes and in the ecliptic plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lario

    Full Text Available We study the variability of the heliospheric energetic proton-to-helium abundance ratios during different phases of the solar cycle. We use energetic particle, solar wind, and magnetic field data from the Ulysses, ACE and IMP-8 spacecraft to compare the H/He intensity ratio at high heliographic latitudes and in the ecliptic plane. During the first out-of-ecliptic excursion of Ulysses (1992–1996, the HI-SCALE instrument measured corotating energetic particle intensity enhancements characterized by low values (< 10 of the 0.5–1.0 MeV nucleon-1 H/He intensity ratio. During the second out-of-ecliptic excursion of Ulysses (1999–2002, the more frequent occurrence of solar energetic particle events resulted in almost continuously high (< 20 values of the H/He ratio, even at the highest heliolatitudes reached by Ulysses. Comparison with in-ecliptic measurements from an identical instrument on the ACE spacecraft showed similar H/He values at ACE and Ulysses, suggesting a remarkable uniformity of energetic particle intensities in the solar maximum heliosphere at high heliolatitudes and in the ecliptic plane. In-ecliptic observations of the H/He intensity ratio from the IMP-8 spacecraft show variations between solar maximum and solar minimum similar to those observed by Ulysses at high heliographic latitudes. We suggest that the variation of the H/He intensity ratio throughout the solar cycle is due to the different level of transient solar activity, as well as the different structure and duration that corotating solar wind structures have under solar maximum and solar minimum conditions. During solar minimum, the interactions between the two different types of solar wind streams (slow vs. fast are strong and long-lasting, allowing for a continuous and efficient acceleration of interstellar pickup He +. During solar maximum, transient events of solar origin (characterized by high values of the H/He ratio are able to globally

  7. Efficient Construction of Energetic Materials via Nonmetallic Catalytic Carbon-Carbon Cleavage/Oxime-Release-Coupling Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; He, Chunlin; Yin, Ping; Imler, Gregory H; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2018-03-14

    The exploitation of C-C activation to facilitate chemical reactions is well-known in organic chemistry. Traditional strategies in homogeneous media rely upon catalyst-activated or metal-mediated C-C bonds leading to the design of new processes for applications in organic chemistry. However, activation of a C-C bond, compared with C-H bond activation, is a more challenging process and an underdeveloped area because thermodynamics does not favor insertion into a C-C bond in solution. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage through loss of an oxime moiety has not been reported. In this paper, a new observation of self-coupling via C-C bond cleavage with concomitant loss of oxime in the absence of metals (either metal-complex mediation or catalysis) results in dihydroxylammonium 5,5-bistetrazole-1,10-diolate (TKX-50) as well as N, N'-([3,3'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole)]-5,5'-diyl)dinitramine, a potential candidate for a new generation of energetic materials.

  8. Engineering Transgenic Plants for the Sustained Containment and In Situ Treatment of Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    compounds include sugars and simple polysaccharides , amino acids, organic acids and phenolic compounds. High molecular weight compounds, including...induced by both phenolics and monosaccharides to varying levels. We have introduced a reporter construct (virB-lacZ) into A. rhizogenes and have tested a...Bartlett, D. H. (2009)A 16S based phylogeny of polysaccharide producing Sphingomonas strains. (Unpublished) Submitted (17-APR- 2002) to the EMBL/GenBank

  9. Consideration of the energetic use of waste wood versus re-use of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsma, G.C.; Sas, H.

    1997-01-01

    Recycling of wood wastes to chipboard is compared with the combustion of waste wood in combination with high-efficient energy recovery. Both options show much better environmental effects than the disposal of wood wastes. The differences between the environmental effects of the first two options can be neglected. The reprocessing of wood wastes to chipboard results in a decrease of the production of gypsum board. That benefit is equal to the benefit of cocombustion of wood wastes in a coal-fired power plant, i.e. saving coal. 18 refs

  10. The Glitches and Rotational History of the Highly Energetic Young Pulsar PSR J0537–6910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdman, R. D.; Archibald, R. F.; Gourgouliatos, K. N.; Kaspi, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    We present a timing and glitch analysis of the young X-ray pulsar PSR J0537‑6910, located within the Large Magellanic Cloud, using 13 yr of data from the now-decommissioned Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Rotating with a spin period of 16 ms, PSR J0537‑6910 is the fastest-spinning and most energetic young pulsar known. It also displays the highest glitch activity of any known pulsar. We have found 42 glitches over the data span, corresponding to a glitch rate of 3.2 yr‑1, with an overall glitch activity rate of 8.8× {10}-7 {{yr}}-1. The high glitch frequency has allowed us to study the glitch behavior in ways that are inaccessible in other pulsars. We observe a strong linear correlation between spin frequency glitch magnitude and wait time to the following glitch. We also find that the post-glitch spin-down recovery is well described by a single two-component model fit to all glitches for which we have adequate input data. This consists of an exponential amplitude A=(7.6+/- 1.0)× {10}-14 {{{s}}}-2, decay timescale τ ={27}-6+7 {day}s, and linear slope m=(4.1+/- 0.4)× {10}-16 {{{s}}}-2 {{day}}-1. The latter slope corresponds to a second frequency derivative \\ddot{ν }=(4.7+/- 0.5)× {10}-22 {{{s}}}-3, from which we find an implied braking index n=7.4+/- 0.8. We also present a maximum likelihood technique for searching for periods in event-time data, which we used to both confirm previously published values and determine rotation frequencies in later observations. We discuss the implied constraints on glitch models from the observed behavior of this system, which we argue cannot be fully explained in the context of existing theories.

  11. Investigation of structural materials of reactors using high-energy heavy-ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiguang

    2007-01-01

    Radiation damage in structural materials of fission/fusion reactors is mainly attributed to the evolution of intensive atom displacement damage induced by energetic particles (n, α and/or fission fragments) and high-rate helium doping by direct α particle bombardments and/or (n, α) reactions. It can cause severe degradation of reactor structural materials such as surface blistering, bulk void swelling, deformation, fatigue, embrittlement, stress erosion corrosion and so on that will significantly affect the operation safety of reactors. However, up to now, behavior of structural materials at the end of their service can hardly be fully tested in a real reactor. In the present work, damage process in reactor structural materials is briefly introduced, then the advantages of energetic ion implantation/irradiation especially high-energy heavy ion irradiation are discussed, and several typical examples on simulation of radiation effects in reactor candidate structural materials using high-energy heavy ion irradiations are pronounced. Experimental results and theoretical analysis suggested that irradiation with energetic particles especially high-energy heavy ions is very useful technique for simulating the evolution of microstructures and macro-properties of reactor structural materials. Furthermore, an on-going plan of material irradiation experiments using high energy H- and He-ions based on the Heavy Ion Research Facilities in Lanzhou (HIRFL) is also briefly interpreted. (authors)

  12. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  13. Energetic Materials Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    University of Texas at El Paso 500 W. University Ave. Admin Bldg, room 209 El Paso , TX 79968 -0697 31-Jan-2015 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in...Shafirovich Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Texas at El Paso , El Paso , TX 79968 Objective The objective of this project was to...Co-PI), “HAN Based Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motor Technologies,” Missile Defense Agency, 36 months, $600,000, contract pending Pending: o E

  14. Polar conic current sheets as sources and channels of energetic particles in the high-latitude heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi; Kislov, Roman; Zelenyi, Lev; Obridko, Vladimir; Kharshiladze, Alexander; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Sokół, Justyna; Grzedzielski, Stan; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Malandraki, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The existence of a large-scale magnetically separated conic region inside the polar coronal hole has been predicted by the Fisk-Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and co-workers (Burger et al., ApJ, 2008). Recently, long-lived conic (or cylindrical) current sheets (CCSs) have been found from Ulysses observations at high heliolatitudes (Khabarova et al., ApJ, 2017). The characteristic scale of these structures is several times lesser than the typical width of coronal holes, and the CCSs can be observed at 2-3 AU for several months. CCS crossings in 1994 and 2007 are characterized by sharp decreases in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole and strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. The finding is confirmed by restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines that reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles both in 1994 and 2007. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis also confirms the existence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. The occurrence of long-lived CCSs in the high-latitude solar wind could shed light on how energetic particles reach high latitudes. Energetic particle enhancements up to tens MeV were observed by Ulysses at edges of CCSs both in 1994 and 2007. In 1994 this effect was clearer, probably due to technical reasons. Accelerated particles could be produced either by magnetic reconnection at the edges of a CCS in the solar corona or in the solar wind. We discuss the role of high-latitude CCSs in propagation of energetic particles in the heliosphere and revisit previous studies of energetic particle enhancements at high heliolatitudes. We also suggest that the existence of a CCS can modify the distribution of the solar wind as a function of heliolatitude and consequently impact ionization

  15. High-resolution velocimetry in energetic tidal currents using a convergent-beam acoustic Doppler profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Brian; Harding, Samuel; Richmond, Marshall

    2015-08-01

    An array of single-beam acoustic Doppler profilers has been developed for the high resolution measurement of three-dimensional tidal flow velocities and subsequently tested in an energetic tidal site. This configuration has been developed to increase spatial resolution of velocity measurements in comparison to conventional acoustic Doppler profilers (ADPs) which characteristically use divergent acoustic beams emanating from a single instrument. This is achieved using geometrically convergent acoustic beams creating a sample volume at the focal point of 0.03 m3. Away from the focal point, the array is also able to simultaneously reconstruct three-dimensional velocity components in a profile throughout the water column, and is referred to herein as a convergent-beam acoustic Doppler profiler (C-ADP). Mid-depth profiling is achieved through integration of the sensor platform with the operational commercial-scale Alstom 1 MW DeepGen-IV Tidal Turbine deployed at the European Marine Energy Center, Orkney Isles, UK. This proof-of-concept paper outlines the C-ADP system configuration and comparison to measurements provided by co-installed reference instrumentation. Comparison of C-ADP to standard divergent ADP (D-ADP) velocity measurements reveals a mean difference of 8 mm s-1, standard deviation of 18 mm s-1, and an order of magnitude reduction in realisable length scale. C-ADP focal point measurements compared to a proximal single-beam reference show peak cross-correlation coefficient of 0.96 over 4.0 s averaging period and a 47% reduction in Doppler noise. The dual functionality of the C-ADP as a profiling instrument with a high resolution focal point make this configuration a unique and valuable advancement in underwater velocimetry enabling improved quantification of flow turbulence. Since waves are simultaneously measured via profiled velocities, pressure measurements and surface detection, it is expected that derivatives of this system will be a powerful tool in

  16. Compatibility study of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qilong; Li Xiaojiang; Zhang Laying; Li Jizhen; Li Hongli; Liu Ziru

    2008-01-01

    The compatibility of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials of solid propellants was studied by using the pressure DSC method where, cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 1,4-dinitropiperazine (DNP), 1.25/1-NC/NG mixture, lead 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate (NTO-Pb), aluminum powder (Al, particle size = 13.6 μm) and N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA) were used as energetic components and polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxytetramethylene-co-oxyethylene (PET), addition product of hexamethylene diisocyanate and water (N-100), 2-nitrodianiline (2-NDPA), 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenyl urea (C 2 ), carbon black (C.B.), aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), cupric 2,4-dihydroxy-benzoate (β-Cu), cupric adipate (AD-Cu) and lead phthalate (φ-Pb) were used as inert materials. It was concluded that the binary systems of TNAD with NTO-Pb, RDX, PET and Al powder are compatible, and systems of TNAD with DINA and HMX are slightly sensitive, and with 2-NDPA, φ-Pb, β-Cu, AD-Cu and Al 2 O 3 are sensitive, and with PEG, N-100, C 2 and C.B. are incompatible. The impact and friction sensitivity data of the TNAD and TNAD in combination with the other energetic materials under present study was also obtained, and there was no consequential affiliation between sensitivity and compatibility

  17. Refined energetic ordering for sulphate-water (n = 3-6) clusters using high-level electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Daniel S.; McCaslin, Laura; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-01

    This work reports refinements of the energetic ordering of the known low-energy structures of sulphate-water clusters ? (n = 3-6) using high-level electronic structure methods. Coupled cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) is used in combination with an estimate of basis set effects up to the complete basis set limit using second-order Møller-Plesset theory. Harmonic zero-point energy (ZPE), included at the B3LYP/6-311 + + G(3df,3pd) level, was found to have a significant effect on the energetic ordering. In fact, we show that the energetic ordering is a result of a delicate balance between the electronic and vibrational energies. Limitations of the ZPE calculations, both due to electronic structure errors, and use of the harmonic approximation, probably constitute the largest remaining errors. Due to the often small energy differences between cluster isomers, and the significant role of ZPE, deuteration can alter the relative energies of low-lying structures, and, when it is applied in conjunction with calculated harmonic ZPEs, even alters the global minimum for n = 5. Experiments on deuterated clusters, as well as more sophisticated vibrational calculations, may therefore be quite interesting.

  18. High Temperature Materials Characterization and Advanced Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H.

    2007-06-01

    The project has been carried out for 2 years in stage III in order to achieve the final goals of performance verification of the developed materials, after successful development of the advanced high temperature material technologies for 3 years in Stage II. The mechanical and thermal properties of the advanced materials, which were developed during Stage II, were evaluated at high temperatures, and the modification of the advanced materials were performed. Moreover, a database management system was established using user-friendly knowledge-base scheme to complete the integrated-information material database in KAERI material division

  19. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steven J.; Hogan, Gary E.; Makela, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha; Milner, Edward C.; Murray, Matthew; Saunders, Alexander; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui; Waters, Laurie; Wysocki, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  20. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  1. Investigations on imaging properties of inorganic scintillation screens under irradiation with high energetic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberwirth, Alice

    2016-09-15

    scintillation record was used to examine the material stability under long time application. Here, the light yield Y of the targets was nearly constant or decreased only in the range of 10-15 %, relative to the initial value. For the targets with single crystal characteristic (P46, YAG:Ce), Y even increased slightly and than saturated, offering an enhanced mobility of charge carriers under irradiation. The emission spectra were reproduced continuously and the beam profiles showed good accordance to the reference methods. Within all performed beam times, the targets offered a great stability. Non-linear characteristics, e.g. due to quenching during irradiation at high beam intensities, were not observed. The light yield Y showed a decreasing tendency as function of calculated electronic energy loss dE/dx. The characteristics of the calculated beam profiles, as well as the recorded emission spectra did not change significantly. So a material degradation in the investigated materials was not verified. This observation is confirmed by the performed material characterization measurements. The need of target replacement, e.g. due to damage, did not occur and was thus not performed during the complete investigations. As material for future beam diagnostics of FAIR cerium-doped Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} single crystal with a thickness in the range of 300 μm is recommended in cross-points between different storage sections, due to the stable imaging properties for high energy ion beams, even under long-time irradiation. For beam alignment to experimental and research areas, common Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr is recommended due to the cost advantage.

  2. High-temperature levitated materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, David L

    2010-01-01

    .... This can be avoided by suspending the sample through levitation. This technique also makes metastable states of matter accessible, opening up new avenues of scientific enquiry, as well as possible new materials for technological applications...

  3. Genetic Polymorphisms and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Randomised Trial of Hypo-Energetic High- versus Low-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I. A; Boutin, Philippe; Taylor, Moira A; Larsen, Lesli H; Verdich, Camilla; Petersen, Liselotte; Holst, Claus; Echwald, Søren M; Dina, Christian; Toubro, Søren; Petersen, Martin; Polak, Jan; Clément, Karine; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Langin, Dominique; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Stich, Vladimir; Macdonald, Ian; Arner, Peter; Saris, Wim H. M; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Froguel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study if genes with common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity-related phenotypes influence weight loss (WL) in obese individuals treated by a hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet. Design: Randomised, parallel, two-arm, open-label multi-centre trial. Setting: Eight clinical centres in seven European countries. Participants: 771 obese adult individuals. Interventions: 10-wk dietary intervention to hypo-energetic (−600 kcal/d) diets with a targeted fat energy of 20%–25% or 40%–45%, completed in 648 participants. Outcome Measures: WL during the 10 wk in relation to genotypes of 42 SNPs in 26 candidate genes, probably associated with hypothalamic regulation of appetite, efficiency of energy expenditure, regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function, lipid and glucose metabolism, or production of adipocytokines, determined in 642 participants. Results: Compared with the noncarriers of each of the SNPs, and after adjusting for gender, age, baseline weight and centre, heterozygotes showed WL differences that ranged from −0.6 to 0.8 kg, and homozygotes, from −0.7 to 3.1 kg. Genotype-dependent additional WL on low-fat diet ranged from 1.9 to −1.6 kg in heterozygotes, and from 3.8 kg to −2.1 kg in homozygotes relative to the noncarriers. Considering the multiple testing conducted, none of the associations was statistically significant. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in a panel of obesity-related candidate genes play a minor role, if any, in modulating weight changes induced by a moderate hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet. PMID:16871334

  4. High temperature humidity sensing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, P.P.; Tanase, S.; Greenblatt, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on new proton conducting materials prepared and characterized for potential applications in humidity sensing at temperatures higher than 100 degrees C by complex impedance or galvanic cell type techniques. Calcium metaphosphate, β-Ca(PO 3 ) 2 as a galvanic cell type sensor material yields reproducible signals in the range from 5 to 200 mm Hg water vapor pressure at 578 degrees C, with short response time (∼ 30 sec). Polycrystalline samples of α-Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 and KMo 3 P 5.8 Si 2 O 25 , and the gel converted ceramic, 0.10Li 2 O-0.25P 2 O 5 -0.65SiO 2 as impedance sensor materials show decreases in impedance with increasing humidity in the range from 9 mm Hg to 1 atm water vapor pressure at 179 degrees C

  5. High energy electron irradiation of flowable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermann, B.P.

    1975-01-01

    In order to efficiently irradiate a flowable material with high energy electrons, a hollow body is disposed in a container for the material and the material is caused to flow in the form of a thin layer across a surface of the body from or to the interior of the container while the material flowing across the body surface is irradiated. (U.S.)

  6. High temporal resolution energetic particle soundings at the magnetopause on November 8, 1977, using ISEE 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.A.; Fahnenstiel, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of >24 keV ion data obtained from the ISEE 2 satellite on an inbound crossing of the magnetopause at 1130 LT on November 8, 1977, from 0200 to 0330 UT. Based on the technique presented by Williams (1979) of sounding the position of the magnetopause using energetic particle azimuthal asymmetries, we exploit the four second time resolution available on the ISEE 2 satellite to determine the location, structure, orientation, and temporal variation of the magnetopause region. We find that the trapping boundary for energetic ions is sharp and well defined for approx.35 keV ions and that it corresponds most of the time to the time to earthward edge of the plasma boundary layer. Usually magnetosheath plasma penetrated the trapping boundary only up to distances approximately that of the plasma (1 keV) ion gyroradius (approx.100 km). On some occasions magnetosheath-like plasma was observed up to 800 km inside the trapping boundary but these occurrences were usually associated with rapid trapping boundary movement with velocities exceeding 50 km/s. If the trapping boundary determines the position of the last closed field line, the occasional occurrence of magnetosheath plasma deep inside the trapping boundary is inconsistent with accepted merging theories. The determination of the position of the trapping boundary using five separate ion energy channels from 24 to 70 keV was internally consistent for the lowest three channels although the higher energy channels consistently indicated somewhat smaller values. Radial motion was present affecting the position of the trapping boundary on two scales; a wave-like oscillation with a period of approx.105 s superimposed on a larger scale irregular 'breathing' motion. We argue that the wave nature of the trapping boundary was the cause of the slight difference between the higher and lower energy ion trapping boundary locations

  7. On the interactions between energetic electrons and lightning whistler waves observed at high L-shells on Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Brundell, J. B.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Jacobson, A. R.; Fennell, J. F.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning produces strong broadband radio waves, called "sferics", which propagate in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and are detected thousands of kilometers away from their source. Global real-time detection of lightning strokes including their time, location and energy, is conducted with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). In the ionosphere, these sferics couple into very low frequency (VLF) whistler waves which propagate obliquely to the Earth's magnetic field. A good match has previously been shown between WWLLN sferics and Van Allen Probes lightning whistler waves. It is well known that lightning whistler waves can modify the distribution of energetic electrons in the Van Allen belts by pitch angle scattering into the loss cone, especially at low L-Shells (referred to as LEP - Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation). It is an open question whether lightning whistler waves play an important role at high L-shells. The possible interactions between energetic electrons and lightning whistler waves at high L-shells are considered to be weak in the past. However, lightning is copious, and weak pitch angle scattering into the drift or bounce loss cone would have a significant influence on the radiation belt populations. In this work, we will analyze the continuous burst mode EMFISIS data from September 2012 to 2016, to find out lightning whistler waves above L = 3. Based on that, MAGEIS data are used to study the related possible wave-particle interactions. In this talk, both case study and statistical analysis results will be presented.

  8. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  9. Vanadium based materials as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Bing; Guo, Wei; Pang, Huan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-10-01

    As a kind of supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacitance of the electrochemical capacitors based on pseudocapacitance arises mainly from redox reactions between electrolytes and active materials. These materials usually have several oxidation states for oxidation and reduction. Many research teams have focused on the development of an alternative material for electrochemical capacitors. Many transition metal oxides have been shown to be suitable as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors. Among them, vanadium based materials are being developed for this purpose. Vanadium based materials are known as one of the best active materials for high power/energy density electrochemical capacitors due to its outstanding specific capacitance and long cycle life, high conductivity and good electrochemical reversibility. There are different kinds of synthetic methods such as sol-gel hydrothermal/solvothermal method, template method, electrospinning method, atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition method that have been successfully applied to prepare vanadium based electrode materials. In our review, we give an overall summary and evaluation of the recent progress in the research of vanadium based materials for electrochemical capacitors that include synthesis methods, the electrochemical performances of the electrode materials and the devices.

  10. Materials Science of High-Temperature Superconducting Coated Conductor Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beasley, M. R

    2007-01-01

    This program was broadly focused on the materials science of high temperature superconducting coated conductors, which are of potential interest for application in electric power systems of interest to the Air Force...

  11. High Pressure Research on Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    example, represents the stress on the x plane in the y direction. There are three .... optical studies and studying compressibility of fluids. 3.2 Opposed ..... [4] G N Peggs, High Pressure Measurement Techniques, Applied Science. Publishers ...

  12. Highly heat removing radiation shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Norio; Hozumi, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    Organic materials, inorganic materials or metals having excellent radiation shielding performance are impregnated into expanded metal materials, such as Al, Cu or Mg, having high heat conductivity. Further, the porosity of the expanded metals and combination of the expanded metals and the materials to be impregnated are changed depending on the purpose. Further, a plurality of shielding materials are impregnated into the expanded metal of the same kind, to constitute shielding materials. In such shielding materials, impregnated materials provide shielding performance against radiation rays such as neutrons and gamma rays, the expanded metals provide heat removing performance respectively and they act as shielding materials having heat removing performance as a whole. Accordingly, problems of non-informity and discontinuity in the prior art can be dissolved be provide materials having flexibility in view of fabrication work. (T.M.)

  13. Thermal-spectrum recriticality energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1993-12-01

    Large computer codes have been created in the past to predict the energy release in hypothetical core disruptive accidents (CDA), postulated to occur in liquid metal reactors (LMR). These codes, such as SIMMER, are highly specific to LMR designs. More recent attention has focused on thermal-spectrum criticality accidents, such as for fuel storage basins and waste tanks containing fissile material. This paper resents results from recent one-dimensional kinetics simulations, performed for a recriticality accident in a thermal spectrum. Reactivity insertion rates generally are smaller than in LMR CDAs, and the energetics generally are more benign. Parametric variation of input was performed, including reactivity insertion and initial temperature

  14. Coating and Characterization of Mock and Explosive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Hunt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This project develops a method of manufacturing plastic-bonded explosives by using use precision control of agglomeration and coating of energetic powders. The energetic material coating process entails suspending either wet or dry energetic powders in a stream of inert gas and contacting the energetic powder with atomized droplets of a lacquer composed of binder and organic solvent. By using a high-velocity air stream to pneumatically convey the energetic powders and droplets of lacquer, the energetic powders are efficiently wetted while agglomerate drying begins almost immediately. The result is an energetic powder uniformly coated with binder, that is, a PBX, with a high bulk density suitable for pressing. Experiments have been conducted using mock explosive materials to examine coating effectiveness and density. Energetic materials are now being coated and will be tested both mechanically and thermally. This allows for a comprehensive comparison of the morphology and reactivity of the newly coated materials to previously manufactured materials.

  15. Flare energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Dejager, C.; Dennis, B. R.; Hudson, H. S.; Simnett, G. M.; Strong, K. T.; Bentley, R. D.; Bornmann, P. L.; Bruner, M. E.; Cargill, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this investigation of flare energetics, researchers sought to establish a comprehensive and self-consistent picture of the sources and transport of energy within a flare. To achieve this goal, they chose five flares in 1980 that were well observed with instruments on the Solar Maximum Mission, and with other space-borne and ground-based instruments. The events were chosen to represent various types of flares. Details of the observations available for them and the corresponding physical parameters derived from these data are presented. The flares were studied from two perspectives, the impulsive and gradual phases, and then the results were compared to obtain the overall picture of the energics of these flares. The role that modeling can play in estimating the total energy of a flare when the observationally determined parameters are used as the input to a numerical model is discussed. Finally, a critique of the current understanding of flare energetics and the methods used to determine various energetics terms is outlined, and possible future directions of research in this area are suggested.

  16. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions

  17. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  18. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, M.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many μm in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  19. High energy ions and energetic plasma irradiation effects on aluminum in a Filippov-type plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, M.V. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)], E-mail: mroshan20@yahoo.com; Rawat, R.S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Babazadeh, A.R.; Emami, M.; Sadat Kiai, S.M. [Plasma Physics Research Center, AEOI, 14155-1339 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Verma, R.; Lin, J.J.; Talebitaher, A.R.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2008-12-30

    High energy ions and energetic plasma irradiation of aluminum cathode inserts have been accomplished in nitrogen and argon filled plasma focus device. The Filippov-type plasma focus facility, Dena, with 288 {mu}F capacitor bank and charging voltage of 25 kV (90 kJ maximum storage energy) was first optimized for strong ion beam generation for nitrogen and argon gases by maximizing hard X-ray emission efficiency. X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy carried out to study the structural, morphological and compositional profile of the treated samples. Change in preferred orientation, emergence of meta-stable phases, generation of copper micro-droplets, and production of cracks across the sample are demonstrated and discussed. The micro-hardness measurements in Vickers scale reveal that after ion irradiation, the surface hardness of samples is reduced.

  20. Development of high pressure deuterium gas targets for the generation of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzek, J.; Richardson, K.; Franklyn, C.B.; Waites, A.; McMurray, W.R.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Tapper, U.A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Two different technical solutions to the problem of generation of mono-energetic fast neutron beams on the gaseous targets are presented here. A simple and cost-effective design of a cooled windowed gas target system is described in the first part of this paper. It utilises a thin metallic foil window and circulating deuterium gas cooled down to 100 K. The ultimate beam handling capability of such target is determined by the properties of the window. Reliable performance of this gas target system was achieved at 1 bar of deuterium gas, when exposed to a 45 μA beam of 5 MeV deuterons, for periods in excess of 6 h. Cooling of the target gas resulted in increased fast neutron output and improved neutron to gamma-ray ratio. The second part of this paper discusses the design of a high pressure, windowless gas target for use with pulsed, low duty cycle accelerators. A rotating seal concept was applied to reduce the gas load in a differentially pumped system. This allows operation at 1.23 bar of deuterium gas pressure in the gas cell region. Such a gas target system is free from the limitations of the windowed target but special attention has to be paid to the heat dissipation capability of the beam dump, due to the use of a thin target. The rotating seal concept is particularly suitable for use with accelerators such as radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs that operate with a very high peak current at low duty cycle. The performance of both target systems was comprehensively characterized using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. This demonstrated that very good quality mono-energetic fast neutron beams were produced with the slow neutron and gamma-ray component below 10% of the total target output

  1. High temperature material characterization and advanced materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, D. H.; Kim, S. H. and others

    2005-03-01

    The study is to characterize the structural materials under the high temperature, one of the most significant environmental factors in nuclear systems. And advanced materials are developed for high temperature and/or low activation in neutron irradiation. Tensile, fatigue and creep properties have been carried out at high temperature to evaluate the mechanical degradation. Irradiation tests were performed using the HANARO. The optimum chemical composition and heat treatment condition were determined for nuclear grade 316NG stainless steel. Nitrogen, aluminum, and tungsten were added for increasing the creep rupture strength of FMS steel. The new heat treatment method was developed to form more stable precipitates. By applying the novel whiskering process, high density SiC/SiC composites with relative density above 90% could be obtained even in a shorter processing time than the conventional CVI process. Material integrated databases are established using data sheets. The databases of 6 kinds of material properties are accessible through the home page of KAERI material division

  2. Battery designs with high capacity anode materials and cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Han, Yongbong; Deng, Haixia; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2017-10-03

    Improved high energy capacity designs for lithium ion batteries are described that take advantage of the properties of high specific capacity anode active compositions and high specific capacity cathode active compositions. In particular, specific electrode designs provide for achieving very high energy densities. Furthermore, the complex behavior of the active materials is used advantageously in a radical electrode balancing design that significantly reduced wasted electrode capacity in either electrode when cycling under realistic conditions of moderate to high discharge rates and/or over a reduced depth of discharge.

  3. The second evolution of ionic liquids: from solvents and separations to advanced materials--energetic examples from the ionic liquid cookbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiglak, Marcin; Metlen, Andreas; Rogers, Robin D

    2007-11-01

    In this Account of the small portion of the recent research in ionic liquids (ILs) by the Rogers Group, we fast forward through the first evolution of IL research, where ILs were studied for their unique set of physical properties and the resulting potential for tunable "green solvents", to the second evolution of ILs, where the tunability of the cation and anion independently offers almost unlimited access to targeted combinations of physical and chemical properties. This approach is demonstrated here with the field of energetic ionic liquids (EILs), which utilizes this design flexibility to find safe synthetic routes to ILs with high energy content and targeted physical properties.

  4. High-temperature materials and structural ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report gives a survey of research work in the area of high-temperature materials and structural ceramics of the KFA (Juelich Nuclear Research Center). The following topics are treated: (1) For energy facilities: ODS materials for gas turbine blades and heat exchangers; assessment of the remaining life of main steam pipes, material characterization and material stress limits for First-Wall components; metallic and graphitic materials for high-temperature reactors. (2) For process engineering plants: composites for reformer tubes and cracking tubes; ceramic/ceramic joints and metal/ceramic and metal/metal joints; Composites and alloys for rolling bearing and sliding systems up to application temperatures of 1000deg C; high-temperature corrosion of metal and ceramic material; porous ceramic high-temperature filters and moulding coat-mix techniques; electrically conducting ceramic material (superconductors, fuel cells, solid electrolytes); high-temperature light sources (high-temperature chemistry); oil vapor engines with caramic components; ODS materials for components in diesel engines and vehicle gas turbines. (MM) [de

  5. Effect of multiple short highly energetic X-ray pulses on the synthesis of endoglucanase by a mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei-M7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemishev, Orlin; Markova, Maya; Savov, Valentin; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Blagoev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose-containing substrate to glucose represents an important area of modern biotechnology. Enzymes for the degradation of the polysaccharide part of biomass have been produced, mostly by fungi belonging to genus Trichoderma. Studies were carried out with the mutant strain Trichoderma reesei-M7, a cellulase producer. Spores of the enzyme producer were irradiated with different doses of characteristic X-ray radiation from metallic tungsten (mainly the W Ka1 and Ka2 lines) with a high dose rate. The latter is a specific property of the dense plasma focus (DPF) device, which has pulsed operation and thus gives short and highly energetic pulses of multiple types of rays and particles. In this case, we focused our study on the influence of hard X-rays. The doses of X-rays absorbed by the spores varied in the range of approximately 5-11,000 mSv measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The influence of the applied doses in combination with exceptionally high dose rates (in the order of tens of millisieverts per microsecond) on the activity of the produced endoglucanase, amount of biomass and extra-cellular protein, was studied in batch cultivation conditions. In the dose range of 200-1200 mSv, some enhancement of endoglucanase activity was obtained: around 18%-32%, despite the drop of the biomass amount, compared with the untreated material. Keywords: endoglucanase; X-ray pulses; thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD); dense plasma focus (DPF); Trichoderma reesei

  6. High temperature brazing of reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.V.; Nechaev, V.A.; Rybkin, B.V.; Ponimash, I.D.

    1990-01-01

    Application of high-temperature brazing for joining products of such materials as molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium, beryllium, magnesium, nickel and aluminium alloys, graphite ceramics etc. is described. Brazing materials composition and brazed joints properties are presented. A satisfactory strength of brazed joints is detected under reactor operation temperatures and coolant and irradiation effect

  7. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  8. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  9. High beta, sawtooth-free tokamak operation using energetic trapped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Bussac, M.N.; Romanelli, F.

    1988-08-01

    It is shown that a population of high energy trapped particles, such as that produced by ion cyclotron heating in tokamaks, can result in a plasma completely stable to both sawtooth oscillations and the fishbone mode. The stable window of operation increases in size with plasma temperature and with trapped particle energy, and provides a means of obtaining a stable plasma with high current and high beta. 13 refs., 2 figs

  10. Critical analyses on the localized corrosion behaviour in materials of energetic interests: Inconcel 600 CSM and Deltacogne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borello, A.; Frangini, S.; Masci, D.

    1989-06-01

    Concerning the two commonly observed phenomena of localized corrosion of Inconel 600 in high temperature caustic environments normally encountered in steam generators of PWR nuclear reactors, the aim of this work is to investigate the intergranular and the stress corrosion cracking behaviour of two heats of Alloy 600, having different origin. In fact one heat was produced by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM) in laboratory scale; the other one was manufactured by Deltacogne following conventional industrial practices. The evaluation of intergranular corrosion susceptibility has been performed by means of the modified Huey test and the Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR). The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility was determined by the slow strain rate technique. The results of the present study show that the CSM heat has a better behaviour than the Deltacogne one as for the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. On the contrary, concerning the intergranular corrosion resistance, both used tests point out that the Deltacogne material has a lower susceptibility to this type of localized corrosion. The sensitization areas in the TTS diagram, depend, even for the same heat, on the type of the test used for the evaluation. (author)

  11. An energetic criterion for a micro-crack of finite length initiated in orthotropic bi-material notches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, T.; Klusák, Jan; Ševeček, O.; Hrstka, M.; Kotoul, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, SEP (2013), s. 396-409 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/2049; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/1821 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : crack initiation * bi-material notch * orthotropic bi-material notch * singular stress concentrator Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2013

  12. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  13. Production of high-energetic photons in the heavy ion reaction 136Xe + 48Ti at ELab = 18.5 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, G.

    1991-05-01

    The production mechanism for high-energetic photons in heavy ion collisions was studied on the example of the deep inelastic reaction 136 Xe+ 48 Ti at a projectile energy of 18.5 MeV/u in an exclusive experiment, in which photons and heavy reaction fragments were detected in coincidence. (orig.) [de

  14. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  15. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  16. Synergistic and alkaline stability studies of mixtures of simulated high level waste sludge with selected energetic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the stability of mercury oxalate and mercury fulminate in alkaline sludge simulating Savannah River Site waste. These compounds represent two classes of energetic compounds previously speculated as potential components in sludge stored without a supernatant liquid

  17. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  18. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with energetic cluster ion impact ionization for highly sensitive chemical structure characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, K., E-mail: k.hirata@aist.go.jp [National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Saitoh, Y.; Chiba, A.; Yamada, K.; Narumi, K. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gumma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Energetic cluster ions with energies of the order of sub MeV or greater were applied to time-of-flight (TOF) secondary ion (SI) mass spectrometry. This gave various advantages including enhancement of SIs required for chemical structure characterization and prevention of charging effects in SI mass spectra for organic targets. We report some characteristic features of TOF SI mass spectrometry using energetic cluster ion impact ionization and discuss two future applications of it.

  19. Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuech, Andrea; Nelles, Michael; Tscherpel, Burckhard; El Behery, Ahmed; Menanz, Rania; Bahl, Hubert; Scheel, Michael; Nipkow, Mareen

    2015-01-01

    The project Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA) was implemented with long-term partners from Egypt and Germany leaded by the Department Waste Management and Material Flow from September 2011 until October 2013. Aim of the project was the development of technologies for the utilization of agricultural wastes and residues at the example of rice straw, with the focus on the energetic and material use. In the long term a contribution to climate protection and natural resource management could be reached. The focus was on investigations in the field of biogas, ethanol and butanol production including pretreatment as well as the material use in horticulture. The results show that the biogas and ethanol production with adapted pretreatments of rice straws is possible. The technical adaptation of a biogas plant (eo-digestion) would be associated with about 20% higher investment costs and higher operating costs with an approximately 15% higher energy demand. In Germany, however, this may still economically by the substitution of expensive or difficult available energy crops (reduction of substrate costs by 30 to 35% for a 600 kWel-BGP using maize silage). The investigated solutions for material use in Egypt showed good results, which in some cases exceeded the expectations. By the use of rice straw imported peat substrates could be substitute or irrigation water saved, what is ecologically and economically useful. The production of ethanol from rice straw was implemented on laboratory scale and preconditions for investigations in semi-industrial and partly pilot scale were created. The bilateral project'' was funded in the framework of the German-Egypt-Research-Fond (GERF) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Egyptian Science and Technology Development Fund in Egypt (STDF). The total budget

  20. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  1. Monitoring of energetic characteristics of electron beams during formation of high-power pulsed bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivaschenko, D.M.; Mordasov, N.G.; Chlenov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring the dynamic and integrated characteristics of high-power electron and bremsstrahlung beams of the pulse accelerators are proposed. The transfer functions for various types of a target in operating conditions of the pulse accelerator UIN-10 are presented. Possibilities if the integrated diagnostics of acceleration rate of the electron beams with simultaneous testing of the bremsstrahlung parameters as a local field point beyond the converting target are shown [ru

  2. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  3. New Techniques for Investigating Properties of Energetic Solids at High Static and Dynamic Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    fluid. For optical measurements in the regions of extremely high absorption ( lOs — io6 cm~~) thin films are required with a thickness of 500—5000L The top...round trip in the cavity. The result is a series of extremely narrow pulses, each pulse a few picoseconds ( lO ~~2 seconds) in duration and separated...electronic pulsar and electro—optic selection elements, it is possible to extract a single picosecond pulse from the train. This is I achieved by placing a

  4. Energetics of small scale turbulence in the lower stratosphere from high resolution radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dole

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Very high resolution radar measurements were performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere by means of the PROUST radar. The PROUST radar operates in the UHF band (961 MHz and is located in St. Santin, France (44°39’ N, 2°12’ E. A field campaign involving high resolution balloon measurements and the PROUST radar was conducted during April 1998. Under the classical hypothesis that refractive index inhomogeneities at half radar wavelength lie within the inertial subrange, assumed to be isotropic, kinetic energy and temperature variance dissipation rates were estimated independently in the lower stratosphere. The dissipation rate of temperature variance is proportional to the dissipation rate of available potential energy. We therefore estimate the ratio of dissipation rates of potential to kinetic energy. This ratio is a key parameter of atmospheric turbulence which, in locally homogeneous and stationary conditions, is simply related to the flux Richardson number, Rf .Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence – Radio science (remote sensing

  5. Energetics of small scale turbulence in the lower stratosphere from high resolution radar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dole

    Full Text Available Very high resolution radar measurements were performed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere by means of the PROUST radar. The PROUST radar operates in the UHF band (961 MHz and is located in St. Santin, France (44°39’ N, 2°12’ E. A field campaign involving high resolution balloon measurements and the PROUST radar was conducted during April 1998. Under the classical hypothesis that refractive index inhomogeneities at half radar wavelength lie within the inertial subrange, assumed to be isotropic, kinetic energy and temperature variance dissipation rates were estimated independently in the lower stratosphere. The dissipation rate of temperature variance is proportional to the dissipation rate of available potential energy. We therefore estimate the ratio of dissipation rates of potential to kinetic energy. This ratio is a key parameter of atmospheric turbulence which, in locally homogeneous and stationary conditions, is simply related to the flux Richardson number, Rf .

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence – Radio science (remote sensing

  6. Computer simulation of structural modifications induced by highly energetic ions in uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, Y., E-mail: sasajima@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi 316-8511 (Japan); Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University, Shirakata 162-4, Tokai 319-1106 (Japan); Osada, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi 316-8511 (Japan); Ishikawa, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Iwase, A. [Department of Materials Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The structural modification caused by the high-energy-ion irradiation of single-crystalline uranium dioxide was simulated by the molecular dynamics method. As the initial condition, high kinetic energy was supplied to the individual atoms within a cylindrical region of nanometer-order radius located in the center of the specimen. The potential proposed by Basak et al. [C.B. Basak, A.K. Sengupta, H.S. Kamath, J. Alloys Compd. 360 (2003) 210–216] was utilized to calculate interaction between atoms. The supplied kinetic energy was first spent to change the crystal structure into an amorphous one within a short period of about 0.3 ps, then it dissipated in the specimen. The amorphous track radius R{sub a} was determined as a function of the effective stopping power gS{sub e}, i.e., the kinetic energy of atoms per unit length created by ion irradiation (S{sub e}: electronic stopping power, g: energy transfer ratio from stopping power to lattice vibration energy). It was found that the relationship between R{sub a} and gS{sub e} follows the relation R{sub a}{sup 2}=aln(gS{sub e})+b. Compared to the case of Si and β-cristobalite single crystals, it was harder to produce amorphous track because of the long range interaction between U atoms.

  7. Computer simulation of structural modifications induced by highly energetic ions in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Y.; Osada, T.; Ishikawa, N.; Iwase, A.

    2013-01-01

    The structural modification caused by the high-energy-ion irradiation of single-crystalline uranium dioxide was simulated by the molecular dynamics method. As the initial condition, high kinetic energy was supplied to the individual atoms within a cylindrical region of nanometer-order radius located in the center of the specimen. The potential proposed by Basak et al. [C.B. Basak, A.K. Sengupta, H.S. Kamath, J. Alloys Compd. 360 (2003) 210–216] was utilized to calculate interaction between atoms. The supplied kinetic energy was first spent to change the crystal structure into an amorphous one within a short period of about 0.3 ps, then it dissipated in the specimen. The amorphous track radius R a was determined as a function of the effective stopping power gS e , i.e., the kinetic energy of atoms per unit length created by ion irradiation (S e : electronic stopping power, g: energy transfer ratio from stopping power to lattice vibration energy). It was found that the relationship between R a and gS e follows the relation R a 2 =aln(gS e )+b. Compared to the case of Si and β-cristobalite single crystals, it was harder to produce amorphous track because of the long range interaction between U atoms

  8. Search for new phenomena in events with a highly energetic jet and missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387867

    This thesis present the search for new phenomena in events with a highly energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum at ATLAS with data collected in Run 2 during 2015 and 2016 corresponding to 36.1 fb-1. This search, also referred to as 'monojet search' exhibits a unique sensitivity to BSM models predicting heavy particles that may escape the detector untraced. If an object, such as a jet, recoils against these particles a monojet signature is produced. The search exploits the discrimination power of the E_{T}^{miss} spectrum between background and BSM signals. The E_{T}^{miss} spectrum is fitted in 10 bins in four orthogonal control regions simultaneously to estimate the background contribution in the signal region and determine the probability of various signal hypothesis from the observed data distribution. The fit model relies on state of the art theory predictions concerning NLO QCD and nNLO EW corrections to the major V+jets backgrounds and uses as well data driven techniques. Therefore, the pr...

  9. High-resolution energetic particle measurements at 6.6 R/sub E/ 1. Electron micropulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Baker, D.N.

    1978-01-01

    The three papers dealing with data from satellites 1976--059A which we present in this issue represent the first publication of data from the new series of charged particle analyzer (CPA) instruments designed to measure energetic particle fluxes at geosynchronous altitudes. This first report presents new results on electron micropulsation phenomena and includes a concise description of the instrument. We often observe highly periodic modulations which persist for times as long as 2 hours in the spin-averaged counting rate data. These flux oscillations occur most frequently in the 30- to 300-keV electron data but are occasionally seen in higher-energy electron or low-energy proton data. The pitch angle distributions of the observed modulated fluxes may be either 'cigar-shaped' or 'pancake-shaped.' Oscillations at different energies are in phase, although the gross counting rate may be changing in an energy-time dispersive manner. The occurrence distribution of these modulations in local time suggests that they are related to Pc 5 geomagnetic micropulsations observed at ground stations

  10. Energetic balance in an ultrasonic reactor using focused or flat high frequency transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, L; Touyeras, F; Hihn, J Y; Klima, J

    2007-09-01

    In order to undertake irradiation of polymer blocks or films by ultrasound, this paper deals with the measurements of ultrasonic power and its distribution within the cell by several methods. The electric power measured at the transducer input is compared to the ultrasonic power input to the cell evaluated by calorimetry and radiation force measurement for different generator settings. Results obtained in the specific case of new transducer types (composites and focused composites i.e., HIFU: high intensity focused ultrasound) provide an opportunity to conduct a discussion about measurement methods. It has thus been confirmed that these measurement techniques can be applied to HIFU transducers. For all cases, results underlined the fact that measurement of radiation pressure for power evaluation is more adapted to low powers (generator-transducer-liquid and sample.

  11. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  12. High Speed Dynamics in Brittle Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiermaier, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Brittle Materials under High Speed and Shock loading provide a continuous challenge in experimental physics, analysis and numerical modelling, and consequently for engineering design. The dependence of damage and fracture processes on material-inherent length and time scales, the influence of defects, rate-dependent material properties and inertia effects on different scales make their understanding a true multi-scale problem. In addition, it is not uncommon that materials show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior when the loading rate is increased. A particular case is spallation, a brittle tensile failure induced by the interaction of stress waves leading to a sudden change from compressive to tensile loading states that can be invoked in various materials. This contribution highlights typical phenomena occurring when brittle materials are exposed to high loading rates in applications such as blast and impact on protective structures, or meteorite impact on geological materials. A short review on experimental methods that are used for dynamic characterization of brittle materials will be given. A close interaction of experimental analysis and numerical simulation has turned out to be very helpful in analyzing experimental results. For this purpose, adequate numerical methods are required. Cohesive zone models are one possible method for the analysis of brittle failure as long as some degree of tension is present. Their recent successful application for meso-mechanical simulations of concrete in Hopkinson-type spallation tests provides new insight into the dynamic failure process. Failure under compressive loading is a particular challenge for numerical simulations as it involves crushing of material which in turn influences stress states in other parts of a structure. On a continuum scale, it can be modeled using more or less complex plasticity models combined with failure surfaces, as will be demonstrated for ceramics. Models which take microstructural

  13. Energetics and stability of azulene: From experimental thermochemistry to high-level quantum chemical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Clara C.S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Morais, Victor M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental standard molar enthalpy of formation, sublimation azulene. • Mini-bomb combustion calorimetry, sublimation Calvet microcalorimetry. • High level composite ab initio calculations. • Computational estimate of the enthalpy of formation of azulene. • Discussion of stability and aromaticity of azulene. - Abstract: The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation for crystalline azulene was derived from the standard molar enthalpy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured in a mini-bomb combustion calorimeter (aneroid isoperibol calorimeter) and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, measured by Calvet microcalorimetry. From these experiments, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of azulene in the gaseous phase at T = 298.15 K was calculated. In addition, very accurate quantum chemical calculations at the G3 and G4 composite levels of calculation were conducted in order to corroborate our experimental findings and further clarify and establish the definitive standard enthalpy of formation of this interesting non-benzenoid hydrocarbon

  14. Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T

    1997-06-01

    Soccer entails intermittent exercise with bouts of short, intense activity punctuating longer periods of low-level, moderate-intensity exercise. High levels of blood lactate may sometimes be observed during a match but the active recovery periods at submaximal exercise levels allow for its removal on a continual basis. While anaerobic efforts are evident in activity with the ball and shadowing fast-moving opponents, the largest strain is placed on aerobic metabolism. On average, competitive soccer corresponds to an energy expenditure of about 75% maximal aerobic power. The energy expenditure varies with playing position, being highest among midfield players. Muscle glycogen levels can be reduced towards the end of a game, the level of reduction being reflected in a decrease in work rate. Blood glucose levels are generally well-maintained, although body temperature may rise by 2 degrees C even in temperate conditions. The distance covered by players tends to under-reflect the energy expended. Unorthodox modes of motion-running backwards and sideways, accelerating, decelerating and changing direction-accentuate the metabolic loading. These are compounded by the extra requirements for energy associated with dribbling the ball and contesting possession. The overall energy expended is extreme when players are required to play extra-time in tournaments. Training, nutritional and tactical strategies may be used to reduce the effects of fatigue that may occur late in the game.

  15. Energetics and dynamics of droplet evaporation in high temperature intermediate Reynolds number flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renksizbulut, M.

    Nusselt Numbers and drag coefficients of single-component liquid droplets and solid spheres in high temperature, intermediate Reynolds Number flows were investigated. The evaporation of suspended water, Methanol and n-Heptane droplets were followed in laminar air streams up to 1059 K in temperature using a steady-state measurement technique. It is found that the dynamic blowing effect of evaporation causes large reductions in heat transfer rates, and that the film conditions constitute an appropriate reference state for the evaluation of thermophysical properties. The numerical results indicate that the blowing effect of evaporation on momentum transfer is to reduce friction drag very significantly but at the same time increase pressure drag by almost an equal amount; the net effect on the total drag force being only a marginal reduction. In all cases, it is found that thermophysical property variations play a very dominant role in reducing the drag forces acting on cold particles. Results are analysed and a correlation for stagnation-point heat transfer is also presented.

  16. Radiation-thermal effects change of physico-mechanical properties in reactor materials irradiated with neutrons and energetic charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the first part of the report (chapter 1) the earlier results of the important scientific and technological investigations which were performed in the seventies years in Poland have been presented. They concerned the fabrication, corrosion, mechanical properties of materials for research and power reactors. Being of the general survey character, the chapter includes own, original results of research of thermal irradiation effects on microstructure evolution phase transformations and mechanical properties of reactor materials. The kinetics of isothermal transformation β→α in U-Cr 0.4% wt. alloy has been studied. Factors affecting stress-corrosion cracking of zirconium in iodine vapour have been investigated. The rings and loops for irradiation specimens and Hot Laboratory for postirradiation examination of construction materials is described. In the second part (chapters 2, 3, 4, 5) performed the investigations and simulations of radiation damage in metals by heavy ion beams (E > 1 MeV/a.m.n.) were described scientific base and technical problems of the method of irradiation of heavy ions and of the examination of irradiated samples is presented. It is followed by a summary of the results of simulation and reactor experiments on different materials. Radiation hardening of a number metals (Al, Zr, Cu, Ni, U) irradiated by heavy ion and neutrons, mechanical properties and microstructural evolution in ion and neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steel is described. The last chapter is a description of practical aspects of the presented studies in nuclear science and technology. (author)

  17. Acceleration Data Reveal Highly Individually Structured Energetic Landscapes in Free-Ranging Fishers (Pekania pennanti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K Scharf

    Full Text Available Investigating animal energy expenditure across space and time may provide more detailed insight into how animals interact with their environment. This insight should improve our understanding of how changes in the environment affect animal energy budgets and is particularly relevant for animals living near or within human altered environments where habitat change can occur rapidly. We modeled fisher (Pekania pennanti energy expenditure within their home ranges and investigated the potential environmental and spatial drivers of the predicted spatial patterns. As a proxy for energy expenditure we used overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA that we quantified from tri-axial accelerometer data during the active phases of 12 individuals. We used a generalized additive model (GAM to investigate the spatial distribution of ODBA by associating the acceleration data to the animals' GPS-recorded locations. We related the spatial patterns of ODBA to the utilization distributions and habitat suitability estimates across individuals. The ODBA of fishers appears highly structured in space and was related to individual utilization distribution and habitat suitability estimates. However, we were not able to predict ODBA using the environmental data we selected. Our results suggest an unexpected complexity in the space use of animals that was only captured partially by re-location data-based concepts of home range and habitat suitability. We suggest future studies recognize the limits of ODBA that arise from the fact that acceleration is often collected at much finer spatio-temporal scales than the environmental data and that ODBA lacks a behavioral correspondence. Overcoming these limits would improve the interpretation of energy expenditure in relation to the environment.

  18. Density and temperature of energetic electrons in the Earth's magnetotail derived from high-latitude GPS observations during the declining phase of the solar cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Denton

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Single relativistic-Maxwellian fits are made to high-latitude GPS-satellite observations of energetic electrons for the period January 2006–November 2010; a constellation of 12 GPS space vehicles provides the observations. The derived fit parameters (for energies ~0.1–1.0 MeV, in combination with field-line mapping on the nightside of the magnetosphere, provide a survey of the energetic electron density and temperature distribution in the magnetotail between McIlwain L-values of L=6 and L=22. Analysis reveals the characteristics of the density-temperature distribution of energetic electrons and its variation as a function of solar wind speed and the Kp index. The density-temperature characteristics of the magnetotail energetic electrons are very similar to those found in the outer electron radiation belt as measured at geosynchronous orbit. The energetic electron density in the magnetotail is much greater during increased geomagnetic activity and during fast solar wind. The total electron density in the magnetotail is found to be strongly correlated with solar wind speed and is at least a factor of two greater for high-speed solar wind (VSW=500–1000 km s−1 compared to low-speed solar wind (VSW=100–400 km s−1. These results have important implications for understanding (a how the solar wind may modulate entry into the magnetosphere during fast and slow solar wind, and (b if the magnetotail is a source or a sink for the outer electron radiation belt.

  19. Papers of 4. Scientific-Technical Seminar: Material Study for Electric Power Stations and Energetics; Referaty 4. Seminarium Naukowo-Techniczne: Badania Materialowe na Potrzeby Elektrowni i Przemyslu Energetycznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The research on the materials commonly used in electric power stations and energetics have been summarized in the course of the seminar. Especially a different kinds of steels have been investigated from the view point of their desirable mechanical and corrosion properties.

  20. Materials for high temperature reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenaventura Pouyfaucon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the 5th Euraton Framework Programme, a big effort is being made to promote and consolidate the development of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR). Empresarios Agrupados is participating in this project and among others, also forms part of the HTR-M project Materials for HTRs. This paper summarises the work carried out by Empresarios Agrupados regarding the material selection of the HTR Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). The possible candidate materials and the most promising ones are discussed. Design aspects such as the RPV sensitive zones and material damage mechanisms are considered. Finally, the applicability of the existing design Codes and Standards for the design of the HTR RPV is also discussed. (Author)

  1. Materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbaud, F.; Desgranges, Clara; Martinelli, Laure; Rouillard, Fabien; Duhamel, Cecile; Marchetti, Loic; Perrin, Stephane; Molins, Regine; Chevalier, S.; Heintz, O.; David, N.; Fiorani, J.M.; Vilasi, M.; Wouters, Y.; Galerie, A.; Mangelinck, D.; Viguier, B.; Monceau, D.; Soustelle, M.; Pijolat, M.; Favergeon, J.; Brancherie, D.; Moulin, G.; Dawi, K.; Wolski, K.; Barnier, V.; Rebillat, F.; Lavigne, O.; Brossard, J.M.; Ropital, F.; Mougin, J.

    2011-01-01

    This book was made from the lectures given in 2010 at the thematic school on 'materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures'. It gathers the contributions from scientists and engineers coming from various communities and presents a state-of-the-art of the scientific and technological developments concerning the behaviour of materials at high temperature, in aggressive environments and in various domains (aerospace, nuclear, energy valorization, and chemical industries). It supplies pedagogical tools to grasp high temperature corrosion thanks to the understanding of oxidation mechanisms. It proposes some protection solutions for materials and structures. Content: 1 - corrosion costs; macro-economical and metallurgical approach; 2 - basic concepts of thermo-chemistry; 3 - introduction to the Calphad (calculation of phase diagrams) method; 4 - use of the thermodynamic tool: application to pack-cementation; 5 - elements of crystallography and of real solids description; 6 - diffusion in solids; 7 - notions of mechanics inside crystals; 8 - high temperature corrosion: phenomena, models, simulations; 9 - pseudo-stationary regime in heterogeneous kinetics; 10 - nucleation, growth and kinetic models; 11 - test experiments in heterogeneous kinetics; 12 - mechanical aspects of metal/oxide systems; 13 - coupling phenomena in high temperature oxidation; 14 - other corrosion types; 15 - methods of oxidized surfaces analysis at micro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in the study of high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys; 17 - oxidation of ceramics and of ceramic matrix composite materials; 18 - protective coatings against corrosion and oxidation; 19 - high temperature corrosion in the 4. generation of nuclear reactor systems; 20 - heat exchangers corrosion in municipal waste energy valorization facilities; 21 - high temperature corrosion in oil refining and petrochemistry; 22 - high temperature corrosion in new energies industry. (J.S.)

  2. High-energy ion implantation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    High-energy ion implantation is an extremely flexible type of surface treatment technique, in that it offers the possibility of treating almost any type of target material or product with ions of almost any chemical species, or combinations of chemical species. In addition, ion implantations can be combined with variations in temperature during or after ion implantation. As a result, the possibility of approaching a wide variety of surface-related materials science problems exists with ion implantation. This paper will outline factors pertinent to application of high-energy ion implantation to surface engineering problems. This factors include fundamental advantages and limitations, economic considerations, present and future equipment, and aspects of materials science

  3. High Flux Materials Testing Reactor (HFR), Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    After conversion to burnable poison fuel elements, the High Flux Materials Testing Reactor (HFR) Petten (Netherlands), operated through 1974 for 280 days at 45 MW. Equipment for irradiation experiments has been replaced and extended. The average annual occupation by experiments was 55% as compared to 38% in 1973. Work continued on thirty irradiation projects and ten development activities

  4. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fozzolari, R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for photo generation of radicals is discussed that can be used in the recovery of oxygen and metals from extraterrestrial resources. The concept behind this work was to examine methods whereby radicals can be generated and used in the processing of refractory materials. In that regard, the focus is on the use of sunlight. Sunlight provides useful energy for processing in the forms of both thermal and quantum energy. A number of experiments were conducted in the chlorination of metals with and without the aid of UV and near UV light. The results of some of those experiments are discussed.

  5. High-entropy alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafeie, Samrand [Surface and Microstructure Engineering Group, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Guo, Sheng, E-mail: sheng.guo@chalmers.se [Surface and Microstructure Engineering Group, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hu, Qiang [Institute of Applied Physics, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Fahlquist, Henrik [Bruker AXS Nordic AB, 17067 Solna (Sweden); Erhart, Paul [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Palmqvist, Anders, E-mail: anders.palmqvist@chalmers.se [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-11-14

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators that efficiently recycle a large portion of waste heat will be an important complementary energy technology in the future. While many efficient TE materials exist in the lower temperature region, few are efficient at high temperatures. Here, we present the high temperature properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), as a potential new class of high temperature TE materials. We show that their TE properties can be controlled significantly by changing the valence electron concentration (VEC) of the system with appropriate substitutional elements. Both the electrical and thermal transport properties in this system were found to decrease with a lower VEC number. Overall, the large microstructural complexity and lower average VEC in these types of alloys can potentially be used to lower both the total and the lattice thermal conductivity. These findings highlight the possibility to exploit HEAs as a new class of future high temperature TE materials.

  6. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  7. Raw material and energetic matrix: a synthetic, generic and attention considerations for the future of the Camacari Industrial pole, Bahia, Brazil; Materias-prima e matriz energetica: uma visao sintetica, generica e de atencao para o futuro do Polo Industrial de Camacari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lins Neto, Joao Bispo [Braskem S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil). Gerencia de Energia], e-mail: joao.lins@braskem.com.br; Lima, Alberto Ferreira [Bahia Pulp, Camacari, BA (Brazil). Gerencia de Qualidade e Desenvolvimento de Produto], e-mail: alberto_lima@bahiapulp.com; Petti, Ana Carla [Braskem S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil). Gerencia de Gestao e Regulacao de Energia], e-mail: ana.petti@braskem.com.br; Correia, Antonia Lucia Santiago [PETROBRAS S.A., Norte/Nordeste (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    This paper makes a synthetic evaluation of the present and raw material situation and the energetic matrix, and future perspectives, focusing on the following aspects: analysis of the existent production chains; threats to the raw material and incomes; integration between the enterprises and opportunities for new business, and availability and competitiveness of the energetic matrix.

  8. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J

    2004-11-15

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO{sub 2} atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials.

  9. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: (1) Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing - 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. (2) Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram - 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  10. High-efficiency InP-based photocathode for hydrogen production by interface energetics design and photon management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, L.; Cui, Y.; Vervuurt, R.H.J.; van Dam, D.; van Veldhoven, R.; Hofmann, J.P.; Bol, A.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Notten, P.H.L.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The solar energy conversion efficiency of photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices is usually limited by poor interface energetics, limiting the onset potential, and light reflection losses. Here, a three-pronged approach to obtain excellent performance of an InP-based photoelectrode for water reduction

  11. Materials for high vacuum technology, an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    In modern accelerators stringent requirements are placed on materials of vacuum systems. Their physical and mechanical properties, machinability, weldability or brazeability are key parameters. Adequate strength, ductility, magnetic properties at room as well as low temperatures are important factors for vacuum systems of accelerators working at cryogenic temperatures, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. In addition, baking or activation of Non-Evaporable Getters (NEG) at high temperatures impose specific choices of material grades of suitable tensile and creep properties in a large temperature range. Today, stainless steels are the dominant materials of vacuum constructions. Their metallurgy is extensively treated. The reasons for specific requirements in terms of metallurgical processes are detailed, in view of obtaining adequate purity, inclusion cleanliness, and fineness of the microstructure. In many cases these requirements are crucial to guarantee the final leak tightnes...

  12. Thermal conductivity of highly porous mullite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, Rafael; Osendi, Maria Isabel; Ferreira, Jose M.F.; Miranzo, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of highly porous mullite materials (35-60 vol.% porosity) has been measured up to 1000 deg C by the laser flash method. These materials were fabricated by a direct consolidation method based on the swelling properties of starch granules in concentrated aqueous suspensions and showed mainly spherical shaped pores of about 30 μm in diameter. From the point of view of heat conduction, they behave as a bi-phase material of voids dispersed in the continuous mullite matrix. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for the different porosities was modeled by a simple equation that considers the contribution to heat conduction of the mullite matrix and the gas inside the pores, as well as the radiation. The thermal conductivity of the matrix was taken from the measurements done in a dense mullite while the conductivity in the voids was assumed to be that of the testing atmosphere

  13. New high-nitrogen materials based on nitroguanyl-tetrazines: explosive properties, thermal decomposition and combustion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Hiskey, Michael A.; Son, Steve F.; Harry, Herbert; Montoya, Dennis; Hagelberg, Stephanie [Dynamic Experimentation Division, DX-2 Materials Dynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes the explosive sensitivity and performance properties of two novel high-nitrogen materials, 3,6-bis-nitroguanyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (1, (NQ{sub 2}Tz)) and its corresponding bis-triaminoguanidinium salt (2, (TAG){sub 2}(NQ){sub 2}Tz). These materials exhibit very low pressure dependence in burning rate. Flash pyrolysis/FTIR spectroscopy was performed, and insight into this interesting burning behavior was obtained. Our studies indicate that 1 and 2 exhibit highly promising energetic materials properties. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Laser application in high temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohse, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The scope and priorities of laser application in materials science and technology are attracting widespread interest. After a brief discussion of the unique capabilities of laser application in the various fields of materials science, main emphasis is given on the three areas of materials processing, surface modification and alloying, and property measurements at high temperatures. In materials processing the operational regimes for surface hardening, drilling, welding and laser glazing are discussed. Surface modifications by laser melting, quenching and surface alloying, the formation of solid solutions, metastable phases and amorphous solids on the basis of rapid solidification, ion implantation and ion beam mixing are considered. The influence of solidification rates and interface velocities on the surface properties are given. The extension of property measurements up to and beyond the melting point of refractory materials into their critical region by a transient-type dynamic laser pulse heating technique is given for the three examples of vapour pressure measurement, density and heat capacity determination in the solid and liquid phases. A new approach, the laser autoclave technique, applying laser heating and x-ray shadow technique under autoclave conditions to acoustically levitated spheres will be presented. (author)

  15. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagh, Nader M.

    2015-01-01

    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  16. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  17. Proceedings of the Conference on the Standardization of Safety and Performance Tests for Energetic Materials. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    EE Dover, NJ 07801 DEXTER, Robert F. Bureau of Alcohol , Tobacco and Firearms 12th and Penna. Ave, N.W. Federal Bldg. RM 8233 Washington, DC...the digestion in alcoholic KOH. This point should be further investigated by developing a quantitative TLC or high performance liquid...the anti- oxydant neutralizes most of the oxidizing gas, then when the antioxydant is completely depleted, all the samples similarly began showing an

  18. High energy materials. Propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Jai Prakash

    2010-07-01

    Authored by an insider with over 40 years of high energy materials (HEMs) experience in academia, industry and defence organizations, this handbook and ready reference covers all important HEMs from the 1950s to the present with their respective properties and intended purposes. Written at an attainable level for professionals, engineers and technicians alike, the book provides a comprehensive view of the current status and suggests further directions for research and development. An introductory chapter on the chemical and thermodynamic basics allows the reader to become acquainted with the fundamental features of explosives, before moving on to the important safety aspects in processing, handling, transportation and storage of high energy materials. With its collation of results and formulation strategies hitherto scattered in the literature, this should be on the shelf of every HEM researcher and developer. (orig.)

  19. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fedkiw, Peter [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Khan, Saad [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huang, Alex [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fan, Jiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  20. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  1. Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, T.; Harke, A.; Horn, O.; Amthor, J.; Müller, J.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) photonics has become an attractive research topic within the area of integrated optics. This paper aims to fabricate SOI-structures for optical communication applications with lower costs compared to standard fabrication processes as well as to provide a higher flexibility with respect to waveguide and substrate material choice. Amorphous silicon is deposited on thermal oxidized silicon wafers with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The material is optimized in terms of optical light transmission and refractive index. Different a-Si:H waveguides with low propagation losses are presented. The waveguides were processed with CMOS-compatible fabrication technologies and standard DUV-lithography enabling high volume production. To overcome the large mode-field diameter mismatch between incoupling fiber and sub-μm waveguides three dimensional, amorphous silicon tapers were fabricated with a KOH etched shadow mask for patterning. Using ellipsometric and Raman spectroscopic measurements the material properties as refractive index, layer thickness, crystallinity and material composition were analyzed. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) experiments of amorphous thin films and rib waveguides were performed aiming to tune the refractive index of the deposited a-Si:H waveguide core layer after deposition.

  2. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  3. Energy & Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    lithium pertained to the poor morphology of lithium electrodeposits produced during cell recharge in the organic solvent based electrolytes of the time...physical response of the material, including plasticity, fragmentation, defect- nucleated reactions, andmelting. In light of the possible roles of shear...in low cost and robust microrobots,” M.S. thesis , Dept. Mech. Eng., Univ. Maryland, College Park, MD, 2010. [20] C. Morris and B. Parviz, “Micro-scale

  4. Material constraints on high-speed design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Diana; Militaru, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Current high-speed circuit designs with signal rates up to 100Gbps and above are implying constraints for dielectric and conductive materials and their dependence of frequency, for component elements and for production processes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight through various simulation results the frequency dependence of specific parameters like insertion and return loss, eye diagrams, group delay that are part of signal integrity analyses type. In low-power environment designs become more complex as the operation frequency increases. The need for new materials with spatial uniformity for dielectric constant is a need for higher data rates circuits. The fiber weave effect (FWE) will be analyzed through the eye diagram results for various dielectric materials in a differential signaling scheme given the fact that the FWE is a phenomenon that affects randomly the performance of the circuit on balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized through the above mentioned approaches. Crosstalk between traces is also of concern due to propagated signals that have tight rise and fall times or due to high density of the boards. Criteria should be considered to achieve maximum performance of the designed system requiring critical electronic properties.

  5. Potential of ultrafine grained materials as high performance penetrator materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The shear formability and the metal jet formability are important for the kinetic energy penetrator and the chemical energy penetrator, respectively. The shear formability of ultrafine grained (UFG steel was examined, mainly focusing on the effects of the grain shape on the shear characteristics. For this purpose, UFG 4130 steel having the different UFG structures, the lamellar UFG and the equiaxed UFG, was prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP. The lamellar UFG steel exhibited more sharper and localized shear band formation than the equiaxed UFG steel. This is because a lamellar UFG structure was unfavourable against grain rotation which is a main mechanism of the band propagation in UFG materials. Meanwhile, the metal jet formability of UFG OFHC Cu also processed by ECAP was compared to that of coarse grained (CG one by means of dynamic tensile extrusion (DTE tests. CG OFHC Cu exhibited the higher DTE ductility, i.e. better metal jet stability, than UFG OFHC Cu. The initial high strength and the lack of strain hardenability of UFG OFHC Cu were harmful to the metal jet formability.

  6. 16O DIGME of high Tc materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickridge, I.C.; Tallon, J.; Presland, M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been performed of the repeatability of the yield of the 871 keV gamma ray from the 16 O(d, p) 17 O * reaction induced by a 1.8 MeV deuterium beam incident on Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . It is shown that the yield is stable to 0.2% (±1σ) for deuteron fluences up to 298 μC/mm 2 , and that current integration contributes less than 0.3% random error to the yield measurements. The contribution to current integration of molecular hydrogen contamination of the deuteron beam is shown to be less than 0.15%. Yields from different points on the same sample show variations which suggest that this material is not sufficiently stable in the long term to be used as a reference material for the precision DIGME method of oxygen determination in high T c superconductors. (orig.)

  7. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  8. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huey, Bryan D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  9. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  10. Scalable Sub-micron Patterning of Organic Materials Toward High Density Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Jaung, Jae Yun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. The successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.

  11. Explosibility of Energetic Material Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Leri st ics of hail powder and M-I 78 20 S,11,II11 in1l at 16adford Army Ammmnition Plant 79 2 ;’/ Salp Ii n.g it Ini ana Army Am;wiunition Plant I 2... travel only a short distance. Another mode of dispersion is diffusion, which is relatively slow. The third and primary mode of dispersion is transport by

  12. Biotransformations of organic energetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews data on the acute eco-toxicity and delayed effects (mutagenicity) of the model substance (TNT) and of a wide spectrum of its biodegradation products in the wastewaters. It also suggests main metabolic pathways of biotransformation, involving biological reduction. Some possibilities of remediation of contaminated soils utilising microbial catabolic pathways leading to the hydroxy derivatives and up to the cleavage of the aromatic ring system in the presence of the soil bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens are shown, as well as the practical utilisation of fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium under aerobic conditions

  13. High-Density Energetic Metal–Organic Frameworks Based on the 5,5′-Dinitro-2H,2′H-3,3′-bi-1,2,4-triazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalu Dong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High-energy metal–organic frameworks (MOFs based on nitrogen-rich ligands are an emerging class of explosives, and density is one of the positive factors that can influence the performance of energetic materials. Thus, it is important to design and synthesize high-density energetic MOFs. In the present work, hydrothermal reactions of Cu(II with the rigid polynitro heterocyclic ligands 5,5′-dinitro-2H,2′H-3,3′-bi-1,2,4-triazole (DNBT and 5,5′-dinitro-3,3′-bis-1,2,4-triazole-1-diol (DNBTO gave two high-density MOFs: [Cu(DNBT(ATRZ3]n (1 and [Cu(DNBTO(ATRZ2(H2O2]n (2, where ATRZ represents 4,4′-azo-1,2,4-triazole. The structures were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV absorption spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their thermal stabilities were also determined by thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG/DSC. The results revealed that complex 1 has a two-dimensional porous framework that possesses the most stable chair conformations (like cyclohexane, whereas complex 2 has a one-dimensional polymeric structure. Compared with previously reported MOFs based on copper ions, the complexes have higher density (ρ = 1.93 g cm−3 for complex 1 and ρ = 1.96 g cm−3 for complex 2 and high thermal stability (decomposition temperatures of 323 °C for complex 1 and 333.3 °C for complex 2, especially because of the introduction of an N–O bond in complex 2. We anticipate that these two complexes would be potential high-energy density materials.

  14. Materials for advanced high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Materials are studied in advanced applications of high temperature reactors: helium gas turbine and process heat. Long term creep behavior and corrosion tests are conducted in simulated HTR helium up to 1000 deg C with impurities additions in the furnace atmosphere. Corrosion studies on AISI 321 steels at 800-1000 deg C have shown that the O 2 partial pressure is as low as 10 -24+-3 atm, Ni and Fe cannot be oxidised above about 500 and 600 deg C, Cr cease to oxidise at 800 to 900 deg C and Ti at 900 to 1000 deg C depending on alloy composition γ' strengthened superalloys must depend on a protective corrosion mechanism assisted by the presence of Ti and possibly Cr. Carburisation has been identified metallographically in several high temperature materials: Hastelloy X and M21Z. Alloy TZM appears to be inert in HTR Helium at 900 and 1000 deg C. In alloy 800 and Inconel 625 surface cracks initiation is suppressed but crack propagation is accelerated but this was not apparent in AISI steels, Hastelloy X or fine grain Inconel at 750 deg C

  15. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  16. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

    2011-08-30

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  17. High energy beam impact tests on a LHC tertiary collimator at the CERN high-radiation to materials facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cauchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely operate highly energetic particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. The requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, investigating the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting tertiary collimators (TCTs in the experimental regions is a fundamental issue for machine protection. An experimental test was designed to investigate the robustness and effects of beam accidents on a fully assembled collimator, based on accident scenarios in the LHC. This experiment, carried out at the CERN High-Radiation to Materials (HiRadMat facility, involved 440 GeV proton beam impacts of different intensities on the jaws of a horizontal TCT. This paper presents the experimental setup and the preliminary results obtained, together with some first outcomes from visual inspection and a comparison of such results with numerical simulations.

  18. High energy beam impact tests on a LHC tertiary collimator at the CERN high-radiation to materials facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Marija; Aberle, O.; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Cornelis, K.; Dallocchio, A.; Deboy, D.; Lari, L.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2014-02-01

    The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely operate highly energetic particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, investigating the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting tertiary collimators (TCTs) in the experimental regions is a fundamental issue for machine protection. An experimental test was designed to investigate the robustness and effects of beam accidents on a fully assembled collimator, based on accident scenarios in the LHC. This experiment, carried out at the CERN High-Radiation to Materials (HiRadMat) facility, involved 440 GeV proton beam impacts of different intensities on the jaws of a horizontal TCT. This paper presents the experimental setup and the preliminary results obtained, together with some first outcomes from visual inspection and a comparison of such results with numerical simulations.

  19. Materials for advanced high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, L.W.

    1976-01-01

    The results recently obtained from the Dragon program are presented to illustrate materials behavior: (a) effect of temperature on oxidation and carburisation in HTR helium (variation in oxide depth and in C content of AISI 321 after 5000 hours in HTR helium; effect of temperature on surface scale formation in the γ' strengthened alloys Nimonic 80A and 713LC); (b) effect of alloy composition on oxidation and carburisation behavior (influence of Nb and Ti on the corrosion of austenitic steels; influence of Ti and Al in IN-102; weight gain of cast high Ni alloys); (c) effect of environment on creep strength (results of tests for hastelloy X, grade I inconel 625, grade II inconel 625 and inconel 617 in He and air between 750 and 800 0 C)

  20. Drift mobility of thermalized and highly energetic holes in thin layers of amorphous dielectric SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielski, Jan; Jeszka, Jeremiasz K.

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technology in the electronics industry requires new dielectric materials. It is also important to understand the charge-carrier transport mechanism in these materials. We examined the hole drift mobility in amorphous SiC dielectric thin films using the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Charge carriers were generated using an electron gun. The generated holes gave a dispersive TOF signal and the mobility was low. For electric field strengths above 4 x 10 5 V cm -1 the drift mobility shows a very strong dependence on the electric field and a weak temperature dependence (transport of ''high-energy'' charge carriers). At lower electric fields and for thermalized charge carriers the mobility is practically field independent and thermally activated. The observed phenomenon was attributed to the changes in the effective energy of the generated carriers moving in the high electric fields and consequently in the density of localized states taking part in the transport. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Thermoelectric materials - Compromising between high efficiency and materials abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homm, G.; Klar, P.J. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    In the context of CO{sub 2} neutral and regenerative energy production, the field of thermoelectrics has shifted more and more into the focus of scientific research in the last few years. Particularly a lot of research projects were started in the field of energy autarkic sensor technology and the so called energy harvesting, i.e. the recycling of otherwise lost energy. A potentially huge industrial branch for thermoelectric applications is the automotive industry with a main emphasis on generating electricity out of the waste heat of combustion engines with the help of thermoelectric generators or using Peltier cooling to replace conventional air conditioning in the passenger compartment. In addition, many niche applications are possible, e.g. as sensors for measuring the air pressure of tires etc. The applications of thermoelectric devices are very versatile. We analyse the potential of the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials SiGe, PbTe, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, FeSi{sub 2} and potentially ZnO with respect to employment in four types of applications, classified by mobile vs stationary and specialized vs. mass application. The selection criteria comprise efficiency, materials availability, costs, environmental friendliness and toxicity. Based on these criteria, a decision matrix for choosing the appropriate material system for a specific application is defined. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  3. Energetic reuse: the use of energy from organic material from urban waste for plastics recycling; Reaproveitamento energetico: uso de energia proveniente de material organico dos residuos urbanos para reciclar plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Priscila Alves; Rocha, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    The population growth and the elevation of the purchasing status due to economic development impel the gradual increase of residues produced a year. The discarding of these residues represents a great economic and environmental challenge, mainly because of discarded plastic concentration with no energetic and economic use, a also because of the organic material that, after decomposing, produces methane, one of the most responsible for global heating when in contact with atmosphere with no control. The recycling of plastic residues is a solution to minimize its discard and to guarantee an environmental improvement for saving raw matter, however the high consumption of energy endears the process, making it difficult its economic viability. This takes the search of new alternatives for attainment of low cost energy. In the problem of discard of the organic matter it can be the solution for the recycling of these residues. The decomposition of the organic matter produces fuel (biogas) useful as power plant for the generation of necessary electricity to the recycling process. The present study analyses an alternative to recycle plastic residues, after being consumed, in some places for discarding and using energy from biogas produced in landfills or biodigestors. Initially it was carried through a data-collecting and analysis of the physical composition of the residues, indispensable to the development of the study, which allowed to daily find the average percentage of plastics (12,9%) and organic matter (41,9%) made use by the involved population. On the basis of the data of organic matter the determination in such a way of the potential of generation of the biogas as of the electric power 'recycled' was possible to leave of that they would be discarded without any use. Data-collecting on equipment used in the plastic recycling had been essential for attainment of the necessary average energy demand to the process in such a way not only for soft plastic and

  4. Energetic cost of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Philip K; Salazar, Vielka L

    2011-01-15

    Communication signals may be energetically expensive or inexpensive to produce, depending on the function of the signal and the competitive nature of the communication system. Males of sexually selected species may produce high-energy advertisement signals, both to enhance detectability and to signal their size and body condition. Accordingly, the proportion of the energy budget allocated to signal production ranges from almost nothing for many signals to somewhere in excess of 50% for acoustic signals in short-lived sexually selected species. Recent data from gymnotiform electric fish reveal mechanisms that regulate energy allocated to sexual advertisement signals through dynamical remodeling of the excitable membranes in the electric organ. Further, males of the short-lived sexually selected species, Brachyhypopomus gauderio, trade off among different metabolic compartments, allocating energy to signal production while reducing energy used in other metabolic functions. Female B. gauderio, by contrast, do not trade off energy between signaling and other functions. To fuel energetically expensive signal production, we expect a continuum of strategies to be adopted by animals of different life history strategies. Future studies should explore the relation between life history and energy allocation trade-offs.

  5. High temperature fracture of ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhorn, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is presented of fracture mechanisms and methods of lifetime prediction in ceramic materials. Techniques of lifetime prediction are based on the science of fracture mechanics. Application of these techniques to structural ceramics is limited by our incomplete understanding of fracture mechanisms in these materials, and by the occurrence of flaw generation in these materials at elevated temperatures. Research on flaw generation and fracture mechanisms is recommended as a way of improving the reliability of structural ceramics

  6. Destruction of highly toxic chemical materials by using the energy of underground thermonuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trutnev, Y.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main problems of modern technogenic civilisation is the evergrowing ecological crisis caused by the growth of industrial wastes harmful for biosphere. Among them the radioactive wastes of atomic energetics, worked out nuclear energy facilities and toxic wastes from various chemical plants begin to play a specific role. Traditional technologies of destruction and disposal of these wastes demand great investments up to many billions of dollars, enormous maintenance expenditures, occupation of substantial territories by new productions and security zones as well as many qualified specialists. On the other hand potential accidents during the conventional processes of waste reprocessing are fraught with the possibility of large ecological disasters, that are the reason of strong oppositions of population and 'green movement' to the foundation of such installations. So, rather progressive seem to be the technologies based on the utilisation of underground nuclear explosion energy for annihilations and disposal of high-level wastes of atomic energetics and nuclear facilities as well as for thermal decomposition of chemically toxic substances at extremely high temperatures. These technologies will be rather cheap, they will allow to process big amounts of materials in ecologically safe form far from the populated regions and will need a commercially beneficial if used for international purposes. The application of these technologies may be of great significance for realisation of disarmament process- destruction of chemical weapons and in future the nuclear warheads and some production components. (au)

  7. Introduction to global energetic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book gives a view on global energetic problems and proposes a thorough economic analysis on principle aspects taken into account: energy supply, depending energy sources and available technologic channels, relationships between macro-economy and energy demand, new size of energy problems (environmental effects, overcosts of renewable energy sources, necessity of an high technologic development...). 38 refs

  8. High Fidelity Raman Chemical Imaging of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobba, Venkata Nagamalli Koteswara Rao

    The development of high fidelity Raman imaging systems is important for a number of application areas including material science, bio-imaging, bioscience and healthcare, pharmaceutical analysis, and semiconductor characterization. The use of Raman imaging as a characterization tool for detecting the amorphous and crystalline regions in the biopolymer poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is the precis of my thesis. In the first chapter, a brief insight about the basics of Raman spectroscopy, Raman chemical imaging, Raman mapping, and Raman imaging techniques has been provided. The second chapter contains details about the successful development of tailored sample of PLLA. Biodegradable polymers are used in areas of tissue engineering, agriculture, packaging, and in medical field for drug delivery, implant devices, and surgical sutures. Detailed information about the sample preparation and characterization of these cold-drawn PLLA polymer substrates has been provided. Wide-field Raman hyperspectral imaging using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) was demonstrated in the early 1990s. The AOTF contributed challenges such as image walk, distortion, and image blur. A wide-field AOTF Raman imaging system has been developed as part of my research and methods to overcome some of the challenges in performing AOTF wide-field Raman imaging are discussed in the third chapter. This imaging system has been used for studying the crystalline and amorphous regions on the cold-drawn sample of PLLA. Of all the different modalities that are available for performing Raman imaging, Raman point-mapping is the most extensively used method. The ease of obtaining the Raman hyperspectral cube dataset with a high spectral and spatial resolution is the main motive of performing this technique. As a part of my research, I have constructed a Raman point-mapping system and used it for obtaining Raman hyperspectral image data of various minerals, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Chapter four offers

  9. Nanomechanical analysis of high performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for researchers who are interested in investigating the nanomechanical properties of materials using advanced instrumentation techniques. The chapters of the book are written in an easy-to-follow format, just like solved examples. The book comprehensively covers a broad range of materials such as polymers, ceramics, hybrids, biomaterials, metal oxides, nanoparticles, minerals, carbon nanotubes and welded joints. Each chapter describes the application of techniques on the selected material and also mentions the methodology adopted for the extraction of information from the raw data. This is a unique book in which both equipment manufacturers and equipment users have contributed chapters. Novices will learn the techniques directly from the inventors and senior researchers will gain in-depth information on the new technologies that are suitable for advanced analysis. On the one hand, fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the nanomechanical behavior of materials is included in t...

  10. Material fatigue in high pressure piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunne, W.C. [Pro Novum, Research and Technological Services, Ltd, Katowice, (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The present paper describes a type of damage to four-way cross pieces on live steam and reheated steam pipelines. The results of metallographic examination and strength tests are presented. The occurring mechanisms of material degradation, i.e. low-cycle fatigue and hydrogen corrosion are discussed. The both mechanisms result in the corrosion fatigue of the material causing the failure of cross pieces. A new design of cross piece was proposed. (orig.) 5 refs.

  11. Study on penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiangxin; Xu, Heyang

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate penetration-induced initiation of energetic fragment penetrating target, PTFE/Al (mass ratio 73.5/26.5) pressed and sintered into a Ф8mm × 8mm cylinder. To form energetic fragment, the cylinder was put into a closed container made by 35CrMnSiA. The container is 12mm long, 2mm thick. Energetic fragments were launched by a 14.5mm ballistic gun with a series of velocities and the penetrate process was simulated by AUTODYN-3D. The results show that the stress peak of energetic material exceed the initiation threshold, and energetic material will deflagrate, when energetic fragments impact velocity more than 800 m/s. The research results can provide reference for designs of energetic warhead.

  12. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Zirconium -Oxide Materials presented at/published to the Journal of General Dentistry with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local file #16208. 2...Zirconia-Oxide Materials 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...OBSOLETE 48. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials

  13. Energetics of dislocation transformations in hcp metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Yin, Binglun; Curtin, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dislocation core structures of hcp metals are highly complex and differ significantly among the hcp family. Some dislocations undergo unconventional transformations that have significant effects on the material plastic flow. Here, the energetics of dislocation dissociations are analyzed in a general anisotropic linear elastic theory framework for transformations in which changes in the partial Burgers vectors are small. Quantitative analyses on various transformations are made using DFT-computed stacking fault energies and partial Burgers vectors. Specifically, possible transformations of the mixed, edge, and screw 〈c+a〉 and screw 〈a〉 dislocations in 6 hcp metals (Mg, Ti, Zr, Re, Zn, Cd) are studied. Climb dissociation of mixed or edge 〈c+a〉 dislocations to the Basal plane is energetically favorable in all 6 metals and thus only limited by thermal activation. The 〈c+a〉 screw dislocation is energetically preferable on Pyramidal I for Ti, Zr, and Re, and on Pyramidal II for Zn and Cd. In Mg, the energy difference between screw 〈c+a〉 on Pyramidal I and II planes is small, suggesting relatively easy cross-slip. For the screw 〈a〉, Basal dissociation is energetically favorable in Mg, Re, Zn and Cd, while Prism dissociation is strongly favorable in Ti and Zr. Only Ti, Zr and Re show a metastable state for dissociation on the Prism plane, and the energy difference between screw 〈a〉 on the Prism and Pyramidal I planes is relatively small in all systems, suggesting relatively easy cross-slip of 〈a〉 in Ti and Zr. The elastic analysis thus provides a single framework able to capture the controlling energetics for different dissociations and slip systems in hcp metals. When the calculated energy differences are very small, the results point to the need for detailed modeling of the atomistic core structure. Moreover, the analyses rationalize broad experimental observations on dominant slip systems and dislocation behaviours, and provide

  14. Energetic potential of algal biomass from high-rate algal ponds for the production of solid biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Taynan de Oliveira; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Avelar, Nayara Vilela; Carneiro, Angélica de Cássia de Oliveira; de Assis, Letícia Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    In this investigation, chemical characteristics, higher, lower and net heating value, bulk and energy density, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to study the thermal characteristics of three algal biomasses. These biomasses, grown as by-products of wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), were: (i) biomass produced in domestic effluent and collected directly from an HRAP (PO); (ii) biomass produced in domestic effluent in a mixed pond-panel system and collected from the panels (PA); and (iii) biomass originating from the treatment effluent from the meat processing industry and collected directly from an HRAP (IN). The biomass IN was the best alternative for thermal power generation. Subsequently, a mixture of the algal biomasses and Jatropha epicarp was used to produce briquettes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of algal biomass, and their properties were evaluated. In general, the addition of algal biomass to briquettes decreased both the hygroscopicity and fixed carbon content and increased the bulk density, ash content, and energy density. A 50% proportion of biomass IN was found to be the best raw material for producing briquettes. Therefore, the production of briquettes consisting of algal biomass and Jatropha epicarp at a laboratory scale was shown to be technically feasible.

  15. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorab, H. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grains of the reference clinker caused by the transformation of the α´-belite to the β polymorph. Striae were weaker in the second and third clinkers indicating a probable stabilization of the α ‘-belite polymorph. Compressive strength of the respective cements were attained first after 28 days and the early strength did not improve with increasing fineness. Higher compressive strength values were found for the cement prepared from second clinker.Se han preparado tres clinkeres de laboratorio con altos contenidos en belita a partir de materias primas tradicionales y alternativas. El clinker de referencia se obtuvo a partir de una mezcla de caliza, arcillas arenosas y grasas y limaduras de hierro. Las arcillas grasas fueron sustituidas por polvo de ladrillo rojo en la preparación del segundo clinker, y en el tercero el contenido de arcilla grasa fue de solo un 2% y parte de la caliza fue sustituida por cascara de huevo. El estudio realizado por SEM muestra superficies estriadas alrededor de los granos de belita que indican una transformación del polimorfo α´ a la forma β-C₂S, durante el enfriamiento. Esas estrías son menos marcadas en el segundo y tercer clinker, indicando, una estabilización del polimorfo α´-C₂S. Los valores de resistencias a compresión de los correspondientes cementos, a 28 días de curado, no se ven incrementados por la finura de dichos cementos. Las mayores resistencias se obtuvieron en el cemento preparado a partir del cl

  16. 1982 Annual status report: high-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, M.

    1983-01-01

    The High Temperature Materials Programme is executed at the JRC, Petten Establishment and has for the 1980/83 programme period the objective to promote within the European Community the development of high temperature materials required for future energy technologies. Materials and engineering studies include: corrosion with or without load, mechanical properties under static or dynamic loads, surface protection creep of tubular components in corrosive environments and high temperature materials data bank

  17. Energetics and crystal chemistry of Ruddlesden-Popper type structures in high T(sub c) ceramic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Cormack, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of Ruddlesden-Popper type layers (alternating slabs of rocksalt and perovskite structures) is seen in these oxides which is similar in many respects to what is seen in the system Sr-Ti-O. However, it was observed that there are some significant differences, for example the rocksalt and perovskite blocks in new superconducting compounds are not necessarily electrically, unlike in Sr-Ti-O systems. This will certainly render an additional coulombic bonding energy between two different types of blocks and may well lead to significant differences in their structural chemistry. In the higher order members of the various homologous series, additional Cu-O planes are inserted in the perovskite blocks. In order for the unit cell to electrically neutral the net positive charge on rocksalt block (which remains constant throughout the homologous series) should be balanced by an equal negative charge on perovskite block. It, thus becomes necessary to create oxygen vacancies in the basic perovskite structure, when width of the perovskite slab changes on addition of extra Cu-O planes. Results of atomistic simulations suggest that these missing oxygen ions allow the Cu-O planes to buckle in these compounds. This is also supported by the absence of buckling in the first member of Bi-containing compounds in which there are no missing oxygen ions and the Sr-Ti-O series of compounds. Additional results are presented on the phase stability of polytypoid structures in these crystal chemically complex systems. The studies will focus on the determination of the location of Cu(3+) in the structures of higher order members of the La-Cu-O system and whether Cu(3+) ions or oxygen vacancies are energetically more favorable charge compensating mechanism.

  18. Assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents is given with emphasis on the generic issues of energetic recriticality and energetic fuel-coolant interaction events. Application of a few general behavior principles to the oxide-fueled system suggests that such events are highly unlikely following a postulated core meltdown event

  19. Development of highly effective neutron shields and neutron absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, K.; Matsuda, F.; Taniuchi, H.; Yuhara, T.; Iida, T.

    1993-01-01

    A wide range of materials, including polymers and hydrogen-occluded alloys that might be usable as the neutron shielding material were examined. And a wide range of materials, including aluminum alloys that might be usable as the neutron-absorbing material were examined. After screening, the candidate material was determined on the basis of evaluation regarding its adaptabilities as a high-performance neutron-shielding and neutron-absorbing material. This candidate material was manufactured for trial, after which material properties tests, neutron-shielding tests and neutron-absorbing tests were carried out on it. The specifications of this material were thus determined. This research has resulted in materials of good performance; a neutron-shielding material based on ethylene propylene rubber and titanium hydride, and a neutron-absorbing material based on aluminum and titanium hydride. (author)

  20. High Performance Lead--free Piezoelectric Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shashaank

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials find applications in number of devices requiring inter-conversion of mechanical and electrical energy.  These devices include different types of sensors, actuators and energy harvesting devices. A number of lead-based perovskite compositions (PZT, PMN-PT, PZN-PT etc.) have dominated the field in last few decades owing to their giant piezoresponse and convenient application relevant tunability. With increasing environmental concerns, in the last one decade, focus has be...

  1. Muon radiography technology for detecting high-Z materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lingling; Wang Wenxin; Zhou Jianrong; Sun Shaohua; Liu Zuoye; Li Lu; Du Hongchuan; Zhang Xiaodong; Hu Bitao

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the possibility of using the scattering of cosmic muons to identify threatening high-Z materials. Various scenarios of threat material detection are simulated with the Geant4 toolkit. PoCA (Point of Closest Approach) algorithm reconstructing muon track gives 3D radiography images of the target material. Z-discrimination capability, effects of the placement of high-Z materials, shielding materials inside the cargo, and spatial resolution of position sensitive detector for muon radiography are carefully studied. Our results show that a detector position resolution of 50 μm is good enough for shielded materials detection. (authors)

  2. Computational studies on energetic properties of nitrogen-rich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computational studies on energetic properties of nitrogen-rich energetic materials with ditetrazoles. LI XIAO-HONGa,b,∗ and ZHANG RUI-ZHOUa. aCollege of Physics and Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471 003, China. bLuoyang Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Functional Materials, ...

  3. Europa Lander Material Selection Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappan, Alexander S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heller, Mellisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Energetic materials (EMs, explosives, pyrotechnics, propellants) provide high-power output of high temperature reaction products. These products can be solid, liquid, or gaseous during reaction or after the products have equilibrated with the surroundings. For example, high explosives typically consist of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen bonded within a single molecule, and produce almost exclusively gaseous products. Conversely, intermetallics consist of physical mixtures of metals and metalloids, and produce almost exclusively condensed products. Other materials such as pyrotechnics and propellants have intermediate behavior. All energetic materials react in a self-propagating manner that after ignition, does not necessarily require energy input from the surroundings. The range of reaction velocities can range from mm/s for intermetallics, to km/s for high explosives. Energetic material selection depends on numerous requirements specific to the needs of a system. High explosives are used for applications where high pressure gases are necessary for pushing or fracturing materials (e.g., rock, metal) or creating shock waves or air blast. Propellants are used to produce moderate-pressure, high-temperature products without a shock wave. Pyrotechnics are used to produce numerous effects including: high-temperature products, gases, light, smoke, sound, and others. Thermites are used to produce heat, high-temperature products, materials, and other effects that require condensed products. Intermetallics are used to produce high-temperature condensed products and materials, with very little gas production. Numerous categories of energetic materials exist with overlapping definitions, effects, and properties.

  4. Review of high Z materials for PSI applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsuo; Noda, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Hiroo.

    1992-06-01

    Application of carbon based low Z materials to PFM has significantly improved plasma parameters in large tokamaks. There are, however, serious concerns of erosion, neutron damage etc. for application of low Z materials in future D - T burning machine. To apply high Z metals to PFM, there are several issues to be solved; high Z impurity production by sputtering, their accumulation in plasma center, and high radiation loss. Because of these concerns high Z metals are not widely employed nor planned to be used in the present large tokamaks. Since our efforts have been concentrated to optimize the low Z materials, little systematic investigations for high Z materials in tokamak have been done, lacking data base especially those concerning the impacts on plasma core. In order to employ high Z material as PFM near future, material properties related to impurity production and hydrogen recycling are reviewed and discussed what is important and what shall be done. (author) 109 refs

  5. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    -reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... from designing and constructing a high-speed servo-hydraulic test machine and by performing a comprehensive test series. The difficulties encountered in the test work could be addressed with the developed analysis. The conclusion was that the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine is less suited...... for testing fibre-reinforced polymers due to their elastic behaviour and low strain to failure. This is problematic as the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine closes the gap between quasi-static tests rates and lower strain rates, which are achievable with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Split...

  6. Inorganic nanostructured materials for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitors (ES) are a well-known energy storage system that has high power density, long life-cycle and fast charge-discharge kinetics. Nanostructured materials are a new generation of electrode materials with large surface area and short transport/diffusion path for ions and electrons to achieve high specific capacitance in ES. This mini review highlights recent developments of inorganic nanostructure materials, including carbon nanomaterials, metal oxide nanoparticles, and metal oxide nanowires/nanotubes, for high performance ES applications.

  7. Energetic certification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    At community level the problem of energy quality control in a building was introduced by EEC recommendation n. 93/76 in 1993. In this item are reported some notes on energetic certification in European countries [it

  8. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  9. Charmed muons in ice. Measurement of the high-energetic atmospheric energy spectrum with IceCube in the detector configuration IC86-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis the flux of high-energy muons in the energy regime from 10 TeV to 1 PeV is reconstructed and analyzed using data collected with the IceCube detector in the time span 13.05.2011 to 15.05.2012. From a data set containing muon bundles only those events are selected which contain a muon that is energetically dominating the others in the bundle. For the separation a Random Forest model is applied, resulting in a data set of high-energy muons with an efficiency of (40.8±0.6) % and a purity of (93.1±0.4) %. Attributes considered in the separation are selected by the mRMR algorithm. The energy spectrum of muons is reconstructed with a regularized unfolding using the software TRUEE. The hypothesis of a prompt and a conventional component of atmospheric muons results in flux normalizations of N conv. =1.03±0.06 and N prompt =1.59±1.57. Due to the large uncertainty of the prompt component, the hypothesis of a pure conventional flux cannot be excluded. Using these normalizations, it is possible to determine if the measured high-energy neutrino flux above 60 TeV is of atmospheric origin. The p-value for this hypothesis is found to be 0.045, which indicates the need of an astrophysical component to explain the excess at high energies.

  10. Ecological, energetic and economical comparison of fermentation, composting and incineration of solid biogenic waste materials; Oekologischer, energetischer und oekonomischer Vergleich von Vergaerung, Kompostierung und Verbrennung fester biogener Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie GmbH, Arbi, Baar (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung Schleiss, Baar (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This study compares different technologies for the treatment of biogenic wastes, including open windrow and enclosed tunnel composting, anaerobic digestion, the combination of both these methods and burning in waste incineration plants. The methods are compared from the points of view of environmental impact, energy use and production, and economics. The environmental impact, calculated for normalised quantities of waste using the 'Ecoindicator 95+' tool, are discussed and the methane and carbon dioxide emissions of the different methods of treatment are compared. Also, the considerable differences to be found in the energy balances of the different systems are discussed in the light of efforts to substitute nuclear and fossil-fuel generated power. Cost and energetic comparisons are also made between compost and artificial fertilisers. The report is concluded with recommendations for adapting bio-technological methods for the treatment of wastes with an emphasis on anaerobic processes.

  11. Magnetization and magnetostriction in highly magnetostrictive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoelke, Jennifer Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-05-26

    The majority of this research has been in developing a model to describe the magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D, Tbsub>1-xDyxFey (x = 0.7-0.75 and y = 1.8--2.0), a rare earth-iron alloy which displays much promise for use in device applications. In the first chapter an introduction is given to the phenomena of magnetization and magnetostriction. The magnetic processes responsible for the observed magnetic properties of materials are explained. An overview is presented of the magnetic properties of rare earths, and more specifically the magnetic properties of Terfenol-D. In the second chapter, experimental results are presented on three composition of Tb< with x = 0.7, y= 1.9, 1.95, and x= 0.73, y= 1.95. The data were taken for various levels of prestress to show the effects of composition and microstructure on the magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D. In the third chapter, a theoretical model is developed based on the rotation of magnetic domains. The model is used to explain the magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D, including the observed negative strictions and large change in strain. The fourth chapter goes on to examine the magnetic properties of Terfenol-D along different crystallographic orientations. In the fifth chapter initial data are presented on the time dependence of magnetization in nickel.

  12. Magnetization and magnetostriction in highly magnetostrictive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoelke, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of this research has been in developing a model to describe the magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D, Tb 1-x Dy x Fe y (x = 0.7-0.75 and y = 1.8--2.0), a rare earth-iron alloy which displays much promise for use in device applications. In the first chapter an introduction is given to the phenomena of magnetization and magnetostriction. The magnetic processes responsible for the observed magnetic properties of materials are explained. An overview is presented of the magnetic properties of rare earths, and more specifically the magnetic properties of Terfenol-D. In the second chapter, experimental results are presented on three composition of Tb 1-x Dy x Fe y with x = 0.7, y= 1.9, 1.95, and x= 0.73, y= 1.95. The data were taken for various levels of prestress to show the effects of composition and microstructure on the magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D. In the third chapter, a theoretical model is developed based on the rotation of magnetic domains. The model is used to explain the magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Terfenol-D, including the observed negative strictions and large change in strain. The fourth chapter goes on to examine the magnetic properties of Terfenol-D along different crystallographic orientations. In the fifth chapter initial data are presented on the time dependence of magnetization in nickel

  13. Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.

  14. High throughput materials research and development for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of next generation batteries requires a breakthrough in materials. Traditional one-by-one method, which is suitable for synthesizing large number of sing-composition material, is time-consuming and costly. High throughput and combinatorial experimentation, is an effective method to synthesize and characterize huge amount of materials over a broader compositional region in a short time, which enables to greatly speed up the discovery and optimization of materials with lower cost. In this work, high throughput and combinatorial materials synthesis technologies for lithium ion battery research are discussed, and our efforts on developing such instrumentations are introduced.

  15. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  16. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  17. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  18. Enclosure for handling high activity materials abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Dominguez Rodriguez, G.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Rodriguez Esteban, A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With that purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. A description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (author) [es

  19. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  20. High temperature tests for graphite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmurikov, Evgenij

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed within the framework of the EURISOL for facilities SPIRAL-II (GANIL, France) and SPES (LNL, Italy), and aims to investigate the anticipated strength properties of fine-grained graphite at elevated temperatures. It appears that the major parameters that affect to the lifetime of a graphite target of this IP are the temperature and heating time. High temperature tests were conducted to simulate the heating under the influence of a beam of heavy particles by passing thro...

  1. Development of high performance cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.

    2010-04-01

    The irradiation test for HANA claddings conducted and a series of evaluation for next-HANA claddings as well as their in-pile and out-of pile performances tests were also carried out at Halden research reactor. The 6th irradiation test have been completed successfully in Halden research reactor. As a result, HANA claddings showed high performance, such as corrosion resistance increased by 40% compared to Zircaloy-4. The high performance of HANA claddings in Halden test has enabled lead test rod program as the first step of the commercialization of HANA claddings. DB has been established for thermal and LOCA-related properties. It was confirmed from the thermal shock test that the integrity of HANA claddings was maintained in more expanded region than the criteria regulated by NRC. The manufacturing process of strips was established in order to apply HANA alloys, which were originally developed for the claddings, to the spacer grids. 250 kinds of model alloys for the next-generation claddings were designed and manufactured over 4 times and used to select the preliminary candidate alloys for the next-generation claddings. The selected candidate alloys showed 50% better corrosion resistance and 20% improved high temperature oxidation resistance compared to the foreign advanced claddings. We established the manufacturing condition controlling the performance of the dual-cooled claddings by changing the reduction rate in the cold working steps

  2. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  3. New window materials for high power gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsar, M.N.; Hua Chi

    1993-01-01

    A single free standing synthetic diamond window seems to have higher absorption coefficient value at millimeter wavelength region at this time although it is claimed that it possesses good mechanical strength and higher thermal conductivity characteristics. It certainly does not rule out the use of diamond film on single crystal high resistivity silicon to improve its mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. One may have to use an appropriate film thickness for a particular wavelength in gyrotron window application. It is also necessary to use an appropriate thickness for the silicon perhaps equivalent to a quaterwavelength in order to avoid the reflection mismatch

  4. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  5. Energetic particle observations at the subsolar magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Eccles

    Full Text Available The pitch-angle distributions (PAD of energetic particles are examined as the ISEE-1 satellite crosses the Earth’s magnetopause near the subsolar point. The investigation focuses on the possible existence of a particular type of distribution that would be associated with a source of energetic particles in the high-latitude magnetosphere. PADs, demonstrating broad, persistent field-aligned fluxes filling a single hemisphere (upper/northern or lower/southern, were observed just sunward of the magnetopause current layer for an extended period of many minutes. These distributions are a direct prediction of a possible source of energetic particles located in the high altitude dayside cusp and we present five examples in detail of the three-dimensional particle distributions to demonstrate their existence. From these results, other possible causes of such PADs are examined.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  6. Very energetic photons at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawa, A.C.; Krawczyk, M.

    1991-01-01

    We show that every energetic photons in the backward direction can be produced in deep inelastic Compton scattering at HERA. Assuming a fixed energy of 9 GeV for the initial photons and 820 GeV for the protons a high rate is found for the production of final photons with a transverse momentum equal to 5 GeV/c and energy between 40 GeV and 300 GeV. These energetic photons arise mainly from the scattering of the soft gluonic constituents of the initial photon with quarks from the proton. They are produced in the backward direction in coincidence with a photon beam jet of energy ∝ 9 GeV in the forward direction. (orig.)

  7. Platform for high temperature materials (PHiTEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluc, N.; Hoffelner, W.; Michler, J.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced energy power systems like Generation IV fission reactors, thermonuclear fusion reactors, solar thermal/solar chemical reactors, gas turbines and coal gasification systems require materials that can operate at high temperatures in extreme environments: irradiation, corrosion, unidirectional and cyclic loads. On the path to development of new and adequate high temperature materials, understanding of damage formation and evolution and of damage effects is indispensable. Damage of materials in components takes place on different time and length scales. Component failure is usually a macroscopic event. Macroscopic material properties and their changes with time (e.g., hardening, creep embrittlement, corrosion) are determined by the micro- to nano-properties of the material. The multi scale is an ambitious and challenging attempt to take these facts into consideration by developing an unified model of the material behaviour. This requires, however, dedicated tools to test and analyse materials on different scales. The platform for high temperatures materials is being set up within the framework of collaboration between the EPFL, the PSI and the EMPA. It has three main goals: 1) Establish a platform that allows the multi scale characterization of relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties of advanced, high temperature materials, with a focus on irradiated, i.e. radioactive, materials, by combining the use of a focused ion beam and a nano indentation device with multi scale modelling and simulations. 2) Use the methods developed and the results gained for existing materials for developing improved high temperature materials to be used in advanced and sustainable future energy power plants. 3) Become an attractive partner for industry by providing a wide knowledge base, flexibility in answering technical questions and skills to better understand damage in already existing plants and to support development of new products at the industrial scale

  8. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  9. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    :Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high......-fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced...

  10. In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D., E-mail: dmueller@pppl.gov; Roquemore, A. L.; Jaworski, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Miller, J.; Creely, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, Center for Plasma Material Interaction, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm{sup 2} thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  11. High-Resolution Photoionization, Photoelectron and Photodissociation Studies. Determination of Accurate Energetic and Spectroscopic Database for Combustion Radicals and Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Cheuk-Yiu [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-04-25

    The main goal of this research program was to obtain accurate thermochemical and spectroscopic data, such as ionization energies (IEs), 0 K bond dissociation energies, 0 K heats of formation, and spectroscopic constants for radicals and molecules and their ions of relevance to combustion chemistry. Two unique, generally applicable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser photoion-photoelectron apparatuses have been developed in our group, which have used for high-resolution photoionization, photoelectron, and photodissociation studies for many small molecules of combustion relevance.

  12. 1981 Annual status report. High-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature materials programme is executed at the JRC, Petten Establishment and has for the 1980/83 programme period the objective to promote within the European Community the development of high temperature materials required for future energy technologies. A range of engineering studies is being carried out. A data bank storing factual data on alloys for high temperature applications is being developed and has reached the operational phase

  13. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Santos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The melanocortin system plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Mice genetically deficient in the melanocortin-3 receptor gene have a normal body weight with increased body fat, mild hypophagia compared to wild-type mice. In humans, Thr6Lys and Val81Ile variants of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene (MC3R have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research is based on the NUGENOB study, a trial conducted to assess weight loss during a 10-week dietary intervention involving two different hypo-energetic (high-fat and low-fat diets. A total of 760 obese patients were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the single exon of MC3R gene and its flanking regions, including the missense variants Thr6Lys and Val81Ile. Linear mixed models and haplotype-based analysis were carried out to assess the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and differential weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. RESULTS: No differences in drop-out rate were found by MC3R genotypes. The rs6014646 polymorphism was significantly associated with weight loss using co-dominant (p = 0.04 and dominant models (p = 0.03. These p-values were not statistically significant after strict control for multiple testing. Haplotype-based multivariate analysis using permutations showed that rs3827103-rs1543873 (p = 0.06, rs6014646-rs6024730 (p = 0.05 and rs3746619-rs3827103 (p = 0.10 displayed near-statistical significant results in relation to weight loss. No other significant associations or gene*diet interactions were detected for weight loss, fat mass loss, waist change and resting energy expenditure changes. CONCLUSION: The study

  14. Computer code to predict the heat of explosion of high energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthurajan, H.; Sivabalan, R.; Pon Saravanan, N.; Talawar, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The computational approach to the thermochemical changes involved in the process of explosion of a high energy materials (HEMs) vis-a-vis its molecular structure aids a HEMs chemist/engineers to predict the important thermodynamic parameters such as heat of explosion of the HEMs. Such a computer-aided design will be useful in predicting the performance of a given HEM as well as in conceiving futuristic high energy molecules that have significant potential in the field of explosives and propellants. The software code viz., LOTUSES developed by authors predicts various characteristics of HEMs such as explosion products including balanced explosion reactions, density of HEMs, velocity of detonation, CJ pressure, etc. The new computational approach described in this paper allows the prediction of heat of explosion (ΔH e ) without any experimental data for different HEMs, which are comparable with experimental results reported in literature. The new algorithm which does not require any complex input parameter is incorporated in LOTUSES (version 1.5) and the results are presented in this paper. The linear regression analysis of all data point yields the correlation coefficient R 2 = 0.9721 with a linear equation y = 0.9262x + 101.45. The correlation coefficient value 0.9721 reveals that the computed values are in good agreement with experimental values and useful for rapid hazard assessment of energetic materials

  15. La2CuO4+δ: Synthesis under high oxygen pressure and study of phase relations and energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.P.; Mehta, A.; DiCarlo, J.; Navrotsky, A.

    1994-01-01

    High oxygen pressures have been achieved in a piston-cylinder apparatus using a double capsule assembly consisting of a sealed outer Au capsule, containing an oxygen source (KMnO 4 ), and an inner, open Pt capsule containing the sample. Using this technique, La 2 CuO 4 was annealed at 800 degree C, 5--25 kbar for 2--4 h. Transposed temperature drop calorimetry at 704 degree C was used to determine the enthalpy of oxidation, and weight loss measurements characterized the oxygen nonstoichiometry, δ, in La 2 CuO 4+δ , in the high-pressure, oxygen annealed samples. For samples analyzed at room temperature, x-ray diffraction measurements show that beyond δ∼0.10--0.13, additional oxygen is accommodated in a perovskite-like LaCuO 3-α phase. An analysis of the thermochemical measurements indicates that the nature of holes in La 2 CuO 4+δ could change in the range of δ∼0.03--0.06. 16,17 It is further suggested that the observed change in the thermochemical behavior in the range of δ∼0.01--0.06 could be the driving influence behind the spinodal decomposition of La 2 CuO 4+δ at low temperatures (Dabrowski et al. 10 )

  16. On the puzzling high-energy pulsations of the energetic radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar J1813–1246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D.; De Luca, A.; Caraveo, P.; Salvetti, D. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Harding, A. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Acero, F., E-mail: marelli@lambrate.inaf.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universit Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-11-10

    We have analyzed the new deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the energetic, radio-quiet pulsar J1813–1246. The X-ray spectrum is nonthermal, very hard, and absorbed. Based on spectral considerations, we propose that J1813 is located at a distance further than 2.5 kpc. J1813 is highly pulsed in the X-ray domain, with a light curve characterized by two sharp, asymmetrical peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase. We detected no significant X-ray spectral changes during the pulsar phase. We extended the available Fermi ephemeris to five years. We found two glitches. The γ-ray light curve is characterized by two peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase, with a bridge in between and no off-pulse emission. The spectrum shows clear evolution in phase, being softer at the peaks and hardening toward the bridge. Surprisingly, both X-ray peaks lag behind the γ-ray ones by a quarter of phase. We found a hint of detection in the 30-500 keV band with INTEGRAL, which is consistent with the extrapolation of both the soft X-ray and γ-ray emission of J1813. The unique X-ray and γ-ray phasing suggests a singular emission geometry. We discuss some possibilities within the current pulsar emission models. Finally, we develop an alternative geometrical model where the X-ray emission comes from polar cap pair cascades.

  17. Development of high purity niobium material for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Koichi; Sakita, Kohei; Suzuki, Takafusa; Saito, Kenji; Noguchi, Shuichi.

    1993-01-01

    For the superconducting niobium cavities, issues of thermal quench and field emission have to be solved to achieve a high field gradient (>25MV/m) for TESLA (TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator). In order to overcome the quench, upgrading of thermal conductivity of niobium material at the low temperature is very important. On the reduction of the field emission not only dust particles but also defect, impurity and inhomogeneity should be considered. Therefore development of high purity niobium material is very important to solve these issues. This paper describes the our latest R and D for high purity niobium material. (author)

  18. The Silicon Valley Eco System. High-energetic in many ways; Het Silicon Valley Eco Systeem: hoogenergetisch in vele opzichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, J.

    2012-04-15

    The highly commended Silicon Valley Eco System is bubbling with energy with regard to the subjects that are focused upon, including sustainable energy, or the widely available expertise that is needed for the developments, good ideas, capital and optimism, fed by frequent examples of extraordinarily successful companies. The sheer endlessness of network opportunities joins all these elements frequently. This article addresses several noteworthy interactions in the field of sustainable energy over the last period. [Dutch] Het veel geroemde Silicon Valley eco systeem bruist van energie in de vorm van de onderwerpen waar men zich op richt, waaronder duurzame energie, of de ruim aanwezige expertise die nodig is voor de ontwikkelingen, goede ideeen, kapitaal, en optimisme, gevoed door regelmatige voorbeelden van buitensporig succesvolle bedrijven. De schier oneindige netwerkmogelijkheden brengen al deze elementen met grote regelmaat bij elkaar. In dit artikel volgen enkele vermeldenswaardige interacties op het vlak van duurzame energie uit de afgelopen periode.

  19. Development of LTCC Materials with High Mechanical Strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Shinya; Nishiura, Sousuke; Terashi, Yoshitake; Furuse, Tatsuji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed LTCC materials suitable for substrates of RF modules used in mobile phone. LTCC can provide excellent solutions to requirements of RF modules, such as down-sizing, embedded elements and high performance. It is also important that LTCC material has high mechanical strength to reduce risk of fracture by mechanical impact. We have established a method of material design for high mechanical strength. There are two successive steps in the concept to achieve high mechanical strength. The first step is to improve mechanical strength by increasing the Young's modulus, and the second step is either further improvement through the Young's modulus or enhancement of the fracture energy. The developed material, so called high-strength LTCC, thus possesses mechanical strength of 400MPa, which is twice as strong as conventional material whose mechanical strength is approximately 200MPa in typical. As a result, high-strength LTCC shows an excellent mechanical reliability, against the drop impact test for example. The paper presents material design and properties of LTCC materials.

  20. High-volume recycled materials for sustainable pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using high-volume recycled materials for concrete production in rigid pavement. The goal was to replace 50% of the solids with recycled materials and industrial by-products. The pe...

  1. A combination of high stress-induced tense and energetic arousal compensates for impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Andreas; Schwabe, Lars; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-09-01

    Stress can both impair and enhance memory retrieval. Glucocorticoids mediate impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval. Little is known, however, about factors that facilitate post-stress memory performance. Here, we asked whether stress-induced arousal mediates facilitative stress effects on memory retrieval. Two arousal dimensions were separated: tense arousal, which is characterized by feelings ranging from tension and anxiety to calmness and quietness, and energetic arousal, which is associated with feelings ranging from energy and vigor to states of fatigue and tiredness. Fifty-one men (mean age +/- SEM: 24.57 +/- 0.61 years) learned emotional and neutral words. Memory for these words was tested 165 min later, after participants were exposed to a psychosocial stress or a non-arousing control condition. Changes in heart rate, self-reported (energetic and tense) arousal, and saliva cortisol in response to the stress/control condition were measured. Overall, stress impaired memory retrieval. However, stressed participants with large increases in both tense and energetic arousal performed comparably to controls. Neither salivary cortisol level nor autonomic arousal predicted memory performance after controlling for changes in energetic and tense arousal. The present data indicate that stress-induced concurrent changes in tense and energetic arousal can compensate for impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval. This finding could help to explain some of the discrepancies in the literature on stress and memory.

  2. Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA); Klimaschutz, Naturressourcenschutz und Bodenverbesserung durch kombinierte energetische und stoffliche Verwertung lignozelluloser landwirtschaftlicher Abfaelle und Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea; Nelles, Michael; Tscherpel, Burckhard; El Behery, Ahmed; Menanz, Rania; Bahl, Hubert; Scheel, Michael; Nipkow, Mareen

    2015-07-01

    The project Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA) was implemented with long-term partners from Egypt and Germany leaded by the Department Waste Management and Material Flow from September 2011 until October 2013. Aim of the project was the development of technologies for the utilization of agricultural wastes and residues at the example of rice straw, with the focus on the energetic and material use. In the long term a contribution to climate protection and natural resource management could be reached. The focus was on investigations in the field of biogas, ethanol and butanol production including pretreatment as well as the material use in horticulture. The results show that the biogas and ethanol production with adapted pretreatments of rice straws is possible. The technical adaptation of a biogas plant (eo-digestion) would be associated with about 20% higher investment costs and higher operating costs with an approximately 15% higher energy demand. In Germany, however, this may still economically by the substitution of expensive or difficult available energy crops (reduction of substrate costs by 30 to 35% for a 600 kWel-BGP using maize silage). The investigated solutions for material use in Egypt showed good results, which in some cases exceeded the expectations. By the use of rice straw imported peat substrates could be substitute or irrigation water saved, what is ecologically and economically useful. The production of ethanol from rice straw was implemented on laboratory scale and preconditions for investigations in semi-industrial and partly pilot scale were created. The bilateral project'' was funded in the framework of the German-Egypt-Research-Fond (GERF) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Egyptian Science and Technology Development Fund in Egypt (STDF). The total budget

  3. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2013-03-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), one of the key EES systems, have attracted increasing attention in the recent years since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review article describes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for EC technology, with a particular focus on hybrid nanostructured materials that combine carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive metal oxides or conducting polymers for achieving high-performance ECs. This review starts with an overview of EES technologies and the comparison between various EES systems, followed by a brief description of energy storage mechanisms for different types of EC materials. This review emphasizes the exciting development of both hybrid nanomaterials and novel support structures for effective electrochemical utilization and high mass loading of active electrode materials, both of which have brought the energy density of ECs closer to that of batteries while still maintaining their characteristic high power density. Last, future research directions and the remaining challenges toward the rational design and synthesis of hybrid nanostructured electrode materials for next-generation ECs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lity of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope pro- gramme. Selection ... and blockages detection in buried pipelines are rendered ..... from reputed international suppliers with analysis report.

  5. High-Frequency Microwave Processing of Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Conducts research on high-frequency microwave processing of materials using a highpower, continuous-wave (CW), 83-GHz, quasi-optical beam system for rapid,...

  6. Spontaneous Energy Concentration in Energetic Molecules, Interfaces and Composites: Response to Ultrasound and THz Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-21

    crystals or crystalline composites. One crystal had a slippery surface coating and the other did not. The coated ammonium nitrate , RDX and PBX...vibrational spectroscopies and time-resolved thermal imaging microscopy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ultrasound, THz radiation, energetic materials, hot spots, energy...studying fast processes at interfaces. 3. At the level of bulk materials, we developed a high-speed thermal imaging microscope apparatus.15󈧔

  7. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 3: general topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. The 15 th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgy High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (boteke)

  8. Characteristics and advantages of the HTW process for efficient recycling of the energetic and material fraction of waste materials; Merkmale und Vorzuege des Hochtemperatur-Winkler (HTW)-Verfahrens zur effizienten energetischen und stofflichen Nutzung von Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wischnewski, R; Mittelstaedt, A; Renzenbrink, W [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany); Luetge, C; Abraham, R [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Co-gasification of DSD mixed plastics in the HTW demonstration plant led to the following results: Co-gasification of preprocessed waste materials poses no technical problems - the performance of the gasifier and its downstream components is not affected - the synthesis gas quality remains unchanged - changes in trace element behaviour can be accounted for by design modifications - the large volume of the fluidized bed neutralizes the effects of waste material inhomogeneities and foreign materials - the conversion yield is high - there are well-established ways of disposal of residual material, i.e. bottom deposits and hot-gas filter dust. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Ergebnisse der Mitvergasung von DSD-Mischkunststoffen an der HTW-Demonstrationsanlage haben zusammenfassend gezeigt: - der Abfallstoff laesst sich nach einer Aufbereitung problemlos in den Vergaser eintragen - es tritt keine Beeintraechtigung des Betriebsverhaltens des Vergasers und der nachgeschalteten Teilanlagen auf - die Synthesegasqualitaet veraendert sich nicht - Aenderungen am Spurstoffverhalten sind durch entsprechende Auslegung beherrschbar - der grosse Wirbelbettinhalt fuehrt zu einer Unempfindlichkeit gegenueber Inhomogenitaeten des Reststoffes sowie Fremdeinschluessen - die Umsetzung fuehrt zu einer hohen Ausbeute des Abfallstoffes - fuer die Reststoffe Bodenprodukt und Warmgasfilterstaub gibt es geklaerte Entsorgungswege. (orig./SR)

  9. Behavior of Rubber Materials under Exposure to High Electric Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, M,

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high electrical stress on rubber materials is investigated by performing breakdown tests and tracking resistance tests on selected samples. The study is focused on the relationship between the dielectric strength and the thickness of the samples, as well as the influence of the inte......The effect of high electrical stress on rubber materials is investigated by performing breakdown tests and tracking resistance tests on selected samples. The study is focused on the relationship between the dielectric strength and the thickness of the samples, as well as the influence...... of the interfaces between different layers of material. Tracking resistance tests are also performed on the rubber material. The purpose is to provide a complete study of the applicability of the rubber material in thunderstorm environments....

  10. Forecast of nuclear energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1976-01-01

    The forecast concerning the development of nuclear energetics is presented. Some information on economics of nuclear power plants is given. The nuclear fuel reserves are estimated on the background of power resources of the world. The safety and environment protection problems are mentioned.

  11. New Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzlarich, Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-02-03

    The scope of this proposal was to develop two new high ZT materials with enhanced properties for the n- and p-leg of a thermoelectric device capable of operating at a maximum temperature of 1275 K and to demonstrate the efficiency in a working device. Nanostructured composites and new materials based on n– and p–type nanostructured Si1-xGex (ZT1273K ~ 1) and the recently discovered p–type high temperature Zintl phase material, Yb14MnSb11 (ZT1273K ~1) were developed and tested in a working device.

  12. International workshop on advanced materials for high precision detectors. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicquevert, B.; Hauviller, C.

    1994-01-01

    These proceedings gather together the contributions to the Workshop on Advanced Materials for High Precision Detectors, which was held from 28-30 September 1994 in Archamps, Haute-Savoie, France. This meeting brought together international experts (researchers, physicists and engineers) in the field of advanced materials and their use in high energy physics detectors or spacecraft applications. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different materials currently in use in the structures of detectors and spacecraft, together with their actual performances, technological implications and future prospects. Environmental effects, such as those of moisture and radiation, were discussed, as were design and manufacturing technologies. Some case studies were presented. (orig.)

  13. Performance of thermoluminescent materials for high dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texeira, Maria I.; Cecatti, Sonia G.P.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cases involving high-doses of ionizing radiation are becoming increasingly common.The objective of this work was to characterize thermoluminescent materials for the dosimetry of workers exposed to high doses. Samples of TLD-200, TLD-400 and TLD-800 pellets from Thermo Electron Corporation were studied in gamma high-doses. Dose-response curves were obtained for doses between 100 mGy and 100 Gy. The reproducibility, the lower detection limits and dose-response curves were obtained for all three materials. The different kinds of detectors show usefulness for dosimetry of workers exposed accidentally to high doses. (author)

  14. High-throughput theoretical design of lithium battery materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Shi-Gang; Gao Jian; Xiao Rui-Juan; Chen Li-Quan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high-throughput theoretical design schemes to discover new lithium battery materials is reviewed, including high-capacity cathodes, low-strain cathodes, anodes, solid state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives. With the development of efficient theoretical methods and inexpensive computers, high-throughput theoretical calculations have played an increasingly important role in the discovery of new materials. With the help of automatic simulation flow, many types of materials can be screened, optimized and designed from a structural database according to specific search criteria. In advanced cell technology, new materials for next generation lithium batteries are of great significance to achieve performance, and some representative criteria are: higher energy density, better safety, and faster charge/discharge speed. (topical review)

  15. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  16. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  17. Regional concepts for the energetic utilization of biogenic residual materials exemplified by the county Holzminden; Regionale Konzepte zur energetische Nutzung biogener Reststoffe am Beispiel Landkreis Holzminden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Thomas [IGLUX Witzenhausen GmbH (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Biomass is one of the most valuable sources of renewable energy since it can be stored and used as a fuel for a variety of conversion technologies. So far mainly renewable raw materials were in the focus of attention in the District of Holzminden, but recently the use of organic residues gained importance since these resources do not compete for land with food production. During the preparation of the climate protection concept of the district, where the regional waste management authority was involved, the relevance of organic residues was clearly determined. Against this background the District of Holzminden contracted an inventory of all organic residues that accrue on a regular basis. This should document the existing material flows in the district and help to initiate a targeted material flow management. The essential public and private players working with these materials should be identified and the quantities they handle should be recorded. Special attention was given to biowaste and green wastes - the treatment of these fractions is only contracted up to 2013 - and residues from countryside preservation from various sources. In addition to the inventory results presented in this paper, first technical and economical assessments to utilize these materials were made.(orig.)

  18. High strain-rate soft material characterization via inertial cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Jonathan B.; Barajas, Carlos; Henann, David L.; Johnsen, Eric; Franck, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical characterization of soft materials at high strain-rates is challenging due to their high compliance, slow wave speeds, and non-linear viscoelasticity. Yet, knowledge of their material behavior is paramount across a spectrum of biological and engineering applications from minimizing tissue damage in ultrasound and laser surgeries to diagnosing and mitigating impact injuries. To address this significant experimental hurdle and the need to accurately measure the viscoelastic properties of soft materials at high strain-rates (103-108 s-1), we present a minimally invasive, local 3D microrheology technique based on inertial microcavitation. By combining high-speed time-lapse imaging with an appropriate theoretical cavitation framework, we demonstrate that this technique has the capability to accurately determine the general viscoelastic material properties of soft matter as compliant as a few kilopascals. Similar to commercial characterization algorithms, we provide the user with significant flexibility in evaluating several constitutive laws to determine the most appropriate physical model for the material under investigation. Given its straightforward implementation into most current microscopy setups, we anticipate that this technique can be easily adopted by anyone interested in characterizing soft material properties at high loading rates including hydrogels, tissues and various polymeric specimens.

  19. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  20. Self-weldability of various materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    Self-Weldability of Various Materials in High Temperature Sodium. The self-welding behavior of various materials was evaluated by measuring the tensile breakaway force of the specimen which had been self-welded in high temperature sodium. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of the sodium temperature and the contact stress on the self-welding behavior. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The self-welding behavior in sodium was recognized to initiate by the diffusion of the principal element through the real contact area. (2) Remarkable self-welding behavior was observed for SUS 316 material at 650 0 C, and for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at a sodium temperature of 600 0 C. The self-welding force acting on the real contact area corresponds to the tensile strength of each material. (3) Hard chrome plating or hardfacing material showed good self-weld resistance, but the different combinations of SUS 316 with either of these materials were observed to easily cause self-welding. (4) The self-weldability of Cr 3 C 2 /Ni-Cr material varied with the preparing methods, especially, with the distribution of the binder composition contained in this material. (5) A derived equation was proposed to evaluate the self-welding force. It was found that the measured breakaway force was relatively equal to the self-welding force derived from this equation. (author)

  1. Corrosion assessment of refractory materials for high temperature waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.C.; Congdon, J.W.; Kielpinski, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of vitrification technologies are being evaluated to immobilize radioactive and hazardous wastes following years of nuclear materials production throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The compositions and physical forms of these wastes are diverse ranging from inorganic sludges to organic liquids to heterogeneous debris. Melt and off-gas products can be very corrosive at the high temperatures required to melt many of these waste streams. Ensuring material durability is required to develop viable treatment processes. Corrosion testing of materials in some of the anticipated severe environments is an important aspect of the materials identification and selection process. Corrosion coupon tests on typical materials used in Joule heated melters were completed using glass compositions with high salt contents. The presence of chloride in the melts caused the most severe attack. In the metal alloys, oxidation was the predominant corrosion mechanism, while in the tested refractory material enhanced dissolution of the refractory into the glass was observed. Corrosion testing of numerous different refractory materials was performed in a plasma vitrification system using a surrogate heterogeneous debris waste. Extensive corrosion was observed in all tested materials

  2. International Annual Conference (29th) of ICT Held in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany on June 30-July 3, 1998. Energetic Materials; Production, Processing and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    QCPE 464, M. Dewar Group, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712. 10. Allen F.H., Brice M.D., Cartwright B.A., Doubleday A., Higgs T., Hummelink T...steel and fusions of Fe- C-Ni. The usage of the materials smelted with addition of ultra-dispersive powders of boson carbide, vanadium carbide and

  3. Energetic Techniques For Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, B.; Bambacus, M.; Bruck Syal, M.; Greenaugh, K. C.; Leung, R. Y.; Plesko, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose heliocentric orbits tend to approach or cross Earth's heliocentric orbit. NEOs of various sizes periodically collide with Earth, and efforts are currently underway to discover, track, and characterize NEOs so that those on Earth-impacting trajectories are discovered far enough in advance that we would have opportunities to deflect or destroy them prior to Earth impact, if warranted. We will describe current efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to assess options for energetic methods of deflecting or destroying hazardous NEOs. These methods include kinetic impactors, which are spacecraft designed to collide with an NEO and thereby alter the NEO's trajectory, and nuclear engineering devices, which are used to rapidly vaporize a layer of NEO surface material. Depending on the amount of energy imparted, this can result in either deflection of the NEO via alteration of its trajectory, or robust disruption of the NEO and dispersal of the remaining fragments. We have studied the efficacies and limitations of these techniques in simulations, and have combined the techniques with corresponding spacecraft designs and mission designs. From those results we have generalized planetary defense mission design strategies and drawn conclusions that are applicable to a range of plausible scenarios. We will present and summarize our research efforts to date, and describe approaches to carrying out planetary defense missions with energetic NEO deflection or disruption techniques.

  4. Materials and coatings to resist high temperature oxidation and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Object of the given papers are the oxidation and corrosion behaviour of several materials (such as stainless steels, iron-, or nickel-, or cobalt-base alloys, Si-based ceramics) used at high temperatures and various investigations on high-temperature protective coatings. (IHoe) [de

  5. Modelling of the high temperature behaviour of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of components of metallic high-temperature materials by the finite element method requires the application of phenomenological viscoplastic material models. The route from the choice of a convenient model, the numerical integration of the equations and the parameter identification to the design of components is described. The Chaboche-model is used whose evolution equations are explicitly integrated. The parameters are determined by graphical and numerical methods in order to use the material model for describing the deformation behaviour of a chromium steel and an intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy. (orig.)

  6. Shock-induced synthesis of high temperature superconducting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, D.S.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.; Venturini, E.L.

    1987-06-18

    It has now been determined that the unique features of the high pressure shock method, especially the shock-induced chemical synthesis technique, are fully applicable to high temperature superconducting materials. Extraordinarily high yields are achievable in accordance with this invention, e.g., generally in the range from about 20% to about 99%, often in the range from about 50% to about 90%, lower and higher yields, of course, also being possible. The method of this invention involves the application of a controlled high pressure shock compression pulse which can be produced in any conventional manner, e.g., by detonation of a high explosive material, the impact of a high speed projectile or the effect of intense pulsed radiation sources such as lasers or electron beams. Examples and a discussion are presented.

  7. Progress Towards a Benchtop Energetics Capability (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fajardo, Mario E; Lewis, William K

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of nanometric (sub-micron size) metal fuel and oxidizer particles into energetic materials is a promising approach to increasing significantly the systems-level performance of munitions...

  8. Physics of energetic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Physics knowledge (theory and experiment) in energetic particles relevant to design of a reactor scale tokamak is reviewed, and projections for ITER are provided in this Chapter of the ITER Physics Basis. The review includes single particle effects such as classical alpha particle heating and toroidal field ripple loss, as well as collective instabilities that might be generated in ITER plasmas by energetic alpha particles. The overall conclusion is that fusion alpha particles are expected to provide an efficient plasma heating for ignition and sustained burn in the next step device. The major concern is localized heat loads on the plasma facing components produced by alpha particle loss, which might affect their lifetime in a tokamak reactor. (author)

  9. Development of rubber material for high radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, Sadayoshi; Tabasaki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Kadowaki, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Generally flexible polymeric materials exposed to radiation can't be used because they soften or harden remarkably in high radiation environment. Aromatic polymers such as PEEK, PI, and PES are also known as radiation-proof polymeric materials. Aromatic polymers are very hard, they can't be used for products like a packing where flexibility is required. We developed a new vulcanized rubber compound by the use of various additives and polymer blend. This developed rubber compound has a high radiation-proof performance by reaction balance of cross-linking and decomposition in this rubber. This rubber compound has a rubber elasticity even if exposed to radiation of MGy level, and its radiation proof is more than 5 times as high as conventional polymeric materials. This rubber compound is much more flexible than the aromatic polymers which are the used as conventional radiation-proof polymers. (author)

  10. High density data storage principle, technology, and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Daoben

    2009-01-01

    The explosive increase in information and the miniaturization of electronic devices demand new recording technologies and materials that combine high density, fast response, long retention time and rewriting capability. As predicted, the current silicon-based computer circuits are reaching their physical limits. Further miniaturization of the electronic components and increase in data storage density are vital for the next generation of IT equipment such as ultra high-speed mobile computing, communication devices and sophisticated sensors. This original book presents a comprehensive introduction to the significant research achievements on high-density data storage from the aspects of recording mechanisms, materials and fabrication technologies, which are promising for overcoming the physical limits of current data storage systems. The book serves as an useful guide for the development of optimized materials, technologies and device structures for future information storage, and will lead readers to the fascin...

  11. Designing high-Performance layered thermoelectric materials through orbital engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Song, Lirong; Madsen, Georg K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric technology, which possesses potential application in recycling industrial waste heat as energy, calls for novel high-performance materials. The systematic exploration of novel thermoelectric materials with excellent electronic transport properties is severely hindered by limited...... insight into the underlying bonding orbitals of atomic structures. Here we propose a simple yet successful strategy to discover and design high-performance layered thermoelectric materials through minimizing the crystal field splitting energy of orbitals to realize high orbital degeneracy. The approach...... naturally leads to design maps for optimizing the thermoelectric power factor through forming solid solutions and biaxial strain. Using this approach, we predict a series of potential thermoelectric candidates from layered CaAl2Si2-type Zintl compounds. Several of them contain nontoxic, low-cost and earth...

  12. Engineering materials for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhijian

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can arise from a wide range of human activities and have different physical and chemical forms with various radioactivity. The high level radioactive wastes (HLW)are characterized by nuclides of very high initial radioactivity, large thermal emissivity and the long life-term. The HLW disposal is highly concerned by the scientists and the public in the world. At present, the deep geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safely dispose high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of HLW geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineering barrier system(EBS). The engineering materials in EBS include the vitrified HLW, canister, overpack, buffer materials and backfill materials. Referring to progress in the world, this paper presents the function, the requirement for material selection and design, and main scientific projects of R and D of engineering materials in HLW repository. (authors)

  13. Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Laura Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis

  14. Borides - a new generation of highly resistant materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, R.

    1988-01-01

    High-duty ceramics are on advance in all sectors where materials with extremely good resistance to high temperatures and wear are required. The group of oxides, nitrides and carbides in use for quite a time now recently has been increased by the metal borides which offer among others economic advantages in certain applications. The drawbacks of these materials still to be reduced are their brittleness and susceptibility to oxidation and corrosion. Current research work on the thermodynamics of such systems, on the interaction between structure and properties, and on means to improve strength and resistance to wear are expected to soon open up new applications. (orig.) [de

  15. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  16. Introduction to superconductivity and high-Tc materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrot, M.; Pavuna, D.

    1991-01-01

    What sets this book apart from other introductions to superconductivity and high-T c materials is its pragmatic approach. In this book the authors describe all relevant superconducting phenomena and rely on the macroscopic Ginzburg-Landau theory to derive the most important results. Examples are chosen from selected conventional superconductors like NbTi and compared to those high-T c materials. The text should be of interest to non-specialists in superconductivity either as a textbook for those entering the field (one semester course) or as researchers in advanced technologies and even some managers of interdisciplinary research projects

  17. Observation of enhanced radial transport of energetic ion due to energetic particle mode destabilized by helically-trapped energetic ion in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Kawase, H.; Nishitani, T.; Seki, R.; Osakabe, M.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-04-01

    A deuterium experiment was initiated to achieve higher-temperature and higher-density plasmas in March 2017 in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The central ion temperature notably increases compared with that in hydrogen experiments. However, an energetic particle mode called the helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange (EIC) mode is often excited by intensive perpendicular neutral beam injections on high ion-temperature discharges. The mode leads to significant decrease of the ion temperature or to limiting the sustainment of the high ion-temperature state. To understand the effect of EIC on the energetic ion confinement, the radial transport of energetic ions is studied by means of the neutron flux monitor and vertical neutron camera newly installed on the LHD. Decreases of the line-integrated neutron profile in core channels show that helically-trapped energetic ions are lost from the plasma.

  18. New directions in the science and technology of advanced sheet explosive formulations and the key energetic materials used in the processing of sheet explosives: Emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Jangid, S K; Nath, T; Sinha, R K; Asthana, S N

    2015-12-30

    This review presents the work carried out by the international community in the area of sheet explosive formulations and its applications in various systems. The sheet explosive is also named as PBXs and is a composite material in which solid explosive particles like RDX, HMX or PETN are dispersed in a polymeric matrix, forms a flexible material that can be rolled/cut into sheet form which can be applied to any complex contour. The designed sheet explosive must possess characteristic properties such as flexible, cuttable, water proof, easily initiable, and safe handling. The sheet explosives are being used for protecting tanks (ERA), light combat vehicle and futuristic infantry carrier vehicle from different attacking war heads etc. Besides, sheet explosives find wide applications in demolition of bridges, ships, cutting and metal cladding. This review also covers the aspects such as risks and hazard analysis during the processing of sheet explosive formulations, effect of ageing on sheet explosives, detection and analysis of sheet explosive ingredients and the R&D efforts of Indian researchers in the development of sheet explosive formulations. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no review article published in the literature in the area of sheet explosives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dielectric characterization of high-performance spaceflight materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppe, Nathan; Nurge, Mark A.; Bowler, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    As commercial space travel increases, the need for reliable structural health monitoring to predict possible weaknesses or failures of structural materials also increases. Monitoring of these materials can be done through the use of dielectric spectroscopy by comparing permittivity or conductivity measurements performed on a sample in use to that of a pristine sample from 100 μHz to 3 GHz. Fluctuations in these measured values or of the relaxation frequencies, if present, can indicate chemical or physical changes occurring within the material and the possible need for maintenance/replacement. In this work, we establish indicative trends that occur due to changes in dielectric spectra during accelerated aging of various high-performance polymeric materials: ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), Poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Uses for these materials range from electrical insulation and protective coatings to windows and air- or space-craft parts that may be subject to environmental damage over long-term operation. Samples were prepared by thermal exposure and, separately, by ultraviolet/water-spray cyclic aging. The aged samples showed statistically-significant trends of either increasing or decreasing real or imaginary permittivity values, relaxation frequencies, conduction or the appearance of new relaxation modes. These results suggest that dielectric testing offers the possibility of nondestructive evaluation of the extent of age-related degradation in these materials.

  20. Materials Challenges for High Performance Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Magnetocaloric materials with a Curie temperature near room temperature have attracted signifi cant interest for some time due to their possible application for high-effi ciency refrigeration devices. This review focuses on a number of key issues of relevance for the characterization, performance....... The question of how to evaluate the suitability of a given material for use in a magnetocaloric device is covered in some detail, including a critical assessment of a number of common performance metrics. Of particular interest is which non-magnetocaloric properties need to be considered in this connection....... An overview of several important materials classes is given before considering the performance of materials in actual devices. Finally, an outlook on further developments is presented....

  1. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  2. Computer simulation for prediction of performance and thermodynamic parameters of high energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthurajan, H.; Sivabalan, R.; Talawar, M.B.; Asthana, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    A new code viz., Linear Output Thermodynamic User-friendly Software for Energetic Systems (LOTUSES) developed during this work predicts the theoretical performance parameters such as density, detonation factor, velocity of detonation, detonation pressure and thermodynamic properties such as heat of detonation, heat of explosion, volume of explosion gaseous products. The same code also assists in the prediction of possible explosive decomposition products after explosion and power index. The developed code has been validated by calculating the parameters of standard explosives such as TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX. Theoretically predicated parameters are accurate to the order of ±5% deviation. To the best of our knowledge, no such code is reported in literature which can predict a wide range of characteristics of known/unknown explosives with minimum input parameters. The code can be used to obtain thermochemical and performance parameters of high energy materials (HEMs) with reasonable accuracy. The code has been developed in Visual Basic having enhanced windows environment, and thereby advantages over the conventional codes, written in Fortran. The theoretically predicted HEMs performance can be directly printed as well as stored in text (.txt) or HTML (.htm) or Microsoft Word (.doc) or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format in the hard disk. The output can also be copied into the Random Access Memory as clipboard text which can be imported/pasted in other software as in the case of other codes

  3. Development and evaluation of high temperature materials for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.; Schubert, F.

    1992-01-01

    The development of high temperature materials requires the evaluation of the interaction of microstructure and mechanical properties, the implementation of the microstructural aspects in the constitutive equations for the analysis of loads in a high temperature component and verification of the materials reactions. In this way the full potential of materials properties can be better used. This fundamental method is the basis for the formulation of the structural design code KTA 3221 'Metallic HTR Components'. The method of 'design by analysis' is also activated for large internally cooled turbine blades for stationary gas turbines in combined cycle power plants. This kind of exploratory analysis during the dimensioning procedure are discussed with two examples: He/He-heat exchanger produced of NiCr23Co12Mo (Alloy 617) and turbine blades made of superalloys (e.g. IN 738 LC). (author)

  4. High-pressure torsion for new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Kaveh; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2018-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) is widely used as a severe plastic deformation technique to create ultrafine-grained structures with promising mechanical and functional properties. Since 2007, the method has been employed to enhance the hydrogenation kinetics in different Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Recent studies showed that the method is effective not only for increasing the hydrogenation kinetics but also for improving the hydrogenation activity, for enhancing the air resistivity and more importantly for synthesizing new nanostructured hydrogen storage materials with high densities of lattice defects. This manuscript reviews some major findings on the impact of HPT process on the hydrogen storage performance of different titanium-based and magnesium-based materials.

  5. Development of zirconium hydride highly effective moderator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Changgeng

    2005-10-01

    The zirconium hydride with highly content of hydrogen and low density is new efficient moderator material for space nuclear power reactor. Russia has researched it to use as new highly moderator and radiation protection materials. Japanese has located it between the top of pressure vessel and the main protection as a shelter, the work temperature is rach to 220 degree C. The zirconium hydride moderator blocks are main parts of space nuclear power reactor. Development of zirconium hydride moderator materials have strength research and apply value. Nuclear Power Research and Design Instituteoh China (NPIC) has sep up the hydrogenation device and inspect systems, and accumurate a large of experience about zirconium hydride, also set up a strict system of QA and QC. (authors)

  6. High temperature structural ceramic materials manufactured by the CNTD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiglich, J.J. Jr.; Bhat, D.G.; Holzl, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Controlled Nucleation Thermochemical Deposition (CNTD) has emerged from classical chemical deposition (CVD) technology. This paper describes the techniques of thermochemical grain refinement. The effects of such refinement on mechanical properties of materials at room temperature and at elevated temperatures are outlined. Emphasis is given to high temperature structural ceramic materials such as SiC, Si 3 N 4 , AlN, and TiB 2 and ZrB 2 . An example of grain refinement accompanied by improvements in mechanical properties is SiC. Grain sizes of 500 to 1000 A have been observed in CNTD SiC with room temperature MOR of 1380 to 2070 MPa (4 pt bending) and MOR of 3450 to 4140 MPa (4 pt bending) at 1350 0 C. Various applications of these materials to the solution of high temperature structural problems are described. (author)

  7. Stress and Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Due to Material Degradation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Hugh L.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods for calculating stresses and damage caused by degradation of the matrix constituent in polymer matrix composite materials. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. The model is incorporated into an existing composite mechanics computer code. Stresses, strains, and deformations at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are calculated, and from these calculations it is determined if there is failure of any kind. The rationale for the model (based on published experimental work) is presented, its integration into the laminate analysis code is outlined, and example results are given, with comparisons to existing material and structural data. The mechanisms behind the changes in properties and in surface cracking during long-term aging of polyimide matrix composites are clarified. High-temperature-material test methods are also evaluated.

  8. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  9. Chemistry of high-energy materials. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapoetke, Thomas M. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Chair of Inorganic Chemistry; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Center of Energetic Concepts Development (CECD)

    2012-07-01

    This graduate-level textbook treats the basic chemistry of high energy materials - primary and secondary explosives, propellants, rocket fuel and pyrotechnics - and provides a review of new research developments. Applications in both military and civil fields are discussed. The book also offers new insights into ''green'' chemistry requirements and strategies for military applications.

  10. Functionally graded materials produced with high power lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, J. T. M.; Ocelik, V.; Chandra, T; Torralba, JM; Sakai, T

    2003-01-01

    In this keynote paper two examples will be present of functionally graded materials produced with high power Nd:YAG lasers. In particular the conditions for a successful Laser Melt Injection (LMI) of SiC and WC particles into the melt pool of A18Si and Ti6Al4V alloys are presented. The formation of

  11. Creep behavior of materials for high-temperature reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.; Hartnagel, W.; Iischner, B.; Schepp, P.

    1984-01-01

    Materials for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) application are selected according to their creep behavior. For two alloys--Incoloy-800 used for the live steam tubing of the thorium high-temperature reactor and Inconel-617 evaluated for tubings in advanced HTGRs--creep curves are measured and described by equations. A microstructural interpretation is given. An essential result is that nonstable microstructures determine the creep behavior

  12. HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF METALLIC MATERIALS IN HARSH CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Novello, Frederic; Dedry, Olivier; De Noose, Vincent; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient energy recovery from renewable sources and from waste incineration causes new problems of corrosion at high temperature. A similar situation exists for new recycling processes and new energy storage units. These corrosions are generally considered to be caused by ashes or molten salts, the composition of which differs considerably from one plant to another. Therefore, for the assessment of corrosion-resistance of advanced materials, it is essential to precisely evaluate the c...

  13. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  14. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  15. Infrared (1-12 μm) atomic and molecular emission signatures from energetic materials using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi Barimah, E.; Hömmerich, U.; Brown, E.; Yang, C. S.-C.; Trivedi, S. B.; Jin, F.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Samuels, A. C.; Snyder, A. P.

    2013-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a powerful analytical technique to detect the elemental composition of solids, liquids, and gases in real time. For example, recent advances in UV-VIS LIBS have shown great promise for applications in chemical, biological, and explosive sensing. The extension of conventional UVVIS LIBS to the near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) regions (~1-12 μm) offers the potential to provide additional information due to IR atomic and molecular signatures. In this work, a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm was employed as the excitation source and focused onto several chlorate and nitrate compounds including KClO3, NaClO3, KNO3, and NaNO3 to produce intense plasma at the target surface. IR LIBS studies on background air, KCl , and NaCl were also included for comparison. All potassium and sodium containing samples revealed narrow-band, atomic-like emissions assigned to transitions of neutral alkali-metal atoms in accordance with the NIST atomic spectra database. In addition, first evidence of broad-band molecular LIBS signatures from chlorate and nitrate compounds were observed at ~10 μm and ~7.3 μm, respectively. The observed molecular emissions showed strong correlation with FTIR absorption spectra of the investigated materials.

  16. Material chemistry challenges in vitrification of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology with an affective environmental management plan and focused attention on safety measures is a much cleaner source of electricity generation as compared to other sources. With this perspective, India has undertaken nuclear energy program to share substantial part of future need of power. Safe containment and isolation of nuclear waste from human environment is an indispensable part of this programme. Majority of radioactivity in the entire nuclear fuel cycle is high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW), which is getting generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. A three stage strategy for management of HLW has been adopted in India. This involves (i) immobilization of waste oxides in stable and inert solid matrices, (ii) interim retrievable storage of the conditioned waste product under continuous cooling and (iii) disposal in deep geological formation. Borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted in India for immobilization of HLW. Material issue are very important during the entire process of waste immobilization. Performance of the materials used in nuclear waste management determines its safety/hazards. Material chemistry therefore has a significant bearing on immobilization science and its technological development for management of HLW. The choice of suitable waste form to deploy for nuclear waste immobilization is difficult decision and the durability of the conditioned product is not the sole criterion. In any immobilization process, where radioactive materials are involved, the process and operational conditions play an important role in final selection of a suitable glass formulation. In remotely operated vitrification process, study of chemistry of materials like glass, melter, materials of construction of other equipment under high temperature and hostile corrosive condition assume significance for safe and un-interrupted vitrification of radioactive to ensure its isolation waste from human environment. The present

  17. Fabrication of High Temperature Cermet Materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert; Panda, Binayak; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Processing techniques are being developed to fabricate refractory metal and ceramic cermet materials for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). Significant advances have been made in the area of high-temperature cermet fuel processing since RoverNERVA. Cermet materials offer several advantages such as retention of fission products and fuels, thermal shock resistance, hydrogen compatibility, high conductivity, and high strength. Recent NASA h d e d research has demonstrated the net shape fabrication of W-Re-HfC and other refractory metal and ceramic components that are similar to UN/W-Re cermet fuels. This effort is focused on basic research and characterization to identify the most promising compositions and processing techniques. A particular emphasis is being placed on low cost processes to fabricate near net shape parts of practical size. Several processing methods including Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) and conventional PM processes are being evaluated to fabricate material property samples and components. Surrogate W-Re/ZrN cermet fuel materials are being used to develop processing techniques for both coated and uncoated ceramic particles. After process optimization, depleted uranium-based cermets will be fabricated and tested to evaluate mechanical, thermal, and hot H2 erosion properties. This paper provides details on the current results of the project.

  18. Mechanical properties of LMR structural materials at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. W.; Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    1999-03-01

    Austenitic stainless is used for the structural material of liquid metal reactor (LMR) because of good mechanical properties at high temperature. Stainless steel having more resistant to temperature by adding minor element has been developing for operating the LMR at higher temperature. Of many elements, nitrogen is a prospective element to modify type 316L(N) stainless steel because nitrogen is the most effective element for solid solution and because nitrogen retards the precipitation of carbide at grain boundary. Ti, Nb, and V are added to improve creep properties by stabilizing the carbides through forming MC carbide. Testing techniques of tensile, fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue at high temperature are difficult. Moreover, testing times for creep and creep-fatigue tests are very long up to several tens of thousands hours because creep and creep-fatigue phenomena are time-dependent damage mechanism. So, it is hard to acquire the material data for designing LMR systems during a limited time. In addition, the integrity of LMR structural materials at the end of LMR life has to be predicted from the laboratory data tested during the short term because there is no data tested during 40 years. Therefore, the effect of elements on mechanical properties at high temperature was reviewed in this study and many methods to predict the long-term behaviors of structural materials by simulated modelling equation is shown in this report. (author). 32 refs., 9 tabs., 38 figs

  19. A high absorbance material for solar collectors' applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A I; Maldonado, R D; Díaz, E A; Montalvo, A I

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we proposed a low cost material to be used as an excellent absorber for solar collectors, to increase its thermal efficiency by the high capacity to absorb solar radiation. The material, known as 'smoke black' (soot) can be obtained by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, such as the oxygen-acetylene, paraffin, or candles. A comparative analysis between the optical properties (reflectance, absorbance, and emissivity) measured on three covered copper surfaces (without paint, with a commercial matte black paint, and with smoke black) shows amazing optical results for the smoke black. Reflectance values of the smoke black applied over copper surfaces improves 56 times the values obtained from commercial black paints. High values of emissivity (E=0.9988) were measured on the surface covered with smoke black by spectrophotometry in the UV-VIS range, which represents about 7% of increment as compared with the value obtained for commercial black paints (E=0.938). The proposed high absorbance material can be easily applied on any kind of surfaces at low cost.

  20. Corrosion resistance of high-performance materials titanium, tantalum, zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion resistance is the property of a material to resist corrosion attack in a particular aggressive environment. Although titanium, tantalum and zirconium are not noble metals, they are the best choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required. The exceptionally good corrosion resistance of these high–performance metals and their alloys results from the formation of a very stable, dense, highly adherent, and self–healing protective oxide film on the metal surface. This naturally occurring oxide layer prevents chemical attack of the underlying metal surface. This behavior also means, however, that high corrosion resistance can be expected only under neutral or oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, a lower resistance must be reckoned with. Only very few inorganic and organic substances are able to attack titanium, tantalum or zirconium at ambient temperature. As the extraordinary corrosion resistance is coupled with an excellent formability and weldability these materials are very valua...

  1. High mechanical Q-factor measurements on silicon bulk material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Christian; Nawrodt, Ronny; Heinert, Daniel; Schroeter, Anja; Neubert, Ralf; Thuerk, Matthias; Vodel, Wolfgang; Seidel, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, Andreas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The direct observation of gravitational waves is one of the biggest challenges in science. Current detectors are limited by different kinds of noise. One of the fundamental noise sources is thermal noise arising from the optical components. One of the most promising attempts to reduce the thermal noise contribution in future detectors will be the use of high Q-factor materials at cryogenic temperatures. Silicon seems to be the most interesting material due to its excellent optical and thermal properties. We present high Q-factor measurements on bulk samples of high purity silicon in a temperature range from 5 to 300 K. The sample dimensions vary between 76.2 mm x 12..75 mm. The Q-factor exceeds 4.10{sup 8} at 6 K. The influence of the crystal orientation, doping and the sample preparation on the Q-factor is discussed.

  2. Achieving high aspect ratio wrinkles by modifying material network stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yan; McCarthy, Thomas J; Crosby, Alfred J

    2017-06-07

    Wrinkle aspect ratio, or the amplitude divided by the wavelength, is hindered by strain localization transitions when an increasing global compressive stress is applied to synthetic material systems. However, many examples from living organisms show extremely high aspect ratios, such as gut villi and flower petals. We use three experimental approaches to demonstrate that these high aspect ratio structures can be achieved by modifying the network stress in the wrinkle substrate. We modify the wrinkle stress and effectively delay the strain localization transition, such as folding, to larger aspect ratios by using a zero-stress initial wavy substrate, creating a secondary network with post-curing, or using chemical stress relaxation materials. A wrinkle aspect ratio as high as 0.85, almost three times higher than common values of synthetic wrinkles, is achieved, and a quantitative framework is presented to provide understanding the different strategies and predictions for future investigations.

  3. COLLIMATORS AND MATERIALS FOR HIGH INTENSITY HEAVY ION SYNCHROTRONS

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N A; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2012-01-01

    The operation of high power high brightness accelerators requires huge efforts for beam cleaning and machine protection. Within the WP 8 (ColMat) of the EU research framework EuCARD[1] we investigate new materials and methods for beam collimation and machine protection. We present an overview of these activities at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. Simulations of accidental beam losses in LHC and SIS100 have been performed. Scenarios for halo collimation of heavy ions and protons in SIS100 routine operation have been investigated. A prototype of a cryogenic collimator for charge exchange losses during intermediate charge state heavy ion operation in SIS100 has been build and tested with beam. Several candidates of advanced composite materials for collimation system upgrades of present and future high power accelerators have been irradiated and their properties are being characterized. Most deliverables and milestones of the R&D programme were already reached before the end of...

  4. New Trends in Research of Energetic Materials (5th Seminar) Held in Pardubice, Czech Republic on 24-25 Apr 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Zielonka, POLAND CONTA CT COMPA TIRILITYINVESTIGA TIONS OF HIGH-ENER GE TIC MA TERIALS USED IN’MORTAR A UGMENTING PROPELLI7VG CHARGES 200 Joel ...Proceeding of the V. Seminar IRON OXIDE/ALUMINUM FAST THERMITE REACTION USING NITRATE ADITIVES Joel Morgado*, Luisa Durfes**, Jos6 Campos* and Ant6nio...fctwi..0.00400 - ___ ___________ .5. - Cobi _ - 0__ 4.50 C t0C 1. ________-01.6 0.000 0.000 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.010 0.035 0.040 01045 Mow0

  5. Magnetic studies of current conduction and flux pinning in high-Tc cuprates: Virgin, irradiated, and oxygen deficient materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Civale, L.; Marwick, A.D.; Holtzberg, F.

    1992-09-01

    To increase the current density and pinning of magnetic flux in high temperature superconductors, defects with point-like and line-like geometries were created in controlled numbers using ion irradiation methods. Single crystals of Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 0 8 superconductors were studied using dc magnetic methods. These studies showed greatly increased irreversibility in the vortex state magnetization and enhanced intragrain current density J c following irradiation. Linear defects, created by irradiation with energetic heavy ions, are particularly effective in pinning vortices at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. Further investigations of ''flux creep'' (the time dependence of magnetization) are well described by recent vortex glass and collective pinning theories. Complementary investigations have delineated the role of oxygen deficiency δ on pinning in aligned Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ materials

  6. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report FY 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim fiscal year (FY) 2011 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under the Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA)-1 guidelines and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from seven test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault, including tensile tests, creep tests, and cyclic tests. Of the 5,603,682 records currently in the vault, 4,480,444 have been capture passed, and capture testing is in process for the remaining 1,123,238.

  7. Experimental complex for high flux-materials interaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagen-Torn, V.K.; Kirillov, I.R.; Komarov, V.L.; Litunovsky, V.N.; Mazul, I.V.; Ovchinnikov, I.B.; Prokofjev, Yu.G.; Saksagansky, G.L.; Titov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The experimental complex for high heat flux testing of divertor materials and bumper mock-ups under conditions close to both ITER stationary and plasma disruption PFC heat loads is described. High power plasma and electron beams are using as high heat flux sources. The former are applied to disruption simulation experiments. The values of pulsed plasma heat flux load up to 110 MJ/m 2 and stationary e-beam load up to 15 MW/m 2 can obtained on these facilities. (orig.)

  8. Radiation effects on materials in high-radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Mansur, L.K.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Parkin, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Radiation Effects on Materials in High-Radiation Environments was held in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) from August 13 to 15, 1990 under the auspices of the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. The workshop focused on ceramics, alloys, and intermetallics and covered research needs and capabilities, recent experimental data, theory, and computer simulations. It was concluded that there is clearly a continuing scientific and technological need for fundamental knowledge on the underlying causes of radiation-induced property changes in materials. Furthermore, the success of many current and emerging nuclear-related technologies critically depend on renewed support for basic radiation-effects research, irradiation facilities, and training of scientists. The highlights of the workshop are reviewed and specific recommendations are made regarding research needs. (orig.)

  9. High-saturated fat-sucrose feeding affects lactation energetics in control mice and mice selectively bred for high wheel-running behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Jonas, Izabella; Schubert, Kristin A.; Garland, Theodore; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Feeding a diet high in fat and sucrose (HFS) during pregnancy and lactation is known to increase susceptibility to develop metabolic derangements later in life. A trait for increased behavioral activity may oppose these effects, since this would drain energy from milk produced to be made available

  10. Material studies for pulsed high-intensity proton beam targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simos, N.; Kirk, H.; Ludewig, H.; Thieberger, P.; Weng, W-T.; McDonald, K.; Yoshimura, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intense beams for muon colliders and neutrino facilities require high-performance target stations of 1-4 MW proton beams. The physics requirements for such a system push the envelope of our current knowledge as to how materials behave under high-power beams for both short and long exposure. The success of an adopted scheme that generates, captures and guides secondary particles depends on the useful life expectancy of this critical system. This paper presents an overview of what has been achieved during the various phases of the experimental effort including a tentative plan to continue the effort by expanding the material matrix. The first phase of the project was to study the changes after irradiation in mechanical properties and specially in thermal expansion coefficient of various materials. During phase-I the study attention was primarily focused on Super-invar and in a lesser degree on Inconel-718. Invar is a metal alloy which predominantly consists of 62% Fe, 32% Ni and 5% Co. It is showed that this metal, whose non-irradiated properties held such promise, can only be considered a serious target candidate for an intense proton beam only if one can anneal the atomic displacements followed by the appropriate heat treatment to restore its favorable expansion coefficient. New materials that have been developed for various industrial needs by optimizing key properties, might be of value for the accelerator community. These materials like carbon-carbon composites, titanium alloys, the Toyota 'gum metal', the Vascomax material and the AlBeMet alloy will be explored and tested in the second phase of the project. (A.C.)

  11. Energetics of bacterial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebard, David N; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2009-09-10

    We report the results of extensive numerical simulations and theoretical calculations of electronic transitions in the reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic bacterium. The energetics and kinetics of five electronic transitions related to the kinetic scheme of primary charge separation have been analyzed and compared to experimental observations. Nonergodic formulation of the reaction kinetics is required for the calculation of the rates due to a severe breakdown of the system ergodicity on the time scale of primary charge separation, with the consequent inapplicability of the standard canonical prescription to calculate the activation barrier. Common to all reactions studied is a significant excess of the charge-transfer reorganization energy from the width of the energy gap fluctuations over that from the Stokes shift of the transition. This property of the hydrated proteins, breaking the linear response of the thermal bath, allows the reaction center to significantly reduce the reaction free energy of near-activationless electron hops and thus raise the overall energetic efficiency of the biological charge-transfer chain. The increase of the rate of primary charge separation with cooling is explained in terms of the temperature variation of induction solvation, which dominates the average donor-acceptor energy gap for all electronic transitions in the reaction center. It is also suggested that the experimentally observed break in the Arrhenius slope of the primary recombination rate, occurring near the temperature of the dynamical transition in proteins, can be traced back to a significant drop of the solvent reorganization energy close to that temperature.

  12. Development of radiation-resisting high molecular-weight materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsutomu

    1976-01-01

    The excellent radiation-resisting polyvinyl chloride developed at the opportunity of the research on the relationships between the protection of living body and the polymer-technological protection from radiation is reviewed. The report is divided into four main parts, namely 1) the change in the molecular arrangement of market-available, high molecular-weight materials by gamma-ray irradiation, 2) the protection of high molecular-weight materials from radiation, 3) the relationships between the biological radiation-protective substances and the change to radiation-resisting property of synthesized high molecular-weight substances, and 4) the development of the radiation-resisting high molecular-weight materials as metal-collecting agents. Attention is paid to the polyvinyl chloride having N-methyl-dithio-carbamate radical (PMD), synthesized by the author et. al., that has excellent radiation-resisting property. PMD has some possibility to form thiol- and amino-radicals necessary to protect living things from radiation. It is believed that the protection effects of N-methyl-dithio-carbamate radical are caused by the relatively stable S radical produced by the energy transfer. PMD film is suitable for the irradiation of foods, because it hardly changes the permeability of oxygen and carbon dioxide. PMD produces mercaptide or chelate. A new metal-collecting agent (PSDC) having reactivity with the metallic ions with radiation-resisting property was developed, which is derived from polyvinyl chloride and sodium N-methyl-N-carboxy-methyl-dithio-carbamate. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  14. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  15. Disorder-induced stiffness degradation of highly disordered porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubie, Hadrien; Monfared, Siavash; Radjaï, Farhang; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2017-09-01

    The effective mechanical behavior of multiphase solid materials is generally modeled by means of homogenization techniques that account for phase volume fractions and elastic moduli without considering the spatial distribution of the different phases. By means of extensive numerical simulations of randomly generated porous materials using the lattice element method, the role of local textural properties on the effective elastic properties of disordered porous materials is investigated and compared with different continuum micromechanics-based models. It is found that the pronounced disorder-induced stiffness degradation originates from stress concentrations around pore clusters in highly disordered porous materials. We identify a single disorder parameter, φsa, which combines a measure of the spatial disorder of pores (the clustering index, sa) with the pore volume fraction (the porosity, φ) to scale the disorder-induced stiffness degradation. Thus, we conclude that the classical continuum micromechanics models with one spherical pore phase, due to their underlying homogeneity assumption fall short of addressing the clustering effect, unless additional texture information is introduced, e.g. in form of the shift of the percolation threshold with disorder, or other functional relations between volume fractions and spatial disorder; as illustrated herein for a differential scheme model representative of a two-phase (solid-pore) composite model material.

  16. Development of materials for high temperature superconductor Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlton, R.J.; Reagor, D.W.; Hawley, M.E.; Springer, K.N.; Jia, Q.X.; Mombourquette, C.B.; Garzon, F.H.; Wu, X.D.

    1994-01-01

    We have conducted a systematic optimization of deposition parameters for fabrication of multilayered oxide films to be used in the development of high temperature superconducting SNS Functions. These films were deposited by off-axis sputtering using a custom fabricated multi-gun planar magnetron system. Each material and the various combinations of materials were optimized for epitaxial lattice match, crystal quality, film uniformity, electrical properties, and surface microstructure. In addition to the standard procedures commonly used to sputter deposit epitaxial oxide films, a variety of insitu and exsitu procedures were used to produce high quality multilayer devices, including varying the nucleation temperature from the actual film growth temperature, location of the substrate during the deposition process, constant rotation of the substrate, and timing of the oxygen anneal. The unprocessed films and devices in process were characterized with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy as well as other common materials characterization techniques. Completed multilayer devices were patterned and packaged for electrical characterization. Relation between material properties and electrical characteristics is discussed

  17. Development of materials for high temperature superconductor Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlton, R.J.; Reagor, D.W.; Hawley, M.E.; Springer, K.N.; Jia, Q.X.; Mombourquette, C.B.; Garzon, F.H.; Wu, X.D.

    1994-10-01

    We have conducted a systematic optimization of deposition parameters for fabrication of multilayered oxide films to be used in the development of high temperature superconducting SNS Functions. These films were deposited by off-axis sputtering using a custom fabricated multi-gun planar magnetron system. Each material and the various combinations of materials were optimized for epitaxial lattice match, crystal quality, film uniformity, electrical properties, and surface microstructure. In addition to the standard procedures commonly used to sputter deposit epitaxial oxide films, a variety of insitu and exsitu procedures were used to produce high quality multilayer devices, including varying the nucleation temperature from the actual film growth temperature, location of the substrate during the deposition process, constant rotation of the substrate, and timing of the oxygen anneal. The unprocessed films and devices in process were characterized with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy as well as other common materials characterization techniques. Completed multilayer devices were patterned and packaged for electrical characterization. Relation between material properties and electrical characteristics is discussed

  18. A systematic concept of assuring structural integrity of components and parts for applying to highly ductile materials through brittle material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    2007-09-01

    Concepts of assuring structural integrity of plant components have been developed under limited conditions of either highly ductile or brittle materials. There are some cases where operation in more and more severe conditions causes a significant reduction in ductility for materials with a high ductility before service. Use of high strength steels with relatively reduced ductility is increasing as industry applications. Current concepts of structural integrity assurance under the limited conditions of material properties or on the requirement of no significant changes in material properties even after long service will fail to incorporate expected technological innovations. A systematic concept of assuring the structural integrity should be developed for applying to highly ductile materials through brittle materials. Objectives of the on-going research are to propose a detail of the systematic concept by considering how we can develop the concept without restricting materials and for systematic considerations on a broad range of material properties from highly ductile materials through brittle materials. First, background of concepts of existing structural codes for components of highly ductile materials or for structural parts of brittle materials are discussed. Next, issues of existing code for parts of brittle materials are identified, and then resolutions to the issues are proposed. Based on the above-mentioned discussions and proposals, a systematic concept is proposed for application to components with reduced ductility materials and for applying to components of materials with significantly changing material properties due to long service. (author)

  19. Efficient conversion of sand to nano-silicon and its energetic Si-C composite anode design for high volumetric capacity lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquan, Mohammad; Raj Khatribail, Anish; Vijayalakshmi, Savithri; Mitra, Sagar

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an attractive anode material for Li-ion cells, which can provide energy density 30% higher than any of the today's commercial Li-ion cells. In the current study, environmentally benign, high abundant, and low cost sand (SiO2) source has been used to prepare nano-silicon via scalable metallothermic reduction method using micro wave heating. In this research, we have developed and optimized a method to synthesis high purity nano silicon powder that takes only 5 min microwave heating of sand and magnesium mixture at 800 °C. Carbon coated nano-silicon electrode material is prepared by a unique method of coating, polymerization and finally in-situ carbonization of furfuryl alcohol on to the high purity nano-silicon. The electrochemical performance of a half cell using the carbon coated high purity Si is showed a stable capacity of 1500 mAh g-1 at 6 A g-1 for over 200 cycles. A full cell is fabricated using lithium cobalt oxide having thickness ≈56 μm as cathode and carbon coated silicon thin anode of thickness ≈9 μm. The fabricated full cell of compact size exhibits excellent volumetric capacity retention of 1649 mAh cm-3 at 0.5 C rate (C = 4200 mAh g-1) and extended cycle life (600 cycles). The full cell is demonstrated on an LED lantern and LED display board.

  20. Material requirements for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joseph R.; Hecht, Ralph J.; Johnson, Andrew M.

    1993-01-01

    Under NASA-sponsored High Speed Research (HSR) programs, the materials and processing requirements have been identified for overcoming the environmental and economic barriers of the next generation High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) propulsion system. The long (2 to 5 hours) supersonic cruise portion of the HSCT cycle will place additional durability requirements on all hot section engine components. Low emissions combustor designs will require high temperature ceramic matrix composite liners to meet an emission goal of less than 5g NO(x) per Kg fuel burned. Large axisymmetric and two-dimensional exhaust nozzle designs are now under development to meet or exceed FAR 36 Stage III noise requirements, and will require lightweight, high temperature metallic, intermetallic, and ceramic matrix composites to reduce nozzle weight and meet structural and acoustic component performance goals. This paper describes and discusses the turbomachinery, combustor, and exhaust nozzle requirements of the High Speed Civil Transport propulsion system.

  1. Material Processing with High Power CO2-Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowsky, Lothar

    1986-10-01

    After a period of research and development lasertechnique now is regarded as an important instrument for flexible, economic and fully automatic manufacturing. Especially cutting of flat metal sheets with high power C02-lasers and CNC controlled two or three axes handling systems is a wide spread. application. Three dimensional laser cutting, laser-welding and -heat treatment are just at the be ginning of industrial use in production lines. The main. advantages of laser technology. are - high. accuracy - high, processing velocity - law thermal distortion. - no tool abrasion. The market for laser material processing systems had 1985 a volume of 300 Mio S with growth rates between, 20 % and 30 %. The topic of this lecture are hiTrh. power CO2-lasers. Besides this systems two others are used as machining tools, Nd-YAG- and Eximer lasers. All applications of high. power CO2-lasers to industrial material processing show that high processing velocity and quality are only guaranteed in case of a stable intensity. profile on the workpiece. This is only achieved by laser systems without any power and mode fluctuations and by handling systems of high accuracy. Two applications in the automotive industry are described, below as examples for laser cutting and laser welding of special cylindrical motor parts.

  2. Novel nanostructured materials for high energy density supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.Z.; Zhang, X.G. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Researchers are currently examining methods of improving energy density while not sacrificing the high power density of supercapacitors. In this study, nanostructured materials assembled from nanometer-sized building blocks with mesoporosity were synthesized in order investigate diffusion time, kinetics, and capacitances. Petal-like cobalt hydroxide Co(OH){sub 2} mesocrystals, urchin-like Co(OH){sub 2} and dicobalt tetroxide (Co{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ordered arrays as well as N{sub i}O microspheres were assembled from 0-D nanoparticles, 1-D mesoporous nanowires and nanobelts, and 2-D mesoporous nanopetals. The study showed that all the synthesized nanostructured materials delivered larger energy densities while showing electrochemical stability at high rates.

  3. Some metallic materials and fluoride salts for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Hron, M.; Matal, O.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a special Ni base alloy MONICR for high temperature applications in fluoride salt environments developed in the framework of the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic. Selected results of MONICR alloy tests and results of semi products fabrication from this alloy are discussed in the paper. The results of the structural materials tests are applied on semi-products and for the design of the testing devices as the autoclave in loop arrangement for high temperature fluoride salts applications. Material properties other Ni base alloys are compared to those of MONICR. Corrosion test results of the alloy A686 in the LiF - NaF - ZrF 4 molten salt are provided and compared to the measured values of the polarizing resistance. (author)

  4. Towards high-performance materials for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkikh, V.; Korolev, E.; Smirnov, V.

    2017-10-01

    Due to constant increase of traffic, modern road construction is in need of high-performance pavement materials. The operational performance of such materials can be characterized by many properties. Nevertheless, the most important ones are resistance to rutting and resistance to dynamical loads. It was proposed earlier to use sulfur extended asphalt concrete in road construction practice. To reduce the emission of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide during the concrete mix preparation and pavement production stages, it is beneficial to make such a concrete on the base of complex sulfur modifier. In the present work the influence of the complex modifier to mechanical properties of sulfur extended asphalt concrete was examined. It was shown that sulfur extended asphalt concrete is of high mechanical properties. It was also revealed that there as an anomalous negative correlations between strain capacity, fatigue life and fracture toughness.

  5. A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, Kevin; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including...

  6. Evidence for highly processed material ejected from Abell 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard, C.; Terlvich, R.; Ferland, G.; Sargent, W.L.W.

    1980-01-01

    The discovery of compact knots of highly processed material apparently ejected from the central star of the emission nebula Abell 30 is reported here. Spectra obtained from the compact nebulosities surrounding the central star, which indicate a remarkable enhancement of helium relative to hydrogen, are discussed. Preliminary model calculations to investigate the properties of hydrogen deficient nebulae and to study the abundances of some heavy elements have been applied to the results. (UK)

  7. Bulk Materials Analysis Using High-Energy Positron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glade, S C; Asoka-Kumar, P; Nieh, T G; Sterne, P A; Wirth, B D; Dauskardt, R H; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Odette, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews some recent materials analysis results using high-energy positron beams at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are combining positron lifetime and orbital electron momentum spectroscopic methods to provide electron number densities and electron momentum distributions around positron annihilation sites. Topics covered include: correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with structural and mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses, compositional studies of embrittling features in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel, pore characterization in Zeolites, and positron annihilation characteristics in alkali halides

  8. Materials @ LANL: Solutions for National Security Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, David

    2012-10-01

    Materials science activities impact many programmatic missions at LANL including nuclear weapons, nuclear energy, renewable energy, global security and nonproliferation. An overview of the LANL materials science strategy and examples of materials science programs will be presented. Major materials leadership areas are in materials dynamics, actinides and correlated electron materials, materials in radiation extremes, energetic materials, integrated nanomaterials and complex functional materials. Los Alamos is also planning a large-scale, signature science facility called MaRIE (Matter Radiation Interactions in Extremes) to address in-situ characterization of materials in dynamic and radiation environments using multiple high energy probes. An overview of this facility will also be presented.

  9. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams

  10. The High Energy Materials Science Beamline (HEMS) at PETRA III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schell, Norbert; King, Andrew; Beckmann, Felix; Ruhnau, Hans-Ulrich; Kirchhof, Rene; Kiehn, Ruediger; Mueller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The HEMS Beamline at the German high-brilliance synchrotron radiation storage ring PETRA III is fully tunable between 30 and 250 keV and optimized for sub-micrometer focusing. Approximately 70 % of the beamtime will be dedicated to Materials Research. Fundamental research will encompass metallurgy, physics and chemistry with first experiments planned for the investigation of the relationship between macroscopic and micro-structural properties of polycrystalline materials, grain-grain-interactions, and the development of smart materials or processes. For this purpose a 3D-microsctructure-mapper has been designed. Applied research for manufacturing process optimization will benefit from high flux in combination with ultra-fast detector systems allowing complex and highly dynamic in-situ studies of micro-structural transformations, e.g. during welding processes. The beamline infrastructure allows accommodation of large and heavy user provided equipment. Experiments targeting the industrial user community will be based on well established techniques with standardized evaluation, allowing full service measurements, e.g. for tomography and texture determination. The beamline consists of a five meter in-vacuum undulator, a general optics hutch, an in-house test facility and three independent experimental hutches working alternately, plus additional set-up and storage space for long-term experiments. HEMS is under commissioning as one of the first beamlines running at PETRA III.

  11. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 2: P/M hard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15{sup th} Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  12. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 2: P/M hard materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15 th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  13. Novel High Temperature Materials for In-Situ Sensing Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian Solzbacher; Anil Virkar; Loren Rieth; Srinivasan Kannan; Xiaoxin Chen; Hannwelm Steinebach

    2009-12-31

    The overriding goal of this project was to develop gas sensor materials and systems compatible with operation at temperatures from 500 to 700 C. Gas sensors operating at these temperatures would be compatible with placement in fossil-energy exhaust streams close to the combustion chamber, and therefore have advantages for process regulation, and feedback for emissions controls. The three thrusts of our work included investigating thin film gas sensor materials based on metal oxide materials and electroceramic materials, and also development of microhotplate devices to support the gas sensing films. The metal oxide materials NiO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated for their sensitivity to H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, at high temperatures (T > 500 C), where the sensing properties of these materials have received little attention. New ground was broken in achieving excellent gas sensor responses (>10) for temperatures up to 600 C for NiO and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. The gas sensitivity of these materials was decreasing as temperatures increased above 500 C, which indicates that achieving strong sensitivities with these materials at very high temperatures (T {ge} 650 C) will be a further challenge. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reliability of these materials were investigated across a wide range of deposition conditions, temperatures, film thickness, as using surface active promoter materials. We also proposed to study the electroceramic materials BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} and BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} for their ability to detect H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, respectively. This report focuses on the properties and gas sensing characteristics of BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} (Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}), as significant difficulties were encounter in generating BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} sensors. Significant new results were achieved for Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including

  14. Energetic evolution of cellular Transportomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani, Behrooz; Kell, Douglas B.; Borodina, Irina

    2018-01-01

    of the transition from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The transportome analysis also indicated seven bacterial species, including Neorickettsia risticii and Neorickettsia sennetsu, as likely origins of the mitochondrion in eukaryotes, based on the phylogenetically restricted presence therein of clear homologues......) than in primitive eukaryotes (13%), algae and plants (10%) and in fungi and animals (5–6%). This decrease is compensated by an increased occurrence of secondary transporters and ion channels. The share of ion channels is particularly high in animals (ca. 30% of the transportome) and algae and plants...... of modern mitochondrial solute carriers. Conclusions: The results indicate that the transportomes of eukaryotes evolved strongly towards a higher energetic efficiency, as ATP-dependent transporters diminished and secondary transporters and ion channels proliferated. These changes have likely been important...

  15. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Wilding, Martin C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  16. Ultra light weight refractory material for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, V.; Kern, H. [Rath GmbH, Meissen (Germany); Springer, M. [Aug. Rath jun. GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The requirements on companies running high temperature processes, i.e. at temperatures about 1000 C and above, have increased dramatically within the last few years. For technological, economical and ecological purposes each application has to be checked carefully. As well the political discussion regarding environmental pollution, greenhouse effect and emission trading and the guidelines for climate and environmental protection exert massive influence on thermal process technology and pose an appropriate challenge for the companies. Next to costs of labour and raw materials the costs for energy and environmental costs play a decisive role more and more. The pressure on the management thereby incurred may have a lasting effect on innovations regarding increase of energy efficiency, decrease of CO{sub 2}-emission and often on non negligible increase of productivity. Mainly against the background of the highly scheduled European aims for emission reduction and also in consideration of the still proceeding globalisation the usage of state-of-the-art refractory technics in thermal process technology is of particular importance for business success, for reducing of environmental impact and last but not least for conservation and safeguarding of jobs in Europe and Germany. The applications for products made from high-temperature insulation wool in high temperature applications have strongly increased during the last five years. Especially the production capacities of polycrystalline wool (aluminium oxide wool e.g. Altra B72) have been doubled within the last three years. Primarily ultra light weight products made from HTIW are used in industrial furnaces with application temperatures above 1000 C and / or with high thermo-mechanical (thermal shock) and chemical exposure. The outstanding and essential advantages of these materials are obviously: Ultra light weight material with high resilience and flexibility, Optimised energy consumption (energy saving up to 50% compared

  17. Thermal-mechanical fatigue of high temperature structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renauld, Mark Leo

    Experimental and analytical methods were developed to address the effect of thermal-mechanical strain cycling on high temperature structural materials under uniaxial and biaxial stress states. Two materials were used in the investigation, a nickel-base superalloy of low ductility, IN-738LC and a high ductility material, 316 stainless steel. A uniaxial life prediction model for the IN-738LC material was based on tensile hysteresis energy measured in stabilized, mid-life hysteresis loops. Hold-time effects and temperature cycling were incorporated in the hysteresis energy approach. Crack growth analysis was also included in the model to predict the number of TMF cycles to initiate and grow a fatigue crack through the coating. The nickel-base superalloy, IN-738LC, was primarily tested in out-of-phase (OP) TMF with a temperature range from 482-871sp°C (900-1600sp°F) under continuous and compressive hold-time cycling. IN-738LC fatigue specimens were coated either with an aluminide, NiCoCrAlHfSi overlay or CoNiCrAlY overlay coating on the outer surface of the specimen. Metallurgical failure analysis via optical and scanning electron microscopy, was used to characterize failure behavior of both substrate and coating materials. Type 316 SS was subjected to continuous biaxial strain cycling with an in-phase (IP) TMF loading and a temperature range from 399-621sp°C (750-1150sp°F). As a result, a biaxial TMF life prediction model was proposed on the basis of an extended isothermal fatigue model. The model incorporates a frequency effect and phase factors to assess the different damage mechanisms observed during TMF loading. The model was also applied to biaxial TMF data generated on uncoated IN-738LC.

  18. Screening of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-sik E.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Along with major advancement of Stirling-based convertors, high temperature organics are needed to develop future higher temperature convertors for much improved efficiencies as well as to improve the margin of reliability for the current SOA (State-of-the-Art) convertors. The higher temperature capabilities would improve robustness of the convertors and also allow them to be used in additional missions, particularly ones that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Various organic materials have been employed as essential components in the convertor for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of every possible material structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, O-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This report presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection

  19. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-03-17

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  20. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO(sub x) and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required

  1. PETIs as High-Temperature Resin-Transfer-Molding Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John N.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Compositions of, and processes for fabricating, high-temperature composite materials from phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) oligomers by resin-transfer molding (RTM) and resin infusion have been developed. Composites having a combination of excellent mechanical properties and long-term high-temperature stability have been readily fabricated. These materials are particularly useful for the fabrication of high-temperature structures for jet-engine components, structural components on highspeed aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. Phenylethynyl-terminated amide acid oligomers that are precursors of PETI oligomers are easily made through the reaction of a mixture of aromatic diamines with aromatic dianhydrides at high stoichiometric offsets and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) as an end-capper in a polar solvent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP). These oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated -- for example, by heating the solution in the presence of toluene to remove the water by azeotropic distillation to form low-molecular-weight imide oligomers. More precisely, what is obtained is a mixture of PETI oligomeric species, spanning a range of molecular weights, that exhibits a stable melt viscosity of less than approximately 60 poise (and generally less than 10 poise) at a temperature below 300 deg C. After curing of the oligomers at a temperature of 371 deg C, the resulting polymer can have a glass-transition temperature (Tg) as high as 375 C, the exact value depending on the compositions.

  2. High rate resistive plate chambers: An inexpensive, fast, large area detector of energetic charged particles for accelerator and non-accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Clamp, O.; Haro, M.; Mauger, G.J.; Miller, K.; Olson, H.; Ramsey, P.

    1993-05-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers, or RPCs, have been used until recently as large detectors of cosmic ray muons. They are now finding use as fast large-area trigger and muon detection systems for different high energy physics detectors such the L3 Detector at LEP and future detectors to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. RPC systems at these accelerators must operate with high efficiency, providing nanosecond timing resolution in particle fluences up to a few tens of kHz/cm 2 -- with thousands of square meters of active area. RPCs are simple and cheap to construct. The authors report here recent work on RPCs using new materials that exhibit a combination of desirable RPC features such as low bulk resistivity, high dielectric strength, low mass, and low cost. These new materials were originally developed for use in electronics assembly areas and other applications, where static electric charge buildup can damage sensitive electrical systems

  3. Thermodynamic aspects of heavy metal volatility during utilisation of the energetic and material fraction of waste materials; Schwermetallfluechtigkeit bei der energetischen und stofflichen Verwertung von Abfaellen aus der Sicht der Thermodynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, B; Starke, A [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. IEC

    1998-09-01

    Co-combustion plants, in which fuel is partly substituted by waste materials, are subject to the 17th BImSchV (Nuisance Control Ordinance) provided that the thermal fraction of 25% is not exceeded. Emission limits are calculated proportionately on the basis of limiting values for emissions from coal power stations (13th BImSchV) and waste incinerators (17th BImSchV). Compared to coal, waste has higher concentrations of heavy metals and halogens, which results in enhanced emissions of heavy metal compounds and chlorides with the flue gas and gasification gas. Plant operators intending to opt for co-combustion must check if the existing flue gas purification system is efficient enough to meet the specifications of the 17th BImSchV. In general, thermodynamic modelling is the most common method of evaluation and optimisation for high-temperature processes of this kind. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Da bei der Mitverbrennung ein Teil des Brennstoffes durch den Reststoff substituiert wird, unterliegen diese Anlagen der Anteilsregelung nach 17. BImSchV, sofern ein thermischer Anteil von 25% nicht ueberschritten wird. Emissionsgrenzwerte werden anteilig aus den z.B. fuer Kohlekraftwerke gueltigen Grenzwerten nach TA Luft oder 13. BImSchV und denen fuer Abfaelle u.ae. nach 17 BImSchV ermittelt. Der hier betrachtete Reststoff Muell beinhaltet im Vergleich zur Kohle hohe Konzentrationen an Schwermetallen und Halogenen. Dies laesst eine erhoehte Emission von Schwermetallverbindungen und Chloriden mit dem Rauchgas bzw. Vergasungsgas erwarten. Es muss in jedem Fall ueberprueft werden, ob die vorhandene Rauchgasreinigung ausreicht, wenn bei der Mitverbrennung/-vergasung die Emissionsgrenzwerte der 17. BImSchV zur Anwendung kommen. Als Bewertungs- und Optimierungsmethode fuer derartige Hochtemperaturprozesse setzt sich die thermodynamische Modellierung zunehmend durch. (orig./SR)

  4. Dynamic fracture and hot-spot modeling in energetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Nicolò; Duarte, Camilo A.; Koslowski, Marisol

    2018-02-01

    Defects such as cracks, pores, and particle-matrix interface debonding affect the sensitivity of energetic materials by reducing the time-to-ignition and the threshold pressure to initiate an explosion. Frictional sliding of preexisting cracks is considered to be one of the most important causes of localized heating. Therefore, understanding the dynamic fracture of crystalline energetic materials is of extreme importance to assess the reliability and safety of polymer-bonded explosives. Phase field damage model simulations, based on the regularization of the crack surface as a diffuse delta function, are used to describe crack propagation in cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine crystals embedded in a Sylgard matrix. A thermal transport model that includes heat generation by friction at crack interfaces is coupled to the solution of crack propagation. 2D and 3D dynamic compression simulations are performed with different boundary velocities and initial distributions of cracks and interface defects to understand their effect on crack propagation and heat generation. It is found that, at an impact velocity of 400 m/s, localized damage at the particle-binder interface is of key importance and that the sample reaches temperatures high enough to create a hot-spot that will lead to ignition. At an impact velocity of 10 m/s, preexisting cracks advanced inside the particle, but the increase of temperature will not cause ignition.

  5. Pair creation by very high-energy photons in gamma-ray bursts a unified picture for the energetics of GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, T

    1999-01-01

    The extreme energetics of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 990123 have revealed that some GRBs emit quite a large amount of energy, and the total energy release from GRBs seems to change from burst to burst by a factor of 10/sup 2/-10/sup $9 3/ as E/sub gamma , iso/~10/sup 52-55/ erg, where E/sub gamma , iso/ is the observed GRB energy when the radiation is isotropic. If all GRBs are triggered by similar events, such a wide dispersion in energy release seems odd. The $9 author proposes a unified picture for the energetics of GRBs, in which all GRB events release roughly the same amount of energy E/sub iso/~10 /sup 55-56/ erg relativistic motion, with the baryon load problem almost resolved. A mild $9 dispersion in the initial Lorentz factor ( Gamma ) results in a difference of E/sub gamma , iso/ by up to a factor of m/sub p//m/sub e/~10/sup 3/. Protons work as `a hidden energy reservoir' of the total GRB energy, and E/sub gamma , $9 iso/ depends on the energy transfer efficiency from protons into electrons (or posit...

  6. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy of High Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Software and hardware updates to further extend the capability of the electron microscope were carried out. A range of materials such as intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, ceramic-matrix composites, ceramics and intermetallic compounds, based on refractory elements were examined under this research. Crystal structure, size, shape and volume fraction distribution of various phases which constitute the microstructures were examined. Deformed materials were studied to understand the effect of interfacial microstructure on the deformation and fracture behavior of these materials. Specimens tested for a range of mechanical property requirements, such as stress rupture, creep, low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, etc. were examined. Microstructural and microchemical stability of these materials exposed to simulated operating environments were investigated. The EOIM Shuttle post-flight samples were also examined to understand the influence of low gravity processing on microstructure. In addition, fractographic analyses of Nb-Zr-W, titanium aluminide, molybdenum silicide and silicon carbide samples were carried out. Extensive characterization of sapphire fibers in the fiber-reinforced composites made by powder cloth processing was made. Finally, pressure infiltration casting of metal-matrix composites was carried out.

  7. High temperature metallic materials for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The Specialists' Meeting was organized in conjunction with an earlier meeting on this topic held in Vienna, Austria, 1981, which provided for a comprehensive review of the status of materials development and testing at that time and for a description of test facilities. This meeting provided an opportunity (1) to review and discuss the progress made since 1981 in the development, testing and qualification of high temperature metallic materials, (2) to critically assess results achieved, and (3) to give directions for future research and development programmes. In particular, the meeting provided a form for a close interaction between component designers and materials specialists. The meeting was attended by 48 participants from France, People's Republic of China, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Poland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USSR and USA presenting 22 papers. The technical part of the meeting was subdivided into four technical sessions: Components Design and Testing - Implications for Materials (4 papers); Microstructure and Environmental Compatibility (4 papers); Mechanical Properties (9 papers); New Alloys and Developments (6 papers). At the end of the meeting a round table discussion was organized in order to summarize the meeting and to make recommendations for future activities. This volume contains all papers presented at the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Improvement of performance of ultra-high performance concrete based composite material added with nano materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Jinchang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC, a kind of composite material characterized by ultra high strength, high toughness and high durability. It has a wide application prospect in engineering practice. But there are some defects in concrete. How to improve strength and toughness of UHPC remains to be the target of researchers. To obtain UHPC with better performance, this study introduced nano-SiO2 and nano-CaCO3 into UHPC. Moreover, hydration heat analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP and nanoindentation tests were used to explore hydration process and microstructure. Double-doped nanomaterials can further enhance various mechanical performances of materials. Nano-SiO2 can promote early progress of cement hydration due to its high reaction activity and C-S-H gel generates when it reacts with cement hydration product Ca(OH2. Nano-CaCO3 mainly plays the role of crystal nucleus effect and filling effect. Under the combined action of the two, the composite structure is denser, which provides a way to improve the performance of UHPC in practical engineering.

  9. High-throughput quantum chemistry and virtual screening for OLED material components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang

    2013-09-01

    Computational structure enumeration, analysis using an automated simulation workflow and filtering of large chemical structure libraries to identify lead systems, has become a central paradigm in drug discovery research. Transferring this paradigm to challenges in materials science is now possible due to advances in the speed of computational resources and the efficiency and stability of chemical simulation packages. State-of-the-art software tools that have been developed for drug discovery can be applied to efficiently explore the chemical design space to identify solutions for problems such as organic light-emitting diode material components. In this work, virtual screening for OLED materials based on intrinsic quantum mechanical properties is illustrated. Also, a new approach to more reliably identify candidate systems is introduced that is based on the chemical reaction energetics of defect pathways for OLED materials.

  10. Instructional Materials Physics High School with Multi Representation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvita Widi Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bahan Ajar Fisika SMA dengan Pendekatan Multi Representasi Abstract: One effort to improve understanding of concepts and problem-solving skills in learning physics is to provide instructional materials in accordance with the characteristics of the students and help students learn. The purpose of this study are: (1 developing a high school physics teaching materials especially materials Rotation Dynamics and Equilibrium Rigid objects using multiple representations approach to improve the understanding of physics concepts, (2 test the effectiveness of instructional materials development results. This research method is the development of research using Dick & Carey model tailored to the needs of research. The research instrument used in the form of feasibility questionnaire. The type of data that is obtained is quantitative data and qualitative data. Experimental results show that the result of the development of teaching materials can be categorized as very feasible. Results of field trials showed that: (1 most of the students in the experimental class above KKM obtain test results, (2 the results of the experimental class postes greater than the control class, so that teaching materials said to be effective, but not significant to improve the understanding of physics concepts. Key Words: teaching materials, multi-representation, the rotational dynamics Abstrak: Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan pemahaman konsep dan kemampuan memecahkan masalah dalam pembelajaran fisika adalah dengan menyediakan bahan ajar yang sesuai dengan karakteristik siswa dan memudahkan siswa dalam belajar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 mengembangkan bahan ajar fisika SMA khususnya materi Dinamika Rotasi dan Kesetimbangan Benda Tegar menggunakan pendekatan multi representasi untuk meningkatkan pemahaman konsep fisika, (2 menguji efektifitas bahan ajar hasil pengembangan. Metode penelitian ini adalah penelitian pengembangan menggunakan model Dick & Carey yang

  11. Destruction of Energetic Materials in Supercritical Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-25

    controls and difficulties associated with controlling processes and obtaining permits can negate potential advantages . Supercritical water oxidation...for H2 and an Alltech CTR-1 column with a temperature ramp program from -10 °C to 180 °C was used for the other gases. A mass spectrometer (HP 5971

  12. Structure and Properties of Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-02

    ielting (free/ing) as a function of pressure and temperature may be accomplished bw adiusting these parameters sot that both solid and liquid phases...Eq.(19) has the general time-lag form given by Eq.(1). By comparison of these two equations, one may write hA =Dkc2 + I h2R (20) 2n AL kc 2 h 2 . c0

  13. Novel Energetic Materials for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    advantage of being a thermoplastic polymer.  Attempts to mix  AB with  thermoset  polymers  such as HTPB and PBAN showed  that AB  interferes with  the...Powder‐Water  Reaction  Ignited  by  Electrical  Pulsed  Power,  N.S.W.  Center, Editor. 1993.  20. Kravchenko, K.N., et al., Journal of  Alloys  and...J.J. Reilly, Journal of  Alloys  and Compounds, 2006. 424(1‐2): p. 262‐265.  35. Graetz, J., et al., Kinetics and thermodynamics of the aluminum hydride

  14. First-Principles Thermodynamics of Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    thermal and zero-point energy ( ZPE ) effects on the crystalline environment [8]. By including vdW, thermal, and ZPE effects into DFT (DFT+vdW+T...by their relation to experiment (triangles) pure DFT over-predicts, while DFT+vdW under-predicts the EOSs. Only when temperature and ZPE effects...crystals with ZPE effects still included. To get a sense of how the vdW damping function might affect the calculation of the dynamical matrix, the

  15. Energetic Materials for Bio-Agent Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Hf° c [kJ g−1] P d [GPa] vDe [m s−1] ISf[J] 1a 55 305.2g 1.9 -3.5 16.58 6661 >40 2a 67 307.2 1.83 -2.96 17.82 6908 >40i 3a 73 343.5 1.94...921.7 Temperature 150(2) K Wavelength 0.71073 Å Crystal system Monoclinic Space group P21/m Unit cell dimensions a = 9.489(2) Å α...refinement for 10b. Empirical formula C9H24I6N2 Formula weight 921.7 Temperature 150(2) K Wavelength 0.71073 Å Crystal system Monoclinic Space

  16. Organic Perfluorohalogenate Salts; New Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    thermochemical) calorie (thermochemical) cal (thermochemical/cm 2 ) curie degree (angle) degree Fahrenheit electron volt erg erg/second foot foot-pound...3IF5 674 (10) 635 (0+) 620 (10) 599 sh 593 (5.3) 585 sh 568 (0+) 554 sh 557 (0+) 543 (3.0) 527 (2) 502 sh 451 (0.3) 391 (0.5) 382 (0.5) 367 (0.3) 347 (0

  17. Silicon-Based Nanoscale Composite Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    1193-1211. 9. Krishnamohan, G., E.M. Kurian, and H.R. Rao, Thermal Analysis and Inverse Burning Rate Studies on Silicon-Potassium Nitrate System...reported in a journal paper and appears in the Appendix. Multiscale Nanoporous Silicon Combustion Introduction for nanoporous silicon effort While

  18. Carbon nanostructure formation driven by energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyuan; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang

    2006-01-01

    -treatment of multiwalled CNTs. A core-sheath structure of the diamond nanorods were identified, with the inner core being diamond crystal and outer shell being amorphous carbon. The diamond nanorods grow along diamond [110] direction. A growth mechanism was proposed. Under irradiation of 60 keV N + and Si + beams at room temperatures, we found that CNTs undergo a non-equilibrium amorphization with ion-generated displacement atoms jumping ballistically from graphite phase to amorphous phase. At high temperature (800 degree C), the recombination of vacancies and interstitials would repair the CNT structure and prevent the CNTs from amorphization. Furthermore, due to vacancy-mending in the graphitic shells, hence decreased shell diameter, and due to growing concentration of carbon atoms in the interior of the tube, the pressure in the inner parts of the system increases. However, unlike interstitials in spherical onions, carbon interstitials in CNTs can easily migrate away from regions with elevated pressure. Thus, radiation generated CNT amorphization can rarely be observed. By irradiating pre-amorphized carbon nanowires at high temperatures, the formation of carbon onions was clearly evidenced by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Such a two-step transformation model, i.e., amorphization at room temperatures and transformation from amorphous carbon to onion-like structure at high temperatures, demonstrated the structural evolution before early nucleation of diamond under energetic particles. A congruous designed compromise between nuclear and electron stopping power makes the diamond nucleation possible in carbon onions. The interconnected CNT networks have fundamental importance in nanoelectronics, integrated circuit connection and reinforcement of composite materials. At room temperatures, the morphological and structural evolution of CNT films under Si + ion beam (60 keV) irradiation was observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission

  19. About Russian nuclear energetic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laletin, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    My particular view about Russian nuclear energetics perspectives is presented. The nearest and the further perspectives are considered. The arguments are adduced that the most probable scenario of nuclear energetic development is its stabilization in the near future. Fur further development the arguments of supporters and opponents of nuclear energetics are analyzed. Three points of view are considered. The first point of view that there is not alternative for nuclear energetics. My notes are the following ones. a) I express a skeptic opinion about a statement of quick exhaustion of fossil organic fuel recourses and corresponding estimations are presented. b) It is expressed skeptic opinion about the statement that nuclear energetics can have a visual influence on ''steam effect''. c) I agree that nuclear energetics is the most ecological technology for normal work but however we can't disregard possibilities of catastrophic accidents. The second point of view that the use of nuclear energetics can't have the justification. I adduce the arguments contrary to this statement. The third point of view that nuclear energetics is a usual technology and the only criteria for discussions about what dimension and where one ought develop it is total cost of its unit. Expressed an opinion that the deceived for the choose of a way the skill of the estimate correctly and optimized so named the external parts of the unit energy costs for different energy technologies. (author)

  20. Rural energetic development: cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera Barciela, M.

    1994-01-01

    The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life

  1. Economical aspects of nuclear energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celinski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The economical aspects of nuclear power generation in respect to costs of conventional energetics have been discussed in detail. The costs and competitiveness of nuclear power have been considered on the base of worldwide trends taking into account investment and fuel costs as well as 'social' costs being result of impact of different types of energetics on environment, human health etc

  2. Structure and energetics of nanotwins in cubic boron nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Shijian, E-mail: sjzheng@imr.ac.cn, E-mail: zrf@buaa.edu.cn; Ma, Xiuliang [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Ruifeng, E-mail: sjzheng@imr.ac.cn, E-mail: zrf@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and International Research Institute for Multidisciplinary Science, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Rong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ikuhara, Yuichi [Nanostructures Research Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Institute of Engineering Innovation, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Beyerlein, Irene J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Recently, nanotwinned cubic boron nitrides (NT c-BN) have demonstrated extraordinary leaps in hardness. However, an understanding of the underlying mechanisms that enable nanotwins to give orders of magnitude increases in material hardness is still lacking. Here, using transmission electron microscopy, we report that the defect density of twin boundaries depends on nanotwin thickness, becoming defect-free, and hence more stable, as it decreases below 5 nm. Using ab initio density functional theory calculations, we reveal that the Shockley partials, which may dominate plastic deformation in c-BNs, show a high energetic barrier. We also report that the c-BN twin boundary has an asymmetrically charged electronic structure that would resist migration of the twin boundary under stress. These results provide important insight into possible nanotwin hardening mechanisms in c-BN, as well as how to design these nanostructured materials to reach their full potential in hardness and strength.

  3. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation

  4. High temperature viscoplastic ratchetting: Material response or modeling artifact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Ratchetting, the net accumulation of strain over a loading cycle, is a deformation mechanism that leads to distortions in shape, often resulting in a loss of function that culminates in structural failure. Viscoplastic ratchetting is prevalent at high homologous temperatures where viscous characteristics are prominent in material response. This deformation mechanism is accentuated by the presence of a mean stress; a consequence of interaction between thermal gradients and structural constraints. Favorable conditions for viscoplastic ratchetting exist in the Stirling engines being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) for space and terrestrial power applications. To assess the potential for ratchetting and its effect on durability of high temperature structures requires a viscoplastic analysis of the design. But ratchetting is a very difficult phenomenon to accurately model. One must therefore ask whether the results from such an analysis are indicative of actual material behavior, or if they are artifacts of the theory being used in the analysis. There are several subtle aspects in a viscoplastic model that must be dealt with in order to accurately model ratchetting behavior, and therefore obtain meaningful predictions from it. In this paper, some of these subtlties and the necessary ratchet experiments needed to obtain an accurate viscoplastic representation of a material are discussed

  5. High performance p-type half-Heusler thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junjie; Xia, Kaiyang; Zhao, Xinbing; Zhu, Tiejun

    2018-03-01

    Half-Heusler compounds, which possess robust mechanical strength, good high temperature thermal stability and multifaceted physical properties, have been verified as a class of promising thermoelectric materials. During the last two decades, great progress has been made in half-Heusler thermoelectrics. In this review, we summarize some representative work of p-type half-Heusler materials, the thermoelectric performance of which has been remarkably enhanced in recent years. We introduce the features of the crystal and electronic structures of half-Heusler compounds, and successful strategies for optimizing electrical and thermal transport in the p-type RFeSb (R  =  V, Nb, Ta) and MCoSb (M  =  Ti, Zr, Hf) based systems, including band engineering, the formation of solid solutions and hierarchical phonon scattering. The outlook for future research directions of half-Heusler thermoelectrics is also presented.

  6. A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, K.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including tools for execution and monitoring performance, as well as efficient I/O utilities that enable seamless connections to and from the cloud. Our SCC platform is optimized for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We present benchmarks for prototypical scientific applications and demonstrate performance comparable to local compute clusters. To facilitate code execution and provide user-friendly access, we have also integrated cloud computing capability in a JAVA-based GUI. Our SCC platform may be an alternative to traditional HPC resources for materials science or quantum chemistry applications.

  7. Superconductivity in hydrogen-rich materials at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    A room temperature superconductor is probably one of the most desired systems in solid state physics. The highest critical temperature (T{sub c}) that has been achieved so far is in the copper oxide system: 133 kelvin (K) at ambient pressure ([82]Schilling et al. 1993) and 160 K under pressure ([42]Gao et al. 1994). The nature of superconductivity in the cuprates and in the recently discovered iron-based superconductor family (T{sub c}=57 K) is still not fully understood. In contrast, there is a class of superconductors which is well-described by the Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer (BCS) theory - conventional superconductors. Great efforts were spent in searching for high-temperature (T{sub c} > 77 K) conventional superconductor but only T{sub c} = 39 K has been reached in MgB2 ([68]Nagamatsu et al. 2001). BCS theory puts no bounds for T{sub c} as follows from Eliashberg's formulation of BCS theory. T{sub c} can be high, if there is a favorable combination of high-frequency phonons, strong electron-phonon coupling, and a high density of states. It does not predict however in which materials all three parameters are large. At least it gives a clear indication that materials with light elements are favorable as light elements provide high frequencies in the phonon spectrum. The lightest element is hydrogen, and Ashcroft made a first prediction that metallic hydrogen will be a high-temperature superconductor ([6]Ashcroft 1968). As pressure of hydrogen metallization was too high (about 400-500 GPa) for experimental techniques then he proposed that compounds dominated by hydrogen (hydrides) also might be good high temperature superconductors ([6]Ashcroft 1968; [7]Ashcroft 2004). A lot of the followed calculations supported this idea. T{sub c} in the range of 50-235 kelvin was predicted for many hydrides. Unfortunately, only a moderate T{sub c} of 17 kelvin has been observed experimentally ([27]Eremets et al. 2008) so far. A goal of the present work is to find a

  8. Edge-riched graphene nanoribbon for high capacity electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Yunjie; Zhang, Yupeng; Gong, Youning; Cao, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The graphene nanoribbon has been successfully synthesized by longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes with oxidants KMnO 4 . •Compared with graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbon shows the largest capacitance up to ∼202F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. •The importance of the location of functional groups and the importance of the edge structure. •The pseudo-capacitance material should have high electron transfer and rapid ion diffusion. -- Abstract: Carbon materials have attracted great attention for their diversified applications in supercapacitors, and different structures of carbon have been reported to exhibit dissimilar electrochemical properties. In the past, activated carbons, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers and graphene have been shown to have excellent electrochemical performances, but it still remains a problem on how to improve the capacitance of carbon-based materials effectively from the viewpoint of their giant commercial potential. Noticing that connecting chemical groups to carbon can provide large pseudo-capacitance, we hereby demonstrated that the position of the chemical groups also plays an important role in the pseudo-capacitance. In our work, we synthesized graphene nanoribbon (GNR), graphene oxide (GO) and functional MWCNTs and showed that GNR has larger capacitance (calculated to be 202 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s) and energy density compared to CNTs and GO when using as electrode materials. Furthermore, the supercapacitor device based on as-synthesized GNR exhibits excellent cycle stability and rate capability which evident is potential in high performance supercapacitor. Revealing the source of the capacitance, we found that though GNR has less oxygen-containing groups, it has larger pseudo-capacitance than GO and CNTs due to the remarkable edge-riched structure with high activity in electrochemical reactions. This finding highlights the importance of edge structure in carbon-based pseudo

  9. Temperature analysis of laser ignited metalized material using spectroscopic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Ishaan; Sharma, Pallavi; Daipuriya, Ritu; Singh, Manpreet

    2018-05-01

    The temperature measurement of the laser ignited aluminized Nano energetic mixture using spectroscopy has a great scope in in analysing the material characteristic and combustion analysis. The spectroscopic analysis helps to do in depth study of combustion of materials which is difficult to do using standard pyrometric methods. Laser ignition was used because it consumes less energy as compared to electric ignition but ignited material dissipate the same energy as dissipated by electric ignition and also with the same impact. Here, the presented research is primarily focused on the temperature analysis of energetic material which comprises of explosive material mixed with nano-material and is ignited with the help of laser. Spectroscopy technique is used here to estimate the temperature during the ignition process. The Nano energetic mixture used in the research does not comprise of any material that is sensitive to high impact.

  10. Characterization of sapphire: For its material properties at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Harman Singh

    There are numerous needs for sensing, one of which is in pressure sensing for high temperature application such as combustion related process and embedded in aircraft wings for reusable space vehicles. Currently, silicon based MEMS technology is used for pressure sensing. However, due to material properties the sensors have a limited range of approximately 600 °C which is capable of being pushed towards 1000 °C with active cooling. This can introduce reliability issues when you add more parts and high flow rates to remove large amounts of heat. To overcome this challenge, sapphire is investigated for optical based pressure transducers at temperatures approaching 1400 °C. Due to its hardness and chemical inertness, traditional cutting and etching methods used in MEMS technology are not applicable. A method that is being investigated as a possible alternative is laser machining using a picosecond laser. In this research, we study the material property changes that occur from laser machining and quantify the changes with the experimental results obtained by testing sapphire at high-temperature with a standard 4-point bending set-up.

  11. Materials and Designs for High-Efficacy LED Light Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbetson, James [Cree, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Cree, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Cree, Inc. conducted a narrow-band downconverter (NBD) materials development and implementation program which will lead to warm-white LED light engines with enhanced efficacy via improved spectral efficiency with respect to the human eye response. New red (600-630nm) NBD materials could result in as much as a 20% improvement in warm-white efficacy at high color quality relative to conventional phosphor-based light sources. Key program innovations included: high quantum yield; narrow peak width; minimized component-level losses due to “cross-talk” and light scattering among red and yellow-green downconverters; and improved reliability to reach parity with conventional phosphors. NBD-enabled downconversion efficiency gains relative to conventional phosphors yielded an end-of-project LED light engine efficacy of >160 lm/W at room temperature and 35 A/cm2, with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of ~3500K and >90 CRI (Color Rending Index). NBD-LED light engines exhibited equivalent luminous flux and color point maintenance at >1,000 hrs. of highly accelerated reliability testing as conventional phosphor LEDs. A demonstration luminaire utilizing an NBD-based LED light engine had a steady-state system efficacy of >150 lm/W at ~3500K and >90 CRI, which exceeded the 2014 DOE R&D Plan luminaire milestone for FY17 of >150 lm/W at just 80 CRI.

  12. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. The focus of this document will be the overall range of DOE's structural materials research activities being conducted to support VHTR development. By far, the largest portion of material's R&D supporting VHTR development is that being performed directly as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Supplementary VHTR materials R&D being performed in the DOE program, including university and international research programs and that being performed under direct contracts with the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, will also be described. Specific areas of high-priority materials research that will be needed to deploy the NGNP and provide a basis for subsequent VHTRs are described, including the following: (1) Graphite: (a) Extensive unirradiated materials characterization and assessment of irradiation effects on properties must be performed to qualify new grades of graphite for nuclear service, including thermo-physical and mechanical properties and their changes, statistical variations from billot-to-billot and lot-to-lot, creep, and especially, irradiation creep. (b) Predictive models, as well as codification of the requirements and design methods for graphite core supports, must be developed to provide a basis for licensing. (2) Ceramics: Both fibrous and load-bearing ceramics must be qualified for environmental and radiation service as insulating materials. (3) Ceramic Composites: Carbon-carbon and SiC-SiC composites must be qualified for specialized usage in selected high-temperature components, such as core stabilizers, control rods, and insulating covers and ducting. This will require development of component-specific designs and fabrication processes, materials characterization, assessment of environmental and irradiation effects, and establishment of codes and standards for materials testing and design

  13. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) steam electrolysers. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to evaluate the stability of the mentioned materials. It was found that stainless steels were the least resistant...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis...

  14. Ductility of brazing assemblies with high-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbus, J.; De Paoli, A.

    1977-01-01

    Brazing assemblies with the high temperature materials X8CrNiNb1613, X12CrNiMo12 and X8NiCrAlTiMo7020 have been produced using different solder metals. These brazing assemblies have been studied with the emphasis on the interrelation between microstructure and ductility. Besides the ordinary impact bend tests of notched and unnotched brazed joints, the impact bend tests of unnotched brazed joints with drawing of a Strength-Way-Diagram have been added for better results. (GSC) [de

  15. Polythiophene nanocomposites as high performance electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeth, H.; Niranjana, M.; Yesappa, L.; Ashokkumar, S. P.; Devendrappa, H.

    2018-04-01

    A polythiophene-aluminium oxide nanocomposite is prepared by in situ chemical polymerisation in presence of anionic surfactant camphor sulfonic acid (CSA). The characterisation of nano composite was done by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), surface morphology was studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The electrochemical performance is evaluated using cyclic voltammetry in 1M H2SO4. As an electroactive material, it exhibits high specific capacitance of 654.5 and 757 F/g for PTH and PTHA nanocomposites at scan rate of 30mV s-1 respectively.

  16. High thermal conductivity materials for thermal management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broido, David A.; Reinecke, Thomas L.; Lindsay, Lucas R.

    2018-05-29

    High thermal conductivity materials and methods of their use for thermal management applications are provided. In some embodiments, a device comprises a heat generating unit (304) and a thermally conductive unit (306, 308, 310) in thermal communication with the heat generating unit (304) for conducting heat generated by the heat generating unit (304) away from the heat generating unit (304), the thermally conductive unit (306, 308, 310) comprising a thermally conductive compound, alloy or composite thereof. The thermally conductive compound may include Boron Arsenide, Boron Antimonide, Germanium Carbide and Beryllium Selenide.

  17. Developing procedures for the handling of highly radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Handling procedures for highly radioactive materials must be analyzed for the reduction of radiation dose. In keeping with ALARA principles, time, distance, and shielding must be used to maximum benefit during the job. After an initial risk assessment is accomplished, job pre-planning meetings and cold open-quotes walk-throughsclose quotes are held in order to engineer the best workable procedure given allocated resources, and to reduce personnel exposure. This paper shows the relationship between each step in the job development, over a number of actual jobs, drawing out how subtle changes in practice can affect the individual and team radiation dose

  18. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    of the dopants and dopant concentrations, a large power factor was obtainable. The sample with the composition of Zn0.9Cd0.1Sc0.01O obtained the highest zT ∼0.3 @1173 K, ~0.24 @1073K, and a good average zT which is better than the state-of-the-art n-type thermoelectric oxide materials. Meanwhile, Sc-doped Zn......This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped Zn......O. Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...

  19. Conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A conduit for high temperature transfer of molten semiconductor crystalline material consists of a composite structure incorporating a quartz transfer tube as the innermost member, with an outer thermally insulating layer designed to serve the dual purposes of minimizing heat losses from the quartz tube and maintaining mechanical strength and rigidity of the conduit at the elevated temperatures encountered. The composite structure ensures that the molten semiconductor material only comes in contact with a material (quartz) with which it is compatible, while the outer layer structure reinforces the quartz tube, which becomes somewhat soft at molten semiconductor temperatures. To further aid in preventing cooling of the molten semiconductor, a distributed, electric resistance heater is in contact with the surface of the quartz tube over most of its length. The quartz tube has short end portions which extend through the surface of the semiconductor melt and which are lef bare of the thermal insulation. The heater is designed to provide an increased heat input per unit area in the region adjacent these end portions.

  20. High energy neutron source for materials research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odera, M.

    1989-01-01

    Requirements for neutron source for nuclear materials research are reviewed and ESNIT, Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test facility proposed by JAERI is discussed. Its principal aims of a wide neutron energy tunability and spectra peaking at each energy to enable characterization of material damage process are demanding but attractive goals which deserve detailed study. It is also to be noted that the requirements make a difference in facility design from those of FMIT, IFMIF and other high energy intense neutron sources built or planned to date. Areas of technologies to be addressed to realize the ESNIT facility are defined and discussed. In order to get neutron source having desired spectral characteristics keeping moderate intensity, projectile and target combinations must be examined including experimentation if necessary. It is also desired to minimize change of flux density and energy spectrum according to location inside irradiation chamber. Extended target or multiple targets configuration might be a solution as well as specimen rotation and choice of combination of projectile and target which has minimum velocity of the center of mass. Though relevant accelerator technology exists, it is to be stressed that considerable efforts must be paid, especially in the area of target and irradiation devices to get ESNIT goal. Design considerations to allow hands-on maintenance and future upgrading possibility are important either, in order to exploit the facility fully for nuclear materials research and development. (author)