Impinen, Antti; Mäkelä, Pia; Karjalainen, Karoliina; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lintonen, Tomi; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Ostamo, Aini
The aim of this study was to examine the overall and cause-specific mortality of DUI arrestees compared to a reference population with no history of DUI and to recognize the risk factors of premature death. The data used were a register of all DUI arrestees between April 1988 and December 2006. All drivers with drug-positive samples were excluded. DUI arrestees were compared to a reference population with no previous history of DUI. Overall and cause-specific hazard ratios were calculated and risk factors were estimated. Alcohol causes, diseases of the circulatory system and accidents constituted the most common causes of death among DUI arrestees. Suspected DUI was linked with higher mortality in every observed cause of death. The risk of death by alcohol-related or external cause was especially high. Among women DUI arrests caused sharper increase to the risk of death than increase found among male arrestees. Within the group of DUI arrestees the risk of death was affected by age, sex, marital status, education, multiple arrests as well as time and observed blood alcohol level of the arrest. Half of the suspected DUI cases and one in five of the references had alcohol as a contributing factor to death. Arrest on suspicion of drunk-driving is an indicator for elevated risk of death. Alcohol is often related to deaths of DUI arrestees. Drunk-drivers should be efficiently guided with respect to evaluations and treatments for harmful drinking. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scheck, Amy Mary; Hoffmann, Norman G.; Proctor, Steven L.; Couillou,Ryan J.
This study sought to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a brief alcohol intervention in increasing basic alcohol-related knowledge, and the intention to change high-risk drinking behaviors, among a sample of DUI and DWI offenders. Pre- and post-test data, in addition to program evaluation data, from 872 Level-II DUI and DWI offenders…
Karjalainen, Karoliina; Haukka, Jari; Lintonen, Tomi; Joukamaa, Matti; Lillsunde, Pirjo
The study seeks to increase understanding of the use of psychoactive prescription drugs among persons suspected of driving under the influence (DUI). We studied whether the use of prescribed psychoactive medication was associated with DUI, and examined the difference in the use of prescription drugs between DUI recidivists and those arrested only once. In this register-based study, persons suspected of DUI (n=29470) were drawn from the Register of DUI suspects, and an age- and gender-matched reference population (n=30043) was drawn from the Finnish general population. Data on prescription drug use was obtained by linkage to the National Prescription Register. The associations of DUI arrest and use of psychoactive prescription drugs in different DUI groups (findings for alcohol only, prescription drugs, prescription drugs and alcohol, illicit drugs) were estimated by using mixed-effect logistic regression. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs and DUI appeared to be strongly associated, with DUI suspects significantly more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to the reference population. Gender differences existed, with the use of benzodiazepines being more common among female DUI suspects. Moreover, DUI recidivists were more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to those arrested only once. In addition to alcohol and/or illicit drug use, a significant proportion of DUI suspects were using psychoactive prescription drugs. When prescribing psychoactive medication, especially benzodiazepines, physicians are challenged to screen for possible substance use problems and also to monitor for patients' alcohol or illicit drug use while being medicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clapp, John D; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert B; Lange, James E; Shillington, Audrey; Russell, Cristel
Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is among the most common and serious alcohol-related problems experienced by US college students. Community-based prevention trials using environmental approaches to DUI prevention have been effective in reducing DUI. Such interventions remain untested in college settings. This study is the first to test the efficacy of an environmental prevention campaign to reduce DUI among college students. We used a quasi-experimental non-equivalent comparison group design to test the efficacy of the DUI prevention intervention. Students at the experimental university were exposed to a DUI prevention intervention that included a social marketing campaign, a media advocacy campaign and increased law enforcement (DUI checkpoints and roving DUI patrols). Students from two large public universities located along the US/Mexico border participated in the seven-semester study. In total, 4832 college students took part. Using telephone interviews of randomly selected students, we took pre- and postintervention measures of self-reported DUI. Self-reported DUI (past year) decreased significantly from pre-test to post-test (odds ratio = 0.55) at the intervention school, whereas rates at the comparison campus remained stable. The campus-intervention interaction was statistically significant (P < 0.05), suggesting that the campaign led to the observed change in DUI. Environmental DUI campaigns similar to those validated in community prevention trials can be effective in college settings. Further research, however, is needed to determine the robustness of the changes associated with such campaigns.
Uribe-Quevedo, Alvaro; Perez-Gutierrez, Byron
3DUIs are becoming very popular among researchers, developers and users as they allow more immersive and interactive experiences by taking advantage of the human dexterity. The features offered by these interfaces outside the gaming environment, have allowed the development of applications in the medical area by enhancing the user experience and aiding the therapy process in controlled and monitored environments. Using mainstream videogame 3DUIs based on inertial and image sensors available in the market, this work presents the development of a virtual environment and its navigation through lower member captured gestures for assisting motion during therapy.
Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T
Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance, and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol, DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking, which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T
The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic accidents have prompted considerable research aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) in order to improve treatment and prevention strategies. Survey studies consistently show that DUI offenders self-report higher levels of impulsivity compared to their nonoffending counterparts. However, little is known about how individuals with a DUI history respond under alcohol. Inhibitory control is a behavioral component of impulsivity thought to underlie risky drinking and driving behaviors. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display deficits of inhibitory control in response to alcohol and the degree to which alcohol impaired their simulated driving performance. It was hypothesized that DUI offenders would display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Young adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-comparable group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Inhibitory control was measured by using a cued go/no-go task. Drivers then completed a driving simulation task that yielded multiple indicators of driving performance, such as within-lane deviation, steering rate, centerline crossings and road edge excursions, and drive speed. Results showed that although DUI offenders self-reported greater levels of impulsivity than did controls, no group differences were observed in the degree to which alcohol impaired inhibitory control and driving performance. The findings point to the need to identify other aspects of behavioral dysfunction underlying the self-reported impulsivity among DUI offenders, and to better understand the specific driving situations that might pose greater risk to DUI offenders. The systematic study of candidate cognitive deficits in DUI offenders will provide important
Greenberg, Michael D; Morral, Andrew R; Jain, Arvind K
Public policy interventions designed to deter or prevent drunk driving depend, in part, on modifying beliefs concerning the riskiness, social acceptability and immorality of driving under the influence of alcohol. The current study examines the association of these beliefs with the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Interviews were conducted with 273 people with multiple driving under the influence (DUI) offenses. Data included self-reported frequency of driving after drinking in the past year, as well as measures of moral and prescriptive beliefs concerning alcohol-impaired driving (internal behavioral controls), perceived risks of criminal punishment and accidents associated with alcohol-impaired driving (external behavioral controls) and perceived peer group attitudes toward alcohol-impaired driving (social controls). Logit regression modeling showed significant, unique protective associations with behavioral control items in each category. Behavioral controls may protect against alcohol-impaired driving behavior even in a high-risk sample of repeat DUI offenders. Policy interventions designed to curtail drunk driving might seek to enhance these sorts of behavioral controls among DUI offenders.
Meesmann, Uta; Martensen, Heike; Dupont, Emmanuelle
This study investigated the influence of alcohol checks and social norm on self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol above the legal limit (DUI). The analysis was based on the responses of 12,507 car drivers from 19 European countries to the SARTRE-4 survey (2010). The data were analysed by means of a multiple logistic regression-model on two levels: (1) individual and (2) national level. On the individual level the results revealed that driving under the influence (DUI) was positively associated with male gender, young age (17-34), personal experience with alcohol checks, the perceived likelihood of being checked for alcohol, perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends (social norm) and was negatively associated with higher age (55+). On a national level, the results showed a negative association with a lower legal alcohol limit (BAC 0.2g/l compared with BAC 0.5g/l) and the percentage of drivers checked for alcohol. DUI was positively associated with the percentage of respondents in the country that reported that their friends drink and drive (social norm). The comparison of the results obtained on national and individual levels shows a paradoxical effect of alcohol checks: Countries with more alcohol checks show lower DUI (negative association) but respondents who have been personally checked for alcohol show a higher chance of DUI (positive association). Possible explanations of this paradox are discussed. The effects of the social norm variable (perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends) are positively associated with DUI on both levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yao, Jie; Johnson, Mark B; Beck, Kenneth H
Driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement practices and sanctions contribute differentially to the certainty, swiftness, and severity of punishment, which are the key components of general deterrence theory. This study used a conjoint experiment to understand the decision-making process of potential DUI offenders and tested how variation in enforcement and legal punishment affects drinking and driving decisions. It sought to verify and quantify the unique deterrent effects of certainty, severity, and swiftness and to predict the rates of drinking and driving in different legal environments. One hundred twenty-one college seniors and graduate students at the University of Maryland participated in the Web-based conjoint experiment. They were randomly assigned to 4 blocks, each of which included 9 hypothetical scenarios composed of different levels of DUI enforcement and penalties. Respondents were asked to state their likelihood of drinking and driving under each scenario, as well as their estimated chance of being caught by the police for DUI. Intensified enforcement, harsh jail penalty, and immediate long license suspension were found to be the strongest deterrents to drinking and driving. Alternative ways to get home were also important in reducing people's willingness to drive. These factors accounted for most of the attribute effect on the DUI decision, whereas delayed punishment due to judicial processing, fine penalty, and legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit had negligible effects. For the personal characteristics, college seniors and those who had previously driven after drinking were more likely to choose to drink and drive, whereas those who expect a jail penalty for a DUI offense were less likely to drive. Our research confirmed and quantified certainty of punishment as the greatest deterrent to DUI, but it also indicated the equally important effect of a severe jail penalty. It provides evidence on the feasibility of using a conjoint
Barta, William D; Fisher, Virginia; Hynes, Patrick
In some jurisdictions, persons who are convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are allowed to serve some portion of their prison sentence under home confinement as part of Intensive Supervision Programs (ISPs) which include pre-release psycho-education and close post-release supervision. Test the hypothesis that persons convicted of DUI offenses who have spent some portion of their sentence under home confinement, as compared to a historical comparison group, will exhibit a relatively low re-conviction rate. Using administrative data for 1,410 repeat DUI offenders (302 members of the historical comparison group, 948 ISP members, and 160 persons who appear in both groups at different points in time), with a follow-up period of up to 3 years and 10 months, a marginal Cox model was employed to compare conviction rates of persons who experienced intensive supervision and home confinement with historical comparison group members. Persons with ISP + home confinement experience a re-conviction rate that is less than half that observed in the comparison group. Age, ethnicity (white vs. non-white), and gender are also significant predictors of re-conviction. Home confinement, in conjunction with psycho-education and other program elements, is one means of reducing the costs of incarceration. The results of this study suggest that, in addition to cost savings, states may realize a public safety benefit in the form of a reduction in DUI offense rates.
Ingwersen, Peter; Chavan, Vishwas
download instances. The DUI is proposed to include relative as well as species profile weighted comparative indicators. Conclusions We believe that in addition to the recognition to the data publisher and all players involved in the data life cycle, a DUI will also provide much needed yet novel insight...... into how users use primary biodiversity data. A DUI consisting of a range of usage indicators obtained from the GBIF network and other relevant access points is within reach. The usage of biodiversity datasets leads to the development of a family of indicators in line with well known citation-based......Background A professional recognition mechanism is required to encourage expedited publishing of an adequate volume of 'fit-for-use' biodiversity data. As a component of such a recognition mechanism, we propose the development of the Data Usage Index (DUI) to demonstrate to data publishers...
Connor, Susan M; Wesolowski, Kathryn
This study analyzes posts to online news message boards covering driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement efforts to determine their usefulness for informing traffic safety program planning and public relations efforts aimed at mainstream drinking drivers. A series of Google searches were conducted using keywords designed to capture news stories regarding impaired driving enforcement efforts. For each search, the first 100 Web pages returned were reviewed and articles were included in analysis if they were from an independent news source and contained user comments. Coders captured data on 28 fields for each post, including tone in relation to enforcement, tone of interpersonal communication with other posters, and expressed feelings regarding drinking and driving. Fifty-six news articles covering DUI enforcement efforts met study criteria, with 615 posts. The majority of posts (57%) were neutral on DUI enforcement; 24 percent (148) took a negative tone and 19 percent (115) positive. Posts that discussed checkpoints were 2.6 times more likely to take a negative tone toward enforcement than those that did not. Twenty-one percent of anti-enforcement posts challenged the idea that driving after drinking was necessarily dangerous. Of the 321 posts involving direct communication between posters, 67 percent involved disagreement with another post. Profanity or belittling comments appeared in 10 percent of posts. Public responses to DUI enforcement news articles provide insight into the beliefs and thought processes of those who oppose enforcement efforts or view drinking and driving as no big deal. Primary objections to enforcement focused on civil and personal rights issues, skepticism regarding law enforcement's motives and objectivity, and the belief that drinking driving is not a "real" crime. Online news message boards could be useful in informing campaigns and helping program planners frame media events and press releases to best appeal to the most at
Smith, Katherine Clegg; Twum, Denise; Gielen, Andrea Carlson
Alcohol in the media influences norms around use, particularly for young people. A recent spate of celebrity arrests for drinking and driving (DUI) has received considerable media attention. We asked whether these newsworthy events serve as teachable moments or problematic social modeling for young women. Qualitative analysis of US media coverage of four female celebrities (Michelle Rodriguez, Paris Hilton, Nicole Richie and Lindsay Lohan) was conducted over the year following their DUI arrest (December 2005 through June 2008). The media sample included five television and three print sources and resulted in 150 print and 16 television stories. Stories were brief, episodic and focused around glamorous celebrity images. They included routine discussion of the consequences of the DUI for the individual celebrities without much evidence of a consideration of the public health dimensions of drinking and driving or possible prevention measures. Our analysis found little material in the media coverage that dealt with preventing injury or promoting individual and collective responsibility for ensuring such protection. Media attention to such newsworthy events is a missed opportunity that can and should be addressed through media advocacy efforts.
Scherer, Michael; Romano, Eduardo; Caldwell, Susan; Taylor, Eileen
Driving under the influence (DUI) citations are still a serious concern among drivers aged 16-20 years and have been shown to be related to increased risk of fatal and nonfatal crashes. A battery of laws and policies has been enacted to address this concern. Though numerous studies have evaluated these policies, there is still a need for comprehensive policy evaluations that take into account a variety of contextual factors. Previous effort by this research team examined the impact of 20 minimum legal drinking age-21 laws in the state of California, as they impacted alcohol-related crash rates among drivers under 21 years of age while at the same time accounting for alcohol and gas taxes, unemployment rates, sex distribution among drivers, and sobriety checkpoints. The current research seeks to expand this evaluation to the county level (San Diego County). More specifically, we evaluate the impact of measures subject to county control such as retail beverage service (RBS) laws and social host (SH) laws, as well as media coverage, city employment, alcohol outlet density, number of sworn officers, alcohol consumption, and taxation policies, to determine the most effective point of intervention for communities seeking to reduce underage DUI citations. Annual DUI citation data (2000 to 2013), RBS and SH policies, and city-wide demographic, economic, and environmental information were collected and applied to each of the 20 cities in San Diego County, California. A structural equation model was fit to estimate the relative contribution of the variables of interest to DUI citation rates. Alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet density both demonstrated a significant increase in DUI rates, whereas RBS laws, SH laws, alcohol tax rates, media clusters, gas tax rates, and unemployment rates demonstrated significant decreases in DUI rates. At the county level, although RBS laws, SH laws, and media efforts were found to contribute to a significant reduction in DUI rates, the
Grainger, J N.R.
In Patella vulgata and Helix aspersa which had been killed by exposure to high temperatures, the rates of oxygen consumption of gill, foot muscle and hepatopancreas are remarkably steady when measured at lower temperatures, although the absolute levels are in some cases different from normal animals. These tissues are thus substantially metabolically intact in heat dead individuals. In Helix there is a fall in blood sodium and a rise in blood potassium during heat death. In Patella there is a marked rise in blood Na/sup +/ and a consequent disturbance of the Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ratio. These ionic disturbances are thought to be a prime cause of heat death. The significance of the results is discussed.
Demitto, Marcela de Oliveira; Gravena, Angela Andréia França; Dell'Agnolo, Cátia Millene; Antunes, Marcos Benatti; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa
To identify the factors associated with intra-hospital neonatal mortality based on the individual characteristics of at-risk pregnant mothers, delivery and newborns. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study of live newborns delivered by women attended at the high-risk outpatient unit of a philanthropic hospital in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil between September 2012 and September 2013. Six hundred and eighty-eight women participated in the study. The neonatal mortality coefficient found was 17.7/1,000 live births, most in the early neonatal phase. Premature labor, fetal malformation and multiple gestations were associated with neonatal death. Premature, very low birth weight newborns and those with an Apgar score of less than seven, five minutes after birth were at high risk of death. Identifying risk factors can help plan actions to consolidate the perinatal network. Specific programs should be incentivized in other countries, in the search for significant perinatal results such as reducing neonatal mortality. Identificar os fatores associados à mortalidade neonatal intra-hospitalar com base nas características individuais de gestantes de risco, do parto e do recém-nascido. Estudo epidemiológico do tipo transversal, realizado com crianças nascidas vivas de partos hospitalares de mulheres acompanhadas pelo ambulatório de alto risco de um hospital filantrópico de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, no período de setembro de 2012 a setembro de 2013.RESULTADOS Fizeram parte da pesquisa 688 mulheres. O coeficiente de mortalidade neonatal foi de 17,7 óbitos/1.000 nascidos vivos, sendo sua maioria no período neonatal precoce. Trabalho de parto prematuro, malformação fetal e gestação múltipla foram as intercorrências associadas ao óbito neonatal. Recém-nascidos prematuros, com muito baixo peso ao nascer e Índice de Apgar menor que sete no quinto minuto de vida apresentaram risco elevado de morte. A identificação de fatores de risco pode auxiliar no
Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas
). Diclofenac was applied topically on the backs of hairless, female, C3.Cg/TifBomTac immunocompetent mice three times weekly followed by ultraviolet radiation (2, 3, or 4 Standard Erythema Dose) until death. There was a significant difference in survival between diclofenac-treated groups and control groups (P...
Huo, Qing-Bo; Du, Yu-Zhou
Two species of the peltoperlid genus Cryptoperla Needham, C. dactylina Du, sp. nov. and C. nangongshana Huo Du, sp. nov. are described as new to science from Yunnan and Shaanxi provinces of China. Cryptoperla dactylina is characterized by a finger-like sclerotized projection with small-rounded processes on the first cercal segment and C. nangongshana is characterized by clusters of long bristles on the first six cercal segments. Additionally, a description of the nymph of C. dui Sivec is provided.
Anum, Emmanuel A; Silberg, Judy; Retchin, Sheldon M
The study was undertaken to assess the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences on drunk-driving. Driving records of a cohort of male and female twins (N = 17,360) from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry were examined. Structural equation models were used to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on male and female phenotypes, and test for gender differences. There were significant gender and age effects. Compared with females, males were five times more likely to engage in driving under the influence. Among persons aged 21-49 years, the risk for drunk-driving was eight times that for those aged 50+ years and five times greater than those ≤20 years. In both males and females, aged 21-49 years, a large proportion (57%) of the variance in drunk-driving was due to genetic factors and the remaining 43% due to individual specific environmental influences. Drunk-driving is under significant genetic influence in both males and females. Our findings suggest that a different set of genes influence DUIs in men and women.
Andrew R Schwendeman
Full Text Available Programmed cell death is a ubiquitous process in metazoan development. Apoptosis, one cell death form, has been studied extensively. However, mutations inactivating key mammalian apoptosis regulators do not block most developmental cell culling, suggesting that other cell death pathways are likely important. Recent work in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans identified a non-apoptotic cell death form mediating the demise of the male-specific linker cell. This cell death process (LCD, linker cell-type death is morphologically conserved, and its molecular effectors also mediate axon degeneration in mammals and Drosophila. To develop reagents to manipulate LCD, we established a simple high-throughput screening protocol for interrogating the effects of small molecules on C. elegans linker cell death in vivo. From 23,797 compounds assayed, 11 reproducibly block linker cell death onset. Of these, five induce animal lethality, and six promote a reversible developmental delay. These results provide proof-of principle validation of our screening protocol, demonstrate that developmental progression is required for linker cell death, and suggest that larger scale screens may identify LCD-specific small-molecule regulators that target the LCD execution machinery.
Ray, Wayne A; Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Hall, Kathi; Stein, C Michael
Studies demonstrating that higher doses of citalopram (> 40 mg) and escitalopram (> 20 mg) prolong the corrected QT interval prompted regulatory agency warnings, which are controversial, given the absence of confirmatory clinical outcome studies. We compared the risk of potential arrhythmia-related deaths for high doses of these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to that for equivalent doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. The Tennessee Medicaid retrospective cohort study included 54,220 persons 30-74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness who were prescribed high-dose SSRIs from 1998 through 2011. The mean age was 47 years, and 76% were female. Demographic characteristics and comorbidity for individual SSRIs were comparable. Because arrhythmia-related deaths are typically sudden and occur outside the hospital, we analyzed out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death as well as sudden cardiac deaths, a more specific indicator of proarrhythmic effects. The adjusted risk of sudden unexpected death for citalopram did not differ significantly from that for the other SSRIs. The respective hazard ratios (HRs) for citalopram versus escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40-1.75), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.75-2.05), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.45-1.24), and 1.53 (95% CI, 0.91-2.55). There were no significant differences for sudden cardiac death or all study deaths, nor were there significant differences among high-risk patients (≥ 60 years of age, upper quartile baseline cardiovascular risk). Escitalopram users had no significantly increased risk for any study end point. We found no evidence that risk of sudden unexpected death, sudden cardiac death, or total mortality for high-dose citalopram and escitalopram differed significantly from that for comparable doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Recommendations for reforming high school mathematics curricula emphasize the importance of engaging students in mathematical investigations of societal issues (CCSSI [Common Core State Standards Initiative] 2010; NCTM [National Council of Teachers of Mathematics] 2000). Proponents argue that these investigations can positively influence students'…
Kevin C Davis
Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated
Du, Y; Kowluru, A; Kern, T S
Endothelial death is critical in diabetic vascular diseases, but regulating factors have been only partially elucidated. Phosphatases play important regulatory roles in cell metabolism, but have not previously been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced cell death. We investigated the role of the phosphatase, type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A), in hyperglycemia-induced changes in signaling and death in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). We explored also the influence of benfotiamine on this phosphatase. Activation of PP2A was assessed in BAEC by the extent of methylation and measurement of activity, and the enzyme was inhibited using selective pharmacological (okadaic acid, sodium fostriecin) and molecular (small interfering RNA) approaches. BAECs cultured in 30 mM glucose significantly increased PP2A methylation and activity, and PP2A inhibitors blocked these abnormalities. PP2A activity was increased also in aorta and retina from diabetic rats. NF-κB activity and cell death in BAEC were significantly increased in 30 mM glucose and inhibited by PP2A inhibition. NF-κB played a role in the hyperglycemia-induced death of BAEC, since blocking its translocation with SN50 also inhibited cell death. Inhibition of PP2A blocked the hyperglycemia-induced dephosphorylation of NF-κB and Bad, thus favoring cell survival. Incubation of benfotiamine with BAEC inhibited the high glucose-induced activation of PP2A and NF-κB and cell death, as well as several other metabolic defects, which likewise were inhibited by inhibitors of PP2A. Activation of PP2A contributes to endothelial cell death in high glucose, and beneficial actions of benfotiamine are due, at least in part, to inhibition of PP2A activation.
Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica
High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Gaudiani, Vincent; Deeb, G Michael; Popma, Jeffrey J; Adams, David H; Gleason, Thomas G; Conte, John V; Zorn, George L; Hermiller, James B; Chetcuti, Stan; Mumtaz, Mubashir; Yakubov, Steven J; Kleiman, Neal S; Huang, Jian; Reardon, Michael J
Explore causes and timing of death from the CoreValve US Pivotal High-Risk Trial. An independent clinical events committee adjudicated causes of death, followed by post hoc hierarchical classification. Baseline characteristics, early outcomes, and causes of death were evaluated for 3 time periods (selected based on threshold of surgical 30-day mortality and on the differences in the continuous hazard between the 2 groups): early (0-30 days), recovery (31-120 days), and late (121-365 days). Differences in the rate of death were evident only during the recovery period (31-120 days), whereas 15 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) (4.0%) and 27 surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) patients (7.9%) died (P = .025). This mortality difference was largely driven by higher rates of technical failure, surgical complications, and lack of recovery following surgery. From 0 to 30 days, the causes of death were more technical failures in the TAVR group and lack of recovery in the SAVR group. Mortality in the late period (121-365 days) in both arms was most commonly ascribed to other circumstances, comprising death from medical complications from comorbid disease. Mortality at 1 year in the CoreValve US Pivotal High-Risk Trial favored TAVR over SAVR. The major contributor was that more SAVR patients died during the recovery period (31-121 days), likely affected by the overall influence of physical stress associated with surgery. Similar rates of technical failure and complications were observed between the 2 groups. This suggests that early TAVR results can improve with technical refinements and that high-risk surgical patients will benefit from reducing complications. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wagenaar, Alexander C; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Erickson, Darin J; Ma, Linan; Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A
We examined effects of state statutory changes in DUI fine or jail penalties for firsttime offenders from 1976 to 2002. A quasi-experimental time-series design was used (n=324 monthly observations). Four outcome measures of drivers involved in alcohol-related fatal crashes are: single-vehicle nighttime, low BAC (0.01-0.07g/dl), medium BAC (0.08-0.14g/dl), high BAC (>/=0.15g/dl). All analyses of BAC outcomes included multiple imputation procedures for cases with missing data. Comparison series of non-alcohol-related crashes were included to efficiently control for effects of other factors. Statistical models include state-specific Box-Jenkins ARIMA models, and pooled general linear mixed models. Twenty-six states implemented mandatory minimum fine policies and 18 states implemented mandatory minimum jail penalties. Estimated effects varied widely from state to state. Using variance weighted meta-analysis methods to aggregate results across states, mandatory fine policies are associated with an average reduction in fatal crash involvement by drivers with BAC>/=0.08g/dl of 8% (averaging 13 per state per year). Mandatory minimum jail policies are associated with a decline in single-vehicle nighttime fatal crash involvement of 6% (averaging 5 per state per year), and a decline in low-BAC cases of 9% (averaging 3 per state per year). No significant effects were observed for the other outcome measures. The overall pattern of results suggests a possible effect of mandatory fine policies in some states, but little effect of mandatory jail policies.
Full text: This study was conducted to investigate the mode(s) of cell death induced by high radiation doses in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect ovarian cell line. Methods: Cells were exposed to γ-radiation doses 200Gy and 500Gy, harvested at various time intervals (6h-72h) following irradiation, and subjected to cell morphology assay, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) and Annexin-V labeling for the detection of membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. Cell morphology was assessed in cells entrapped and fixed in agarose gel directly from the cell suspension, thus preventing the possible loss of fragments/ apoptotic bodies. Surviving fraction of Sf9 cells was 0.01 at 200Gy and 98%) undergoing extensive DNA fragmentation at 500Gy, whereas the frequency of cells with DNA fragmentation was considerably less (∼12%) at 200Gy. Conclusions: While the mode of cell death at 200Gy seems to be different from typical apoptosis, a dose of 500Gy induced bimodal cell death, with typical apoptotic as well as the atypical cell death observed at 200Gy
Gonca Karakus; Zehra Ozturk; Lut Tamam
Although death and life concepts seem so different from each other, some believe that death and life as a whole that death is accepted as the goal of life and death completes life. In different cultures, societies and disciplines, there have been very different definitions of death which changes according to personality, age, religion and cultural status of the individual. Attitudes towards death vary dramatically according to individuals. As for the death anxiety, it is a feeling which start...
Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC13076) in liquid whole egg (LWE) following thermal-death-time (TDT) disk and high hydrostatic pressure treatments were examined. Salmonella enteritidis was inoculated ...
Wang, Yujiao; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Lirong; Zheng, Shijie; Yan, Naihong; Chen, Danian
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes and remains one of the major causes of blindness in the world; infants born to diabetic mothers have higher risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). While hyperglycemia is a major risk factor, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying DR and diabetic ROP are poorly understood. To explore the consequences of retinal cells under high glucose, we cultured wild type or E2f1 -/- mouse retinal explants from postnatal day 8 with normal glucose, high osmotic or high glucose media. Explants were also incubated with cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to mimic the hypoxic condition. We showed that, at 7 days post exposure to high glucose, retinal explants displayed elevated cell death, ectopic cell division and intact retinal vascular plexus. Cell death mainly occurred in excitatory neurons, such as ganglion and bipolar cells, which were also ectopically dividing. Many Müller glial cells reentered the cell cycle; some had irregular morphology or migrated to other layers. High glucose inhibited the hyperoxia-induced blood vessel regression of retinal explants. Moreover, inactivation of E2f1 rescued high glucose-induced ectopic division and cell death of retinal neurons, but not ectopic cell division of Müller glial cells and vascular phenotypes. This suggests that high glucose has direct but distinct effects on retinal neurons, glial cells and blood vessels, and that E2f1 mediates its effects on retinal neurons. These findings shed new light onto mechanisms of DR and the fetal retinal abnormalities associated with maternal diabetes, and suggest possible new therapeutic strategies.
Andreev, Victor P; Head, Trajen; Johnson, Neil; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J
Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is responsible for at least 180,000 deaths a year and incurs an average cost of $286 billion annually in the United States alone. Herein, we present a novel discrete event simulation model of SCD, which quantifies the chains of events associated with the formation, growth, and rupture of atheroma plaques, and the subsequent formation of clots, thrombosis and on-set of arrhythmias within a population. The predictions generated by the model are in good agreement both with results obtained from pathological examinations on the frequencies of three major types of atheroma, and with epidemiological data on the prevalence and risk of SCD. These model predictions allow for identification of interventions and importantly for the optimal time of intervention leading to high potential impact on SCD risk reduction (up to 8-fold reduction in the number of SCDs in the population) as well as the increase in life expectancy.
Tao Zufan; Cha Yongru; Zhou Shunyuan
This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA
Sharon L. Harlan
Full Text Available In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages <65 and ≥65 during the months May–October for years 2000–2008. The most robust relationship was between ATmax on day of death and mortality from direct exposure to high environmental heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90–97 °F; 32.2‒36.1 °C were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C. Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C and males <65 years (ATmax = 102 °F; 38.9 °C. Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.
Chou, Evelyn S; Abidi, Sabia Z; Teye, Marian; Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Rask, Thomas S; Cobbold, Simon A; Tonkin-Hill, Gerry Q; Subramaniam, Krishanthi S; Sexton, Anna E; Creek, Darren J; Daily, Johanna P; Duffy, Michael F; Day, Karen P
Transient regulation of Plasmodium numbers below the density that induces fever has been observed in chronic malaria infections in humans. This species transcending control cannot be explained by immunity alone. Using an in vitro system we have observed density dependent regulation of malaria population size as a mechanism to possibly explain these in vivo observations. Specifically, Plasmodium falciparum blood stages from a high but not low-density environment exhibited unique phenotypic changes during the late trophozoite (LT) and schizont stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle. These included in order of appearance: failure of schizonts to mature and merozoites to replicate, apoptotic-like morphological changes including shrinking, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and blebbing with eventual release of aberrant parasites from infected erythrocytes. This unique death phenotype was triggered in a stage-specific manner by sensing of a high-density culture environment. Conditions of glucose starvation, nutrient depletion, and high lactate could not induce the phenotype. A high-density culture environment induced rapid global changes in the parasite transcriptome including differential expression of genes involved in cell remodeling, clonal antigenic variation, metabolism, and cell death pathways including an apoptosis-associated metacaspase gene. This transcriptional profile was also characterized by concomitant expression of asexual and sexual stage-specific genes. The data show strong evidence to support our hypothesis that density sensing exists in P. falciparum. They indicate that an apoptotic-like mechanism may play a role in P. falciparum density regulation, which, as in yeast, has features quite distinguishable from mammalian apoptosis. Gene expression data are available in the GEO databases under the accession number GSE91188. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality rates (IMR remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150 in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Results Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89–143. Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6 months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51–88. Infections (35% and preterm births complications (23% were the most common probable causes of death by 6 months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. Conclusions We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas.
Hama Diallo, Abdoulaye; Meda, Nicolas; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Traore, Germain S; Cousens, Simon; Tylleskar, Thorkild
Infant mortality rates (IMR) remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150) in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89-143). Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6 months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51-88). Infections (35%) and preterm births complications (23%) were the most common probable causes of death by 6 months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas.
Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M
In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.
Anderson, Katherine; Nelson, Stephen; Mayo, Alan; Tingey, David
Springs in the Furnace Creek area (Texas, Travertine, and Nevares Springs) of Death Valley National Park exhibit high discharge rates and depleted δ18O VSMOW (˜-13‰) and δD VSMOW (˜-102‰) values. Isotopic depletion of this magnitude and large spring fluxes (˜10,000 L/min) suggests that modern local recharge in the arid Furnace Creek drainage cannot be responsible for spring fluxes. An alternate explanation, interbasin flow, is difficult to envisage due to the stratigraphic and structural relationships of bedrock in intervening ranges, although it is the most common conceptual model for Furnace Creek spring flows. High-flux springs at Furnace Creek nonetheless respond modestly to modern climate in terms of discharge rate and isotopic composition. Hydrographs show a climate response and variations in time-series stable isotope data of widely spaced springs track one another. Small, but measurable quantities of tritium (water for these springs may be, there appears to be a subtle, but recent climatic influence. Estimates of flow at nearby mountain springs produce discharge rates per square kilometer of catchment that, by analogy, could support from 20 to 300% of the flow at large Death Valley springs under the current climate. Yet, 14C model ages suggest valley-bottom springs at Furnace Creek (5500-14,500 yr) contain a large component of older water, suggesting that much of the water was recharged during a pluvial period (Younger Dryas?) when net infiltration would have been much higher and isotopically depleted. 14C model ages are also of similar age, or younger, than many 'up gradient' waters, rather than being older as would be expected for interbasin flow. Chemical evolution models of solutes are consistent with both local recharge and interbasin transfer from Ash Meadows. However, when considered with isotopic constraints, interbasin flow becomes obviously untenable. Estimates of the thickness of alluvium and semi-consolidated Tertiary units in the
Carugno, Michele; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Catelan, Dolores; Grisotto, Laura; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biggeri, Annibale; Baccini, Michela
The Lombardy region in northern Italy ranks among the most air polluted areas of Europe. Previous studies showed air pollution short-term effects on all-cause mortality. We examine here the effects of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure on deaths and hospitalizations from specific causes, including cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases. We considered air pollution, mortality and hospitalization data for a non-opportunistic sample of 18 highly polluted and most densely populated areas of the region in the years 2003-2006. We obtained area-specific effect estimates for PM10 and NO2 from a Poisson regression model on the daily number of total deaths or cause-specific hospitalizations and then combined them in a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis. For cause-specific mortality, we applied a case-crossover analysis. Age- and season-specific analyses were also performed. Effect estimates were expressed as percent variation in mortality or hospitalizations associated with a 10µg/m(3) increase in PM10 or NO2 concentration. Natural mortality was positively associated with both pollutants (0.30%, 90% Credibility Interval [CrI]: -0.31; 0.78 for PM10; 0.70%, 90%CrI: 0.10; 1.27 for NO2). Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher percent variation in association with NO2 (1.12%, 90% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.14; 2.11), while the percent variation for respiratory mortality was highest in association with PM10 (1.64%, 90%CI: 0.35; 2.93). The effect of both pollutants was more evident in the summer season. Air pollution was also associated to hospitalizations, the highest variations being 0.77% (90%CrI: 0.22; 1.43) for PM10 and respiratory diseases, and 1.70% (90%CrI: 0.39; 2.84) for NO2 and cerebrovascular diseases. The effect of PM10 on respiratory hospital admissions appeared to increase with age. For both pollutants, effects on cerebrovascular hospitalizations were more evident in subjects aged less than
Meek, Rick L; LeBoeuf, Renee C; Saha, Sandeep A; Alpers, Charles E; Hudkins, Kelly L; Cooney, Sheryl K; Anderberg, Robert J; Tuttle, Katherine R
Overfeeding amino acids (AAs) increases cellular exposure to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), a mechanism for protein intake to worsen diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study assessed receptor for AGE (RAGE)-mediated apoptosis and inflammation in glomerular cells exposed to metabolic stressors characteristic of high-protein diets and/or diabetes in vitro with proof-of-concept appraisal in vivo. Mouse podocytes and mesangial cells were cultured under control and metabolic stressor conditions: (i) no addition; (ii) increased AAs (4-6-fold>control); (iii) high glucose (HG, 30.5 mM); (iv) AA/HG combination; (v) AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA, 300 µg/mL); (vi) BSA (300 µg/mL). RAGE was inhibited by blocking antibody. Diabetic (streptozotocin) and nondiabetic mice (C57BL/6J) consumed diets with protein calories of 20 or 40% (high) for 20 weeks. People with DKD and controls provided 24-h urine samples. In podocytes and mesangial cells, apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activity and TUNEL) increased in all metabolic stressor conditions. Both inflammatory mediator expression (real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: serum amyloid A, caspase-4, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and RAGE (immunostaining) also increased. RAGE inhibition prevented apoptosis and inflammation in podocytes. Among mice fed high protein, podocyte number (WT-1 immunostaining) decreased in the diabetic group, and only these diabetic mice developed albuminuria. Protein intake (urea nitrogen) correlated with AGE excretion (carboxymethyllysine) in people with DKD and controls. High-protein diet and/or diabetes-like conditions increased glomerular cell death and inflammation, responses mediated by RAGEs in podocytes. The concept that high-protein diets exacerbate early indicators of DKD is supported by data from mice and people.
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Port, M; Abend, M; Römer, B; Van Beuningen, D
International thresholds for exposure to non-ionizing radiation leading to non-thermal effects were conservatively set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The aim of this study was to examine whether biological effects such as different modes of cell death and gene expression modifications related to tumorgenesis are detectable above the threshold defined. Human leukaemia cells (HL-60) grown in vitro were exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF; t 1/2(r) about 1 ns; field strength about 25 times higher than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational exposure) leading to non-thermal effects using a high-voltage-improved GTEM cell 5302 (EMCO) connected to a pulse generator NP20 (C = 1 nF, U(Load) = 20kV). HL-60 cells were harvested at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after radiation exposure. Micronuclei, apoptosis and abnormal cells (e.g. necrosis) were determined using morphological criteria. In parallel, the expression of 1176 genes was measured using Atlas Human 1.2. Array. Based on high data reproducibility calculated from two independent experiments (> 99%), array analysis was performed. No significant change in apoptosis, micronucleation, abnormal cells and differential gene expression was found. Exposure of HL-60 cells to EMFs 25 times higher than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational exposure failed to induce any changes in apoptosis, micronucleation, abnormal morphologies and gene expression. Further experiments using EMFs above the conservatively defined reference level set by the ICNIRP may be desirable.
Romeo, Agostino; Tarabella, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Pasquale; Caffarra, Cristina; Cretella, Daniele; Alfieri, Roberta; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Iannotta, Salvatore
We propose and demonstrate a sensitive diagnostic device based on an Organic Electrochemical Transistor (OECT) for direct in-vitro monitoring cell death. The system efficiently monitors cell death dynamics, being able to detect signals related to specific death mechanisms, namely necrosis or early/late apoptosis, demonstrating a reproducible correlation between the OECT electrical response and the trends of standard cell death assays. The innovative design of the Twell-OECT system has been modeled to better correlate electrical signals with cell death dynamics. To qualify the device, we used a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) that was cultivated on the micro-porous membrane of a Transwell (Twell) support, and exposed to the anticancer drug doxorubicin. Time-dependent and dose-dependent dynamics of A549 cells exposed to doxorubicin are evaluated by monitoring cell death upon exposure to a range of doses and times that fully covers the protocols used in cancer treatment. The demonstrated ability to directly monitor cell stress and death dynamics upon drug exposure using simple electronic devices and, possibly, achieving selectivity to different cell dynamics is of great interest for several application fields, including toxicology, pharmacology, and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kashiwagi, Masayo; Tamiya, Nanako; Murata, Masako
The purpose of the present study was to identify characteristics of visiting nurse agencies (VNA) in Japan with high home death rates by a prefecture-wide survey. A cross-sectional study of visiting nurse agencies (n = 101) in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, was completed. Data included the basic characteristics of each VNA, the type of services provided, level of coordination with other service providers, total number of VNA patients who died per year and place of death and contractual relationship with home-care supporting clinics providing end-of-life care services in the home 24 h a day. The VNA characteristics were analyzed by logistic regression, using the home death rate per VNA as a dependent variable. A total 69 agencies, excluding those that did not report number of deaths (n = 14) and those without deaths during the year (n = 6), were analyzed. The median home death rate of the 69 VNA was 29.8%. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that higher home death rate was significantly associated with lack of attachment to a hospital, existence of a contractual relationship with home-care supporting clinics and existence of an interactive information exchange through telephone/face-to-face communication with attending physicians. In order to increase the home death rate of people using VNA, policymakers must consider establishing home-based service systems within the community that can provide home end-of-life care services 24 h a day, and support the interactive exchange of information between the visiting nurse and the attending physician. © 2014 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Geriatrics Society.
Cerf, Marlon E
Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fiorentino, Dary D; Berger, Dale E; Ramirez, Juan R
Determinants of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) were explored among a sample of relatively young Mexican-American males with limited income and education, high levels of alcohol consumption, and regular vehicle use. Data were collected using questionnaires (N=104) and focus groups (N=27), including a focus group with wives and girlfriends (N=4). Four mechanisms that may contribute to the high rate of DUI behavior in this population were identified: (1) a subculture of permissiveness toward drinking and driving for men, (2) heavy drinking, promoted by machismo and a propensity to measure masculinity with alcohol intake, (3) inadequate knowledge of DUI statutes and inadequate understanding of the relationships between BAC, impairment, and crash risk, and (4) for undocumented drivers, lack of accountability in case of an alcohol-related incident.
Vlad, Roxana M.; Kolios, Michael C.; Moseley, Joanne L.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Brock, Kristy K.
Purpose: High frequency ultrasound imaging, 10-30 MHz, has the capability to assess tumor response to radiotherapy in mouse tumors as early as 24 h after treatment administration. The advantage of this technique is that the image contrast is generated by changes in the physical properties of dying cells. Therefore, a subject can be imaged before and multiple times during the treatment without the requirement of injecting specialized contrast agents. This study is motivated by a need to provide metrics of comparison between the volume and localization of cell death, assessed from histology, with the volume and localization of cell death surrogate, assessed as regions with increased echogeneity from ultrasound images. Methods: The mice were exposed to radiation doses of 2, 4, and 8 Gy. Ultrasound images were collected from each tumor before and 24 h after exposure to radiation using a broadband 25 MHz center frequency transducer. After radiotherapy, tumors exhibited hyperechoic regions in ultrasound images that corresponded to areas of cell death in histology. The ultrasound and histological images were rigidly registered. The tumors and regions of cell death were manually outlined on histological images. Similarly, the tumors and hyperechoic regions were outlined on the ultrasound images. Each set of contours was converted to a volumetric mesh in order to compare the volumes and the localization of cell death in histological and ultrasound images. Results: A shrinkage factor of 17±2% was calculated from the difference in the tumor volumes evaluated from histological and ultrasound images. This was used to correct the tumor and cell death volumes assessed from histology. After this correction, the average absolute difference between the volume of cell death assessed from ultrasound and histological images was 11±14% and the volume overlap was 70±12%. Conclusions: The method provided metrics of comparison between the volume of cell death assessed from histology and
Nørholm, Morten Helge Hauberg; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Brodersen, Peter
GFP expression only in the vascular tissue in emerging petals under non-stressed conditions. Quantitative PCR and the pSTP13-GFP plants show induction of STP13 in programmed cell death (PCD) obtained by treatments with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. A role for STP...
Full Text Available High glucose-induced cardiomyocyte death is a common symptom in advanced-stage diabetic patients, while its metabolic mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore metabolic changes in high glucose-induced cardiomyocytes and the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by 1H-NMR-based metabolomics. We found that high glucose can promote cardiomyocyte death both in vitro and in vivo studies. Metabolomic results show that several metabolites exhibited inconsistent variations in vitro and in vivo. However, we also identified a series of common metabolic changes, including increases in branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine and valine as well as decreases in aspartate and creatine under high glucose condition. Moreover, a reduced energy metabolism could also be a common metabolic characteristic, as indicated by decreases in ATP in vitro as well as AMP, fumarate and succinate in vivo. Therefore, this study reveals that a decrease in energy metabolism and an increase in BCAAs metabolism could be implicated in high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte death.
Gollins, S.W.; Ryder, W.D.J.; Burt, P.A.; Barber, P.V.; Stout, R.
%) did not. For surviving patients the instantaneous risk of death at any one time (the cause-specific death rate expressed as deaths per 100 cases per month), showed a sharp peak for MH deaths between 9 and 12 months post ILT in contradistinction to OC death where the peak was between 3 and 6 months post ILT. These findings may imply a role for late radiation reaction in the treatment-related risk factors identified as increasing the relative risk of MH death and possible mechanisms are discussed. The results have implications for treatment regimes that use a dose of 2000 cGy at 1 cm in a single fraction technique, that have a high frequency of previous laser treatment, that use multiple, repeated ILT treatments in the same location and that use ILT concurrently with EB
Miles, Lizzy; Corr, Charles A
This article explains the meaning of the phrase Death Cafe and describes what typically occurs at a Death Cafe gathering. The article traces the history of the Death Cafe movement, explores some reasons why people take part in a Death Cafe gathering, and gives examples of what individuals think they might derive from their participation. In addition, this article notes similarities between the Death Cafe movement and three other developments in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. Finally, this article identifies two provisional lessons that can be drawn from Death Cafe gatherings and the Death Cafe movement itself.
Medvetz, Doug; Sun, Yang; Li, Chenggang; Khabibullin, Damir; Balan, Murugabaskar; Parkhitko, Andrey; Priolo, Carmen; Asara, John M; Pal, Soumitro; Yu, Jane; Henske, Elizabeth P
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome associated with tumors of the brain, heart, kidney, and lung. The TSC protein complex inhibits the mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Inhibitors of mTORC1, including rapamycin, induce a cytostatic response in TSC tumors, resulting in temporary disease stabilization and prompt regrowth when treatment is stopped. The lack of TSC-specific cytotoxic therapies represents an important unmet clinical need. Using a high-throughput chemical screen in TSC2-deficient, patient-derived cells, we identified a series of molecules antagonized by rapamycin and therefore selective for cells with mTORC1 hyperactivity. In particular, the cell-permeable alkaloid chelerythrine induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depleted glutathione (GSH) selectively in TSC2-null cells based on metabolic profiling. N-acetylcysteine or GSH cotreatment protected TSC2-null cells from chelerythrine's effects, indicating that chelerythrine-induced cell death is ROS dependent. Induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HMOX1/HO-1) with hemin also blocked chelerythrine-induced cell death. In vivo, chelerythrine inhibited the growth of TSC2-null xenograft tumors with no evidence of systemic toxicity with daily treatment over an extended period of time. This study reports the results of a bioactive compound screen and the identification of a potential lead candidate that acts via a novel oxidative stress-dependent mechanism to selectively induce necroptosis in TSC2-deficient tumors. This study demonstrates that TSC2-deficient tumor cells are hypersensitive to oxidative stress-dependent cell death, and provide critical proof of concept that TSC2-deficient cells can be therapeutically targeted without the use of a rapalog to induce a cell death response. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Giovanna R. Degasperi
Full Text Available The present study provides evidence that activated spleen lymphocytes from Walker 256 tumor bearing rats are more susceptible than controls to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH-induced necrotic cell death in vitro. The iron chelator and antioxidant deferoxamine, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine or the mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A, but not the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506, render control and activated lymphocytes equally resistant to the toxic effects of t-BOOH. Incubation of activated lymphocytes in the presence of t-BOOH resulted in a cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicate that the higher cytosolic Ca2+ level in activated lymphocytes increases their susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced cell death in a mechanism involving the participation of mitochondrial permeability transition.O presente estudo demonstra que linfócitos ativados de baço de ratos portadores do tumor de Walker 256 são mais susceptíveis à morte celular necrótica induzida por tert-butil hidroperóxido (t-BOOH in vitro quando comparados aos controles. O quelante de ferro e antioxidante deferoxamina, o quelante intracelular de Ca2+ BAPTA, o antagonista de canal de Ca2+ nifedipina ou o inibidor da transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial ciclosporina-A, mas não o inibidor de calcineurina FK-506, inibiram de maneira similar a morte celular induzida por t-BOOH em linfócitos ativados e controles. Os linfócitos ativados apresentaram redução do potencial de membrana mitocondrial induzida por t-BOOH num mecanismo sensível a ciclosporina-A. Nossos resultados indicam que o aumento da concentração de Ca2+ citosólico em linfócitos ativados aumenta a susceptibilidade dos mesmos à morte celular induzida por estresse oxidativo, num mecanismo envolvendo a participação do poro de transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial.
Landes, Scott D
Utilizing a particular case study of a woman attempting to come to terms with her death, this article explores the difficult metaphors of death present within the Christian tradition. Tracing a Christian understanding of death back to the work of Augustine, the case study is utilized to highlight the difficulties presented by past and present theology embracing ideas of punishment within death. Following the trajectory of the case study, alternative understandings of death present in recent Christian theology and within Native American spirituality are presented in an attempt to find room for a fuller meaning of death post-reconciliation, but premortem.
Full Text Available In Ethiopia, case fatality rates among subgroups of visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients are high. A clinical prognostic score for death in VL patients could contribute to optimal management and reduction of these case fatality rates. We aimed to identify predictors of death from VL, and to develop and externally validate a clinical prognostic score for death in VL patients, in a high HIV co-infection burden area in Ethiopia.We conducted a retrospective cohort study in north west Ethiopia. Predictors with an adjusted likelihood ratio ≥1.5 or ≤0.67 were retained to calculate the predictor score. The derivation cohort consisted of 1686 VL patients treated at an upgraded health center and the external validation cohort consisted of 404 VL patients treated in hospital. There were 99 deaths in the derivation cohort and 53 deaths in the external validation cohort. The predictors of death were: age >40 years (score +1; HIV seropositive (score +1; HIV seronegative (score -1; hemoglobin ≤6.5 g/dl (score +1; bleeding (score +1; jaundice (score +1; edema (score +1; ascites (score +2 and tuberculosis (score +1. The total predictor score per patient ranged from -1 to +5. A score of -1, indicated a low risk of death (1.0%, a score of 0 an intermediate risk of death (3.8% and a score of +1 to +5, a high risk of death (10.4-85.7%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-0.87 in derivation, and 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.83 in external validation.The overall performance of the score was good. The score can enable the early detection of VL cases at high risk of death, which can inform operational, clinical management guidelines, and VL program management. Implementation of focused strategies could contribute to optimal management and reduction of the case fatality rates.
Abdul-Muneer, P M; Long, Mathew; Conte, Adriano Andrea; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Pfister, Bryan J
We investigated the hypothesis that high Ca 2+ influx during traumatic brain injury induces the activation of the caspase-1 enzyme, which triggers neuroinflammation and cell apoptosis in a cell culture model of neuronal stretch injury and an in vivo model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). We first established that stretch injury causes a rapid increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level, which activates interleukin-converting enzyme caspase-1. The increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level and subsequent caspase-1 activation culminates into neuroinflammation via the maturation of IL-1β. Further, we analyzed caspase-1-mediated apoptosis by TUNEL staining and PARP western blotting. The voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, mitigated the stretch injury-induced neuroinflammation and subsequent apoptosis by blocking Ca 2+ influx during the injury. The effect of tetrodotoxin was similar to the caspase-1 inhibitor, zYVAD-fmk, in neuronal culture. To validate the in vitro results, we demonstrated an increase in caspase-1 activity, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in fluid percussion-injured animals. Our data suggest that neuronal injury/traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce a high influx of Ca 2+ to the cells that cause neuroinflammation and cell death by activating caspase-1, IL-1β, and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. We conclude that excess IL-1β production and cell death may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment associated with TBI.
The results of 20 years of research on brain death will be released to the public, the Chinese Ministry of Health reported in early April. A special ministry team has drafted the criteria for brain death in Criteria for the Diagnosis of Brain Death in Adults (Revised Edition) and Technical Specifications for the Diagnosis
Zou Jianming; Zha Yongru; Sun Quanfu; Liu Yusheng; Li Jia; Tao Zufan; Wei Lvxin
Objective: To further analyze non-cancer mortality rates and relevant influencing factors among the residents in high background radiation area(HBRA) and its control area (CA). Methods: The data for the period 1987-1995 were obtained from a fixed cohort by prospective survey. The mortality investigation on the spot consisted of two steps, i.e. the follow-up of the cohort members and the ascertainment of causes of death. On the basis of the hamlet-specific average of annual external dose, the cohort members were classified into four groups for internal comparison: high, medial and low dose groups in HBRA and control group in CA. Relative risk (RR), excess relative risk(ERR/Sv) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using AMFIT program in Epicure. Results: During the period 1987-1995, the noncancer mortality in HBRA increased by 9% compared with that in the control group, and the relative risk of noncancer diseases was 1.09 (P=0.01), indicating a statistically significant excess mortality in the HBRA. The significantly increased noncancer death was caused by diseases of digestive system, with a RR of 1.46(P=0.006); the relative risk of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis was 1.98(P=0.004). The significantly decreased noncancer death rates were observed for the infectious and parasitic diseases, the RR being 0.81(P=0.04); for pulmonary tuberculosis, RR 0.58(P<0.001). The homogeneity tests of risks across the four dose-groups revealed that the RRs for diseases of digestive system and for liver cirrhosis were significantly different, P values being 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. The ERR(95% CI)/Sv for diseases of digestive system and liver cirrhosis were 2.18(0.22, 7.64) and 10.94(1.34, NA), respectively. Conclusion: The death rates from diseases of digestive system, especially chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis were statistically significantly higher, and that from pulmonary tuberculosis was significantly lower in the HBRA than those in the control
Full Text Available Children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD may have serious behavioral problems such as aggression, self-injury, and violence. However, the literature on ASD either overrules any correlation between aggression and ASD or maintains the fact that the efforts to link them have so far been inconclusive. Although severe forms of violence are extremely rare in children with autism, there are a few cases reported in the literature with significant harm to siblings. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with ASD who caused the death of his sibling by throwing her out of the window. Shared similarities of all defenestration cases indicate a pattern of high-risk behavior threatening the survival of minors. We recommend precautions against this high-risk behavior in children with ASD.
Lear, Aaron; Hoang, Minh-Ha; Zyzanski, Stephen J
Ohio passed legislation in 2004 for optional public funding of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in all Ohio high schools. To report occurrences of sudden cardiac arrest in which AEDs were used in Ohio high schools and to evaluate the adherence of Ohio high schools with AEDs to state law and published guidelines on AEDs and emergency action plans (EAPs) in schools. Cross-sectional survey. Web-based survey. A total of 264 of 827 schools that were members of the Ohio High School Athletic Association. We surveyed schools on AED use, AED maintenance, and EAPs. Twenty-five episodes of AED deployment at 22 schools over an 11-year period were reported; 8 (32%) involved students and 17 (68%) involved adults. The reported survival rate was 60% (n = 15). Most events (n = 20, 80%) in both students and adults occurred at or near athletic facilities. The annual use rate of AEDs was 0.7%. Fifty-three percent (n = 140) of schools reported having an EAP in place for episodes of cardiac arrest. Of the schools with EAPs, 57% (n = 80) reported having rehearsed them. Our data supported the placement of AEDs in high schools given the frequency of use for sudden cardiac arrest and the survival rate reported. They also suggested the need for increased awareness of recommendations for EAPs and the need to formulate and practice EAPs. School EAPs should emphasize planning for events in the vicinity of athletic facilities.
Full Text Available Objective. High glucose- (HG- induced neuronal cell death is responsible for the development of diabetic neuropathy. However, the effect of HG on metabolism in neuronal cells is still unclear. Materials and Methods. The neural-crest derived PC12 cells were cultured for 72 h in the HG (75 mM or control (25 mM groups. We used NMR-based metabolomics to examine both intracellular and extracellular metabolic changes in HG-treated PC12 cells. Results. We found that the reduction in intracellular lactate may be due to excreting more lactate into the extracellular medium under HG condition. HG also induced the changes of other energy-related metabolites, such as an increased succinate and creatine phosphate. Our results also reveal that the synthesis of glutamate from the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine and valine may be enhanced under HG. Increased levels of intracellular alanine, phenylalanine, myoinositol, and choline were observed in HG-treated PC12 cells. In addition, HG-induced decreases in intracellular dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, and 3-methylhistidine may indicate a downregulation of methyl group metabolism. Conclusions. Our metabolomic results suggest that HG-induced neuronal cell death may be attributed to a series of metabolic changes, involving energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism, osmoregulation and membrane metabolism, and methyl group metabolism.
Sapharas, Nicole K.; Estell, David B.; Doran, Kelly A.; Waldron, Mary
Associations between parental loss and high school (HS) completion were examined in data drawn from 1,761 male and 1,689 female offspring born in wedlock to mothers participating in a nationally representative study. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted predicting HS completion by age 19 among offspring whose parents divorced or…
Doan-Xuan, Quang Minh; Sarvari, Anitta K; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Balajthy, Zoltan; Fesus, Laszlo; Bacso, Zsolt
Understanding adipocyte biology and its homeostasis is in the focus of current obesity research. We aimed to introduce a high-content analysis procedure for directly visualizing and quantifying adipogenesis and adipoapoptosis by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) in a large population of cell. Slide-based image cytometry and image processing algorithms were used and optimized for high-throughput analysis of differentiating cells and apoptotic processes in cell culture at high confluence. Both preadipocytes and adipocytes were simultaneously scrutinized for lipid accumulation, texture properties, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation. Adipocyte commitment was found after incubation in adipogenic medium for 3 days identified by lipid droplet formation and increased light absorption, while terminal differentiation of adipocytes occurred throughout day 9-14 with characteristic nuclear shrinkage, eccentric nuclei localization, chromatin condensation, and massive lipid deposition. Preadipocytes were shown to be more prone to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced apoptosis compared to mature adipocytes. Importantly, spontaneous DNA fragmentation was observed at early stage when adipocyte commitment occurs. This DNA damage was independent from either spontaneous or induced apoptosis and probably was part of the differentiation program. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Kachkovskiĭ, M A; Simerzin, V V; Rybanenko, O A; Kirichenko, N A
To identify lipidemic, hemostasiological, and hemodynamic indicators associated with the risk of cardiovascular death in high- and very high-risk patients. One hundred and forty-eight patients whose mean age was 50.8 +/- 4.4 years were examined. All the patients were divided into high (1 group) and very high (2 group) cardiovascular death risk groups according to the SCORE scale. Lipid metabolism, hemostatic system parameters (fibrinogen, time of ADP-induced platelet aggregation initiation, D-dimer), endothelial dysfunction markers (von Willebrand factor), and echocardiographic findings were studied. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the odds ratio for a cardiovascular death risk was 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 4.2; p = 0.04) in patients with a D-dimer level of greater than 1 mg/ml, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.6 to 0.97; p = 0.03) in those with an ADP-induced platelet aggregation initiation time of 13.5 sec, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.07; p = 0.02) in those with an end-diastolic volume of more than 123 ml, 1.1 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.2; p = 0.003) in those with an end-diastolic dimension of more than 51 mm, 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0; p = 0.009) in those with a ventricular septal thickness of more than 11.5 mm, and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.03 to 3.2; p = 0.0032) in those with avon Willebrand factor level of more than 140%. The high levels of von Willebrand factor, D-dimer, ADP-induced platelet aggregation, triglycerides, end-diastolic volume, end-diastolic dimension, and ventricular septal thickness are independent predictors of cardiovascular death in very high-risk patients. These indicators bear out a close relationship between lipid metabolic and hemostatic disturbances and between endothelial dysfunction and intracardiac hemodynamic worsening in these patients.
Full Text Available This study describes the psychological effects of an experience of death education (DE used to explore a case of suicide in an Italian high school. DE activities included philosophical and religious perspectives of the relationships between death and the meaning of life, a visit to a local hospice, and psychodrama activities, which culminated in the production of short movies. The intervention involved 268 high school students (138 in the experimental group. Pre-test and post-test measures assessed ontological representations of death, death anxiety, alexithymia, and meaning in life. Results confirmed that, in the experimental group, death anxiety was significantly reduced as much as the representation of death as annihilation and alexithymia, while a sense of spirituality and the meaning of life were more enhanced, compared to the No DE group. These improvements in the positive meaning of life and the reduction of anxiety confirmed that it is possible to manage trauma and grief at school with death education interventions that include religious discussion, psychodrama and movie making activities.
Testoni, Ines; Ronconi, Lucia; Palazzo, Lorenza; Galgani, Michele; Stizzi, Antonio; Kirk, Kate
This study describes the psychological effects of an experience of death education (DE) used to explore a case of suicide in an Italian high school. DE activities included philosophical and religious perspectives of the relationships between death and the meaning of life, a visit to a local hospice, and psychodrama activities, which culminated in the production of short movies. The intervention involved 268 high school students (138 in the experimental group). Pre-test and post-test measures assessed ontological representations of death, death anxiety, alexithymia, and meaning in life. Results confirmed that, in the experimental group, death anxiety was significantly reduced as much as the representation of death as annihilation and alexithymia, while a sense of spirituality and the meaning of life were more enhanced, compared to the No DE group. These improvements in the positive meaning of life and the reduction of anxiety confirmed that it is possible to manage trauma and grief at school with death education interventions that include religious discussion, psychodrama and movie making activities.
Testoni, Ines; Ronconi, Lucia; Palazzo, Lorenza; Galgani, Michele; Stizzi, Antonio; Kirk, Kate
This study describes the psychological effects of an experience of death education (DE) used to explore a case of suicide in an Italian high school. DE activities included philosophical and religious perspectives of the relationships between death and the meaning of life, a visit to a local hospice, and psychodrama activities, which culminated in the production of short movies. The intervention involved 268 high school students (138 in the experimental group). Pre-test and post-test measures assessed ontological representations of death, death anxiety, alexithymia, and meaning in life. Results confirmed that, in the experimental group, death anxiety was significantly reduced as much as the representation of death as annihilation and alexithymia, while a sense of spirituality and the meaning of life were more enhanced, compared to the No DE group. These improvements in the positive meaning of life and the reduction of anxiety confirmed that it is possible to manage trauma and grief at school with death education interventions that include religious discussion, psychodrama and movie making activities. PMID:29692745
Le, Aurora B; Witter, Lesley; Herstein, Jocelyn J; Jelden, Katelyn C; Beam, Elizabeth L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J
A United States industry-specific gap analysis survey of the death care sector-which comprises organizations and businesses affiliated with the funeral industry and the handling of human remains- was developed, the results analyzed, and training and education needs in relation to highly infectious disease mitigation and management were explored in an effort to identify where occupational health and safety can be enhanced in this worker population. Collaborating national death care organizations distributed the 47-question electronic survey. N = 424 surveys were initiated and results recorded. The survey collected death care sector-specific information pertaining to the comfortability and willingness to handle highly infectious remains; perceptions of readiness, current policies and procedures in place to address highly infectious diseases; current highly infectious disease training levels, available resources, and personal protective equipment. One-third of respondents have been trained on how to manage highly infectious remains. There was a discrepancy between Supervisor/Management and Employee/Worker perceptions on employees' willingness and comfortability to manage potentially highly infectious remains. More than 40% of respondents did not know the correct routes of transmission for viral hemorrhagic fevers. Results suggest death care workers could benefit from increasing up-to-date industry-specific training and education on highly infectious disease risk mitigation and management. Professional death care sector organizations are positioned to disseminate information, training, and best practices.
Two Sudden and Unexpected Deaths of Patients with Schizophrenia Associated with Intramuscular Injections of Antipsychotics and Practice Guidelines to Limit the Use of High Doses of Intramuscular Antipsychotics
Full Text Available Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes (TdP. These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions (ADRs following intramuscular (IM antipsychotics. The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection, leading to death within hours. The first case was a 27-year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues. His death was probably caused by repeated IM haloperidol injections of 10 mg (totaling 35 mg in 2 days. The second case involves a 42-year-old African-American female with metabolic syndrome. Her probable cause of death was the last ziprasidone IM injection of 20 mg in addition to (1 three extra haloperidol doses (2 hours before the ziprasidone injection, 5 mg oral haloperidol; approximately 21 hours earlier, 5 mg oral haloperidol; and 2 days prior, one 10 mg IM haloperidol injection, (2 10 mg/day of scheduled oral haloperidol for 6 days before death, and (3 a long-acting paliperidone injection of 156 mg 18 days before death. The study of haloperidol glucuronidation and its impairment in some African-Americans is urgently recommended.
Lázár-Molnár, Eszter; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Basu, Indranil; Quinn, Thomas; Sylvestre, Eliezer; Palmieri, Edith; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Guha, Chandan; Almo, Steven C.
Programmed Cell Death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory immune receptor, which plays critical roles in T cell co-inhibition and exhaustion upon binding to its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. We report the crystal structure of the human PD-1 ectodomain and the mapping of the PD-1 binding interface. Mutagenesis studies confirmed the crystallographic interface, and resulted in mutant PD-1 receptors with altered affinity and ligand-specificity. In particular, a high-affinity mutant PD-1 (HA PD-1) exhibited 45 and 30-fold increase in binding to PD-L1 and PD-L2, respectively, due to slower dissociation rates. This mutant (A132L) was used to engineer a soluble chimeric Ig fusion protein for cell-based and in vivo studies. HA PD-1 Ig showed enhanced binding to human dendritic cells, and increased T cell proliferation and cytokine production in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay. Moreover, in an experimental model of murine Lewis lung carcinoma, HA PD-1 Ig treatment synergized with radiation therapy to decrease local and metastatic tumor burden, as well as in the establishment of immunological memory responses. Our studies highlight the value of structural considerations in guiding the design of a high-affinity chimeric PD-1 Ig fusion protein with robust immune modulatory properties, and underscore the power of combination therapies to selectively manipulate the PD-1 pathway for tumor immunotherapy.
Full Text Available Programmed Cell Death-1 (PD-1 is an inhibitory immune receptor, which plays critical roles in T cell co-inhibition and exhaustion upon binding to its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. We report the crystal structure of the human PD-1 ectodomain and the mapping of the PD-1 binding interface. Mutagenesis studies confirmed the crystallographic interface, and resulted in mutant PD-1 receptors with altered affinity and ligand-specificity. In particular, a high-affinity mutant PD-1 (HA PD-1 exhibited 45 and 30-fold increase in binding to PD-L1 and PD-L2, respectively, due to slower dissociation rates. This mutant (A132L was used to engineer a soluble chimeric Ig fusion protein for cell-based and in vivo studies. HA PD-1 Ig showed enhanced binding to human dendritic cells, and increased T cell proliferation and cytokine production in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR assay. Moreover, in an experimental model of murine Lewis lung carcinoma, HA PD-1 Ig treatment synergized with radiation therapy to decrease local and metastatic tumor burden, as well as in the establishment of immunological memory responses. Our studies highlight the value of structural considerations in guiding the design of a high-affinity chimeric PD-1 Ig fusion protein with robust immune modulatory properties, and underscore the power of combination therapies to selectively manipulate the PD-1 pathway for tumor immunotherapy.
Mehnati, P.; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shigeko; Yatagai, Fumio; Hanaoka, Fumio; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Wada, Seiichi
The reason why relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell killing fell to less than unity (1.0) with very high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy-ions ( 40 Ar: 1,640 keV/μm; 56 Fe: 780, 1,200, 2,000 keV/μm) was explored by evaluating the fraction of non-hit cell (time-lapse observation) and cells undergoing interphase death (calculation based on our previous data). Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to 4 Gy (30% survival dose) of Ar (1,640 keV/μm) or Fe-ions (2,000 keV/μm). About 20% of all cells were judged to be non-hit, and about 10% cells survived radiation damage. About 70% cells died after dividing at least once (reproductive death) or without dividing (interphase death). RBE for reproductive (RBE[R]) and interphase (RBE[I]) death showed a similar LET dependence with maximum around 200 keV/μm. In this LET region, at 30% survival level, about 10% non-survivors underwent interphase death. The corresponding value for very high-LET Fe-ions (2,000 keV/μm) was not particularly high (-15%), whereas that for X-rays was less than 3%. However, reproductive death (67%) predominated over interphase death (33%) even in regard to rather severely damaged cells (1% survival level) after exposure to Fe-ions (2,000 keV/μm). These indicate that interphase death is a type of cell death characteristic for the cells exposed to high-LET radiation and is not caused by 'cellular over kill effect'. Both NHF37 (non-hit fraction at 37% survival) and inactivation cross-section for reproductive death (σ[R]) began to increase when LET exceeded 100 keV/μm. The exclusion of non-hit fraction in the calculation of surviving fraction partially prevented the fall of RBE[R] when LET exceeded 200 keV/μm. On the other hand, the mean number of lethal damage per unit dose (NLD/Gy) showed the same LET-dependent pattern as RBE[R]. These suggest that the increase in non-hit fraction and σ[R] with an increasing LET is caused by enhanced clustering of ionization and DNA damage
Thomson, Pat; Blackmore, Jill; Sachs, Judyth; Tregenza, Karen
Subjects a corpus of predominantly United States news articles to deconstructive narrative analysis and finds that the dominant media representation of principals' work is one of long hours, low salary, high stress, and sudden death from high stakes accountabilities. Notes that the media picture may perpetuate the problem, and that it is at odds…
Sebitloane, Hannah M; Moodley, Jagidesa; Sartorius, Benn
To explore potential relationships between HIV and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). A retrospective secondary analysis of maternal-deaths data from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report from South Africa. The incidence of HIV infection amongst individuals who died owing to HDP was determined and comparisons were made based on HIV status and the use of HAART. Among 4452 maternal deaths recorded in the Saving Mothers report, a lower risk of a maternal deaths being due to HDP was observed among women who had HIV infections compared with women who did not have HIV (relative risk [RR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.64). Further, reduced odds of death being due to HDP were recorded among women with AIDS not undergoing HAART compared with women with HIV who did not require treatment (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.3-0.58). Notably, among all women with AIDS, a greater risk of death due to HDP was demonstrated among those who received HAART compared with those who did not (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.29). HIV and AIDS were associated with a decreased risk of HDP being the primary cause of death; the use of HAART increased this risk. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Creutzig, Ursula; Rössig, Claudia; Dworzak, Michael; Stary, Jan; von Stackelberg, Arend; Wössmann, Wilhelm; Zimmermann, Martin; Reinhardt, Dirk
The risk of early death (ED) by bleeding/leukostasis is high in patients with AML with hyperleukocytosis (>100,000/μl). Within the pediatric AML-BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) 98/04 studies, emergency strategies for these children included exchange transfusion (ET) or leukapheresis (LPh). Risk factors for ED and interventions performed were analyzed. Two hundred thirty-eight of 1,251 (19%) patients with AML presented with hyperleukocytosis; 23 of 1,251 (1.8%) patients died of bleeding/leukostasis. ED due to bleeding/leukostasis was highest at white blood cell (WBC) count >200,000/μl (14.3%). ED rates were even higher (20%) in patients with FAB (French-American-British) M4/M5 and hyperleukocytosis >200,000/μl. Patients with WBC >200,000/μl did slightly better with ET/LPh compared to those without ET/LPh (ED rate 7.5% vs. 21.2%, P = 0.055). Multivariate WBC >200,000/μl was of strongest prognostic significance for ED (P(χ(2) ) rate due to bleeding/leukostasis and is recommended at WBC >200,000/μl, and in FAB M4/M5 even at lower WBC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)
Vail, Kenneth E; Morgan, Adrienne; Kahle, Lauren
According to anxiety buffer disruption theory (ABDT), people function effectively in the world, in part, by relying on anxiety-buffer systems to protect against death awareness; however, traumatic experiences can overwhelm and disrupt those anxiety-buffer systems, leaving people unprotected from death awareness and at increased risk for the major symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Based on that idea, it was hypothesized that (a) when posttraumatic stress symptoms are low, self-affirmation (a known worldview/self-esteem based anxiety-buffer) should prevent mortality reminders from causing increased death-thought accessibility (DTA); but that (b) when posttraumatic stress symptoms are high (indicating anxiety-buffer disruption), self-affirmation should fail to prevent mortality reminders from increasing DTA. To test these hypotheses, participants identified in a general population prescreen assessment as "low posttraumatic-stress symptom" (n = 222) and "high posttraumatic-stress symptom" (n = 210) were reminded of death (vs. control topic), prompted to engage in a self-affirmation (vs. nonself-affirmation) task, and then asked to complete a standard assessment of death-thought accessibility (DTA). The hypotheses were confirmed, revealing that posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with the ineffectiveness of anxiety-buffer system in protecting against increased death awareness. The present findings support of a foundational concept of ABDT, and point to new insights about the nature of PTSD and its treatment, because failure to manage death awareness is known to cause anxiety and exacerbate anxiety-related disorders (e.g., PTSD). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.
New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.
Differences in membrane damage including leakage of intracellular UV-materials and loss of viability of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria in apple juice, pH 3.1 following thermal-death-time (TDT) disk and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments were investigated. Salmonella an...
such phases. The aim of this paper is to explore how an organization’s identity is re-constructed after organizational death. Based on interviews with members of a bankrupted bank who narrate their bankruptcy experiences, the paper explores how legacy organizational identity is constructed after...... organizational death. The paper shows how members draw on their legacy organizational identity to justify their past interpretations and responses to the intensifying bankruptcy threats. Members refer to their firm belief in the bank’s solid and robust identity claim when they explain how they disregarded...
Toyokawa, Gouji; Takada, Kazuki; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Kozuma, Yuka; Matsubara, Taichi; Haratake, Naoki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Akamine, Takaki; Katsura, Masakazu; Shoji, Fumihiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko
Emphysematous bullae (EB) are known to be associated with a high incidence of lung cancer; however, the reason for this has yet to be elucidated. The objective of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in EB-associated lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 369 patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma whose preoperative computed tomography findings were available for the examination of EB were analyzed for PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry and evaluated to determine the association between PD-L1 expression and EB-related adenocarcinomas. Among 369 patients, EB and cancer adjoining EB (Ca-ADJ) were identified in 81 (22.0%) and 50 (13.6%) patients, respectively. EB and Ca-ADJ were significantly associated with male gender, a smoking habit, a decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second, a relatively higher tumor grade, advanced T status and stage, the presence of pleural and vessel invasion, invasive pathologic subtypes, and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor. Seventy patients (19.0%) were positive for PD-L1 expression, whereas the remaining 299 patients (81.0%) were negative. Thirty-six (44.4%) and 29 (58.0%) of 81 and 50 patients with EB and Ca-ADJ, respectively, were positive for PD-L1 expression, which was shown to be significant by the Fisher exact test (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Among the 81 lung adenocarcinomas with EB, Ca-ADJ was significantly associated with PD-L1 expression (P = .021). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of Ca-ADJ was found to be an independent predictor of PD-L1 expression. EB-associated lung adenocarcinomas express PD-L1 protein more frequently than those without EB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Startsev, N; Dimov, P; Grosche, B; Tretyakov, F; Schüz, J; Akleyev, A
To follow up populations exposed to several radiation accidents in the Southern Urals, a cause-of-death registry was established at the Urals Center capturing deaths in the Chelyabinsk, Kurgan and Sverdlovsk region since 1950. When registering deaths over such a long time period, quality measures need to be in place to maintain quality and reduce the impact of individual coders as well as quality changes in death certificates. To ensure the uniformity of coding, a method for semi-automatic coding was developed, which is described here. Briefly, the method is based on a dynamic thesaurus, database-supported coding and parallel coding by two different individuals. A comparison of the proposed method for organizing the coding process with the common procedure of coding showed good agreement, with, at the end of the coding process, 70 - 90% agreement for the three-digit ICD -9 rubrics. The semi-automatic method ensures a sufficiently high quality of coding by at the same time providing an opportunity to reduce the labor intensity inherent in the creation of large-volume cause-of-death registries.
Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe
Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...
Jacobsen, Michael Hviid
be labelled ‘spectacular death’ in which death, dying and mourning have increasingly become spectacles. Moreover, the author proposes that what is currently happening in contemporary Western society can be interpreted as an expression of a ‘partial re-reversal’ of ‘forbidden death’ to some...
Gunduz, Orhan; Bakar, Coskun; Simsek, Celalettin; Baba, Alper; Elci, Alper; Gurleyuk, Hakan; Mutlu, Merdiye; Cakir, Ayse
The purpose of this research was to compare the causes of death in 5 villages situated in Simav Plain, Turkey, during 2005-2010 where different arsenic levels were detected in drinking water supplies. Since groundwater in Simav Plain had arsenic concentrations that ranged between 7.1 and 833.9 ppb, a two-phase research was formulated. In the first phase, public health surveys were conducted with 1,003 villagers to determine the distribution of diseases. In the second phase, verbal autopsy surveys and official death records were used to investigate the causes of death. In total, 402 death cases were found in the study area where cardiovascular system diseases (44%) and cancers (15.2%) were major causes. Cancers of lung (44.3%), prostate (9.8%), colon (9.8%), and stomach (8.2%) were comparably higher in villages with high arsenic levels in drinking water supplies. Furthermore, the majority of cases of liver, bladder, and stomach cancers were observed in villages with high arsenic levels.
Brunner, D.; Umansky, M.V.; LaBombard, B.; Rognlien, T.D.
The divertor ‘death-ray’, enhanced plasma pressure near the outer strike-point relative to ‘upstream’ values, was thought to correspond to axisymmetric increased divertor heat flux. Recent measurements on Alcator C-Mod show that the ‘death-ray’ is localized to biased Langmuir probes. Heat fluxes deduced from plasma-sheath theory and surface thermocouples agree in sheath-limited and moderate-recycling regimes. They diverge in high-recycling and detached regimes; surface thermocouples measure reduced heat flux while a ‘death-ray’ appears on Langmuir probes. The ‘death-ray’ is caused by the probe’s negative bias affecting the local flux tube. With the bias, electron heat flux to the probe surface is reduced. Thus, the local electron temperature is raised, enhancing neutral ionization and increasing the ion flux to the probe. The plasma fluid code UEDGE is used to simulate and reproduce many of the features of this integrated biased probe/divertor system
Song, Juhyun; Yoon, So Ra; Kim, Oh Yoen
Hyperglycemia-induced stress in the brain of patients with diabetes triggers the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), leading to diverse neurological diseases including stroke and dementia. Recently, the role of microRNA becomes an interest in the research for deciphering the mechanism of brain endothelial cell damage under hyperglycemia. Therefore, we investigated whether mircoRNA Let7A (miR-Let7A) controls the damage of brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells against high glucose condition. Cell viability, cell death marker expressions (p-53, Bax, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase), the loss of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and claudin-5), proinflammatory response (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- α ), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrite production were confirmed using MTT, reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and Griess reagent assay. miR-Let7A overexpression significantly prevented cell death and loss of tight junction proteins and attenuated proinflammatory response and nitrite production in the bEnd.3 cells under high glucose condition. Taken together, we suggest that miR-Let7A may attenuate brain endothelial cell damage by controlling cell death signaling, loss of tight junction proteins, and proinflammatory response against high glucose stress. In the future, the manipulation of miR-Let7A may be a novel solution in controlling BBB disruption which leads to the central nervous system diseases.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...
Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu
Radiation affects several cellular and molecular processes including double strand breakage, modifications of sugar moieties and bases. In outer space, protons are the primary radiation source which poses a range of potential health risks to astronauts. On the other hand, the use of proton radiation for tumor radiation therapy is increasing as it largely spares healthy tissues while killing tumor tissues. Although radiation related research has been conducted extensively, the molecular toxicology and cellular mechanisms affected by proton radiation remain poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we irradiated rat epithelial cells (LE) with different doses of protons and investigated their effects on cell proliferation and cell death. Our data showed an inhibition of cell proliferation in proton irradiated cells with a significant dose dependent activation and repression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, glutathione and superoxide dismutase respectively as compared to control cells. In addition, apoptotic related genes such as caspase-3 and -8 activities were induced in a dose dependent manner with corresponding increased levels of DNA fragmentation in proton irradiated cells than control cells. Together, our results show that proton radiation alters oxidant and antioxidant levels in the cells to activate apoptotic pathway for cell death.
El-Khuffash, A; Barry, D; Walsh, K; Davis, P G; Molloy, E J
A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants is associated with increased risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and death. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal-pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NTpBNP) are markers of cardiac function and can predict poor outcome in adults. To determine whether echocardiography and cTnT/NTpBNP levels at 48 h predict death before discharge or severe IVH in preterm infants with a PDA. Infants born closure (NTpBNP 9282, 5121 and 740 pmol/l, respectively, p = 0.008, and cTnT 0.66, 0.25 and 0.13 microg/l, respectively, p = 0.027). There were no differences in echocardiographic parameters of PDA size, left atrial to aortic ratio (LA:Ao), left and right ventricular outputs between the PDA groups. NTpBNP and cTnT in conjunction with echocardiography may provide a basis for trials of targeted medical treatment in infants with a PDA.
Soltyskinska, Ewa; Barascuk, Natascha; Ganz, Melanie
an OR of 20 which was significantly higher than the AC24 index OR of 5.0 and any other single or multivariate metabolic/physical marker, alone or in combination. The MACD index, compared to that of AC24, was significantly correlated to baseline glucose levels (p... to triglyceride levels. Conclusions: The newly established MACD-index that encompasses information on plaque morphology, distribution and growth potential provides additional biological information emphasizing that smaller plaques with a spread elongated morphology have a larger growth potential and thereby...... subsequent rupture potential. This results in a superior identification of CVD related death with an OR of 20. This increased biological information of the MACD index correlated strongly to glucose levels suggesting that this assessment method entails information of pre-diabetic status that is an important...
Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.
Defossez, A C; Fassin, D
Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality
Full Text Available Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD therapy is equally efficient as hemodialysis while providing greater patient comfort and mobility. Therefore, PD is the treatment of choice for several types of renal patients. During PD, a high-glucose hyperosmotic (HGH solution is administered into the peritoneal cavity to generate an osmotic gradient that promotes water and solutes transport from peritoneal blood to the dialysis solution. Unfortunately, PD has been associated with a loss of peritoneal viability and function through the generation of a severe inflammatory state that induces human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC death. Despite this deleterious effect, the precise molecular mechanism of HPMC death as induced by HGH solutions is far from being understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the pathways involved in HGH solution-induced HPMC death. HGH-induced HPMC death included influxes of intracellular Ca2+ and Na+. Furthermore, HGH-induced HPMC death was inhibited by antioxidant and reducing agents. In line with this, HPMC death was induced solely by increased oxidative stress. In addition to this, the cPKC/NOX2 and PI3K/Akt intracellular signaling pathways also participated in HGH-induced HPMC death. The participation of PI3K/Akt intracellular is in agreement with previously shown in rat PMC apoptosis. These findings contribute toward fully elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism mediating peritoneal mesothelial cell death induced by high-glucose solutions during peritoneal dialysis.
van den Hoogen, Martijn W F; Kho, Marcia M L; Abrahams, Alferso C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Sanders, Jan-Stephan; van Dijk, Marja; Hilbrands, Luuk B; Weimar, Willem; Hoitsma, Andries J
Reducing the incidence of delayed graft function after transplant with donation after cardiac death donor renal allografts would facilitate managing recipients during their first weeks after a transplant. To reduce this incidence, in most studies, induction therapy with depleting anti-T-lymphocyte antibodies is coupled with a reduction of the dosage of the calcineurin inhibitor. The separate effect of anti-T-cell therapy on the incidence and duration of delayed graft function is therefore difficult to assess. We performed a randomized study to evaluate the effect of a single intraoperative high-dose of anti-T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG)-Fresenius (9 mg/kg body weight) on the incidence of delayed graft function. Eligible adult recipients of a first donation after cardiac death donor renal allograft were randomly assigned to ATG-Fresenius or no induction therapy. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, in an unadjusted dose, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. The study was prematurely terminated because of a lower-than-anticipated inclusion rate. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the ATG-Fresenius group (n=28) and the control group (n=24). Twenty-two patients in the ATG-Fresenius group (79%) had delayed graft function, compared with 13 in the control group (54%; P = .06). Allograft and patient survival were comparable in both groups. Serious adverse events occurred more frequently in the ATG-Fresenius group than they did in the control group (57% vs 29%; P Fresenius in donation after cardiac death donor renal allograft recipients, followed by triple immunosuppression with an unadjusted tacrolimus dose, seems ineffective to reduce the incidence of delayed graft function. Moreover, this was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events (EudraCT-number, 2007-000210-36.).
Shaw, Jiajiu; Media, Joseph; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Fredrick
UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5g can reduce the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increase cisplatin tolerability in mice. BDF1 female mice were treated individually with UTL-5g (suspended in Ora-Plus) by oral gavage at 60 mg/kg, 30 min before i.p. injection of cisplatin at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively, on Day 0. Starting from Day 1, individual mice were again treated daily by the same dose of UTL-5g for 4 consecutive days. Survivals and body weights were monitored. UTL-5g treatment increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death for mice treated with 150 % of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin (15 mg/kg). Likewise, at 200 % of the MTD of cisplatin (20 mg/kg), treatment of UTL-5g increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death. Treatment of UTL-5g did not have a significant effect on weight loss induced by cisplatin, indicating that body weight may not be a sensitive-enough measure for chemoprotection of UTL-5g against cisplatin. In summary, UTL-5g delayed deaths and increased survival rates of mice treated by high doses of cisplatin, indicating that UTL-5g is capable of reducing the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increased cisplatin tolerability in mice; this is in line with the specific chemoprotective effects of UTL-5g previously reported. Further investigation of UTL-5g in combination with cisplatin is warranted.
Moh. Toriqul Chaer
Full Text Available When the tide of unemployment hit the USA and Europe, in Japan the opposite phenomenon occurs. In 2002, in Japan deaths were recorded because of excessive works. In this country, the phenomenon of death because of excessive works is called Karoshi. Karoshi is common in Japan. It becomes deadly syndrome as a consequence of long hours works. The debate about deaths from excessive work already sticking out in Japan since the 70s. The first official case of Karoshi was reported in 1969 when a 29-year-old male worker died because of stroke. It is estimated over ten thousand workers died each year due to death by brain and stroke caused by an overload work. Karoshi often happen to male workers dominantly. The main cause of karoshi is stress due to high pressure in the work environment, and work habits of exceeding a standard of normal working time (8 hours. In addition, their extra time to work is imbalance with and the salary they earn. In its development, the phenomenon of karoshi contributes to the term salaryman and workaholic.
Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena
We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter
Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)
Full Text Available High-salt consumption has been widely described as a risk factor for cardiovascular, renal and bone functions. In the present study, the extent to which high-salt diet could influence Ti6Al4V implant surface characteristic, its adhesion to rat tibial crest, and could modify muscle cell viability of two surrounding muscles, was investigated in vivo. These parameters have also been assessed following a NMES (neuro-myoelectrostimulation program similar to that currently used in human care following arthroplasty.After a three-week diet, a harmful effect on titanium implant surface and muscle cell viability was noted. This is probably due to salt corrosive effect on metal and then release of toxic substance around biologic tissue. Moreover, if the use of NMES with high-salt diet induced muscles damages, the latter were higher when implant was added. Unexpectedly, higher implant-to-bone adhesion was found for implanted animals receiving salt supplementation.Our in vivo study highlights the potential dangerous effect of high-salt diet in arthroplasty based on titanium prosthesis. This effect appears to be more important when high-salt diet is combined with NMES.
Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, van der Henk P.
During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks
Adamec, František; Kaftan, David; Nedbal, Ladislav
Roč. 41, - (2005), s. 835-839 ISSN 0022-3646 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : cyanobacteria * high-fluorescence cells Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.502, year: 2005
Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, Henk P. van der
During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks
D'Amico, Anthony V.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Moran, Brian J.; Chen, Ming-Hui
Purpose: To determine whether prevalent diabetes mellitus (pDM) affects the presentation, extent of radiotherapy, or prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality (PCSM) and whether PCa aggressiveness affects the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality in men with pDM. Methods: Between October 1997 and July 2907, 5,279 men treated at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center with radiotherapy for PCa were included in the study. Logistic and competing risk regression analyses were performed to assess whether pDM was associated with high-grade PCa, less aggressive radiotherapy, and an increased risk of PCSM. Competing risks and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess whether PCa aggressiveness described by risk group in men with pDM was associated with the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Analyses were adjusted for predictors of high-grade PCa and factors that could affect treatment extent and mortality. Results: Men with pDM were more likely (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; p = .002) to present with high-grade PCa but were not treated less aggressively (p = .33) and did not have an increased risk of PCSM (p = .58) compared to men without pDM. Among the men with pDM, high-risk PCa was associated with a greater risk of non-PCSM (AHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = .035), DM-related mortality (AHR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.0-14.0; p = .001), and all-cause mortality (AHR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7; p = .01) compared to favorable-risk PCa. Conclusion: Aggressive management of pDM is warranted in men with high-risk PCa.
Mateu, Guaniri; Donis, Ruben O; Wakita, Takaji
The full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) JFH1 genome (genotype 2a) produces moderate titers of infectious particles in cell culture but the optimal determinants required for virion production are unclear. It has been shown that intragenotypic recombinants encoding core to NS2 from J6CF...... in the context of JFH1 are more robust in the release of viral particles. To understand the contributions of structural and nonstructural genes to HCV replication potential and infectivity, we have characterized intragenotypic recombinant genotype 2a viruses with different portions of the J6 isolate engineered...... into the JFH1 infectious clone. All genomes produced high levels of intracellular HCV RNA and NS3 protein in Huh-7.5 transfected cells. However, JFH1 genomes containing J6 sequences from C to E2 (CE2) or C to p7 (Cp7) secreted up to 100-fold more infectious HCV particles than the parental JFH1 clone...
Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Wu, Linping
standard. PEIs are highly efficient transfectants, but depending on their architecture and size they induce cytotoxicity through different modes of cell death pathways. Here, we briefly review dynamic and integrated cell death processes and pathways, and discuss considerations in cell death assay design...
Full Text Available Background: Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS is an accepted treatment to prevent stroke in patients with carotid artery stenosis. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for major complications after carotid angioplasty and stenting. Methods and Material: This is a prospective study conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran from March 2011 to June 2014. Consecutive patients undergoing carotid angioplasty and stenting were enrolled. Both standard risk and high risk patients for endarterectomy were enrolled. Demographic data, atherosclerotic risk factors, site of stenosis, degree of stenosis, and data regarding technical factors were recorded. 30-day stroke, myocardial infarction, and/or death were considered as the composite primary outcome of the study. Results: two hundred and fifty one patients were recruited (mean age: 71.1+ 9.6 years, male: 65.3%. One hundred and seventy eight (70.9% patients were symptomatic; 73 (29.1%, 129 (51.4%, 165 (65.7% and 62 (24.7% patients were diabetic, hyperlipidemic, hypertensive and smoker respectively. CAS performed for left ICA in 113 (45.4% patients. 14 (5.6% patients had Sequential bilateral stenting. Mean stenosis of operated ICA was 80.2 +13.8 %. Embolic protection device was used in 203 (96.2% patients. Predilation and post-dilation were performed in 39 (18.5% and 182 (86.3% patients respectively. Composite outcome was observed in 3.6% (3.2% stroke, 0% myocardial infarction and 1.2% death. Left sided lesions and presence of DM was significantly associated with poor short term outcome. (P value: 0.025 and 0.020, respectively Conclusion: There was a higher risk of short term major complications in diabetic patients and left carotid artery intervention.
Nishino, Shigeki; Itoh, Takahiko; Tuchida, Shohei; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Asari, Shoji; Nishimoto, Akira; Sanou, Kazuo.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken for two patients who suffered from severe cerebrovascular diseases and were clinically brain dead. The MRI system we used was Resona (Yokogawa Medical Systems, superconductive system 0.5 T) and the CT apparatus was Toshiba TCT-300. Initial CT and MRI were undertaken as soon as possible after admission, and repeated sequentially. After diagnosis of brain death, we performed angiography to determine cerebral circulatory arrest, and MRI obtained at the same time was compared with the angiogram and CT. Case 1 was a 77-year-old man who was admitted in an unconscious state. CT and MRI on the second day after hospitalization revealed cerebellar infarction. He was diagnosed as brain dead on day 4. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man. When he was transferred to our hospital, he was in cardiorespiratory arrested. Cardiac resuscitation was successful but no spontaneous respiration appeared. CT and MRI on admission revealed right intracerebral hemorrhage. Angiography revealed cessation of contrast medium in intracranial vessels in both of the patients. We found no 'flow signal void sign' in the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries on MRI images in both cases after brain death. MRI, showing us the anatomical changes of the brain, clearly revealed brain herniations, even though only nuclear findings of 'brain tamponade' were seen on CT. But in Case 1, we could not see the infarct lesions in the cerebellum on MR images obtained after brain death. This phenomenon was caused by the whole brain ischemia masking the initial ischemic lesions. We concluded that MRI was useful not only the anatomical display of lesions and brain herniation with high contrast resolution but for obtaining information on cerebral circulation of brain death. (author)
García Iglesias, Daniel; Roqueñi Gutiérrez, Nieves; De Cos, Francisco Javier; Calvo, David
Fragmentation and delayed potentials in the QRS signal of patients have been postulated as risk markers for Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). The analysis of the high-frequency spectral content may be useful for quantification. Forty-two consecutive patients with prior history of SCD or malignant arrhythmias (patients) where compared with 120 healthy individuals (controls). The QRS complexes were extracted with a modified Pan-Tompkins algorithm and processed with the Continuous Wavelet Transform to analyze the high-frequency content (85-130 Hz). Overall, the power of the high-frequency content was higher in patients compared with controls (170.9 vs. 47.3 10³nV²Hz -1 ; p = 0.007), with a prolonged time to reach the maximal power (68.9 vs. 64.8 ms; p = 0.002). An analysis of the signal intensity (instantaneous average of cumulative power), revealed a distinct function between patients and controls. The total intensity was higher in patients compared with controls (137.1 vs. 39 10³nV²Hz -1 s -1 ; p = 0.001) and the time to reach the maximal intensity was also prolonged (88.7 vs. 82.1 ms; p content of the QRS complexes was distinct between patients at risk of SCD and healthy controls. The wavelet transform is an efficient tool for spectral analysis of the QRS complexes that may contribute to stratification of risk.
Rhee, YongJoo; Houttekier, Dirk; MacLeod, Roderick; Wilson, Donna M; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Loucka, Martin; Aubry, Regis; Teno, Joan; Roh, Sungwon; Reinecke, Mark A; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim
The places of death for people who died of suicide were compared across eight countries and socio-demographic factors associated with home suicide deaths identified. Death certificate data were analyzed; using multivariable binary logistic regression to determine associations. National suicide death rates ranged from 1.4 % (Mexico) to 6.4 % (South Korea). The proportion of suicide deaths occurring at home was high, ranging from 29.9 % (South Korea) to 65.8 % (Belgium). Being older, female, widowed/separated, highly educated and living in an urban area were risk factors for home suicide. Home suicide deaths need specific attention in prevention programs.
Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Risgaard, Bjarke; Zachariasardóttir, Sára
Background Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in young individuals globally. Data on the burden of sudden death by stroke are sparse in the young. Aims The aim of this study was to report mortality rates, cause of death, stroke subtype, and symptoms in children and young adults who suffered....... There was a male predominance (56%) and the median age was 33 years. The incidence of sudden death by stroke in individuals aged 1-49 years was 0.19 deaths per 100,000 person-years. Stroke was hemorrhagic in 94% of cases, whereof subarachnoid hemorrhage was the cause of death in 63% of cases. Seventeen (33%) cases...... contacted the healthcare system because of neurological symptoms, whereof one was suspected of having a stroke (6%). Conclusions Sudden death by stroke in children and young adults occurs primarily due to hemorrhagic stroke. We report a high frequency of neurological symptoms prior to sudden death by stroke...
Luke A. Allen
Full Text Available BackgroundSudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP is common among young people with epilepsy. Individuals who are at high risk of SUDEP exhibit regional brain structural and functional connectivity (FC alterations compared with low-risk patients. However, less is known about network-based FC differences among critical cortical and subcortical autonomic regulatory brain structures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients at high risk of SUDEP.Methods32 TLE patients were risk-stratified according to the following clinical criteria: age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures, and presence of nocturnal seizures, resulting in 14 high-risk and 18 low-risk cases. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI signal time courses were extracted from 11 bilateral cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in autonomic and other regulatory processes. After computing all pairwise correlations, FC matrices were analyzed using the network-based statistic. FC strength among the 11 brain regions was compared between the high- and low-risk patients. Increases and decreases in FC were sought, using high-risk > low-risk and low-risk > high-risk contrasts (with covariates age, gender, lateralization of epilepsy, and presence of hippocampal sclerosis.ResultsHigh-risk TLE patients showed a subnetwork with significantly reduced FC (t = 2.5, p = 0.029 involving the thalamus, brain stem, anterior cingulate, putamen and amygdala, and a second subnetwork with significantly elevated FC (t = 2.1, p = 0.031, which extended to medial/orbital frontal cortex, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, subcallosal cortex, brain stem, thalamus, caudate, and putamen.ConclusionTLE patients at high risk of SUDEP showed widespread FC differences between key autonomic regulatory brain regions compared to those at low risk. The altered FC revealed here may help to shed light on the functional
Allen, Luke A; Harper, Ronald M; Kumar, Rajesh; Guye, Maxime; Ogren, Jennifer A; Lhatoo, Samden D; Lemieux, Louis; Scott, Catherine A; Vos, Sjoerd B; Rani, Sandhya; Diehl, Beate
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is common among young people with epilepsy. Individuals who are at high risk of SUDEP exhibit regional brain structural and functional connectivity (FC) alterations compared with low-risk patients. However, less is known about network-based FC differences among critical cortical and subcortical autonomic regulatory brain structures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients at high risk of SUDEP. 32 TLE patients were risk-stratified according to the following clinical criteria: age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and presence of nocturnal seizures, resulting in 14 high-risk and 18 low-risk cases. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) signal time courses were extracted from 11 bilateral cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in autonomic and other regulatory processes. After computing all pairwise correlations, FC matrices were analyzed using the network-based statistic. FC strength among the 11 brain regions was compared between the high- and low-risk patients. Increases and decreases in FC were sought, using high-risk > low-risk and low-risk > high-risk contrasts (with covariates age, gender, lateralization of epilepsy, and presence of hippocampal sclerosis). High-risk TLE patients showed a subnetwork with significantly reduced FC ( t = 2.5, p = 0.029) involving the thalamus, brain stem, anterior cingulate, putamen and amygdala, and a second subnetwork with significantly elevated FC ( t = 2.1, p = 0.031), which extended to medial/orbital frontal cortex, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, subcallosal cortex, brain stem, thalamus, caudate, and putamen. TLE patients at high risk of SUDEP showed widespread FC differences between key autonomic regulatory brain regions compared to those at low risk. The altered FC revealed here may help to shed light on the functional correlates of autonomic disturbances in epilepsy
Alonso, Pau; Osca, Joaquín; Rueda, Joaquín; Cano, Oscar; Pimenta, Pedro; Andres, Ana; Sancho, María José; Martinez, Luis
Information regarding suitability for subcutaneous defibrillator (sICD) implantation in tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) and systemic right ventricle is scarce and needs to be further explored. The main objective of our study was to determine the proportion of patients with ToF and systemic right ventricle eligible for sICD with both, standard and right-sided screening methods. Secondary objectives were: (i) to study sICD eligibility specifically in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death, (ii) to identify independent predictors for sICD eligibility, and (iii) to compare the proportion of eligible patients in a nonselected ICD population. We recruited 102 patients with ToF, 33 with systemic right ventricle, and 40 consecutive nonselected patients. Conventional electrocardiographic screening was performed as usual. Right-sided alternative screening was studied by positioning the left-arm and right-arm electrodes 1 cm right lateral of the xiphoid midline. The Boston Scientific ECG screening tool was utilized. In high-risk patients with ToF, eligibility was higher with right-sided screening in comparison with standard screening (61% vs. 44%; p = .018). Eligibility in high-risk right ventricle population was identical with both screening methods (77%, p = ns). The only independent predictor for sICD eligibility was QRS duration. In high-risk patients with ToF, right-sided implantation of the sICD could be an alternative to a conventional ICD. In patients with a systemic right ventricle, implantation of a sICD is an alternative to a conventional sICD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kunutsor, Setor K; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which are components of total cholesterol, have each been suggested to be linked to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the relationship between LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and the risk of SCD has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the associations of LDL-c, HDL-c, and the ratio of LDL-c/HDL-c with the risk of SCD. Serum lipoprotein concentrations were assessed at baseline in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2,616 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were assessed. During a median follow-up of 23.0 years, a total of 228 SCDs occurred. There was no significant evidence of an association of LDL-c or HDL-c with the risk of SCD. In analyses adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, years of education, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, there was approximately a two-fold increase in the risk of SCD (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.21-3.11; p=0.006), comparing the top (＞4.22) versus bottom (≤2.30) quintile of serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In this middle-aged male population, LDL-c or HDL-c was not associated with the risk of SCD. However, a high serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of SCD. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanistic pathways underlying this association.
Hoogen, M.W.F. van den; Kho, M.M.; Abrahams, A.C.; Zuilen, A.D. van; Sanders, J.S.; Dijk, M.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Weimar, W.; Hoitsma, A.J.
OBJECTIVES: Reducing the incidence of delayed graft function after transplant with donation after cardiac death donor renal allografts would facilitate managing recipients during their first weeks after a transplant. To reduce this incidence, in most studies, induction therapy with depleting
van den Hoogen, Martijn W. F.; Kho, Marcia M. L.; Abrahams, Alferso C.; van Zuilen, Arjan D.; Sanders, Jan Stephan; van Dijk, Marja; Hilbrands, Luuk B.; Weimar, Willem; Hoitsma, Andries J.
Objectives: Reducing the incidence of delayed graft function after transplant with donation after cardiac death donor renal allografts would facilitate managing recipients during their first weeks after a transplant. To reduce this incidence, in most studies, induction therapy with depleting
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...
This article briefly overviews the criteria for and physiological process of death, contrasting physical death with biblical passages revealing how God interceded in this universal process when Jesus was on earth.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how legacy organizational identity and death relate to each other and, thereby, contribute to closing the gap in knowledge on organizational identity constructions in times of death. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory....../value: This paper addresses an apparent gap in the literature on identity and death; exploring identity narratives in a bankrupted bank, the paper considers constructions of legacy organizational identities in times of disruptive death....
Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees
The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Death and Grief KidsHealth / For Teens / Death and Grief What's in this article? What Is ... the reaction we have in response to a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, ...
A D Macleod
Full Text Available Aim: To observe the incidence of full or partial eyelid closure at death. Materials and Methods: The presence of ptosis was recorded in 100 consecutive hospice patient deaths. Results: Majority (63% of the patients died with their eyes fully closed, however, 37% had bilateral ptosis at death, with incomplete eye closure. In this study, central nervous system tumor involvement and/or acute hepatic encephalopathy appeared to be pre-mortem risk factors of bilateral ptosis at death. Conclusion: Organicity and not psychogenicity is, therefore, the likely etiology of failure of full eyelid closure at death.
Joana F Guerreiro
Full Text Available Very high concentrations of acetic acid at low pH induce programmed cell death (PCD in both the experimental model Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Zygosaccharomyces bailii, the latter being considered the most problematic acidic food spoilage yeast due to its remarkable intrinsic resistance to this food preservative. However, while the mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae PCD induced by acetic acid have been previously examined, the corresponding molecular players remain largely unknown in Z. bailii. Also, the reason why acetic acid concentrations known to be necrotic for S. cerevisiae induce PCD with an apoptotic phenotype in Z. bailii remains to be elucidated. In this study, a 2-DE-based expression mitochondrial proteomic analysis was explored to obtain new insights into the mechanisms involved in PCD in the Z. bailii derived hybrid strain ISA1307. This allowed the quantitative assessment of expression of protein species derived from each of the parental strains, with special emphasis on the processes taking place in the mitochondria known to play a key role in acetic acid – induced PCD. A marked decrease in the content of proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolism, in particular, in respiratory metabolism (Cor1, Rip1, Lpd1, Lat1 and Pdb1, with a concomitant increase in the abundance of proteins involved in fermentation (Pdc1, Ald4, Dld3 was registered. Other differentially expressed identified proteins also suggest the involvement of the oxidative stress response, protein translation, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, among other processes, in the PCD response. Overall, the results strengthen the emerging concept of the importance of metabolic regulation of yeast PCD.
Sri-On, Jiraporn; Tirrell, Gregory Philip; Kamsom, Anucha; Marill, Keith A; Shankar, Kalpana Narayan; Liu, Shan W
The objectives were to examine whether responses to the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Death, and Injuries (STEADI) questions responses predicted adverse events after an older adult emergency department (ED) fall visits and to identify factors associated with such recurrent fall. We conducted a prospective study at two urban, teaching hospitals. We included patients aged ≥ 65 years who presented to the ED for an accidental fall. Data were gathered for fall-relevant comorbidities, high-risk medications for falls, and the responses to 12 questions from the STEADI guideline recommendation. Our outcomes were the number of 6-month adverse events that were defined as mortality, ED revisit, subsequent hospitalization, recurrent falls, and a composite outcome. There were 548 (86.3%) patients who completed follow-up and 243 (44.3%) patients experienced an adverse event after a fall within 6 months. In multivariate analysis, seven questions from the STEADI guideline predicted various outcomes. The question "Had previous fall" predicted recurrent falls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52 to 3.97), the question "Feels unsteady when walking sometimes" (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.44 to 3.81), and "Lost some feeling in their feet" predicted recurrent falls. In addition to recurrent falls risk, the supplemental questions "Use or have been advised to use a cane or walker," "Take medication that sometimes makes them feel light-headed or more tired than usual," "Take medication to help sleep or improve mood," and "Have to rush to a toilet" predicted other outcomes. A STEADI score of ≥4 did not predict adverse outcomes although seven individual questions from the STEADI guidelines were associated with increased adverse outcomes within 6 months. These may be organized into three categories (previous falls, physical activity, and high-risk medications) and may assist emergency physicians to evaluate and refer high-risk fall patients for a comprehensive
Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.
Andreasen, Charlotte Hartig; Refsgaard, Lena; Nielsen, Jonas B
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Grand Opportunity (NHLBI GO) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) provided important knowledge on genetic variation in the background population. Our aim was to identify all variants previously associated with SIDS in ESP to improve the discrimination between plausible......Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. The genetic contribution to SIDS has been investigated intensively and to date, 14 cardiac channelopathy genes have been associated with SIDS. Newly published data from...
maternal deaths (direct maternal causes of death) and pregnancy- related deaths (all deaths including ... The study was set in SA, where adolescent pregnancies are high and generally .... reported sexual behaviours of youth, it was found that termination .... engagement and education, especially among adolescents, could.
Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug
psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...
Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H; Ramsing, T
Unexpected deaths still occur following major surgical procedures. The cause is often unknown but may be cardiac or thromboembolic in nature. Postoperative ischaemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death may be triggered by episodic or constant arterial hypoxaemia, which increases during the night...... deaths occurred at night-time. These results suggest a need for further studies of sleep- and respiration-related effects on postoperative nocturnal cardiac function. The efficacy of monitoring during this apparent high-risk period should be evaluated....
Sommer, Harriet; Wolkewitz, Martin; Schumacher, Martin
A variety of primary endpoints are used in clinical trials treating patients with severe infectious diseases, and existing guidelines do not provide a consistent recommendation. We propose to study simultaneously two primary endpoints, cure and death, in a comprehensive multistate cure-death model as starting point for a treatment comparison. This technique enables us to study the temporal dynamic of the patient-relevant probability to be cured and alive. We describe and compare traditional and innovative methods suitable for a treatment comparison based on this model. Traditional analyses using risk differences focus on one prespecified timepoint only. A restricted logrank-based test of treatment effect is sensitive to ordered categories of responses and integrates information on duration of response. The pseudo-value regression provides a direct regression model for examination of treatment effect via difference in transition probabilities. Applied to a topical real data example and simulation scenarios, we demonstrate advantages and limitations and provide an insight into how these methods can handle different kinds of treatment imbalances. The cure-death model provides a suitable framework to gain a better understanding of how a new treatment influences the time-dynamic cure and death process. This might help the future planning of randomised clinical trials, sample size calculations, and data analyses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
M.W.F. van den Hoogen (M. W F); M.M.L. Kho (Marcia); A.C. Abrahams (Alferso); A.D. van Zuilen (Arjan); J.-S. Sanders (Jan-Stephan); M. van Dijk (Marja); L.B. Hilbrands (Luuk); W. Weimar (Willem); A.J. Hoitsma (Andries)
textabstractObjectives: Reducing the incidence of delayed graft function after transplant with donation after cardiac death donor renal allografts would facilitate managing recipients during their first weeks after a transplant. To reduce this incidence, in most studies, induction therapy with
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...
The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.
Full Text Available Brain death (BD diagnosis should be established based on the following set of principles, i.e. excluding major confusing factors, identifying the cause of coma, determining irreversibility, and precisely testing brainstem reflexes at all levels of the brainstem. Nonetheless, most criteria for BD diagnosis do not mention that this is not the only way of diagnosing death. The Cuban Commission for the Determination of Death has emphasized the aforesaid three possible situations for diagnosing death: a outside intensive care environment (without life support physicians apply the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria; b in forensic medicine circumstances, physicians utilize cadaveric signs (they do not even need a stethoscope; c in the intensive care environment (with life support when cardiorespiratory arrest occurs physicians utilize the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria. This methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the death signs, is not related to the concept that there are different types of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can only cause death when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of irreversible loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed.
Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.
The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception "death" is taken to apply to the process of dying; "dignity" is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal qualities. In particular, someone lives with dignity if they live well (in accordance with reason, as Aristotle would see it). It follows that health care professionals cannot confer on patients either dignity or death with dignity. They can, however, attempt to ensure that the patient dies without indignity. Indignities are affronts to human dignity, and include such things as serious pain and the exclusion of patients from involvement in decisions about their lives and deaths. This fairly modest conception of death with dignity avoids the traps of being overly subjective or of viewing the sick and helpless as "undignified". PMID:12161582
High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…
Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David
Despite the level of supervision of inmates on death row, their suicide rate is higher than both the male prison population in the United States and the population of males over the age of 14 in free society. This study presents suicide data for death row inmates from 1978 through 2010. For the years 1978 through 2010, suicide rates on death row were higher than that for the general population of males over the age of 15 and for state prisons for all but 2 years. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Acker, James R
Supreme Court jurisprudence relies heavily on the premise that "death is different" from other criminal sanctions, and that capital cases entail commensurately demanding standards of reliability. Although invoked most frequently with respect to sentencing, both precedent and logic suggest that heightened reliability applies as well to guilt determination in capital trials. Nevertheless, recurrent and highly visible wrongful convictions in capital cases have affected public opinion, contributed to a precipitous decline in new death sentences, and led to calls for reforms designed to guard against the risk of executing innocent persons. This article examines the implications of the "death is different" doctrine for the problem of wrongful convictions in both capital and non-capital cases. It argues that innovations designed to enhance reliability in the special context of death-penalty prosecutions are important in their own right, but relevant new safeguards also should extend to criminal cases generally, where innocent people are similarly at risk and wrongful convictions are far more prevalent. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Settipane, G A
We reviewed seven documented deaths to peanuts and two near deaths. We excluded hearsay undocumented deaths to peanuts. Peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies and probably the most common cause of death by food anaphylaxis in the United States. About one-third of peanut-sensitive patients have severe reactions to peanuts. Asthmatics with peanut sensitivity appear more likely to develop fatal reactions probably because of the exquisite sensitivity that asthamatics have to chemical mediators of anaphylaxis. Severe reactions occur within a few minutes of ingestion and these patients must carry preloaded epinephrine syringes, antihistamines, and medic-alert bracelets. Treatment should include repeated doses of epinephrine, antihistamines and corticosteroids as well as availability of oxygen, mechanical methods to open airways, vasopressors, and intravenous fluids. Hidden sources of peanuts such as chili, egg rolls, cookies, candy, and pastry should be recognized and identified. Scratch/prick test to peanuts are highly diagnostic. Peanut is one of the most sensitive food allergens known requiring only a few milligrams to cause a reaction. In some individuals, even contact of peanut with unbroken skin can cause an immediate local reaction. Unfortunately, peanut reaction is not outgrown and remains a life-long threat.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...
Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.
Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)
Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza
Objectives This study sought to describe the use of pharmacotherapy in a nationwide cohort of young patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Background Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of SCD and sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). It remains unclear how...... pharmacotherapy may contribute to the overall burden of SCD in the general population. Methods This was a nationwide study that included all deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 in people age 1 to 35 years and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all SCDs through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. Pharmacotherapy prescribed within 90 days before SCD was identified in the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results We identified 1,363 SCDs; median age was 38 years (interquartile range: 29 to 45 years), and 72% (n = 975) were men...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and 30-day...
Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø
processes of facing brain death and deciding about organ donation. This study suggests that organ donation should be understood as a ‘strange figure’ challenging traditions and attitudes regarding the boundaries between life and death and the practices surrounding dead human bodies. Simultaneously, organ...... donation can be comforting and furthermore enable some families to make sense of a sudden tragic death. Throughout the thesis, the concept of ‘orchestration’ serves as the overall theoretical framework to understand how families, hospital staff and, on a larger scale, Danish society attempt to perform......, reinterpret and translate death and organ donation into something culturally acceptable and sense making. With chapters focusing analytically on the performance of trust, the transformative practices of hope, the aesthetization of ambiguous bodies, the sociality of exchangeable organs and the organ donation...
Background Research suggests that addressing dying patients’ existential concerns can help improve their quality of life. Common existential conditions, such as a search for meaning and considerations about faith, are probably intensified in a palliative setting and existential concerns about death...... are likewise intensified when patients face their impending death. Knowledge of modern, secular existential concerns about death is under-researched, and therefore, it is difficult to develop and implement specifically targeted support to dying patients. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results from...... a qualitative field study illuminating the variety of dying patients´ existential concerns about their impending death. Method Data was generated through ethnographic fieldwork comprising 17 semi-structured interviews with dying patients and 38 days of participant observation at three Danish hospices. Results...
Milner, George R.; Boldsen, Jesper L.
Analytically sophisticated paleoepidemiology is a relatively new development in the characterization of past life experiences. It is based on sound paleopathological observations, accurate age-at-death estimates, an explicit engagement with the nature of mortality samples, and analytical procedures...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - provider data. This data set includes provider data for the hip/knee complication measure, CMS Patient Safety Indicators of serious...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...
Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A
There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on
Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M
In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0-14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001-2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality from external causes in 0-14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is needed to enable establishing the intent of death.
Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M
Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is
Song, Chang W., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Park, Inhwan [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Koonce, Nathan A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Hui, Susanta [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Kim, Mi-Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dusenbery, Kathryn E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Sperduto, Paul W. [Minneapolis Radiation Oncology and Gamma Knife Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Cho, L. Chinsoo [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal the biological mechanisms underlying stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: FSaII fibrosarcomas grown subcutaneously in the hind limbs of C3H mice were irradiated with 10 to 30 Gy of X rays in a single fraction, and the clonogenic cell survival was determined with in vivo–in vitro excision assay immediately or 2 to 5 days after irradiation. The effects of radiation on the intratumor microenvironment were studied using immunohistochemical methods. Results: After cells were irradiated with 15 or 20 Gy, cell survival in FSaII tumors declined for 2 to 3 days and began to recover thereafter in some but not all tumors. After irradiation with 30 Gy, cell survival declined continuously for 5 days. Cell survival in some tumors 5 days after 20 to 30 Gy irradiation was 2 to 3 logs less than that immediately after irradiation. Irradiation with 20 Gy markedly reduced blood perfusion, upregulated HIF-1α, and increased carbonic anhydrase-9 expression, indicating that irradiation increased tumor hypoxia. In addition, expression of VEGF also increased in the tumor tissue after 20 Gy irradiation, probably due to the increase in HIF-1α activity. Conclusions: Irradiation of FSaII tumors with 15 to 30 Gy in a single dose caused dose-dependent secondary cell death, most likely by causing vascular damage accompanied by deterioration of intratumor microenvironment. Such indirect tumor cell death may play a crucial role in the control of human tumors with SBRT and SRS.
Lloyd, J W
In contrast with the other lectures given in the course on humanics and bioethics at the UOEH, which address the questions of life and death from the standpoint of the physician or the philosopher, this lecture considers these issues as seen by the cancer patient who has had a close encounter with death. The attitudes of Americans concerning abortion, the use of life-support systems, "mercy killings", suicide and the use of cancer chemotherapy are discussed with particular emphasis on restraints imposed by the courts, the churches and the family systems. An attempt is made to contrast the American and Japanese attitudes on these questions but this is difficult because of different cultural and religious backgrounds. The author describes his own experiences as a cancer patient who has approached death very closely and the changes in his own attitude toward life which results from the encounter with death. He also talks about the joy of being alive and describes his own experience with receiving cancer chemotherapy, the resulting discomfort and inconveniences and his feelings about a "tolerable" existence. Finally, the author considers the question of the "quality of life" for the cancer patient who has a violent reaction to certain forms of chemotherapy. This is a dilemma for the patient and the doctor who must consider the choice between death and a miserable existence.
Sparre-Sørensen, Maja; Kristensen, Gustav N
Studies have shown that malnutrition increases the risk of morbidity, mortality, the length of hospital stay, and costs in the elderly population. Approximately one third of all patients admitted to geriatric wards in Denmark are malnourished according to the Danish Geriatric database. The aim of this study is to describe and examine the sudden increase in deaths due to malnutrition in the elderly population in Denmark from 1999 and, similarly, the sudden decline in malnutrition related deaths in 2007. A descriptive epidemiologic study was performed. All Danes listed in the national death registry who died from malnutrition in the period from 1994 to 2012 are included. The number of deaths from malnutrition increased significantly during the period from 1999 to 2007, especially in the age group 70 years and over. Additionally, we document a surprising similarity between the development in excess mortality from malnutrition in the five Danish regions during the same period. During the period 1999-2007 malnutrition was the direct cause of 340 extra deaths, and probably ten times more registered under other diseases. This development in excess mortality runs parallel in all five Danish regions over time. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Following previous research on the linguistic concept of а 'bad death' which lexical expression is the word family of the verb ginuti, I focus my attention in this paper on the relationship between language conceptualization of а 'bad death' and the representation of а 'bad death' in traditional and contemporary culture. Diachronically based language corpus makes possible to trace the changes of referential frame and use of verb ginuti and its derivatives. In the traditional culture а 'bad death' is marked in action code by irregular way of burial and beliefs in demons stemming from the 'impure dead'. In the paper I explore the degree of synonymy of the symbols of all three codes: verbal code, action code and code of beliefs. In the contemporary culture the lack of individual control and choice is considered to be the key element of the concept of a 'bad death'. This change of conceptual content manifests itself in the use of its lexical expressions.
de Leeuw, Peter W
Many people are inclined to believe that popular music artists are prone to die prematurely. Scientific research into this matter is scarce. There is only one epidemiological study on this subject, showing that mortality among pop stars during the first 25 years after they became famous is increased. This mortality is higher in Northern America than it is in Europe, but European pop stars die on average at an earlier age. A fairly common belief states that many pop stars die at the age of 27 years. This age has even been proclaimed as the most critical for modern musicians. However, data of several hundred deceased pop stars shows no evidence for increased mortality at the age of 27. Moreover, the data suggests that the age of death has increased over the past forty years. As far as the cause of death is concerned, overdose of drugs or alcohol rank highly next to cardiovascular disease and malignancy.
Hugenschmitt, Delphine; Allonneau, Alexandre; Cesareo, Éric; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Lefort, Hugues
In the past, death was a family and community affair, but today it is institutional and entrusted to healthcare personnel. Thanks to a questionnaire on their feelings about prehospitalisation deaths, the experience and training needs for healthcare personnel at a mobile emergency and intensive care service were analysed. The majority of these professionals had been confronted with difficulties when faced with prehospitalisation deaths. There is little understanding of religious rites, even though this is an important point in dealing with the situation. There is a strong desire for training. The pedagogical support offered in response to the needs expressed was recognised as being useful and should be more widespread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A
Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.
Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth
AIMS: The authors examined causes of death contributing to the relatively high mortality of Danish women born 1915-45, and evaluated the impact of smoking related causes of death. METHODS: Age-period-cohort analysis of mortality of Danish women aged 40-89 in 1960-98. Estimate of the negative...... curvature in parabola patterns for 50 causes of death. RESULTS: A total of 34 causes of death contributed to the relatively high mortality for women born 1915-45. The main contribution came from smoking-related causes of death. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a high smoking prevalence to be the main...
Santana, Vilma S; Algranti, Eduardo; Campos, Felipe; Cavalcante, Franciana; Salvi, Leonardo; Santos, Simone A; Inamine, Rosemeire N; Souza, William; Consonni, Dario
In Brazil, underreporting of mesothelioma and cancer of the pleura (MCP) is suspected to be high. Records from death certificates (SIM) and hospital registers (SIH-SUS) can be combined to recover missing data but only anonymous databases are available. This study shows how common data can be used for linkage and as an assessment of accuracy. Mesothelioma (all sites, ICD-10 codes C45.0-C45.9) and cancer of the pleura (C38.4) were retrieved from both information systems and combined using a linkage algorithm. Accuracy was examined with non-anonymous databases, limited to the state of São Paulo. We found 775 cases in death certificates and 283 in hospital registers. The linkage matched 57 cases, all accurately paired. Three cases, 0.4% in SIM and 1.3% in SIH-SUS, could not be matched because of data inconsistencies. A computer linkage can recover MCP cases from hospital records not found in death certificates in Brazil. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Lautenbach, H.; Oei, Y. B.; Bijlsma, F.
BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread interest in competing causes of death, empirical information on interrelationships between causes of death is scarce. We have used death certificate information to estimate the prevalence of competing causes of death at the moment of dying from specific underlying
The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception "death" is taken to apply to the process of dying; "dignity" is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal qualities. In particular, someone lives with dignity if they live well (in accordance with reason, as Aristotle would see it). It follows that health care pr...
Zabihullah, Rahmani; Dhoubhadel, Bhim G; Rauf, Ferogh A; Shafiq, Sahab A; Suzuki, Motoi; Watanabe, Kiwao; Yoshida, Lay M; Yasunami, Michio; Zabihullah, Salihi; Parry, Christopher M; Mirwais, Rabi; Ariyoshi, Koya
In Afghanistan, childhood deaths from pneumonia are high. Among 639 children at 1 hospital, the case-fatality rate was 12.1%, and 46.8% of pneumococcal serotypes detected were covered by the 13-valent vaccine. Most deaths occurred within 2 days of hospitalization; newborns and malnourished children were at risk. Vaccination could reduce pneumonia and deaths.
Introduction: Maternal death is unacceptably high in this center like in most centers in the developing world. Objective: To determine the maternal mortality ratio and the contribution of the direct and indirect obstetric complications to maternal deaths. Method: A retrospective review of all maternal deaths at Nnamdi Azikiwe ...
Ryan, John Paul; Eden, John Michael
Examines the reasons for the death penalty, the reasons why the death penalty attracts so much attention, whether the death penalty is applied consistently, and the evidence that the application of the death penalty may be racially biased. Provides an accompanying article on "Teaching Ideas" by Ronald A. Banaszak. (CMK)
Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559
Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.
Clifford, Amie L.
Examines the legal and moral issues, controversies, and unique trial procedures involved with the death penalty. Discusses the 1972 landmark Supreme Court decision that resulted in many states abolishing this punishment, only to reintroduce it later with different provisions. Reviews the controversial case of Sam Sheppard. (MJP)
Provides a lesson plan on the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the imposition of the death penalty. Focuses on the controversy concerning capital punishment and stimulates critical thinking in an analysis and discussion of eight hypothetical situations. Includes suggestions for readings, videotapes, and writing assignments. (NL)
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger
This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger
the representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed...
Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter S.; Madsen, Peter
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide and, while treatable by antibiotics since the 1940s, drug resistant strains have emerged. This paper estimates the effects of the establishment of a pre-antibiotic era public health institution, known as a TB dispensary, designed to prevent...
Molitoris, Joseph John
and accidents, (5) perinatal causes, and (6) unspecified causes. RESULTS The results show that class differentials in nearly all causes of death converged during the demographic transition. The only exception to this was the airborne infectious disease category, for which the gap between white collar...
) in Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Orissa. The chapter explores the heterogeneous and hierarchical composition of the basti and unfolds the case of the social exclusion and ultimate death of a patient with tuberculosis who belonged to the poorest section of the basti, called Pradhan sahi. The case of both...
Harvig, Lise Lock; Kveiborg, Jacob; Lynnerup, Niels
This paper presents osteoarchaeological analyses of the human skeletal material from a burnt down house in Jutland, Denmark, dated to the first century bc. We describe how the osteological analyses of this complex site were approached and illustrate how we reconstructed the death of the human...
Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Lachica, E
case was inconclusive. After studying the circumstances of death, the number of discrepancies were reduced to 20, so that concordance was reached in 86% of all the cases. The results show that the combination of different methods leads to a diagnosis of myocardial infarction in far more cases than...
Alarm bells are ringing all over the world about the death of bee populations. Although it is not known exactly how severe the decline is, it is important to take the problem seriously. The signals are alarming and the bee is important, not just for natural ecosystems but also for the pollination of
The causa mortis of Napoleon Bonaparte has been vexata quaestio for a long time. The author tries to outline a picture of Napoleon from a sanitary point of view. From the report of doctor Francesco Antonmarchi who performed the autopsy, the author tries to understans the cause of death: gastric perforation due to malignant ulcer and subsequent peritonitis with pulmonary tubercolosis.
Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Romano, Eduardo; Canino, Glorisa
Epidemiological information is lacking for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in Puerto Rico. To examine the prevalence and correlates of DUI in Puerto Rico. Data are from a household sample of 1510 individuals, aged 18-64 years in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The response rate was 83%. The rate of 12 month self-reported DUI was 20% among men and 8% among women (p Puerto Rico was high, but the proportion of people arrested for DUI in a span of 12 months or during their lifetime was low. Stricter enforcement of DUI laws may be necessary to minimize DUI in urban Puerto Rico.
V. E. Gromov
Full Text Available Purpose. The paper studies the problem of death penalty justifiableness in terms of democratic society from the metaphysical viewpoint. Philosophical argumentation to justify death penalty is proposed as opposed to the common idea of inhuman and uncivilized nature of court practice of sentencing to death. The essence of the study is not to rehabilitate law-based murder but to explain dialectic relation of the degrees of moral responsibility of criminals and society nourishing evildoers. The author believes that refusal from death penalty under the pretence of rule of humanism is just a liberal façade, plausible excuse for defective moral state of the society which, rejecting its own guiltiness share as for current disregards of the law, does not grow but downgrades proper human dignity. Methodology. The author applies an approach of dialectic reflection being guided by the perception of unity, relativeness and complementarity of evil and good striving to determine efficient way of resolving their contradictions in the context of moral progress of the society. Originality. Proposing philosophic approach to a death penalty problem instead of legal one, the author is not going to discuss the role of horrification, control or cruelty of the measure of restraint; moreover, he does not consider the issue of its efficiency or inefficiency. The author also does not concern vexation of mind of a criminal sentenced to life imprisonment for “humanitarian” reasons. The purpose of the author is to demonstrate that aim of the punishment is to achieve justice which becomes spiritual challenge and moral recompense not only for the criminal but for the whole society. Conclusions. Crime is first of all a problem of a society; thus, criminal behaviour of certain individuals should only be considered through a prism of moral state of the whole community. Attitude to a death penalty is the problem of spirituality and its dramatic sophistication. The author
Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders
Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Karoshi (death by overwork) is one of social medical terms, which used by survivors of victims who attacked with cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. In Dec. 2000, Compensation Standard of cardiovascular diseases in Workers' Insurance was changed and admitted the relationship between chronic fatigue and cardiovascular attacks. As a result, compensation numbers of Karoshi attributed to three hundred and more from about 80 cases. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare thinks that most of Karoshi caused by long working hours continuing for several months, especially without payment, so that the Labour Standard Inspector Office requests to decrease overtime work more than 45 hours per month to firm administrators.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable
Donner, Elizabeth J; Camfield, Peter; Brooks, Linda; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Camfield, Carol; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Wirrell, Elaine
Death in children with epilepsy is profoundly disturbing, with lasting effects on the family, community, and health care providers. The overall risk of death for children with epilepsy is about ten times that of the general population. However, the risk of premature death for children without associated neurological comorbidities is similar to that of the general population, and most deaths are related to the cause of the epilepsy or associated neurological disability, not seizures. The most common cause of seizure-related death in children with epilepsy is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP is relatively uncommon in childhood, but the risk increases if epilepsy persists into adulthood. Although the direct cause of SUDEP remains unknown, most often death follows a generalized convulsive seizure and the risk of SUDEP is strongly related to drug-resistant epilepsy and frequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The most effective SUDEP prevention strategy is to reduce the frequency of seizures, although a number of seizure detection devices are under development and in the future may prove to be useful for seizure detection for those at particularly high risk. There are distinct benefits for health care professionals to discuss mortality with the family soon after the diagnosis of epilepsy. An individual approach is appropriate. When a child with epilepsy dies, particularly if the death was unexpected, family grief may be profound. Physicians and other health care professionals have a critical role in supporting families that lose a child to epilepsy. This review will provide health care providers with information needed to discuss the risk of death in children with epilepsy and support families following a loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asmundo, A; Aragona, M; Gualniera, P; Aragona, F
The sudden death by hypoglycemia is an aspect of the forensic pathology frequently neglected. Authors initially described the pathogenesis of different hypoglycemia forms, distinguishing the primary ones due to hyperinsulinism and the secondary ones due to functional insufficiency of other organs (hypophysis, thyroid, adrenal gland, liver); after that Authors described three cases of sudden death induced hypoglycemia by hyperinsulinism: two were unweaned with nesidioblastosis and one adolescent. In any form of hypoglycemia the central nervous system damage is present with evident neuronal degenerative-necrotic phenomena, widespread edema with microhemorrhage, swollen and dissociation of myelin sheath, glial cells hyperplasia. Death caused by primary hypoglycemia is histopathologically different from the secondary one because of the maintenance of hepatic glycogen content in the former, that increase in striated muscles, including the heart, in spite of the constant secretion of catecholamine from the adrenal medulla. Glycogen is depleted in secondary hypoglycemia. In the primary form, behind the adrenal medulla hyperfunction, the increased functional activity of the adrenal cortex is moderate, contrasting with the seriousness of the syndrome, due prevalently to inhibit the gluconeogenesis response conditioned by the persistence of stored glycogen in the liver, heart and striated muscles. The rare anoxic processes coming with resynthesis of hepatic glycogen have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. The primary hypoglycemic death, especially in unweaned, is frequently promoted by other processes inducing hypoxia (fetal asphyxia outcome, pneumonia, etc.) or worsening the hypoglycemia (hypothyroidism, etc.). The secondary hypoglycemias are characterized by the normality of exocrine pancreas and by organic alterations that cause glycogen depletion from the liver.
Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian
with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. RESULTS: Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate...... (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated...
Full Text Available This essay considers new possibilities for photographing the dying and dead in Australia that have been enabled by digital technologies. It argues that vernacular digital photographs demonstrate unprecedented degrees of control and privacy and further that they are purposefully withheld from public view, thus raising issues about visibility and secrecy.Some historical context is provided. Post mortem photographs were not uncommon in the nineteenth century but were in the domain of professional studio photographers. Commissioning post mortem portraits was rare for most of the twentieth century, due to changing attitudes to death and the transformation of the photographic industry. Photographing the deceased re-emerged in the 1980s, notably in the area of neonatal death.In the last five years death-related vernacular photographs have begun to proliferate. Unlike analogue processes, digital photography bypasses the involvement of others in processing and printing private images. Distribution to intimates can be achieved instantaneously via the internet, reinforcing social and familial connections.Vernacular digital photographs of the deceased do not address historical tradition but share their domestic and intimate contexts. Nor do they belong to a unified group, yet they have a common vocabulary which emphasises specificity and detail.
Full Text Available This essay considers new possibilities for photographing the dying and dead in Australia that have been enabled by digital technologies. It argues that vernacular digital photographs demonstrate unprecedented degrees of control and privacy and further that they are purposefully withheld from public view, thus raising issues about visibility and secrecy. Some historical context is provided. Post mortem photographs were not uncommon in the nineteenth century but were in the domain of professional studio photographers. Commissioning post mortem portraits was rare for most of the twentieth century, due to changing attitudes to death and the transformation of the photographic industry. Photographing the deceased re-emerged in the 1980s, notably in the area of neonatal death. In the last five years death-related vernacular photographs have begun to proliferate. Unlike analogue processes, digital photography bypasses the involvement of others in processing and printing private images. Distribution to intimates can be achieved instantaneously via the internet, reinforcing social and familial connections. Vernacular digital photographs of the deceased do not address historical tradition but share their domestic and intimate contexts. Nor do they belong to a unified group, yet they have a common vocabulary which emphasises specificity and detail.
Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J
Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with death. Fearing death is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.
Widderich, Nils; Rodrigues, Christopher D A; Commichau, Fabian M; Fischer, Kathleen E; Ramirez-Guadiana, Fernando H; Rudner, David Z; Bremer, Erhard
The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis frequently experiences high osmolarity as a result of desiccation in the soil. The formation of a highly desiccation-resistant endospore might serve as a logical osmostress escape route when vegetative growth is no longer possible. However, sporulation efficiency drastically decreases concomitant with an increase in the external salinity. Fluorescence microscopy of sporulation-specific promoter fusions to gfp revealed that high salinity blocks entry into the sporulation pathway at a very early stage. Specifically, we show that both Spo0A- and SigH-dependent transcription are impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the association of SigH with core RNA polymerase is reduced under these conditions. Suppressors that modestly increase sporulation efficiency at high salinity map to the coding region of sigH and in the regulatory region of kinA, encoding one the sensor kinases that activates Spo0A. These findings led us to discover that B. subtilis cells that overproduce KinA can bypass the salt-imposed block in sporulation. Importantly, these cells are impaired in the morphological process of engulfment and late forespore gene expression and frequently undergo lysis. Altogether our data indicate that B. subtilis blocks entry into sporulation in high-salinity environments preventing commitment to a developmental program that it cannot complete. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Widderich, Nils; Rodrigues, Christopher D.A.; Commichau, Fabian M.; Fischer, Kathleen E.; Ramirez-Guadiana, Fernando H.; Rudner, David Z.; Bremer, Erhard
Summary The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis frequently experiences high osmolarity as a result of desiccation in the soil. The formation of a highly desiccation-resistant endospore might serve as a logical osmostress escape route when vegetative growth is no longer possible. However, sporulation efficiency drastically decreases concomitant with an increase in the external salinity. Fluorescence microscopy of sporulation-specific promoter fusions to gfp revealed that high salinity blocks entry into the sporulation pathway at a very early stage. Specifically, we show that both Spo0A- and SigH-dependent transcription are impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the association of SigH with core RNA polymerase is reduced under these conditions. Suppressors that modestly increase sporulation efficiency at high salinity map to the coding region of sigH and in the regulatory region of kinA, encoding one the sensor kinases that activates Spo0A. These findings led us to discover that B. subtilis cells that overproduce KinA can bypass the salt-imposed block in sporulation. Importantly, these cells are impaired in the morphological process of engulfment and late forespore gene expression and frequently undergo lysis. Altogether our data indicate that B. subtilis blocks entry into sporulation in high-salinity environments preventing commitment to a developmental program that it cannot complete. PMID:26712348
Full Text Available The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau.A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA, or purified protein derivative (PPD. The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined.Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO. Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%. In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77.Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.
Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Sartono, Erliyani; Aaby, Peter; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Benn, Christine S
The mechanisms behind heterologous immunity and non-specific effects of vaccines on mortality are not well understood. We examined associations between cytokine responses and subsequent mortality in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau. A low-birth-weight trial randomized children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with better survival (MR ratio = 0.43 (0.24-0.77)). Data presented a rare opportunity to explore associations between cytokine responses and mortality. Both low and high cytokine responses were associated with high mortality; a balanced response to invading pathogens seems preferable.
Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.
This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…
Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, J Martin
mortality, whereas diabetes was only predictive of all-cause mortality. Smoking habit and atrial fibrillation had no prognostic value. Similar parameters were also predictive of short-term mortality, but not identical. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has shown that in high-risk patients post MI, who have been...... preselected using LVEF or frequent ventricular premature beats, demographic and clinical features are powerful predictors of mortality in the thrombolytic era. We propose that demographic and clinical factors should be considered when designing risk stratification or survival studies, or when identifying high...
Baigent, C; Sudlow, C; Collins, R; Peto, R
Objective To determine the effects of antiplatelet therapy among patients at high risk of occlusive vascular events. Design Collaborative meta-analyses (systematic overviews). Inclusion criteria Randomised trials of an antiplatelet regimen versus control or of one antiplatelet regimen versus another
Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele
Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social death (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make death more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of death-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced death-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of death-related thoughts.
Møller, Henrik; Riaz, Sharma P; Holmberg, Lars
It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset for this anal......It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset...... to their geographical population. Higher volume hospitals had shorter length of stay and the odds of re-admission were 15% lower in the highest hospital volume quintile compared with the lowest quintile. Mortality risks were 1% after 30 d and 3% after 90 d. Patients from hospitals in the highest volume quintile had...
Weinlich, Ricardo; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R
An old puzzle in the field of cell death was recently solved: the mysterious embryonic lethality of animals deficient either in caspase-8 or FADD, proteins involved in a pathway of apoptosis. This lethality is caused by a failure to develop the yolk sac vasculature rather than a lack of apoptosis. Remarkably, development is rescued by ablation of either of two Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases (RIPKs). Despite being well-known cell killers, caspase-8 and FADD act together to block RIPK-med...
Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....
Alehagen, Urban; Dahlström, Ulf; Carstensen, John
and all mortality was registered. Cardiovascular mortality was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier plots and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Results: Copeptin, HS-TnT, and NT-proBNP measurements provided independent prognostic information in a multivariate setting over 5 years (hazard......Objectives: A multimarker strategy for the handling of patients with heart failure has been suggested in the literature. Therefore, the potential prognostic relevance of combined copeptin, high-sensitivity troponin T (HS-TnT), and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) measurement in plasma from elderly...... patients with symptoms of heart failure was evaluated. Methods: This study included 470 elderly patients (mean age 73 years) from a rural municipality with symptoms of heart failure. Clinical examination, echocardiography, and biomarker measurements were performed. All patients were followed for 13 years...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In today's world, Islamic jurisprudence encounters new issues. One of the areas where jurisprudence gets involved is the issues concerned with brain death, whether brain death in jurisprudence and Islamic law is considered the end of life. In this study, brain death was discussed from the Shiite jurisprudence perspective and also the opinions of the specialists are taken into account. METHODS: This study is designed based on library collection and review of the literature in the field of brain death. Also, Quranic verses, hadiths and fatwas (religious opinions of the scholars are used. Some of the articles which were centered around Islamic jurisprudence, particularly Shiite jurisprudence that explain and deal with brain death were given special consideration. FINDINGS: Brain death from religious and jurisprudence perspective is considered the termination of life and removing the vital organs from the body is not viewed as committing manslaughter. A person with brain death is not a normally known injured man who is still alive. The brain death patinets have no life and getting rid of the body does not constitute a case of manslaughter. Amputation of the organs of brain death patients for donation and transplantation amounts to the amputation of a dead body. If the life of a Muslim is subject to transplant of organs from the body of a brain death patient, it will be permissible. CONCLUSION: In principle, if the life of a Muslim entails transplant of organs of brain death patients, it will be permissible
Sears, M R; Rea, H H; Fenwick, J; Gillies, A J; Holst, P E; O'Donnell, T V; Rothwell, R P
The circumstances surrounding the deaths of 75 asthmatic patients who had been prescribed a domiciliary nebuliser driven by an air compressor pump for administration of high dose beta sympathomimetic drugs were investigated as part of the New Zealand national asthma mortality study. Death was judged unavoidable in 19 patients who seemed to have precipitous attacks despite apparently good long term management. Delays in seeking medical help because of overreliance on beta agonist delivered by nebuliser were evident in 12 cases and possible in a further 11, but these represented only 8% of the 271 verified deaths from asthma in New Zealanders aged under 70 during the period. Evidence for direct toxicity of high dose beta agonist was not found. Nevertheless, the absence of serum potassium and theophylline concentrations and of electrocardiographic monitoring in the period immediately preceding death precluded firm conclusions whether arrhythmias might have occurred due to these factors rather than to hypoxia alone. In most patients prescribed domiciliary nebulisers death was associated with deficiencies in long term and short term care similar to those seen in patients without nebulisers. Discretion in prescribing home nebulisers, greater use of other appropriate drugs, including adequate corticosteroids, and careful supervision and instruction of patients taking beta agonist by nebuliser should help to reduce the mortality from asthma.
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger
health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity......This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980...
This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission
Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. Results-In 2015, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2015 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without
This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as
This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.
Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär
Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.
Wandschneider, Britta; Koepp, Matthias; Scott, Catherine; Micallef, Caroline; Balestrini, Simona; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Thom, Maria; Harper, Ronald M; Sander, Josemir W; Vos, Sjoerd B; Duncan, John S; Lhatoo, Samden; Diehl, Beate
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is a major cause of premature death in people with epilepsy. We aimed to assess whether structural changes potentially attributable to sudden death pathogenesis were present on magnetic resonance imaging in people who subsequently died of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. In a retrospective, voxel-based analysis of T1 volume scans, we compared grey matter volumes in 12 cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (two definite, 10 probable; eight males), acquired 2 years [median, interquartile range (IQR) 2.8] before death [median (IQR) age at scanning 33.5 (22) years], with 34 people at high risk [age 30.5 (12); 19 males], 19 at low risk [age 30 (7.5); 12 males] of sudden death, and 15 healthy controls [age 37 (16); seven males]. At-risk subjects were defined based on risk factors of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy identified in a recent combined risk factor analysis. We identified increased grey matter volume in the right anterior hippocampus/amygdala and parahippocampus in sudden death cases and people at high risk, when compared to those at low risk and controls. Compared to controls, posterior thalamic grey matter volume, an area mediating oxygen regulation, was reduced in cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and subjects at high risk. The extent of reduction correlated with disease duration in all subjects with epilepsy. Increased amygdalo-hippocampal grey matter volume with right-sided changes is consistent with histo-pathological findings reported in sudden infant death syndrome. We speculate that the right-sided predominance reflects asymmetric central influences on autonomic outflow, contributing to cardiac arrhythmia. Pulvinar damage may impair hypoxia regulation. The imaging findings in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and people at high risk may be useful as a biomarker for risk-stratification in future studies. The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of
Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun
The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....
This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source
Sauvaget, C; Tsuji, I; Li, J H; Hosokawa, T; Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S
Despite the wish of the Japanese people to spend their final moments at home, the percentage of deaths at home among elderly is decreasing. Moreover, large variations in this rate were observed over the country. The present ecological study analyzed the relationship between the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over, and demographic, medical and socioeconomic characteristics. The data published in 1990 by the Japanese National Government were analyzed by correlation, principal-component, and multiple linear regression analyses. The results showed that the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over was positively associated with the number of persons per household, and the area of floor space per house. The divorce rate, the national tax per capita, and the mean length of hospitalization for stroke showed a negative association with the percentage of deaths at home. In the prefectures where the crude death rates of stroke and senility were high, elderly were more likely to die at home. These results suggested the importance of the number of family caregivers, and the housing conditions for terminal care at home. This research may lead to improve home medical assistance which is still underdeveloped in Japan.
In a society characterized by the denial of old age and death, people are not satisfied with the mere promise of a hypothetical immortal life in the future. They value beauty, youth and high performance and consider aging an anomaly or random misfortune that can be avoided. To this end, people focus on making their bodies immortal here and now, and on living as if they were never going to die. The race for power and personal empowerment, compulsive consumption, and escape into the virtual world all go on as though death does not exist. Although this approach to living can sometimes give people a feeling of omnipotence, even immortality, we still cannot escape our mortality. The two extremes of existence--birth and death--are seen as medical problems that science and technology can solve.
David, Karen Kate; Andrabi, Shaida Ahmad; Dawson, Ted Murray; Dawson, Valina Lynn
Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1)'s multiple roles in the cell span from maintaining life to inducing death. The processes PARP-1 is involved in include, but are not limited to DNA repair, DNA transcription, mitosis, and cell death. Of PARP-1's different cellular functions, its active role in cell death is of particular interest to designing therapies for diseases. Genetic deletion of PARP-1 revealed that PARP-1 over activation underlies cell death in experimental models of stroke, diabet...
Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro
Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise testing middle aged/senior athletes engaged in leisure sports activity is likely to be effective in patients with significant coronary risk factors, while it is not useful in low-risk subgroups. The availability of automated external defibrillator on the athletic field provides a "back-up" preventive strategy for unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest, mostly occurring in patients with coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Humensky Jennifer L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous literature has shown a divergence by age in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and substance use: adolescents with low SES are more likely to engage in substance use, as are adults with high SES. However, there is growing evidence that adolescents with high SES are also at high risk for substance abuse. The objective of this study is to examine this relationship longitudinally, that is, whether wealthier adolescents are more likely than those with lower SES to engage in substance use in early adulthood. Methods The study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth, a longitudinal, nationally-representative survey of secondary school students in the United States. Logistic regression models were analyzed examining the relationship between adolescent SES (measured by parental education and income and substance use in adulthood, controlling for substance use in adolescence and other covariates. Results Higher parental education is associated with higher rates of binge drinking, marijuana and cocaine use in early adulthood. Higher parental income is associated with higher rates of binge drinking and marijuana use. No statistically significant results are found for crystal methamphetamine or other drug use. Results are not sensitive to the inclusion of college attendance by young adulthood as a sensitivity analysis. However, when stratifying by race, results are consistent for white non-Hispanics, but no statistically significant results are found for non-whites. This may be a reflection of the smaller sample size of non-whites, but may also reflect that these trends are driven primarily by white non-Hispanics. Conclusions Previous research shows numerous problems associated with substance use in young adults, including problems in school, decreased employment, increases in convictions of driving under the influence (DUI and accidental deaths. Much of the previous
Carter, Karen; Tovu, Viran; Langati, Jeffrey Tila; Buttsworth, Michael; Dingley, Lester; Calo, Andy; Harrison, Griffith; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D; Taylor, Richard
The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death. Deaths 2001-2007 were coded for cause (ICDv10) for ages 0-59 years from: hospital separations (HS) (n = 636), hospital medical certificates (MC) of death (n = 1,169), and monthly reports from community health facilities (CHF) (n = 1,212). Ill-defined causes were 3 % for hospital deaths and 20 % from CHF. Proportional mortality was calculated by cause (excluding ill-defined) and age group (0-4, 5-14 years), and also by sex for 15-59 years. From total deaths by broad age group and sex from 1999 and 2009 census analyses, community deaths were estimated by deduction of hospital deaths MC. National proportional mortality by cause was estimated by a weighted average of MC and CHF deaths. National estimates indicate main causes of deaths <5 years were: perinatal disorders (45 %) and malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia (27 %). For 15-59 years, main causes of male deaths were: circulatory disease 27 %, neoplasms 13 %, injury 13 %, liver disease 10 %, infection 10 %, diabetes 7 %, and chronic respiratory disease 7 %; and for females: neoplasms 29 %, circulatory disease 15 %, diabetes 10 %, infection 9 %, and maternal deaths 8 %. Infection included tuberculosis, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Liver disease (including hepatitis and cancer) accounted for 18 % of deaths in adult males and 9 % in females. Non-communicable disease (NCD), including circulatory disease, diabetes, neoplasm, and chronic respiratory disease, accounted for 52 % of premature deaths in adult
Nikolaidou, Theodora; Johnson, Miriam J; Ghosh, Justin M; Marincowitz, Carl; Shah, Saumil; Lammiman, Michael J; Schilling, Richard J; Clark, Andrew L
The definition of sudden death due to arrhythmia relies on the time interval between onset of symptoms and death. However, not all sudden deaths are due to arrhythmia. In patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), postmortem device interrogation may help better distinguish the mode of death compared to a time-based definition alone. This study aims to assess the proportion of "sudden" cardiac deaths in patients with an ICD that have confirmed arrhythmia. We conducted a literature search for studies using postmortem ICD interrogation and a time-based classification of the mode of death. A modified QUADAS-2 checklist was used to assess risk of bias in individual studies. Outcome data were pooled where sufficient data were available. Our search identified 22 studies undertaken between 1982 and 2015 with 23,600 participants. The pooled results (excluding studies with high risk of bias) suggest that ventricular arrhythmias are present at the time of death in 76% of "sudden" deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 67-85; range 42-88). Postmortem ICD interrogation identifies 24% of "sudden" deaths to be nonarrhythmic. Postmortem device interrogation should be considered in all cases of unexplained sudden cardiac death. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The preponderance of death imagery in the mass media and a recent interest of photography in the practice of death suggest the need to reevaluate our approach to death and dying, especially when violence is involved. This essay is a case study of History of Violence, Claudio Cravero's last photographic project. His collection of "portraits" reproduce apparent dead bodies, mostly attacked in their own domestic spheres, but neither the perpetrator of death (a mysterious murderer?, nor the weapon used (an omnipresent knife, should be considered as main focal points of the artist's inquiry. The undoubtful protagonist of these photographs, instead, is the light, that illuminates fear: not of death itself, rather of the obnoxious indifference to it, as the result of generalized death imagery saturation. The staged apparent death displayed in Cravero's photographs serve both as a memento mori and as a strategy to come to terms with the idea of death. In short, it is an apprentship in dying through a domesticating translation practice. Eventually, Cravero's History of Violence offers a complex reflection on the interplay between each individual story and macrolevel social History, thus providing some hypotheses of where violence and death fit in that odd geometry of time and space that we call life.
A nurse at the Center for Voluntary Pregnancy Interruption and Contraception in Angers, which receives 30 abortion requests each week, describes psychological aspects of nursing care for abortion patients. Abortion patients statistically are most likely to be married women around 27 years old with husbands aged 31 on average and with 2 children. Abortions are done under local anesthesia, so that there is no hiatus between the time "before" and that "after" the procedure. Women speak about their moral and physical suffering; their choice is respected by the staff. Despite the regret or mild depression that may follow an abortion, most women experience the greatest difficulty before the procedure and feel primarily relieved afterwards. Nursing work with abortion patients consists in being open to them and accompanying them for a few hours. The patients' comfort and postabortion morbidity depend largely on the reception and understanding they are given by the staff. After the procedure, the topic of contraception is discussed with the patient. Abortion and contraception cannot be dissociated because fertility regulation involves greater well-being for all members of the family. The abortion center is a place of life in which women and couples take responsibility for their sexuality and begin again. It is important not to impose beliefs or feelings about sexuality on the patient. A training which encouraged reflection on the grand problems of life and death as well as understanding of emotions, sentiments, and reactions would be helpful in gaining self knowledge and in living through events such as abortion. A meeting with a psychiatrist every 3 weeks is arranged for all staff members who desire it in order to maintain their emotional balance and work out troubling situations encountered at work. The work at the abortion center is 1 of listening and gaining the patient's confidence in order to dedramatize the abortion and permit the woman and the couple to elect an
Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda
stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...
Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.
The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…
Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.
A law recognizing brain death is a life saving legal measure in patients suffering from badly diseased organs such as kidney, liver, heart, and lung. Such law is being discussed for legalization at the Korean National Assembly. There are various criteria used for brain death in western world and brain scintiscan is one of them. However, the scintiscan is not considered in establishing brain death in the draft of the law. The purpose of this report is to spread this technique in nuclear medicine society as well as in other medical societies. We evaluated 7 patients with clinical suspicion of brain death by various causes. The patient's age ranged from 5 to 39 years. We used 5-20mCi 99m Tc-HMPAO (d.1-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) or ECD (Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer), lipophilic agents that cross BBB (blood brain barrier). A dynamic study followed by static or SPECT (single photon emission tomography) was performed. Interpretive criteria used for brain death were 1) no intracranial circulation 2) no brain uptake. The second criteria is heavily used. Five of 7 patients were scintigraphically brain dead and the remaining 2 had some brain uptake excluding the diagnosis of scintigraphic brain death. In conclusion, cerebral perfusion study using a lipophilic brain tracer offers a noninvasive, rapid, easy, accurate and reliable mean in the diagnosis of brain death. We believe that this modality should be included in the criteria of brain death in the draft of the proposed Korean law
Eimear O' Reilly
Full Text Available Cancer immune-surveillance is essential for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Malignantly transformed cells can be recognised by both the innate and adaptive immune systems through different mechanisms. Immune effector cells induce extrinsic cell death in the identified tumour cells by expressing death ligand cytokines of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family. However, some tumour cells can escape immune elimination and progress. Acquisition of resistance to the death-ligand induced apoptotic pathway can be obtained through cleavage of effector-cell expressed death-ligands into a poorly active form, mutations or silencing of the death receptors or overexpression of decoy receptors and pro-survival proteins. Although the immune system is highly effective in the elimination of malignantly transformed cells, abnormal/ dysfunctional death-ligand signalling curbs its cytotoxicity. Moreover, death receptors can also transmit pro-survival and pro-migratory signals. Consequently, dysfunctional death receptor-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis signalling does not only give a passive resistance against cell death, but actively drives tumour cell motility, invasion and contributes to consequent metastasis. This dual contribution of the death ligand-death receptor signalling in both the early, elimination phase and then in the late, escape phase of the tumour immunoediting process is discussed in this review. Death receptor agonists still hold potential for cancer therapy since they can execute the tumour-eliminating immune-effector function even in the absence of activation of the immune system against the tumour. The opportunities and challenges of developing death receptor agonists into effective cancer therapeutics are also discussed.
Pavão Ana Luiza B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.
Oct 14, 2008 ... (including tuberculosis and respiratory diseases) with age-specific death rates for HIV as predicted by the. Actuarial Society of South Africa model (ASSA 2000), and observed a high level of correlation, concluding that these diseases account for the 'missing' HIV cause of death statistics, and showing that ...
David, Karen Kate; Andrabi, Shaida Ahmad; Dawson, Ted Murray; Dawson, Valina Lynn
Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1)'s multiple roles in the cell span from maintaining life to inducing death. The processes PARP-1 is involved in include, but are not limited to DNA repair, DNA transcription, mitosis, and cell death. Of PARP-1's different cellular functions, its active role in cell death is of particular interest to designing therapies for diseases. Genetic deletion of PARP-1 revealed that PARP-1 over activation underlies cell death in experimental models of stroke, diabetes, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Since interfering with PARP-1 mediated cell death will be clinically beneficial, great effort has been invested into designing PARP-1 inhibitors and understanding mechanisms downstream of PARP-1 over activation. PARP-1 overactivation may kill by depleting cellular energy through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) consumption, and by releasing the cell death effector apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Unexpectedly, recent evidence shows that poly-ADP ribose (PAR) polymer itself, and not the consumption of NAD+ is the source of cytotoxicity. Thus, PAR polymer acts as a cell death effector downstream of PARP-1-mediated cell death signaling. We coined the term parthanatos after Thanatos, the personification of death in Greek mythology, to refer to PAR-mediated cell death. In this review, we will summarize the proposed mechanisms by which PARP-1 overactivation kills. We will present evidence for parthanatos, and the questions raised by these recent findings. It is evident that further understanding of parthanatos opens up new avenues for therapy in ameliorating diseases related to PARP-1 over activation. PMID:19273119
Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati
All biological living beings inevitably die, and the ways to die vary although in essence death is a manifestation of the absence of Oxygen in the brain. After death, biological remains undertake proteolysis and decomposition. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical death, cerebral or medicolegal death, social death, phases of cerebral death, and biological process after deathâ€”which is important for forensic medicine and forensic anthropology. How long a person die, if the time elaps...
Akhtar, M.; Mushtaq, S.; Jamil, K.; Ahmed, S.
Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)
Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K
and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....
... Twitter Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons January 2013 Homelessness is a persistent problem—nearly 690,000 people ... will ultimately help address the tragic problem of homelessness too, as many homeless people cite drug or ...
Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.
The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies
Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.
Tomson, Torbjörn; Battino, Dina; Bonizzoni, Erminio
) after prenatal AED exposure. Using EURAP data, we prospectively monitored pregnancies exposed to the 6 most common AED monotherapies and to polytherapy. Intrauterine death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth combined) was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Of 7,055 pregnancies exposed to monotherapy...... with lamotrigine (n = 1,910), carbamazepine (n = 1,713), valproic acid (n = 1,171), levetiracetam (n = 324), oxcarbazepine (n = 262), or phenobarbital (n = 260), and to polytherapy (n = 1,415), 632 ended in intrauterine deaths (592 spontaneous abortions and 40 stillbirths). Rates of intrauterine death were similar...... that the risk was greater with polytherapy vs monotherapy (risk ratio [RR] 1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.66), parental history of MCMs (RR 1.92; 1.20-3.07), maternal age (RR 1.06; 1.04-1.07), and number of previous intrauterine deaths (RR 1.09; 1.00-1.19). The risk was greater with early enrollment and decreased...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Life, Death, and Second Chances Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... that she was beginning to fear for her life. Was there any hope at all? Dr. Richard ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001915.htm Death among children and adolescents To use the sharing features on this page, ... persons of trust is very important for preventing teen suicide. HOMICIDE Homicide is a complex issue that does ...
Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.
Bury, Danielle; Byard, Roger W
Fournier gangrene represents a rare but progressive perineal infection that may result in rapid death. A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse is reported who was found unexpectedly dead. He had last been contacted the night before his death. At autopsy, the most striking finding was deep necrotic ulceration of the scrotum with exposure of underlying deep muscles and testicles, with blood cultures positive for Escherichia coli. Death was, therefore, attributed to necrotic ulceration/gangrene of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) that was due to E. coli sepsis with underlying contributing factors of diabetes mellitus and alcoholism. In addition there was morbid obesity (body mass index 46.9), cirrhosis of the liver, and marked focal coronary artery atherosclerosis with significant cardiomegaly. Fournier gangrene may be an extremely aggressive condition that can result in rapid death, as was demonstrated by the rapid progression in the reported case. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death. 3.211 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.211 Death. Death should be... community where death occurred. (2) A copy of a coroner's report of death or a verdict of a coroner's jury...
Otterman, Gabriel; Lahne, Klara; Arkema, Elizabeth V; Lucas, Steven; Janson, Staffan; Hellström-Westas, Lena
Countries that conduct systematic child death reviews report a high proportion of modifiable characteristics among deaths from external causes, and this study examined the trends in Sweden. We analysed individual-level data on external, ill-defined and unknown causes from the Swedish cause of death register from 2000 to 2014, and mortality rates were estimated for children under the age of one and for those aged 1-14 and 15-17 years. Child deaths from all causes were 7914, and 2006 (25%) were from external, ill-defined and unknown causes: 610 (30%) were infants, 692 (34%) were 1-14 and 704 (35%) were 15-17. The annual average was 134 cases (range 99-156) during the study period. Mortality rates from external, ill-defined and unknown causes in children under 18 fell 19%, from 7.4 to 6.0 per 100 000 population. A sizeable number of infant deaths (8.0%) were registered without a death certificate during the study period, but these counts were lower in children aged 1-14 (1.3%) and 15-17 (0.9%). Childhood deaths showed a sustained decline from 2000 to 2014 in Sweden and a quarter were from external, ill-defined or unknown causes. Systematic, interagency death reviews could yield information that could prevent future deaths. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia
Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.
Wasti, Harihar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash
Science and myth have been closely linked and argued upon by philosophers, educationalists, scientists, enthusiasts and the general public. Faith healing, when added as an adjuvant or alternative aid to medical science, will not necessarily be confined to mere arguments and debates but may also give rise to series of complications, medical emergencies and even result in death. We present an unusual case where reliance on faith healing led to the death of a young man. © The Author(s) 2015.
Life and death are directly involved in the normal development of all multicellular organisms. Defects in the regulation of the mechanism of programmed cell death (apoptosis) contribute to many diseases as well as in the toxic effects of xenobiotics. Here it is described which elements of the apoptotic machinery are possible targets of hydrocarbons and metal compounds, prominent environmental pollutants. Moreover, it is shown that cytotoxic rather than cytostatic therapies might be most effective in treatment of cancer. (orig.)
Kalesan, Bindu; Galea, Sandro
We examined the socio-demographic distribution of gun deaths across 3143 counties in 50 United States' states to understand the spatial patterns and correlates of high and low gun deaths. We used aggregate counts of gun deaths and population in all counties from 1999 to 2013 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER). We characterized four levels of gun violence, as distinct levels of gun death rates of relatively safe, unsafe, violent, and extremely violent counties, based on quartiles of 15-year county-specific gun death rates per 100,000 and used negative binomial regression models allowing clustering by state to calculate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Most states had at least one violent or extremely violent county. Extremely violent gun counties were mostly rural, poor, predominantly minority, had high unemployment rate and homicide rate. Overall, homicide rate was significantly associated with gun deaths (incidence rate ratios = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06-1.09). In relatively safe counties, this risk was 1.09 (95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and in extremely violent gun counties was 1.03 (95% CI = 1.03-1.04). There are broad differences in gun death rates across the United States representing different levels of gun death rates in each state with distinct socio-demographic profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Sandra; Dobbin, Joanna; McCallion, Oliver; Eskild, Anne
Vaginal delivery is recommended after intrauterine fetal death. However, little is known about the risk of shoulder dystocia in these deliveries. We studied whether intrauterine fetal death increases the risk of shoulder dystocia at delivery. In this population-based register study using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, we included all singleton pregnancies with vaginal delivery of offspring in cephalic presentation in Norway during the period 1967-2012 (n = 2 266 118). Risk of shoulder dystocia was estimated as absolute risk (%) and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Adjustment was made for offspring birthweight (in grams). We performed sub-analyses within categories of birthweight (dystocia occurred in 1.1% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and in 0.8% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p dystocia occurred in 14.6% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and in 2.8% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p dystocia occurred in 57.1% of pregnancies with intrauterine fetal death and 9.6% of pregnancies without intrauterine fetal death (p dystocia at delivery, and the absolute risk of shoulder dystocia was particularly high if offspring birthweight was high and the mother had diabetes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
van den Broek Nynke
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews is a tool widely recommended to improve the quality of obstetric care and reduce maternal mortality. Our aim was to explore the challenges encountered in the process of facility-based maternal death review in Malawi, and to suggest sustainable and logically sound solutions to these challenges. Methods SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis of the process of maternal death review during a workshop in Malawi. Results Strengths: Availability of data from case notes, support from hospital management, and having maternal death review forms. Weaknesses: fear of blame, lack of knowledge and skills to properly conduct death reviews, inadequate resources and missing documentation. Opportunities: technical assistance from expatriates, support from the Ministry of Health, national protocols and high maternal mortality which serves as motivation factor. Threats: Cultural practices, potential lawsuit, demotivation due to the high maternal mortality and poor planning at the district level. Solutions: proper documentation, conducting maternal death review in a blame-free manner, good leadership, motivation of staff, using guidelines, proper stock inventory and community involvement. Conclusion Challenges encountered during facility-based maternal death review are provider-related, administrative, client related and community related. Countries with similar socioeconomic profiles to Malawi will have similar 'pull-and-push' factors on the process of facility-based maternal death reviews, and therefore we will expect these countries to have similar potential solutions.
Kongnyuy, Eugene J; van den Broek, Nynke
Maternal death reviews is a tool widely recommended to improve the quality of obstetric care and reduce maternal mortality. Our aim was to explore the challenges encountered in the process of facility-based maternal death review in Malawi, and to suggest sustainable and logically sound solutions to these challenges. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of the process of maternal death review during a workshop in Malawi. Strengths: Availability of data from case notes, support from hospital management, and having maternal death review forms. Weaknesses: fear of blame, lack of knowledge and skills to properly conduct death reviews, inadequate resources and missing documentation. Opportunities: technical assistance from expatriates, support from the Ministry of Health, national protocols and high maternal mortality which serves as motivation factor. Threats: Cultural practices, potential lawsuit, demotivation due to the high maternal mortality and poor planning at the district level. Solutions: proper documentation, conducting maternal death review in a blame-free manner, good leadership, motivation of staff, using guidelines, proper stock inventory and community involvement. Challenges encountered during facility-based maternal death review are provider-related, administrative, client related and community related. Countries with similar socioeconomic profiles to Malawi will have similar 'pull-and-push' factors on the process of facility-based maternal death reviews, and therefore we will expect these countries to have similar potential solutions.
Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste-characterization of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California
Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.
The Death Valley region, Nevada and California, in the Basin and Range province, is an area of about 80,200 sq km located in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive basement rocks are overlain by a thick section of Paleozoic clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks include extrusive and intrusive rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks. Structural features within the Death Valley indicate a long and complex tectonic evolution from late Precambrian to the present. Potential repository host media in the region include granite and other coarse-grained plutonic rocks, ashflow tuff, basaltic and andesitic lava flows, and basin fill. The Death Valley region is composed largely of closed topographic basins that are apparently coincident with closed groundwater flow systems. In these systems, recharge occurs sparingly at higher altitudes by infiltration of precipitation or by infiltration of ephemeral runoff. Discharge occurs largely by spring flow and by evaporation and transpiration in the playas. Death Valley proper, for which the region was named, is the ultimate discharge area for a large, complex system of groundwater aquifers that occupy the northeastern part of the region. The deepest part of the system consists of carbonate aquifers that connect closed topographic basins at depth. The discharge from the system occurs in several intermediate areas that are geomorphically, stratigraphically, and structurally controlled. Ultimately, most groundwater flow terminates by discharge to Death Valley; groundwater is discharged to the Colorado River from a small part of the region
Of the categories of benefits to individuals, reductions in the risk of premature mortality are of central. concern to the public and environmental policy makers. These benefits can include those from reductions in own- risk, for example, an individual's valuation of reducing his or her own mortality risks; reductions in risk to an individual's family, friends, or co-workers (i.e., of people known to the individual); and reductions in risks to unknown individuals. The last type would be an example of altruistic value. The overall goal is to measure the welfare change from a change in the current and/or future probability of dying. The willingness to pay (WTP) reflects the amount of income taken from a person that would leave him or her indifferent to a decrease in risk, whenever it occurs. When this value is divided by the risk change, the resulting value is called the 'value of a statistical life'. Another relevant measure appearing in the literature is the value of life-years saved. A final issue concerns the type of premature mortality risks one is valuing when environmental pollution is at issue. While most effort has gone into estimating the welfare effects of a change in current probability of death of healthy workers on the job, this is more relevant for characterizing the benefits of reducing accidental death risks than death from environmental causes. Exposure to pollutants raises risks of developing cancer, chronic heart, respiratory, and other diseases that raise mortality risks in the future. Such exposure also may raise current death risks for the very old and the sick. But, surely the pollution effect that is analogous to occupational health risks-pollution exposures high enough to raise current risks of death for the healthy, prime-age person-is insignificant in the United States.
Of the categories of benefits to individuals, reductions in the risk of premature mortality are of central. concern to the public and environmental policy makers. These benefits can include those from reductions in own- risk, for example, an individual's valuation of reducing his or her own mortality risks; reductions in risk to an individual's family, friends, or co-workers (i.e., of people known to the individual); and reductions in risks to unknown individuals. The last type would be an example of altruistic value. The overall goal is to measure the welfare change from a change in the current and/or future probability of dying. The willingness to pay (WTP) reflects the amount of income taken from a person that would leave him or her indifferent to a decrease in risk, whenever it occurs. When this value is divided by the risk change, the resulting value is called the 'value of a statistical life'. Another relevant measure appearing in the literature is the value of life-years saved. A final issue concerns the type of premature mortality risks one is valuing when environmental pollution is at issue. While most effort has gone into estimating the welfare effects of a change in current probability of death of healthy workers on the job, this is more relevant for characterizing the benefits of reducing accidental death risks than death from environmental causes. Exposure to pollutants raises risks of developing cancer, chronic heart, respiratory, and other diseases that raise mortality risks in the future. Such exposure also may raise current death risks for the very old and the sick. But, surely the pollution effect that is analogous to occupational health risks-pollution exposures high enough to raise current risks of death for the healthy, prime-age person-is insignificant in the United States
Korzec, A.; Bär, M.; Koeter, M. W.; de Kieviet, W.
In several European countries, drivers under influence (DUI), suspected of an alcohol use disorder (AUD, 'alcoholism') are referred for diagnostic examination. The accuracy of diagnostic procedures used in diagnosing AUD in the DUI population is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare three
mohamad hassan lotfi
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Death is defined as the permanent loss of all signs of life at any time after birth (Irrevocable disappearance of all vital signs after birth. Unnatural deaths seem to be either suspicious or unexpected. Deaths that occur suddenly and their causes need to be investigated, are termed unnatural deaths. According to the death certificate contents of Ministry of Health and Forensics, if the cause of death is unnatural, the corpse will be submitted to the forensic medicine departments in 19 cases in order to determine the death cause and to issue the burial permit. Material & Methods: In this descriptive study, the data were extracted from unnatural death cases in the province of Yazd during 2003 to 2013 recorded by Yazd Forensic Medicine. Results: During 2003 -2013, 5552 cases of unnatural deaths were recorded by the Forensic Medicine of Yazd, out of which 4373 cases of unnatural deaths were caused by road traffic accidents (outside and inside the city, 89 deaths from electrocution, 439 deaths from poisoning, 72 deaths from drowning, 129 deaths from asphyxia (by carbon monoxide, 56 deaths from work incidents, and 394 deaths from burns. The group of males aged 20-29 years allocated the highest number of unnatural deaths to themselves. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents are the second leading cause of unnatural deaths in Iran. The number of unnatural death incidents in men is more than women indicating that men are more exposed to risk factors than women, though regarding the deaths due to the burns, women are exposed to the high risk factors.
... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesothelioma is a highly fatal cancer that is caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. In many populations, the occurrence of mesothelioma is monitored with the use of mortality data from death certification. We examine certified causes of death of patients who have been diagnosed with mesothelioma, and assess the validity of death certification data as a proxy for mesothelioma incidence. Methods We extracted mesothelioma registrations in the South East of England area between 2000 and 2004 from the Thames Cancer Registry database. We retained for analysis 2200 patients who had died at the time of analysis, after having excluded seven dead cases where the causes of death were not known to the cancer registry. The 2200 deaths were classified hierarchically to identify (1 mesothelioma deaths, (2 deaths certified as lung cancer deaths or (3 deaths from unspecified cancer, and (4 deaths from other causes. Results 87% of the patients had mesothelioma mentioned on the death certificate. 6% had no mention of mesothelioma but included lung cancer as a cause of death. Another 6% had no mention of mesothelioma or lung cancer, but included an unspecified cancer as a cause of death. Lastly, 2% had other causes of death specified on the death certificate. Conclusion This analysis suggests that official mortality data may underestimate the true occurrence of mesothelioma by around 10%.
Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H
The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National......) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked...... with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise....
Management of functional Sprint Fidelis leads at cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator generator replacement: a novel option for preventing inappropriate shocks from lead failure in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death.
Zhu, Dennis W X; Chu, Matthew M; House, Chad M
In patients with a functional Sprint Fidelis lead at generator replacement, the manufacturer recommended to either continue to use the existing lead or replace it with a new lead. For those patients who continue to use a functional Fidelis lead, the risk of inappropriate shocks remains present if the lead fails in the future. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative approach at the time of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) generator replacement in patients with a functional bipolar left ventricular (LV) lead for prevention of inappropriate shocks from future Fidelis lead failure. During the procedure, the pace/sense IS-1 connection pin of the functional Fidelis lead was intentionally inserted into the LV port of the new CRT-D generator, while the existing bipolar LV lead IS-1 connection pin was inserted into the right ventricular (RV) pace/sense port. After such switching, the existing bipolar LV lead was used for functional LV pacing/sensing, while the Fidelis lead was used for functional RV pacing and high voltage shock only and could no longer be used for the purpose of sensing and detecting. This approach precluded oversensing and inappropriate shocks should the functional Fidelis lead fail in the future. Six fragile patients, who were not considered suitable candidates for lead replacement, underwent the alternative approach. During a follow-up of 35 ± 23 months, the CRT-D system functioned normally in five patients. The Fidelis lead fractured in one patient 7 months after generator replacement. The malfunction was detected promptly and the defected lead was replaced. No inappropriate detections or shock was triggered. In CRT-D patients with a functional Fidelis lead and a bipolar LV lead, switching of the Fidelis lead pace/sense IS-1 pin with the bipolar LV lead IS-1 pin at generator replacement did not affect normal system function. This novel approach may be valuable in fragile patients with high risk of sudden death for
Is it possible to end one's life well with dementia? The perception of dementia as death brought into life flows from ideas about humanness embedded in medicine's Cartesian paradigm. Dementia as incurable brain disease exacerbates negativity. But the real impact of dementia is that it changes social relations: to live well with dementia requires a relational not Cartesian understanding of life. A relational ontology prioritizes social health: to live is to be held in connection. Negativity produces the disconnection that is death, with or without disease. When people with dementia are held in connection, they live a better life.
Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is defined in literature similarly as a sudden and unexpected death of an infant occurring during sleep and, at the same time, causes of which cannot be explained based on anamnesis, circumstances of death or comprehensive post-mortem examinations. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome is considered to be the most frequent cause of death among infants in the developed countries. Incidence of SIDS in the whole world ranges from about 0.1 to 6.0/1,000 live births. As much as 90% concerns deaths in the first year of life of a child, whereas 70% stands for deaths for which the cause remains unknown. In SIDS, about 90% of cases concern children under 1 year old and, in particular, at the age of between 2 and 4 months. The aim: The aim of the study was to present the most significant aspects of SIDS as well as description and analysis of risk factors for occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome based on statistical data. Materials and methods: For the purpose of the study, the secondary data analysis and desk research technique have been applied. The analysis is based on statistical data from the time period 2009-2014 released by the Central Statistical Office of Poland. Results: In 2009-2014, the highest number of deaths of infants and new-borns was reported in 2009 with the number being as high as 2,327. In the following years, the number of deaths of new-borns and infants systematically decreased. In 2010 it was 2,057 and in 2011 – 1,836, in 2012 – 1,791, in 2013 – 1,684, and in 2014 – 1,583. The highest number of deaths of boys was reported in 2009 – 1,298, while the number of deaths of girls in that year, although it was the highest in the analysed period, was lower – 1,029. Conclusions: cases of death were more frequent among boys rather than girls. The highest number of deaths was reported among infants under the age of one month and the number decreased with an increasing infants’ age. More
Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)
Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.
Fujita, Kazuki; Shinomoto, Shigeru; Rocha, Luis E C
The Syrian armed conflict has been ongoing since 2011 and has already caused thousands of deaths. The analysis of death tolls helps to understand the dynamics of the conflict and to better allocate resources and aid to the affected areas. In this article, we use information on the daily number of deaths to study temporal and spatial correlations in the data, and exploit this information to forecast events of deaths. We found that the number of violent deaths per day in Syria varies more widely than that in England in which non-violent deaths dominate. We have identified strong positive auto-correlations in Syrian cities and non-trivial cross-correlations across some of them. The results indicate synchronization in the number of deaths at different times and locations, suggesting respectively that local attacks are followed by more attacks at subsequent days and that coordinated attacks may also take place across different locations. Thus the analysis of high temporal resolution data across multiple cities makes it possible to infer attack strategies, warn potential occurrence of future events, and hopefully avoid further deaths.
Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T
The fetal growth of the piglet is highly dependent on its placenta, and the newborn piglet birth weight is highly associated with postpartum death. However, there is little information available in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to postpartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, and piglet birth characteristics, such as blood parameters, vitality score, and birth weight on postpartum death. All live born piglets in litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each was recorded, including placental area and placental weight and blood variables obtained from the piglets and umbilical veins. Out of the 386 live-born piglets, 16.8% died before weaning at 5 wk. Among these, 78.5% died within the first 3 d of life. Mean blood concentration of lactate was increased in piglets that did not survive to weaning (P = 0.003). Concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P vitality score vs. piglets born with an intact umbilical cord (P = 0.021), and they had an increased probability of dying before weaning (P = 0.050). Mean birth weight, body mass index, placental area (P live litter size. Blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were decreased in piglets that died before weaning (P < 0.01), and blood concentration of albumin was positively associated with placental area (P < 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, birth weight, body mass index, blood concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit recorded at birth, and blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were associated with postpartum death in this study. These results may indicate that there is an upper uterine limitation of litter size and that placental area and placental weight influence postpartum survival.
Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane
Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...
Das, Siddhartha; Menezes, Ritesh G
Road traffic accidents are a major cause of fatalities around the world, and a number of deaths are caused by moving traffic on public roads. Deaths from vehicles that are off the highway may be called non-traffic fatalities which can be due to a vehicle reversing, carbon monoxide poisoning, weather-induced over-heating inside the vehicle and electric windows. Children (and animals) are the usual victims. We report a case from India where a man was found lying dead by the roadside with a lorry nearby. The autopsy findings indicated that he had been run over, but as there was no history of a vehicular collision and with no eyewitnesses, the investigators were unsure of the probable sequence of events that led to his death. The autopsy findings, history, circumstantial evidence and chemical analysis enabled us to work out what had happened.
Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil
In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...
Pane, Masdalina; Imari, Sholah; Alwi, Qomariah; Nyoman Kandun, I; Cook, Alex R.; Samaan, Gina
Background Indonesia provides the largest single source of pilgrims for the Hajj (10%). In the last two decades, mortality rates for Indonesian pilgrims ranged between 200–380 deaths per 100,000 pilgrims over the 10-week Hajj period. Reasons for high mortality are not well understood. In 2008, verbal autopsy was introduced to complement routine death certificates to explore cause of death diagnoses. This study presents the patterns and causes of death for Indonesian pilgrims, and compares routine death certificates to verbal autopsy findings. Methods Public health surveillance was conducted by Indonesian public health authorities accompanying pilgrims to Saudi Arabia, with daily reporting of hospitalizations and deaths. Surveillance data from 2008 were analyzed for timing, geographic location and site of death. Percentages for each cause of death category from death certificates were compared to that from verbal autopsy. Results In 2008, 206,831 Indonesian undertook the Hajj. There were 446 deaths, equivalent to 1,968 deaths per 100,000 pilgrim years. Most pilgrims died in Mecca (68%) and Medinah (24%). There was no statistically discernible difference in the total mortality risk for the two pilgrimage routes (Mecca or Medinah first), but the number of deaths peaked earlier for those traveling to Mecca first (p=0.002). Most deaths were due to cardiovascular (66%) and respiratory (28%) diseases. A greater proportion of deaths were attributed to cardiovascular disease by death certificate compared to the verbal autopsy method (pIndonesian pilgrim mortality rates were very high. Correct classification of cause of death is critical for the development of risk mitigation strategies. Since verbal autopsy classified causes of death differently to death certificates, further studies are needed to assess the method’s utility in this setting. PMID:23991182
Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley
The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…
Macleod, Alastair D Sandy
The terminal illness of Sigmund Freud has been considered by many authors to be an example of physician-enacted euthanasia. A review and a reconsideration of the published literature by Freud's doctors and biographers cast doubt on this opinion. Over his last 48 h, Freud was administered substantial morphine doses to sedate and relieve his pain. However, from a pharmacological perspective, the timing of his death would not be consistent with that of a fatal dose of opioid. Freud died a natural death. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Perinatal mortality after Chernobyl. - Excess perinatal deaths, stillborns and malformations in Germany, Europe and highly exposed regions of Germany and Europe after the Chernobyl reactor accident of April 1986
Koerblein, A.; Scherb, H.; Weigelt, E.
In 1987, the year following the Chernobyl accident, perinatal mortality was significantly increased in Germany as well as in Poland. The numbers of excess perinatal deaths were 317 and 320, respectively. Monthly data from Germany, Poland and the region of Zhitomir, Ukraine, exhibit a significant association between perinatal mortality and the delayed caesium concentration in pregnant women with a time-lag of seven months. In addition to an increase in 1987, perinatal mortality in the most contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus show a second rise beginning in 1989 which can be related to the action of strontium. The cumulative effect from strontium outweighs the effect of caesium in 1987 by more than a factor of 10. Monthly data of malformation rates in newborn were only available for the State of Bavaria, Germany. No increase is observed in 1987 in the Bavarian average. But at the end of 1987, seven month after the highest caesium concentration in pregnant women in April and May 1987, a highly significant dependency of malformation rates on caesium soil contamination is found. There is a growing awareness of many lasting detrimental health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor eruption in large parts of central, eastern and northern Europe. A flexible synoptic spatial-temporal method based on logistic regression is suggested for the analysis of official national as well as district by district reproductive failure data. The main idea is to model a spatial-temporal annual or monthly data set by adjusting for country or region specific trend functions and either to test for local or global temporal jumps or broken sticks (change-points) associated with the years 1986 or 1987 or, alternatively, to test for a spatial effect of regionally stratified exposure or dosimetry data on reproductive outcome. In numerous official data sets of central, eastern, and northern European countries or regions absolute or relative increases of stillbirth proportions after
Glasgow, J F T; Thompson, A J; Ingram, P J
In recent years, many babies who die of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) in Northern Ireland are found dead in bed--i.e. co-sleeping--with an adult. In order to assess its frequency autopsy reports between April 1996 and August 2001 were reviewed and linked to temporal factors. The day and month of death, and the place where the baby was found were compared to a reference population of infant deaths between one week of age and the second birthday. Although the rate of SUDI was lower than the UK average, 43 cases of SUDI were identified, and two additional deaths with virtually identical autopsy findings that were attributed to asphyxia caused by suffocation due to overlaying. Thirty-two of the 45 (71%) were less than four months of age. In 30 of the 45 cases (67%) the history stated that the baby was bed sharing with others; 19 died sleeping in an adult bed, and 11 on a sofa or armchair. In 16 of the 30 (53%) there were at least two other people sharing the sleeping surface, and in one case, three. SUDI was twice as frequent at weekends (found dead Saturday-Monday mornings) compared to weekdays (psharing a place of sleep per se may not increase the risk of death, our findings may be linked to factors such as habitual smoking, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs as reported in case-control studies. In advising parents on safer childcare practices, health professionals must be knowledgeable of current research and when, for example, giving advice on co-sleeping this needs to be person-specific cognisant of the risks within a household. New and better means of targeting such information needs to be researched if those with higher risk life-styles are to be positively influenced.
Background: The perinatal mortality of 70 deaths per 1,000 total births in Uganda is unacceptably high. Perinatal death audits are important for improvement of perinatal care and reduction of perinatal morality. We integrated perinatal death audits in routine care, and describe its effect on perinatal mortality rate at Nsambya ...
Westerdahl, Annika Kinch; Sutton, Richard; Frykman, Viveka
Implantable defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden cardiac death. With declining health, ICD therapy may prolong death and expose the patient to unnecessary pain and anxiety. Few studies have addressed end of life care in ICD patients. The objective of this study was to investigate end of life in ICD patients, with respect to location of death; duration between do-not-resuscitate (DNR)-orders and deactivation of ICD therapy or DNR and time of death. A descriptive analysis of 65 deceased ICD patients, all whom had a written DNR-order before death, is presented. The majority (86%) was treated in hospitals, mainly (63%) university hospitals, and many (33%) in cardiology wards. Despite DNR-order, ICD shock therapy was active in 51% of all patients. In those with therapy deactivated at death, therapy deactivation was carried out two days or more after DNR-order in more than a third (38%). The time from DNR decision to death in patients with therapy active had a median of four days (IQR 1-38). During the last 24h of life, 24% of the patients experienced shock treatment. The majority of ICD patients with a DNR-order were treated in university hospitals. More than half still had shock treatment active at time of death with a median of four days or more between DNR decision and death. Patients with therapy deactivated, two days or more elapsed in more than a third from DNR decision to deactivation of therapy, exposing patients to a high risk of painful shocks before death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The author discusses the importance of the work entitled Formulation of Theoretical Bases of the Phenomenon of Cell Death and Their Use in Explaining the Pathogenesis of Radiation Sickness, which has been nominated for the 1985 USSR State Prize. The author notes that the study of the nature and mechanisms of cell death from ionizing radiation consumed the efforts of researchers of various specialties for more than 20 years. The author observes that study of the molecular basis of the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes became the key to understanding the general biological phenomenon of cell death.
Full Text Available Anorexia Nervosa (AN usually follows a prolonged course accompanied by significant morbidity and high mortality. AN patients have been found to have elevated and attempted suicide rates, with suicide being the second most common cause of death in AN after the complications of the disorder itself. The suicide risk in AN is similar to that in major depression or conduct disorder and linked mainly to longer duration of illness, lower weight, bingeing and purging, impulsivity-related manifestations, comorbid substance abuse, and affective disorder. This paper reviews suicidal tendency and disturbed body image, death and eating disorders, and attachment and death with clinical implications related to AN.
Marom, Tal; Cinamon, Udi; Castellanos, Paul F; Cohen, Marta C
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of an apparently otherwise healthy infant, typically during sleep, and with no obvious case after a thorough post-mortem and scene death examination. To address the problem from the otolaryngologist's perspective, describe relevant pathologies, discuss controversies and suggest preventive measures in high-risk populations. A MEDLINE search and hand search were conducted to identify reports published between 1969 and 2011 in the English language on the pathophysiology of SIDS related to the head and neck organs. Search terms included SIDS (MeSH term), SIDS and pathophysiology (text words), and SIDS and autopsy (text words). A growing number of reports suggested head and neck organs involvement in SIDS autopsies. Laryngeal, oropharyngeal, maxillofacial, otologic, cervical vascular abnormalities and infectious etiologies, were recognized and discussed. Otolaryngologists should be aware of relevant pathologies, as some are treatable, if identified early enough in infancy. A proactive risk-management approach is warranted in infants presenting with certain abnormalities reviewed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra
Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.
The concept of brain death originated in France. In 1959, the French scholars P. Mollaret and M. Goulon proposed the concept of "coma de- passe" or "brain death" for the first time and reported 23 cases with such symptoms. The first guidelines (the Harvard criteria) for diagnosing brain death was established in 1968, defining brain death
Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.
Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to
According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death-death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning
Ben Teeuwen; Thuy Ngo; Frans Nauta
The Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) is a measurement tool that shows hospitals’ death rates. The HSMR compares deaths that occur in hospitals with death ratios that one would normally expect based on patients’ diseases. It is used as a benchmark for adjusted hospital death rates. These
Eckstein, Daniel; Tobacyk, Jerome
The relationship between birth order and how a person deals with death is investigated. Both theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that birth order influences how a person deals with life tasks. First-borns appear more achievement-oriented than their younger siblings, as exemplified by the fact that disproportionately greater numbers of…
Patton, James R.; Keyes, Denis W.
In light of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2002 landmark decision in "Atkins v. Virginia," a diagnosis of mild mental retardation has taken on a life and death significance for people who are the most deeply involved in criminal justice. As such, each aspect of the mental retardation definition (American Association on Mental Retardation, 2002) is a…
Robert Gould Shaw was one of the most celebrated heroes of the American Civil War because of his position as Colonel of the North's first African-American regiment, his abolitionist family, his death on the parapets of Fort Wagner, and the monuments and poems praising his dedication to the equality...
Multimorbid outpatients: A high frequency of FP appointments and/or family difficulties, should alert FPs to the possibility of death or acute hospitalization occurring within six months; A primary care feasibility study.
Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Billot Grasset, Alice; Le Floch, Bernard; Grall, Pauline; Derriennic, Jeremy; Odorico, Michele; Lalande, Sophie; le Goff, Delphine; Barais, Marie; Chiron, Benoit; Lingner, Heidrun; Guillou, Morgane; Barraine, Pierre
The European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed and validated a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review and qualitative research throughout Europe. This definition was tested as a model to assess death or acute hospitalization in multimorbid outpatients. To assess which criteria in the EGPRN concept of multimorbidity could detect outpatients at risk of death or acute hospitalization in a primary care cohort at a 6-month follow-up and to assess whether a large scale cohort with FPs would be feasible. Family Physicians included a random sample of multimorbid patients who attended appointments in their offices from July to December 2014. Inclusion criteria were those of the EGPRN definition of Multimorbidity. Exclusion criteria were patients under legal protection and those unable to complete the 2-year follow-up. Statistical analysis was undertaken with uni- and multivariate analysis at a 6-month follow-up using a combination of approaches including both automatic classification and expert decision making. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) completed the process with a projection of illustrative variables. A logistic regression was finally performed in order to identify and quantify risk factors for decompensation. 19 FPs participated in the study. 96 patients were analyzed. 3 different clusters were identified. MCA showed the central function of psychosocial factors and peaceful versus conflictual relationships with relatives in all clusters. While taking into account the limit of a small cohort, age, frequency of family physician visits and extent of family difficulties were the factors which predicted death or acute hospitalization. A large scale cohort seems feasible in primary care. A sense of alarm should be triggered to prevent death or acute hospitalization in multimorbid older outpatients who have frequent family physician visits and who experience family difficulties.
Golden, Encouse B.; Pellicciotta, Ilenia; Demaria, Sandra; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H.; Formenti, Silvia C.
Ionizing radiation (IR) triggers programmed cell death in tumor cells through a variety of highly regulated processes. Radiation-induced tumor cell death has been studied extensively in vitro and is widely attributed to multiple distinct mechanisms, including apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic catastrophe (MC), autophagy, and senescence, which may occur concurrently. When considering tumor cell death in the context of an organism, an emerging body of evidence suggests there is a reciprocal relationship in which radiation stimulates the immune system, which in turn contributes to tumor cell kill. As a result, traditional measurements of radiation-induced tumor cell death, in vitro, fail to represent the extent of clinically observed responses, including reductions in loco-regional failure rates and improvements in metastases free and overall survival. Hence, understanding the immunological responses to the type of radiation-induced cell death is critical. In this review, the mechanisms of radiation-induced tumor cell death are described, with particular focus on immunogenic cell death (ICD). Strategies combining radiotherapy with specific chemotherapies or immunotherapies capable of inducing a repertoire of cancer specific immunogens might potentiate tumor control not only by enhancing cell kill but also through the induction of a successful anti-tumor vaccination that improves patient survival.
Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz Peter; Sassenberg, Alina; Yen, Heidelberg
A 63-year-old man was found in the street after overrun by a car. Postmortem CT revealed multiple bone fractures, but surprisingly all without any relevant hemorrhage which would have been expected under such circumstances. A round radiopaque formation was found in the duodenum, which was reminiscent of ingested tablets. The toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of zopiclone and alcohol. By combining radiologic and forensic results, zopiclone and alcohol intoxication were concluded as the cause of death, followed by a postmortem overrun accident.
Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz Peter [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Sassenberg, Alina; Yen, Heidelberg [Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)
A 63-year-old man was found in the street after overrun by a car. Postmortem CT revealed multiple bone fractures, but surprisingly all without any relevant hemorrhage which would have been expected under such circumstances. A round radiopaque formation was found in the duodenum, which was reminiscent of ingested tablets. The toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of zopiclone and alcohol. By combining radiologic and forensic results, zopiclone and alcohol intoxication were concluded as the cause of death, followed by a postmortem overrun accident.
Death and rituals performed after death reflect and reproduce social distinctions despite death's popular reputation as a great leveler. This study examines expressions of religiosity and constructions of death in Turkish death announcements, paying particular attention to gendered, ethnic, and temporal variations as well as markers of status and…
Johansson, Noreen; Lally, Terry
Evaluated effectiveness of death education program in reducing death anxiety experienced by 22 junior and senior nursing students. Subjects were pre- and posttested with State Form of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and viewed film of death experience. Posttest analysis indicated that death education program was effective in decreasing death anxiety…
Blois, Joseph; Smith, Adam; Josephson, Lee
To examine the correlation between cell death and a common surrogate of death used in screening assays, we compared cell death responses to those obtained with the sulforhodamine B (SRB) cell protein-based "cytotoxicity" assay. With the SRB assay, the Hill equation was used to obtain an IC50 and final cell mass, or cell mass present at infinite agent concentrations, with eight adherent cell lines and four agents (32 agent/cell combinations). Cells were treated with high agent concentrations (well above the SRB IC50) and the death response determined as the time-dependent decrease in cells failing to bind both annexin V and vital fluorochromes by flow cytometry. Death kinetics were categorized as fast (5/32) (similar to the reference nonadherent Jurkat line), slow (17/32), or none (10/32), despite positive responses in the SRB assay in all cases. With slow cell death, a single exposure to a chemotherapeutic agent caused a slow, progressive increase in dead (necrotic) and dying (apoptotic) cells for at least 72 h. Cell death (defined by annexin and/or fluorochrome binding) did not correlate with the standard SRB "cytotoxicity" assay. With the slow cell death response, a single exposure to an agent caused a slow conversion from vital to apoptotic and necrotic cells over at least 72 h (the longest time point examined). Here, increasing the time of exposure to agent concentrations modestly above the SRB IC50 provides a method of maximizing cell kill. If tumors respond similarly, sustained low doses of chemotherapeutic agents, rather than a log-kill, maximum tolerated dose strategy may be an optimal strategy of maximizing tumor cell death.
Bjerre, Johannes; Kirkebjerg, Peer Gregersen; Larsen, Lars Binderup
Traffic accidents were the primary cause of death for Danes aged 15 to 24 years in 1999; per million inhabitants, that figure was 62% higher than in Great Britain. Reduction to the level in Great Britain would have reduced the number killed in traffic accidents in Denmark in 2002 from 465 to 289. The data used are from StatBank Denmark, the Danish Road Directorate and the Danish Transport Research Institute. The number of traffic deaths per billion kilometers driven was 57% higher in 1994 than in 2001. Those aged 65 and over had the largest decrease, with 67% fewer traffic deaths. Per billion kilometers driven, rural roads had around twice the number of traffic deaths as city streets and motorways. The geographic distribution showed few traffic deaths in the capital, Copenhagen, while the rest of the country had up to twice the number per 100,000 inhabitants from 1997 to 2002. Car drivers were well protected by seat belts, while people who were walking or on a motorcycle had high casualty rates per billion kilometers driven. 29% of the traffic deaths in Denmark in 2002 were registered as alcohol-related, while only 1% of drivers overall were influenced by alcohol. Men had twice the risk of traffic death compared with women per kilometer driven. Men were convicted in 93% of cases involving illegal blood alcohol level and 84% of cases involving other traffic offences. The greatest potential for reduction of traffic deaths seems to be traffic behaviour; females' behaviour, with rare drunk driving and few convictions for traffic offences, seems rational. If all drivers adhered to women's traffic behaviour, the number of road deaths in 1999 could have been reduced by 169, equivalent to 30%.
Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths. Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 11/7/2012.
Pignalberi, Carlo; Ricci, Renato; Santini, Massimo
Recent studies provide relevant evidence that psychological stress significantly influences the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death. Psychological stress expresses a situation of imbalance, derived from a real or perceived disparity between environmental demands and the individual's ability to cope with these demands. A situation of psychological stress may include different components: personality factors and character traits, anxiety and depression, social isolation and acute or chronic adverse life events. In particular, it has been documented that a sudden extremely hard event, such as an earthquake or a war strike, can significantly increase the incidence of sudden death. Nevertheless, each one of these factors, if not present, can balance a partially unfavorable situation; this overview suggests a multifactorial situation where almost all elements are present and in which the relative influence of each one varies according to the individual examined. Sudden death occurs when a transient disruption (such as acute myocardial ischemia, platelet activation or neuroendocrine variations), occurring in a patient with a diseased myocardium (such as one with a post-necrotic scar or hypertrophy), triggers a malignant arrhythmia. Psychological stress acts at both levels: by means of a "chronic" action it contributes to create the myocardial background, while by means of an acute action it can create the transient trigger precipitating sudden death. In the chronic action two possible mechanisms can be detected: the first is a direct interaction, which contributes to cause a hypertension status or to exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis consequent to endothelial dysfunction; the second one acts through adverse health behaviors, such as a poor diet, alcohol consumption or smoking. In case of acute psychological stress, the mechanisms involved are mainly the ability to trigger myocardial ischemia, to promote arrhythmogenesis, to stimulate platelet function, and to increase
Bittner, Nathan; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Moyad, Mark
Purpose: To evaluate the primary causes of death in low-risk (low-risk), intermediate-risk (intermediate-risk), and high-risk (high-risk) patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 through November 2004, a total of 1,354 consecutive patients underwent prostate brachytherapy. All patients underwent brachytherapy >3 years before analysis. Of the patients, 532 (39.3%) received androgen deprivation therapy and 703 (51.9%) received supplemental radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors of cause-specific, biochemical progression-free, and overall survival. Results: The 10-year cause-specific survival was 97.0% (99.7%, 99.0%, and 90.1% for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients). Overall survival was 76.7% (82.5%, 78.3%, and 67.6% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively). The cumulative death rate for cardiovascular disease was 11.5% (8.7%, 9.3%, and 19.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients). The death rate from second malignancies (nonprostate cancer) was 7.2% and was not substantially different when stratified by risk group. Death from all other causes was 6.5% for the entire cohort but 1.3%, 5.0%, and 10.8% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients. In multivariate analysis, death from prostate cancer was best predicted by Gleason score and risk group, whereas death from cardiovascular disease, nonprostate cancer, and all other causes were most closely related to patient age and tobacco use. Conclusions: Although cardiovascular mortality was the predominant cause of death, prostate cancer was responsible for approximately 10% of all deaths. In particular, overall survival was poorest in the high-risk group. Although high-risk patients were most likely to die of prostate cancer, the divergence in overall survival between high-risk and lower-risk patients primarily
Kaszás, Bálint; Feudel, Ulrike; Tél, Tamás
We investigate the death and revival of chaos under the impact of a monotonous time-dependent forcing that changes its strength with a non-negligible rate. Starting on a chaotic attractor it is found that the complexity of the dynamics remains very pronounced even when the driving amplitude has decayed to rather small values. When after the death of chaos the strength of the forcing is increased again with the same rate of change, chaos is found to revive but with a different history. This leads to the appearance of a hysteresis in the complexity of the dynamics. To characterize these dynamics, the concept of snapshot attractors is used, and the corresponding ensemble approach proves to be superior to a single trajectory description, that turns out to be nonrepresentative. The death (revival) of chaos is manifested in a drop (jump) of the standard deviation of one of the phase-space coordinates of the ensemble; the details of this chaos-nonchaos transition depend on the ratio of the characteristic times of the amplitude change and of the internal dynamics. It is demonstrated that chaos cannot die out as long as underlying transient chaos is present in the parameter space. As a condition for a "quasistatically slow" switch-off, we derive an inequality which cannot be fulfilled in practice over extended parameter ranges where transient chaos is present. These observations need to be taken into account when discussing the implications of "climate change scenarios" in any nonlinear dynamical system.
Full Text Available The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational–logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question “Does a brain death mean death of a human being?” two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death.
Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Luneckaitė, Žydrunė; Peičius, Eimantas; Bagdonaitė, Živilė; Riklikienė, Olga; Stankevičius, Edgaras
The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational-logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question "Does a brain death mean death of a human being?" two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a university teaching hospital to determine the prospective risk of unexpected fetal death in uncomplicated monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after viability. All MCDA twins delivered at or after 24 weeks\\' gestation from July 1999 to July 2007 were included. Pregnancies with twin-twin transfusion syndrome, growth restriction, structural abnormalities, or twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence were excluded. Of the 144 MCDA twin pregnancies included in our analysis, the risk of intrauterine death was 4.9%. The prospective risk of unexpected intrauterine death was 1 in 43 after 32 weeks\\' gestation and 1 in 37 after 34 weeks\\' gestation. Our results demonstrate that despite close surveillance, the unexpected intrauterine death rate in uncomplicated MCDA twin pregnancies is high. This rate seems to increase after 34 weeks\\' gestation, suggesting that a policy of elective preterm delivery warrants evaluation.
Courtright, Kevin E.; Berg, Bruce L.; Mutchick, Robert J.
Evaluates the first 57 offenders who participated in an electronic monitoring (EM) program and compared them to offenders who went to jail. Analysis revealed no difference between the groups with respect to rearrest, revocations, and detainers filed. The overwhelming majority of EM offenders completed their period of supervision without incident.…
Using Berger and Luckmann's thesis (1966) on the social construction of reality as rationale, this research analyzes the death drawings of 946 university students enrolled in a Death and Dying course between 1985 and 2004 to investigate the basic constructs elicited by the word "death": dying, moment of death, after death, after life, and bereavement. Consistent with earlier research, gender, race, religion, and religiosity proved to be significant factors. As expected, personal experience with grief was strongly correlated with drawings focused on bereavement. In contrast to earlier studies, fear of death was not significantly related to a particular construct. Implications for research, education, and counseling are discussed.
Kahl, Jessica E; Calvo, Richard Y; Sise, Michael J; Sise, C Beth; Thorndike, Jonathan F; Shackford, Steven R
Recent innovations in care have improved survival following injury. Coincidentally, the population of elderly injured patients with preexisting comorbidities has increased. We hypothesized that this increase in elderly injured patients may have combined with recent care innovations to alter the causes of death after trauma. We reviewed demographics, injury characteristics, and cause of death of in-hospital deaths of patients admitted to our Level I trauma service from 2000 through 2011. Cause of death was classified as acute hemorrhagic shock; severe traumatic brain injury or high spinal cord injury; complications of preexisting medical condition only (PM); survivable trauma combined with complications of preexisting medical condition (TCoM); multiple-organ failure, sepsis, or adult respiratory distress syndrome (MOF/S/ARDS), or trauma not otherwise categorized (e.g., asphyxiation). Major trauma care advances implemented on our service during the period were identified, and trends in the causes of death were analyzed. Of the 27,276 admissions, 819 (3%) eligible nonsurvivors were identified for the cause-of-death analyses. Causes of death were severe traumatic brain injury or high spinal cord injury at 44%, acute hemorrhagic shock at 28%, PM at 11%, TCoM at 10%, MOF/S/ARDS at 2%, and trauma not otherwise categorized at 5%. Mean age at death increased across the study interval (range, 47-57 years), while mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) decreased (range, 28-35). There was a significant increase in deaths because of TCoM (3.3-20.9%) and PM (6.7-16.4%), while deaths caused by MOF/S/ARDS decreased from 5% to 0% by 2007. Compared with year 2000, the annual adjusted mortality rate decreased consistently starting in 2009, after the 2002 to 2007 adoption of four major trauma practice guidelines. Mortality caused by preexisting medical conditions has increased, while markedly fewer deaths resulted from the complications of injury. Future improvements in outcomes will require
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...
A questionnaire survey was conducted in order to examine characteristics of death concern of nursing, medical and general students and to campare death concern levels of nursing students across grade levels. There were 539 valid responses of the students
... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...
... Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick ... a late stage with a poor outcome, often death. The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention published ...
Sam David Shemie
Full Text Available Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest. The clinical characteristics of brain arrest are the permanent loss of capacity for consciousness and loss of all brainstem functions. In the setting of circulatory arrest, death occurs after the arrest of circulation to the brain rather than death of the heart. Correspondingly, any intervention that resumes oxygenated circulation to the brain after circulatory arrest would invalidate the determination of death.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) provides states and communities with a clearer understanding of violent deaths to guide local decisions about...
Maria Helena Villas Bôas Concone
Full Text Available The themes of this issue of the Journal Kairós Gerontology seemed determined to submit the publication to opposing pressures: on one side there were the several articles and article propositions sent by many authors and distinct approaches, demanding more than ever the effort of our collaborators in the evaluation process; on the other side there were our own difficulties (technical and personnel to take forward and quickly the task and the inevitable delays. If the influx of articles clearly showed the interest and the opportunity of the journal’s proposal, the unwillingly delays seemed to confirm the denial/avoidance face of the themes of finitude and death. Indeed, it seemed to us necessary the election of these themes for reflection for obvious reasons, especially when involved in a Masters in Gerontology: the more avoided the more the reflection is needed; in case of working or having a relationship (professional or personal with many elderly, people close to death, or people facing definitive diagnosis, the avoidance perhaps brings more suffering than benefit to the parts involved. The old saying “In home of hanged don’t talk about ropes” might have its justification, but common sense and touch is needed; it is not a “folk remedy”. It always seemed to me (I do not place myself out of it that most humans think they are immortal or at least non-mortal (an indeterminate human deviation, to the extent that death and dying are pushed deep to the unconsciousness only surfacing back to consciousness in extreme situations. Death can be thought intellectually, turned into subject of literary, religious or philosophical speculation; it also can be turned into subject of anthropological, sociological or other types of investigation; it can be thought in numbers supporting epidemiological questions and population analysis; focused in cuts of gender, class, age, ethnicity; specified in causes and causes connected to each of the cuts above
Wilson, Donna M; Hewitt, Jessica A
A scoping research literature review on "bad death" was undertaken to assess the overall state of the science on this topic and to determine what evidence exists on how often bad deaths occur, what contributes to or causes a bad death, and what the outcomes and consequences of bad deaths are. A search for English-language research articles was conducted in late 2016, with 25 articles identified and all retained for examination, as is expected with scoping reviews. Only 3 of the 25 articles provided incidence information, specifying that 7.8 to 23% of deaths were bad and that bad deaths were more likely to occur in hospitals than in community-care settings. Many different factors were associated with bad deaths, with unrelieved pain being the most commonly identified. Half of the studies provided information on the possible consequences or outcomes of bad deaths, such as palliative care not being initiated, interpersonal and team conflict, and long-lasting negative community effects. This review identified a relatively small number of research articles that focused in whole or in part on bad deaths. Although the reasons why people consider a death to be bad may be highly individualized and yet also socioculturally based, unrelieved pain is a commonly held reason for bad deaths. Although bad and good deaths may have some opposing causative factors, this literature review revealed some salient bad death attributes, ones that could be avoided to prevent bad deaths from occurring. A routine assessment to allow planning so as to avoid bad deaths and enhance the probability of good deaths is suggested.
Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy
Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the frequency of bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death (cadaver eyes which will give information about the bacterial contamination of donor eyes, and the in-vitro sensitivity of isolated bacteria to the commonly used antibiotics in ophthalmic practice.METHODS: Conjunctival swabs were taken from the cadavers (motor vehicle accident deaths and patients who died in the hospital, within 6h after death, and sent for culture and sensitivity test. Conjunctival swabs, taken from the healthy conjunctiva of patients admitted for cataract surgery, were sent for culture and sensitivity as controls (eyes in those of living status. The bacterial isolates were tested against the commonly used antibiotics (chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin in ophthalmology practice.RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated in 41 out of 100 conjunctival swabs (41%, taken from 50 cadavers (study group. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common bacteria isolated (15%, followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%. Gentamicin was effective against majority of the bacterial isolates (82%. Bacteria were isolated from 7 out of 100 conjunctival swabs taken as control group (eyes in living state. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common organism (5% isolated in control group; the others were staphylococcus aureus (1% and beta hemolyticus streptococci (1%.CONCLUSION: Bacteria were isolated from 41% of the cadaver eyes. High percentage sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to gentamicin (82% supports the practice of thorough irrigation of the eyes with gentamicin solution before starting the procedure of enucleation followed by immersion of the enucleated eyeballs in gentamycin solution, to prevent the bacterial contamination.
Reza, A; Mercy, J A; Krug, E
This study describes epidemiologic patterns of mortality due to suicide, homicide, and war for the world in order to serve as a benchmark against which to measure future progress and to raise awareness about violence as a global public health problem. The world and its eight major regions. Data were derived from The Global Burden of Disease series and the US National Center for Health Statistics to estimate crude rates, age adjusted rates, sex rate ratios, and the health burden for suicide, homicide, and war related deaths for the world and its eight major regions in 1990. In 1990, an estimated 1,851,000 people died from violence (35.3 per 100,000) in the world. There were an estimated 786,000 suicides. Overall suicide rates ranged from 3.4 per 100,000 in Sub-Saharan Africa to 30.4 per 100,000 in China. There were an estimated 563,000 homicides. Overall homicide rates ranged from 1.0 per 100,000 in established market economies to 44.8 per 100,000 in Sub-Saharan Africa with peaks among males aged 15-24 years old, and among females aged 0-4 years old. There were an estimated 502,000 war related deaths with peaks in rates for both sexes among people aged 0-4, 15-29, and 60-69 years old. The number of violence related deaths in the world is unacceptably high. Coordinated prevention and control efforts are urgently needed.
Each culture recognizes and identifies death, dying and bereavement in unique ways. Commonly, a culture may be seen through the lens of death rituals; how those are shaped, interpreted and used by the society. This paper aims to look at the Modern Greek culture and depict its ‘visualization’ of death, as well as capture the rituals that mostly identify this specific culture. The Greek culture in overall is strongly influenced by the Greek Orthodox Church. Hence, the experiences of death, dyin...
Reflections on student nurse's experience with death of a patient during their studies were collected in form of questionnaires. Theory and practice were compared and research conducted into the needs of students, who experienced patient's death during their studies. Research concluded with recommendation for widening the nursing course programme and adding opportunities for students to share their feelings and experiences after their patients death. Key terms: death, dying patient, study, te...
The representation of death in imaginative writing is a "virtual" (as opposed to) an actual death. It always occurs in the context of a "virtual" (represented) life. In this text the author examines some of the ways death "intercepts" life in such writing. The subject is a vast, perhaps inexhaustible, one. The richest source, one the author dos not mine, is Shakespeare's interceptions of life by death.
Cryonic suspension is a relatively new technology that offers those who can afford it the chance to be ‘frozen’ for future revival when they reach the ends of their lives. This paper will examine the ethical status of this technology and whether its use can be justified.\\ud \\ud Among the arguments against using this technology are: it is ‘against nature’, and would change the very concept of death; no friends or family of the ‘freezee’ will be left alive when he is revived; the considerable e...
Espinoza, R; González, C
Moctezuma was the Aztec emperor when Spaniards arrived in Mexico in 1519. After his entrance in Tenochtitlan, Cortés held the emperor hostage, forcing him to govern under conditions in his own palace. The psychic evolution experienced by Moctezuma until his death in 1520 is analyzed based on testimonial reports of Benal Diaz del Castillo and historian contributions. Although there is evidence that Moctezuma was stoned and wounded by an arrow, we propose the hypothesis that the emperor was affected by a Major Depression.
Kenyon, Gary M.
Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…
Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth; Worden, J. William
Attendees at workshops and lectures were asked to complete a questionnaire which assessed the following: 1) First death experience, 2) Present conceptualization of death, 3) Anticipated reactions to a personal terminal illness, 4) Resources in managing one's own death, and 5) Difficulties experienced in working with dying persons. (Author)
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Compensation for Disability or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for payment...
... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Leading Causes of Death Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Number of deaths for leading causes of death Heart disease: 633,842 • Cancer: 595,930 • Chronic ...
Damiani, P; Aubenque, M
This paper describes an attempt to estimate the probabilities of transition between various major causes of death during the period 1954-1962. The regression coefficients have been estimated from French département death rates for ten main or typical causes of death, assessed by sex for the age group 45-64 years.
Benoliel, Jeanne Quint, Ed.
The perspectives of a number of health professionals based on their experiences in providing death education courses are presented in essays. In "Interdisciplinary Death Education in a Nursing School" (Helen L. Swain and Kathleen V. Cowles), the development of an undergraduate elective course in death, dying, and bereavement at the…
An audit of all malaria deaths that occurred at Manguzi Hospital between 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999 was performed. There were 41 deaths from malaria in this time period, which was many more than for the previous three years. The most common causes of death were cerebral malaria, pulmonary oedema, ...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death. 638.513 Section 638.513 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.513 Death. In each case of student death, the...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be treated...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death pension. 3.460 Section 3.460 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.460 Death pension. Death pension...
Malin, Jennifer Zuckerman; Shaham, Shai
Cell death is a common and important feature of animal development, and cell death defects underlie many human disease states. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven fertile ground for uncovering molecular and cellular processes controlling programmed cell death. A core pathway consisting of the conserved proteins EGL-1/BH3-only, CED-9/BCL2, CED-4/APAF1, and CED-3/caspase promotes most cell death in the nematode, and a conserved set of proteins ensures the engulfment and degradation of dying cells. Multiple regulatory pathways control cell death onset in C. elegans, and many reveal similarities with tumor formation pathways in mammals, supporting the idea that cell death plays key roles in malignant progression. Nonetheless, a number of observations suggest that our understanding of developmental cell death in C. elegans is incomplete. The interaction between dying and engulfing cells seems to be more complex than originally appreciated, and it appears that key aspects of cell death initiation are not fully understood. It has also become apparent that the conserved apoptotic pathway is dispensable for the demise of the C. elegans linker cell, leading to the discovery of a previously unexplored gene program promoting cell death. Here, we review studies that formed the foundation of cell death research in C. elegans and describe new observations that expand, and in some cases remodel, this edifice. We raise the possibility that, in some cells, more than one death program may be needed to ensure cell death fidelity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gijzen, Sandra; Petter, Jessica; Hoir, L' Monique; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Need, Ariana
Aim: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of
van Doorn, Erik A.
We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis
The National Paediatric Mortality Database was reviewed for the six year period 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2011 and all pedestrian deaths extracted, after review of available data the deaths were categorized as either traffic or non-traffic related. There were 45 child pedestrian fatalities in the period examined. Traffic related deaths accounted for 26 (58%) vs. 19 (42%) non-traffic related. Analysis of the deaths showed there was a male preponderance 28 (62%), weekend trend 22 (49%) with an evening 16 (35%) and summer peak 20 (44%). The highest proportion of deaths occurred in the 1-4 year age group 24 (53%), with 13 (28%) due to low speed vehicle rollovers, mainly occurring in residential driveways 8 (61%). Child pedestrian fatalities are highly preventable through the modification of risk factors including behavioural, social and environmental. Preventative action needs to be addressed, particularly in relation to non-traffic related deaths i.e, low speed vehicle rollovers.
Lewis, Ariane; Lord, Aaron S; Czeisler, Barry M; Caplan, Arthur
We sought to evaluate the caliber of education mainstream media provides the public about brain death. We reviewed articles published prior to July 31, 2015, on the most shared/heavily trafficked mainstream media websites of 2014 using the names of patients from two highly publicized brain death cases, "Jahi McMath" and "Marlise Muñoz." We reviewed 208 unique articles. The subject was referred to as being "alive" or on "life support" in 72% (149) of the articles, 97% (144) of which also described the subject as being brain dead. A definition of brain death was provided in 4% (9) of the articles. Only 7% (14) of the articles noted that organ support should be discontinued after brain death declaration unless a family has agreed to organ donation. Reference was made to well-known cases of patients in persistent vegetative states in 16% (34) of articles and 47% (16) of these implied both patients were in the same clinical state. Mainstream media provides poor education to the public on brain death. Because public understanding of brain death impacts organ and tissue donation, it is important for physicians, organ procurement organizations, and transplant coordinators to improve public education on this topic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Kalvelyte, Audrone; Stulpinas, Aurimas; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Foldes, Gabor
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells display multipotency or pluripotency and undergo self-renewal, however these events are negatively influenced by upregulation of cell death machinery that induces the significant decrease in survival and differentiation signals upon cardiovascular injury. While efforts to identify cell types and molecular pathways that promote cardiac tissue regeneration have been productive, studies that focus on blocking the extensive cell death after transplantation are limited. The control of cell death includes multiple networks rather than one crucial pathway, which underlies the challenge of identifying the interaction between various cellular and biochemical components. This review is aimed at exploiting the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells resist death signals to develop into mature and healthy cardiac cells. Specifically, we focus on a number of factors that control death and survival of stem cells upon transplantation and ultimately affect cardiac regeneration. We also discuss potential survival enhancing strategies and how they could be meaningful in the design of targeted therapies that improve cardiac function.
Rintoul, Angela C; Dobbin, Malcolm D H; Drummer, Olaf H; Ozanne-Smith, Joan
In light of an emerging epidemic identified in the United States and Canada, to identify trends in fatal drug toxicity involving oxycodone and the demographic characteristics and indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage of the deceased. Population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia. Decedents whose death was reported to the Victorian Coroner between 2000 and 2009 and where oxycodone was detected. Association between supply of oxycodone and deaths. Demographic characteristics of decedents. Rate ratios of the rural or metropolitan location and socioeconomic indicators of disadvantage of the deceased. Supply to Victoria has increased nine-fold from 7.5 mg per capita in 2000 to 67.5 mg per capita in 2009. Detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner has increased from 4 (0.08/100,000 population) in 2000 to 97 (1.78/100,000 population) in 2009-a 21-fold increase in deaths. Of the 320 cases described, 53.8% (172) were the result of drug toxicity. Of these, 52.3% were unintentional and 19.8% intentional self-harm; the remaining 27.9% are either still under investigation by the coroner or intent is unknown. Drug toxicity deaths were overrepresented in both rural areas and areas indexed with high levels of disadvantage. The substantial increase in the number of deaths involving oxycodone is strongly and significantly associated with the increase in supply. Most drug toxicity deaths involving oxycodone were unintentional. This newly identified trend in fatalities in Victoria supports concerns that a pattern of increasing deaths involving oxycodone is emerging globally.
Cryonic suspension is a relatively new technology that offers those who can afford it the chance to be 'frozen' for future revival when they reach the ends of their lives. This paper will examine the ethical status of this technology and whether its use can be justified. Among the arguments against using this technology are: it is 'against nature', and would change the very concept of death; no friends or family of the 'freezee' will be left alive when he is revived; the considerable expense involved for the freezee and the future society that will revive him; the environmental cost of maintaining suspension; those who wish to use cryonics might not live life to the full because they would economize in order to afford suspension; and cryonics could lead to premature euthanasia in order to maximize chances of success. Furthermore, science might not advance enough to ever permit revival, and reanimation might not take place due to socio-political or catastrophic reasons. Arguments advanced by proponents of cryonics include: the potential benefit to society; the ability to cheat death for at least a few more years; the prospect of immortality if revival is successful; and all the associated benefits that delaying or avoiding dying would bring. It emerges that it might be imprudent not to use the technology, given the relatively minor expense involved and the potential payoff. An adapted and more persuasive version of Pascal's Wager is presented and offered as a conclusive argument in favour of utilizing cryonic suspension.
Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.
Begum, R.; Pathak, N.; Hasnain, S.E.; Sah, N.K.; Athar, M.
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly conserved genetically controlled response of metazoan cells to commit suicide. Non apoptotic programmed cell death seems to operate in single celled eukaryotes implying that evolution of PCD has preceded the evolution of multicellularity. PCD plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular and tissue homeostasis and any aberrations in apoptosis leads to several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and AIDS. The mechanisms by which apoptosis is controlled are varied. In some cells, members of bcl-2 family or p53 are crucial for regulating the apoptosis programme, whereas in other cells Fas ligand is more important. bcl-2 family members have a prime role in the regulation of cell death at all stages including development, whereas cell death during development is independent of p53. bcl-2 family members being localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane, control the mitochondrial homeostasis and cytochrome c redistribution and thereby regulate the cell death process. p53 promotes DNA damage mediated cell death after growth arrest and failed DNA repair. Caspases play a key role in the execution of cell death by mediating highly specific cleavages of crucial cellular proteins collectively manifesting the apoptotic phenotype. Protein inhibitors like crm A, p35 and IAPs could prevent/control apoptosis induced by a broad array of cell death stimuli by several mechanisms specially interfering in caspase activation or caspase activity. Among endonucleases, caspase activated DNase (CAD) plays a crucial role in DNA fragmentation, a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. As regulation of cell death seems to be as complex as regulation of cell proliferation, multiple kinase mediated regulatory mechanisms might control the apoptotic process. Thus, in spite of intensive research over the past few years, the field of apoptosis still remains fertile to unravel among others, the molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c
Begum, R.; Pathak, N.; Hasnain, S.E.; Sah, N.K. [National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi (India). Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab.; Taneja, T.K.; Mohan, M. [National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi (India). Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab.]|[Dept. of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, New Delhi (India); Athar, M. [Dept. of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, New Delhi (India)
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly conserved genetically controlled response of metazoan cells to commit suicide. Non apoptotic programmed cell death seems to operate in single celled eukaryotes implying that evolution of PCD has preceded the evolution of multicellularity. PCD plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular and tissue homeostasis and any aberrations in apoptosis leads to several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and AIDS. The mechanisms by which apoptosis is controlled are varied. In some cells, members of bcl-2 family or p53 are crucial for regulating the apoptosis programme, whereas in other cells Fas ligand is more important. bcl-2 family members have a prime role in the regulation of cell death at all stages including development, whereas cell death during development is independent of p53. bcl-2 family members being localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane, control the mitochondrial homeostasis and cytochrome c redistribution and thereby regulate the cell death process. p53 promotes DNA damage mediated cell death after growth arrest and failed DNA repair. Caspases play a key role in the execution of cell death by mediating highly specific cleavages of crucial cellular proteins collectivley manifesting the apoptotic phenotype. Protein inhibitors like crm A, p35 and IAPs could prevent/control apoptosis induced by a broad array of cell death stimuli by several mechanisms specially interfering in caspase activation or caspase activity. Among endonucleases, caspase activated DNase (CAD) plays a crucial role in DNA fragmentation, a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. As regulation of cell death seems to be as complex as regulation of cell proliferation, multiple kinase mediated regulatory mechanisms might control the apoptotic process. Thus, in spite of intensive research over the past few years, the field of apoptosis still remains fertile to unravel among others, the molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c
Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony
Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock.
Inoue, Mai; Hasegawa, A; Hosoi, Y; Sugiura, K
The life expectancies and causes of death were evaluated in 299,555 dogs insured in Japan between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2011, of which 4169 dogs died during this period. The overall life expectancy of dogs was 13.7 years. The probability of death was high in the first year of life, lowest in the second and third years, and increased exponentially after 3 years of age. The life expectancy was 13.8 years in the death increased as dogs got older for most potential causes of death. Neoplasia resulted in the highest probability of death, especially in the large and giant breed groups. Cardiovascular system disorders were the second major cause of death and the toy group had a probability of death significantly higher than the other breed groups at age 12+. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zaorsky, N G; Churilla, T M; Egleston, B L; Fisher, S G; Ridge, J A; Horwitz, E M; Meyer, J E
The purpose of our study was to characterize the causes of death among cancer patients as a function of objectives: (i) calendar year, (ii) patient age, and (iii) time after diagnosis. US death certificate data in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Stat 8.2.1 were used to categorize cancer patient death as being due to index-cancer, nonindex-cancer, and noncancer cause from 1973 to 2012. In addition, data were characterized with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), which provide the relative risk of death compared with all persons. The greatest relative decrease in index-cancer death (generally from > 60% to deaths were stable (typically >40%) among patients with cancers of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and lung, and brain. Noncancer causes of death were highest in patients with cancers of the colorectum, bladder, kidney, endometrium, breast, prostate, testis; >40% of deaths from heart disease. The highest SMRs were from nonbacterial infections, particularly among 1,000 for lymphomas, P death from index- and nonindex-cancers varies widely among primary sites. Risk of noncancer deaths now surpasses that of cancer deaths, particularly for young patients in the year after diagnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Li, Yaming; Li, Jianhui
Death with dignity is a significant issue in modern bioethics. In modern healthcare, the wide use of new technologies at the end of life has caused heated debate on how to protect human dignity. The key point of contention lies in the different understandings of human dignity and the dignity of death. Human dignity has never been a clear concept in Western ethical explorations, and the dignity of death has given rise to more confusions. Although there is no such term as "dignity" in Confucian ethics, there are discussions of a number of ideas related to human dignity and the dignity of death. Therefore, Confucian bioethics can offer a new perspective for understanding the theoretical difficulties associated with the dignity of death and new methods for solving them. In this article, we attempt to reconstruct Confucian views on human dignity and the dignity of death and, based on those views, to analyze the following issues: the relationship between the dignity of death and biological life, the relationship between the dignity of death and suffering, the relationship between the dignity of death and the autonomy of human beings, and the relationship between the dignity of death and social justice. This article will also compare the Confucian views on these issues with the views of Western philosophers. Confucian ethics can offer distinct answers to the above issues and help resolve some confusions concerning concepts and theories in Western research on the dignity of death.
Medicolegal death time estimation must estimate the time since death reliably. Reliability can only be provided empirically by statistical analysis of errors in field studies. Determining the time since death requires the calculation of measurable data along a time-dependent curve back to the starting point. Various methods are used to estimate the time since death. The current gold standard for death time estimation is a previously established nomogram method based on the two-exponential model of body cooling. Great experimental and practical achievements have been realized using this nomogram method. To reduce the margin of error of the nomogram method, a compound method was developed based on electrical and mechanical excitability of skeletal muscle, pharmacological excitability of the iris, rigor mortis, and postmortem lividity. Further increasing the accuracy of death time estimation involves the development of conditional probability distributions for death time estimation based on the compound method. Although many studies have evaluated chemical methods of death time estimation, such methods play a marginal role in daily forensic practice. However, increased precision of death time estimation has recently been achieved by considering various influencing factors (i.e., preexisting diseases, duration of terminal episode, and ambient temperature). Putrefactive changes may be used for death time estimation in water-immersed bodies. Furthermore, recently developed technologies, such as H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, can be used to quantitatively study decompositional changes. This review addresses the gold standard method of death time estimation in forensic practice and promising technological and scientific developments in the field.
de Lange, Ds Frits
In his posthumously published Living Up to Death Paul Ricoeur left an impressive testimony on what it means to live at a high old age with death approaching. In this article I present him as a teacher who reminds us of valuable lessons taught by patients in palliative care and their caretakers who accompany them on their way to death, and also as a guide in our search for a modern ars moriendi, after--what many at least experience as--the breakdown of traditional religious belief in a personal afterlife. These lessons can be summarized in the following theses. 'Living up to death, one cannot experience one's own death. Therefore, never consider someone dying as moribund'. 'Though everybody is alone in dying, nobody should die alone.' 'The preparation for death is an affirmation of life'. 'Life experienced as a gift can be given up'. The plausibility of the last thesis, however, may go beyond the confines of austere philosophical thinking.
Vandormael, Sofie; Meirschaert, Alexander; Steyaert, Jan; De Lepeleire, Jan
For our master thesis in medicine, we aimed to determine how many deaths were caused by and with dementia in 2014 and we compared our results with figures from abroad. The mortality rates of 2014 in Flanders were used to determine the amount of deaths related to dementia. These figures are collected by Vlaams Agentschap Zorg & Gezondheid (VAZG) and coded per ICD-10 classification. Of all deaths in Flanders in 2014, 6.60% were caused by dementia and 4.29% were caused by another condition, while also suffering from dementia. Data from abroad are ambiguous. While working on our thesis about "death & dementia", we questioned the reliability of mortality statistics. Possible explanations could be; the complexity of completing death certificates correctly and the challenges involved in properly constructing a chain of causes of death. The accuracy of mortality data can be improved by training and redrafting death certificates.
Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David
Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury.
Juel, K; Helweg-Larsen, K
In 1875 registration of causes of death in Denmark was established by the National Board of Health, and annual statistics of death have since been published. Until 1970 the national statistics were based upon punched cards with data collected from the death certificates. Since then the register has...... been fully computerized and includes individual based data of all deaths occurring among all residents in Denmark dying in Denmark. Furthermore, a microfilm of all death certificates from 1943 and onward is kept in the National Board of Health. The Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology (DICE) has...... established a computerized register of individual records of deaths in Denmark from 1943 and onwards. No other country covers computerized individual based data of death registration for such a long period, now 54 years. This paper describes the history of the registers, the data sources and access to data...
Suhail, Kausar; Akram, Saima
To ascertain the effect of gender, age, and religiosity on death anxiety, 132 participants were interviewed using Templer Death Anxiety Scale and Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (CLS). Women, older participants, and less religious participants were found to be more scared of their impending death. Gender effect was more pronounced, however, on the CLS. Women and less religious people reported to experience greater anxiety than their respective counterparts about different dimensions of death, for example, the shortness of life, total isolation of death, fear of not being, and disintegration of body after dying. The findings of the current work indicate that the general predictors of death anxiety, gender, age, and religiosity reported in Western, predominantly Christian samples also hold in an Eastern, Muslim sample.
Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L; Elming, H
was nearly abolished by the implantable defibrillator, indicating that arrhythmic death by this classification is meaningful, at least in the population studied. For future investigations, a call is made for committees to present data in a way that allows the reader to examine the quality of the data used......Since all death is (eventually) sudden and associated with cardiac arrhythmias, the concept of sudden death is only meaningful if it is unexpected, while arrhythmic death is only meaningful if life could have continued had the arrhythmia been prevented or treated. Current classifications of death...... or autopsy) are available in only a few percent of cases. A main problem in using classifications is the lack of validation data. This situation has, with the MADIT trial, changed in the case of the Thaler and Hinkle classification of arrhythmic death. The MADIT trial demonstrated that arrhythmic death...
In recent years, the physical death, the related grief, and the ensuing memorials has become visible in the digital arena. As every other aspect of life is to be found online, so are death and the surrounding issues. The research into the area is not far behind, and using the approach of a timeline...... with different stakeholders, this research review offers a systematic way of keeping track. The rather simple timeline relates to the death of a person, there is before, just around, and after death, appropriately named in a dead language: Ante Mortem, Peri Mortem, and Post Mortem. This review deals exclusively...... with the digital context of the physical death of existing human beings, as opposed to, e.g., in-game death experience or memorials for fictional characters. These are no doubt interesting issues that deserve their own review, although we might need to put citation marks around "death"....
Andersen, Mikkel S; Johnsen, Søren; Hansen, Andreas
an ambulance with lights and sirens by the Emergency Medical Communication Centre (EMCC).MethodsAn audit was performed by an external panel of experienced prehospital consultant anaesthesiologists. The panel focused exclusively on the role of the EMCC, assessing whether same-day deaths among 112 callers could...... have been prevented if the EMCC had assessed the situations as highly urgent. The panels¿ assessments were based on review of patient charts and voice-log recordings of 112 calls. All patient related material was reviewed by the audit panel and all cases where then scored as preventable, potentially......¿100 years) and 45.4% were female. The audit panel found no definitively preventable deaths; however, 18 (11.8%) of the analysed same-day deaths (0.02% of all non-high-acuity callers) were found to be potentially preventable. In 13 of these 18 cases, the dispatch protocol was either not used or not used...
Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais
To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The results showed that the 2 methodological tools used offered complementary information and that children's understanding of death is related both to age and past experience. Children with death experience seem to have a more realistic understanding of death than their inexperienced age-mates. As regards to the effect of age, our findings support the assumption that the different components of death develop through different processes.
Mak, Mui-Hing June
One of the main responsibilities of teachers is to help individual students cope with life difficulties such as grief following a death. However, very little research explores teachers' views on death, dying, and how they handle grief and loss in schools. This study aims to explore university teachers' knowledge and attitudes on dying, death, and death education. Fifteen university teachers were recruited using a qualitative method. This study reveals that most teachers' views on death and related issues are largely affected by their death experiences, religious beliefs, professional background, and the mass media. Although they have a general negative response toward death and dying, some teachers begin to affirm their meanings of life and death. Most teachers agree that they do not feel adequate about managing and teaching on life and death issues, so they strongly support including death education in the formal programs in Hong Kong.
Full Text Available Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses’ death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together with a dying patient. In terms of the end of life, it is expected that the nurse stands by patient’s family to help them in sustaining their psychosocial wellness. In order to meet this expectation, nurses should get a qualitative training for end of life care along with good interpersonal communication skills and coping strategies.
Flavia Jakemiu Araújo Bortolon
Full Text Available Fashion is composed of cycles subpostos trends that seek to eliminate the past for a new one, which makes it ephemeral and eternal at the same time. This study investigates how is the relationship between these cycles of trends over time, through a brief history of fashion, considering the theoretical rules of Simmel, Crane and Caldas. They will still be used concepts proposed by Agamben, such as: device, in order to classify the system of the fashion; contemporaneidade, to understand the action of that factor in relation to the time and profanation, to identify the capacity to maintain in the society. It is ended that the fashion, as well as the death, renews the society, it destroys and it creates the new, as a system naturalized artificially
Scott, Charles L
Psychiatrists conducting forensic evaluations of defendants facing a potential death penalty must understand the legal and ethical parameters governing these assessments in addition to the important clinical issues. Important areas to review with each defendant include the role of the evaluator, the party requesting the evaluation, circumstances in which the evaluation is not confidential, the nature, scope, and purpose of the evaluation, and the parties to whom the results of the evaluation are to be forwarded. In those circumstances in which the defense attorney has not retained the psychiatrist, the defendant's attorney must be aware that an evaluation has been ordered by the court or requested by the prosecution. The psychiatrist also must be prepared for passionate challenges to their findings from the defense or prosecution and in some instances for vigorous attacks on their own personal ethics. To weather such storms, the mental health evaluator must base their opinion on objective evidence rather than letting any personal bias guide their assessment.
Russell, W.; Russell, L.
Walter Russell's knowledge of the two basic Principles of the material universe, concentration and radiation, strongly suggests that the radioactivity is the ''death principle'' of creation. In its natural environment, radioactive radiation is vital for the overall balance, however, when spread out across the entire world, it causes massive global warming and turns planet earth into a hot desert. Part I: What is Atomic Energy?; How Radioactivity Kills; The World Voice. Part II: The True Nature of This Mind and Motion Universe; Prelude - The Transformation of Man; We Define God; The True Nature of Electricity and Gravitation; Our Eternal Universe; The Oneness of Gravity and Magnetism; The Mind Nucleus of the Atom; The Material Nucleus of the Atom. Part III: The Bridge Between Man and God. (orig./GL)
This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ordinary differential equations coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of living systems. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings suggests that `Life' can slow down the `heat death' of the Universe and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.
Prado, C G
Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kissling, F; Frankfort, E
This reprint of a 1979 article tells the story of Rosie Jiminez, a 27-year-old Mexican-American woman who died in McAllen General Hospital in Texas on October 3, 1977, from the complications of an illegal abortion. Jiminez was the first reported victim of the Hyde Amendment which cut off federal Medicaid funding for abortion. She was a daughter of migrant workers, a single mother of a 5-year-old daughter, a welfare recipient, a part-time worker, and a university student 6 months from receiving a bachelor's degree in education. When she died, she had a $700 scholarship check in her pocket, but if she had used that money to pay for an abortion, her education would have been curtailed. Initial reports to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the agency charged with monitoring the effects of the Hyde Amendment, indicated that Jiminez had obtained her abortion in Mexico to protect her privacy. Four months of independent investigation uncovered two women who had accompanied Jiminez to a lay midwife who performed the abortion in Texas. The local police did nothing with this information, and only arrested the midwife when abortion activists set up a trap in which she was recorded offering to perform an abortion for $125. The abortionist was sentenced to 3 days in jail and fined $100 but was not charged in Jiminez's death. The CDC included this information in a two-paragraph report but failed to take any other action to determine the scale of morbidity and mortality following the Hyde Amendment. The women of America must refuse to tolerate the death of a single woman because of a lack of funding for abortion.
Full Text Available Recent asthma deaths were examined from yearly reports of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan and from reports published by the Japan Asthma Death Investigation Committee on 811 deaths over the period 1992–2000. The rate and number of recent asthma deaths in Japan have been decreasing rapidly. Most asthma deaths were of patients aged 70–90 years and there has been a marked trend for increased asthma deaths in the elderly. As for the circumstances surrounding the deaths, sudden death, unstable sudden aggravation and intermittent aggravation were mainly noted. Respiratory infections, fatigue and stress were the major courses of fatal attacks contributing to deaths due to asthma. Many of the patients who died from asthma had been diagnosed as having as moderate to severe asthma and many had non-atopic asthma. There are some reports that suggest that the recent decrease in asthma deaths in Japan is correlated with the use of inhaled cortico- steroids.
Christiansen, Dorte M.
Parents who have lost an infant prior to, during, or following birth often interpret the event as highly traumatic. The present systematic review included 46 articles based on 31 different studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents bereaved by infant death. The PTSD prevalence...
... (37.5%), and respiratory distress (12.5%). There were 12 deaths (48%). Organ dysfunction on admission, massive blood loss and late presentation were the risk factors for mortality. The high maternal mortality was mainly due to limited supply of blood products and inadequate prenatal care resulting in disease severity.
Nov 13, 2008 ... to determine whether doctors adhered to prescribed GE treatment protocols; ... Methodology: A cross-sectional study design was used. ... contributed to GE deaths: Medical and nursing care were of a high ... In more than nine out of ten cases the doctors and nurses in the hospital rendered medical care in ...
Introduction: Perinatal mortality is a sensitive indicator of health status of a community and is also highly amenable to intervention. The causes of perinatal deaths in developing countries are often difficult to establish. Verbal autopsy has been used in several countries for children and adults, but seldom for perinatal cause.
Zandt, Bas-Jan; Zandt, B.; ten Haken, Bernard; van Dijk, J. Gert; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria
Recent experiments in rats have shown the occurrence of a high amplitude slow brain wave in the EEG approximately 1 minute after decapitation, with a duration of 5–15 s (van Rijn et al, PLoS One 6, e16514, 2011) that was presumed to signify the death of brain neurons. We present a computational
Mar 9, 2018 ... in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.. Since the ... subsequent increase in the proportion of neonatal deaths accounting for 45% of the .... plans, and strengthening programmes to deliver low-cost, high-impact interventions. ...... Mortality in Children under 5 Years (CoMMiC): 2014 (Abridged version).
Richard C. Cobb; Jo& atilde; o Filipe A.N.; Margaret R. Metz; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo
Sudden oak death has impacted forests notable for high-fire risk and contiguous host communities in California and Oregon coastal forest ecosystems. The disease continues to emerge in stands and landscapes with a large biomass of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook.&Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H.Oh), and we show that woody debris also...
van Dantzig, J. M.; Becker, A. E.
The pathology of sudden cardiac death still is a matter of controversy, particularly with respect to the state of the coronary arteries. A recent study has shown a high incidence of acute lesions and suggests a causal relationship. The present study has been designed to verify whether or not acute
Jacobsen, Rune; Von Euler, My; Osler, Merete
-2000, and born 1900-1950. OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for deaths. RESULTS: The high risk of dying among Danish women was associated with being born between the two World Wars, and that a similar pattern was not found for women in Norway and Sweden. A tendency of a cohort effect...... was observed for Swedish women born around 1940. CONCLUSIONS: The currently low life expectancy of Danish women compared with that of women in Norway and Sweden is partly a transitional phenomenon caused by excessive death rates for women born between the two World Wars. Data on smoking prevalence by birth...
Gilabert Barberà, Pau
In Death in Venice Thomas Mann refers explicitly to Plato's Symposium and Phaedrus in order to explain the relationship between Gustav von Aschenbach and Tadzio but he hides that his novel also depends on Plutarch's Eroticus. Why? The aim of this article is precisely to reveal the different reasons for such an attitude. Indeed, Plutarch speaks highly of conjugal love in his Eroticus and this way is not followed by Mann in Death in Venice but, at the same, the German writer finds in this Pluta...
Brittain, Joan; Axelrod, George
Approximately 90 000 inmates are admitted annually to the New York City jail system, many of whom require a high level of medical or mental health services. According to our analysis of deaths in custody from 2001 to 2009, crude death rates have dropped significantly despite the increasing age of the population. Falling HIV-related mortality appears to contribute to this change. Other observations include low rates of suicide across all 9 years and increasing age of the population in recent years. PMID:23409900
Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Green, Jeffrey D
Meaning is a central feature in human life, but death can disrupt a sense of meaning. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that meaning in life and meaning in death are distinct types of meaning when mortality is salient and differentially affect death-thought accessibility (DTA). In Experiment 1, imagining a specific scenario in which meaning is preserved beyond death reduced DTA relative to a standard mortality salience prime; moreover, these effects were not due to changes in self-esteem. In Experiment 2, imagining a meaningful life when mortality is salient elicited greater DTA, whereas imagining meaning in death elicited less DTA. Imbuing death with meaning attenuates DTA, whereas meaning in life increases DTA. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv
reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from......INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...
Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a genetically-based cell death mechanism with vital roles in eukaryotes. Although there is limited consensus on similar death mode programs in prokaryotes, emerging evidence suggest that PCD events are operative. Here we present cell death events in a cyanobacterium living endophytically in the fern Azolla microphylla, suggestive of PCD. This symbiosis is characterized by some unique traits such as a synchronized development, a vertical transfer of the cyanobacterium between plant generations, and a highly eroding cyanobacterial genome. A combination of methods was used to identify cell death modes in the cyanobacterium. Light- and electron microscopy analyses showed that the proportion of cells undergoing cell death peaked at 53.6% (average 20% of the total cell population, depending on the cell type and host developmental stage. Biochemical markers used for early and late programmed cell death events related to apoptosis (Annexin V-EGFP and TUNEL staining assays, together with visualization of cytoskeleton alterations (FITC-phalloidin staining, showed that all cyanobacterial cell categories were affected by cell death. Transmission electron microscopy revealed four modes of cell death: apoptotic-like, autophagic-like, necrotic-like and autolytic-like. Abiotic stresses further enhanced cell death in a dose and time dependent manner. The data also suggest that dynamic changes in the peptidoglycan cell wall layer and in the cytoskeleton distribution patterns may act as markers for the various cell death modes. The presence of a metacaspase homolog (domain p20 further suggests that the death modes are genetically programmed. It is therefore concluded that multiple, likely genetically programmed, cell death modes exist in cyanobacteria, a finding that may be connected with the evolution of cell death in the plant kingdom.
Zheng, Weiwen; Rasmussen, Ulla; Zheng, Siping; Bao, Xiaodong; Chen, Bin; Gao, Yuan; Guan, Xiong; Larsson, John; Bergman, Birgitta
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-based cell death mechanism with vital roles in eukaryotes. Although there is limited consensus on similar death mode programs in prokaryotes, emerging evidence suggest that PCD events are operative. Here we present cell death events in a cyanobacterium living endophytically in the fern Azolla microphylla, suggestive of PCD. This symbiosis is characterized by some unique traits such as a synchronized development, a vertical transfer of the cyanobacterium between plant generations, and a highly eroding cyanobacterial genome. A combination of methods was used to identify cell death modes in the cyanobacterium. Light- and electron microscopy analyses showed that the proportion of cells undergoing cell death peaked at 53.6% (average 20%) of the total cell population, depending on the cell type and host developmental stage. Biochemical markers used for early and late programmed cell death events related to apoptosis (Annexin V-EGFP and TUNEL staining assays), together with visualization of cytoskeleton alterations (FITC-phalloidin staining), showed that all cyanobacterial cell categories were affected by cell death. Transmission electron microscopy revealed four modes of cell death: apoptotic-like, autophagic-like, necrotic-like and autolytic-like. Abiotic stresses further enhanced cell death in a dose and time dependent manner. The data also suggest that dynamic changes in the peptidoglycan cell wall layer and in the cytoskeleton distribution patterns may act as markers for the various cell death modes. The presence of a metacaspase homolog (domain p20) further suggests that the death modes are genetically programmed. It is therefore concluded that multiple, likely genetically programmed, cell death modes exist in cyanobacteria, a finding that may be connected with the evolution of cell death in the plant kingdom. PMID:23822984
Fugelstad, Anna; Annell, Anders; Ågren, Gunnar
To study long-term mortality and causes of death in a cohort of drug users in relation to main type of drug use and HIV-status. A total of 1640 hospitalized drug users in Stockholm was followed up from 1985 to the end of 2007. The mortality was compared with the general Swedish population and hazard ratios (HR) for the main risk indicators were calculated. The causes of death were studied, using information from death certificates. 630 persons died during the observation period. The Standard Mortality Ratio (SMR) was 16.1 (males 13.8, females 18.5). The crude mortality rate was 2.0 % (males 2.2% and females 1.5%). The mortality rate was higher in heroin users than among amphetamine users, HR 1.96, controlled for age and other risk factors. The mortality rate among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was high (4.9 %), HR 2.64, compared with HIV-negative individuals. Most of the deaths were from other causes than acquired immune deficiency syndrome. One-third of deaths (227) were caused by heroin intoxication. The number of deaths from HIV-related causes decreased after 1996, when highly active anti-retroviral therapy was introduced. In all, there were 92 HIV-related deaths. Deaths from natural causes increased during the observation period. The SMR was highest for cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. The results indicate a correlation between amphetamine use and death from cerebral haemorrhage. A high proportion of natural deaths were alcohol-related. The death rate among illicit drug users was persistently high. Alcohol consumption was a contributing factor to premature death. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Full Text Available In this work author presented Edgar Moren's antrolology of death. This thinker understands and explains event of the universe, humans and the end of the life. Myth is one of the ways for human to become the master of the death, but science becomes new weapon in mans war against it. Morens worns us that death and life can not be separated, and every human desire for physical immortality is absolutely absurd.
Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R
Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors-fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Radiation-induced cell death is divided into reproductive and interphase death, whose process can be revealed by time-lapse observations. Pedigree analyses of progenies derived from a surviving progenitor cell have shown that moribund cells appear in clusters among cells which are apparently undamaged (lethal sectoring). Sister cell fusion, which likely results from chromosome bridge, is the most frequently observed cell abnormality leading to reproductive death. While interphase death does not occur unless the dose exceeds 10 Gy for low LET radiation such as X-rays, high-LET radiation is very effective at inducing interphase death (RBE: ≅3 at 230 keV/μm). Expression or fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) is closely associated with cell cycle events and enhanced by inducing premature chromosome condensation (PCC) at a nonpermissive temperature in tsBN2 cells with a ts-defect in RCC1 protein (a regulator of chromatin condensation) which monitors the completion of DNA replication. Furthermore, higher-order structural changes in nuclear matrix such as induced by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance) protein, also play an important role in the fixation of PLD. (author)
Kelly, B; Burnett, P; Pelusi, D; Badger, S; Varghese, F; Robertson, M
This exploratory study investigated factors associated with the wish to hasten death among a sample of terminally ill cancer patients. Semi-structured interviews conducted on a total of 72 hospice and home palliative care patients were subjected to qualitative analysis using QSR-NUDIST. The main themes to emerge suggested that patients with a high wish to hasten death had greater concerns with physical symptoms and psychological suffering, perceived themselves to be more of a burden to others, and experienced higher levels of demoralization, while also reporting less confidence in symptom control, fewer social supports, less satisfaction with life experiences and fewer religious beliefs when compared with patients who had a moderate or no wish to hasten death. The implications of these findings will be discussed.
Zachariasardóttir, Sára; Risgaard, Bjarke; Ågesen, Frederik Nybye
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease (CAD-SCD) is the most frequent cause of SCD in persons ..., CAD-SCD victims aged 36-49years had more severe atherosclerosis in all coronary arteries, more multi-vessel disease (29% vs. 15%, p=0.049) and less commonly (38% vs. 54%, p=0.039) acute coronary occlusion than victims ... to death. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study found several differences in the pathologic lesions of the heart in victims aged 18-35 and 36-49years, which might be associated with different disease progression leading to death in these age groups. We also report a high frequency of cardiac symptoms prior...
Over the past five decades, death has become a rapidly expanding object of interest and focus of study. It also seems as if death has been discovered or rediscovered as a phenomenon to be discussed and observed after having lain hidden in a veil of silence and secrecy. The question might now be r...... be raised of this repression of death truly is an established historical fact. The attempt of the presentation is to explore some of the most essential and given aspects of the current way of thinking about death and its status in modern western societies....
Cai, Hongbing; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Qin; Li, Xin
Cell death is a major physiological or pathological phenomenon in life activities. The classic forms of cell death include apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Recently, a novel type of cell death has been observed and termed as methuosis, in which excessive stimuli can induce cytoplasmic uptake and accumulation of small bubbles that gradually merge into giant vacuoles, eventually leading to decreased cellular metabolic activity, cell membrane rupture and cell death. In this article, we describe the nomenclature, morphological characteristics and underlying mechanisms of methuosis, compare methuosis with autophagy, oncosis and paraptosis, and review the related researches.
Jung, Hyun Chae
Death and dying is an ultimate process that every human being must experience. However, in these days we do not like to think or discuss about death and dying. Actually, hatred and denial is the usual feeling when we encounter death and dying. Dying is more than a biological occurrence. It is a human, social, and spiritual event, but the spiritual dimension of patients is too often neglected. Whether death is viewed as a "wall" or as a "door" can have significantly important consequences for how we live our lives. Near death experience is one of the excellent evidences to prove that there should be spiritual component being separated from the human physical body when we experience death. People have called it soul, spirit, or nonlocal consciousness. Caregivers need to recognize and acknowledge the spiritual component of patient care. Learning about death and dying helps us encounter death in ways that are meaningful for our own lives. Among the several learning tools, utilizing cinema with its audio and visual components can be one of the most powerful learning tools in death education.
Devins, Gerald M.
Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Al-Kandari, Yagoub
The present study aimed to examine the level of death anxiety, the sex-related differences among a middle-aged Kuwaiti personnel sample, and to explore the replicability of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) factors. A sample of 236 volunteer Kuwaiti personnel took part in the study. The mean ages of men and women were 41.5 (SD = 7.5) and 40.9 (SD = 7.1), respectively. The alpha reliability of the ASDA was found to be high (.93). Women had a significantly higher mean total score on the ASDA as well as on 17 out of its 20 items. Middle-aged personnel had a significantly lower mean ASDA total score than younger college students (M age = 22). The factor analysis of the ASDA items yielded three factors: fear of dead people and tombs; fear of postmortem events; and fear of lethal disease. These factors were highly replicable with previous factors extracted from a Kuwaiti college student sample. On the basis of the present findings, there are three general conclusions as follows: death anxiety is negatively associated with age; the sex-related differences on death anxiety are salient in the Arab samples; and the ASDA has a highly replicable factor structure.
Esqalli, Imane; Knidiri, Hafssa; Mahoungou, Gael; Aitlahcen, Zineb; Fadili, Wafaa; Laouad, Inass
Morocco stays far behind other countries in the domain of organ donation and transplantation. Improving the knowledge of Moroccan students, about organ donation and transplantation, can be a key factor in the development of transplant activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of students concerning organ donation and transplantation. The opinion survey was conducted in Marrakech city, with four high education structures with a pre-established questionnaire. The survey questions answered four main themes, which are: the evaluation of knowledge, the opinion and attitude of citizen, the explanation of refusal and the propositions to encourage organ donation in Morocco. Hundred percent of surveyed subjects answered the questionnaire. Among them, 40.3% were men. The middle age was 21.5 years. Out of 503 surveyed students, 89.4% were aware of organ transplant in Morocco. A quarter of students believed that removal and transplant acts were realized just in public health establishments, which have the authorization. Two persons out of 3 were able to identify transplantable organs and tissues. More than half accepted to donate their organs after death. The religious reason was in the head list of refusal determinants of organ donation after death, with a prevalence of 39.7%. Young Moroccans have limited knowledge relating to organ donation. The development of this therapy needs to establish an adequate project of information and motivation of general population. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an authorized...
Del Bianco, Ann; Demers, Paul A
Occupational cancer is the leading cause of work-related deaths, yet it is often unrecognized and under reported, and associated claims for compensation go unfiled. We sought to examine trends in deaths from occupational cancer, high-risk industries and exposures, and commonly compensated categories of occupational cancers. In addition, we compared deaths from occupational lung cancer for which compensation had been given with total deaths from lung cancer. We used data from the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada pertaining to the nature and source of the injury or disease and the industry in which it occurred (by jurisdiction) to describe trends in compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Canada for the period 1997-2010. We used data published by the Canadian Cancer Society in Canadian Cancer Statistics to compare compensated occupational lung cancer deaths with total estimated lung cancer deaths for the period between 2006 and 2010. Compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer have increased in recent years and surpassed those for traumatic injuries and disorders in Canada, particularly in Ontario. Between 1997 and 2010, one-half of all compensated deaths from occupational cancer in Canada were from Ontario. High-risk industries for occupational cancer include manufacturing, construction, mining and, more recently, government services. Deaths from lung cancer and mesothelioma comprise most of the compensated claims for deaths from occupational cancer in Ontario and Canada. These diseases are usually the result of asbestos exposure. The burden of other occupational carcinogens is not reflected in claims data. Although the number of accepted claims for deaths from occupational cancers has increased in recent years, these claims likely only represent a fraction of the true burden of this problem. Increased education of patients, workers at high risk of exposure and health care providers is needed to ensure that people
Baumann, Robin; Stark, Sharon
When sudden unexpected death occurs, an investigation ensues in an attempt to discover the cause and manner of death. Autopsies are performed when reasons for death are not obvious. They are used to provide information, confirm the cause of death, and/or reveal conditions not recognized before death (Hendricks, 2011). One important reason for performing an autopsy is to help families to understand what happened to their loved one so that they can begin the process of grieving. The way that the initial notification and investigation is handled can have a bearing on how a family's grief progresses. Forensic nurses are in a unique position to bring a holistic approach to death investigation with a focus of care that includes not only the decedent but the surviving loved ones as well (Koehler, 2008). Forensic nurse death investigators can assist families through initial stages of grief in the investigation of death.
Cicirelli, Victor G
Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65-97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, -.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas, United States, 2005-2015. Mortality data for U.S....
van Doorn, Erik A.
In several recent papers criteria for the α-classification of birth-death and quasi-birth-death processes have been proposed. In this paper the relations between the various criteria are brought to light.
Østergaard, Jens Sand
In this essay I have reworked the question of death in hunting by defining it as an activity whose nature implies a relation of being by living the death of the animal. Once this relation is understood more fully, it becomes obvious that the animal is not an isolated totality of relations...
Full Text Available This article deals with the dysplastic changes in musculo-valve structures of the heart, arrhythmias and conduction disorders, associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death. The diagnostic criteria for sudden cardiac death, the events of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, prevention of life-threatening conditions in children are provided.
The belief that dying and grieving are natural processes is widely held in modern bereavement care. Examines four assumption often made in this connection: (1) most primitive cultures deal with death in an accepting way; (2) this way is different than our own; (3) it is a good and noble way; and (4) traditional societies see death as natural. (JBJ)
Buda, Dorina Maria
The psychoanalytical concept of the death drive postulated by Freud and Lacan refers to a constant force at the junction between life and death, which is not understood in a biological sense of physical demise of the body, nor in opposition to life. Tourist experiences in conflict zones can be more
Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence, terminology, classification of sudden cardiac death. A description of congenital structural heart diseases associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death is given. The issues of etiology and pathogenesis of life-threatening conditions are described in detail.
Terranova, C; Snenghi, R; Thiene, G; Ferrara, S D
of study Psychic trauma is described as the action of 'an emotionally overwhelming factor' capable of causing neurovegetative alterations leading to transitory or persisting bodily changes. The medico-legal concept of psychic trauma and its definition as a cause in penal cases is debated. The authors present three cases of death after psychic trauma, and discuss the definition of cause within the penal ambit of identified 'emotionally overwhelming factors'. The methodological approach to ascertainment and criterion-based assessment in each case involved the following phases: (1) examination of circumstantial evidence, clinical records and documentation; (2) autopsy; (3) ascertainment of cause of death; and (4) ascertainment of psychic trauma, and its coexisting relationship with the cause of death. The results and assessment of each of the three cases are discussed from the viewpoint of the causal connotation of psychic trauma. In the cases presented, psychic trauma caused death, as deduced from assessment of the type of externally caused emotional insult, the subjects' personal characteristics and the circumstances of the event causing death. In cases of death due to psychic trauma, careful methodological ascertainment is essential, with the double aim of defining 'emotionally overwhelming factors' as a significant cause of death from the penal point of view, and of identifying the responsibility of third parties involved in the death event and associated dynamics of homicide.
Büttner, Reinhard; Gosney, John R; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer
Purpose Three programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are currently approved for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment with pembrolizumab in NSCLC requires PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing. Nivolumab and atezolizumab are approved without PD-L1...
van Doorn, Erik A.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.
We present a survey of techniques for analysing the performance of a reservoir which receives and releases fluid at rates which are determined by the state of a background birth-death process. The reservoir is assumed to be infinitely large, but the state space of the modulating birth-death process
Key words: brain death, diagnostic criteria, heartbeat. Death has been analysed in a heterogeneous .... angiography studies have also been used in order to evaluate brain circulation. According to some authors, the elective ... reflex response of spinal origin provoked by a sudden flexion of the neck and characterised by a.
... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM... are described in § 102.82. As provided in § 102.84, the Secretary retains the right to recover death... secondary to disability benefits under the PSOB Program. Any death benefit paid under the standard...
In Japan, "death with dignity" is a widely known term that is distinguished from "euthanasia." It is generally defined as "the act of letting a terminally ill or a patient in a persistent vegetative state die by withdrawing life-sustaining treatment on request in the form of a living will." Most Japanese people consider death with dignity a desirable way of terminating one's life and it is therefore acceptable as a "natural death" or "humane death." Originally, death with dignity was regarded as a passive intervention, but since the 1990s, its connotations have changed in western countries; people claim that voluntary active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide should be legalized as death with dignity or the "right to die." In this paper, I examine the points and problems of this new type of death with dignity and propose an alternative version of death with dignity especially for the Japanese context, i.e. the end-of-life care process in support of terminal living with dignity.
Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death. 707.3 Section 707.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL... Death. (a) Where any person who is otherwise eligible to receive a payment dies before the payment is...
... order to clear debris. Hope Through Research Scientists hope that by understanding more about the life and death of neurons they can develop new ... NIH is appreciated. Patient & Caregiver Education ... Your Brain Preventing Stroke Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work ...
Bødker, Birgit; Hvidman, Lone; Weber, Tom
OBJECTIVE: To describe a method for identification, classification and assessment of maternal deaths in Denmark and to identify substandard care. DESIGN: Register study and case audit based on data from the Registers of the Danish Medical Health Board, death certificates and hospital records. SET...
Death occurred very rapidly and the bodies showed no recognisable snake bite wounds. Fatal viper bites are characteristically associated with prominent, swollen and haemorrhagic wounds. Cobras may cause rapid death in spite of minor bite wounds, but in order to kill three adults, the snake would have to be large.
van Doorn, Erik A.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.
We present a survey of techniques for analysing the performance of a reservoir which receives and releases fluid at rates which are determined by the state of a background birth-death process. The reservoir is assumed to be infinitely large, but the state space of the modulating birth-death process may be finite or infinite.
Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans
OBJECTIVES: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with death from cancer. If follow-up time is short, this association may be confounded by subclinical disease already present at the time of CRF assessment. This study investigates the association between CRF and death from cancer...
Galluzzi, L; Vitale, I; Aaronson, Sa; Abrams, Jm; Adam, D; Agostinis, P; Alnemri, Es; Altucci, L; Amelio, I; Andrews, Dw; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Antonov, Av; Arama, E; Baehrecke, Eh; Barlev, Na
Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. A...
Cicirelli, Victor G
Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65--97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a s...
Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke
Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature death from all causes and likely also from sudden unexplained death (SUD). Many patients with epilepsy have significant comorbidity, and it is unclear how much of the increased risk can be explained by epilepsy itself. We aimed to chart...... the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and estimate the risk of death from all causes and SUD conferred by epilepsy independently....
This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide
Svien, Lana R; Senne, Svien A; Rasmussen, Carl
Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in children around the world and are an under-recognized public health problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to highlight the nature of the problem in South Dakota and outline interventions that have been successful in reducing childhood injuries in other states. This quantitative retrospective study examined mortality files in South Dakota for children birth to 19 years of age who died between January 1, 2000 to December 28, 2007. Although the number of deaths declined considerably from 2006 to 2007, South Dakota had the second-highest rate in the nation of childhood unintentional injury deaths from all causes between 2000-2005. The majority of deaths occurred in males and were associated with transportation-related deaths. Suffocation was the leading cause of death for newborns to age 1 year. Childhood accidental death in South Dakota is clearly a critical public health problem. Intervention efforts to reduce deaths from unintentional injuries amongst children should be targeted as the leading causes of accidental death for specific age groups and American Indian youth. Physicians, health educators and policymakers must play a role in prevention targeting the high-risk groups in addition to advocating for policy changes to protect childhood safety. More stringent child restraint laws, graduated driving laws, smoking cessation programs for parents, creation of safer sleep environments and further investigation of why a high proportion of American Indian children die accidentally in South Dakota are all warranted.
Henrie, James; Patrick, Julie Hicks
Terror Management Theory (TMT) (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) suggests that culturally-provided worldviews (e.g., religion) may protect individuals from experiencing death anxiety, and several studies have supported this position. However, if one's worldview can offer protection, doubts concerning one's worldview could undermine this protection. The current study investigated whether age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt were associated with death anxiety. Using data from 635 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, a structural equation model with age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt predicting death anxiety was tested. The model had a good fit (chi2 (76) = 193.467, p religiousness was inversely associated with death anxiety, while religious doubt was positively associated with death anxiety.
The general death rate rises during business booms and falls during depressions. The causes of death involved in this variation range from infectious diseases through accidents to heart disease, cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver, and include the great majority of all causes of death. Less than 2 percent of the death rate-that for suicide and homicide-varies directly with unemployment. In the older historical data, deterioration of housing and rise of alcohol consumption on the boom may account for part of this variation. In twentieth-century cycles, the role of social stress is probably predominant. Overwork and fragmentation of community through migration are two important sources of stress which rise with the boom, and they are demonstrably related to the causes of death which show this variation.
Lippens, S; Denecker, G; Ovaere, P; Vandenabeele, P; Declercq, W
Homeostasis implies a balance between cell growth and cell death. This balance is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Homeostasis is controlled by several mechanisms including apoptosis, a process by which cells condemned to death are completely eliminated. However, in some cases, total destruction and removal of dead cells is not desirable, as when they fulfil a specific function such as formation of the skin barrier provided by corneocytes, also known as terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In this case, programmed cell death results in accumulation of functional cell corpses. Previously, this process has been associated with apoptotic cell death. In this overview, we discuss differences and similarities in the molecular regulation of epidermal programmed cell death and apoptosis. We conclude that despite earlier confusion, apoptosis and cornification occur through distinct molecular pathways, and that possibly antiapoptotic mechanisms are implicated in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes.
Li, Ying; Qian, Lihui; Yuan, Junying
The past decade has witnessed a significant expansion of our understanding about the regulated cell death mechanisms beyond apoptosis. The application of chemical biological approaches had played a major role in driving these exciting discoveries. The discovery and use of small molecule probes in cell death research has not only revealed significant insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell death but also provided new drug targets and lead drug candidates for developing therapeutics of human diseases with huge unmet need. Here, we provide an overview of small molecule modulators for necroptosis and ferroptosis, two non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms, and discuss the molecular pathways and relevant pathophysiological mechanisms revealed by the judicial applications of such small molecule probes. We suggest that the development and applications of small molecule probes for non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms provide an outstanding example showcasing the power of chemical biology in exploring novel biological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kotsopoulos, A.M.M.; Böing-Messing, F.; Jansen, N.E.; Vos, P.; Abdo, W.F.
Predicting time to death in controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) donors following withdrawal of life‐sustaining treatment (WLST) is important but poses a major challenge. The aim of this study is to determine factors predicting time to circulatory death within 60 minutes after WSLT and
Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon
This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…
engagement with the phenomenon of death. Among the themes touched specifically upon in the book are: organ transplantation, death education, communication with the dead, changes in commemorative rituals, mourning practices on the internet, parental responses to children’s suicide, death control, practice...
Gijzen, S.; Petter, J.; L'Hoir, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Need, A.
Aim: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of
Knoeff-Gijzen, Sandra; Petter, Jessica; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Need, Ariana
Aim Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of
Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk
Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…
Tung, Patricia; Albert, Christine M
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of mortality in elderly individuals owing to a high prevalence of coronary heart disease, systolic dysfunction, and congestive heart failure (CHF). Although the incidence of SCD increases with age, the proportion of cardiac deaths that are sudden decreases owing to high numbers of other cardiac causes of death in elderly individuals. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy has been demonstrated to improve survival and prevent SCD in selected patients with systolic dysfunction and CHF. However, ICD therapy in elderly patients might not be effective because of a greater rate of pulseless electrical activity underlying SCD and other competing nonarrhythmic causes of death in this population. Although under-represented in randomized trials of ICD use, elderly patients comprise a substantial proportion of the population that qualifies for and receives an ICD for primary prevention under current guidelines. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), which has been demonstrated to reduce mortality in selected populations with heart failure, is also more commonly used in this group of patients than in younger individuals. In this Review, we examine the causes of SCD in elderly individuals, and discuss the existing evidence for effectiveness of ICD therapy and CRT in this growing population.
Boerner, Kathrin; Gleason, Hayley; Jopp, Daniela S
Direct care workers in long-term care can develop close relationships with their patients and subsequently experience significant grief after patient death. Consequences of this experience for employment outcomes have received little attention. To investigate staff, institutional, patient, and grief factors as predictors of burnout dimensions among direct care workers who had experienced recent patient death; determine which specific aspects of these factors are of particular importance; and establish grief as an independent predictor of burnout dimensions. Participants were 140 certified nursing assistants and 80 homecare workers who recently experienced patient death. Data collection involved comprehensive semistructured in-person interviews. Standardized assessments and structured questions addressed staff, patient, and institutional characteristics, grief symptoms and grief avoidance, as well as burnout dimensions (depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment). Hierarchical regressions revealed that grief factors accounted for unique variance in depersonalization, over and above staff, patient, and institutional factors. Supervisor support and caregiving benefits were consistently associated with higher levels on burnout dimensions. In contrast, coworker support was associated with a higher likelihood of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. Findings suggest that grief over patient death plays an overlooked role in direct care worker burnout. High supervisor support and caregiving benefits may have protective effects with respect to burnout, whereas high coworker support may constitute a reflection of burnout. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15–20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who suffer a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly due to inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. Over the past three decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of CHD deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to CHD and/or ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition prior to death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low risk and known high-risk populations will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies. PMID:26044246
Fatal high-voltage injuries present a problem which has not yet been studied sufficiently in the context of interaction between the human body and electricity, as a technical, anthropogenic and natural phenomenon. The forensic medicine records of 291 cases of death caused by high-voltage current for a 41-year-long period (1965-2006) were examined in retrospect. The descriptive statistical analyses were made using the SPSS 11.0 software. Death was found to result most commonly from contact between the deceased and elements of the power transmission and distribution grid: (41.24%), and from the action of lightning: (32.3%), the difference in their relative share being insignificant. Much more rarely, death was due to contact with construction and repair electrical devices: (7.56%), or with elements of the power transport railway infrastructure: (6.87%). Death resulting from contact with agricultural electrical devices was only occasional: (0.68%). The victims' average age was 36.19 years. Our analysis indicates that the relative share (43.98%) of the victims is the highest in the age period between 25 and 44. The ratio between women and men is 1:21.38.
Rey, Grégoire; Bounebache, Karim; Rondet, Claire
The study of cause-specific mortality data is one of the main sources of information for public health monitoring. In most industrialized countries, when a death occurs, it is a legal requirement that a medical certificate based on the international form recommended by World Health Organization's (WHO) is filled in by a physician. The physician reports the causes of death that directly led or contributed to the death on the death certificate. The death certificate is then forwarded to a coding office, where each cause is coded, and one underlying cause is defined, using the rules of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, now in its 10th Revision (ICD-10). Recently, a growing number of countries have adopted, or have decided to adopt, the coding software Iris, developed and maintained by an international consortium 1 . This whole standardized production process results in a high and constantly increasing international comparability of cause-specific mortality data. While these data could be used for international comparisons and benchmarking of global burden of diseases, quality of care and prevention policies, there are also many other ways and methods to explore their richness, especially when they are linked with other data sources. Some of these methods are potentially referring to the so-called "big data" field. These methods could be applied both to the production of the data, to the statistical processing of the data, and even more to process these data linked to other databases. In the present note, we depict the main domains in which this new field of methods could be applied. We focus specifically on the context of France, a 65 million inhabitants country with a centralized health data system. Finally we will insist on the importance of data quality, and the specific problematics related to death certification in the forensic medicine domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All
Full Text Available that diarrhoea is a symptom of HIV and AIDS and an important cause of death and disease in HIV-infected people. In South Africa and many other developing countries, especially where the stigma of HIV/AIDS is still very high, the cause of death is often...
Berg, Anne T.; Nickels, K.; Wirrell, E.C.; Rios, C.; Geerts, A.T.; Callenbach, P.M.; Arts, W.F.; Camfield, P.R.; Camfield, C.S.
Rationale: Young people with epilepsy experience high death rates compared to the general population. Understanding the magnitude of risk and the causes of death (CoD) is essential for counseling and for potential prevention. Methods: We combined the mortality experiences of four cohort studies of
Full Text Available Death certificates are a primary data source for assessing the population burden of diseases; however, there are concerns regarding their accuracy. Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG coding of a terminal hospitalization may provide an alternative view. We analyzed the rate and patterns of disagreement between death certificate data and hospital claims for patients who died during an inpatient hospitalization.We studied respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (a nationally representative sample of older Americans who had an inpatient death documented in the linked Medicare claims from 1993-2007. Causes of death abstracted from death certificates were aggregated to the standard National Center for Health Statistics List of 50 Rankable Causes of Death. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS-DRGs were manually aggregated into a parallel classification. We then compared the two systems via 2×2, focusing on concordance. Our primary analysis was agreement between the two data sources, assessed with percentages and Cohen's kappa statistic.2074 inpatient deaths were included in our analysis. 36.6% of death certificate cause-of-death codes agreed with the reason for the terminal hospitalization in the Medicare claims at the broad category level; when re-classifying DRGs without clear alignment as agreements, the concordance only increased to 61%. Overall Kappa was 0.21, or "fair." Death certificates in this cohort redemonstrated the conventional top 3 causes of death as diseases of the heart, malignancy, and cerebrovascular disease. However, hospitalization claims data showed infections, diseases of the heart, and cerebrovascular disease as the most common diagnoses for the same terminal hospitalizations.There are significant differences between Medicare claims and death certificate data in assigning cause of death for inpatients. The importance of infections as proximal causes of death is underestimated by current death certificate
Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai
Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.
Full Text Available In this concise review we discuss some of the complex edges of the concept of death that arose after the notorious advances in science and medicine over the last 50 years, in which the classical cardio-pulmonary criteria have led to the neurological criteria of death. New complicated questions like the definition of death and the operational criteria for diagnosing it have arisen and we think that they are far from being adequately and satisfactorily solved. A number of important issues -like the reliability and differences between cardio-pulmonary versus brain based criteria of death, if death is an event or a process, the meaning of integration and irreversibility- have not yet received sufficient attention. Here we have approached the death problem from two (biological complex system perspectives: the organism level and the cellular-molecular level. We also discuss issues from a third systemic approach, that is, the entire society, thus involving legal, religious, bioethical and political aspects of death. Our aim is to integrate new perspectives in order to promote further discussion on these critical yet frequently neglected issues
Phillips, Matthew; Pilkington, Ruth; Patterson, Aileen; Hennessy, Martina
Trinity College Dublin remains one of the Medical Schools that uses traditional dissection to teach anatomy, exposing students from the first week of entry to cadavers. This early exposure makes it imperative that issues surrounding death and donor remains are explored early on within the main structure of the curriculum. The School of Medicine began a programme of Medical Humanities student-selected modules (SSMs) in 2010, and the opportunity to offer a module on medical ethics regarding death and dignity was taken. A course was devised that touched only lightly on subjects such as palliative care and the concept of a good death. The course focused much more strongly on the reality of death as part of cultural and societal identity and placement. This was facilitated by field trips to settings where discussions regarding death, dying and dignity were commonplace and authentic experiences, rather than classroom discussions based on theoretical circumstances that may not yet have been experienced by the student. The module ran very well, with students feeling that they had had a chance to think critically about the role of death as an event with significance within society and culture, rather than purely in a medico-legal framework. Options to extend the module to the compulsory element of the course, to be built upon in later years looking at more technical aspects surrounding death, are being explored. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Kyong-Tai [Department of Life Science, Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyoo-Cheon, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Oral Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-810 (Korea, Republic of)
Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood. (topical review)
Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon
Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood. (topical review)
J P Attri
Full Text Available Death to most people is a major life event. Nothing in this world prepares us to face and manage the perioperative death although the majority of anesthesiologists will be involved in an intraoperative death during the course of their careers. Whether death on the table was expected or occurred when least expected or may be even later, the anesthesiologist is most likely to be affected emotionally, physically in his personal life, and as well as will have an influence on his professional career. Anesthesiologists as perioperative physicians are likely to experience death on the operating table at some time in their careers. In case of perioperative death, meticulous record keeping including time of occurrence of event and methods and medications used during resuscitation, nature of the problem, and all sequence of events should be adopted to breaking bad news with relatives and blame game should be avoided. The anesthesiologist and the relatives of the patient should also be given emotional support to come out of this untoward event. In this article, we have highlighted the various factors and causes leading on to perioperative death and if in case such an event occurs, what are the protocols to be followed, including medicolegal aspects, giving emotional support to the concerned anesthesiologist, dealing with the relatives of the patient sympathetically, etc. We have also enumerated the various precautions to be taken to prevent perioperative mortality in this article.
Jeanmonod, R; Fryc, O
Violent deaths are of considerable importance among young adults, since they account for half the deaths in this age group (average age 26.4 years). Suicide and accidents (both categories including drug overdoses) are the most frequent categories of deaths from non-natural causes, while in the USA deaths by homicide are also of considerable importance. Current repressive policies have not brought the problem of drug addiction under control. Each year deaths by overdose among drug abusers occur. Nevertheless, 40% of deaths among drug addicts are from other causes, principally accidents and suicides. In the near future, AIDS may well account for the majority of deaths among drug addicts, thus adding to the mortality from overdose, both accidental and suicidal. Has the time come to reconsider the problem of drug abuse and to find radical solutions which would previously have been unthinkable?
Levine, B; Green, D; Smialek, J E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ethanol in deaths due to heroin intoxication. Over a 12 month period, all cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland where a blood screen by Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA) was positive at a cutoff of 100 ng/mL were included in the study. Free morphine was quantitated using the Coat-A-Count RIA and ethanol was quantitated by head space gas chromatography. All presumptive morphine positive cases were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy of the 119 cases where death was attributed to narcotic or alcohol and narcotic intoxication had blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) greater than or equal to 0.02 g/dL; 48 had BAC > or = 0.10 g/dL. Only 3 of 45 cases where morphine was identified but was unrelated to death had BAC > or = 0.02 g/dL. At all ranges of free morphine concentrations, there was a greater percentage of narcotic deaths when ethanol was present. From the data, we conclude that 1) the use of even small amounts of ethanol with heroin is clearly a risk factor in deaths due to heroin, 2) there are some heroin deaths where no free morphine is identified in the blood. In these deaths, ethanol is unlikely to be present, 3) at blood ethanol concentrations between 0.20 and 0.29 g/dL, the morphine concentrations in heroin deaths increased significantly, 4) at blood ethanol concentrations greater than 0.30 g/dL, morphine became less of a factor than the ethanol in causing death.
Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.
Full Text Available Unexpected, abrupt death is always a great tragedy, both for a victim, as well as, for their family, friends, society or even country. However, death as a result of a suicide always seems to be unnecessary and difficult to accept by relatives. Every 40 seconds someone dies on the globe due to a kind of an auto-destruction act. Out of all suicides, the biggest group are adult men, frequently with mental disorders, who commit suicide by hanging themselves. The only suicide method where women are almost on the par with men is drowning (by many authors referred to as death by drowning.
Aits, Sonja; Jaattela, Marja
Lysosomes serve as the cellular recycling centre and are filled with numerous hydrolases that can degrade most cellular macromolecules. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the consequent leakage of the lysosomal content into the cytosol leads to so-called "lysosomal cell death". This form...... of cell death is mainly carried out by the lysosomal cathepsin proteases and can have necrotic, apoptotic or apoptosis-like features depending on the extent of the leakage and the cellular context. This article summarizes our current knowledge on lysosomal cell death with an emphasis on the upstream...... mechanisms that lead to lysosomal membrane permeabilization....
Andruccioli, Jessica; Russo, Maria Maffia; Bruschi, Angela; Pedrabissi, Luigi; Sarti, Donatella; Monterubbianesi, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Sabina; Rocconi, Sabina; Raffaeli, William
In this study, we investigated caregiver's death representation in hospice. The results presented here are a further analysis of the data collected in our previous study, concerning the evaluation of the caregiver in hospice. The data analysis of 24 caregivers of patients hospitalized in Rimini Hospice (Italy) underlined that caregivers avoiding death representation of the patient admitted to hospice had fewer protective factors (52.3%) and more risk factors (47.7%) than caregivers nonavoiding (66.5% and 33.5%, respectively). Caregivers avoiding death representation, moreover, experienced a greater distress (58%) than those nonavoiding (42%).
van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.
, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined....... the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death...
Edmond, Karen M; Quigley, Maria A; Zandoh, Charles; Danso, Samuel; Hurt, Chris; Owusu Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R
In developing countries many stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur at home and cause of death is not recorded by national health information systems. A community-level verbal autopsy tool was used to obtain data on the aetiology of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Ghana. Objectives were to describe the timing and distribution of causes of stillbirths and neonatal deaths according to site of death (health facility or home). Data were collected from 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2004; 20,317 deliveries, 696 stillbirths and 623 neonatal deaths occurred over that time. Most deaths occurred in the antepartum period (28 weeks gestation to the onset of labour) (33.0%). However, the highest risk periods were during labour and delivery (intrapartum period) and the first day of life. Infections were a major cause of death in the antepartum (10.1%) and neonatal (40.3%) periods. The most important cause of intrapartum death was obstetric complications (59.3%). There were significantly fewer neonatal deaths resulting from birth asphyxia in the home than in the health facilities and more deaths from infection. Only 59 (20.7%) mothers of neonates who died at home reported that they sought care from an appropriate health care provider (doctor, nurse or health facility) during their baby's illness. The results from this study highlight the importance of studying community-level data in developing countries and the high risk of intrapartum stillbirths and infectious diseases in the rural African mother and neonate. Community-level interventions are urgently needed, especially interventions that reduce intrapartum deaths and infection rates in the mother and infant.
Full Text Available Introduction. Heat stroke is the most dangerous among numerous disorders caused by elevated environmental temperature. It is characterized by an increased body temperature of over 40°C, the dysfunction of the central nervous system and the development of multiple organ failure. The aim of this paper was to highlight problems in the clinical and post-mortal diagnosis of fatal heat stroke. Case Outline. A 20-year-old male was found unconscious on the street; on admission at the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, he was in a coma. The body temperature of 40°C was maintained despite the applied therapy, meningeal signs were negative, tachycardia with gallop rhythm, hypotension, bleeding from the nose and mouth, and presence of skin bruises. Laboratory findings: highly elevated LDH and creatine kinase, elevated serum creatinine, AST, and signs of DIC. Lethal outcome occurred 6 hours after admission, and the case remained clinically unsolved. Autopsy showed signs of hemorrhagic diathesis, brain and pulmonary edema, and microscopic examination revealed general congestion, internal bleeding in various organs, cerebral edema, massive blood aspiration and pulmonary edema. Toxicological and bacteriological examinations were negative. Based on these findings and subsequently obtained data on the conditions at the workplace where the young man had a part-time job, it was concluded that the violent death was caused by heat stroke. Conclusion. Since heat stroke is associated with a high mortality rate and high incidence of serious and permanent organ damage in survivors, it is important to make the diagnosis of heat stroke as quickly as possible and apply appropriate treatment. Misdiagnosis of heat stroke, and consequently inadequate treatment, with a potential fatal outcome for the patient, can be the reason for blaming doctors for the legal offense of medical malpractice in failing to administer first aid.
Lee, Ji Seong; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Younyoung; Koo, Ja Hyouk
Children's reasoning about the afterlife emerges naturally as a developmental regularity. Although a biological understanding of death increases in accordance with cognitive development, biological and supernatural explanations of death may coexist in a complementary manner, being deeply imbedded in cultural contexts. This study conducted a content analysis of 40 children's death-themed picture books in Western Europe and East Asia. It can be inferred that causality and non-functionality are highly integrated with the naturalistic and supernatural understanding of death in Western Europe, whereas the literature in East Asia seems to rely on naturalistic aspects of death and focuses on causal explanations.
Stephen R Odom
Full Text Available Context: We noted a bimodal relationship between mortality and shock index (SI, the ratio of heart rate to systolic blood pressure. Aims: To determine if extremes of SI can predict mortality in trauma patients. Settings and Designs: Retrospective evaluation of adult trauma patients at a tertiary care center from 2000 to 2012 in the United States. Materials and Methods: We examined the SI in trauma patients and determined the adjusted mortality for patients with and without head injuries. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results: SI values demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with mortality. Compared with patients with a SI between 0.5 and 0.7, patients with a SI of 1.3 had an odds ratio of death of 3.1. (95% CI 1.6–5.9. Elevated SI is associated with increased mortality in patients with isolated torso injuries, and is associated with death at both low and high values in patients with head injury. Conclusion: Our data indicate a bimodal relationship between SI and mortality in head injured patients that persists after correction for various co-factors. The distribution of mortality is different between head injured patients and patients without head injuries. Elevated SI predicts death in all trauma patients, but low SI values only predict death in head injured patients.
AnvariFar, Hossein; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Ouraji, Hossein; Jalali, M Ali; Üçüncü, Sema İşisağ
Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical component in maintaining homeostasis and growth in all tissues and plays a significant role in immunity and cytotoxicity. In contrast to necrosis or traumatic cell death, apoptosis is a well-controlled and vital process characterized mainly by cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. Our understanding of apoptosis is partly based on observations in invertebrates but mainly in mammals. Despite the great advantages of fish models in studying vertebrate development and diseases and the tremendous interest observed in recent years, reports on apoptosis in fish are still limited. Although apoptotic machinery is well conserved between aquatic and terrestrial organisms throughout the history of evolution, some differences exist in key components of apoptotic pathways. Core parts of apoptotic machinery in fish are virtually expressed as equivalent to the mammalian models. Some differences are, however, evident, such as the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis including lack of a C-terminal region in the Fas-associated protein with a death domain in fish. Aquatic species inhabit a complex and highly fluctuating environment, making these species good examples to reveal features of apoptosis that may not be easily investigated in mammals. Therefore, in order to gain a wider view on programmed cell death in fish, interactions between the main environmental factors, chemicals and apoptosis are discussed in this review. It is indicated that apoptosis can be induced in fish by exposure to environmental stressors during different stages of the fish life cycle.
In the last months of the second World War, 250,000 German refugees landed in Denmark. A third of them were children under the age of 15. Seven thousand German refugee children under the age of five died in Denmark in 1945. Using birth certificates and death certificates from the Danish national archives and burial lists from the German refugee cemetaries I have collected data to reveal causes of death, age distributions and time of the deaths of the 7000 fatal cases among children under the age of five. Three thousand children under the age of one, 2000 children one year old and 2000 children 2-4 years old died. Most of them died just before and after the German surrender, but many died in the months following the German surrender. The infant mortality was extremely high all during 1945. The infants died from diseases due to malnutrition, but the older the children the more likely the causes of death were due to infectious diseases such as pneumonia, measles, diphtheria and gastroenteritis.
Loor, Gabriel; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Schriewer, Jacqueline M; Chandel, Navdeep S; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T
Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as redox-active signaling messengers, whereas high levels of ROS induce cellular damage. Menadione generates ROS through redox cycling, and high concentrations trigger cell death. Previous work suggests that menadione triggers cytochrome c release from mitochondria, whereas other studies implicate the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore as the mediator of cell death. We investigated menadione-induced cell death in genetically modified cells lacking specific death-associated proteins. In cardiomyocytes, oxidant stress was assessed using the redox sensor RoGFP, expressed in the cytosol or the mitochondrial matrix. Menadione elicited rapid oxidation in both compartments, whereas it decreased mitochondrial potential and triggered cytochrome c redistribution to the cytosol. Cell death was attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione or by overexpression of cytosolic or mitochondria-targeted catalase. By contrast, no protection was observed in cells overexpressing Cu,Zn-SOD or Mn-SOD. Overexpression of antiapoptotic Bcl-X(L) protected against staurosporine-induced cell death, but it failed to confer protection against menadione. Genetic deletion of Bax and Bak, cytochrome c, cyclophilin D, or caspase-9 conferred no protection against menadione-induced cell death. However, cells lacking PARP-1 showed a significant decrease in menadione-induced cell death. Thus, menadione induces cell death through the generation of oxidant stress in multiple subcellular compartments, yet cytochrome c, Bax/Bak, caspase-9, and cyclophilin D are dispensable for cell death in this model. These studies suggest that multiple redundant cell death pathways are activated by menadione, but that PARP plays an essential role in mediating each of them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. The violent deaths of media workers is a critical issue worldwide, especially in areas of political and social instability. Such deaths can be a particular concern as they may undermine the development and functioning of an open and democratic society.Method. Data on the violent deaths of media workers in Iraq for ten years (2003–2012 were systematically collated from five international databases. Analyses included time trends, weapons involved, nationality of the deceased, outcome for perpetrators and location of death.Results. During this ten-year period, there were 199 violent deaths of media workers in Iraq. The annual number increased substantially after the invasion in 2003 (peaking at n = 47 in 2007 and then declined (n = 5 in 2012. The peak years (2006–2007 for these deaths matched the peak years for estimated violent deaths among civilians. Most of the media worker deaths (85% were Iraqi nationals. Some were killed whilst on assignment in the field (39% and 28% involved a preceding threat. Common perpetrators of the violence were: political groups (45%, and coalition forces (9%, but the source of the violence was often unknown (29%. None of the perpetrators have subsequently been prosecuted (as of April 2014. For each violent death of a media worker, an average of 3.1 other people were also killed in the same attack (range 0–100 other deaths.Discussion. This analysis highlights the high number of homicides of media workers in Iraq in this conflict period, in addition to the apparently total level of impunity. One of the potential solutions may be establishing a functioning legal system that apprehends offenders and puts them on trial. The relatively high quality of data on violent deaths in this occupational group, suggests that it could act as one sentinel population within a broader surveillance system of societal violence in conflict zones.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...
... Explore opportunities to link electronic death records to electronic health records. Develop capacity to support monthly reporting of drug- ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...
May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.
Nicanor Austriaco, O.
Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death.
Colavita, N.; Kozlowski, K.
A new type of neonatal death dwarfism is reported. Although it resembles superficially the metatropic dysplasia group of diseases it has some distinctive radiographic features which help to delineate it as a separate entity.
Colavita, N.; Kozlowski, K.; Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, Rome
A new type of neonatal death dwarfism is reported. Although it resembles superficially the metatropic dysplasia group of diseases it has some distinctive radiographic features which help to delineate it as a separate entity. (orig.)
Dr. Setu Vora, medical director of critical care and physician director of performance improvement at Backus Hospital in Norwich, Connecticut, reads his poem The Life and Death of Anaplasma and discusses the poemâs origins.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with data on readmissions and deaths. These data show how often patients who are hospitalized for certain conditions experience serious...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...
Full Text Available While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases.
Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L
A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result...... of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind...... infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis...
The recently proposed hypothesis that the periodic extinctions of terrestrial species are the result of comet showers catalyzed by a hypothetical distant solar companion, Nemesis, a tale of global death by comet bombardment of the earth, is discussed
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains provisional counts for drug overdose deaths based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. National...
with a strikingly musical voice. According to .... Plutarch goes on to say that no snake was found in the room (although a suspicious ... notes that death by snakebite was a recognised (and humane) method of execution in ... MARASCO G. 1995.
Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza
Full Text Available Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2% within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%. There was a greater proportion (71.8% of causes of death related to Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident and Traumatic Brain Injury caused by motorcycle accident, showing statistically significant difference (p<0.05 regarding the gender, age and location. Conclusion: the Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident was the most prevalent cause of notification of brain death and the Intensive Therapy Unit was the most notified venue.
The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility
from the case in real life, with fewer ... determination of the cause of death and ... of medical quality control, the autopsy ... monitoring of possible adverse effects. .... In relation to their professional future .... emotionally well-balanced individuals.
Dr. Joel Gaydos, science advisor for the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, and Dr. Robert Potter, a research associate for the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, discuss deaths from adenovirus in the US military.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final report of death. 72.5 Section 72.5... DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.5 Final report of death. (a) Preparation. Except in the case of the death of an active duty member of the United States Armed Forces, when...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notifications of death. 72.4 Section 72.4... DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.4 Notifications of death. The... legal representative (if any, and if different from the next of kin), of the death of a United States...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of presumptive death. 72.6 Section 72.6... DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.6 Report of presumptive death. (a) Local finding. When there is a local finding of presumptive death by a competent local authority, a...
Frith, Hannah; Raisborough, Jayne; Klein, Orly
Facilitating a 'good' death is a central goal for hospices and palliative care organisations. The key features of such a death include an acceptance of death, an open awareness of and communication about death, the settling of practical and interpersonal business, the reduction of suffering and pain, and the enhancement of autonomy, choice and control. Yet deaths are inherently neither good nor bad; they require cultural labour to be 'made over' as good. Drawing on media accounts of the controversial death of UK reality television star Jade Goody, and building on existing analyses of her death, we examine how cultural discourses actively work to construct deaths as good or bad and to position the dying and those witnessing their death as morally accountable. By constructing Goody as bravely breaking social taboos by openly acknowledging death, by contextualising her dying as occurring at the end of a life well lived and by emphasising biographical continuity and agency, newspaper accounts serve to position themselves as educative rather than exploitative, and readers as information-seekers rather than ghoulishly voyeuristic. We argue that popular culture offers moral instruction in dying well which resonates with the messages from palliative care. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The factor of culture plays a critical role on how people perceive and deal with death, dying and bereavement. Each culture is unique and holds different and authentic beliefs and customs. This literature review will provide information from different cultural backgrounds among the population of Hawaìi regarding death, dying and bereavement (beliefs, customs, rituals, expectations, processes, etc.). The information aims to provide social workers and other helping professionals with appropriat...
By using the risk factor given in ICRP publication 26 and an assumption of linear relationship between risk and dose, death rate and death number which correspond to radiation dose level and collective dose level of Japanese are estimated and they are compared with vital statistics of Japanese in 1975 to get out some ideas about radiation risk relative to the risks of everyday life. (author)
Dubner, D.; Perez, M.R. Del; Michelin, S.C.; Gisone, P.A.
The mechanisms of radiation induced cellular death constitute an objective of research ever since the first biological effects of radiation were first observed. The explosion of information produced in the last 20 years calls for a careful analysis due to the apparent contradictory data related to the cellular system studied and the range of doses used. This review focuses on the role of the active oxygen species, in particular the nitric oxides, in its relevance as potential mediator of radiation induced cellular death
Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza; Gerlene Grudka Lira; Rachel Mola
Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2%) within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%). There was a greater proportion (71.8...
Gabriel, Wilfried; Taylor, B. E.; Kirsch-Prokosch, Susanne
I. Birth and death rates of natural cladoceran populations cannot be measured directly. Estimates of these population parameters must be calculated using methods that make assumptions about the form of population growth. These methods generally assume that the population has a stable age distribution. 2. To assess the effect of variable age distributions, we tested six egg ratio methods for estimating birth and death rates with data from thirty-seven laboratory populations of Daphnia puli...
Touhami, Fatima; Rizzi, Alice Titia; Moro, Marie Rose
Embracing death and finding the right words to represent it is a dangerous exercise when the death is traumatic and when it remains suspended on emotions and affects. The cross-cultural consultation enables the trauma to be developed and makes room for rituals and words. The children's drawings come to represent the traumatic transfer of the connections and fears, and the need to reconstruct a cultural cocoon. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Postmortem detection of 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine] in fluids and tissues determined by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry from a traumatic death.
Poklis, Justin L; Devers, Kelly G; Arbefeville, Elise F; Pearson, Julia M; Houston, Eric; Poklis, Alphonse
We present a traumatic fatality of a 19-year-old man who had ingested blotter paper containing 25I-NBOMe [2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine]. Postmortem specimens were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). Toxicology findings for fluids based upon blood or urine calibrators were as follows: peripheral blood, 405 pg/mL; heart blood, 410 pg/mL; urine, 2.86 ng/mL; and vitreous humor, 99 pg/mL. While findings based upon the method of standard additions were: gastric contents, 7.1 μg total; bile, 10.9 ng/g; brain, 2.54 ng/g and liver, 7.2 ng/g. To our knowledge the presented case is the first postmortem case of 25I-NBOMe intoxication documented by toxicological analysis of tissues and body fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
emblem of the Moslems, which is usu- ^ ally shown in gold or black« Our emblem is reds it stands for blood.». Durieux then confirmed the responsibility ...completed school» His practical exercises occurred at first in the realm Of amour : one night he scaled the high wall of a carefully protected...clear next morning what hands the Frankfurt police and prosecutor were seeking when the social democratic sympathizer with Algeria, Wischnewski
L. M. Makarov
Full Text Available The article presents data on contemporary views of the prevalence, causes, circumstances of sudden cardiac death, and its prevention measures in children and adolescents during sports activity. It notes a difficulty in defining the epidemiology of the above condition because the data are primarily based upon mass media news coverage. The incidence of sudden cardiac death is approximately 1 per 100,000 young athletes; more than 90% boys die. The sports, during which sudden cardiac death often occurs, include (both American and European football, basketball, and hockey. Sudden cardiac death due to cоmmоtio cordis (life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias resulting from a blow with a blunt instrument to the area of the heart during the vulnerable phase of the cardiac cycle is considered separately. Children who die suddenly during sports are frequently detected to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or myocarditis; but no changes are found in more than 50% of cases at autopsy, which is suggestive of primary arrhythmogenic death. The basis for prevention is the early detection of diseases that can cause sudden death during sports, regular examination, knowledge of ECG characteristics in athletes, and first aid techniques, including the use of automated external defibrillators.
van Doorn, W G; Beers, E P; Dangl, J L; Franklin-Tong, V E; Gallois, P; Hara-Nishimura, I; Jones, A M; Kawai-Yamada, M; Lam, E; Mundy, J; Mur, L A J; Petersen, M; Smertenko, A; Taliansky, M; Van Breusegem, F; Wolpert, T; Woltering, E; Zhivotovsky, B; Bozhkov, P V
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.
Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
In the summer of 1944, J. Robert Oppenheimer and Los Alamos faced a crisis. An isotopic impurity in Plutonium rendered the metal unusable in a gun-assembled atomic bomb (i.e., Little Boy). Making this situation worse was a shortage of Uranium. The combination of these two problems threatened the entire wartime project. The answer to this dilemma, in part, was to develop a novel assembly method for Plutonium using the supersonic shock waves created by several tons of high explosives to compress a ball of Plutonium into a supercritical state. Since this method, implosion, was not much more than a theoretical construct, the Trinity test was devised to proof test the process. Given the speculative nature of implosion, Trinity was a gamble of sorts. If the test failed (i.e., little or no nuclear yield), the blast of the high explosives would scatter the scarce and expensive Plutonium over the surrounding desert. Since the probability of failure remained high into the early summer of 1945, some method of containing a failed nuclear explosion was needed. Jumbo was the answer.
Full Text Available Although current levels of the neonatal mortality rate (NMR are within reach of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG target of 12 per 1 000 live births, the absolute number of deaths is unacceptably high for a lower-middle-income country such as South Africa (SA. Neonatal mortality over the last decade has declined very slowly, and is not commensurate with the level of government investment in healthcare. The recent neonatal mortality rate of 21 per 1 000 live births reported by the SA Demographic Health Survey is of major concern. This paper reviews recent efforts to reduce the neonatal mortality rate, including support for the implementation of neonatal policies and plans, and strengthening programmes to deliver low-cost, high-impact interventions. We review recent estimates of the NMR and causes of neonatal deaths, and discuss how the mortality from preventable causes of death could be reduced. If SA is to meet the SDG target, special attention should be given to the availability of high-impact interventions, providing an adequate number of appropriately trained healthcare providers and a more active role played by ward-based community health workers and district clinical specialist teams.
Naira F. Z. Schneider
Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides (CGs are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations repositioned CGs as potential anticancer agents. To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. GEV presented reduced toxicity toward non-cancerous cell types (lung MRC-5 and PBMC and high-affinity binding to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunit, assessed by computational docking. GEV-induced cell death was caspase-independent, as investigated by a multiparametric approach, and culminates in severe morphological alterations in A549 cells, monitored by transmission electron microscopy, live cell imaging and flow cytometry. This non-canonical cell death was not preceded or accompanied by exacerbation of autophagy. In the presence of GEV, markers of autophagic flux (e.g. LC3I-II conversion were impacted, even in presence of bafilomycin A1. Cell death induction remained unaffected by calpain, cathepsin, parthanatos, or necroptosis inhibitors. Interestingly, GEV triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis in U937 acute myeloid leukemia cells, witnessing cancer-type specific cell death induction. Differential cell cycle modulation by this CG led to a G2/M arrest, cyclin B1 and p53 downregulation in A549, but not in U937 cells. We further extended the anti-cancer potential of GEV to 3D cell culture using clonogenic and spheroid formation assays and validated our findings in vivo by zebrafish xenografts. Altogether, GEV shows an interesting anticancer profile with the ability to exert cytotoxic effects via induction of different cell death modalities.