WorldWideScience

Sample records for high current intensity

  1. Current State of Pediatric Intensive Care and High Dependency Care in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Aayush; Sharma, Arun; Basnet, Sangita

    2016-11-01

    To describe the state of pediatric intensive care and high dependency care in Nepal. Pediatric intensive care is now a recognized specialty in high-income nations, but there are few reports from low-income countries. With the large number of critically ill children in Nepal, the importance of pediatric intensive care is increasingly recognized but little is known about its current state. Survey. All hospitals in Nepal that have separate physical facilities for PICU and high dependency care. All children admitted to these facilities. None. A questionnaire survey was sent to the chief of each facility. Eighteen hospitals were eligible and 16 responded. Two thirds of the 16 units were established in the last 5 years; they had a total of 93 beds, with median of 5 (range, 2-10) beds per unit. All 16 units had a monitor for each bed but only 75% could manage central venous catheters and only 75% had a blood gas analyzer. Thirty two percent had only one functioning mechanical ventilator and another 38% had two ventilators, the other units had 3-6 ventilators. Six PICUs (38%) had a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 and the others had 1:3 to 1:6. Only one institution had a pediatric intensive care specialist. The majority of patients (88%) came from families with an income of just over a dollar per day. All patients were self funded with a median cost of PICU bed being $25 U.S. dollars (interquartile range, 15-31) per day. The median stay was 6 (interquartile range, 4.8-7) days. The most common age group was 1-5. Sixty percent of units reported respiratory distress/failure as their primary cause for admission. Mortality was 25% (interquartile range, 20-35%) with mechanical ventilation and 1% (interquartile range, 0-5%) without mechanical ventilation. Pediatric intensive care in Nepal is still in its infancy, and there is a need for improved organization, services, and training.

  2. Current status of high-intensity focused ultrasound for the management of uterine adenomyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Vincent Y. T. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    While high-intensity focused ultrasound has been used for some time in the management of uterine fibroids, its effectiveness and safety in managing adenomyosis is less well established. A literature review was performed of all eligible reports using this modality as a treatment for adenomyosis. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception through March 2016. Eleven articles, including information from 1,150 treatments and follow-up data from 990 patients, were reviewed. High-intensity focused ultrasound appears to be effective and safe in the management of symptomatic adenomyosis, and can be considered as an alternative uterine-sparing option for women with this condition.

  3. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: Current Status of an Emerging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoli, Alessandro, E-mail: napoli.alessandro@gmail.com; Anzidei, Michele, E-mail: michele.anzidei@gmail.com; Ciolina, Federica, E-mail: federica.ciolina@gmail.com; Marotta, Eugenio, E-mail: eugenio.marotta@gmail.com; Cavallo Marincola, Beatrice, E-mail: beatrice.cavalloamarincola@gmail.com; Brachetti, Giulia, E-mail: giuliabrachetti@gmail.com; Mare, Luisa Di, E-mail: luisadimare@gmail.com; Cartocci, Gaia, E-mail: gaia.cartocci@gmail.com; Boni, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizioboni00@gmail.com; Noce, Vincenzo, E-mail: vinc.noce@hotmail.it; Bertaccini, Luca, E-mail: lucaone84@libero.it; Catalano, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.catalano@uniroma1.it [Sapienza, University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    The concept of ideal tumor surgery is to remove the neoplastic tissue without damaging adjacent normal structures. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) was developed in the 1940s as a viable thermal tissue ablation approach. In clinical practice, HIFU has been applied to treat a variety of solid benign and malignant lesions, including pancreas, liver, prostate, and breast carcinomas, soft tissue sarcomas, and uterine fibroids. More recently, magnetic resonance guidance has been applied for treatment monitoring during focused ultrasound procedures (magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound, MRgFUS). Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging provides the best possible tumor extension and dynamic control of energy deposition using real-time magnetic resonance imaging thermometry. We introduce the fundamental principles and clinical indications of the MRgFUS technique; we also report different treatment options and personal outcomes.

  4. MRI methods for the evaluation of high intensity focused ultrasound tumor treatment : Current status and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J C G; Jacobs, Igor; Moonen, Chrit T W; Strijkers, Gustav J; Nicolay, Klaas

    Thermal ablation with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging noninvasive technique for the treatment of solid tumors. HIFU treatment of malignant tumors requires accurate treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation, which can be facilitated by performing the procedure in an

  5. Recent Improvements of a Cryogenic Current Comparator for nA Ion Beams with High Intensity Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, A; Forck, P

    2000-01-01

    Former measurements of extracted ion beams from the GSI heavy ion synchrotron SIS showed large current fluctuations in the microsecond region with a high peak-to-average ratio. To adapt our Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) to this time structure the detector’s electronics have been carefully modified. The most important improvement of the new DC SQUID system affects the enlargement of the bandwidth and the slew rate of the measuring system. In addition the existing data acquisition system for e.g. SEMs (Secondary Emission Monitors) was extended to digitize the CCC signals simultaneously. Measurements of Argon beams will be shown to demonstrate the improved capabilities of the upgraded Cryogenic Current Comparator.

  6. Management of Respiratory Motion in Extracorporeal High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment in Upper Abdominal Organs: Current Status and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, A., E-mail: arnaud.muller@chu-lyon.fr [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Petrusca, L.; Auboiroux, V. [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland); Valette, P. J. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Salomir, R. [University of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Switzerland); Cotton, F. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service de Radiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France)

    2013-12-15

    Extracorporeal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive therapy considered with increased interest for the ablation of small tumors in deeply located organs while sparing surrounding critical tissues. A multitude of preclinical and clinical studies have showed the feasibility of the method; however, concurrently they showed several obstacles, among which the management of respiratory motion of abdominal organs is at the forefront. The aim of this review is to describe the different methods that have been proposed for managing respiratory motion and to identify their advantages and weaknesses. First, we specify the characteristics of respiratory motion for the liver, kidneys, and pancreas and the problems it causes during HIFU planning, treatment, and monitoring. Second, we make an inventory of the preclinical and clinical approaches used to overcome the problem of organ motion. Third, we analyze their respective benefits and drawbacks to identify the remaining physical, technological, and clinical challenges. We thereby consider the outlook of motion compensation techniques and those that would be the most suitable for clinical use, particularly under magnetic resonance thermometry monitoring.

  7. High Intensity Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, M.; Brodin, G.; Lundin, J.; Ilderton, A.

    2009-11-01

    The capability to produce high field strengths, and thereby obtain a new means for doing fundamental physics, has over the last thirty years taken great leaps forward. Both superconducting cavities as well ultra-intense lasers can now reach field strengths of the order 50 MV/m (stationary) and 1012 V/m (peak value, time-dependent field), respectively. Here we will describe a collection of problems that catches the flavor of the nonlinear quantum vacuum and the possibility to use high field strengths as a low-energy probe of fundamental physics.

  8. Compton scattering at high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.

  9. Accelerators for high intensity beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren

    2014-01-01

    As particle accelerators strive forever increasing performance, high intensity particle beams become one of the critical demands requested across the board by a majority of accelerator users (proton, electron and ion) and for most applications. Much effort has been made by our community to pursue high intensity accelerator performance on a number of fronts. Recognizing its importance, we devote this volume to Accelerators for High Intensity Beams. High intensity accelerators have become a frontier and a network for innovation. They are responsible for many scientific discoveries and technological breakthroughs that have changed our way of life, often taken for granted. A wide range of topics is covered in the fourteen articles in this volume.

  10. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applied to hepato-bilio-pancreatic and the digestive system—current state of the art and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Michele; Schiraldi, Luigi; Liu, Yu-Yin; Memeo, Riccardo; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is emerging as a valid minimally-invasive image-guided treatment of malignancies. We aimed to review to current state of the art of HIFU therapy applied to the digestive system and discuss some promising avenues of the technology. Methods Pertinent studies were identified through PubMed and Embase search engines using the following keywords, combined in different ways: HIFU, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, colon, rectum, and cancer. Experimental proof of the concept of endoluminal HIFU mucosa/submucosa ablation using a custom-made transducer has been obtained in vivo in the porcine model. Results Forty-four studies reported on the clinical use of HIFU to treat liver lesions, while 19 series were found on HIFU treatment of pancreatic cancers and four studies included patients suffering from both liver and pancreatic cancers, reporting on a total of 1,682 and 823 cases for liver and pancreas, respectively. Only very limited comparative prospective studies have been reported. Conclusions Digestive system clinical applications of HIFU are limited to pancreatic and liver cancer. It is safe and well tolerated. The exact place in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) management algorithm remains to be defined. HIFU seems to add clear survival advantages over trans arterial chemo embolization (TACE) alone and similar results when compared to radio frequency (RF). For pancreatic cancer, HIFU achieves consistent cancer-related pain relief. Further research is warranted to improve targeting accuracy and efficacy monitoring. Furthermore, additional work is required to transfer this technology on appealing treatments such as endoscopic HIFU-based therapies. PMID:27500145

  11. Dynamics of the ring current-magnetotail currents relationships during geomagnetic storms of different intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegaev, V. V.; Vlasova, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    The results of studying the intensity of fluxes of 30-80 keV ions from the data of measurements of the NOAA (POES) sun-synchronous satellites during geomagnetic storms of different intensity are presented. For 15 geomagnetic storms with | Dst|max from 37 to 422 nT, the storm-time maximum ion fluxes in the near-equatorial region (trapped particles) and at high latitudes (precipitating particles) have been considered. It is shown that the maximum fluxes of trapped particles, which are considered a ring-current proxy, increase with the storm power. In this case, if a smooth growth of fluxes is recorded for storms with | Dst|max 250 nT. This may be evidence of both an increasing of the contribution of the ring current relative to magnetotail currents to the development of high-intensity storms and to a nonlinear link between the ring current and ion fluxes at low altitudes in the near-equatorial region. Despite large variations in fluxes of precipitating particles in the polar region above the boundary of isotropization, a decreasing tendency, as a whole, in fluxes of these particles is observed with increasing the storm intensity. This is the evidence of the effect of saturation of magnetotail currents and of an increase in the relative role of the ring current during strong magnetic storms.

  12. LHC Report: reaching high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven

    2015-01-01

    After both beams having been ramped to their full energy of 6.5 TeV, the last two weeks saw the beam commissioning process advancing on many fronts. An important milestone was achieved when operators succeeded in circulating a nominal-intensity bunch. During the operation, some sudden beam losses resulted in beam dumps at top energy, a problem that needed to be understood and resolved.   In 2015 the LHC will be circulating around 2800 bunches in each beam and each bunch will contain just over 1 x 1011 protons. Until a few days ago commissioning was taking place with single bunches of 5 x 109 protons. The first nominal bunch with an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons was injected on Tuesday, 21 April. In order to circulate such a high-intensity bunch safely, the whole protection system must be working correctly: collimators, which protect the aperture, are set at preliminary values known as coarse settings; all kicker magnets for injecting and extracting the beams are commissioned with beam an...

  13. AGS RESONANT EXTRACTION WITH HIGH INTENSITY BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AHRENS,L.; BROWN,K.; GLENN,J.W.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.; VANASSELT,W.

    1999-03-29

    The Brookhaven AGS third integer resonant extraction system allows the AGS to provide high quality, high intensity 25.5 GeV/c proton beams simultaneously to four target stations and as many as 8 experiments. With the increasing intensities (over 7 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse) and associated longer spill periods (2.4 to 3 seconds long), we continue to run with low losses and high quality low modulation continuous current beams.[1] Learning to extract and transport these higher intensity beams has required a process of careful modeling and experimentation. We have had to learn how to correct for various instabilities and how to better match extraction and the transport lines to the higher emittance beams being accelerated in the AGS. Techniques employed include ''RF'' methods to smooth out momentum distributions and fine structure. We will present results of detailed multi-particle tracking modeling studies which enabled us to develop a clear understanding of beam loss mechanisms in the transport and extraction process. We will report on our status, experiences, and the present understanding of the intensity limitations imposed by resonant extraction and transport to fixed target stations.

  14. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  15. Command and Control: Does Current U.S. Army Tactical Command and Control Doctrine Meet the Requirement for Today’s High Intensity Battlefield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-02

    Philosophies C2 OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES* CONTROL ORIENTED COMtW1D ORIENTED (HIGH TECMNOLOGY-LOW RISK) <AUSTgRE TECNOLOGY -HIGH RISK) STRATEGY: Non-relational...through 1973). 6. du Picq, p. 141. 7. Jay Luvaas, The Education of an Army; British Military Yhought. 181;-1940, (The University of Chicago Press, 1964...Princeton University Press, 1976. Luttwak, Edward N. and Horowitz, Daniel. The Isrteli Army. Cambridge, MA: Abt Books, 1983. Luvaas, Jay. The Education of

  16. Cryogenic Current Comparator as Low Intensity Beam Current Monitor in the CERN Antiproton Decelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, M; Soby, L; Welsch, CP

    2013-01-01

    In the low-energy Antiproton Decelerator (AD) and the future Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) rings at CERN, an absolute measurement of the beam intensity is essential to monitor any losses during the deceleration and cooling phases. However, existing DC current transformers can hardly reach the μA level, while at the AD and ELENA currents can be as low as 100 nA. A Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) based on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is currently being designed and shall be installed in the AD and ELENA machines. It should meet the following specifications: A current resolution smaller than 10 nA, a dynamic range covering currents between 100 nA and 1 mA, as well as a bandwidth from DC to 1 kHz. Different design options are being considered, including the use of low or high temperature superconductor materials, different CCC shapes and dimensions, different SQUID characteristics, as well as electromagnetic shielding requirements. In this contribution we present first results f...

  17. High speed, high current pulsed driver circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlen, Christopher R.

    2017-03-21

    Various technologies presented herein relate to driving a LED such that the LED emits short duration pulses of light. This is accomplished by driving the LED with short duration, high amplitude current pulses. When the LED is driven by short duration, high amplitude current pulses, the LED emits light at a greater amplitude compared to when the LED is driven by continuous wave current.

  18. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body......±5%) and lean tissue mass (+1.4±0.5%) only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73±19% and 86±27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively. Conclusion High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile......Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...

  19. Team working in intensive care: current evidence and future endeavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joanne; West, Michael A; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2010-12-01

    It has recently been argued that the future of intensive care medicine will rely on high quality management and teamwork. Therefore, this review takes an organizational psychology perspective to examine the most recent research on the relationship between teamwork, care processes, and patient outcomes in intensive care. Interdisciplinary communication within a team is crucial for the development of negotiated shared treatment goals and short-team patient outcomes. Interventions for maximizing team communication have received substantial interest in recent literature. Intensive care coordination is not a linear process, and intensive care teams often fail to discuss how to implement goals, trigger and align activities, or reflect on their performance. Despite a move toward interdisciplinary team working, clinical decision-making is still problematic and continues to be perceived as a top-down and authoritative process. The topic of team leadership in intensive care is underexplored and requires further research. Based on findings from the most recent research evidence in medicine and management, four principles are identified for improving the effectiveness of team working in intensive care: engender professional efficacy, create stable teams and leaders, develop trust and participative safety, and enable frequent team reflexivity.

  20. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  1. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-01-01

    Modular high-intensity plasma melter promises improved performance, reduced energy use, and lower emissions. The glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass for the past 100 years.

  2. Charge and Current Compensation of Intense Charged Beams in Future Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Riege, H

    1998-01-01

    Proposals for future high-energy accelerators are characterized by demands for increasingly intense and energetic beams. The classical operation of high-current accelerators is severely constrained by collective electrodynamic phenomena, such as problems related to space-charge, to high-current flow, to beamstrahlung and pair production. These detrimental electrodynamic effects dominate the dynamic s and the collision interactions of high-intensity beams. With the introduction of soft space-charge and current compensation techniques utilizing low- to medium-energy lepton beams with charge polari ty opposite to that of the beams to be neutralized, all electromagnetic high-intensity limitations may be removed. The application of beam compensation is proposed for various sections of different ty pes of classical accelerator systems, such as for ion sources and the low-energy beam transport sections of ion linacs, for the crossing points of circular and linear colliders and for the final focii of ion beam fusion ...

  3. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  4. Current Measurements of Low-Intensity Beams at CRYRING

    CERN Document Server

    Paál, A; Källberg, A

    2003-01-01

    The demand for new ion species leads to an increasing number of cases in which the ions can only be produced in small quantities. Thus, weak ion currents quite often have to be handled in low energy ion storage ring, like CRYRING. Various detector systems have been developed to measure such low intensity coasting and bunched beams by using the overlapping ranges of those systems. We have extended the RMS resolution to 1 nA of the Bergoz Beam Charge Monitor (BCM) by using a low noise 60 dB preamplifier for the Integrating Current Transformer. The sum signal of a capacitive pick-up is integrated by a second gated integrator and the BCM output signal is used for calibration. The RMS resolution is about 100 pA.. To measure the coasting beam intensity, neutral particle detectors have been built. The fast Microchannel plate detector can handle 1 Mc/s, and a 50 Mc/s Secondary Electron Multiplier based detector is under construction. On the magnetic flat top, a time of 100 ms is available to calibrate the count r...

  5. High current and high power superconducting rectifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Bunk, P.B.; Britton, R.B.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results on three experimental superconducting rectifiers are reported. Two of them are 1 kA low frequency flux pumps, one thermally and magnetically switched. The third is a low-current high-frequency magnetically switched rectifier which can use the mains directly.

  6. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, P B

    2010-10-01

    Performance in intense exercise events, such as Olympic rowing, swimming, kayak, track running and track cycling events, involves energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic sources. As aerobic energy supply dominates the total energy requirements after ∼75s of near maximal effort, and has the greatest potential for improvement with training, the majority of training for these events is generally aimed at increasing aerobic metabolic capacity. A short-term period (six to eight sessions over 2-4 weeks) of high-intensity interval training (consisting of repeated exercise bouts performed close to or well above the maximal oxygen uptake intensity, interspersed with low-intensity exercise or complete rest) can elicit increases in intense exercise performance of 2-4% in well-trained athletes. The influence of high-volume training is less discussed, but its importance should not be downplayed, as high-volume training also induces important metabolic adaptations. While the metabolic adaptations that occur with high-volume training and high-intensity training show considerable overlap, the molecular events that signal for these adaptations may be different. A polarized approach to training, whereby ∼75% of total training volume is performed at low intensities, and 10-15% is performed at very high intensities, has been suggested as an optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who perform intense exercise events. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Advanced modeling of high intensity accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.; Wangler, T.P.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goals of this project were three-fold: (1) to develop a new capability, based on high performance (parallel) computers, to perform large scale simulations of high intensity accelerators; (2) to apply this capability to modeling high intensity accelerators under design at LANL; and (3) to use this new capability to improve the understanding of the physics of intense charge particle beams, especially in regard to the issue of beam halo formation. All of these goals were met. In particular, the authors introduced split-operator methods as a powerful and efficient means to simulate intense beams in the presence of rapidly varying accelerating and focusing fields. They then applied these methods to develop scaleable, parallel beam dynamics codes for modeling intense beams in linacs, and in the process they implemented a new three-dimensional space charge algorithm. They also used the codes to study a number of beam dynamics issues related to the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, and in the process performed the largest simulations to date for any accelerator design project. Finally, they used the new modeling capability to provide direction and validation to beam physics studies, helping to identify beam mismatch as a major source of halo formation in high intensity accelerators. This LDRD project ultimately benefited not only LANL but also the US accelerator community since, by promoting expertise in high performance computing and advancing the state-of-the-art in accelerator simulation, its accomplishments helped lead to approval of a new DOE Grand Challenge in Computational Accelerator Physics.

  8. Fundamental Physics Explored with High Intensity Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Homma, K.

    2012-10-01

    Over the last century the method of particle acceleration to high energies has become the prime approach to explore the fundamental nature of matter in laboratory. It appears that the latest search of the contemporary accelerator based on the colliders shows a sign of saturation (or at least a slow-down) in increasing its energy and other necessary parameters to extend this frontier. We suggest two pronged approach enabled by the recent progress in high intensity lasers. First we envision the laser-driven plasma accelerator may be able to extend the reach of the collider. For this approach to bear fruit, we need to develop the technology of high averaged power laser in addition to the high intensity. For this we mention that the latest research effort of ICAN is an encouraging sign. In addition to this, we now introduce the concept of the noncollider paradigm in exploring fundamental physics with high intensity (and large energy) lasers. One of the examples we mention is the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) far beyond TeV without large luminosity. If we relax or do not require the large luminosity necessary for colliders, but solely in ultrahigh energy frontier, we are still capable of exploring such a fundamental issue. Given such a high energetic particle source and high-intensity laser fields simultaneously, we expect to be able to access new aspects on the matter and the vacuum structure from fundamental physical point of views. LWFA naturally exploits the nonlinear optical effects in the plasma when it becomes of relativistic intensity. Normally nonlinear optical effects are discussed based upon polarization susceptibility of matter to external fields. We suggest application of this concept even to the vacuum structure as a new kind of order parameter to discuss vacuum-originating phenomena at semimacroscopic scales. This viewpoint unifies the following observables with the unprecedented experimental environment we envision; the dispersion relation of

  9. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A.; Jovanovic, M.

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  10. High current pelletron for ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, James B.

    1989-04-01

    Since 1984, when the first production MeV ion implanter (an NEC model MV-T30) went on-line, interest in versatile electrostatic accelerator systems for MeV ion implantation has grown. The systems use a negative ion source to inject a tandem megavolt accelerator. In early systems the 0.4 mA of charging current from the two Pelletron charging chains in the accelerator was sufficient for the low intensity of beams from the ion source. This 2-chain system, however, is no longer adequate for the much higher beam intensities from today's improved ion sources. A 4-chain charging system, which delivers 1.3 mA to the high voltage terminal, was developed and is in operation in new models of NEC S Series Pelletron accelerators. This paper describes the latest beam performance of 1 MV and 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerators with this new 4-chain charging system.

  11. Tunable Intense High-Order Vortex Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei

    2017-10-01

    In 2015, we found the scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry OAM in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. The topological charge of the harmonics scales with its order. These results have been confirmed in recent experiments. In the two incident beams case, we produced relativistic intense harmonics with expected frequency and optical vortex. When two counter-propagating LG laser pulses impinge on a solid thin foil and interact with each other, the contribution of each input pulse in producing harmonics can be distinguished with the help of angular momentum conservation of photons, which is almost impossible for harmonic generation without optical vortex. The generation of tunable, intense vortex harmonics with different photon topological charge is predicted based on the theoretical analysis and 3D PIC simulations. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374319, 11674339).

  12. Current research priorities in perioperative intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Michael A; Sander, Michael; Shaw, Andrew; Wijeysundera, Duminda N; Myburgh, John; Aldecoa, Cesar; Jammer, Ib; Lobo, Suzana M; Pritchard, Naomi; Grocott, Michael P W; Schultz, Marcus J; Pearse, Rupert M

    2017-09-01

    Surgical treatments are offered to more patients than ever before, and increasingly to older patients with chronic disease. High-risk patients frequently require critical care either in the immediate postoperative period or after developing complications. The purpose of this review was to identify and prioritise themes for future research in perioperative intensive care medicine. We undertook a priority setting process (PSP). A panel was convened, drawn from experts representing a wide geographical area, plus a patient representative. The panel was asked to suggest and prioritise key uncertainties and future research questions in the field of perioperative intensive care through a modified Delphi process. Clinical trial registries were searched for on-going research. A proposed "Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome" (PICO) structure for each question was provided. Ten key uncertainties and future areas of research were identified as priorities and ranked. Appropriate intravenous fluid and blood component therapy, use of critical care resources, prevention of delirium and respiratory management featured prominently. Admissions following surgery contribute a substantial proportion of critical care workload. Studies aimed at improving care in this group could have a large impact on patient-centred outcomes and optimum use of healthcare resources. In particular, the optimum use of critical care resources in this group is an area that requires urgent research.

  13. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  14. Current indications and new applications of intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Lorente-Gual, R

    2015-06-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) systems have evolved since they were introduced into medical practice 20 years ago. Pulsed light is noncoherent, noncollimated, polychromatic light energy emitted at different wavelengths that target specific chromophores. This selective targeting capability makes IPL a versatile therapy with many applications, from the treatment of pigmented or vascular lesions to hair removal and skin rejuvenation. Its large spot size ensures a high skin coverage rate. The nonablative nature of IPL makes it an increasingly attractive alternative for patients unwilling to accept the adverse effects associated with other procedures, which additionally require prolonged absence from work and social activities. In many cases, IPL is similar to laser therapy in effectiveness, and its versatility, convenience, and safety will lead to an expanded range of applications and possibilities in coming years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. High intensity laser interactions with atomic clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditmire, T

    2000-08-07

    The development of ultrashort pulse table top lasers with peak pulse powers in excess of 1 TW has permitted an access to studies of matter subject to unprecedented light intensities. Such interactions have accessed exotic regimes of multiphoton atomic and high energy-density plasma physics. Very recently, the nature of the interactions between these very high intensity laser pulses and atomic clusters of a few hundred to a few thousand atoms has come under study. Such studies have found some rather unexpected results, including the striking finding that these interactions appear to be more energetic than interactions with either single atoms or solid density plasmas. Recent experiments have shown that the explosion of such clusters upon intense irradiation can expel ions from the cluster with energies from a few keV to nearly 1 MeV. This phenomenon has recently been exploited to produce DD fusion neutrons in a gas of exploding deuterium clusters. Under this project, we have undertaken a general study of the intense femtosecond laser cluster interaction. Our goal is to understand the macroscopic and microscopic coupling between the laser and the clusters with the aim of optimizing high flux fusion neutron production from the exploding deuterium clusters or the x-ray yield in the hot plasmas that are produced in this interaction. In particular, we are studying the physics governing the cluster explosions. The interplay between a traditional Coulomb explosion description of the cluster disassembly and a plasma-like hydrodynamic explosion is not entirely understood, particularly for small to medium sized clusters (<1000 atoms) and clusters composed of low-Z atoms. We are focusing on experimental studies of the ion and electron energies resulting from such explosions through various experimental techniques. We are also examining how an intense laser pulse propagates through a dense medium containing these clusters.

  16. Different Current Intensities of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Do Not Differentially Modulate Motor Cortex Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson J. Kidgell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive technique that modulates the excitability of neurons within the motor cortex (M1. Although the aftereffects of anodal tDCS on modulating cortical excitability have been described, there is limited data describing the outcomes of different tDCS intensities on intracortical circuits. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the aftereffects of M1 excitability following anodal tDCS, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to examine the effect of different intensities on cortical excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI. Using a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, with a one-week wash-out period, 14 participants (6 females and 8 males, 22–45 years were exposed to 10 minutes of anodal tDCS at 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 mA. TMS was used to measure M1 excitability and SICI of the contralateral wrist extensor muscle at baseline, immediately after and 15 and 30 minutes following cessation of anodal tDCS. Cortical excitability increased, whilst SICI was reduced at all time points following anodal tDCS. Interestingly, there were no differences between the three intensities of anodal tDCS on modulating cortical excitability or SICI. These results suggest that the aftereffect of anodal tDCS on facilitating cortical excitability is due to the modulation of synaptic mechanisms associated with long-term potentiation and is not influenced by different tDCS intensities.

  17. High current polarized proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Polarized proton sources are now being used more frequently on linacs. In pulsed operation up to 10 mA of /rvec H//sup +/ and 0.4 mA of /rvec H//sup /minus// have been produced. The present status of these sources, and developments to reach even higher intensities, are reviewed. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Ultra-High Intensity Magnetic Field Generation in Dense Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-01-08

    The main objective of this grant proposal was to explore the efficient generation of intense currents. Whereas the efficient generation of electric current in low-­energy-­density plasma has occupied the attention of the magnetic fusion community for several decades, scant attention has been paid to carrying over to high-­energy-­density plasma the ideas for steady-­state current drive developed for low-­energy-­density plasma, or, for that matter, to inventing new methodologies for generating electric current in high-­energy-­density plasma. What we proposed to do was to identify new mechanisms to accomplish current generation, and to assess the operation, physics, and engineering basis of new forms of current drive in regimes appropriate for new fusion concepts.

  19. High-current electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseyev, B. V.; Gorelikov, I. M.; Kazurov, V. I.; Mashkov, L. V.; Greshko, A. G.; Soklakov, G. I.; Fedorenko, A. I.; Yurekevich, K. B.

    1986-02-01

    A high current electron accelerator was developed and built on the basis of computer aided design calculations and electrolytic trough simulation. A 15 stage Arkadyev/Marx pulse voltage generator serves as the primary energy storing device. Each stage consists of two IK-100-0.4 capacitors connected in parallel and all immersed in transformer oil inside a metal container on electrically insulating posts. Each stage is shielded on both the positive and negative potential side. The shields, made of copper foil, not only smooth the electric field in the clearances but also constitute part of the commutating circuit and contribute to reduction of the overall generator size. The pulse voltage generator is triggered by a synchronizer through the conventional firing circuit of a TGI1-350/16 thyratron. To operate the accelerator in the nanosecond mode, the generator discharges into a diode through a twin shaping line. In this mode the accelerator can produce 0.8 MeV to 240 kA electron beams of 0.8 ns duration. To operate in the microsecond mode, the shaping line acts as storing capacitor, and the discharge gaps must be charged with polarity reversal in each stage. In this mode the accelerator can produce 0.5 MeV to 10 kA electron beams of 1 microsecond duration.

  20. Review of High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ito, Shigenori; Mizoguchi, Tatsuya; Saeki, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    .... Although moderate-intensity continuous training has been the main training regimen recommended in cardiac rehabilitation guidelines, high-intensity interval training has been reported to be more...

  1. Current Trends in Intensive Care of Eclampic Coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Podolsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the efficiency of the intensive care priorities of eclampic coma, which reduce mortality in puer-peras, by studying systemic and metabolic disturbances. Subjects and methods. Studies were conducted in 42 puer-peras with eclampic coma (a study group in whom the authors used their intensive care algorithm the basis for which was standard (conventional therapy. Central hemodynamic parameters were studied by the direct method of right heart catheterization using a flow-directed Swan-Ganz catheter. Overall cerebral blood flow was measured by a noninvasive (inhalation radionuclide method, by using the tracer 133Xe, as described by V. D. Obrist et al., on a modified КПРДИ-1 apparatus (USSR. The rate of brain oxygen uptake was determined from the oxygen content between the artery and the internal jugular vein. Studies were made in four steps: 1 on admission; 2 on days 2—3; 3 emergence from coma; 4 before transition. Results. The use of the authors’ proposed algorithm of intensive care for eclampic coma, which is aimed at enhancing cerebral blood flow due to the slight expanding effect of stabizole and antihypertensive therapy (nimodipine and magnesium sulfate, lowered the mean arterial pressure by not more than 10—25% of the baseline level. Conclusion. The proposed intensive care could reduce mortality by up to 4.8%. Key words: eclampsia, eclampic coma, intensive care.

  2. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, Robert; Mahler, George; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and the parameters of a small Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. We present the status and plans for this facility.

  3. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir N. Litvinenko; Donald Barton; D. Beavis; Ilan Ben-Zvi; Michael Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; Roger Connolly; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; G. McIntyre; W. Meng; T. C. Nehring; A. Nicoletti; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; N. Williams; K.-C. Wu; Vitaly Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble

    2004-08-01

    We present the design, the parameters of a small test Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. A possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 700 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and our plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  4. High-Current Rotating Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, David W.; Wolff, Edwin D.

    1996-01-01

    Rotating electrical contactor capable of carrying 1,000 amperes of current built for use in rotating large workpiece in electroplating bath. Electrical contact made by use of 24 automotive starter motor brushes adapted to match inside diameter of shell electrode.

  5. High-intensity, focused ultrasonic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1988-01-01

    The use of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for disintegration of body stones has increased considerably during recent years. A worldwide activity in this field is reflected in a growing number of international publications and in the development and manufacturing of several ESWL...... machines marketed by companies in Germany and France, in particular. Two main types of ESWL systems are prevailing, the spark gap-based and the piezoelectric disk-based systems. This paper is introduced by a brief reconsideration of the features of pressure waves in water produced by an electrical...... distribution, etc. involving nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption in the high-intensity focused ultrasonic fields produced by an ellipsoid as well as a spherical cap focusing geometry. Data from the development of an ESWL of the piezoelectric disk type are reported including demands to transducers...

  6. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  8. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  9. Formation of high intensity ion beams with ballistic focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, T. V.; Ryabchikov, A. I.; Shevelev, A. E.; Kim, An Tran My; Tarakanov, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    This investigation presents the results of experimental investigation and theoretical simulations of the influence of plasma and negative bias parameters on formation, transportation and focusing of high intensity ion beams of titanium and nitrogen (with an ion current density up to 1 A/cm2 and pulsed power density up to 2.6 kW/cm2). It was shown that the conditions of space charge neutralization of the focusing beam have a significant influence on the distribution and magnitude of the ion current at the collector.

  10. Current barriers to confine high frequency common mode currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Dominicus Johannes Guilielmus; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A commercially produced three phase power line filter is submitted to a Current Barrier (CB) Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) zoning strategy as an attempt to confine high frequency common mode currents. The intent of the paper is not to show how to build a ’perfect’ filter, since this is known.

  11. Influence of electric current intensity on the performance of electroformed copper liner for shaped charge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrolytic Copper used in the shaped charge liner manufacturing can be produced from acid solution using electro-deposition technique. The intensity of the applied electric current controls the quality of the produced copper grade. The electric current intensity within the electrolytic acidic solution cell with the minimum oxygen and sulfur elements in the produced copper was optimized and found to be 30–40 A/Ft2. The elemental composition of the obtained electrolytic copper was determined using high-end stationary vacuum spectrometer, while the oxygen was determined precisely using ELTRA ONH-2000 apparatus. Besides, SEM was used to investigate the shape of the copper texture inside the deposited layers and to determine the average grain size. New relations have been obtained between the applied current intensity and both the oxygen and sulfur contents and the average grain size of the produced copper. Experimental result showed that when the applied current density increases to a certain limit, the oxygen and sulfur content in the electrolytic copper decreases. Performance of the produced copper liner was investigated by the static firing of a small caliber shaped charge containing an electro-formed copper liners, where the penetration depth of the optimized electrolytic liner was enhanced by 22.7% compared to that of baseline non-optimized liner.

  12. Cell-stimulation therapy of lateral epicondylitis with frequency-modulated low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, R M; Geiger, G

    2012-03-01

    In addition to the routine therapy, the patients with lateral epicondylitis included into experimental group were subjected to a 12-week cell-stimulation therapy with low-intensity frequency-modulated electric current. The control group received the same routine therapy and sham stimulation (the therapeutic apparatus was not energized). The efficiency of this microcurrent therapy was estimated by comparing medical indices before therapy and at the end of a 12-week therapeutic course using a 10-point pain severity numeric rating scale (NRS) and Roles-Maudsley pain score. The study revealed high therapeutic efficiency of cell-stimulation with low-intensity electric current resulting probably from up-regulation of intracellular transmitters, interleukins, and prostaglandins playing the key role in the regulation of inflammation.

  13. Postpartum depression on the neonatal intensive care unit: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahirkheli NN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Noor N Tahirkheli,1 Amanda S Cherry,1 Alayna P Tackett,2 Mary Anne McCaffree,3 Stephen R Gillaspy11Section of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA; 3Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: As the most common complication of childbirth affecting 10%–15% of women, postpartum depression (PPD goes vastly undetected and untreated, inflicting long-term consequences on both mother and child. Studies consistently show that mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU experience PPD at higher rates with more elevated symptomatology than mothers of healthy infants. Although there has been increased awareness regarding the overall prevalence of PPD and recognition of the need for health care providers to address this health issue, there has not been adequate attention to PPD in the context of the NICU. This review will focus on an overview of PPD and psychological morbidities, the prevalence of PPD in mothers of infants admitted to NICU, associated risk factors, potential PPD screening measures, promising intervention programs, the role of NICU health care providers in addressing PPD in the NICU, and suggested future research directions.Keywords: neonatal intensive care unit, postpartum depression, mothers

  14. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Edgecock, T.R.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Wildner, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Hansen, C.; Benedetto, E.; Jensen, E.; Kosmicki, A.; Martini, M.; Osborne, J.; Prior, G.; Stora, T.; Melo-Mendonca, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Waaijer, C.; Cupial, P.; Chancé, A.; Longhin, A.; Payet, J.; Zito, M.; Baussan, E.; Bobeth, C.; Bouquerel, E.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Lepers, B.; Osswald, F.; Poussot, P.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wurtz, J.; Zeter, V.; Bielski, J.; Kozien, M.; Lacny, L.; Skoczen, B.; Szybinski, B.; Ustrzycka, A.; Wroblewski, A.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Balint, P.; Fourel, C.; Giraud, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Mitrofanov, S.; Loiselet, M.; Keutgen, Th.; Delbar, Th.; Debray, F.; Trophine, C.; Veys, S.; Daversin, C.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A.C.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; De Angelis, G.; Prete, G.; Collazuol, G.; Laveder, M.; Mazzocco, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Signorini, C.; Vardaci, E.; Di Nitto, A.; Brondi, A.; La Rana, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moro, R.; Palladino, V.; Gelli, N.; Berkovits, D.; Hass, M.; Hirsh, T.Y.; Schaumann, M.; Stahl, A.; Wehner, J.; Bross, A.; Kopp, J.; Neuffer, D.; Wands, R.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, P.; Agarwalla, S.K.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Donini, A.; Ghosh, T.; Gómez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernández, P.; Martín-Albo, J.; Mena, O.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Marafini, M.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Duchesneau, D.; Mosca, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Akhmedov, E.; Blennow, M.; Lindner, M.; Schwetz, T.; Fernández Martinez, E.; Maltoni, M.; Menéndez, J.; Giunti, C.; González García, M. C.; Salvado, J.; Coloma, P.; Huber, P.; Li, T.; López-Pavón, J.; Orme, C.; Pascoli, S.; Meloni, D.; Tang, J.; Winter, W.; Ohlsson, T.; Zhang, H.; Scotto-Lavina, L.; Terranova, F.; Bonesini, M.; Tortora, L.; Alekou, A.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Kurup, A.; Jenner, L.J.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Pozimski, J.; Back, J.J.; Harrison, P.; Beard, K.; Bogacz, A.; Berg, J.S.; Stratakis, D.; Witte, H.; Snopok, P.; Bliss, N.; Cordwell, M.; Moss, A.; Pattalwar, S.; Apollonio, M.

    2013-02-20

    The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of {\\mu}+ and {\\mu}- beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular 6He and 18Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fr\\'ejus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the ph...

  15. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy: an Overview for Radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lim, Hyo Keun; Choi, Dong Il [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Min Joo [College of Medicine, Cheju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    High-intensity focused ultrasound therapy is a novel, emerging, therapeutic modality that uses ultrasound waves, propagated through tissue media, as carriers of energy. This completely non-invasive technology has great potential for tumor ablation as well as hemostasis, thrombolysis and targeted drug/gene delivery. However, the application of this technology still has many drawbacks. It is expected that current obstacles to implementation will be resolved in the near future. In this review, we provide an overview of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy from the basic physics to recent clinical studies with an interventional radiologist's perspective for the purpose of improving the general understanding of this cutting-edge technology as well as speculating on future developments

  16. High-Intensity Sweeteners and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E.; Martin, Ashley A.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence points to a link between a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g. metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) and the consumption of both calorically sweetened beverages and beverages sweetened with high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners. Research on the possibility that non-nutritive sweeteners promote food intake, body weight gain, and metabolic disorders has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically-relevant model that describes the mechanistic basis for these outcomes. We have suggested that based on Pavlovian conditioning principles, consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners could result in sweet tastes no longer serving as consistent predictors of nutritive postingestive consequences. This dissociation between the sweet taste cues and the caloric consequences could lead to a decrease in the ability of sweet tastes to evoke physiological responses that serve to regulate energy balance. Using a rodent model, we have found that intake of foods or fluids containing non-nutritive sweeteners was accompanied by increased food intake, body weight gain, accumulation of body fat, and weaker caloric compensation, compared to consumption of foods and fluids containing glucose. Our research also provided evidence consistent with the hypothesis that these effects of consuming saccharin may be associated with a decrement in the ability of sweet taste to evoke thermic responses, and perhaps other physiological, cephalic phase, reflexes that are thought to help maintain energy balance. PMID:20060008

  17. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  18. High intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Edgecock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The EUROnu project has studied three possible options for future, high intensity neutrino oscillation facilities in Europe. The first is a Super Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of pions created by bombarding targets with a 4 MW proton beam from the CERN High Power Superconducting Proton Linac. The far detector for this facility is the 500 kt MEMPHYS water Cherenkov, located in the Fréjus tunnel. The second facility is the Neutrino Factory, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of μ^{+} and μ^{-} beams in a storage ring. The far detector in this case is a 100 kt magnetized iron neutrino detector at a baseline of 2000 km. The third option is a Beta Beam, in which the neutrinos come from the decay of beta emitting isotopes, in particular ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne, also stored in a ring. The far detector is also the MEMPHYS detector in the Fréjus tunnel. EUROnu has undertaken conceptual designs of these facilities and studied the performance of the detectors. Based on this, it has determined the physics reach of each facility, in particular for the measurement of CP violation in the lepton sector, and estimated the cost of construction. These have demonstrated that the best facility to build is the Neutrino Factory. However, if a powerful proton driver is constructed for another purpose or if the MEMPHYS detector is built for astroparticle physics, the Super Beam also becomes very attractive.

  19. Clinical Trials Involving Biphasic Pulsed Current, MicroCurrent, and/or Low-Intensity Direct Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Pamela E

    2014-02-01

    Significance: This invited critical review will summarize an expansive body of literature regarding electrical stimulation (ES) and wound healing. Several clinical reports have been published in which ES has been evaluated as a therapy to speed the closure of chronic wounds. Different forms of ES have been applied in varying ways and described using inconsistent terminology by researchers and clinicians around the world. It is important to compile this research and to critically appraise the findings so that clinicians who are not familiar with this field can interpret the research. Recent Advances: More recently, ES has been delivered at subsensory levels (termed microcurrent in this review) using very small electrical devices contained within wound dressing. While these newer technologies have obvious technical advances, what research has been published to date about these new devices has not produced findings that suggest this form of ES can accelerate wound closure. Critical Issues: Reviewing a collection of published reports on this subject reveals that not all forms of ES produce beneficial results. Rather, only certain ES protocols such as monophasic pulsed current applied to the wound and biphasic pulsed current current that is applied for 2 h daily to periulcer skin at intensities which produce motor responses have consistently demonstrated positive results. Future Directions: Optimal stimulus parameters and treatment schedule for ES used to treat chronic wounds need to be determined. Researchers publishing in this field should provide detailed information about their ES treatment protocol and use a similar terminology to describe the ES waveform and stimulus parameters.

  20. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using...... the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate-intensity......: A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Although there was great heterogenecity in design, population and exercise protocols, all studies found high-intensity training to be safe. High-intensity training was equal to moderate-intensity continuous exercise through improvement in endothelial...

  1. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  2. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F.

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  3. Physiological responses at the lactate-minimum-intensity with and without prior high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Padulo, Johnny; Silva, Adelino Ramos Sanchez da; Müller, Paulo de Tarso Guerrero; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the physiological responses during exercise-to-exhaustion at the lactate-minimum-intensity with and without prior high-intensity exercise. Eleven recreationally trained males performed a graded exercise test, a lactate minimum test and two constant-load tests at lactate-minimum-intensity until exhaustion, which were applied with or without prior hyperlactatemia induction (i.e., 30-s Wingate test). The physiological responses were significantly different (P  0.05). In conclusion, the constant-load exercises performed at lactate-minimum-intensity with or without prior high-intensity exercise did not lead to the steady state of all analysed parameters; however, variables such as [La(-)], pH and [HCO3] - altered at the beginning of effort performed after high-intensity exercise - were reestablished after approximately 30 min of exercise.

  4. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  6. Evidence based exercise: Clinical benefits of high intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    ...: This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Discussion...

  7. Aluminium plasma production at high laser intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.

    2014-02-01

    Thick and thin films of Al targets were irradiated in vacuum with iodine laser at 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration at a maximum intensity of about 1016 W/cm2 by varying the pulse energy and focal position. The laser-generated plasma was monitored in forward and backward directions by using ion collectors, SiC detectors, Thomson parabola spectrometer, and X-ray streak camera. Ion emission shows maximum proton energy of about 4 MeV in self-focusing conditions and a maximum Al ion energy of about 50 MeV. An evaluation of the electric field driving ions in conditions of target normal sheath acceleration is given.

  8. Aluminium plasma production at high laser intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M. [Dip.to di Fisica e S.d.T. Università di Messina, V.S. d' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata (Italy)

    2014-02-28

    Thick and thin films of Al targets were irradiated in vacuum with iodine laser at 1315 nm wavelength, 300 ps pulse duration at a maximum intensity of about 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} by varying the pulse energy and focal position. The laser-generated plasma was monitored in forward and backward directions by using ion collectors, SiC detectors, Thomson parabola spectrometer, and X-ray streak camera. Ion emission shows maximum proton energy of about 4 MeV in self-focusing conditions and a maximum Al ion energy of about 50 MeV. An evaluation of the electric field driving ions in conditions of target normal sheath acceleration is given.

  9. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered.

  10. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  11. Multifunctional pulse generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can achieve high spatial resolution for the treatment of diseases. A major technical challenge in implementing a HIFU therapeutic system is to generate high-voltage high-current signals for effectively exciting a multichannel HIFU transducer at high efficiencies. In this paper, we present the development of a multifunctional multichannel generator/driver. The generator can produce a long burst as well as an extremely high-voltage short pulse of pseudosinusoidal waves (trigger HIFU) and second-harmonic superimposed waves for HIFU transmission. The transmission timing, waveform, and frequency can be controlled using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via a universal serial bus (USB) microcontroller. The hardware is implemented in a compact printed circuit board. The test results of trigger HIFU reveal that the power consumption and the temperature rise of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors were reduced by 19.9% and 38.2 °C, respectively, from the previous design. The highly flexible performance of the novel generator/driver is demonstrated in the generation of second-harmonic superimposed waves, which is useful for cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment, although the previous design exhibited difficulty in generating it.

  12. Engineering Food Ingredients with High-Intensity Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jochen; Kristbergsson, Kristberg; Kjartansson, Gunnar Thor

    The use of ultrasound in the food industry has increased in the last decades. Ultrasound has been used both to analyze food structure and composition at low ultrasonic intensities and high frequencies and to modify ingredients at high ultrasonic intensities and low frequencies. Application of the latter is referred to as high-intensity (power) ultrasonication and is generally carried out at frequencies of =0.1 MHz and ultrasonic intensities of 10-100 W cm-2. In the food industry, power ultrasonication has proved to be a highly effective food processing and preservation technology, and use of high-intensity ultrasound with or without heat may be used, for example, to denature enzymes, aid in the extraction of valuable compounds from plants and seeds, tenderize meat, and homogenize or disperse two-phase systems such as emulsions or suspensions (Mason et al., 1996).

  13. Experimental behaviour of a argon plasma, which is passed by a high current intensity, with different magnetic field configurations; Comportamiento experimental de un plasma de argon en diferentes configuraciones de campo magnetico y a elevadas corrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, J.

    1964-07-01

    In a lineal discharge, the longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields produced by the current through the tube and the returning conductors, which have 4 different forms, are determined with a magnetic probe, which has a radial and longitudinal displacement. The plasma is produced discharging a 135{mu}F and 9 KV capacitor bank through Argon at 10{sup -}1 Torr. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound: metrological requirements versus clinical usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, J.-F.

    2012-10-01

    High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) is an appealing non-invasive, non-ionizing therapeutic modality with a wide range of tissue interactions ranging from transient permeabilization of cell membranes to thermal ablation. The ability to guide and monitor the treatment with an associated ultrasonic or magnetic resonance imaging device has resulted in a dramatic rise in the clinical use of therapeutic ultrasound in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the range of clinical applications and the number of patients treated has grown at a much higher pace than the definition of standards. In this paper the metrological requirements of the therapeutic beams are reviewed and are compared with the current clinical use of image-guided HITU mostly based on a practical approach. Liver therapy, a particularly challenging clinical application, is discussed to highlight the differences between some complex clinical situations and the experimental conditions of the metrological characterization of ultrasonic transducers.

  15. Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal lesions induced by high-intensity focused ultrasound in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangraz, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound induces focalized tissue coagulation by increasing the tissue temperature in a tight focal region. Several methods have been proposed to monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Currently, ultrasound imaging techniques that are clinically used for monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment are standard pulse-echo B-mode ultrasound imaging, ultrasound temperature estimation, and elastography-based methods. On the contrary, the efficacy of two-dimensional Nakagami parametric imaging based on the distribution of the ultrasound backscattered signals to quantify properties of soft tissue has recently been evaluated. In this study, ultrasound radio frequency echo signals from ex vivo tissue samples were acquired before and after high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures and then their Nakagami parameter and scaling parameter of Nakagami distribution were estimated. These parameters were used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions. Also, the effects of changing the acoustic power of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer on the Nakagami parameters were studied. The results obtained suggest that the Nakagami distribution's scaling and Nakagami parameters can effectively be used to detect high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in tissue ex vivo. These parameters can also be used to understand the degree of change in tissue caused by high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures, which could be interpreted as a measure of degree of variability in scatterer concentration in various parts of the high-intensity focused ultrasound lesion.

  16. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P high intensity exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  18. Malaria Host Candidate Genes Validated by Association With Current, Recent, and Historical Measures of Transmission Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Nuno; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Campino, Susana G; Lemnge, Martha; Lusingu, John; Olomi, Raimos; Rockett, Kirk A; Hubbart, Christina; Jeffreys, Anna; Rowlands, Kate; Clark, Taane G; Riley, Eleanor M; Drakeley, Chris J

    2017-07-01

    Human malaria susceptibility is determined by multiple genetic factors. It is unclear, however, which genetic variants remain important over time. Genetic associations of 175 high-quality polymorphisms within several malaria candidate genes were examined in a sample of 8096 individuals from northeast Tanzania using altitude, seroconversion rates, and parasite rates as proxies of historical, recent, and current malaria transmission intensity. A principal component analysis was used to derive 2 alternative measures of overall malaria propensity of a location across different time scales. Common red blood cell polymorphisms (ie, hemoglobin S, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and α-thalassemia) were the only ones to be associated with all 3 measures of transmission intensity and the first principal component. Moderate associations were found between some immune response genes (ie, IL3 and IL13) and parasite rates, but these could not be reproduced using the alternative measures of malaria propensity. We have demonstrated the potential of using altitude and seroconversion rate as measures of malaria transmission capturing medium- to long-term time scales to detect genetic associations that are likely to persist over time. These measures also have the advantage of minimizing the deleterious effects of random factors affecting parasite rates on the respective association signals.

  19. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  20. Simulation of high currents in x-ray flash tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, R.; Sato, E.

    2008-11-01

    The discharge in linear plasma X-ray flash tubes ( Sato tubes ) is simulated. For the geometry of a cylinder cathode outside and an anode in the centre, the electrical fields and potentials are calculated and the propagation of electrons are studied. Space charge limits the current in the initial phase strongly. Replacing the vacuum by plasma from the anode evaporation, it is possible to get increasing current and strong X-ray pulses. Space charge is important for the high intensity X-ray production up to the end of the emission.

  1. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  2. Architecture and Programming Models for High Performance Intensive Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0230 Architecture and Programming Models for High Performance Intensive Computation XiaoMing Li UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Final...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Architecture and Programming Models for High Performance Intensive Computation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0213...developing an efficient system architecture and software tools for building and running Dynamic Data Driven Application Systems (DDDAS). The foremost

  3. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ{sup 2}, where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  4. High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Virgo, M

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

  5. Moderate vs. high exercise intensity: differential effects on aerobic fitness, cardiomyocyte contractility, and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemi, Ole J; Haram, Per M; Loennechen, Jan P; Osnes, Jan-Bjørn; Skomedal, Tor; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2005-07-01

    Current guidelines are controversial regarding exercise intensity in cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation. Although high-intensity training induces larger increases in fitness and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), moderate intensity is often recommended as equally effective. Controlled preclinical studies and randomized clinical trials are required to determine whether regular exercise at moderate versus high intensity is more beneficial. We therefore assessed relative effectiveness of 10-week HIGH versus moderate (MOD) exercise intensity on integrative and cellular functions. Sprague-Dawley rats performed treadmill running intervals at either 85%-90% (HIGH) or 65%-70% (MOD) of VO2max 1 h per day, 5 days per week. Weekly VO2max-testing adjusted exercise intensity. HIGH and MOD increased VO2max by 71% and 28%, respectively. This was paralleled by intensity-dependent cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, 14% and 5% in HIGH and MOD, respectively. Cardiomyocyte function (fractional shortening) increased by 45% and 23%, contraction rate decreased by 43% and 39%, and relaxation rate decreased by 20% and 10%, in HIGH and MOD, respectively. Ca2+ transient time-courses paralleled contraction/relaxation, whereas Ca2+ sensitivity increased 40% and 30% in HIGH and MOD, respectively. Carotid artery endothelial function improved similarly with both intensities. EC50 for acetylcholine-induced relaxation decreased 4.3-fold in HIGH (p hypertrophy, contractility and vasorelaxation also correlated significantly with VO2max. The present study demonstrates that cardiovascular adaptations to training are intensity-dependent. A close correlation between VO2max, cardiomyocyte dimensions and contractile capacity suggests significantly higher benefit with high intensity, whereas endothelial function appears equivalent at moderate levels. Thus, exercise intensity emerges as an important variable in future preclinical and clinical investigations.

  6. Distinct impacts of high intensity caregiving on caregivers' mental health and continuation of caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Narimasa

    2017-12-01

    Although high-intensity caregiving has been found to be associated with a greater prevalence of mental health problems, little is known about the specifics of this relationship. This study clarified the burden of informal caregivers quantitatively and provided policy implications for long-term care policies in countries with aging populations. Using data collected from a nationwide five-wave panel survey in Japan, I examined two causal relationships: (1) high-intensity caregiving and mental health of informal caregivers, and (2) high-intensity caregiving and continuation of caregiving. Considering the heterogeneity in high-intensity caregiving among informal caregivers, control function model which allows for heterogeneous treatment effects was used.This study uncovered three major findings. First, hours of caregiving was found to influence the continuation of high-intensity caregiving among non-working informal caregivers and irregular employees. Specifically, caregivers who experienced high-intensity caregiving (20-40 h) tended to continue with it to a greater degree than did caregivers who experienced ultra-high-intensity caregiving (40 h or more). Second, high-intensity caregiving was associated with worse mental health among non-working caregivers, but did not have any effect on the mental health of irregular employees. The control function model revealed that caregivers engaging in high-intensity caregiving who were moderately mentally healthy in the past tended to have serious mental illness currently. Third, non-working caregivers did not tend to continue high-intensity caregiving for more than three years, regardless of co-residential caregiving. This is because current high-intensity caregiving was not associated with the continuation of caregiving when I included high-intensity caregiving provided during the previous period in the regression. Overall, I noted distinct impacts of high-intensity caregiving on the mental health of informal caregivers and

  7. High-intensity aerobic interval exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philippe; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic exercise training is strongly recommended in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to improve symptoms and quality of life. Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous exercise (MICE) is the best established training modality in HF patients. For about a decade, however, another training modality, high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE), has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation. Originally used by athletes, HIIE consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods. The rationale for its use is to increase exercise time spent in high-intensity zones, thereby increasing the training stimulus. Several studies have demonstrated that HIIE is more effective than MICE, notably for improving exercise capacity in patients with HF. The aim of the present review is to describe the general principles of HIIE prescription, the acute physiological effects, the longer-term training effects, and finally the future perspectives of HIIE in patients with HF.

  8. Extremely High Current, High-Brightness Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Grimes, Jacob T; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Segalov, Zvi; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren-Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Next generation ERL light-sources, high-energy electron coolers, high-power Free-Electron Lasers, powerful Compton X-ray sources and many other accelerators were made possible by the emerging technology of high-power, high-brightness electron beams. In order to get the anticipated performance level of ampere-class currents, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for its electron cooling of RHIC application, as well as a possible future electron-hadron collider. We will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun and an accelerator cavity capable of producing low emittance (about 1 micron rms normalized) one nano-Coulomb bunches at currents of the order of one ampere average.

  9. Analysis of Magnetic Field Intensity and Induced Current under Live Working Based on Charge Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Yuanxiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To the problem that safety distance is insufficient for 500 kV substation live working, a magnetic field analysis method for overhead line bus is given based on the charge simulation method. In the method, charge is calculated firstly, and the space field intensity distribution calculation is completed by overlying charge. The space field intensity distribution rule is carried out based on the appropriate analysis, and space field intensity distribution rule of substation is obtained. Then according to the calculation formula of inducing current, the human body induction current under a substation busbar is simulated based on MATLAB. The simulation results have a certain guidance function for actual live working.

  10. Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, Eric L.; Gerrits, Karin H.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Nollet, Frans; Beelen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT. Cohort study. Research laboratory. Individuals with PPS

  11. Operation of the DC current transformer intensity monitors at FNAL during run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Heikkinen, D.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Meyer, T.; Vogel, G.; /Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Circulating beam intensity measurements at FNAL are provided by five DC current transformers (DCCT), one per machine. With the exception of the DCCT in the Recycler, all DCCT systems were designed and built at FNAL. This paper presents an overview of both DCCT systems, including the sensor, the electronics, and the front-end instrumentation software, as well as their performance during Run II.

  12. Pulmonary Vein Isolation by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Antz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI using radiofrequency current (RFC ablation is a potentially curative treatment option for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF. The shortcomings of the RFC technology (technically challenging, long procedure times, complications steadily kindle the interest in new energy sources and catheter designs. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU has the ability to precisely focus ultrasound waves in a defined area with a high energy density. HIFU balloon catheters (BC positioned at the PV ostia appear to be an ideal tool to transmit the ablation energy in a circumferential manner to the PV ostia and may therefore bear substantial advantage over conventional ablation catheters in PVI procedures. In clinical trials the HIFU BC has shown promising success rates similar to RFC catheter ablation for PVI in patients with AF. However, procedure times are still long and serious complications have been observed. Therefore, it may be a valuable alternative to the conventional techniques in selected patients but further clinical trials have to be initiated.

  13. Production and Studies of Photocathodes for High Intensity Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H

    2000-01-01

    For short, high-intensity electron bunches, alkali-tellurides have proved to be a reliable photo-cathode material. Measurements of lifetimes in an rf gun of the CLIC Test Facility II at field strengths greater than 100 MV/m are presented. Before and after using them in this gun, the spectral response of the CS-Te and Rb-Te cathodes were determined with the help of an optical parametric oscillator. The behaviour of both materials can be described by Spicer's 3-step model. Whereas during the use the threshold for photo-emission in Cs-Te was shifted to higher proton energies, that of Rb-Te did not change. Our latest investigations on the stoichiometric ratio of the components are shown. The preparation of the photo-cathodes was monitored with 320 nm wavelength light , with the aim of improving the measurement sensitivity. The latest results on the protection of Cs-Te cathode surfaces with CsBr against pollution are summarized. New investigations on high mean current production are presented.,

  14. Distraction and Expressive Suppression Strategies in Regulation of High- and Low-Intensity Negative Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Fan, Cong; Zhu, Chuanlin; Li, Shuaixia; Zhang, Zhao; Qi, Zhengyang; Luo, Wenbo

    2017-10-12

    The current study compared the effectiveness of distraction, an antecedent-focused strategy that involves diverting an individual's attention away from affective terms, and expressive suppression, a response-focused strategy that involves inhibiting conscious emotion-expressive behavior during an emotionally aroused state, in the regulation of high- and low-intensity unpleasant stimuli, using event-related potentials (ERPs). Sixteen participants completed an emotion regulation experiment in which they passively viewed high- or low-intensity unpleasant images (view), solved a mathematical equation presented on high- or low-intensity negative images (distraction), or suppressed their emotional expression in response to high- or low-intensity unpleasant images (suppression). Their negative experiences after implementation of these strategies were rated by participants on a 1-9 scale. We mainly found that compared with expressive suppression, distraction yielded greater attenuation of the early phase of centro-parietal LPP when the participants responded to high-intensity stimuli. In the low-intensity condition, distraction, but not expressive suppression, effectively decreased the early phase of LPP. The findings suggest that expressive suppression works as early as distraction in the high-intensity condition; more importantly, distraction is superior to expressive suppression in regulating negative emotion, which is influenced by emotional intensity.

  15. Electrochemical doping of mesoporous silicon with Er: the effect of the current intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula, Guido, E-mail: guido.mula@unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Pinna, Elisa [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Falqui, Andrea [Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Ruffilli, Roberta [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Palmas, Simonetta; Mascia, Michele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica Chimica e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Piazza d’Armi, 09126 Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A multidisciplinary approach on porous Si electrochemical Er doping is proposed. • The phenomena taking place at the large developed surface of porous silicon are studied. • Electrochemical, optical and structural characterizations are used. • The early stages of doping are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. • The dependence of the final amount of Er deposited on the current intensity and not only on the transferred charge is shown. - Abstract: There is an ongoing intense research for cost-effective Er-doped Si-based light-emitting devices at the 1.5 μm wavelength. The efficient electrochemical Er-doping of porous silicon for this purpose requires a good understanding of the phenomena involved, since those taking place at the pores inner surface control the doping process. However, almost no attention has been given, to date, to the relevant effects of the current intensity onto the doping results. In this work, the effect of the current intensity on the doping process is explored by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, optical reflectivity and energy dispersive spectrometry via scanning electron microscopy. The combined analysis of all results strongly suggests that the formation of a gel-like Er ethanolate, unaffected by changes in the sample thickness, occurs from the very first stages of the doping process. Moreover, while for constant current doping processes we show that, under any given doping condition, the doping level is proportional to the transferred charge, we demonstrate that performing the doping process using different current intensities may lead to dramatically different results.

  16. Review of High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Mizoguchi, Tatsuya; Saeki, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    For the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is required. This involves optimal medical therapy, education on nutrition and exercise therapy, and smoking cessation. Of these, efficient exercise therapy is a key factor. A highly effective training protocol is therefore warranted, which requires a high rate of compliance. Although moderate-intensity continuous training has been the main training regimen recommended in cardiac rehabilitation guidelines, high-intensity interval training has been reported to be more effective in the clinical and experimental setting from the standpoint of peak oxygen uptake and central and peripheral adaptations. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence for high-intensity interval training. We then verify this evidence and discuss its significance and the remaining issues.

  17. H- Ion Sources for High Intensity Proton Drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H- ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm2 per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H- ion production efficiency, reliability and availability for pulsed operation as used in the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source . At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power 1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with 4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H- beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the aluminum nitride (AlN) discharge chamber for 32 days at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. While this project demonstrated the advantages of the pulsed version of the SA RF SPS as an upgrade to the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source, it led to a possibility for upgrades to CW machines like the many cyclotrons used for commercial applications. Four appendices contain important details of the work carried out under this grant.

  18. Controlling the Er content of porous silicon using the doping current intensity

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido

    2014-07-04

    The results of an investigation on the Er doping of porous silicon are presented. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, optical reflectivity, and spatially resolved energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to scanning electron microscopy measurements were used to investigate on the transient during the first stages of constant current Er doping. Depending on the applied current intensity, the voltage transient displays two very different behaviors, signature of two different chemical processes. The measurements show that, for equal transferred charge and identical porous silicon (PSi) layers, the applied current intensity also influences the final Er content. An interpretative model is proposed in order to describe the two distinct chemical processes. The results can be useful for a better control over the doping process.

  19. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) ...

  20. Benefits of High-Intensity Intensive Care Unit Physician Staffing under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Logani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act signed into law by President Obama, with its value-based purchasing program, is designed to link payment to quality processes and outcomes. Treatment of critically ill patients represents nearly 1% of the gross domestic product and 25% of a typical hospital budget. Data suggest that high-intensity staffing patterns in the intensive care unit (ICU are associated with cost savings and improved outcomes. We evaluate the literature investigating the cost-effectiveness and clinical outcomes of high-intensity ICU physician staffing as recommended by The Leapfrog Group (a consortium of companies that purchase health care for their employees and identify ways to overcome barriers to nationwide implementation of these standards. Hospitals that have implemented the Leapfrog initiative have demonstrated reductions in mortality and length of stay and increased cost savings. High-intensity staffing models appear to be an immediate cost-effective way for hospitals to meet the challenges of health care reform.

  1. The generation of high-quality, intense ion beams by ultra-intense lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, M; Audebert, Patrick; Blazevic, A; Brambrink, E; Cowan, T E; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, J C; Geissel, M; Hegelich, M; Karsch, S; Meyer-Ter-Vehn, J; Ruhl, H; Schlegel, T; Stephens, R B

    2002-01-01

    Intense beams of protons and heavy ions have been observed in ultra-intense laser-solid interaction experiments. Thereby, a considerable fraction of the laser energy is transferred to collimated beams of energetic ions (e.g. up to 50 MeV protons; 100 MeV fluorine), which makes these beams highly interesting for various applications. Experimental results indicate a very short-pulse duration and an excellent beam quality, leading to beam intensities in the TW range. To characterize the beam quality and its dependence on laser parameters and target conditions we performed experiments using the 100 TW laser system at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses at the Ecole Polytechnique, France, with focused intensities exceeding 10 sup 1 sup 9 W cm sup - sup 2. We found a strong dependence on the target rear surface conditions allowing to tailor the ion beam by an appropriate target design. We also succeeded in the generation of heavy ion beams by suppressing the proton amount at the target surface. We wi...

  2. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. High intensity focused ultrasound in clinical tumor ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), which was developed in the 1940s as a viable thermal tissue ablation approach, have increased its popularity. In clinics, HIFU has been applied to treat a variety of solid malignant tumors in a well-defined volume, including the pancreas, liver, prostate, breast, uterine fibroids, and soft-tissue sarcomas. In comparison to conventional tumor/cancer treatment modalities, such as open surgery, radio- and chemo-therapy, HIFU has the advantages of non-invasion, non-ionization, and fewer complications after treatment. Over 100 000 cases have been treated throughout the world with great success. The fundamental principles of HIFU ablation are coagulative thermal necrosis due to the absorption of ultrasound energy during transmission in tissue and the induced cavitation damage. This paper reviews the clinical outcomes of HIFU ablation for applicable cancers, and then summarizes the recommendations for a satisfactory HIFU treatment according to clinical experience. In addition, the current challenges in HIFU for engineers and physicians are also included. More recent horizons have broadened the application of HIFU in tumor treatment, such as HIFU-mediated drug delivery, vessel occlusion, and soft tissue erosion (“histotripsy”). In summary, HIFU is likely to play a significant role in the future oncology practice. PMID:21603311

  4. High-intensity light-emitting diode vs fluorescent tubes for intensive phototherapy in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbiny, Hanan S; Youssef, Doaa M; Sherbini, Ahmad S; El-Behedy, Rabab; Sherief, Laila M

    2016-05-01

    Special blue fluorescent tubes are recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) as the most effective light source for lowering serum bilirubin. A high-intensity light-emitting diode ('super LED') could render intensive phototherapy more effective than the above conventional methods. This study compared the efficacy and safety of a high-intensity light-emitting diode bed vs conventional intensive phototherapy with triple fluorescent tube units as a rescue treatment for severe unconjugated neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. This was a randomised, prospective trial. Two hundred jaundiced neonates ≥ 35 weeks gestation who met the criteria for intensive phototherapy as per AAP guidelines were randomly assigned to be treated either with triple fluorescent tube units (group 1, n = 100) or a super LED bed (group 2, n = 100). The outcome was the avoidance of exchange transfusion by successful control of hyperbilirubinaemia. Statistically significant higher success rates of intensive phototherapy were achieved among neonates treated with super LED (group 2) than in those treated conventionally (group 1) (87% vs 64%, P = 0.003). Significantly higher 'bilirubin decline' rates were reported in both haemolytic and non-haemolytic subgroups treated with the super LED bed compared with a similar sub-population in the conventionally treated group. Comparable numbers of neonates in both groups developed rebound jaundice (8% vs 10% of groups 1 and 2, respectively). Side-effects were mild in both groups, but higher rates of hyperthermia (12% vs 0%, P = 0.03), dehydration (8% vs 2%, P = 0.26) and skin rash (39% vs 1%, P = 0.002) were reported in the fluorescent tubes-treated group compared with the LED group. Super LED is a safe rescue treatment for severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and its implementation may reduce the need for exchange transfusion.

  5. High-intensity research infrastructure at ELI Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimo, Ondrej

    2017-10-01

    The L4 laser (10 PW, 150 fs) at ELI Beamlines is expected to provide focused intensities approaching 1023 W /cm2 and thus herald a new era of research in ultra-high intensity laser matter interaction. This talk will describe the progress in enabling the associated technological infrastructure - including the laser system, beam transport, diagnostics and the experimental chamber. Synergistic experimental and theoretical programs are also developing tools for such research. The talk will also briefly describe these research areas like development of dedicated diagnostic equipment, efforts toward obtaining ultra-high intensities using tight-focusing and theoretical modeling toward future experiments where radiation reaction in the classical and quantum regime and pair production start to play an important role. Supported from European Regional Development Funds - projects High Field Initiative (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000449) and ELI - phase 2 (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162).

  6. Review of high-power pulsed systems at the Institute of High Current Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a review of some most powerful pulsed systems developed at the Institute of High Current Electronics (HCEI, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, and describe latest achievements of the teams dealing with these installations. Besides the presented high-power systems, HCEI performs numerous investigations using much less powerful generators. For instance, last year much attention was paying to the research and development of the intense low-energy (<200 kV high-current electron and ion beam and plasma sources, and their application in the technology [1–3].

  7. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  8. Swimming intensity during triathlon: a review of current research and strategies to enhance race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Landers, Grant

    2009-08-01

    The swim section of Sprint- and Olympic-distance triathlon race formats is integral to the success of subsequent cycle and running disciplines, and to overall race performance. The current body of swimming-based triathlon research suggests that the energy used, and the positioning gained among competitors during the swim, is important in determining the success of an athlete's race, especially professional athletes in draft-legal settings. Furthermore, by swimming at a reduced intensity, it has been shown that the performance of the subsequent disciplines may be enhanced. However, reductions in energy output can be obtained without compromising swimming speed. This review highlights the importance of swimming intensity during a triathlon and how it impacts on the ensuing cycle and run. Furthermore, consideration is given to current methods used to manipulate swimming performance.

  9. Clinical applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, W H; Cheung, T T; Jenkins, C R; Irwin, M G

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound has been developed for therapeutic use in addition to its diagnostic ability. The use of focused ultrasound energy can offer a non-invasive method for tissue ablation, and can therefore be used to treat various solid tumours. High-intensity focused ultrasound is being increasingly used in the treatment of both primary and metastatic tumours as these can be precisely located for ablation. It has been shown to be particularly useful in the treatment of uterine fibroids, and various solid tumours including those of the pancreas and liver. High-intensity focused ultrasound is a valid treatment option for liver tumours in patients with significant medical co-morbidity who are at high risk for surgery or who have relatively poor liver function that may preclude hepatectomy. It has also been used as a form of bridging therapy while patients awaiting cadaveric donor liver transplantation. In this article, we outline the principles of high-intensity focused ultrasound and its clinical applications, including the management protocol development in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in Hong Kong by performing a search on MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, and PubMed. The search of these databases ranged from the date of their establishment until December 2015. The search terms used were: high-intensity focused ultrasound, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, liver tumour, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreas, renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, fibroids, bone tumour, atrial fibrillation, glaucoma, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and neuropathic pain.

  10. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Stormtime Magnetic Intensities and Ion Densities in the Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. W.; Guild, T. B.; Lemon, C. L.; Schulz, M.

    2008-12-01

    Recent progress in ring current and plasma sheet modeling has shown the importance of a self-consistent treatment of particle transport and magnetic and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. For example, the feedback of the ring current tends to mitigate the build-up of the asymmetric ring current and associated magnetic depressions during storm main phase. Models with and without self-consistency can lead to significantly different magnitudes and spatial distributions of plasma pressure and magnetic intensity during disturbed times. In this study we compare simulated and observed stormtime magnetic intensities and ion densities at geosynchronous altitude to test how well self-consistent simulations can simultaneously reproduce these quantities. We simulate the ring current and plasma sheet for conditions corresponding to the 12-14 August 2000 storm using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) [ Lemon et al., JGR, 2004]. Using the empirical IMF-dependent model of Tsyganenko and Mukai [JGR, 2003], we specify the plasma sheet pressure and density at 10 RE as the plasma boundary location in the RCM- E. We compare the simulated magnetic intensity at geosynchronous altitude (6.6 RE) with the magnetic intensity measured by magnetometers on the GOES G8, G10, and G11 satellites. The simulated ion densities at different magnetic local times are compared with those from the re-analysis model of LANL/MPA densities of O'Brien and Lemon [Space Weather, 2007]. This is a first step towards a more extensive comparison that will include other datasets, such as ion and magnetic field data from Polar, at locations closer to the Earth than geosynchronous altitude.

  11. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS{sub 2}, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support.

  12. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS{sub 2}, which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support.

  13. High-resolution simulations of turbidity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegert, Edward; Vowinckel, Bernhard; Ouillon, Raphael; Meiburg, Eckart

    2017-12-01

    We employ direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, based on a continuum formulation for the sediment concentration, to investigate the physics of turbidity currents in complex situations, such as when they interact with seafloor topography, submarine engineering infrastructure and stratified ambients. In order to obtain a more accurate representation of the dynamics of erosion and resuspension, we have furthermore developed a grain-resolving simulation approach for representing the flow in the high-concentration region near and within the sediment bed. In these simulations, the Navier-Stokes flow around each particle and within the pore spaces of the sediment bed is resolved by means of an immersed boundary method, with the particle-particle interactions being taken into account via a detailed collision model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...

  15. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  16. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  17. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) electromagnetic noise. Initially, the diode detector ... Microwave generation; microwave measurements; electromagnetic interfer- ence; electron beams; noise .... completely with the aluminum sheet due to some other problems. 3.2 With a preamplifier.

  18. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  19. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  20. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  1. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables, such as m...

  2. Determining the anaerobic threshold in postpolio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, Eric L; Gerrits, Karin H; Koopman, Fieke S; Nollet, Frans; Beelen, Anita

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT. Cohort study. Research laboratory. Individuals with PPS (N=82). Not applicable. Power output, gas exchange variables, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured in an incremental submaximal cycle ergometry test. Two independent observers identified the AT. Comparison of current guidelines for training intensity prescription in PPS (40%-60% heart rate reserve [HRR] or RPE of 12) with the AT was based on correlations between recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT. In addition, we determined the proportion of individuals that would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT. The AT was identified in 63 (77%) of the participants. Pearson correlation coefficients between the recommended heart rate and the heart rate at the AT were lower in cases of 40% HRR (r=.56) and 60% HRR (r=.50) than in cases of prescription based on the RPE (r=.86). Based on the RPE, 55% of the individuals would have been recommended to train at an intensity corresponding to their AT. This proportion was higher compared with 40% HRR (41%) or 60% HRR (18%) as criterion. The AT can be identified in most individuals with PPS offering an individualized target for aerobic training. If the AT cannot be identified (eg, because gas analysis equipment is not available), intensity prescription can best be based on the RPE. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetoresistive Current Sensors for High Accuracy, High Bandwidth Current Measurement in Spacecraft Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, Rolf; Goffin, Benoit

    2014-08-01

    The usage of magnetoresistive (MR) current sensors is increasing steadily in the field of power electronics. Current sensors must not only be accurate and dynamic, but must also be compact and robust. The MR effect is the basis for current sensors with a unique combination of precision and bandwidth in a compact package. A space-qualifiable magnetoresistive current sensor with high accuracy and high bandwidth is being jointly developed by the sensor manufacturer Sensitec and the spacecraft power electronics supplier Thales Alenia Space (T AS) Belgium. Test results for breadboards incorporating commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors are presented as well as an application example in the electronic control and power unit for the thrust vector actuators of the Ariane5-ME launcher.

  4. Field-aligned currents observed by CHAMP during the intense 2003 geomagnetic storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the characteristics of field-aligned currents (FACs in both hemispheres during the extreme storms in October and November 2003. High-resolution CHAMP magnetic data reflect the dynamics of FACs during these geomagnetic storms, which are different from normal periods. The peak intensity and most equatorward location of FACs in response to the storm phases are examined separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding large-scale FAC peak densities are, on average, enhanced by about a factor of 5 compared to the quiet-time FACs' strengths. And the FAC densities on the dayside are, on average, 2.5 times larger in the Southern (summer than in the Northern (winter Hemisphere, while the observed intensities on the nightside are comparable between the two hemispheres. Solar wind dynamic pressure is correlated with the FACs strength on the dayside. However, the latitudinal variations of the FACs are compared with the variations in Dst and the interplanetary magnetic field component Bz, in order to determine how these parameters control the large-scale FACs' configuration in the polar region. We have determined that (1 the equatorward shift of FACs on the dayside is directly controlled by the southward IMF Bz and there is a saturation of the latitudinal displacement for large value of negative Bz. In the winter hemisphere this saturation occurs at higher latitudes than in the summer hemisphere. (2 The equatorward expansion of the nightside FACs is delayed with respect to the solar wind input. The poleward recovery of FACs on the nightside is slower than on the dayside. The latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. (3 The latitudinal width of the FAC region on the nightside spreads over a wide range of about 25° in latitude.

  5. High Precision Current Measurement for Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira Bastos, M

    2015-01-01

    The accurate measurement of power converter currents is essential to controlling and delivering stable and repeatable currents to magnets in particle accelerators. This paper reviews the most commonly used devices for the measurement of power converter currents and discusses test and calibration methods.

  6. High intensity surface plasma waves, theory and PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, M.; Héron, A.; Adam, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    With the development of intense (>1019 W cm‑2) short pulses (≤25 fs) laser with very high contrast, surface plasma wave (SPW) can be explored in the relativistic regime. As the SPW propagates with a phase velocity close to the speed of light it may results in a strong acceleration of electron bunches along the surface permitting them to reach relativistic energies. This may be important e.g. for applications in the field of plasma-based accelerators. We investigate in this work the excitation of SPWs on grating preformed over-dense plasmas for laser intensities ranging from 1019 up to 1021 W cm‑2. We discuss the nature of the interaction with respect to the solid case in which surface plasmon can be resonantly excited with weak laser intensity. In particular, we show the importance of the pulse duration and focalization of the laser beam on the amplitude of the SPW.

  7. Investigation of the Frohlich hypothesis with high intensity terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weightman, Peter

    2014-03-01

    This article provides an update to recent reviews of the Frohlich hypothesis that biological organisation is facilitated by the creation of coherent excited states driven by a flow of free energy provided by metabolic processes and mediated by molecular motions in the terahertz range. Sources of intense terahertz radiation have the potential to test this hypothesis since if it is true the growth and development of sensitive systems such as stem cells should be influenced by irradiation with intense terahertz radiation. A brief survey of recent work shows that it is not yet possible to make an assessment of the validity of the Frohlich hypothesis. Under some conditions a variety of cell types respond to irradiation with intense THz radiation in ways that involve changes in the activity of their DNA. In other experiments very intense and prolonged THz radiation has no measureable effect on the behavior of very sensitive systems such as stem cells. The wide variation in experimental conditions makes it impossible to draw any conclusions as to characteristics of THz radiation that will induce a response in living cells. It is possible that in environments suitable for their maintenance and growth cells are capable of compensating for any effects caused by exposure to THz radiation up to some currently unknown level of THz peak power.

  8. High energy high intensity coherent photon beam for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    What is proposed for the 20 TeV protons hitting a fixed target is to make a tertiary electron beam similar to that which is the basis of the tagged photon beam at Fermilab. Briefly, a zero degree neutral beam is formed by sweeping out the primary proton beam and any secondary charged particles. Then the photons, from the decay of ..pi../sup 0/ in the neutral beam, are converted to e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs in a lead converter and a high quality electron beam is formed. This beam is brought to the target area where it is converted to a photon beam by Bremsstrahlung in a radiator.

  9. Dynamics of Presynaptic Diacylglycerol in a Sensory Neuron Encode Differences between Past and Current Stimulus Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayao Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Memorizing the intensity of sensory stimuli enables animals to successfully deal with changing environmental conditions and contributes to cognitive functions such as auditory and visual working memory. However, how nervous systems process past and current stimulus intensity is largely unknown at the molecular level. Here, we employ in vivo diacylglycerol (DAG imaging in the ASER taste neuron of Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstrate that associative learning between ambient salt concentrations and food can be explained by changes in presynaptic DAG. The abundance of DAG is regulated in response to external salt concentration changes via sensory transduction in ASER and can encode differences between past and current salt concentrations. The DAG dynamics are modulated downstream of the synaptic insulin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway, which regulates the behavioral plasticity induced by starvation. These results provide insights into how a single neuron stores past input intensity and generates appropriate behavioral responses.

  10. Effects of Increasing Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Current Intensity on Cortical Sensorimotor Network Activation: A Time Domain fNIRS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have shown neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES-evoked movements activate regions of the cortical sensorimotor network, including the primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC, premotor cortex (PMC, supplementary motor area (SMA, and secondary somatosensory area (S2, as well as regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC known to be involved in pain processing. The aim of this study, on nine healthy subjects, was to compare the cortical network activation profile and pain ratings during NMES of the right forearm wrist extensor muscles at increasing current intensities up to and slightly over the individual maximal tolerated intensity (MTI, and with reference to voluntary (VOL wrist extension movements. By exploiting the capability of the multi-channel time domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy technique to relate depth information to the photon time-of-flight, the cortical and superficial oxygenated (O2Hb and deoxygenated (HHb hemoglobin concentrations were estimated. The O2Hb and HHb maps obtained using the General Linear Model (NIRS-SPM analysis method, showed that the VOL and NMES-evoked movements significantly increased activation (i.e., increase in O2Hb and corresponding decrease in HHb in the cortical layer of the contralateral sensorimotor network (SMC, PMC/SMA, and S2. However, the level and area of contralateral sensorimotor network (including PFC activation was significantly greater for NMES than VOL. Furthermore, there was greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation with the high NMES current intensities which corresponded with increased pain ratings. In conclusion, our findings suggest that greater bilateral sensorimotor network activation profile with high NMES current intensities could be in part attributable to increased attentional/pain processing and to increased bilateral sensorimotor integration in these cortical regions.

  11. Current emitted by highly conducting Taylor cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamora, J. Fernandez; Loscertales, I. G.

    1994-02-01

    When a liquid meniscus held at the exit of a metallic capillary tube is charged to a high voltage V, the free surface often takes the form of a cone whose apex emits a steady microjet, and thus injects a certain charge I and liquid volume Q per unit time into the surrounding gas. This work deals with liquids with relatively large conductivities K, for which the jet diameter d(j) is much smaller than the diameter d(n) of the capillary tube. In the limit d(j)/d(n) to O, the structure of the jet (d(j) and I, in particular) becomes independent of electrostatic parameters such as V or the electrode configuration, being governed mostly by the liquid properties and flow rate Q. Furthermore, the measured current is given approximately by I = f(epsilon)(gamma QK/epsilon)(exp 1/2) for a wide variety of liquids and conditions (epsilon, and gamma are, respectively, the dielectric constant of the liquid and the coefficient of interfacial tension, f(epsilon) is shown). A proposed explanation for this behavior is presented.

  12. Transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound for the treatment of prostate cancer: Past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mearini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon a review of recently published articles on high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU in the treatment of prostate cancer, we evaluated the current status of HIFU as a primary treatment option for localized prostate cancer and its use as salvage therapy when radiation failed. We also briefly discuss current issues in indications, definition of response, and finally the future of HIFU development.

  13. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Carneiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of H^{-} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H^{-} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  14. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  15. Radiation control in the intensive care unit for high intensity iridium-192 brain implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewchand, W.; Drzymala, R.E.; Amin, P.P.; Salcman, M.; Salazar, O.M.

    1987-04-01

    A bedside lead cubicle was designed to minimize the radiation exposure of intensive care unit staff during routine interstitial brain irradiation by removable, high intensity iridium-192. The cubicle shields the patient without restricting intensive care routines. The design specifications were confirmed by exposure measurements around the shield with an implanted anthropomorphic phantom simulating the patient situation. The cubicle reduces the exposure rate around an implant patient by as much as 90%, with the exposure level not exceeding 0.1 mR/hour/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir. Evaluation of data accumulated for the past 3 years has shown that the exposure levels of individual attending nurses are 0.12 to 0.36 mR/mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per 12-hour shift. The corresponding range for entire nursing teams varies between 0.18 and 0.26. A radiation control index (exposure per mg of radium-equivalent /sup 192/Ir per nurse-hour) is thus defined for individual nurses and nursing teams; this index is a significant guide to the planning of nurse rotations for brain implant patients with various /sup 192/Ir loads. The bedside shield reduces exposure from /sup 192/Ir implants by a factor of about 20, as expected, and the exposure from the lower energy radioisotope iodine-125 is barely detectable.

  16. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    OpenAIRE

    Cutroneo Mariapompea; Torrisi Lorenzo; Ullschmied Jiri; Dudzak Roman

    2016-01-01

    The laser-matter interaction using nominal laser intensity above 1015 W/cm2 generates in vacuum non-equilibrium plasmas accelerating ions at energies from tens keV up to hundreds MeV. From thin targets, using the TNSA regime, plasma is generated in the forward direction accelerating ions above 1 MeV per charge state and inducing high-ionization states. Generally, the ion energies follow a Boltzmann-like distribution characterized by a cutoff at high energy and by a Coulomb-shift towards high ...

  17. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  18. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  19. Entrepreneurship in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Patrizia V.; Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle

    development of new enterprises in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors are analysed in relation to the educational and professional background of the entrepreneur/entrepreneurial team, as well as the personal and professional social networks of the entrepreneurs. The analysis is based on a theoretical......The paper investigates key factors influencing the establishment and early growth of high-tech and knowledge-intensive new firms in Denmark. Particular attention is paid to the human and social variables affecting the creation, survival, and growth of such firms. The establishment and subsequent...... framework combining theories of human and social capital. Secondary aspects addressed in the research project are questions of male vs. female entrepreneurship, internationalisation-globalisation, and business success/failure....

  20. Alpine Skiing as Winter-Time High-Intensity Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas Leonhard; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2017-09-01

    To counteract the winter activity deficit, we set out to analyze cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of two high-intensity training (HIT) protocols during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and indoor cycling (IC) and the effects of sex, age, and fitness level in this comparison. Nineteen healthy subjects (two age and fitness groups, both sexes) performed AS, XCS, and IC with measurements of oxygen uptake (V˙O2), energy expenditure (EE), HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion, determined during 4 min of continuous HIT (HITc: 90% HRmax for XCS and IC or short turn skiing during AS) or 10-min intermittent HIT [HITint: 5 × 1 min high intensity (>90% HRmax or short turn skiing), 1 min active recovery]. During all three exercise modes and irrespective of HIT protocols, sex, age, and fitness, participants were able to reach exercise intensities >90% HRmax and >84% V˙O2max. In all exercise modes 10-min of HITint with a 10-min postexercise O2 consumption phase resulted in greater mean EE per minute compared to 4-min HITc with 10 min postexercise O2 consumption. When applying the same HIT loading and recovery pattern to all three exercise modes, EE during approximately 1:15 h of AS was equivalent to about 1:00 h of either XCS or IC. Across all exercise modes and HIT protocols, high cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses were achieved regardless of age, sex, or fitness. EE during AS can be maximized by choosing the skiing mode "short turn skiing" in combination with an HITint to prolong the duration of continuous high-intensity loading during each descent. Therefore, all exercise modes and both HIT protocols are applicable and feasible in a broad spectrum of healthy subjects.

  1. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUCCIO, A.; D' IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.

    2005-09-12

    Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.

  2. Spallation neutron source and other high intensity froton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiren Chou

    2003-02-06

    This lecture is an introduction to the design of a spallation neutron source and other high intensity proton sources. It discusses two different approaches: linac-based and synchrotron-based. The requirements and design concepts of each approach are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are compared. A brief review of existing machines and those under construction and proposed is also given. An R&D program is included in an appendix.

  3. Light and Light Sources High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Flesch, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    Light and Light Sources gives an introduction to the working principles of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps and points out challenges and problems associated with the development and operation of HID lamps. The state-of-the-art in electrode and plasma diagnostics as well as numerical methods used for the understanding of HID lamps are described. This volume addresses students as well as scientists and researchers at universities and in industry.

  4. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  5. High-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Nigam, Anil; Gremeaux, Vincent; Meyer, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Bosquet, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is frequently used in sports training. The effects on cardiorespiratory and muscle systems have led scientists to consider its application in the field of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to report the effects and interest of HIIT in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), as well as in persons with high cardiovascular risk. A non-systematic review of the literature in the MEDLINE database using keywords 'exercise', 'high-intensity interval training', 'interval training', 'coronary artery disease', 'coronary heart disease', 'chronic heart failure' and 'metabolic syndrome' was performed. We selected articles concerning basic science research, physiological research, and randomized or non-randomized interventional clinical trials published in English. To summarize, HIIT appears safe and better tolerated by patients than moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE). HIIT gives rise to many short- and long-term central and peripheral adaptations in these populations. In stable and selected patients, it induces substantial clinical improvements, superior to those achieved by MICE, including beneficial effects on several important prognostic factors (peak oxygen uptake, ventricular function, endothelial function), as well as improving quality of life. HIIT appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the rehabilitation of patients with CAD and HF. It may also assist in improving adherence to exercise training. Larger randomized interventional studies are now necessary to improve the indications for this therapy in different populations.

  6. Alterations in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 membranes associated to metabolism modifications during application of low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; González, Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    The effects of electric current on membranes associated with metabolism modifications in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 were studied. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15g of perlite, as inert support, was inoculated with A. brasiliensis spores and incubated in a solid inert-substrate culture (12 d; 30°C). Then, 4.5days after starting the culture, a current of 0.42mAcm(-2) was applied for 24h. The application of low-intensity electric current increased the molecular oxygen consumption rate in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in high concentrations of reactive oxygen species, promoting high lipoperoxidation levels, according to measured malondialdehyde, and consequent alterations in membrane permeability explained the high n-hexadecane (HXD) degradation rates observed here (4.7-fold higher than cultures without current). Finally, cell differentiation and spore production were strongly stimulated. The study contributes to the understanding of the effect of current on the cell membrane and its association with HXD metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. ECR ion source for high current linac

    CERN Document Server

    Cui Bao Qun; Jiang Wei; LiLiQiang; WangRongWen

    2002-01-01

    An intense ECR ion source for ADS (accelerator driven sub-critical system) is described. Two configurations of the source has been developed and tested. 100 mA hydrogen beam has been extracted from the ion source at 30 keV, the proton ratio is greater than 85%, estimated emittance is 0.11 pi mm centre dot mrad, the maximum extracted beam density is 340 mA/cm sup 2 . A 100 hours reliability test of the source is also described

  8. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  9. Characterization of high-current, high-temperature superconductor current lead elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, R.C.; Evans, D.J.; Fisher, B.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Brockenborough, W.E.; Roberts, P.R.; Rodenbush, A.J. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The refrigeration loads of current leads for superconducting magnets can be significantly reduced by using high-temperature superconductor (HTS) leads. An HTS conductor type that is well suited for this application is a laminated sintered stack of HTS powder-in-tube (PIT) tapes. The superconducting elements are normally characterized by their manufacturer by measuring critical currents at 77 K in self field. Additional characterization, which correlates electrical performance at 77 K and at lower temperatures with applied magnetic fields, provides the current lead designer and conductor element manufacturer with critical information. For HTS conductor elements comprising a laminated and sintered stack of Bi-2223 PIT tapes having an alloyed Ag sheath, this characterization uses variable applied fields and operating temperatures.

  10. High intensity Discharge lighting; Alumbrado de alta intensidad de descarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera de Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper gets into contact with some fundamentals in the operation of high discharge intensity lamps. There are useful definitions, as well as the study of the operation of high pressure sodium lamps and of metallic additives operating at less than nominal power. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone al lector en contacto con algunos fundamentos de la operacion de las lamparas de alta intensidad de descarga (HID). Se encuentra con definiciones utiles, asi como el estudio de la operacion de las lamparas de sodio en alta presion y de aditivos metalicos operando a una potencia menor que la nominal.

  11. Hunting for new, weakly coupled particles with high intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    A number of smaller and diverse experiments complements the high-energy explorations for new physics at the LHC. Many of these experiments are searching for new physics hiding at comparably low mass but very weak coupling. Examples of such particles are axion-like particles and dark gauge bosons, which could also explain Dark Matter. The technology to directly search for such particles are often high-intensity and precision set-ups. In my talk I give a brief overview of the motivation and search for axion-like particles and then focus on the possibility to find them in a proton-dump experiment at CERN.

  12. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  13. Removing Known SPS Intensity Limitations for High Luminosity LHC Goals

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Bohl, Thomas; Cruikshank, Paul; Goddard, Brennan; Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Lasheen, Alexandre; Perez Espinos, Jaime; Repond, Joël; Salvant, Benoit; Vollinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In preparation of the SPS as an LHC injector its impedance was significantly reduced in 1999 - 2000. A new SPS impedance reduction campaign is planned now for the High Luminosity (HL)-LHC project, which requires bunch intensities twice as high as the nominal one. One of the known intensity limitations is a longitudinal multi-bunch instability with a threshold 3 times below this operational intensity. The instability is presently cured using the 4th harmonic RF system and controlled emittance blow-up, but reaching the HL-LHC parameters cannot be assured without improving the machine impedance. Recently the impedance sources responsible for this instability were identified and implementation of their shielding and damping is foreseen during the next long shutdown (2019 - 2020) in synergy with two other important upgrades: amorphous carbon coating of (part of) the vacuum chamber against the e-cloud effect and rearrangement of the 200 MHz RF system. In this paper the strategy of impedance reduction is presented t...

  14. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ju-hyeon; Kim, Nan-soo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle tra...

  15. Short-pulse high intensity laser thin foil interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Patrick

    2003-10-01

    The technology of ultrashort pulse laser generation has progressed to the point that optical pulses larger than 10 J, 300 fs duration or shorter are routinely produced. Such pulses can be focused to intensities exceeding 10^18 W/cm^2. With high contrast pulses, these focused intensities can be used to heat solid matter to high temperatures with minimal hydrodynamic expansion, producing an extremely high energy-density state of matter for a short period of time. This high density, high temperature plasma can be studied by x-ray spectroscopy. We have performed experiments on thin foils of different elements under well controlled conditions at the 100 Terawatt laser at LULI to study the characteristics X-ray emission of laser heated solids. To suppress the ASE effect, the laser was frequency doubled. S-polarized light with a peak intensity of 10^19W/cm^2 was used to minimize resonance absorption. To decrease the effect of longitudinal temperature gradients very thin (800 μ) aluminum foil targets were used. We have also studied the effect of radial gradient by limiting the measured x-ray emission zone using 50μ or 100μ pinhole on target. The spectra, in the range 7-8Å, were recorded using a conical crystal spectrometer coupled to a 800 fs resolution streak camera. A Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI) of the back of the foil was also performed providing a measurement of the hydrodynamic expansion as function of time for each shot. To simulate the experiment, we used the 1D hydrodynamic code FILM with a given set of plasma parameter (ρ, Te) as initial conditions. The X-ray emission was calculated by post processing hydrodynamic results with a collisional-radiative model which uses super-configuration average atomic data. The simulation reproduces the main features of the experimental time resolved spectrum.

  16. High intensity ion beams in rf undulator linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Masunov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a radio frequency undulator field to accelerate a high intensity ion beam in a linac is discussed. Such an accelerator can be realized using the periodical interdigital H-type resonator structure. The accelerating force is produced by an electric field which is a combination of two or more spatial harmonics, none of them being synchronous with the ion beam. The value of this force is proportional to the squared charge. The equations of motion in Hamiltonian form are derived by means of smooth approximation. The analysis of the 3D effective potential function allows finding the conditions of the beam focusing and acceleration. Two ways to increase ion beam intensity are considered: (i to enlarge beam cross section; (ii to neutralize the beam space charge by accelerating ions with opposite charge signs within the same bunch. The basic results are confirmed by a numerical simulation.

  17. Development of high temperature superconductors having high critical current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gye Wong; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H.G.; Kwon, S. C.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, C. H

    2000-08-01

    Fabrication of high T{sub c} superconductors and its applications for electric power device were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies. High quality YBCO superconductors was fabricated by melt texture growth, top-seeded melt growth process and multi-seeded melt growth process and the properties was compared. The critical current density of the melt processed YBCO superconductors was about few 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and the levitation force was 50 N. The processing time needed for the growth of the 123 single grain was greatly reduced by applying multi-seeding without no significant degradation of the levitation force. The multi-seeded melt growth process was confirmed as a time-saving and cost-effective method for the fabrication of bulk superconductors with controlled crystallographic orientation.

  18. SPES: A new cyclotron-based facility for research and applications with high-intensity beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M.; Campo, D.; Antonini, P.; Lombardi, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Esposito, J.; Silvestrin, L.

    2017-06-01

    In 2016, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy) started the commissioning of a new accelerator facility based on a high-power cyclotron able to deliver proton beams up to 70 MeV of energy and 700 μA current. Such a machine is the core of the Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project whose main goal is to provide exotics beam for nuclear and astrophysics research and to deliver high-intensity proton beams for medical applications and neutrons generator.

  19. Improving sensitivity of residual current transformers to high frequency earth fault currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapp Stanislaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For protection against electric shock in low voltage systems residual current devices are commonly used. However, their proper operation can be interfered when high frequency earth fault current occurs. Serious hazard of electrocution exists then. In order to detect such a current, it is necessary to modify parameters of residual current devices, especially the operating point of their current transformer. The authors proposed the modification in the structure of residual current devices. This modification improves sensitivity of residual current devices when high frequency earth fault current occurs. The test of the modified residual current device proved that the authors’ proposition is appropriate.

  20. Adaptive RF Transient Reduction for HIGH Intensity Beams with Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    When a high-intensity beam with bunch-trains and gaps passes a cavity with a high-gain vector feedback enforcing a constant voltage, large transients appear, stressing the RF high power hardware and increasing the trip rate. By modulating the cavity voltage with a varying periodic waveform (set-function), the RF power can be made constant while still preserving the high feedback gain. The average cavity voltage is conserved but bunches have to settle at slightly shifted positions. A method is derived to obtain this set-function in practice while making no assumptions or measurements of the beam or RF parameters. Adiabatic iterations are made including the whole machine as an analog computing device, using all parameters as they are. A computer simulation shows the success of the method.

  1. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  2. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher intensity.

  3. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg-1·min-1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  4. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  5. Current-voltage curve of a bipolar membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aritomi, T.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The potential drop across a bipolar membrane was measured as a function of the applied current density. As a result, an inflection point was observed in the obtained current-voltage curve at high current density. This inflection point indicates that at high current densities water supply from

  6. High Current, Multi-Filament Photoconductive Semiconductor Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    excellent approach, if the lasing uniformity could be maintained to assure current - sharing Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers ( VCSELs ) Figure 9...development of VCSELS with sufficient intensity and uniformity to trigger current -sharing, linear filaments has been slow. To date, two parallel filaments...have been triggered with VCSELS emitting dashed lines to improve their uniformity [18 The simplest approach to triggering current -sharing, linear

  7. Effects of high-intensity interval training on canoeing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ta; Lee, Mien-Mien; Hsu, Shu-Ching; Chan, Kuei-Hui

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes. The training programme involved training on a canoeing ergometer three times per week for four weeks. HIIT consisted of seven 2 min canoeing bouts at an intensity of 90% VO2peak separated by 1 min of rest. The MICT group was trained at an intensity of 65% VO2peak continuously for 20 min. After four weeks of training, performance in the 200-m distance test and the power at VO2peak significantly improved in the HIIT group; performance in the 500 m and 1000 m distances and CV significantly improved in the MICT group. However, all variables were not significantly different between groups. It is concluded that HIIT for four weeks is an effective training strategy for improvement of short-distance canoeing performance. In contrast, MICT improves middle-distance canoeing performances and aerobic capacity.

  8. Lead paint removal with high-intensity light pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapperhaus, Michael J; Schaefer, Raymond B

    2006-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an initial investigation into using high-intensity incoherent light pulses to strip paint. Measurements of light pulse characteristics, the reflectivity of different paints and initial experiments on the threshold for paint removal, and paint removal are presented, along with an approximate model consistent with experimental results. Paint removal tests include lead paint, the reduction of lead levels to below levels required for lead abatement, as well as air and light emissions measurements that are within regulatory guidelines.

  9. Investigation on Beam Dynamics Design of High-Intensity RFQs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, C

    2004-01-01

    Recently various potential uses of high-intensity beams bring new opportunities as well as challenges to RFQ accelerator research because of the new problems arising from the strong space-charge effects. Unconventional concepts of beam dynamics design, which surround the choice of basic parameters and the optimization of main dynamics parameters’ variation along the machine, are illustrated by the designing Peking University (PKU) Deuteron RFQ. An efficient tool of LANL RFQ Design Codes for beam dynamics simulation and analysis, RFQBAT, is introduced. Some quality criterions are also presented for evaluating design results.

  10. High Current Beam Transport to SIS18

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, S; Dahl, L; Glatz, J; Groening, L; Yaramishev, S

    2004-01-01

    The optimized transversal and longitudinal matching of space charged dominated ion beams to SIS18 is essential for a loss free injection. This paper focuses on the beam dynamics in the transfer line (TK) from the post-stripper accelerator to the SIS18. Transverse beam emittance measurements at different positions along the TK were done. Especially, the different foil stripping modes were investigated. A longitudinal emittance measurement set-up was commissioned at the entry to the TK. It is used extensively to tune all the rebunchers along the UNILAC. An addition, a test bench is in use for measurements of longitudinal bunch profiles, which enables to monitor for the final debunching to SIS18. Multi particle simulations by means of PARMILA allow a detailed analysis of experimental results for different ion currents.

  11. Current Perspectives in High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    High energy astrophysics is a space-age discipline that has taken a quantum leap forward in the 1990s. The observables are photons and particles that are unable to penetrate the atmosphere and can only be observed from space or very high altitude balloons. The lectures presented as chapters of this book are based on the results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) missions to which the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center made significant hardware contributions. These missions study emissions from very hot plasmas, nuclear processes, and high energy particle interactions in space. Results to be discussed include gamma-ray beaming from active galactic nuclei (AGN), gamma-ray emission from pulsars, radioactive elements in the interstellar medium, X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, and the progress being made to unravel the gamma-ray burst mystery. The recently launched X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and prospects for upcoming Astro-E and Advanced X-ray Astronomy Satellite (AXAF) missions are also discussed.

  12. Formation of a high intensity low energy positron string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Syresin, E. M.; Itahashi, T.; Dubinov, A. E.

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of a high intensity low energy positron beam production is discussed. The proposed Positron String Trap (PST) is based on the principles and technology of the Electron String Ion Source (ESIS) developed in JINR during the last decade. A linear version of ESIS has been used successfully for the production of intense highly charged ion beams of various elements. Now the Tubular Electron String Ion Source (TESIS) concept is under study and this opens really new promising possibilities in physics and technology. In this report, we discuss the application of the tubular-type trap for the storage of positrons cooled to the cryogenic temperatures of 0.05 meV. It is intended that the positron flux at the energy of 1-5 eV, produced by the external source, is injected into the Tubular Positron Trap which has a similar construction as the TESIS. Then the low energy positrons are captured in the PST Penning trap and are cooled down because of their synchrotron radiation in the strong (5-10 T) applied magnetic field. It is expected that the proposed PST should permit storing and cooling to cryogenic temperature of up to 5×109 positrons. The accumulated cooled positrons can be used further for various physics applications, for example, antihydrogen production.

  13. TT40 Damage during 2004 High Intensity SPS Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2005-01-01

    During high intensity extraction on 25/10/04 an incident occurred in which the vacuum chamber of the TT40 magnet QTRF4002 was badly damaged. The beam was a 450 GeV full LHC injection batch of 3.4 1013 p+ in 288 bunches, and was extracted from SPS LSS4 with the wrong trajectory. Prior to the fatal extraction, problems had occurred over several hours during the setting-up, with beam-induced noise causing the extraction septum interlock to trip the power convertor, and also with the bumped beam position interlock. Deficiencies in the extraction setting-up process, in the interlocking and in the operational procedures used for the high-intensity test were contributing factors. In this note the incident causes are identified, the details reconstructed from the logged data, and the damage to the vacuum chamber analysed. The remedial measures which have already been taken are explained, and further recommendations made concerning the interlocking system performance and tests, as well as the operational procedures wh...

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  16. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set – Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV): A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S. H.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex) expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES) and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV). A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female) completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride) that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu) hit rates) were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the corresponding author

  17. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set--Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV: A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja S H Wingenbach

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV. A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu hit rates were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the

  18. Validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set--Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV): A Set of Videos Expressing Low, Intermediate, and High Intensity Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenbach, Tanja S H; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing sets of facial expressions of emotion contain static photographs. While increasing demand for stimuli with enhanced ecological validity in facial emotion recognition research has led to the development of video stimuli, these typically involve full-blown (apex) expressions. However, variations of intensity in emotional facial expressions occur in real life social interactions, with low intensity expressions of emotions frequently occurring. The current study therefore developed and validated a set of video stimuli portraying three levels of intensity of emotional expressions, from low to high intensity. The videos were adapted from the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES) and termed the Bath Intensity Variations (ADFES-BIV). A healthy sample of 92 people recruited from the University of Bath community (41 male, 51 female) completed a facial emotion recognition task including expressions of 6 basic emotions (anger, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness) and 3 complex emotions (contempt, embarrassment, pride) that were expressed at three different intensities of expression and neutral. Accuracy scores (raw and unbiased (Hu) hit rates) were calculated, as well as response times. Accuracy rates above chance level of responding were found for all emotion categories, producing an overall raw hit rate of 69% for the ADFES-BIV. The three intensity levels were validated as distinct categories, with higher accuracies and faster responses to high intensity expressions than intermediate intensity expressions, which had higher accuracies and faster responses than low intensity expressions. To further validate the intensities, a second study with standardised display times was conducted replicating this pattern. The ADFES-BIV has greater ecological validity than many other emotion stimulus sets and allows for versatile applications in emotion research. It can be retrieved free of charge for research purposes from the corresponding author.

  19. Determining the anaerobic threshold in post-polio syndrome: comparison with current guidelines for training intensity prescription.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, E.L.; Gerrits, K.H.L.; Koopman, F.S.; Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the anaerobic threshold (AT) can be identified in individuals with postpolio syndrome (PPS) using submaximal incremental exercise testing, and to compare current guidelines for intensity prescription in PPS with the AT. Design Cohort study. Setting Research

  20. Generation And Measurement Of High Contrast Ultrashort Intense Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Konoplev, O A

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, the generation and measurement of high contrast, intense, ultrashort pulses have been studied. Various factors affecting the contrast and pulse shape of ultrashort light pulses from a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system are identified. The level of contrast resulting from influence of these factors is estimated. Methods for improving and controlling the pulse shape and increasing the contrast are discussed. Ultrahigh contrast, 1-ps pulses were generated from a CPA system with no temporal structure up to eleven orders of magnitude. This is eight orders of magnitude higher contrast than the original pulse. This contrast boost was achieved using two techniques. One is the optical pulse cleaning based on the nonlinear birefringence of the chirping fiber and applied to the pulses before amplification. The other is the fast saturable absorber. The fast saturable absorber was placed after amplification and compression of the pulse. The measurements of high-contrast, ultrashort pulse with h...

  1. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  2. High-Intensity Events in International Women's Team Handball Matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Spencer, Matt

    2017-01-01

    International women's team handball is a physically demanding sport and is intermittent in nature. The aim of the study was to profile high-intensity events (HIEs) in international women's team handball matches with regard to playing positions. Twenty female national-team handball players were equipped with inertial movement units (OptimEye S5, Catapult Sports, Australia) in 9 official international matches. Players were categorized in 4 different playing positions: backs, wings, pivots, and goalkeepers (GKs). PlayerLoad™, accelerations (Acc), changes of direction (CoD), decelerations (Dec), and the sum of the latter 3, HIEs, were extracted from raw-data files using the manufacturer's software. All Acc, Dec, CoD, and HIEs >2.5 m/s were included. Data were log-transformed and differences were standardized for interpretation of magnitudes and reported with effect-size statistics. Mean numbers of events were 0.7 ± 0.4 Acc/min, 2.3 ± 0.9 Dec/min, and 1.0 ± 0.4 CoD/min. Substantial differences between playing positions, ranging from small to very large, were found in the 3 parameters. Backs showed a most likely greater frequency for HIE/min (5.0 ± 1.1 HIE/min) than all other playing positions. Differences between playing positions were also apparent in PlayerLoad/min. HIEs in international women's team handball are position specific, and the overall intensity depends on the positional role within a team. Specific HIE and intensity profiles from match play provide useful information for a better understanding of the overall game demands and for each playing position.

  3. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. High current injector for heavy ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. W.

    1993-05-01

    A 2 MV, 800 mA, K(+) injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 micro-s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (less than 5k Omega) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (approximately 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 micro-s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented.

  5. The use of individualized speed and intensity thresholds for determining the distance run at high-intensity in professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Grant; Lovell, Ric

    2009-07-01

    As with other match analysis systems, ProZone uses an absolute speed threshold to identify running speeds at "high-intensity". In this study, we examined the use of an individualized high-intensity speed threshold based on the speed at the second ventilatory threshold (VT(2speed)) for assessment of the distance run at high-intensity during matches. Ten professional soccer players completed a maximal treadmill test to determine VT(2speed). Match data were identified by means of the ProZone match analysis system. The distances run at high-intensity during matches were calculated using the default value (19.8 km . h(-1)) and VT(2speed). Differences between VT(2speed) and the default were analysed using a non-parametric median sign test. The distances run at high-intensity were compared with a paired t-test. The median VT(2speed) was 15 km x h(-1) (range 14-16 km x h(-1)), which was less than the default (P distance run at high-intensity based on the default and VT(2speed) was 845 m (s = 296) and 2258 m (s = 707), respectively [mean difference 1413 m; P distance run at high-intensity can be substantially underestimated.

  6. Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) by Bade et al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechlenburg, Inger; Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a paper entitled "Early High-Intensity Versus Low-Intensity Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial" was published in Arthritis Care Res by Bade et al. (1). We have read the paper with great interest and noted that the study shows essentially...

  7. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition of intensive care patients: current thinking and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon L.; Koletzko, Berthold V.; Singer, Pierre; Wanten, Geert J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy deficit is a common and serious problem in intensive care units and is associated with increased rates of complications, length of stay, and mortality. Parenteral nutrition (PN), either alone or in combination with enteral nutrition, can improve nutrient delivery to critically ill patients. Lipids provide a key source of calories within PN formulations, preventing or correcting energy deficits and improving outcomes. Discussion In this article, we review the role of parenteral lipid emulsions (LEs) in the management of critically ill patients and highlight important biologic activities associated with lipids. Soybean-oil-based LEs with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the first widely used formulations in the intensive care setting. However, they may be associated with increased rates of infection and lipid peroxidation, which can exacerbate oxidative stress. More recently developed parenteral LEs employ partial substitution of soybean oil with oils providing medium-chain triglycerides, ω-9 monounsaturated fatty acids or ω-3 PUFA. Many of these LEs have demonstrated reduced effects on oxidative stress, immune responses, and inflammation. However, the effects of these LEs on clinical outcomes have not been extensively evaluated. Conclusions Ongoing research using adequately designed and well-controlled studies that characterize the biologic properties of LEs should assist clinicians in selecting LEs within the critical care setting. Prescription of PN containing LEs should be based on available clinical data, while considering the individual patient’s physiologic profile and therapeutic requirements. PMID:20072779

  8. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition of intensive care patients: current thinking and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Philip C; Jensen, Gordon L; Koletzko, Berthold V; Singer, Pierre; Wanten, Geert J A

    2010-05-01

    Energy deficit is a common and serious problem in intensive care units and is associated with increased rates of complications, length of stay, and mortality. Parenteral nutrition (PN), either alone or in combination with enteral nutrition, can improve nutrient delivery to critically ill patients. Lipids provide a key source of calories within PN formulations, preventing or correcting energy deficits and improving outcomes. In this article, we review the role of parenteral lipid emulsions (LEs) in the management of critically ill patients and highlight important biologic activities associated with lipids. Soybean-oil-based LEs with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were the first widely used formulations in the intensive care setting. However, they may be associated with increased rates of infection and lipid peroxidation, which can exacerbate oxidative stress. More recently developed parenteral LEs employ partial substitution of soybean oil with oils providing medium-chain triglycerides, omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids or omega-3 PUFA. Many of these LEs have demonstrated reduced effects on oxidative stress, immune responses, and inflammation. However, the effects of these LEs on clinical outcomes have not been extensively evaluated. Ongoing research using adequately designed and well-controlled studies that characterize the biologic properties of LEs should assist clinicians in selecting LEs within the critical care setting. Prescription of PN containing LEs should be based on available clinical data, while considering the individual patient's physiologic profile and therapeutic requirements.

  9. Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Variale

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.

  10. The High-Intensity Hyperon Beam at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, Yu.A.; Dropmann, F.; Fournier, A.; Grafstrom, P.; Hubbard, E.; Paul, S.; Siebert, H.W.; Trombini, A.; Zavertyaev, M.

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity hyperon beam was constructed at CERN to deliver S- to experiment WA89 at the Omega facility and operated from 1989 to 1994. The setup allowed rapid changeover between hyperon and conventional hadron beam configurations. The beam provided a S- flux of 1.4 x 105 per burst at mean momenta between 330 and 345 GeV/c produced by about 3 x 1010 protons of 450 GeV/c. At the experiment target the beam had a S-/p- ratio close to 0.4 and a size of 1.6 x 3.7 cm2. The beam particle trajectories and their momenta were measured with a scintillating fibre hodoscope in the beam channel and a silicon microstrip detector at the exit of the channel. A fast transition radiation detector was used to identify the pion component of the beam

  11. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  12. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU as the alternative method of treatment of oncourological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blyumberg B.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interest devoted to technology of high intensity focused ultrasound (high-intensity focused ultrasound, HIFU, basically, is explained by a wide spectrum of potential fields of application at minimum invasiveness of the given method. In oncourology HIFU is applied in prostate and kidney cancer. In case of tumors of renal parenchyma the given technique is being clinically tested, while HIFU is currently used in the practice of European oncourologists in treatment of prostate cancer. The majority of the references describing the results of HIFU application in prostate cancer is based on data of a number of clinical observations. It has been proved that HIFU is a possible method of treatment of highly — and moderate-differentiated tumors, and local relapses after remote radial therapy.

  13. Multi-energy ion implantation from high-intensity laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutroneo Mariapompea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The laser-matter interaction using nominal laser intensity above 1015 W/cm2 generates in vacuum non-equilibrium plasmas accelerating ions at energies from tens keV up to hundreds MeV. From thin targets, using the TNSA regime, plasma is generated in the forward direction accelerating ions above 1 MeV per charge state and inducing high-ionization states. Generally, the ion energies follow a Boltzmann-like distribution characterized by a cutoff at high energy and by a Coulomb-shift towards high energy increasing the ion charge state. The accelerated ions are emitted with the high directivity, depending on the ion charge state and ion mass, along the normal to the target surface. The ion fluencies depend on the ablated mass by laser, indeed it is low for thin targets. Ions accelerated from plasma can be implanted on different substrates such as Si crystals, glassy-carbon and polymers at different fluences. The ion dose increment of implanted substrates is obtainable with repetitive laser shots and with repetitive plasma emissions. Ion beam analytical methods (IBA, such as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE can be employed to analyse the implanted species in the substrates. Such analyses represent ‘off-line’ methods to extrapolate and to character the plasma ion stream emission as well as to investigate the chemical and physical modifications of the implanted surface. The multi-energy and species ion implantation from plasma, at high fluency, changes the physical and chemical properties of the implanted substrates, in fact, many parameters, such as morphology, hardness, optical and mechanical properties, wetting ability and nanostructure generation may be modified through the thermal-assisted implantation by multi-energy ions from laser-generated plasma.

  14. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  15. High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Prost

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the U.S. program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2  μC/m over long pulse durations (4  μs in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo, and electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K^{+} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius for which the transverse phase space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (≈80% is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  16. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  17. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  18. Design alternatives for beam halo monitors in high intensity accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, H; Corsini, R; Lefèvre, T; Schulte, Daniel; Tecker, F A; Welsch, C P

    2005-01-01

    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Optical transition radiation (OTR) provides an interesting opportunity for linear real-time measurements of the transverse beam profile with a resolution which has been so far at best in the some μm range. However, the dynamic range of standard OTR systems is typically limited and needs to be improved for its application for halo measurements. In this contribution, the existing OTR system as it is installed in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is analyzed and the contribution of each component to the final image quality discussed. Finally, possible halo measurement techniques based on OTR are pres...

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation around the tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Jun Yang; Liu, Chenhui; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been emerging as an effective and noninvasive modality in cancer treatment with very promising clinical results. However, a small vessel in the focal region could be ruptured, which is an important concern for the safety of HIFU ablation. In this study, lesion formation in the polyacrylamide gel phantom embedded with different tubing (inner diameters of 0.76 mm and 3 mm) at varied flow speeds (17-339 cm/s) by HIFU ablation was photographically recorded. Produced lesions have decreased length (~30%) but slightly increased width (~6%) in comparison to that without the embedded tubing. Meanwhile, bubble activities during the exposures were measured by passive cavitation detection (PCD) at the varied pulse repetition frequency (PRF, 10-30 Hz) and duty cycle (DC, 10%-20%) of the HIFU bursts. High DC and low flow speed were found to produce stronger bubble cavitation whereas no significant influence of the PRF. In addition, high-speed photography illustrated that the rupture of tubing was produced consistently after the first HIFU burst within 20 ms and then multiple bubbles would penetrate into the intraluminal space of tubing through the rupture site by the acoustic radiation force. Alignment of HIFU focus to the anterior surface, middle, and posterior surface of tubing led to different characteristics of vessel rupture and bubble introduction. In summary, HIFU-induced vessel rupture is possible as shown in this phantom study; produced lesion sizes and shapes are dependent on the focus alignment to the tubing, flow speed, and tubing properties; and bubble cavitation and the formation liquid jet may be one of the major mechanisms of tubing rupture as shown in the high-speed photography.

  20. Millennial-scale ocean current intensity changes off southernmost Chile and implications for Drake Passage throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Arz, H. W.; Kilian, R.; Baeza Urrea, O.; Caniupan, M.; Kissel, C.; Lange, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) plays an essential role in the thermohaline circulation and global climate. Today a large volume of ACC water passes through the Drake Passage, a major geographic constrain for the circumpolar flow. Satellite tracked surface drifters have shown that Subantarctic Surface water of the ACC is transported northeastward across the Southeast Pacific from ~53°S/100°W towards the Chilean coast at ~40°S/75°W where surface waters bifurcate and flow northward into the Peru Chile Current (PCC) finally reaching the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and southwards into the Cape Horn Current (CHC). The CHC thus transports a significant amount of northern ACC water towards the Drake Passage and reaches surface current velocities of up to 35 cm/s within a narrow belt of ~100-150 km width off the coast. Also at deeper water levels, an accelerated southward flow occurs along the continental slope off southernmost South America that likewise substantially contributes to the Drake Passage throughflow. Here we report on high resolution geochemical and grain-size records from core MD07-3128 (53°S; 1032 m water depth) which has been retrieved from the upper continental slope off the Pacific entrance of the Magellan Strait beneath the CHC. Magnetic grain-sizes and grain-size distributions of the terrigenous fraction reveal large amplitude changes between the Holocene and the last glacial, as well as millennial-scale variability (most pronounced during Marine Isotope Stage). Magnetic grain-sizes, silt/clay ratios, fine sand contents, sortable silt contents, and sortable silt mean grain-sizes are substantially higher during the Holocene suggesting strongly enhanced current activity. The high absolute values imply flow speeds larger than 25 cm/s as currently observed in the CHC surface current. Furthermore, winnowing processes through bottom current activity and changes in the availability of terrigenous material (ice-sheet extension and related supply of

  1. Walk or run? Is high-intensity exercise more effective than moderate-intensity exercise at reducing cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, A J; Rankin, A C; MacIntyre, P; Hillis, W S

    2012-05-01

    The benefits of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease are irrefutable. However, the optimum 'dose' of exercise in order to derive the maximum cardiovascular benefit is not certain. Current national and international guidelines advocate the benefits of moderate-intensity exercise. The relative benefits of vigorous versus moderate-intensity exercise have been studied in large epidemiological studies, addressing coronary heart disease and mortality, as well as smaller randomized clinical trials which assessed effects on cardiovascular risk factors. There is evidence that exercise intensity, rather than duration or frequency, is the most important variable in determining cardioprotection. Applying this evidence into practice must take into account the impact of baseline fitness, compliance and the independent risk associated with a sedentary lifestyle. This review aims to evaluate the role of exercise intensity in the reduction of cardiovascular risk, and answer the question: should you be advising your patients to walk or run?

  2. High Average Current Electron Guns for High-Power FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-09

    FELs 10 Appendix B: Thermionic Injectors 11 Appendix C: Grid Fields and Bunch Emittance 13 Appendix D: PARMELA Simulation of an IOT Gun 16...Inductive Output Tube ( IOT ) amplifiers [32-34] and can generate average currents of ~1 A, peak currents of ~ 5-10 A, cathode-anode voltages of ~ 35...of grid wires, centered at z = zG and x = ±a, ±3a, ±5a, ..., is given by <D(JC,Z) = - X n = ±l.±3. Fa(x,z) Gn(x,z) ( C3 ) where *0 = (1 / 2

  3. Creatine kinase response to high-intensity aerobic exercise in adult-onset muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren P; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Hansen, Regitze S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies.......We investigated the effect of high-intensity exercise on plasma creatine kinase (CK) in patients with muscular dystrophies....

  4. Association of serum BDNF concentration with high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    東, 宏一郎; 大澤, 祐介; 田畑, 尚吾; 堀澤, 栞里; 勝川, 史憲; 石田, 浩之; 小熊, 祐子; 河合, 俊英; 小口, 修司; 太田, 敦美; 菊池, 春人; 村田, 満; 松本, 秀男

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association of serum BDNF concentration with high-intensity interval training, 12 healthy male volunteers, aged 28-48 years, completed 16-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) using ergometer...

  5. Generation of shock waves in dense plasmas by high-intensity laser pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasley John

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When intense short-pulse laser beams (I > 1022 W/m2, τ < 20 ps interact with high density plasmas, strong shock waves are launched. These shock waves may be generated by a range of processes, and the relative significance of the various mechanisms driving the formation of these shock waves is not well understood. It is challenging to obtain experimental data on shock waves near the focus of such intense laser–plasma interactions. The hydrodynamics of such interactions is, however, of great importance to fast ignition based inertial confinement fusion schemes as it places limits upon the time available for depositing energy in the compressed fuel, and thereby directly affects the laser requirements. In this manuscript we present the results of magnetohydrodynamic simulations showing the formation of shock waves under such conditions, driven by the j × B force and the thermal pressure gradient (where j is the current density and B the magnetic field strength. The time it takes for shock waves to form is evaluated over a wide range of material and current densities. It is shown that the formation of intense relativistic electron current driven shock waves and other related hydrodynamic phenomena may be expected over time scales of relevance to intense laser–plasma experiments and the fast ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion. A newly emerging technique for studying such interactions is also discussed. This approach is based upon Doppler spectroscopy and offers promise for investigating early time shock wave hydrodynamics launched by intense laser pulses.

  6. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  7. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  8. Kinetic Alfven Waves Carrying Intense Field Aligned Currents: Particle Trapping and Electron Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Artemyev, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is now common knowledge that dispersive scale Alfvén waves can drive parallel electron acceleration [Lotko et al., JGR, 1998; Samson et al., Ann. Geophys., 2003; Wygant et al., JGR, 2002] and transverse ion energization in the auroral zone and inner magnetosphere [Johnson and Cheng, JGR, 2001; Chaston et al., 2004]. In this paper we show that relatively low energy electrons (plasma sheet electrons with energies ranging up to ˜100 eV) can be accelerated very efficiently as they interact nonlinearly with kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) that carry intense field aligned currents from the equatorial plane toward the ionosphere in the inner magnetosphere. We propose a theoretical model describing electron trapping into an effective wave potential generated by parallel wave electric fields (with perpendicular wavelengths on the order of the ion gyro-radius) and the mirror force acting on electrons as they propagate along geomagnetic field lines. We demonstrate that waves with an electric potential amplitude between ~100 - 400 V can trap and accelerate electrons to energies approaching several keVs. Trapping acceleration corresponds to conservation of the electron magnetic moment and, thus, results in a significant decrease of the electron equatorial pitch-angle with time. Analytical and numerical estimates of the maximum energy and probability of trapping are presented. We discuss the application of the proposed model in light of recent observations of electromagnetic fluctuations in the inner magnetosphere that are present during periods of strong geomagnetic activity [Chaston et al., GRL, 2014; Califf et al., JGR, 2015].

  9. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise, or no training, with endothelial function as outcome measure. Endothelial function was measured either physiologically by flow-mediated dilatation and/or by systemic biomarkers. Data were analyzed descriptively due to non-comparability for a meta-analysis to be performed. A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Although there was great heterogenecity in design, population and exercise protocols, all studies found high-intensity training to be safe. High-intensity training was equal to moderate-intensity continuous exercise through improvement in endothelial function in 15 of the 20 selected studies, as measured by flow-mediated dilatation, nitric oxide bioavailability and circulating biomarkers. Only a few studies examined high-intensity training in cerebrovascular patients, none with endothelial function as outcome. High-intensity training is promising as a time-efficient exercise strategy in cardiovascular rehabilitation, but data on endothelial effects in cerebrovascular rehabilitation are warranted. Agreement on a more uniform exercise protocol is

  10. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  11. 78 FR 13566 - Energy Conservation Program for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps: Public Meeting and Availability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC36 Energy Conservation Program for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps: Public Meeting... conservation standards for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. The meeting will cover the analytical... High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, EERE-2010-BT-STD-0043 and/or RIN 1904-AC36, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  12. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy after High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Telis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in men. As new focal therapies become more popular in treatment of prostate cancer, failure cases requiring salvage therapy with either surgical or other techniques are being reported. Objective. To report the options in treatment of prostate cancer after recurrence or failure of the primary treatment modality. Methods. We report a salvage robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP for prostate cancer recurrence following high intensity focused ultrasound treatment (HIFU in the United States. Results. A 67-year-old man who underwent HIFU treatment for prostate adenocarcinoma 2 years prior was presented with a rising prostate specific antigen of 6.1 ng/mL to our clinic. A biopsy proven recurrent disease in the area of previous treatment documented the failure of treatment. The patient elected to undergo a salvage RALP. The operation time was 159 minutes. The patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 1 with no complications. The catheter was removed on post-op day 10. The patient reserved sexual function and urinary continence. The PSA levels on 6 months’ follow-up are undetectable. Conclusions. Salvage RALP is an effective and safe treatment choice for recurrent prostate adenocarcinoma following failed HIFU treatment if operated by an experienced surgeon.

  13. A methodology for assessing high intensity RF effects in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Kunz, K.S.; Molau, N.E.; Pennock, S.T.; Poggio, A.J.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Optical components have an inherent immunity to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) associated with High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF). The optical technology embodied in Fly-by-Light (FBL) might therefore minimize the effects of HIRF on digitally controlled systems while providing lifetime immunity to signal EMI. This is one of the primary motivations for developing FBL systems for aircraft. FBL has the potential to greatly simplify EMI certification by enabling technically acceptable laboratory tests of subsystems, as opposed to expensive full airplane tests. In this paper the authors describe a methodology for assessing EMI effects on FBL aircraft that reduces or potentially eliminates the need for full airplane tests. This methodology is based on comparing the applied EMI stress--the level of interference signal that arrives at a unit under test--versus the EMI strength of the unit--the interference level it can withstand without upset. This approach allows one to use computer models and/or low power coupling measurement and similarity (to other previously tested aircraft) to determine the stress applied to installed subsystems, and to use benchtop cable injection tests and/or mode stirred chamber radiated tests to determine the strength of the subsystem.

  14. A highly parallelized framework for computationally intensive MR data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubela, Roland N; Huf, Wolfgang; Kalcher, Klaudius; Sladky, Ronald; Filzmoser, Peter; Pezawas, Lukas; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a comprehensive magnetic resonance (MR) data analysis framework for handling very large datasets with user-friendly tools for parallelization and to provide an example implementation. Commonly used software packages (AFNI, FSL, SPM) were connected via a framework based on the free software environment R, with the possibility of using Nvidia CUDA GPU processing integrated for high-speed linear algebra operations in R. Three hundred single-subject datasets from the 1,000 Functional Connectomes project were used to demonstrate the capabilities of the framework. A framework for easy implementation of processing pipelines was developed and an R package for the example implementation of Fully Exploratory Network ICA was compiled. Test runs on data from 300 subjects demonstrated the computational advantages of a processing pipeline developed using the framework compared to non-parallelized processing, reducing computation time by a factor of 15. The feasibility of computationally intensive exploratory analyses allows broader access to the tools for discovery science.

  15. Treatment of Acne Scars With High Intensity Focused Radio Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Weiss, Robert A; Weiss, Margaret A; Halvorson, Christian R; Mayoral, Flor; Ross, E Victor; Cohen, Joel L

    2015-09-01

    In this multi-site case series, the efficacy of high intensity focused radiofrequency (RF) delivered to the dermis was evaluated for treating acne scars. A novel delivery system that uses insulated microneedles to deliver a desired thermal effect to multiple depths of the dermis while sparing the epidermis from RF injury was used. Four (4) healthy subjects from four different practices were evaluated and used in this case report. The subjects were treated between 3 or 4 times depending on the severity of the acne scars presented. The depth of thermal delivery was adjusted before each pass and all subjects received at a minimum, three passes to the treated area. Before and after photographs along with adverse effects were recorded. The theory behind the use of insulated needles with the active RF delivery at the distal tip is to allow for significant thermal injury to several layers of the dermis while avoiding thermal injury to the epidermis. This case report demonstrates significant improvement on acne scars and that all skin types should be safely treatable with minimum downtime realized.

  16. Perception of Breakfast Ingestion Enhances High Intensity Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Stephen A; Dickinson, Kathryn; Bergin-Taylor, Kurt; Dee, Reagan; Kay, Jack; James, Lewis J

    2017-09-27

    To examine the effect on short duration, high intensity cycling time trial performance when a semi-solid breakfast containing carbohydrate or a taste and texture matched placebo is ingested 90 minutes pre-exercise compared to a water control. Thirteen well trained cyclists (25 ± 8 years, 71.1 ± 5.9 kg, 1.76 ± 0.04 m, 383 ± 46 Wmax, VO2peak 4.42 ± 0.53 L·min(-1)) performed three experimental trials examining breakfast ingestion 90 minutes before a 10 minute steady state cycle (60% Wmax) and a ~20 minute time trial (to complete a workload target of 376 ± 36 kJ). Subjects consumed either water (WAT), a semi-solid carbohydrate breakfast (2 g carbohydrate·kg(-1) body mass; CHO) or a taste and texture matched placebo (PLA). Blood lactate and glucose concentrations were measured periodically throughout the rest and exercise periods. The time trial was completed quicker in CHO (1120 ± 69 s; P=0.006) and PLA (1112 ± 50 s; P=0.030) compared to WAT (1146 ± 74 s). Ingestion of carbohydrate caused an increase in blood glucose concentration throughout the rest period in CHO (peak at 30 minutes rest: 7.37 ± 1.10 mmol·l(-1); Pbreakfast (PLA or CHO) 90 minutes prior to the start of exercise. The improvement in performance is likely attributable to a psychological rather than physiological effect.

  17. Performance of current intensive care unit ventilators during pressure and volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Andrew D; Sulemanji, Demet; Chipman, Daniel; Villar, Jesús; Kacmarek, Robert M

    2011-07-01

    Intensive-care mechanical ventilators regularly enter the market, but the gas-delivery capabilities of many have never been assessed. We evaluated 6 intensive-care ventilators in the pressure support (PS), pressure assist/control (PA/C), and volume assist/control (VA/C) modes, with lung-model mechanics combinations of compliance and resistance of 60 mL/cm H(2)O and 10 cm H(2)O/L/s, 60 mL/cm H(2)O and 5 cm H(2)O/L/s, and 30 mL/cm H(2)O and 10 cm H(2)O/L/s, and inspiratory muscle effort of 5 and 10 cm H(2)O. PS and PA/C were set to 15 cm H(2)O, and PEEP to 5 and 15 cm H(2)O in all modes. During VA/C, tidal volume was set at 500 mL and inspiratory time was set at 0.8 second. Rise time and termination criteria were set at the manufacturers' defaults, and to an optimal level during PS and PA/C. There were marked differences in ventilator performance in all 3 modes. VA/C had the greatest difficulty meeting lung model demand and the greatest variability across all tested scenarios and ventilators. From high to low inspiratory muscle effort, pressure-to-trigger, time for pressure to return to baseline, and triggering pressure-time product decreased in all modes. With increasing resistance and decreasing compliance, tidal volume, pressure-to-trigger, time-to-trigger, time for pressure to return to baseline, time to 90% of peak pressure, and pressure-time product decreased. There were large differences between the default and optimal settings for all the variables in PS and PA/C. Performance was not affected by PEEP. Most of the tested ventilators performed at an acceptable level during the majority of evaluations, but some ventilators performed inadequately during specific settings. Bedside clinical evaluation is needed.

  18. High intensity production of high and medium charge state uraniumand other heavy ion beams with VENUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; Galloway, Michelle L.; Loew, Timothy J.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Rodriguez, Ingrid Castro; Todd, Damon S.

    2007-11-15

    The next generation, superconducting ECR ion source VENUS(Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) started operation with 28GHzmicrowave heating in 2004. Since then it has produced world recordion beam intensities. For example, 2850 e mu A of O6+, 200 e mu A of U33+or U34+, and in respect to high charge state ions, 1 e mu A of Ar18+, 270e mu A of Ar16+, 28 e mu A of Xe35+ and 4.9 e mu A of U47+ have beenproduced. A brief overview of the latest developments leading to theserecord intensities is given and the production of high intensity uraniumbeams is discussed in more detail.

  19. Exercise training intensity prescription in breast cancer survivors: validity of current practice and specific recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharhag-Rosenberger, Friederike; Kuehl, Rea; Klassen, Oliver; Schommer, Kai; Schmidt, Martina E; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim; Steindorf, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Cancer survivors are recommended to perform 150 min/week of moderate or 75 min/week of vigorous aerobic exercise, but it remains unclear how moderate and vigorous intensities can be prescribed. Therefore, it was investigated whether and how intensity prescriptions for healthy adults by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) need to be adapted for breast cancer survivors. Fifty-two breast cancer survivors (stage 0-III, age 52 ± 9 years, BMI 25.4 ± 3.5 kg/m2) performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests at the end of primary therapy. Intensity classes defined as percentages of maximal heart rate (HRmax), heart rate reserve (HRR), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were compared to the ACSM's intensity classes using oxygen uptake reserve as reference. The prescriptions for moderate and vigorous exercise intensities were significantly different between breast cancer survivors and healthy adults when using VO2max (moderate 50-66 vs. 46-63 and vigorous 67-91 vs. 64-90% VO2max) or HRR (moderate 26-50 vs. 40-59 and vigorous 51-88 vs. 60-89 % HRR), but not when using HRmax (moderate 65-76 vs. 64-76 and vigorous 77-94 vs. 77-95% HRmax). In breast cancer survivors, intensity prescriptions for healthy adults result in considerably too intense training if HRR is used as guiding factor. Prescriptions using VO2max result in a slightly too low exercise intensity, whereas recommendations in percentages of HRmax appear valid. Cancer survivors should not uncritically adopt exercise intensity prescriptions for healthy adults. Specific prescriptions for the studied population are provided.

  20. [Effect of high-intensity alternating magnetic field 
on viscosity of sheep blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pengxian; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhao, Lingzhi; Wang, Feng; Xia, Qi; Peng, Yan; Gao, Bingren

    2017-12-28

    To explore the changes of blood viscosity in high-intensity alternating magnetic field and the mechanisms.
 Methods: Five adult sheep were randomly selected and the blood samples were placed in high-intensity alternating magnetic field. Before and after exposure, the blood samples were taken and divided into 2 groups: a control group and a magnetic field group. The blood rheology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed.
 Results: Compared to the control group, the high shear viscosity of whole blood was decreased in the magnetic field group (P<0.05); the whole blood low shear viscosity and plasma viscosity were also decreased (both P<0.01). TEM showed the changes in red blood cell morphology and the double concave disc curvature. The radian of double concave disc and cell volume in the magnetic field group was larger than those in the control group.
 Conclusion: The high intensity alternating magnetic field may affect the distribution of surface charge and molecular current in blood cells, which in turn decrease the aggregation of cells and the blood viscosity.

  1. Can high intensity workloads be simulated at moderate intensities by reduced breathing frequency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Štrumbelj

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to investigate whether reduced breathing frequency during moderate intensity exercise produces similar metabolic responses as during exercise with spontaneous breathing at higher absolute intensity.Methods: Eight healthy male subjects performed a constant load test with reduced breathing frequency at 10 breaths per minute to exhaustion (B10 at the peak power output obtained during the incremental test with RBF (peak power output increased every two minutes for 30 W. The subjects then performed a constant load test with the spontaneous breathing to exhaustion (SB at peak power output obtained during the incremental test with spontaneous breathing. Results: Respiratory parameters (VE, PETO2, PETCO2, metabolic parameters (Vo2, Vco2 and oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured during both constant load tests. Capillary blood samples were taken before and every minute during both constant load tests in order to measure lactate concentration ([LA-] and parameters of capillary blood gases and acid base status (Po2, Pco2, pH. Regardless of the type of comparison (the data obtained at the defined time or maximum and minimum values during the exercise, there were significant differences between SB and B10 in all respiratory parameters, metabolic parameters and SaO2 (p ≤ 0.01 and 0.05. There were significantly lower [LA-] and Pco2 during B10, when compared to SB (p≤0.01. However, there were no significant differences in pH during the exercise between different breathing conditions. Conclusion: It can be concluded that reduced breathing frequency during exercise at lower absolute intensity did not produce similar conditions as during the exercise with spontaneous breathing at higher absolute intensity.

  2. Progress and upgrading of the Heidelberg high current injector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gap cavities was built for injection of high intensities of singly charged heavy ions into the Heidelberg heavy ion storage ring TSR. With different ion sources, this system now is used to deliver positive or negative, atomic and molecular ion beams ...

  3. High-intensity pulsed beam source with tunable operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilevskiy, A. V.; Kanaev, G. G.; Ezhov, V. V.; Shamanin, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The report presents the design of an electron and an ion pulsed accelerator. The powerful high-voltage pulse generator of the accelerator and the vacuum bushing insulator is able to change the polarity of the output voltage. The low-inductance matching transformer provides an increase in the DFL output impedance by 4 times. The generator based on a high voltage pulse transformer and a pseudo spark switch is applied for DFL charging. The high-impedance magnetically insulated focusing diode with Br magnetic field and the “passive” anode was used to realize the ion beam generation mode. The plasma is formed on the surface of the anode caused by an electrical breakdown at the voltage edge pulse; as a result, the carbon ion and proton beam is generated. This beam has the following parameters: the current density is about 400 A/cm2 (in focus): the applied voltage is up to 450 kV. The accelerator is designed for the research on the interaction of the charged particle pulsed beams with materials and for the development of technological processes of a material modification.

  4. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  5. In vivo photoacoustics and high frequency ultrasound imaging of mechanical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daoudi, K.; Hoogenboom, M.; Brok, M.H. den; Eikelenboom, D.C.; Adema, G.J.; Futterer, J.J.; Korte, C.L. de

    2017-01-01

    The thermal effect of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been clinically exploited over a decade, while the mechanical HIFU is still largely confined to laboratory investigations. This is in part due to the lack of adequate imaging techniques to better understand the in-vivo pathological

  6. A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  7. Scaling to Ultra-High Intensities by High-Energy Petawatt Beam Combining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siders, C W; Jovanovic, I; Crane, J; Rushford, M; Lucianetti, A; Barty, C J

    2006-06-23

    The output pulse energy from a single-aperture high-energy laser amplifier (e.g. fusion lasers such as NIF and LMJ) are critically limited by a number of factors including optical damage, which places an upper bound on the operating fluence; parasitic gain, which limits together with manufacturing costs the maximum aperture size to {approx} 40-cm; and non-linear phase effects which limits the peak intensity. For 20-ns narrow band pulses down to transform-limited sub-picosecond pulses, these limiters combine to yield 10-kJ to 1-kJ maximum pulse energies with up to petawatt peak power. For example, the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) project at NIF is designed to provide kilo-Joule pulses from 0.75-ps to 50-ps, with peak focused intensity above 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Using such a high-energy petawatt (HEPW) beamline as a modular unit, they discuss large-scale architectures for coherently combining multiple HEPW pulses from independent apertures, called CAPE (Coherent Addition of Pulses for Energy), to significantly increase the peak achievable focused intensity. Importantly, the maximum intensity achievable with CAPE increases non-linearly. Clearly, the total integrated energy grows linearly with the number of apertures N used. However, as CAPE combines beams in the focal plane by increasing the angular convergence to focus (i.e. the f-number decreases), the foal spot diameter scales inversely with N. Hence the peak intensity scales as N{sup 2}. Using design estimates for the focal spot size and output pulse energy (limited by damage fluence on the final compressor gratings) versus compressed pulse duration in the ARC system, Figure 2 shows the scaled focal spot intensity and total energy for various CAPE configurations from 1,2,4, ..., up to 192 total beams. They see from the fixture that the peak intensity for event modest 8 to 16 beam combinations reaches the 10{sup 21} to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} regime. With greater number of apertures, or with

  8. Glass Strengthening via High-Intensity Plasma-Arc Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Harper, David C [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Patel, P [U.S. Army research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD

    2010-01-01

    The use of a high-intensity plasma-arc lamp was used to irradiate the surface of soda-lime silicate glass tiles to determine if an increase in strength could be achieved. The lamp had a power density of 3500 W/cm2, a processing area of 1 cm x 10 cm, irradiated near-infrared heating at a wavelength between 0.2 1.4 m, and was controlled to unidirectionally sweep across 50-mm-square tiles at a constant speed of 8 mm/s. Ring-on-ring (RoR) equibiaxial flexure and 4 pt uni-directional flexure testings of entire tiles were used to measure and compare failure stress distributions of treated and untreated glass. Even with non-optimized processing conditions, RoR failure stress increased by approximately 25% and the 4 pt bend failure stress increased by approximately 65%. Strengthening was due to a fire-polishing-like mechanism. The arc-lamp heat-treatment caused the location of the strength-limiting flaws in the 4-pt-bend tiles to change; namely, failure initiation occurred on the gage section surface for the treated glass whereas it occurred at a gage section edge for the untreated. Arc-lamp heat-treatment is attractive not only because it provides strengthening, but because it can (non-contact) process large amounts of glass quickly and inexpensively, and is a process that either a glass manufacturer or end-user can readily employ.

  9. Development of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Hydrophone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Mark E.; Gessert, James

    2009-04-01

    The growing clinical use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has driven a need for reliable, reproducible measurements of HIFU acoustic fields. We have previously presented data on a reflective scatterer approach, incorporating several novel features for improved bandwidth, reliability, and reproducibility [Proc. 2005 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1739-1742]. We now report on several design improvements which have increase the signal to noise ratio of the system, and potentially reduced the cost of implementation. For the scattering element, we now use an artificial sapphire material to provide a more uniform radiating surface. The receiver is a segmented, truncated spherical structure with a 10 cm radius; the scattering element is positioned at the center of the sphere. The receiver is made from 25 micron thick, biaxially stretched PVDF, with a Pt-Au electrode on the front surface. In the new design, a specialized backing material provides the stiffness required to maintain structural stability, while at the same time providing both electrical shielding and ultrasonic absorption. Compared with the previous version, the new receiver design has improved the noise performance by 8-12 dB; the new scattering sphere has reduced the scattering loss by another 14 dB, producing an effective sensitivity of -298 dB re 1 microVolt/Pa. The design trade-off still involves receiver sensitivity with effective spot size, and signal distortion from the scatter structure. However, the reduced cost and improved repeatability of the new scatter approach makes the overall design more robust for routine waveform measurements of HIFU systems.

  10. High-intensity training reduces CD8+ T-cell redistribution in response to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackman, S.R.; Tipton, K.D.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Kies, A.K.; Bosch, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether exercise-induced lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia are impaired with high-intensity training. Methods: Eight trained cyclists (V·O2max = 64.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) undertook 1 wk of normal-intensity training and a second week of high-intensity training. On day 7 of each

  11. High-Intensity Drinking Versus Heavy Episodic Drinking: Prevalence Rates and Relative Odds of Alcohol Use Disorder Across Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Vasilenko, Sara A; Lanza, Stephanie T; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2017-10-01

    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) or consuming 4+/5+ drinks in 1 occasion for women/men is linked consistently with alcohol-related harms. Recent research suggests that many individuals drink at levels more than twice this cutoff (8+/10+ drinks), commonly referred to as "high-intensity drinking." Prevalence rates of high-intensity drinking and its dynamic association with alcohol use disorder (AUD) across all ages, however, remain unknown. The current study used data from a nationally representative sample to document age-varying prevalence rates of HED-only drinking and high-intensity drinking, prevalence rates of AUD for HED-only drinkers and high-intensity drinkers, and relative odds of experiencing an AUD for high-intensity drinkers as compared to HED-only drinkers. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. The final analytic sample consisted of past-year drinkers aged 18 to 64 years (n = 22,776). Time-varying effect modeling revealed that high-intensity drinking and HED-only drinking were equally prevalent during young adulthood and prevalence rates of both types of drinking generally became less common with increasing age. At all ages, high-intensity drinkers were at 3 or more times greater odds of meeting criteria for an AUD than HED-only drinkers. The association between high-intensity relative to HED-only drinking was strongest earlier in adulthood with approximately 83% of 18-year-old high-intensity drinkers having AUD relative to 42% of HED-only drinkers. Future research aiming to identify drinkers most at risk of harms and in need of treatment may benefit from assessing the extent to which an individual exceeds the 8+/10+ threshold of drinking. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Cathode erosion in high-current high-pressure arc

    CERN Document Server

    Nemchinsky, V A

    2003-01-01

    Cathode erosion rate was experimentally investigated for two types of arcs: one with tungsten cathode in nitrogen atmosphere and one with hafnium cathode in oxygen atmosphere. Conditions were typical for plasma arc cutting systems: gas pressure from 2 to 5 atm, arc current from 200 to 400 A, gas flow rate from 50 to 130 litre min sup - sup 1. It was found that the actual cathode evaporation rate G is much lower than G sub 0 , the evaporation rate that follows from the Hertz-Knudsen formula: G = nu G sub 0. The difference is because some of the evaporated particles return back to the cathode. For conditions of our experiments, the factor nu could be as low as 0.01. It was shown experimentally that nu depends strongly on the gas flow pattern close to the cathode. In particular, swirling the gas increases nu many times. To explain the influence of gas swirling, model calculations of gas flows were performed. These calculations revealed difference between swirling and non-swirling flows: swirling the gas enhances...

  13. Origin of the light intensity dependence of the short-circuit current of polymer/fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Xie, H; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    A typical feature of polymer/fullerene based solar cells is that the current density under short-circuit conditions (J(sc)) does not scale exactly linearly with light intensity (I). Instead, a power law relationship is found given by J(sc)proportional to I-alpha, where alpha ranges from 0.85 to 1.

  14. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika

    2014-01-01

    intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance......To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... in sedentary women with mild hypertension. Adaptations are similar with high- and moderate-intensity training, despite markedly less total time spent and distance covered in the high-intensity group....

  15. Heterogeneous responses of personalised high intensity interval training on type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk in young healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, T.P; Baker, M.D; Evans, S-A; Adams, R.A; Cobbold, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which p...

  16. Should high-intensity-aerobic interval training become the clinical standard in heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Forman, Daniel E; Lavie, Carl J; Guazzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training in the heart failure (HF) population is supported by an extensive body of literature. The clinically accepted model for exercise prescription is currently moderate-intensity-aerobic continuous training (MI-ACT). Documented benefits from the literature include improvements in various aspects of physiologic function, aerobic exercise capacity and quality of life while the impact on morbidity and mortality is promising but requires further investigation. Recently, however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating high-intensity-aerobic interval training (HI-AIT) can be performed safely with impressive improvements in physiology, functional capacity and quality of life. These initial findings have led some to question the long-standing clinical approach to aerobic exercise training in patients with HF (i.e., MI-ACT), implying it should perhaps be replaced with a HI-AIT model. This is a potentially controversial paradigm shift given the potential increase in adverse event risk associated with exercising at higher intensities, particularly in the HF population where the likelihood of an untoward episode is already at a heightened state relative to the apparently healthy population. The present review therefore addresses key issues related to HI-AIT in the HF population and makes recommendations for future research and current clinical practice.

  17. Evaluate thermal lesion using Nakagami imaging for monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Li, Chong; Zhou, Fanyu; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is currently being developed as a noninvasive technique for the treatment of cancer located in various tissues. Cavitation microbubbles (MBs) have been potential to aid treatment while the acoustic posterior shadowing effects of MBs influence the accuracy for defining the location and range of ablated thermal lesions during focused ultrasound surgery when using ultrasonic monitoring imaging. This work explored the feasibility of using ultrasonic Nakagami imaging to evaluate the ablated region induced by focused ultrasound exposures at different acoustic power levels in transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms.

  18. Underutilization of high-intensity statin therapy after hospitalization for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Kent, Shia T; Brown, Todd M; Farkouh, Michael E; Levitan, Emily B; Yun, Huifeng; Sharma, Pradeep; Safford, Monika M; Kilgore, Meredith; Muntner, Paul; Bittner, Vera

    2015-01-27

    National guidelines recommend use of high-intensity statins after hospitalization for coronary heart disease (CHD) events. This study sought to estimate the proportion of Medicare beneficiaries filling prescriptions for high-intensity statins after hospital discharge for a CHD event and to analyze whether statin intensity before hospitalization is associated with statin intensity after discharge. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries between 65 and 74 years old. Beneficiaries were included in the analysis if they filled a statin prescription after a CHD event (myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization) in 2007, 2008, or 2009. High-intensity statins included atorvastatin 40 to 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 to 40 mg, and simvastatin 80 mg. Among 8,762 Medicare beneficiaries filling a statin prescription after a CHD event, 27% of first post-discharge fills were for a high-intensity statin. The percent filling a high-intensity statin post-discharge was 23.1%, 9.4%, and 80.7%, for beneficiaries not taking statins pre-hospitalization, taking low/moderate-intensity statins, and taking high-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Compared with beneficiaries not on statin therapy pre-hospitalization, multivariable adjusted risk ratios for filling a high-intensity statin were 4.01 (3.58-4.49) and 0.45 (0.40-0.52) for participants taking high-intensity and low/moderate-intensity statins before their CHD event, respectively. Only 11.5% of beneficiaries whose first post-discharge statin fill was for a low/moderate-intensity statin filled a high-intensity statin within 365 days of discharge. The majority of Medicare beneficiaries do not fill high-intensity statins after hospitalization for CHD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity steady-state training in UK cardiac rehabilitation programmes (HIIT or MISS UK): study protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Gordon; Nichols, Simon; Hamborg, Thomas; Bryning, Lucy; Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon; Markland, David; Mercer, Jenny; Birkett, Stefan; Ennis, Stuart; Powell, Richard; Begg, Brian; Haykowsky, Mark J; Banerjee, Prithwish; Ingle, Lee; Shave, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current international guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) advocate moderate-intensity exercise training (MISS, moderate-intensity steady state). This recommendation predates significant advances in medical therapy for coronary heart disease (CHD) and may not be the most appropriate strategy for the ?modern? patient with CHD. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be a safe and effective alternative, resulting in greater improvements in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 p...

  20. High-intensity re-warm-ups enhance soccer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, J; Bishop, D; Fairweather, I; Ball, K; Aughey, R J

    2013-09-01

    The effects of high-intensity, short-duration, re-warm-ups on team-sport-related performance were investigated. In a randomised, cross-over study, participants performed 2×26-min periods of an intermittent activity protocol (IAP) on a non-motorized treadmill, interspersed by 15-min of passive recovery (CON); 3-min small-sided game (SSG); or a 5RM leg-press. Measures included counter-movement jump, repeated-sprint, the Loughborough soccer passing test (LSPT), blood lactate concentration, heart-rate, and perceptual measures. Data were analyzed using effect size (90% confidence intervals), and percentage change; determining magnitudes of effects. A 5RM re-warm-up improved flight-time to contraction-time ratio when compared to SSG (9.8%, ES; 0.5±0.3) and CON (ES: 9.4%, 0.7±0.5) re-warm-ups, remaining higher following the second IAP (8.8%, ES; 0.5±0.3 and 10.2%, ES; 0.6±0.6, respectively). Relative-maximum rate-of-force development was greater in the 5RM condition following the second IAP compared to SSG (29.3%, ES; 0.7±0.5) and CON (16.2%, ES; 0.6±0.6). Repeated-sprint ability during the second IAP improved in the 5RM re-warm-up; peak velocity, mean velocity, and acceleration were 4, 3, and 18% greater, respectively. Within groups, the SSG re-warm-up improved LSPT performance post-intervention; 6.4% (ES: 0.6±0.8) and following the second IAP 6.2% (ES: 0.6±0.6), compared to pre-intervention. A 5RM leg-press re-warm-up improved physical performance, while a SSG re-warm-up enhanced skill execution following standardized intermittent exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Experimental Research at the Intensity Frontier in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, Marvin L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This Final Report describes DOE-supported Intensity Frontier research by the University of Minnesota during the interval April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Primary activities included the MINOS, NOvA and LBNE Experiments and Heavy Quark studies at BES III.

  2. Experimental and numerical study of high intensity argon cluster beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobeishchikov, N. G.; Kalyada, V. V.; Shmakov, A. A.; Zarvin, A. E. [Department of Applied Physics, Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Skovorodko, P. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia and Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS,1, Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    Experimental and numerical investigations of expansion of argon with homogeneous condensation in supersonic conical nozzle and in free jet behind it were carried out. Optimal parameters (stagnation pressure, nozzle-skimmer distance) for the formation of cluster beam with maximum intensity were determined. Two available models for nonequilibrium nucleation were tested. The numerical results are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data.

  3. Rainfall intensity characteristics at coastal and high altitude stations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This could be an indication of the relative prevalence of stratiform and cumuliform clouds.Rainfall was of intensity > 5 mm/hr for more than 95%of the time in Kochi in July 2002,which was a month seriously deficient in rainfall,indicating that the deficiency was probably due to the relative absence of cumuliform clouds.

  4. Minimal current intensity to elicit an evoked motor response cannot discern between needle-nerve contact and intraneural needle insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Thomas; Bornträger, Andreas; Vassiliou, Timon; Hadzic, Admir; Wulf, Hinnerk; Müller, Hans-Helge; Steinfeldt, Thorsten

    2014-03-01

    The ability of an evoked motor response (EMR) with nerve stimulation to detect intraneural needle placement reliably at low current intensity has recently been challenged. In this study, we hypothesized that current intensity is higher in needle-nerve contact than in intraneural needle placement. Brachial plexus nerves were exposed surgically in 6 anesthetized pigs. An insulated needle connected to a nerve stimulator was placed either with 1 mm distance to the nerve (control position), adjacent to nerve epineurium (needle-nerve contact position), or inside the nerve (intraneural position). Three pulse duration settings were applied in random fashion (0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 milliseconds) at each needle position. Starting at 0.0 mA, electrical current was increased until a minimal threshold current resulting in a specific EMR was observed. Fifty threshold current measurements were scheduled for each needle position-pulse duration setting. Four hundred-fifty threshold currents in 50 peripheral nerves were measured. Threshold current intensities (mA) to elicit EMR showed small differences between the needle-nerve contact position [median (25th-75th percentiles); 0.1 milliseconds: 0.12 (0.08-0.18) mA; 0.3 milliseconds: 0.10 (0.06-0.12) mA; 1.0 milliseconds: 0.06 (0.04-0.10) mA] and the intraneural position (0.1 milliseconds: 0.12 [0.10-0.16] mA; 0.3 milliseconds: 0.08 [0.06-0.10] mA; 1.0 milliseconds: 0.06 [0.06-0.08] mA) that are neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant. Regardless of the pulse duration that was applied, the 98.33% confidence interval revealed a difference of at most 0.02 mA. However, threshold current intensities to elicit EMR were lower for the needle-nerve contact position than for the control position (0.1 milliseconds: 0.28 [0.26-0.32] mA; 0.3 milliseconds: 0.20 [0.16-0.22] mA; 1.0 milliseconds: 0.12 [0.10-0.14] mA). The confidence interval for differences suggests minimal current intensity to elicit a motor response that cannot

  5. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable

  6. High performance current controller for particle accelerator magnets supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Bidoggia, Benoit; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnets in modern particle accelerators require high performance power supply whose output is required to track the current reference with a very high accuracy (down to 50 ppm). This demands very high bandwidth controller design. A converter based on buck converter topology is used...

  7. Lipid emulsions in parenteral nutrition of intensive care patients: current thinking and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calder, P.C.; Jensen, G.L.; Koletzko, B.V.; Singer, P.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Energy deficit is a common and serious problem in intensive care units and is associated with increased rates of complications, length of stay, and mortality. Parenteral nutrition (PN), either alone or in combination with enteral nutrition, can improve nutrient delivery to critically ill

  8. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…

  9. First detection of global dawn-dusk ionospheric current intensities using Ampere's integral law on Orsted orbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, P.; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic measurements by the Orsted satellite in noon-midnight orbits have enabled the derivation of the global dawn-dusk oriented ionospheric currents from an Ampere's law closed loop line integral of the geomagnetic vector field along the satellite track. The globally integrated dawn......-to-dusk ionospheric current is found to be proportional to the gee-effective solar wind electric field and is around 1 million ampere for a typical solar wind electric field of 2 mV/m. Dividing the Ampere integral into semi-orbit parts has enabled us to show that the hemispherical total current intensities depend...

  10. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined

  11. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a

  12. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  13. Development of a laser ion source for production of high-intensity heavy-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Yamada, K.; Kurashima, S.

    2017-09-01

    A laser ion source has been developed as a high-intensity source for the ion implanter and the single pulsed beam of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron at TIARA. Highly charged beams of C5+ and C6+ ions and low-charged beams of heavy ions such as C, Al, Ti, Cu, Au, and Pt are required for the single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron and for the ion implanter, respectively. In the vacuum chamber of the ion source, a target holder on a three-dimensional linear-motion stage provides a fresh surface for each laser shot. A large-sized target with a maximum size of 300 mm × 135 mm is mounted on the holder for long-term operation. The ion current (ion charge flux) in the laser-produced plasma is measured by a Faraday cup and time-of-flight spectra of each charge state are measured using a 90° cylindrical electrostatic analyzer just behind the Faraday cup. Carbon-plasma-generation experiments indicate that the source produces intense high- and low-charged pulsed ion beams. At a laser energy of 483 mJ (2.3 × 1013 W/cm2), average C6+ current of 13 mA and average C5+ current of 23 mA were obtained over the required time duration for single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron (49 ns for C6+ and 80 ns for C5+). Furthermore, at 45 mJ (2.1 × 1012 W/cm2), an average C2+ current of 1.6 mA over 0.88 μs is obtained.

  14. End-of-life perceptions among physicians in intensive care units managed by anesthesiologists in Germany: a survey about structure, current implementation and deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Manfred; Michalsen, Andrej; Toenjes, Anke; Porzsolt, Franz; Bein, Thomas; Theisen, Marc; Brinkmann, Alexander; Groesdonk, Heinrich; Putensen, Christian; Bach, Friedhelm; Henzler, Dietrich

    2017-07-11

    Structural aspects and current practice about end-of-life (EOL) decisions in German intensive care units (ICUs) managed by anesthesiologists are unknown. A survey among intensive care anesthesiologists has been conducted to explore current practice, barriers and opinions on EOL decisions in ICU. In November 2015, all members of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI) and the Association of German Anesthesiologists (BDA) were asked to participate in an online survey to rate the presence or absence and the importance of 50 items. Answers were grouped into three categories considering implementation and relevance: Category 1 reflects high implementation and high relevance, Category 2 low and low, and Category 3 low and high. Five-hundred and forty-one anesthesiologists responded. Only four items reached ≥90% agreement as being performed "yes, always" or "mostly", and 29 items were rated "very" or "more important". A profound discrepancy between current practice and attributed importance was revealed. Twenty-eight items attributed to Category 1, six to Category 2 and sixteen to Category 3. Items characterizing the most urgent need for improvement (Category 3) referred to patient outcome data, preparation of health care directives and interdisciplinary discussion, standard operating procedures, implementation of practical instructions and inclusion of nursing staff and families in the process. The present survey affirms an urgent need for improvement in EOL practice in German ICUs focusing on advanced care planning, distinct aspects of changing goals of care, implementation of standard operating procedures, continuing education and reporting of outcome data.

  15. Transient effect in high intensity proton linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senichev, Yu

    1993-09-01

    We study the possible mechanism of the separatrix destruction during the transient in the linear accelerator. This effect is due to the parametric resonance of the beam in the longitudinal plane caused by the perturbations of electromagnetic field. The magnitude of time-space perturbations of the electromagnetic field depends on the disperse feature of resonator and the beam intensity. In the paper we discuss how to avoid this effect or to decrease its influence.

  16. Drug-nutrient interactions in the intensive care unit: literature review and current recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Heldt,Tatiane; Loss, Sergio Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the interactions between drugs and nutrients and their frequency in the intensive care unit and to assess the professional team's awareness regarding this subject. Methods The keywords "drug interactions" and "nutrition therapy" were searched in the PubMed (specifically MeSH) electronic database. The studies were systematically reviewed for descriptions of the types of interactions between drugs and nutrients, including their frequency and consequences. Results Sixty-sev...

  17. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.H., E-mail: zhangxiaohu@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yuan, Y.J.; Yin, X.J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L.T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du, H.; Li, Z.S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K.D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W.; Xia, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-06-11

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  18. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  19. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    frits. Exploratory melts of non-glassy materials, such as wollastonite, zirconium silicate, and alumino-silicate melts were successfully done indicating that plasma melting has potential application beyond glass. Experimental results were generated that show the high quality of plasma-melted fiberglass compositions, such as E-glass, can result in good fiberizing performance. Fiberizing performance and tensile strength data were achieved during the project to support this conclusion. High seed counts are a feature of the current lab scale melter and must be dealt with via other means, since fining work was outside the scope of this project.

  20. Psychological and Physical Health in Family Caregivers of Intensive Care Unit Survivors: Current Knowledge and Future Research Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Donahoe, Michael P; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2016-04-01

    This article provides an overview of current knowledge on the impact of caregiving on the psychological and physical health of family caregivers of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and suggestions for future research. Review of selected papers published in English between January 2000 and October 2015 reporting psychological and physical health outcomes in family caregivers of ICU survivors. In family caregivers of ICU survivors followed up to five years after patients' discharge from an ICU, psychological symptoms, manifested as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, were highly prevalent. Poor self-care, sleep disturbances and fatigue were identified as common physical health problems in family caregivers. Studies to date are mainly descriptive; few interventions have targeted family caregivers. Further, studies that elicit unique needs of families from diverse cultures are lacking. Studies to date have described the impact of caregiving on the psychological and physical health in family caregivers of ICU survivors. Few studies have tested interventions to support unique needs in this population. Therefore, evidence for best strategies is lacking. Future research is needed to identify ICU caregivers at greatest risk for distress, time points to target interventions with maximal efficacy, needs of those from diverse cultures and test interventions to mitigate family caregivers' burden.

  1. The influence of the current intensity on the damping characteristics for a magneto-rheological damper of passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, A.; Andreescu, C. N.; Stan, C.

    2016-08-01

    Due to their simplicity and controllability, adaptive dampers became very popular in automotive engineering industry, especially in the passenger cars industry, in spite of technological obstacles inherent and the high cost of the magnetic fluid. “MagneRide” is the first technology which uses smart fluids in the shock absorbers of the vehicles adaptive suspensions. Since the discovery of the magneto-rheological effect there is a consistent progress regarding the control algorithms and hardware part itself. These magneto-rheological devices have a major potential which can be explored in various fields of applications. At present many companies make researches for the improvement of the response time and for obtaining a better response at low frequency and amplitude of the body car oscillations. The main objective of this paper is to determine the damping characteristic of a magnetorheological shock absorber of a passenger car. The authors aim to observe how to modify the damping characteristic by changing the intensity of the electric current. The experimental researches have being carried out on a complex and modern test bench especially built for testing shock absorbers, in order to compare the damping characteristic of the classical damper with the magneto-rheological damper.

  2. Initial Results on Neutralized Drift Compression Experiments (NDCX-IA) for High Intensity Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Prabir K; Baca, David; Bieniosek, Frank; Coleman, Joshua E; Davidson, Ronald C; Efthimion, Philip; Eylon, Shmuel; Gilson, Erik P; Grant Logan, B; Greenway, Wayne; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Leitner, Matthaeus; Rose, David; Sefkow, Adam; Sharp, William M; Shuman, Derek; Thoma, Carsten H; Vanecek, David; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Ion beam neutralization and compression experiments are designed to determine the feasibility of using compressed high intensity ion beams for high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and for inertial fusion power. To quantitatively ascertain the various mechanisms and methods for beam compression, the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) facility is being constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In the first compression experiment, a 260 KeV, 25 mA, K+ ion beam of centimeters size is radially compressed to a mm size spot by neutralization in a meter-long plasma column and beam peak current is longitudinally compressed by an induction velocity tilt core. Instrumentation, preliminary results of the experiments, and practical limits of compression are presented. These include parameters such as emittance, degree of neutralization, velocity tilt time profile, and accuracy of measurements (fast and spatially high resolution diagnostic) are discussed.

  3. High current test facility for superconductors at Saclay

    CERN Document Server

    Berriaud, C; Vieillard, L

    2001-01-01

    A high DC current (100 kA-design) test facility for superconducting material is under realisation. Aluminum stabilised conductor (as for LHC detectors) can be tested Including the stabiliser in a 4.75 T dipole field of 0.8 m length which can be rotated in both cable perpendicular directions. A superconductor transformer creates the high current with a primary current from -200 A to +200 A. The output power useable is 25 kJ so that junctions between cables or conductors can be measured at high current. Samples, with a cross sections up to 12 mm*30 mm, were 0.8 m long and were equipped with soldered cables of 0.4 m length at both ends. To test different samples without warming the dipole magnet, samples are placed in a separate dewar. The conception design is described and the first results without external dipole magnetic field are reported. (9 refs).

  4. On the behavior of ion implanted silicon strip detectors in high intensity low energy heavy ion beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bradfield, W; Parker, P D; Visser, D W

    2002-01-01

    In a recent investigation of the development of leakage currents in Silicon Strip Detectors used in experiments with high intensity stable beams, anomalous behavior was observed. Over a very short period of time the leakage current rose to levels that could be damaging to the detectors. A discussion of this evidence and how the problem was solved, with a viable model, will be given, leading to guidelines for use of such detectors in a stable beam environment.

  5. Luminescent rise times of inorganic phosphors excited by high intensity ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R J; Ricchio, S G

    1973-11-01

    The relative delay between excitation and luminescence was measured for a number of common inorganic phosphors using short, high intensity excitation pulses. The delays were found to be much shorter than anticipated; on the basis of low intensity pulsed luminescence measurements and were found to be extremely intensity-dependent. Both the luminescence rise and decay times were found to be intensitydependent as well, with the luminescence pulse waveform tending to approach the exciting pulse at the higher excitation intensities.

  6. Application of the Speed-Duration Relationship to Normalize the Intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M.; Kemi, Ole J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols. PMID:24244266

  7. Design studies of a high-current radiofrequency quadrupole for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    employing the adiabatic bunching process. This process increases the capture effi- ciency of the RFQ to nearly 100%. Because of their high capture efficiency at low energies, the RFQs suite well as a first unit of high-current RF linear accelerators in many advanced applications, such as production of radioactive ion beams ...

  8. Transmission Level High Temperature Superconducting Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gary [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials in a Transmission Level Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) application. During the project, the type of high-temperature superconducting material used evolved from 1st generation (1G) BSCCO-2212 melt cast bulk high-temperature superconductors to 2nd generation (2G) YBCO-based high-temperature superconducting tape. The SFCL employed SuperPower's “Matrix” technology, that offers modular features to enable scale up to transmission voltage levels. The SFCL consists of individual modules that contain elements and parallel inductors that assist in carrying the current during the fault. A number of these modules are arranged in an m x n array to form the current-limiting matrix.

  9. High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focia, Ronald Jeffrey

    2017-08-22

    A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.

  10. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., PALS Centre, Prague (Czech Republic); Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Messina University (Italy); Picciotto, A.; Serra, E. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IRST, Trento (Italy); Giuffrida, L. [CELIA, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (France); Mangione, A. [ITA - Istituto Tecnologie Avanzate, Trapani (Italy); Rosinski, M.; Parys, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2012-02-15

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  11. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarone, D; Krasa, J; Prokupek, J; Velyhan, A; Torrisi, L; Picciotto, A; Giuffrida, L; Gammino, S; Cirrone, P; Cutroneo, M; Romano, F; Serra, E; Mangione, A; Rosinski, M; Parys, P; Ryc, L; Limpouch, J; Laska, L; Jungwirth, K; Ullschmied, J; Mocek, T; Korn, G; Rus, B

    2012-02-01

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 10(16)-10(19) W∕cm(2). The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  12. New methods for high current fast ion beam production by laser-driven accelerationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Prokupek, J.; Velyhan, A.; Torrisi, L.; Picciotto, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gammino, S.; Cirrone, P.; Cutroneo, M.; Romano, F.; Serra, E.; Mangione, A.; Rosinski, M.; Parys, P.; Ryc, L.; Limpouch, J.; Laska, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Mocek, T.; Korn, G.; Rus, B.

    2012-02-01

    An overview of the last experimental campaigns on laser-driven ion acceleration performed at the PALS facility in Prague is given. Both the 2 TW, sub-nanosecond iodine laser system and the 20 TW, femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, recently installed at PALS, are used along our experiments performed in the intensity range 1016-1019 W/cm2. The main goal of our studies was to generate high energy, high current ion streams at relatively low laser intensities. The discussed experimental investigations show promising results in terms of maximum ion energy and current density, which make the laser-accelerated ion beams a candidate for new-generation ion sources to be employed in medicine, nuclear physics, matter physics, and industry.

  13. Effect of current intensity and duration on the effectiveness of head-only electrical stunning in pigs under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végh, Ákos; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Rafai, Pál

    2017-03-01

    After head-only electrical stunning of pigs sequential animal-based measurements were carried out right after stunning as well as before and after bleeding in order to analyse how unconsciousness is achieved and maintained in relation to recorded and calculated technical parameters such as electric current intensity, electric work, duration of stunning, and stun-to-bloodletting period. The measurements were performed at three different slaughterhouses on 9 different days under routine slaughtering conditions. The data of 405 pigs were analysed. The effectiveness of stunning was measured by the number of parameters at two (adequate and acceptable) levels. Current intensity had a predominant effect on the effectiveness of stunning and on the maintenance of unconsciousness. The duration of stunning played a role only as part of the electric work, which manifested itself in the maintenance of unconsciousness. Stunning proved acceptable in 99% of the cases, provided that the minimum current intensity of 1.02 Amp was secured. In 99% of the cases unconsciousness could be maintained at an acceptable level beyond bloodletting when the electric work was at least 8,089.38 Joules. Recovery of consciousness depends on the stun-to-stick period: the best time of bloodletting is less than 32 seconds from the end of stunning.

  14. Mapping the Parameter Space of tDCS and Cognitive Control via Manipulation of Current Polarity and Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Elisabeth A; Balewski, Zuzanna Z; Hamilton, Roy H; Medaglia, John D; Tardiff, Nathan; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2016-01-01

    In the cognitive domain, enormous variation in methodological approach prompts questions about the generalizability of behavioral findings obtained from studies of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). To determine the impact of common variations in approach, we systematically manipulated two key stimulation parameters-current polarity and intensity-and assessed their impact on a task of inhibitory control (the Eriksen Flanker). Ninety participants were randomly assigned to one of nine experimental groups: three stimulation conditions (anode, sham, cathode) crossed with three intensity levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mA). As participants performed the Flanker task, stimulation was applied over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; electrode montage: F3-RSO). The behavioral impact of these manipulations was examined using mixed effects linear regression. Results indicate a significant effect of stimulation condition (current polarity) on the magnitude of the interference effect during the Flanker; however, this effect was specific to the comparison between anodal and sham stimulation. Inhibitory control was therefore improved by anodal stimulation over the DLPFC. In the present experimental context, no reliable effect of stimulation intensity was observed, and we found no evidence that inhibitory control was impeded by cathodal stimulation. Continued exploration of the stimulation parameter space, particularly with more robustly powered sample sizes, is essential to facilitating cross-study comparison and ultimately working toward a reliable model of tDCS effects.

  15. High-current pulses from inductive energy stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipf, S. L.

    1981-11-01

    Superconducting inductive energy stores can be used for high power pulse supplies if a suitable current multiplication scheme is used. The concept of an inductive Marx generator is superior to a transformer. A third scheme, a variable flux linkage device, is suggested; in multiplying current it also compresses energy. Its function is in many ways analogous to that of a horsewhip. Superconductor limits indicate that peak power levels of TW can be reached for stored energies above 1 MJ.

  16. Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells: Degradation at High Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Traulsen, Marie Lund; Hauch, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based solid oxide electrolysis cells operated at high current densities was studied. The degradation was examined at 850°C, at current densities of −1.0, −1.5, and −2.0 A/cm2, with a 50:50 (H2O:H2) gas supplied to the Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrode...

  17. Microstructures and critical currents in high-{Tc} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Masaki

    1998-11-01

    Microstructural defects are the primary determining factors for the values of critical-current densities in a high {Tc} superconductor after the electronic anisotropy along the a-b plane and the c-direction. A review is made to assess firstly what would be the maximum achievable critical-current density in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} if nearly ideal pinning sites were introduced and secondly what types of pinning defects are currently introduced or exist in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and how effective are these in pinning vortices.

  18. Discharge current modes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhen Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the production and disappearance of ions and electrons in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma near the target, the expression of the discharge current is derived. Depending on the slope, six possible modes are deduced for the discharge current and the feasibility of each mode is discussed. The discharge parameters and target properties are simplified into the discharge voltage, sputtering yield, and ionization energy which mainly affect the discharge plasma. The relationship between these factors and the discharge current modes is also investigated.

  19. Transverse feedback: high intensity operation, AGC, IGC, lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W

    2012-01-01

    The transverse damper system (ADT) plays an important role in the preservation of the beam transverse emittance and for damping of oscillations driven by the coupled bunch instability. An overview of the ADT system will be presented with an emphasis on the important feedback loop parameters as they change from injection through the ramp into collision. The dedicated setting - up procedure required for the different bunch intensities and bunch spacings will be explained. During the 2011 run the injection and abort gap cleaning became operational at injection energy. Preparations for cleaning at 3.5 TeV as well as batch selective transverse blow - up were completed and preliminarily tested. Plans for 2012 include study and potential improvement of the system impulse response to improve the 'selectivity' of the cleaning and blow - up facility. The ADT also provides bunch - by - bunch observation, which was extensively used during the run and MDs, and will be further upgraded during the next year.

  20. Risk of retina damage from high intensity light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, V.A.; Romanchuk, K.G.

    1980-05-01

    The risk of thermal damage to the retina of the eye by exposure to excesive light intensities from continuous and pulsed man-made sources is discussed. The probability of injury increases, the larger the radiant power absorbed by the retina and the smaller the size of the retinal image of the source. A method of estimating the temperature increase of the immediately affected area of the retina is presented. The time constants involved are also briefly considered. Using numerical values from literature for the relevant parameters of the eye, threshold values for a variety of conditions can be established. Below these values little risk of retina damage should exist. The degree of hazard when these values are exceeded depends upon the circumstances. A case study of a welding accident showed good agreement between the conclusions of the theoretical analysis and clinical findings.

  1. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  2. Two-dimensional computer simulation of high intensity proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lapostolle, Pierre M

    1972-01-01

    A computer program has been developed which simulates the two- dimensional transverse behaviour of a proton beam in a focusing channel. The model is represented by an assembly of a few thousand 'superparticles' acted upon by their own self-consistent electric field and an external focusing force. The evolution of the system is computed stepwise in time by successively solving Poisson's equation and Newton's law of motion. Fast Fourier transform techniques are used for speed in the solution of Poisson's equation, while extensive area weighting is utilized for the accurate evaluation of electric field components. A computer experiment has been performed on the CERN CDC 6600 computer to study the nonlinear behaviour of an intense beam in phase space, showing under certain circumstances a filamentation due to space charge and an apparent emittance growth. (14 refs).

  3. High Intensity Beam and X-Ray Converter Target Interactions and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chem, Y-J; McCarrick, J F; Guethlein, G; Chambers, F; Falabella, S; Lauer, E; Richardson, R; Weir, J

    2002-07-31

    Ions extracted from a solid surface or plasma by impact of an high intensity and high current electron beam can partially neutralize the beam space charge and change the focusing system. We have investigated ion emission computationally and experimentally. By matching PIC simulation results with available experimental data, our finding suggests that if a mix of ion species is available at the emitting surface, protons dominate the backstreaming ion effects, and that, unless there is surface flashover, ion emission is source limited. We have also investigated mitigation, such as e-beam cleaning, laser cleaning and ion trapping with a foil barrier. The temporal behavior of beam spot size with a foil barrier and a focusing scheme to improve foil barrier performance are discussed.

  4. Preliminary design of a high-intensity continuous-wave deuteron RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Kamigaito, O.; Sakamoto, N.; Yamada, K.

    2017-07-01

    A high-intensity deuteron linear accelerator is currently being studied as a promising candidate to treat high-level radioactive waste through the nuclear transmutation process. This paper presents the study on a design of a 75.5 MHz, 400 mA, continuous-wave deuteron radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), which is proposed as the front-end of such a linear accelerator. The results of the beam dynamics simulation suggest that the designed RFQ can accelerate a 400-mA deuteron beam from 100 keV to 2.5 MeV with a transmission rate of 92.0 ∼ 93.3%, depending on the assumed input transverse emittance.

  5. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-06-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases.

  6. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases. PMID:25833341

  7. A novel mortality prediction model for the current population in an adult intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fika, Sofia; Nanas, Serafeim; Baltopoulos, Georgios; Charitidou, Efstratia; Myrianthefs, Pavlos

    The accurate and reliable mortality prediction is very useful, in critical care medicine. There are various new variables proposed in the literature that could potentially increase the predictive ability for death in ICU of the new predictive scoring model. To develop and validate a new intensive care unit (ICU) mortality prediction model, using data that are routinely collected during the first 24 h of ICU admission, and compare its performance to the most widely used conventional scoring systems. Prospective observational study in a medical/surgical, multidisciplinary ICU, using multivariate logistic regression modeling. The new model was developed using data from a medical record review of 400 adult intensive care unit patients and was validated on a separate sample of 36 patients, to accurately predict mortality in ICU. The new model is simple, flexible and shows improved performance (ROC AUC = 0.85, SMR = 1.25), compared to the conventional scoring models (APACHE II: AUC = 0.76, SMR = 2.50, SAPS III: AUC = 0.76, SMR = 1.50), as well as higher predictive capability regarding ICU mortality (predicted mortality: 41.63 ± 31.61, observed mortality: 41.67%). The newly developed model is a quite simple risk-adjusted outcome prediction tool based on 12 routinely collected demographic and clinical variables obtained from the medical record data. It appears to be a reliable predictor of ICU mortality and is proposed for further investigation aiming at its evaluation, validation and applicability to other ICUs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-intensity interval training in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Heje, Karen; Buch, Astrid Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that high-intensity training (HIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve fitness. HIT has never been explored in neuromuscular diseases, likely because it may seem counterintuitive. A single session of high-intensity exercise has been studied without signs...... fitness (3.3 ml O2/min/kg, CI 1.2-5.5, P training effect on other outcomes. Patients preferred HIT over strength and moderate-intensity aerobic training. It may seem...

  9. High-current cyclotron to drive an electronuclear assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G

    2002-01-01

    The proposal on creation of a high-current cyclotron complex for driving an electronuclear assembly reported at the 17th Meeting on Accelerators of Charged Particles is discussed. Some changes in the basic design parameters of the accelerator are considered in view of new results obtained in the recent works. It is shown that the cyclotron complex is now the most real and cheapest accelerator for production of proton beams with a power of up to 10 MW. Projects on design of a high-current cyclotron complex for driving an electronuclear subcritical assembly are presented.

  10. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  11. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  12. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheema, Birinder S; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT...

  13. The influence of low-intensity resistance training versus high-intensity resistance training on left ventricular structure and function of healthy adolescent boys using Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    asghar Kianzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Low-intensity resistance training than high-intensity resistance training in healthy adolescent boys caused some changes in left ventricular structure and function, probably these changes were associated with increased volume and pressure load.

  14. HIGH-CURRENT ERL-BASED ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI, I.

    2005-09-18

    The design of an electron cooler must take into account both electron beam dynamics issues as well as the electron cooling physics. Research towards high-energy electron cooling of RHIC is in its 3rd year at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The luminosity upgrade of RHIC calls for electron cooling of various stored ion beams, such as 100 GeV/A gold ions at collision energies. The necessary electron energy of 54 MeV is clearly out of reach for DC accelerator system of any kind. The high energy also necessitates a bunched beam, with a high electron bunch charge, low emittance and small energy spread. The Collider-Accelerator Department adopted the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) for generating the high-current, high-energy and high-quality electron beam. The RHIC electron cooler ERL will use four Superconducting RF (SRF) 5-cell cavities, designed to operate at ampere-class average currents with high bunch charges. The electron source will be a superconducting, 705.75 MHz laser-photocathode RF gun, followed up by a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). An R&D ERL is under construction to demonstrate the ERL at the unprecedented average current of 0.5 amperes. Beam dynamics performance and luminosity enhancement are described for the case of magnetized and non-magnetized electron cooling of RHIC.

  15. Effects of high intensity laser therapy on pain and function of patients with chronic back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeun-Woo; Lee, Jongmin; Lee, Sangyong; Choi, Jioun; Lee, Kwansub; Kim, Byung-Kon; Kim, Gook-Joo

    2017-06-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of High Intensity Laser Therapy on pain and function of patients with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] This study evenly divided a total of 20 patients with chronic back pain into a conservative physical therapy group that received conservative physical therapy, and a high intensity laser therapy group that received High Intensity Laser Therapy after conservative physical therapy. All patients received the therapy three times a week for four weeks. For the high intensity laser therapy group, treatment was applied to the L1-L5 and S1 regions for 10 minutes by using a high intensity laser device while vertically maintaining the separation distance from handpiece to skin at approximately 1 cm. A visual analog scale was used to measure the pain and Oswestry Disability Index was used for functional evaluation. [Results] In a within-group comparison of the conservative physical therapy and high intensity laser therapy groups, both the visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index significantly decreased. In a between-group comparison after treatment, the high intensity laser therapy group showed a significantly lower visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index than the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] High Intensity Laser Therapy can be an effective nonsurgical intervention method for reducing pain and helping the performance of daily routines of patients who have chronic back pain.

  16. Effect of Short-Term, High-Intensity Exercise on Anaerobic Threshold in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Blanche W.

    This study investigated the effects of a six-week, high-intensity cycling program on anaerobic threshold (AT) in ten women. Subjects trained four days a week using high-intensity interval-type cycle exercises. Workouts included six 4-minute intervals cycling at 85 percent maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max), separated by 3-minute intervals of…

  17. The influence of basketball dribbling on repeated high-intensity intermittent runs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the Yo-Yo IE2 test could reflect the repeatability of high-intensity intermittent basketball dribbling performance, while dribbling skills may have different influences on high-intensity intermittent exercise capacity in adolescent players at different ages.

  18. Electromagnetic Wave Excitation, Propagation, and Absorption in High Current Storage Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze a variety of electromagnetic effects in storage rings with extremely high currents. Specifically, we discuss our experience in the operation of the PEP-II (SLAC B-factory). We present some outstanding and sometimes unpredictable effects of the behavior of electromagnetic waves excited by intense beams inside a vacuum chamber in storage rings. Although the impedance of the rings is usually designed to be small, intense high-current beams can still generate significant microwave power. This power can be enough to damage vacuum beam chamber elements, which may absorb electromagnetic waves. The most sensitive elements are RF seals, vacuum valves, shielded bellows, beam position monitor buttons, and ceramic tiles. Additionally, microwave heating leads to vacuum pressure spikes or even vacuum pressure instabilities that brings high detector background. Resonance excitation of the electromagnetic field may lead to a very high electric component amplitude that can cause breakdowns leading to sparks and discharges. Finally, high-power electromagnetic waves can be responsible for beam instabilities in the ring. Proper absorption of these generated waves may eliminate these effects. We feel our experience will be helpful in the design of new high current synchrotron light sources and storage rings.

  19. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-19

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  20. High current gain silicon-based spin transistor

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, C L; Ensell, G J; Gregg, J F; Thompson, S M

    2003-01-01

    A silicon-based spin transistor of novel operating principle has been demonstrated in which the current gain at room temperature is 1.4 (n-type) and 0.97 (p-type). This high current gain was obtained from a hybrid metal/semiconductor analogue to the bipolar junction transistor which functions by tunnel-injecting carriers from a ferromagnetic emitter into a diffusion driven silicon base and then tunnel-collecting them via a ferromagnetic collector. The switching of the magnetic state of the collector ferromagnet controls the collector efficiency and the current gain. Furthermore, the magnetocurrent, which is determined to be 98% (140%) for p-type (n-type) in -110 Oe, is attributable to the spin-polarized base diffusion current.

  1. Birkeland current effects on high-latitude groundmagnetic field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, K M; Lehtinen, N; Gjerloev, J W; Østgaard, N; Tenfjord, P; Reistad, J P; Snekvik, K; Milan, S E; Ohtani, S; Anderson, B J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic perturbations on ground at high latitudes are directly associated only with the divergence-free component of the height-integrated horizontal ionospheric current, $\\textbf{J}_{\\perp,df}$. Here we show how $\\textbf{J}_{\\perp,df}$ can be expressed as the total horizontal current $\\textbf{J}_\\perp$ minus its curl-free component, the latter being completely determined by the global Birkeland current pattern. Thus in regions where $\\textbf{J}_\\perp = 0$, the global Birkeland current distribution alone determines the local magnetic perturbation. We show with observations from ground and space that in the polar cap, the ground magnetic field perturbations tend to align with the Birkeland current contribution in darkness but not in sunlight. We also show that in sunlight, the magnetic perturbations are typically such that the equivalent overhead current is anti-parallel to the convection, indicating that the Hall current system dominates. Thus the ground magnetic field in the polar cap relates to different c...

  2. High-quality lossy compression: current and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with current and future trends in the lossy compression of real sources such as imagery, video, speech and music. We put all lossy compression schemes into common framework where each can be characterized in terms of three well-defined advantages: cell shape, region shape and memory advantages. We concentrate on image compression and discuss how new entropy constrained trellis-based compressors achieve cell- shape, region-shape and memory gain resulting in high fidelity and high compression.

  3. Neurological applications of transcranial high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tony R; Dallapiazza, Rob; Elias, W Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Advances in transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound have renewed interest in lesioning procedures in functional neurosurgery with a potential role in the treatment of neurological conditions such as chronic pain, brain tumours, movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. While the use of transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound represents a new innovation in neurosurgery, ultrasound has been used in neurosurgery for almost 60 years. This paper reviews the major historical milestones that have led to modern transcranial focused ultrasound and discusses current and evolving applications of ultrasound in the brain.

  4. West India coastal current and Lakshadweep High/Low

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    , the West India Coastal Current is a superposition of annual and semiannual coastally-trapped Kelvin waves. The Lakshadweep High/Low forms when the Kelvin waves, on turning around Sri Lanka, and propagating northward along the west coast of India, radiate...

  5. Bottom mounted seabed mooring frame for high current field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Chandramohan, P.; Pednekar, P.S.; Diwan, S.G.

    and direction on the sea surface and at a fixed five layers. The company supplied frame was not suitable to use at the proposed measurement location, owing to random oscillation in the seabed, strong currents and high concentration of sediments in the water...

  6. Observed currents at Bombay High during a winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Ten day records of Aanderaa current meters (24 Dec 1981 to 2 Jan. 1982) at four depths, viz. 30, 45, 60 and 75 m at Bombay High (19˚24.5'N, 71˚2.5'E) off the west coast of India, in a water depth of 80 m have been subjected to spectral, cross...

  7. Design studies of a high-current radiofrequency quadrupole for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 74; Issue 2. Design studies of a high-current radiofrequency quadrupole for accelerator-driven systems programme ... We have followed the conventional design technique with slight modifications and compared that with the equipartitioned (EP) type of design.

  8. High-intensity focused ultrasound for thyroid nodule ablation: the evidence to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovatcheva RD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roussanka D Kovatcheva,1 Katja Zaletel,2 1Department of Thyroid and Metabolic Bone Disorders, Clinical Center of Endocrinology, Medical University, Sofia, Bulgaria; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Abstract: Thyroid nodules are common in occurrence and most of them are benign in nature. Some of these nodules are to be treated as they continue to grow or cause undesirable symptoms. Recently, several minimally invasive thermal ablation techniques have been introduced to overcome the complications of traditional methods such as surgery. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is the latest advance in treatment modalities, which is a noninvasive procedure that permits localized target destruction without affecting the surrounding tissues. HIFU is currently used in the treatment of various solid malignant and benign tumors. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to the literature, principles, and advances of HIFU therapy of benign thyroid nodules, as well as to provide a discussion on its efficacy, complications, and future. Keywords: thyroid nodule, high-intensity focused ultrasound, ultrasound guidance, ablation techniques

  9. Current-density-functional approach to large quantum dots in intense magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Emperador, A.; Lipparini, E.; Serra, Ll.

    1998-06-01

    Within current-density-functional theory, we have studied a quantum dot made of 210 electrons confined in a disk geometry. The ground state of this large dot exhibits some features as a function of the magnetic field (B) that can be attributed in a clear way to the formation of compressible and incompressible states of the system. The orbital and spin angular momenta, the total energy, ionization and electron chemical potentials of the ground state, as well as the frequencies of far-infrared edge modes are calculated as a function of B, and compared with available experimental and theoretical results.

  10. [Current situation of enteral nutrition interruptions in sepsis children in pediatric intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, B L; Qian, S Y; Jia, X L; Li, Z; Liu, J

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the interruptions of enteral nutrition (EN) and it's relationship to prognosis in children with sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Daily EN intake and reasons for EN interruptions were prospectively observed and recorded in children with sepsis who were admitted to our PICU from November 2012 to April 2013. Clinical prognosis was compared between children with and without EN interruptions by t, rank-sum and χ(2) tests. Totally 60 consecutive children were included, 42 males, median age 9.67 (5.36, 37.0) months; 50 children suffered from EN interruptions, while 10 children did not. Median time to EN initiation was 2.59 (1.53, 3.67) h; EN was interrupted in 83% (50/60) of children, for a total of 108 times and 696 h, the most common reasons were fibrobronchoscopy and radiologic procedures, 27 and 29 times respectively. Children spent 0.04 (0.02, 0.08) of their total observation period without EN nutrition due to EN interruptions, and was not correlated with pediatric critically ill score (r=0.12, P=0.38). Children with EN interruptions suffered from longer PICU duration ((12±7) vs. (7±4) d, t=2.18, P=0.03), but there was no significant difference in the 28(th) hospital day's mortality between these two groups (6 cases vs. 1 case, χ(2)=0.00, P=1.00). EN is frequently interrupted due to procedures needed fasting, EN intolerance and other reasons in children with sepsis. EN interruptions may have something to do with prolonged PICU length of stay, but the relationship needs to be examined in future studies.

  11. Parasitic slow extraction of extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ye [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Jingyu, E-mail: tangjy@ihep.ac.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Zheng; Jing, Hantao [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Yuquan Road 19B, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-02-11

    This paper proposes a novel method to extract extremely weak beam from a high-intensity proton rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) in the parasitic mode, while maintaining the normal fast extraction. The usual slow extraction method from a synchrotron by employing third-order resonance cannot be applied in a high-intensity RCS due to a very short flat-top at the extraction energy and the strict control on beam loss. The proposed parasitic slow extraction method moves the beam to scrape a scattering foil prior to the fast beam extraction by employing either a local orbit bump or momentum deviation or their combination, so that the halo part of the beam will be scattered. A part of the scattered particles will be extracted from the RCS and guided to the experimental area. The slow extraction process can last about a few milliseconds before the beam is extracted by the fast extraction system. The method has been applied to the RCS of China Spallation Neutron Source. With 1.6 GeV in the extraction energy, 62.5 μA in the average current and 25 Hz in the repetition rate for the RCS, the proton intensity by the slow extraction method can be up to 2×10{sup 4} protons per cycle or 5×10{sup 5} protons per second. The extracted beam has also a good time structure of approximately uniform in a spill which is required for many applications such as detector tests. Detailed studies including the scattering effect in the foil, the local orbit bump by the bump magnets and dispersive orbit bump by modifying the RF pattern, the multi-particle simulations by ORBIT and TURTLE codes, and some technical features for the extraction magnets are presented.

  12. Transient analysis and burnout of high temperature superconducting current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.

    The transient behaviour of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads operated between liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperatures is analysed for burnout conditions upon transition of the HTS into the normal state. Leads composed of HTS only and of HTS sheathed by pure silver or silver alloy are investigated numerically for temperature-dependent properties and analytically for temperature-independent properties. For lower values of shape factor (current density times length), the lead can be operated indefinitely without burnout. At higher values of shape factor, the lead reaches burnout in a finite time. With high current densities, the leads heat adiabatically. For a fixed shape factor, low current densities are desired to achieve long burnout times. To achieve a low helium boil-off rate in the superconducting state without danger of burnout, there is a preferred temperature dependence for thermal conductivity, and silver alloy sheaths are preferred to pure silver sheaths. However, for a given current density, pure silver sheaths take longer to burn out.

  13. (Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high {Tc} superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect.

  14. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  15. Spot-welding solid targets for high current cyclotron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Paul A.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Graves, Stephen A.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium-89 finds broad application for use in positron emission tomography. Its cyclotron production has been limited by the heat transfer from yttrium targets at high beam currents. A spot welding technique allows a three-fold increase in beam current, without affecting 89Zr quality. An yttrium foil, welded to a jet-cooled tantalum support base accommodates a 50 μA proton beam degraded to 14 MeV. The resulting activity yield of 48 ± 4 MBq/(μA·hr) now extends the outreach of 89Zr for a broader distribution. PMID:27771445

  16. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jonathan S; Mellor, Matthew P; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2015-10-09

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors.

  17. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  18. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Thompson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness.

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound for potential treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: toward a noninvasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Islam A; Ballard, John R; Casper, Andrew J; Hennings, Leah J; Cressman, Erik; Ebbini, Emad S

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), under dual-mode ultrasound arrays (DMUAs) guidance, to induce localized thermal damage inside ovaries without damage to the ovarian surface. Laboratory feasibility study. University-based laboratory. Ex vivo canine and bovine ovaries. DMUA-guided HIFU. Detection of ovarian damage by ultrasound imaging, gross pathology, and histology. It is feasible to induce localized thermal damage inside ovaries without damage to the ovarian surface. DMUA provided sensitive imaging feedback regarding the anatomy of the treated ovaries and the ablation process. Different ablation protocols were tested, and thermal damage within the treated ovaries was histologically characterized. The absence of damage to the ovarian surface may eliminate many of the complications linked to current laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) techniques. HIFU may be used as a less traumatic tool to perform LOD. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-intensity power-resolved radiation imaging of an operational nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jonathan S.; Mellor, Matthew P.; Villa, Mario; Joyce, Malcolm J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the neutron distribution in a nuclear reactor is necessary to ensure the safe and efficient burnup of reactor fuel. Currently these measurements are performed by in-core systems in what are extremely hostile environments and in most reactor accident scenarios it is likely that these systems would be damaged. Here we present a compact and portable radiation imaging system with the ability to image high-intensity fast-neutron and gamma-ray fields simultaneously. This system has been deployed to image radiation fields emitted during the operation of a TRIGA test reactor allowing a spatial visualization of the internal reactor conditions to be obtained. The imaged flux in each case is found to scale linearly with reactor power indicating that this method may be used for power-resolved reactor monitoring and for the assay of ongoing nuclear criticalities in damaged nuclear reactors. PMID:26450669

  1. Effect of high-voltage impulse current on the structure and function of rabbit heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-ping XU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of high-voltage impulse current(HVIC on the structure and function of rabbit heart.Methods Sixty healthy male rabbits were involved in present study and divided into 6 groups randomly(n=10.The rabbits were then shocked using a high-voltage pulse generator with current intensity of 0,50,100,150,250 and 500mA(pulse width 100μs,duration 5s respectively.The heart rate and electrocardiogram(ECG of rabbits were detected before and 0,1,3,7,14 and 28 days after the electric shock.Moreover,the myocardial tissue of rabbits was obtained immediately and 28 days after shock to observe the pathological changes.Results Immediately after electric shock of 50 to 500mA,the heart rate of rabbit increased by different degree,and the ECG showed arrhythmia,myocardial ischemia,atrial fibrillation and atrioventricular block,and the changes recovered gradually one day later.The pathological observation showed cell swelling,separation of myofibril and sarcoplasmic condensation of Purkinje fibers immediately after electric shock of 50 to 500mA,and the changes recovered 28 days after shock.The cardiac injuries aggravated with the increasing of current intensity,especially when it exceeded 150mA,and the recovery time prolonged.Conclusion High-voltage impulse current may induce recoverable injuries on heart structure and function,and the damage effect shows a correlation with the current intensity.

  2. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Buchheit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1 was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 km·h-1 and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1 were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen’s d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8 and D>14.4 km·h-1 (+0.5 ± 0.8 in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8. Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7; conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2. In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in ‘fitness’ do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity.

  3. A Highly intense DC muon source, MuSIC and muon CLFV search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, A. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y.; Tran, N.H.; Hashim, I.H. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Fukuda, M.; Hayashida, Y. [Research Center of Nuclear Physics, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshida, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    MuSIC is a new muon facility, which provides the world's highest intense muon beam with continuous time structure at Research Center of Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. It's intensity is designed to be 10{sup 8} muons per second with only 0.4 kW proton beam. Such a high intense muon beam is very important for searches of rare decay processes, for example search for the muon to electron conversion.

  4. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  5. Fermilab Plan with a High Intensity Proton Source

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab, the US’s primary laboratory for particle physics, proposes a plan to maintain leadership for the laboratory and U.S. particle physics in the quest to discover the fundamental nature of the physical universe in the decades ahead. Discoveries of the physics of the Quantum Universe would come from powerful next generation particle accelerators. Fermilab’s Tevatron, currently the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, will shut down by the end of this decade after the LHC at CERN begins operations. At the LHC, U.S. physicists will join scientists from around the world in the exploration of the physics of the Terascale. To follow the LHC, physicists propose the International Linear Collider, a globally funded and operated accelerator to build on LHC results and illuminate Terascale science. Fermilab will work to host the proposed ILC in the U.S. as soon as possible, maintaining the nation’s historic leadership of frontier particle physics. Should events postpone the start of the ILC, Ferm...

  6. Improvement of high-voltage staircase drive circuit waveform for high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Jimbo, Hayato; Azuma, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Fujiwara, Keisuke; Itani, Kazunori; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, noninvasive or low-invasive modality, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), has been put into practice as an alternative to open surgery. HIFU induces thermal ablation of the target tissue to be treated. To improve the efficiency of HIFU, we have proposed a “triggered-HIFU” technique, which uses the combination of a short-duration, high-voltage transmission and a long-duration, medium-voltage transmission. In this method, the transmission device must endure high peak voltage for the former and the high time-average power for the latter. The triggered-HIFU sequence requires electronic scanning of the HIFU focus to maximize its thermal efficiency. Therefore, the transmission device must drive an array transducer with the number of elements on the order of a hundred or more, which requires that each part of the device that drives each element must be compact. The purpose of this work is to propose and construct such a transmission device by improving the staircase drive circuit, which we previously proposed. The main point of improvement is that both N and P MOSFETs are provided for each staircase voltage level instead of only one of them. Compared with the previous ultrasonic transmission circuit, high-voltage spikes were significantly reduced, the power consumption was decreased by 26.7%, and the transmission circuit temperature rise was decreased by 14.5 °C in the triggered-HIFU heating mode.

  7. Origin of the light intensity dependence of the short-circuit current of polymer/fullerene solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, LJA; Mihailetchi, VD; Xie, H.; Blom, PWM

    2005-01-01

    A typical feature of polymer/fullerene based solar cells is that the current density under short-circuit conditions (J(sc)) does not scale exactly linearly with light intensity (I). Instead, a power law relationship is found given by J(sc)proportional to I-alpha, where alpha ranges from 0.85 to 1. In a number of reports this deviation from unity is speculated to arise from the occurrence of bimolecular recombination. We demonstrate that the dependence of the photocurrent in bulk heterojunctio...

  8. EFFECT OF HIGH & LOW INTENSITIES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PHYSICAL FITNESS INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces body fat and improves weight control, increases HDL&Vo2 max. Also improves PFI (physical fitness index which is defined as ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue. Though aerobic exercise is found to improve physical fitness, the relative merits of different intensities of aerobi c exercise in improving physical fitness is still uncertain. AIM: The present study was conducted to know the Effect of High & low intensity aerobic training on physical fitness index. MATERIALS & METHODS : 80 sedentary men (18 - 40 years were randomized in to 2 equal groups (High Intensity & low intensity group . The High [80% HR max] & Low intensity [50 % HR max] groups underwent aerobic exercise training using Bicycle ergo meter (COSCO at 900kpm & 540kpm, for 15mins/day & 30mins/day respectively, 5days a week, for a period of 14weeks. Physical fitness index of each subject was recorded by Modified Harvard step test before & after intervention. RESULTS : After 14 weeks of aerobic training both the exercise groups had improvement in PFI, but high intensity gr oup had a significant (p<0.05 improvement in PFI (97.18 - 101.14 than low intensity group (98.12 - 100.6. CONCLUSION : High intensity aerobic exercise is effective in improving physical fitness.

  9. PV source based high voltage gain current fed converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soumya; Poddar, Sahityika; Chimonyo, Kudzai B.; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This work involves designing and simulation of a PV source based high voltage gain, current fed converter. It deals with an isolated DC-DC converter which utilizes boost converter topology. The proposed converter is capable of high voltage gain and above all have very high efficiency levels as proved by the simulation results. The project intends to produce an output of 800 V dc from a 48 V dc input. The simulation results obtained from PSIM application interface were used to analyze the performance of the proposed converter. Transformer used in the circuit steps up the voltage as well as to provide electrical isolation between the low voltage and high voltage side. Since the converter involves high switching frequency of 100 kHz, ultrafast recovery diodes are employed in the circuitry. The major application of the project is for future modeling of solar powered electric hybrid cars.

  10. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...... of acoustic energy by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power gas-jet acoustic wave generator (101), where said ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said plasma (104) so that at least a part of said predetermined amount of acoustic energy...

  11. A Lightweight, High-performance I/O Management Package for Data-intensive Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun

    2011-06-22

    Our group has been working with ANL collaborators on the topic bridging the gap between parallel file system and local file system during the course of this project period. We visited Argonne National Lab -- Dr. Robert Ross's group for one week in the past summer 2007. We looked over our current project progress and planned the activities for the incoming years 2008-09. The PI met Dr. Robert Ross several times such as HEC FSIO workshop 08, SC08 and SC10. We explored the opportunities to develop a production system by leveraging our current prototype to (SOGP+PVFS) a new PVFS version. We delivered SOGP+PVFS codes to ANL PVFS2 group in 2008.We also talked about exploring a potential project on developing new parallel programming models and runtime systems for data-intensive scalable computing (DISC). The methodology is to evolve MPI towards DISC by incorporating some functions of Google MapReduce parallel programming model. More recently, we are together exploring how to leverage existing works to perform (1) coordination/aggregation of local I/O operations prior to movement over the WAN, (2) efficient bulk data movement over the WAN, (3) latency hiding techniques for latency-intensive operations. Since 2009, we start applying Hadoop/MapReduce to some HEC applications with LANL scientists John Bent and Salman Habib. Another on-going work is to improve checkpoint performance at I/O forwarding Layer for the Road Runner super computer with James Nuetz and Gary Gridder at LANL. Two senior undergraduates from our research group did summer internships about high-performance file and storage system projects in LANL since 2008 for consecutive three years. Both of them are now pursuing Ph.D. degree in our group and will be 4th year in the PhD program in Fall 2011 and go to LANL to advance two above-mentioned works during this winter break. Since 2009, we have been collaborating with several computer scientists (Gary Grider, John bent, Parks Fields, James Nunez, Hsing

  12. A Study of Preliminary Breakdown and Return Stroke Processes in High-Intensity Negative Lightning Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Using an automated data processing algorithm, we examined electric field records of 5498 negative cloud-to-ground flashes reported by the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN within 50 to 500 km of the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville (LOG, Florida. Out of the 5498 flashes, 3496 (64% had detectable preliminary breakdown (PB pulse trains. Only 3077 flashes with a single PB pulse train and NLDN-reported first-return-stroke (RS peak current ≥50 kA were selected for detailed analysis. The arithmetic mean values of PB pulse train duration, PB-RS interval, and PB/RS pulse peak ratio were 2.7 ms, 8.8 ms, and 0.15, respectively. The PB-RS interval was found to decrease with increasing RS peak current (Spearman correlation coefficient was statistically significant and equal to −0.80. The range-normalized PB pulse peak exhibited statistically significant positive correlation with the RS peak current, with Spearman correlation coefficient being 0.48. Thus, it appears that the high-intensity (≥50 kA negative lightning is characterized by shorter (and, by inference, faster stepped leaders and more pronounced PB pulse trains.

  13. Motion-induced eddy current thermography for high-speed inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This letter proposes a novel motion-induced eddy current based thermography (MIECT for high-speed inspection. In contrast to conventional eddy current thermography (ECT based on a time-varying magnetic field created by an AC coil, the motion-induced eddy current is induced by the relative motion between magnetic field and inspected objects. A rotating magnetic field created by three-phase windings is used to investigate the heating principle and feasibility of the proposed method. Firstly, based on Faraday’s law the distribution of MIEC is investigated, which is then validated by numerical simulation. Further, experimental studies are conducted to validate the proposed method by creating rotating magnetic fields at different speeds from 600 rpm to 6000 rpm, and it is verified that rotating speed will increase MIEC intensity and thereafter improve the heating efficiency. The conclusion can be preliminarily drawn that the proposed MIECT is a platform suitable for high-speed inspection.

  14. Motion-induced eddy current thermography for high-speed inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Li, Kongjing; Tian, Guiyun; Zhu, Junzhen; Gao, Yunlai; Tang, Chaoqing; Chen, Xiaotian

    2017-08-01

    This letter proposes a novel motion-induced eddy current based thermography (MIECT) for high-speed inspection. In contrast to conventional eddy current thermography (ECT) based on a time-varying magnetic field created by an AC coil, the motion-induced eddy current is induced by the relative motion between magnetic field and inspected objects. A rotating magnetic field created by three-phase windings is used to investigate the heating principle and feasibility of the proposed method. Firstly, based on Faraday's law the distribution of MIEC is investigated, which is then validated by numerical simulation. Further, experimental studies are conducted to validate the proposed method by creating rotating magnetic fields at different speeds from 600 rpm to 6000 rpm, and it is verified that rotating speed will increase MIEC intensity and thereafter improve the heating efficiency. The conclusion can be preliminarily drawn that the proposed MIECT is a platform suitable for high-speed inspection.

  15. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, A.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Gable, I.; Harris, D.; Impey, R.; Leavett-Brown, C.; Paterson, M.; Podaima, W.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.

    2012-02-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  16. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  17. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  18. Electronic Current Transducer (ECT) for high voltage dc lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J. M.; Peters, P. H., Jr.; Summerayes, H. R., Jr.; Carlson, G. J.; Itani, A. M.

    1980-02-01

    The development of a bipolar electronic current transducer (ECT) for measuring the current in a high voltage dc (HVDC) power line at line potential is discussed. The design and construction of a free standing ECT for use on a 400 kV line having a nominal line current of 2000 A is described. Line current is measured by a 0.0001 ohm shunt whose voltage output is sampled by a 14 bit digital data link. The high voltage interface between line and ground is traversed by optical fibers which carry digital light signals as far as 300 m to a control room where the digital signal is converted back to an analog representation of the shunt voltage. Two redundant electronic and optical data links are used in the prototype. Power to operate digital and optical electronics and temperature controlling heaters at the line is supplied by a resistively and capacitively graded 10 stage cascade of ferrite core transformers located inside the hollow, SF6 filled, porcelain support insulator. The cascade is driven by a silicon controlled rectifier inverter which supplies about 100 W of power at 30 kHz.

  19. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A

    Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.

  20. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  1. High intensity focused ultrasound technology, its scope and applications in therapy and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenix, Christopher Peter; Togtema, Melissa; Pichardo, Samuel; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Curiel, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a safe, inexpensive and wide-spread diagnostic tool capable of producing real-time non-invasive images without significant biological effects. However, the propagation of higher energy, intensity and frequency ultrasound waves through living tissues can induce thermal, mechanical and chemical effects useful for a variety of therapeutic applications. With the recent development of clinically approved High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) systems, therapeutic ultrasound is now a medical reality. Indeed, HIFU has been used for the thermal ablation of pathological lesions; localized, minimally invasive ultrasound-mediated drug delivery through the transient formation of pores on cell membranes; the temporary disruption of skin and the blood brain barrier; the ultrasound induced break-down of blood clots; and the targeted release of drugs using ultrasound and temperature sensitive drug carriers. This review seeks to engage the pharmaceutical research community by providing an overview on the biological effects of ultrasound as well as highlighting important therapeutic applications, current deficiencies and future directions.

  2. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Pascal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction on productivity, RPE and upper trapezius activity and rest during computer work and a subsequent pause from computer work. Methods 18 female computer workers performed 2 sessions of 15 min standardized computer mouse work preceded by 1 min pause with and without prior high intensity contraction of shoulder elevation. RPE was reported, productivity (drawings per min measured, and bipolar surface electromyography (EMG recorded from the dominant upper trapezius during pauses and sessions of computer work. Repeated measure ANOVA with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc tests was applied for the statistical analyses. Results The main findings were that a high intensity shoulder elevation did not modify RPE, productivity or EMG activity of the upper trapezius during the subsequent pause and computer work. However, the high intensity contraction reduced the relative rest time of the uppermost (clavicular trapezius part during the subsequent pause from computer work (p Conclusion Since a preceding high intensity shoulder elevation did not impose a negative impact on perceived effort, productivity or upper trapezius activity during computer work, implementation of high intensity contraction during computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a

  3. Determinants of post-intensive care mortality in high-level treated critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iapichino, G; Morabito, A; Mistraletti, G; Ferla, L; Radrizzani, D; Miranda, DR

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To assess the predictive ability of preillness and illness variables, impact of care, and discharge variables on the post-intensive care mortality. Setting and patients. 5,805 patients treated with high intensity of care in 89 ICUs in 12 European countries (EURICUS-I study) surviving ICU

  4. High or low intensity aerobic fitness training in fibromyalgia: does it matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Marijke; Bolwijn, Paulien; Landewé, Robert; Verstappen, Frans; Bakker, Carla; Hidding, Alita; van der Kemp, Désirée; Houben, Harry; van der Linden, Sjef

    2002-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of training in fibromyalgia (FM), we compared the effects of high intensity fitness training (HIF) and low intensity fitness training (LIF). Thirty-seven female patients with FM were randomly allocated to either a HIF group (n = 19) or a LIF group (n = 18). Four patients (1

  5. Beam commission of the high intensity proton source developed at INFN-LNS for the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Miraglia, A.; Leonardi, O.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Mascali, D.; Mazzaglia, M.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Calabrese, G.; Caruso, A.; Chines, F.; Gallo, G.; Longhitano, A.; Manno, G.; Marletta, S.; Maugeri, A.; Passarello, S.; Pastore, G.; Seminara, A.; Spartà, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2017-07-01

    At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) started in November 2016. Beam stability at high current intensity is one of the most important parameter for the first steps of the ongoing commissioning. Promising results were obtained since the first source start with a 6 mm diameter extraction hole. The increase of the extraction hole to 8 mm allowed improving PS-ESS performances and obtaining the values required by the ESS accelerator. In this work, extracted beam current characteristics together with Doppler shift and emittance measurements are presented, as well as the description of the next phases before the installation at ESS in Lund.

  6. An accurate continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yue; Li, Bin Hong

    2011-02-01

    A continuous calibration system for high voltage current transformers is presented in this paper. The sensor of this system is based on a kind of electronic instrument current transformer, which is a clamp-shape air core coil. This system uses an optical fiber transmission system for its signal transmission and power supply. Finally the digital integrator and fourth-order convolution window algorithm as error calculation methods are realized by the virtual instrument with a personal computer. It is found that this system can calibrate a high voltage current transformer while energized, which means avoiding a long calibrating period in the power system and the loss of power metering expense. At the same time, it has a wide dynamic range and frequency band, and it can achieve a high accuracy measurement in a complex electromagnetic field environment. The experimental results and the on-site operation results presented in the last part of the paper, prove that it can reach the 0.05 accuracy class and is easy to operate on site.

  7. Compilation of current high-energy physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of the compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. Only approved experiments are included.

  8. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.

  9. A 3 GHz photoelectron gun for high beam intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Bossart, Rudolf; Dehler, M; Godot, J C

    1996-01-01

    For the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF) at CERN a new rf gun with a laser driven photocathode is under construction. The new rf gun will replace the present 11/2 cell gun and will consist of 21/2 cells accelerating the beam to a momentum of 7.0 MeV/c with an electric field strength of 100 MV/m. The strong space-charge forces at low beam energy caused by the high charge density of the electron bunches are contained by radial and longitudinal rf focusing in the gun. The rf gun under construction has been optimized by MAFIA beam simulations for an injector assembly comprising a second accelerating rf structure and an intermediate solenoid magnet correcting the beam divergence of the 21/2 cell gun. The beam loading of the rf gun, by a train of 48 bunches with 21 nC charge each, causes a strong energy decay accompanied by an increase of the flight time for the bunches with lower energy. These effects can be corrected by slightly shifting the acceleration frequency of the gun. The experimental results...

  10. Diffraction Gratings for High-Intensity Laser Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britten, J

    2008-01-23

    The scattering of light into wavelength-dependent discrete directions (orders) by a device exhibiting a periodic modulation of a physical attribute on a spatial scale similar to the wavelength of light has been the subject of study for over 200 years. Such a device is called a diffraction grating. Practical applications of diffraction gratings, mainly for spectroscopy, have been around for over 100 years. The importance of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy for the measurement of myriad properties of matter can hardly be overestimated. Since the advent of coherent light sources (lasers) in the 1960's, applications of diffraction gratings in spectroscopy have further exploded. Lasers have opened a vast application space for gratings, and apace, gratings have enabled entirely new classes of laser systems. Excellent reviews of the history, fundamental properties, applications and manufacturing techniques of diffraction gratings up to the time of their publication can be found in the books by Hutley (1) and more recently Loewen and Popov (2). The limited scope of this chapter can hardly do justice to such a comprehensive subject, so the focus here will be narrowly limited to characteristics required for gratings suitable for high-power laser applications, and methods to fabricate them. A particular area of emphasis will be on maximally-efficient large-aperture gratings for short-pulse laser generation.

  11. High Performance Data Transfer for Distributed Data Intensive Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chin [Zettar Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Cottrell, R ' Les' A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hanushevsky, Andrew B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kroeger, Wilko [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yang, Wei [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We report on the development of ZX software providing high performance data transfer and encryption. The design scales in: computation power, network interfaces, and IOPS while carefully balancing the available resources. Two U.S. patent-pending algorithms help tackle data sets containing lots of small files and very large files, and provide insensitivity to network latency. It has a cluster-oriented architecture, using peer-to-peer technologies to ease deployment, operation, usage, and resource discovery. Its unique optimizations enable effective use of flash memory. Using a pair of existing data transfer nodes at SLAC and NERSC, we compared its performance to that of bbcp and GridFTP and determined that they were comparable. With a proof of concept created using two four-node clusters with multiple distributed multi-core CPUs, network interfaces and flash memory, we achieved 155Gbps memory-to-memory over a 2x100Gbps link aggregated channel and 70Gbps file-to-file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  12. Bunch Current Measurement Using a High-Speed Photodetector at HLS II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianyu; Yang, Yongliang; Sun, Baogen; Lu, Ping; Wu, Fangfang; Wang, Jigang; Zhou, Zeran; Luo, Qing; Wang, Qian; Li, Hao

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a novel bunch current measurement system based on an ultrafast photodetector and a high-speed digitizer at Hefei light source II (HLS II). We use a metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector to measure the emitted optical synchrotron radiation intensity directly, representing the bunch current intensity. To achieve bunch-by-bunch resolution, the sampling rate of the system is nearly 225 GS/s, which is achieved via a dedicated equivalent sampling algorithm. The detailed description of the experimental setup and the equivalent sampling algorithm are presented. According to preliminary tests of the daily operation mode and single-bunch mode, the measured root-mean-square of the beam current is 1%, which shows that the new system satisfies the requirements for high-precision bunch current measurements. In addition, experimental results of the “HLS” Morse-code fill pattern mode demonstrate that this system could also be a convenient and robust tool for beam top-up modes in the future.

  13. Can high-intensity exercise be more pleasant?: attentional dissociation using music and video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Karageorghis, Costas I; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

    2014-10-01

    Theories suggest that external stimuli (e.g., auditory and visual) may be rendered ineffective in modulating attention when exercise intensity is high. We examined the effects of music and parkland video footage on psychological measures during and after stationary cycling at two intensities: 10% of maximal capacity below ventilatory threshold and 5% above. Participants (N = 34) were exposed to four conditions at each intensity: music only, video only, music and video, and control. Analyses revealed main effects of condition and exercise intensity for affective valence and perceived activation (p music-only and music-and-video conditions led to the highest valence and enjoyment scores during and after exercise regardless of intensity. Findings indicate that attentional manipulations can exert a salient influence on affect and enjoyment even at intensities slightly above ventilatory threshold.

  14. The most intense electrical currents in the solar wind: Comparisons between single-spacecraft measurements and plasma turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John J.; Roytershteyn, Vadim

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional hybrid simulations of solar wind turbulence near the orbit of the Earth are used to investigate the plasma current density over the range of scales from 0.5 proton inertial lengths to hundreds of proton inertial lengths. The data are analyzed along a simulated spacecraft trajectory in order to directly compare the results against single-spacecraft measurements. The most intense current densities are identified using an amplitude threshold technique and the properties of 5σ events identified in the true current density are compared to the properties of 5σ events identified using a proxy for the current density designed for studies of single-spacecraft solar wind measurements. The proxy is proportional to the magnitude of the directional derivative of the magnetic field along the spacecraft trajectory. The results from the simulation show that the average properties of 5σ events observed in the proxy are quantitatively similar to those observed in the true current density, properties such as the spatial size of the events, the nearest neighbor distance, and the peak current density of the events. This provides some justification for the use of the proxy for the statistical analysis of solar wind data even though the simulation indicates that the occurrence times of large-amplitude events in the proxy are not always a reliable indicator of the occurrence times of large-amplitude events in the true current density. The physical properties of 5σ events in simulated spacecraft data show remarkable quantitative agreement with the properties of 5σ events observed in solar wind data.

  15. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  16. High-intensity kayak performance after adaptation to intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Darrell L; Hopkins, Will G; Kilding, Andrew E

    2006-09-01

    Live-high train-low altitude training produces worthwhile gains in performance for endurance athletes, but the benefits of adaptation to various forms of artificial altitude are less clear. To quantify the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on kayak performance. In a crossover design with a 6-week washout, we randomized 10 subelite male sprint kayak paddlers to hypoxia or control groups for 3 weeks (5 days/week) of intermittent hypoxic exposure using a nitrogen-filtration device. Each day's exposure consisted of alternately breathing hypoxic and ambient air for 5 minutes each over 1 hour. Performance tests were an incremental step test to estimate peak power, maximal oxygen uptake, exercise economy, and lactate threshold; a 500-m time trial; and 5 x 100-m sprints. All tests were performed on a wind-braked kayak ergometer 7 and 3 days pretreatment and 3 and 10 days posttreatment. Hemoglobin concentration was measured at 1 day pretreatment, 5 and 10 days during treatment, and 3 days after treatment. Relative to control, at 3 days posttreatment the hypoxia group showed the following increases: peak power 6.8% (90% confidence limits, + or - 5.2%), mean repeat sprint power 8.3% (+ or - 6.7%), and hemoglobin concentration 3.6% (+ or - 3.2%). Changes in lactate threshold, mean 500-m power, maximal oxygen uptake, and exercise economy were unclear. Large effects for peak power and mean sprint speed were still present 10 days posthypoxia. These effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure should enhance performance in kayak racing. The effects might be mediated via changes in oxygen transport.

  17. Comparison of Acute Physiological and Psychological Responses Between Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise and three Regimes of High Intensity Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole; Wertz, Timothy; LaPorta, Zachary; Mora, Adam; Serbas, Jasmine; Astorino, Todd A

    2017-07-19

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) despite less time commitment. However, there is debate whether HIIT is more aversive than MICT. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between MICT and three regimes of HIIT. Nineteen active adults (age = 24.0 ± 3.3 yr) unfamiliar with HIIT initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and determine workload for subsequent sessions, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training (SIT) consisted of six 20 s bouts of "all-out" cycling at 140% of maximum watts (Wmax). Low volume (HIITLV) and high volume HIIT (HIITHV) consisted of eight 60 s bouts at 85% Wmax and six 2 min bouts at 70% Wmax, respectively. MICT consisted of 25 min at 40% Wmax. Across regimes, work was not matched. Heart rate, VO2, blood lactate concentration (BLa), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed during exercise. Ten minutes post-exercise, Physical Activity Enjoyment (PACES) was measured via a survey. Results revealed significantly higher (pregimes versus MICT at 50, 75, and 100 % of session duration, PACES was similar across regimes (p=0.65) although it was higher in women (p=0.03). Findings from healthy adults unaccustomed to interval training demonstrate that HIIT and SIT are perceived as enjoyable as MICT despite being more aversive.

  18. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Liu, Yang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Deliang

    2017-12-15

    Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Age-matched sedentary mice with standard diet were used as a control (n=10). Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for 5days a week. Both modes of exercise ameliorated adiposity and related metabolic dysfunction induced by HFD and sedentary lifestyle, while mice following HIIT exhibited significantly lower body weight, percentage of fat mass and smaller adipocyte size. HIIT was more favorable in preventing liver lipid accumulation by restoring mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC1, FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα, CPT1a, HAD). In addition, HIIT was more efficient in mitigating adipose tissue inflammation and insulin insensitivity, partly dependent on abrogating phosphorylation of JNK/IRS1 (Ser307) pathway. Moreover, only HIIT led to pronounced beige adipocyte recruitment in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that HIIT contribute a more favorable regulation of metabolic dysfunctions in DIO mice compared with MICT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Photoelectrolysis of water at high current density - Use of ultraviolet laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, A. B.; Bolts, J. M.; Cummins, P. G.; Wrighton, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of TiO2 and SrTiO3 photoanodes in cells for the photoelectrolysis of H2O has been investigated for high-intensity 351-,364-nm excitation from an Ar ion laser. Intensities up to 380 W/sq cm have been used. For TiO2 a small amount of surface decomposition is found after irradiation at high intensity, whereas SrTiO3 undergoes no detectable changes. Current-voltage properties for both electrodes are essentially independent of light intensity up to the level of 380 W/sq cm, and there is little if any change in quantum efficiency for electron flow. Photocurrent densities have been shown to exceed 5 A/sq cm for O2 evolution. Data show that the energy storage rate associated with the SrTiO3 photoelectrolysis can exceed 30 W/sq cm; this represents the highest demonstrated rate of sustained optical-to-chemical energy conversion.

  20. Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela S; Rossi, Fabrício E; Cholewa, Jason M; Campos, Eduardo Z; Panissa, Valéria L G; Lira, Fábio S

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO 2max ) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO 2max ). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L -1 , p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p < 0.001). Both exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p < 0.005), but higher values were observed in the High-Intensity exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, over the same distance, Moderate-Intensity and High-Intensity exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO 2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses.

  1. In-Season High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Conditioning In High School Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Neal; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2017-01-01

    Soccer is characterized by high aerobic demands interspersed with frequent bursts of anaerobic activity. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is considered a viable alternative to traditional endurance conditioning and offers the additional time-saving benefits of anaerobic training. We hypothesized that HIIT will compare favorably to traditional (aerobic-based) soccer conditioning over the course of a high school soccer season. Junior varsity soccer players were split into control (CON, n=16) and experimental (HIIT, n=16) groups for the 10-week study. The HIIT group performed 4-6 "all-out" sprints lasting 30s each, with 4.5 minute recovery, 3 times a week. The CON group performed endurance running for the same duration. The groups did not differ in any other aspect of their training. Participants completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (IR1), a 40-yard dash, vertical jump, Illinois agility test, and a sit-and-reach test, in two different testing sessions (pre/post season). Both HIIT and CON groups exhibited significant increase in IR1 test performance with time (741.6±307.6m vs. 1067.6±356.8m, ptraining.

  2. Load-controlled moderate and high-intensity resistance training programs provoke similar strength gains in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Luis M; Aguado, Xavier; Rojas-Martín, Diego; Martín-García, María; Ara, Ignacio; Csapo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    While current exercise guidelines recommend progressive, high-intensity resistance training (RT) to promote muscle hypertrophy and strength gains, controversy exists regarding the efficacy of lighter-load RT. We compared 2 work-matched RT interventions that differed in training intensity. Fifteen women underwent 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor RT. One leg was trained at increasing intensity (intensity leg, InL, 50-80% 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]), and training progression in the contralateral leg (volume leg, VoL, 50% 1-RM) was based on increasing training volumes. Quadriceps muscle size (ultrasound, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and strength (isokinetic dynamometry) were assessed on 4 occasions. Both training programs induced significant, yet comparable increases in muscle size (InL: +4.6-12%, VoL: +3.1-11%) and strength (InL: +10-16%, VoL: +10-14%). Training at lower than commonly suggested intensities may be an equally effective alternative form of RT. Factors other than training intensity, such as the total mechanical work during training, may strongly affect the training response. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. High risk of unprecedented UK rainfall in the current climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vikki; Dunstone, Nick J; Scaife, Adam A; Smith, Doug M; Slingo, Julia M; Brown, Simon; Belcher, Stephen E

    2017-07-24

    In winter 2013/14 a succession of storms hit the UK leading to record rainfall and flooding in many regions including south east England. In the Thames river valley there was widespread flooding, with clean-up costs of over £1 billion. There was no observational precedent for this level of rainfall. Here we present analysis of a large ensemble of high-resolution initialised climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated, and that in the current climate there remains a high chance of exceeding the observed record monthly rainfall totals in many regions of the UK. In south east England there is a 7% chance of exceeding the current rainfall record in at least one month in any given winter. Expanding our analysis to some other regions of England and Wales the risk increases to a 34% chance of breaking a regional record somewhere each winter.A succession of storms during the 2013-2014 winter led to record flooding in the UK. Here, the authors use high-resolution climate simulations to show that this event could have been anticipated and that there remains a high chance of exceeding observed record monthly rainfall totals in many parts of the UK.

  4. High T2-weighted signal intensity is associated with elevated troponin T in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommans, D.H.F.; Cramer, G.E.; Bakker, J.; Michels, M; Dieker, H.J.; Timmermans, J.; Fouraux, M.A.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Brouwer, M.A.; Kofflard, M.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Areas of high signal intensity (HighT2) on T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging have been demonstrated in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). It has been hypothesised that HighT2 may indicate active tissue injury in HCM. In this context, we studied HighT2 in relation

  5. What happens in Josephson junctions at high critical current densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, D.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Lucignano, P.; Caruso, R.; Galletti, L.; Montemurro, D.; Jouault, B.; Campagnano, G.; Arani, H. F.; Longobardi, L.; Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Rotoli, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lombardi, F.; Tafuri, F.

    2017-07-01

    The impressive advances in material science and nanotechnology are more and more promoting the use of exotic barriers and/or superconductors, thus paving the way to new families of Josephson junctions. Semiconducting, ferromagnetic, topological insulator and graphene barriers are leading to unconventional and anomalous aspects of the Josephson coupling, which might be useful to respond to some issues on key problems of solid state physics. However, the complexity of the layout and of the competing physical processes occurring in the junctions is posing novel questions on the interpretation of their phenomenology. We classify some significant behaviors of hybrid and unconventional junctions in terms of their first imprinting, i.e., current-voltage curves, and propose a phenomenological approach to describe some features of junctions characterized by relatively high critical current densities Jc. Accurate arguments on the distribution of switching currents will provide quantitative criteria to understand physical processes occurring in high-Jc junctions. These notions are universal and apply to all kinds of junctions.

  6. High-intensity exercise attenuates postprandial lipaemia and markers of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Brendan; Ratkevicius, Aivaras; Gray, Patrick; Frenneaux, Michael P; Gray, Stuart R

    2012-09-01

    Regular exercise can reduce the risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease). Although moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate postprandial TAG (triacylglycerol), high-intensity intermittent exercise might be a more effective method to improve health. We compared the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise and 30 min of brisk walking on postprandial TAG, soluble adhesion molecules and markers of oxidative stress. Nine men each completed three 2-day trials. On day 1, subjects rested (control), walked briskly for 30 min (walking) or performed 5×30 s maximal sprints (high-intensity). On day 2, subjects consumed a high-fat meal for breakfast and 3 h later for lunch. Blood samples were taken at various times and analysed for TAG, glucose, insulin, ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular adhesion molecule-1), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances), protein carbonyls and β-hydroxybutyrate. On day 2 of the high-intensity trial, there was a lower (Pwalking trial (8.98±2.84 mmol/l per 7 h). A trend (P=0.056) for a reduced total TAG AUC was also seen during the high-intensity trial (14.13±2.83 mmol/l per 7 h) compared with control (17.18±3.92 mmol/l per 7 h), walking showed no difference (16.33±3.51 mmol/l per 7 h). On day 2 of the high-intensity trial plasma TBARS and protein carbonyls were also reduced (Pwalking trials. In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise attenuates postprandial TAG and markers of oxidative stress after the consumption of a high-fat meal.

  7. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  8. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  9. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for pancreatic carcinoma: evaluation of feasibility, reduction of tumour volume and pain intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Milka; Rauch, Maximilian; Mücke, Martin; Rolke, Roman; Gonzalez-Carmona, Maria A; Henseler, Jana; Cuhls, Henning; Radbruch, Lukas; Strassburg, Christian P; Zhang, Lian; Schild, Hans H; Strunk, Holger M

    2016-11-01

    Prognosis of patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely poor. They often suffer from cancer-related pain reducing their quality of life. This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate feasibility, local tumour response, and changes in quality of life and symptoms in Caucasian patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated by ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Thirteen patients underwent HIFU, five with stage III, eight with stage IV UICC disease. Ten patients received simultaneous palliative chemotherapy. Postinterventional clinical assessment included evaluation of quality of life and symptom changes using standardized questionnaires. CT and MRI follow-up evaluated the local tumour response. HIFU was successfully performed in all patients. Average tumour reduction was 34.2 % at 6 weeks and 63.9 % at 3 months. Complete or partial relief of cancer-related pain was achieved in 10 patients (77 %), five of whom required less analgesics for pain control. Quality of life was improved revealing increased global health status and alleviated symptoms. HIFU treatment was well tolerated. Eight patients experienced transient abdominal pain directly after HIFU. HIFU ablation of pancreatic carcinoma is a feasible, safe and effective treatment with a crucial benefit in terms of reduction of tumour volume and pain intensity. • US-guided HIFU is feasible and safe for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. • HIFU can considerably reduce tumour volume and cancer-related pain. • Patients treated with HIFU experienced significant and lasting reduction of pain intensity. • HIFU has a crucial clinical benefit for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  10. Enhancement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Heating by Short-Pulse Generated Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshizawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A target tissue can be thermally coagulated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU treatment noninvasively. HIFU thermal treatments have been clinically applied to various solid tumors. One of the problems in HIFU treatments is a long treatment time. Acoustically driven microbubbles can accelerate the ultrasonic heating, resulting in the significant reduction of the treatment time. In this paper, a method named “trigger HIFU exposure” which employs cavitation microbubbles is introduced and its results are reviewed. A trigger HIFU sequence consists of high-intensity short pulses followed by moderate-intensity long bursts. Cavitation bubbles induced in a multiple focal regions by rapidly scanning the focus of high-intensity pulses enhanced the temperature increase significantly and produced a large coagulation region with high efficiency.

  11. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on basal triglyceride metabolism in non-obese men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-01-01

    ..., but whether this applies to very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism is not known. We sought to examine the effect of a single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise on basal VLDL-triglyceride (TG...

  12. Improved high-intensity microwave discharge lamp for atomic resonance absorption and fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, A; Skinner, G B; Wood, D R

    1978-09-01

    An unusually good combination of high intensity and narrow line has been achieved in a microwave discharge lamp by placing the optical window in the center of the microwave cavity. Construction details and performance characteristics are described.

  13. Spatiotemporal monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy with passive acoustic mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Carl R; Ritchie, Robert W; Gyöngy, Miklós; Collin, James R T; Leslie, Tom; Coussios, Constantin-C

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate feasibility of monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment with passive acoustic mapping of broadband and harmonic emissions reconstructed from filtered-channel radiofrequency data in ex vivo bovine tissue...

  14. Effect of high-intensity interval exercise on basal triglyceride metabolism in non-obese men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellou, Elena; Magkos, Faidon; Kouka, Tonia; Bouchalaki, Eirini; Sklaveniti, Dimitra; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-01-01

    A single bout of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise has been shown to produce the same or greater metabolic benefits as continuous endurance exercise with considerably less energy expenditure...

  15. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette K; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction...... on productivity, RPE and upper trapezius activity and rest during computer work and a subsequent pause from computer work. METHODS: 18 female computer workers performed 2 sessions of 15 min standardized computer mouse work preceded by 1 min pause with and without prior high intensity contraction of shoulder....... RESULTS: The main findings were that a high intensity shoulder elevation did not modify RPE, productivity or EMG activity of the upper trapezius during the subsequent pause and computer work. However, the high intensity contraction reduced the relative rest time of the uppermost (clavicular) trapezius...

  16. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high- vs moderate-intensity endurance training: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J; Collett, J; Howells, K; Morris, M G

    2017-12-01

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue; however, the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8×5 minutes at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 minutes at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pretraining 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the "new" post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively) (P≤.019). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively, P=.023) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively, P=.047) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of mature men way of life on highly intensive physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Pryshva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly intensive physical activity is the most effective for men’s health protection. In modern life conditions its level is insufficient. It requires organism’s appropriate physical activity, which is determined by way of life. Especially important it is before trainings. Purpose: to study special aspects of different intensity’s physical activity; of eating special food and sleeping regime of mature men before their highly intensive physical trainings. Material: in experiment men (n=26, age - 35-53years, who practice healthy life style and independent physical activity of high intensity, participated. We used bio-register Basis B1. Every day we registered: Peak - physical activity of different intensity; duration and quality of sleep; relative weight of consumed food. Besides, we calculated body mass index and physical condition. The study was conducted during 30 days in winter period. The following results were compared: indicators before not planned physical activity and average-monthly indicators. Results: Before arbitrary physical functioning we found in men: confident weakening of average intensity (by 9-11% and low intensity (by 10% physical activity; confident increase of consumed food’s relative weight (by 6.82%, vegetarian food (by 10.64% and raw food (by 7.61%; confident reduction of animal origin food (by 8.7%. No changes were found in duration and quality of sleep before highly intensive physical functioning. Conclusions: specific features of mature men’s way of life before their not planned highly intensive physical functioning are as follows: reduction of general physical activity; increase of consumed food. These factors facilitate energy accumulation in organism for its realization in highly intensive physical functioning the next day.

  18. High temperature superconducting current leads for micro-SMES application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, R.C.; Cha, Y.S.; Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Buckles, W.E.; Weber, B.R. [Suerconductivity, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-09-01

    SMES is being applied on a microscale (1--10 Mj stored energy) to improve electrical power quality. A major portion of the SMES refrigeration load is for cooling the conventional (copper, vapor- cooled) current leads that transfer energy between the magnet and the power-conditioning equipment. The lead refrigeration load can be reduced significantly by the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs). A HTS current lead suitable for micro-SMES application has been designed. The lower stage of the lead employs HTSs. A transition between the lower stage and the conventional upper-stage lead is heat-intercepted by a cryocooler. Details of the design are presented. Construction and operating experiences are discussed.

  19. Survey of Digital Feedback Systems in High Current Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-06-06

    In the last decade demand for brightness in synchrotron light sources and luminosity in circular colliders led to construction of multiple high current storage rings. Many of these new machines require feedback systems to achieve design stored beam currents. In the same time frame the rapid advances in the technology of digital signal processing allowed the implementation of these complex feedback systems. In this paper I concentrate on three applications of feedback to storage rings: orbit control in light sources, coupled-bunch instability control, and low-level RF control. Each of these applications is challenging in areas of processing bandwidth, algorithm complexity, and control of time-varying beam and system dynamics. I will review existing implementations as well as comment on promising future directions.

  20. Calculation of ultrasonic fields radiated in a ferromagnetic medium by an EMAT of arbitrary bias field driven by a current of arbitrary intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouge, C. [CEA, LIST, Bât. 565, PC 120, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France and Université de Bordeaux, I2M, 351 cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Lhémery, A. [CEA, LIST, Bât. 565, PC 120, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Aristégui, C. [Université de Bordeaux, I2M, 351 cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Walaszek, H. [CETIM, F-60300, Senlis (France)

    2014-02-18

    ElectroMagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are contactless transducers generating ultrasonic waves in conductive media, notably shear horizontal and torsional waves (in plates and pipes, respectively), possibly in hostile environments. In a ferromagnetic part, the elastic strain and the magnetic field couple through magnetostriction phenomena, so that a magnetostriction and magnetization forces add up to the Lorentz force created in any conductive medium. Here, a model is proposed to predict these forces for an arbitrary bias field due to the EMAT permanent magnet and whatever the current intensity in its electric circuit, whereas the usual assumption of high bias field and low intensity current leads to important model simplifications. To handle the nonlinear behavior of all the three forces when the usual assumption cannot be made, forces are expressed in the time domain. In particular, magnetostriction force generates waves at several harmonic frequencies of the driving current frequency. Forces are then transformed into equivalent surface stresses readily usable as source terms in existing models of ultrasonic radiation, under the assumption that ultrasonic wavelengths are much longer than force penetration depths, (which is generally true in NDT applications of EMATs). Force spectra computed in various EMAT configurations are compared for illustration.

  1. High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) versus TENS and NSAIDs in low back pain: clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zati, Allesandro; Fortuna, Damiano; Valent, A.; Filippi, M. V.; Bilotta, Teresa W.

    2004-09-01

    Low back pain, caused by lumbar disc herniation, is prevalently treated with a conservative approach. In this study we valued the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT), compared with accepted therapies such as TENS and NSAIDs. Laser therapy obtained similar results in the short term, but better clinical effect over time than TENS and NSAIDs. In conclusion high intensity laser therapy appears to be a interesting new treatment, worthy of further research.

  2. Short-term effects of implemented high intensity shoulder elevation during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mette K; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Olsen, Henrik B; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2009-08-10

    Work-site strength training sessions are shown effective to prevent and reduce neck-shoulder pain in computer workers, but difficult to integrate in normal working routines. A solution for avoiding neck-shoulder pain during computer work may be to implement high intensity voluntary contractions during the computer work. However, it is unknown how this may influence productivity, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) as well as activity and rest of neck-shoulder muscles during computer work. The aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of a high intensity contraction on productivity, RPE and upper trapezius activity and rest during computer work and a subsequent pause from computer work. 18 female computer workers performed 2 sessions of 15 min standardized computer mouse work preceded by 1 min pause with and without prior high intensity contraction of shoulder elevation. RPE was reported, productivity (drawings per min) measured, and bipolar surface electromyography (EMG) recorded from the dominant upper trapezius during pauses and sessions of computer work. Repeated measure ANOVA with Bonferroni corrected post-hoc tests was applied for the statistical analyses. The main findings were that a high intensity shoulder elevation did not modify RPE, productivity or EMG activity of the upper trapezius during the subsequent pause and computer work. However, the high intensity contraction reduced the relative rest time of the uppermost (clavicular) trapezius part during the subsequent pause from computer work (p shoulder elevation did not impose a negative impact on perceived effort, productivity or upper trapezius activity during computer work, implementation of high intensity contraction during computer work to prevent neck-shoulder pain may be possible without affecting the working routines. However, the unexpected reduction in clavicular trapezius rest during a pause with preceding high intensity contraction requires further investigation before high

  3. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  4. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Circular Cyclocoagulation in Glaucoma: A Step Forward for Cyclodestruction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mastropasqua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ciliary body ablation is still considered as a last resort treatment to reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP in uncontrolled glaucoma. Several ablation techniques have been proposed over the years, all presenting a high rate of complications, nonselectivity for the target organ, and unpredictable dose-effect relationship. These drawbacks limited the application of cyclodestructive procedures almost exclusively to refractory glaucoma. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, proposed in the early 1980s and later abandoned because of the complexity and side effects of the procedure, was recently reconsidered in a new approach to destroy the ciliary body. Ultrasound circular cyclocoagulation (UC3, by using miniaturized transducers embedded in a dedicated circular-shaped device, permits to selectively treat the ciliary body in a one-step, computer-assisted, and non-operator-dependent procedure. UC3 shows a high level of safety along with a predictable and sustained IOP reduction in patients with refractory glaucoma. Because of this, the indication of UC3 was recently extended also to naïve-to-surgery patients, thus reconsidering the role and timing of ciliary body ablation in the surgical management of glaucoma. This article provides a review of the most used cycloablative techniques with particular attention to UC3, summarizing the current knowledge about this procedure and future possible developments.

  5. A conceptual design of the DTL-SDTL for the JAERI high intensity proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Hiroshi; Kabeya, Zenzaburo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Chishiro, Etsuji; Ouchi, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1998-08-01

    A high intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power of 8 MW has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. This linac starts with radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which is followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL), separated-type DTL (SDTL), and a superconducting structure. In this report, we focus on the DTL and SDTL part of the accelerator. The DTL accelerates the beam from 2 to 51 MeV, and SDTL accelerates the beam from 51 to 10 MeV. Since the main features of the requirement for the DTL-SDTL are high peak current ({approx}30 mA) and a high-duty factor ({approx}CW), the conceptual design should be determined not only based on the result of a beam-dynamics calculation, but by careful study of the cooling problems. The design processes of the DTL-SDTL and the matching sections (RFQ to DTL, CW-Pulse merge section, and SDTL to SCC) and the result of a heat transfer analysis of DTL are described. (author)

  6. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Jahnke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3% of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98. Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55 to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts.

  7. New progress of high current gasdynamic ion source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga@ipfran.ru; Sidorov, A.; Vodopyanov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2016-02-15

    The experimental and theoretical research carried out at the Institute of Applied Physics resulted in development of a new type of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs)—the gasdynamic ECRIS. The gasdynamic ECRIS features a confinement mechanism in a magnetic trap that is different from Geller’s ECRIS confinement, i.e., the quasi-gasdynamic one similar to that in fusion mirror traps. Experimental studies of gasdynamic ECRIS were performed at Simple Mirror Ion Source (SMIS) 37 facility. The plasma was created by 37.5 and 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW. High frequency microwaves allowed to create and sustain plasma with significant density (up to 8 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) and to maintain the main advantages of conventional ECRIS such as high ionization degree and low ion energy. Reaching such high plasma density relies on the fact that the critical density grows with the microwave frequency squared. High microwave power provided the average electron energy on a level of 50-300 eV enough for efficient ionization even at neutral gas pressure range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar. Gasdynamic ECRIS has demonstrated a good performance producing high current (100-300 mA) multi-charged ion beams with moderate average charge (Z = 4-5 for argon). Gasdynamic ECRIS has appeared to be especially effective in low emittance hydrogen and deuterium beams formation. Proton beams with current up to 500 emA and RMS emittance below 0.07 π ⋅ mm ⋅ mrad have been demonstrated in recent experiments.

  8. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of ex vivo bovine achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, Robert; Akabas, Tal; Muratore, Isabella B

    2008-12-01

    Small tears in tendons are a common occurrence in athletes and others involved in strenuous physical activity. Natural healing in damaged tendons can result in disordered regrowth of the underlying collagen matrix of the tendon. These disordered regions are weaker than surrounding ordered regions of normal tendon and are prone to re-injury. Multiple cycles of injury and repair can lead to chronic tendinosis. Current treatment options either are invasive or are relatively ineffective in tendinosis without calcifications. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has the potential to treat tendinosis noninvasively. HIFU ablation of tendons is based on a currently-used surgical analog, viz., needle tenotomy. This study tested the ability of HIFU beams to ablate bovine tendons ex vivo. Two ex vivo animal models were employed: a bare bovine Achilles tendon (deep digital flexor) on an acoustically absorbent rubber pad, and a layered model (chicken breast proximal, bovine Achilles tendon central and a glass plate distal to the transducer). The bare-tendon model enables examination of lesion formation under simple, ideal conditions; the layered model enables detection of possible damage to intervening soft tissue and consideration of the possibly confounding effects of distal bone. In both models, the tissues were degassed in normal phosphate-buffered saline. The bare tendon was brought to 23 degrees C or 37 degrees C before insonification; the layered model was brought to 37 degrees C before insonification. The annular array therapy transducer had an outer diameter of 33 mm, a focal length of 35 mm and a 14-mm diameter central hole to admit a confocal diagnostic transducer. The therapy transducer was excited with a continuous sinusoidal wave at 5.25 MHz to produce nominal in situ intensities from 0.23-2.6 kW/cm(2). Insonification times varied from 2-10 s. The focus was set over the range from the proximal tendon surface to 7 mm deep. The angle of incidence ranged from 0

  9. Modeling of leakage currents in high-k dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegert, Gunther Christian

    2012-03-15

    Leakage currents are one of the major bottlenecks impeding the downscaling efforts of the semiconductor industry. Two core devices of integrated circuits, the transistor and, especially, the DRAM storage capacitor, suffer from the increasing loss currents. In this perspective a fundamental understanding of the physical origin of these leakage currents is highly desirable. However, the complexity of the involved transport phenomena so far has prevented the development of microscopic models. Instead, the analysis of transport through the ultra-thin layers of high-permittivity (high-k) dielectrics, which are employed as insulating layers, was carried out at an empirical level using simple compact models. Unfortunately, these offer only limited insight into the physics involved on the microscale. In this context the present work was initialized in order to establish a framework of microscopic physical models that allow a fundamental description of the transport processes relevant in high-k thin films. A simulation tool that makes use of kinetic Monte Carlo techniques was developed for this purpose embedding the above models in an environment that allows qualitative and quantitative analyses of the electronic transport in such films. Existing continuum approaches, which tend to conceal the important physics behind phenomenological fitting parameters, were replaced by three-dimensional transport simulations at the level of single charge carriers. Spatially localized phenomena, such as percolation of charge carriers across pointlike defects, being subject to structural relaxation processes, or electrode roughness effects, could be investigated in this simulation scheme. Stepwise a self-consistent, closed transport model for the TiN/ZrO{sub 2} material system, which is of outmost importance for the semiconductor industry, was developed. Based on this model viable strategies for the optimization of TiN/ZrO{sub 2}/TiN capacitor structures were suggested and problem areas

  10. High-current Standing Wave Linac With Gyrocon Power Source

    CERN Document Server

    Karliner, M M; Makarov, I G; Nezhevenko, O A; Ostreiko, G N; Persov, B Z; Serdobintsev, G V

    2004-01-01

    A gyrocon together with high-voltage 1.5 MeV accelerator ELIT-3A represents a power generator at 430 MHz serving for linear electron accelerator pulse driving. The facility description and results of calorimetric measurements of ELIT-3A electron beam power and accelerated beam at the end of accelerator are presented in the paper. 2.2 amps of pulsed current have been obtained at electron energy of 20 MeV. The achieved energy conversion efficiency is about 55%.

  11. LTS and HTS high current conductor development for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.bruzzone@psi.ch [EPFL-CRPP, Fusion Technology, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Sedlak, Kamil; Uglietti, Davide; Bykovsky, Nikolay [EPFL-CRPP, Fusion Technology, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Muzzi, Luigi; De Marzi, Gainluca; Celentano, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Antonio; Turtù, Simonetta [ENEA, Superconductivity Division, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Seri, Massimo [TRATOS Cavi Spa, I-52036 Pieve Santo Stefano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Design and R&D for DEMO TF conductors. • Wind&react vs. react&wind options for Nb{sub 3}Sn high grade TF conductors. • Progress in the manufacture of short length Nb{sub 3}Sn proptotypes. • Design and prototype manufacture for high current HTS cabled conductors. - Abstract: The large size of the magnets for DEMO calls for very large operating current in the forced flow conductor. A plain extrapolation from the superconductors in use for ITER is not adequate to fulfill the technical and cost requirements. The proposed DEMO TF magnets is a graded winding using both Nb{sub 3}Sn and NbTi conductors, with operating current of 82 kA @ 13.6 T peak field. Two Nb{sub 3}Sn prototypes are being built in 2014 reflecting the two approaches suggested by CRPP (react&wind method) and ENEA (wind&react method). The Nb{sub 3}Sn strand (overall 200 kg) has been procured at technical specification similar to ITER. Both the Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and the high RRR, Cr plated copper wire (400 kg) have been delivered. The cabling trials are carried out at TRATOS Cavi using equipment relevant for long length production. The completion of the manufacture of the two 20 m long prototypes is expected in the end of 2014 and their test is planned in 2015 at CRPP. In the scope of a long term technology development, high current HTS conductors are built at CRPP and ENEA. A DEMO-class prototype conductor is developed and assembled at CRPP: it is a flat cable composed of 20 twisted stacks of coated conductor tape soldered into copper shells. The 10 kA conductor developed at ENEA consists of stacks of coated conductor tape inserted into a slotted and twisted Al core, with a central cooling channel. Samples have been manufactured in industrial environment and the scalability of the process to long production lengths has been proven.

  12. Symptom experiences of family members of intensive care unit patients at high risk for dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Jennifer L; Dracup, Kathleen A; White, Douglas B; Fontaine, Dorothy K; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2010-04-01

    To describe the symptom experiences of family members of patients at high risk for dying in the intensive care unit and to assess risk factors associated with higher symptom burden. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Three intensive care units at a large academic medical center. A sample of 74 family members of 74 intensive care unit patients who had a grave prognosis and were judged to be at high risk for dying. Patients at high risk for dying were identified as having Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores >20, an intensive care unit length of stay >72 hrs, and being mechanically ventilated. None. We assessed the degree of symptom burden approximately 4 days after the patient's admission to the intensive care unit in the following domains: traumatic stress, anxiety, and depression. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was high, with more than half (57%) of family members having moderate to severe levels of traumatic stress, 80% having borderline symptoms of anxiety, and 70% having borderline symptoms of depression. More than 80% of family members had other physical and emotional symptoms, such as fatigue, sadness, and fear, and these were experienced at the moderate to severe levels of distress. Factors independently associated with greater severity of symptoms included younger age, female gender, and non-white race of the family member. The only patient factor significantly associated with symptom severity was younger age. Despite their symptom experience, the majority of the family members were coping at moderate to high levels and functioning at high levels during the intensive care unit experience. We document a high prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms among family members during an intensive care unit admission. These data complement existing data on long-term symptom burden and highlight the need to improve family centered care in intensive care units.

  13. High-Intensity Interval Training Interventions in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddolls, William T B; McNarry, Melitta A; Stratton, Gareth; Winn, Charles O N; Mackintosh, Kelly A

    2017-11-01

    Whilst there is increasing interest in the efficacy of high-intensity interval training in children and adolescents as a time-effective method of eliciting health benefits, there remains little consensus within the literature regarding the most effective means for delivering a high-intensity interval training intervention. Given the global health issues surrounding childhood obesity and associated health implications, the identification of effective intervention strategies is imperative. The aim of this review was to examine high-intensity interval training as a means of influencing key health parameters and to elucidate the most effective high-intensity interval training protocol. Studies were included if they: (1) studied healthy children and/or adolescents (aged 5-18 years); (2) prescribed an intervention that was deemed high intensity; and (3) reported health-related outcome measures. A total of 2092 studies were initially retrieved from four databases. Studies that were deemed to meet the criteria were downloaded in their entirety and independently assessed for relevance by two authors using the pre-determined criteria. From this, 13 studies were deemed suitable. This review found that high-intensity interval training in children and adolescents is a time-effective method of improving cardiovascular disease biomarkers, but evidence regarding other health-related measures is more equivocal. Running-based sessions, at an intensity of >90% heart rate maximum/100-130% maximal aerobic velocity, two to three times a week and with a minimum intervention duration of 7 weeks, elicit the greatest improvements in participant health. While high-intensity interval training improves cardiovascular disease biomarkers, and the evidence supports the effectiveness of running-based sessions, as outlined above, further recommendations as to optimal exercise duration and rest intervals remain ambiguous owing to the paucity of literature and the methodological limitations of

  14. Structure of high latitude currents in global magnetospheric-ionospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltberger, M; Rigler, E. J.; Merkin, V; Lyon, J. G

    2016-01-01

    Using three resolutions of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetosphere-ionosphere model (LFM) and the Weimer 2005 empirical model we examine the structure of the high latitude field-aligned current patterns. Each resolution was run for the entire Whole Heliosphere Interval which contained two high speed solar wind streams and modest interplanetary magnetic field strengths. Average states of the field-aligned current (FAC) patterns for 8 interplanetary magnetic field clock angle directions are computed using data from these runs. Generally speaking the patterns obtained agree well with results obtained from the Weimer 2005 computing using the solar wind and IMF conditions that correspond to each bin. As the simulation resolution increases the currents become more intense and narrow. A machine learning analysis of the FAC patterns shows that the ratio of Region 1 (R1) to Region 2 (R2) currents decreases as the simulation resolution increases. This brings the simulation results into better agreement with observational predictions and the Weimer 2005 model results. The increase in R2 current strengths also results in the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) pattern being concentrated in higher latitudes. Current-voltage relationships between the R1 and CPCP are quite similar at the higher resolution indicating the simulation is converging on a common solution. We conclude that LFM simulations are capable of reproducing the statistical features of FAC patterns.

  15. High-intensity aerobic interval training in a patient with stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philippe; Guiraud, Thibaut; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Bosquet, Laurent; Nigam, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Recently, high-intensity aerobic interval training was shown to be more effective than continuous moderate-intensity exercise for improving maximal aerobic capacity and endurance in patients with coronary heart disease. However, patients with exercise-induced ischemia were not included in those studies. We present the acute cardiopulmonary responses of a 67-yr-old man with stable angina pectoris during a 34-min session of high-intensity aerobic interval training. Exercise was well tolerated with neither significant arrhythmia nor elevation of cardiac troponin-T. We observed a complete disappearance of symptoms and signs of myocardial ischemia after 24 mins of exercise. This observation is similar to the warm-up angina phenomenon, an adaptation to myocardial ischemia that remains poorly understood. We conclude that high-intensity aerobic interval training is a promising mode of training for patients with stable coronary heart disease that should also be investigated further in patients with exercise-induced ischemia.

  16. Observed currents on the earth's high-latitude magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, J. A.; Adnan, J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of electrical currents of the earth's magnetosphere, principally at high latitudes, as inferred from magnetic vector data acquired by the Hawkeye 1 satellite, is reported. A total of 536 candidate crossings of the magnetopause were examined. A reduced data set of 139 selected cases was analyzed in detail though solar wind dynamic pressure data were available for only 117 of these cases. Inferred values of the lineal current densities on the magnetopause are in the range 5.5 to 157.5 mA/m over a wide range of solar wind dynamic pressure from 1.17 to 16.1 nPa. The apparent normal thickness of the magnetopause current sheet ranges from 30 to 850 km with mean and median values of 185 and 158 km, respectively. It is argued that the radial rate of motion of the magnetopause is of the order of 2 km/s and hence that its true thickness is of similar magnitude. The relationship of these results to models of the geomagnetic field and to other related work is discussed.

  17. Two high accuracy digital integrators for Rogowski current transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan-dian; Li, Hong-bin; Li, Zhen-hua

    2014-01-01

    The Rogowski current transducers have been widely used in AC current measurement, but their accuracy is mainly subject to the analog integrators, which have typical problems such as poor long-term stability and being susceptible to environmental conditions. The digital integrators can be another choice, but they cannot obtain a stable and accurate output for the reason that the DC component in original signal can be accumulated, which will lead to output DC drift. Unknown initial conditions can also result in integral output DC offset. This paper proposes two improved digital integrators used in Rogowski current transducers instead of traditional analog integrators for high measuring accuracy. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback controller and an attenuation coefficient have been applied in improving the Al-Alaoui integrator to change its DC response and get an ideal frequency response. For the special design in the field of digital signal processing, the improved digital integrators have better performance than analog integrators. Simulation models are built for the purpose of verification and comparison. The experiments prove that the designed integrators can achieve higher accuracy than analog integrators in steady-state response, transient-state response, and temperature changing condition.

  18. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments - Sept. 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addis, L.; Odian, A.; Row, G. M.; Ward, C. E. W.; Wanderer, P.; Armenteros, R.; Joos, P.; Groves, T. H.; Oyanagi, Y.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Antipov, Yu; Barinov, N.

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche. (RWR)

  19. Early Stage of Pulsed High Current Discharge with Copper Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takuma; Kuraoka, Takuya; Takano, Kazuya; Ibuka, Shinji; Yasuoka, Koichi; Ishii, Shozo

    Early phase of powder plasmas powered by a pulsed high current discharge was examined by use of high-speed cameras and a laser shadowgraph and schlieren techniques. Initial electrons created by a pre-ionization discharge collide with both an anode and powder particles, of which surfaces evaporate after then. Evaporation of the particle by electron collision initially occured in the hemisphere surface which is close to cathode side. Since vaporization of the anode far exceeds that of the particles, discharge characteristics is almost similar to that of vacuum sparks in which expanding anode plasmas are observed. In order to suppress the developpment of the anode plasma, reduction of the effective anode area by varying the anode shape was examined.

  20. The Transition to High School: Current Knowledge, Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In the American educational system, school transitions are frequent and predictable, but they can disrupt student functioning across developmental domains. How students experience school transitions has been a focus of research for some time, but the high school transition has received less attention, and the limited research often focuses on a particular developmental domain (e.g., academics and socioemotional well-being) to the exclusion of a more integrated model. This review relies on life course theory to establish an organizational framework for interpreting and connecting the diffuse and sometimes disparate findings on the high school transition, including adolescent developmental trajectories and the influence of social ties, changing sociocultural contexts, and stratification systems. Conclusions identify aspects for future inquiry suggested by current knowledge and the tenets of the life course perspective. PMID:21966178

  1. High intensity profile monitor for time resolved spectrometry at the CLIC Test Facility 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvegard, M., E-mail: maja.olvegard@physics.uu.se [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Uppsala University, P.O. Box 256, SE-751 05 (Sweden); Adli, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Boks 1072 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Braun, H.H. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bravin, E.; Chritin, N.; Corsini, R.; Dabrowski, A.E.; Doebert, S.; Dutriat, C. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Egger, D. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Lefevre, T. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mete, O. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Skowronski, P.K.; Tecker, F. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-08-11

    The power source of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) relies on the generation and deceleration of a high-intensity electron drive beam. In order to provide the best radio-frequency (RF) to beam-energy transfer efficiency, the electron beam is accelerated using fully loaded RF cavities, which leads to strong beam loading effects resulting in a high-energy transient. The stability of the RF power produced by the drive beam depends on the stability of the drive beam energy and energy spread along the pulse. The control and the monitoring of the time evolution of the beam energy distribution are therefore crucial for the accelerator performance. For this purpose segmented beam dumps, which are simple and robust devices, have been designed and installed at the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). These devices are located at the end of spectrometer lines and provide horizontal beam profiles with a time resolution better than 10 ns. The segmented dumps are composed of parallel, vertical, metallic plates, and are based on the same principle as a Faraday cup: the impinging beam current is read by a fast acquisition channel. Both FLUKA and Geant4 simulations were performed to define the optimum detector geometry for beam energies ranging from 5 MeV to 150 MeV. This paper presents a detailed description of the different steps of the design: the optimization of the detector spatial resolution, the minimization of the thermal load and the long-term damage resulting from high radiation doses. Four segmented dumps are currently used in the CTF3 complex. Their measured performance and limitations are presented in this paper. Typical beam spectra as measured in the CTF3 linac are also presented along with a description of the RF manipulations needed for tuning the beam energy spectrum.

  2. High but not moderate-intensity endurance training increases pain tolerance: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Thomas J; Collett, Johnny; Howells, Ken; Morris, Martyn G

    2017-11-01

    To examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to volume-matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT) on muscle pain tolerance and high-intensity exercise tolerance. Twenty healthy adults were randomly assigned (1:1) to either 6 weeks of HIIT [6-8 × 5 min at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake (50%Δ)] or volume-matched CONT (~60-80 min at 90% lactate threshold) on a cycle ergometer. A tourniquet test to examine muscle pain tolerance and two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ to examine exercise tolerance were completed pre- and post-training; the post-training TTE trials were completed at the pre-training 50%Δ (same absolute-intensity) and the post-training 50%Δ (same relative-intensity). HIIT and CONT resulted in similar improvements in markers of aerobic fitness (all P ≥ 0.081). HIIT increased TTE at the same absolute- and relative-intensity as pre-training (148 and 43%, respectively) to a greater extent than CONT (38 and -4%, respectively) (both P ≤ 0.019). HIIT increased pain tolerance (41%, P intensity (r = 0.51, P = 0.011) as pre-training. The repeated exposure to a high-intensity training stimulus increases muscle pain tolerance, which is independent of the improvements in aerobic fitness induced by endurance training, and may contribute to the increase in high-intensity exercise tolerance following HIIT.

  3. Study in Parkinson disease of exercise (SPARX): translating high-intensity exercise from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charity G; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M; Delitto, Anthony; Hall, Deborah A; Corcos, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    A burgeoning literature suggests that exercise has a therapeutic benefit in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and in animal models of PD, especially when animals exercise at high intensity. If exercise is to be prescribed as "first-line" or "add-on" therapy in patients with PD, we must demonstrate its efficacy and dose-response effects through testing phases similar to those used in the testing of pharmacologic agents. The SPARX Trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, Phase II study that we designed to test the feasibility of using high-intensity exercise to modify symptoms of PD and to simultaneously test the nonfutility of achieving a prespecified change in patients' motor scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The trial began in May 2102 and is in the process of screening, enrolling, and randomly assigning 126 patients with early-stage PD to 1 of 3 groups: usual care (wait-listed controls), moderate-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 60%-65% maximal heart rate [HRmax]), or high-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 80%-85% HRmax). At 6-month follow-up, the trial is randomly reassigning usual care participants to a moderate-intensity or high-intensity exercise group for the remaining 6 months. The goals of the Phase II trial are to determine if participants can exercise at moderate and high intensities; to determine if either exercise yields benefits consistent with meaningful clinical change (nonfutility); and to document safety and attrition. The advantage of using a non-futility approach allows us to efficiently determine if moderate- or high-intensity exercise warrants further large-scale investigation in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-intensity erotic visual stimuli de-activate the primary visual cortex in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu K; Beers, Caroline; Willemsen, Antoon; Lont, Erna; Laan, Ellen; Dierckx, Rudi; Jansen, Monique; Sand, Michael; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord; Holstege, Gert

    2012-06-01

    The primary visual cortex, Brodmann's area (BA 17), plays a vital role in basic survival mechanisms in humans. In most neuro-imaging studies in which the volunteers have to watch pictures or movies, the primary visual cortex is similarly activated independent of the content of the pictures or movies. However, in case the volunteers perform demanding non-visual tasks, the primary visual cortex becomes de-activated, although the amount of incoming visual sensory information is the same. Do low- and high-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies, produce similar de-activation of the primary visual cortex? Brain activation/de-activation was studied by Positron Emission Tomography scanning of the brains of 12 healthy heterosexual premenopausal women, aged 18-47, who watched neutral, low- and high-intensity erotic film segments. We measured differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the primary visual cortex during watching neutral, low-intensity erotic, and high-intensity erotic film segments. Watching high-intensity erotic, but not low-intensity erotic movies, compared to neutral movies resulted in strong de-activation of the primary (BA 17) and adjoining parts of the secondary visual cortex. The strong de-activation during watching high-intensity erotic film might represent compensation for the increased blood supply in the brain regions involved in sexual arousal, also because high-intensity erotic movies do not require precise scanning of the visual field, because the impact is clear to the observer. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. High resolution modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical around Iceland. The model is used to assess time and space variability of volume and heat fluxes for the years 1997–2003. Passive tracers are applied to study origin and composition of NIIC water masses. The NIIC originates from two sources: the Irminger Current, flowing as part of the sub-polar gyre in 100–500 m depth along the Reykjanes Ridge and the shallow Icelandic coastal current, flowing north-westward on the south-west Icelandic shelf. The ratio of volume flux between the deep and shallow branch is around 2:1. The NIIC continues as a warm and saline branch northward through Denmark Strait where it entrains large amounts of polar water due to the collision with the southward flowing East Greenland Current. After passing Denmark Strait, the NIIC follows the coast line eastward being an important heat source for north Icelandic waters. At least 60% of the temporal temperature variability of north Icelandic waters is caused by the NIIC. The NIIC volume and heat transport is highly variable and depends strongly on the wind field north-east of Denmark Strait. Daily means can change from 1 Sv eastward to 2 Sv westward within a few days. Highest monthly mean transport rates occur in summer when winds from north are weak, whereas the volume flux is reduced by around 50% in winter. Summer heat flux rates can be even three times higher than in winter. The simulation also shows variability on the interannual scale. In particular weak winds from north during winter 2002/2003 combined with mild weather conditions south of Iceland led to anomalous high NIIC volume (+40% and heat flux (+60% rates. In this period, simulated north Icelandic

  6. Force-Deformation Response of a SMA-Based Actuator Considering the Electric Current Intensity as Step-Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion-Cornel Mituletu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to accomplish the response regarding the force-displacement characteristic evolution, of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA actuator element. This reveals the first research stage in controlling the SMA behavior, providing important information about the heating-cooling time intervals. Step excitation of the SMA is performed by few values of electric current intensity, which produces the heating of SMA element up to 90-95 oC. To meet the testing requirements, an adequate test stand has been set up, consisting of sensors for force, displacement and temperature. The analog values provided by sensors were acquired and afterwards analyzed. The values of temperature, displacement and force were achieved, and their characteristic evolution has been performed. Thus, the time intervals are resulted and some other important aspects have been observed, regarding the delay between parameters and the temperature overshoot

  7. Current developments in and importance of high-performance computing in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jed W

    2009-05-01

    A number of current trends that are being adopted to reshape the field of high-performance computing exist, including multi-core systems, accelerators, and software frameworks for large-scale intrinsically parallel applications. These trends intersect with recent developments in computational chemistry to provide new capabilities for computer-aided drug discovery. Although this review focuses primarily on the application domains of molecular modeling and biomolecular simulation, these computing changes are relevant for other computationally intensive tasks, such as instrument data processing and chemoinformatics.

  8. Towards an optimum silicon heterojunction solar cell configuration for high temperature and high light intensity environment

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Amir

    2017-09-22

    We report on the performance of Silicon Heterojunction (SHJ) solar cell under high operating temperature and varying irradiance conditions typical to desert environment. In order to define the best solar cell configuration that resist high operating temperature conditions, two different intrinsic passivation layers were tested, namely, an intrinsic amorphous silicon a-SiO:H with CO/SiH ratio of 0.4 and a-SiOx:H with CO/SiH ratio of 0.8, and the obtained performance were compared with those of a standard SHJ cell configuration having a-Si:H passivation layer. Our results showed how the short circuit current density J, and fill factor FF temperature-dependency are impacted by the cell\\'s configuration. While the short circuit current density J for cells with a-SiO:H layers was found to improve as compared with that of standard a-Si:H layer, introducing the intrinsic amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO:H) layer with CO/SiH ratio of 0.8 has resulted in a reduction of the FF at room temperature due to hindering the carrier transport by the band structure. Besides, this FF was found to improve as the temperature increases from 15 to 45°C, thus, a positive FF temperature coefficient.

  9. Isotopic germanium targets for high beam current applications at GAMMASPHERE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. P.; Lauritsen, T.

    2000-11-29

    The creation of a specific heavy ion residue via heavy ion fusion can usually be achieved through a number of beam and target combinations. Sometimes it is necessary to choose combinations with rare beams and/or difficult targets in order to achieve the physics goals of an experiment. A case in point was a recent experiment to produce {sup 152}Dy at very high spins and low excitation energy with detection of the residue in a recoil mass analyzer. Both to create the nucleus cold and with a small recoil-cone so that the efficiency of the mass analyzer would be high, it was necessary to use the {sup 80}Se on {sup 76}Ge reaction rather than the standard {sup 48}Ca on {sup 108}Pd reaction. Because the recoil velocity of the {sup 152}Dy residues was very high using this symmetric reaction (5% v/c), it was furthermore necessary to use a stack of two thin targets to reduce the Doppler broadening. Germanium targets are fragile and do not withstand high beam currents, therefore the {sup 76}Ge target stacks were mounted on a rotating target wheel. A description of the {sup 76}Ge target stack preparation will be presented and the target performance described.

  10. Effect of low- and high-glycemic-index meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P; Chilibeck, Philip D; Ciona, Dawn; Forbes, Scott; Rees, Huw; Vandenberg, Albert; Zello, Gordon A

    2010-12-01

    Consuming carbohydrate-rich meals before continuous endurance exercise improves performance, yet few studies have evaluated the ideal preexercise meal for high-intensity intermittent exercise, which is characteristic of many team sports. The authors' purpose was to investigate the effects of low- and high-glycemic-index (GI) meals on metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Sixteen male participants completed three 90-min high-intensity intermittent running trials in a single-blinded random order, separated by ~7 d, while fasted (control) and 2 hr after ingesting an isoenergetic low-GI (lentil), or high-GI (potato and egg white) preexercise meal. Serum free fatty acids were higher and insulin lower throughout exercise in the fasted condition (p carbohydrates are not provided during exercise both low- and high-GI preexercise meals improve high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance, probably by increasing the availability of muscle glycogen. However, the GI does not influence markers of substrate oxidation during high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  11. ''High intensity per bunch'' working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Third Generation Light Sources are supposed to store high intensity beams not only in many tightly spaced bunches (multibunch operation), but also in few bunch or even single lunch modes of operation, required for example for time structure experiments. Single bunch instabilities, driven by short-range wake fields, however spoil the beam quality, both longitudinally and transversely. Straightforward ways of handling them, by pushing up the chromaticity ({zeta} = {delta}Q/({delta}p/p)) for example, enabled to raise the charge per bunch, but to the detriment of beam lifetime. In addition, since the impedance of the vacuum chamber deteriorates with the installation of new insertion devices, the current thresholds tend to dope down continuously. The goal of this Working Group was then to review these limitations in the existing storage rings, where a large number of beam measurements have been performed to characterise them, and to discuss different strategies which are used against them. About 15 different laboratories reported on the present performance of storage rings, experiences gained in high charge per bunch, and on simulation results and theoretical studies. More than 25 presentations addressed the critical issues and stimulated the discussion. Four main topics came out: - Observation and experimental data; - Impedance studies and tracking codes; - Theoretical investigations; - Cures and feedback. (author)

  12. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  13. Producing High Intense Attosecond Pulse Train by Interaction of Three-Color Pulse and Overdense Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.; Mirzanejad, S.

    2017-05-01

    Amplifying the attosecond pulse by the chirp pulse amplification method is impossible. Furthermore, the intensity of attosecond pulse is low in the interaction of laser pulse and underdense plasma. This motivates us to propose using a multi-color pulse to produce the high intense attosecond pulse. In the present study, the relativistic interaction of a three-color linearly-polarized laser-pulse with highly overdense plasma is studied. We show that the combination of {{ω }}1, {{ω }}2 and {{ω }}3 frequencies decreases the instance full width at half maximum reflected attosecond pulse train from the overdense plasma surface. Moreover, we show that the three-color pulse increases the intensity of generated harmonics, which is explained by the relativistic oscillating mirror model. The obtained results demonstrate that if the three-color laser pulse interacts with overdense plasma, it will enhance two orders of magnitude of intensity of ultra short attosecond pulses in comparison with monochromatic pulse.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  15. Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela S.; Rossi, Fabrício E.; Cholewa, Jason M.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO2max) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO2max). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L−1, p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses. PMID:28469751

  16. High-intensity versus low-intensity non-invasive ventilation in patients with stable hypercapnic COPD: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Michael; Storre, Jan H; Schmoor, Claudia; Windisch, Wolfram

    2010-04-01

    The conventional approach of low-intensity non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) produces only minimal physiological and clinical benefits in patients with stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether the novel approach of high-intensity NPPV is superior to low-intensity NPPV in controlling nocturnal hypoventilation. A randomised controlled crossover trial comparing 6 weeks of high-intensity NPPV (using controlled ventilation with mean inspiratory pressures of 28.6+/-1.9 mbar) with low-intensity NPPV (using assisted ventilation with mean inspiratory pressures of 14.6+/-0.8 mbar) was performed in 17 patients with severe stable hypercapnic COPD. Two patients refused low-intensity NPPV and two patients dropped out while on low-intensity NPPV. Thirteen patients (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) 0.76+/-0.29 l) completed the trial. High-intensity NPPV produced higher pneumotachographically-measured expiratory volumes, with a mean treatment effect of 96 ml (95% CI 23 to 169) (p=0.015). This resulted in a mean treatment effect on nocturnal arterial carbon dioxide tension (Paco(2)) of -9.2 mm Hg (95% CI -13.7 to -4.6) (p=0.001) in favour of high-intensity NPPV. Daily use of NPPV was increased in high-intensity NPPV compared with low-intensity NPPV, with a mean difference of 3.6 h/day (95% CI 0.6 to 6.7) (p=0.024). In addition, compared with baseline, only high-intensity NPPV resulted in significant improvements in exercise-related dyspnoea, daytime Paco(2), FEV(1), vital capacity and the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire Summary Score. High-intensity NPPV is better tolerated by patients with severe chronic hypercapnic COPD and has been shown to be superior to the conventional and widely-used form of low-intensity NPPV in controlling nocturnal hypoventilation. High-intensity NPPV therefore offers a new promising therapeutic option for these patients.

  17. Current status and future of high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, T.

    1977-03-01

    With respect to the present knowledge of the internal structure of matter, nothing is known about the structure of leptons or photons, and just a little about the structure of hadrons. Some of the most important questions to be answered in high-energy physics are the following: how many kinds of quarks are there and how can they be isolated; how are quarks bound to form hadrons; can weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions all be described by a single unified theory; are there new types of leptons; and are there new phenomena not conceived of yet. New particles may be discovered by large accelerators scheduled for completion in West Germany, the United States, and the Soviet Union about 1980. The factors vital to China's long-range development of high-energy physics are personnel well-versed in Marxism--Leninism and Mao Tse-tung's thought, particle accelerators with high energies, strong currents, and many kinds of particle beams, and an advanced particle detection and data processing technology.

  18. Improved Turn-on Characteristics of Fast High Current Thyristors

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, L; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    1999-01-01

    The beam dumping system of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with fast solid state closing switches, designed for a hold-off voltage of 30 kV and a quasi half sine wave current of 20 kA, with 3 ms rise time, a maximum di/dt of 12 kA/ms and 2 ms fall time. The design repetition rate is 20 s. The switch is composed of ten Fast High Current Thyristors (FHCT’s), which are modified symmetric 4.5 kV GTO thyristors of WESTCODE. Recent studies aiming at improving the turn-on delay, switching speed and at decreasing the switch losses, have led to test an asymmetric not fully optimised GTO thyristor of WESTCODE and an optimised device of GEC PLESSEY Semiconductor (GPS), GB. The GPS FHCT, which gave the best results, is a non irradiated device of 64 mm diameter with a hold-off voltage of 4.5 kV like the symmetric FHCT. Tests results of the GPS FHCT show a reduction in turn-on delay of 40 % and in switching losses of almost 50 % with respect to the symmetric FHCT of WESTCODE. The GPS device can sustain an i...

  19. Minimum component high frequency current mode rectifier | Sampe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a current mode full wave rectifier circuit is proposed. The current mode rectifier circuit is implemented utilizing a floating current source (FCS) as an active element. The minimum component full wave rectifier utilizes only a single floating current source, two diodes and two grounded resistors. The extremely ...

  20. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  1. PENETRATION AND DEFECT FORMATION IN HIGH CURRENT ARC WELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MENDEZ,P.F.; EAGAR, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The work performed during the three previous years can be roughly divided into two main categories: (1) development of advanced modeling techniques; and (2) modeling of arc welding process. The work in the first category comprised the development of the Order of Magnitude Scaling (OMS) technique, which is complementary to numerical modeling techniques such as finite elements, but it provides approximate formulas instead of just numerical results. Borrowing concepts from OMS, another modeling technique based on empirical data was also developed. During this stage special software was also developed. The second category comprised the application of OMS to the three main subsystems of arc welding: the weld pool, the arc, and the electrode. For each of these subsystems they found scaling laws and regimes. With this knowledge, they analyzed the generation of weld pool defects during high current arc welding, proposed a mechanistic description of the process, and possible solutions.

  2. Gravity Currents with Convective Mixing: High-resolution Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskov, D.; Elenius, M. T.; Tchelepi, H.

    2014-12-01

    Due to challenges in performing direct numerical simulations for gravity currents with convective mixing, different attempts have been made to simplify the problem. In this work, the full problem is investigated with direct numerical simulations. Our simulations employ a recently developed capability in our General Purpose Research Simulator (AD-GPRS). The compositional approach is based on K-values and a linear density model. A shared-memory parallel implementation allows for high resolution simulations in a reasonable time frame. Our results indicate that it is important to consider the reduction in the dissolution rate after the fingers begin to interact with the bottom of the aquifer. Another important observation suggests considering a reduction in the dissolution rate where the plume thickness increases in time. In addition to the large-scale simulations, we performed convective-mixing simulations in relatively small domains to support the analysis of large-scale plume migration and CO2 trapping.

  3. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  4. [High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Salinas, Alexis; Aguilera Eguía, Raúl; Cofre Bolados, Cristian; Zafra Santos, Edson; Pavéz Von Martens, Gustavo

    2014-06-06

    A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR), low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT) in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91). In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  5. High-intensity discharge lamp and Duffing oscillator—Similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Bernd; Schwieger, Joerg; Stein, Ulrich; Hallerberg, Sarah; Wolff, Marcus

    2017-12-01

    The processes inside the arc tube of high-intensity discharge lamps are investigated using finite element simulations. The behavior of the gas mixture inside the arc tube is governed by differential equations describing mass, energy, and charge conservation, as well as the Helmholtz equation for the acoustic pressure and the Reynolds equations for the flow driven by buoyancy and Reynolds stresses. The model is highly nonlinear and requires a recursion procedure to account for the impact of acoustic streaming on the temperature and other fields. The investigations reveal the presence of a hysteresis and the corresponding jump phenomenon, quite similar to a Duffing oscillator. The similarities and, in particular, the differences of the nonlinear behavior of the high-intensity discharge lamp to that of a Duffing oscillator are discussed. For large amplitudes, the high-intensity discharge lamp exhibits a stiffening effect in contrast to the Duffing oscillator. It is speculated on how the stiffening might affect hysteresis suppression.

  6. An integrated ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound system for in-vivo experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2017-03-01

    We present the system architecture of an integrated Ultrasound-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (USgHIFU) system for image-guided surgery and temperature tracking in vivo. The system is capable of operating with multiple frontends. Current implementation has a SonixRP for imaging and a custom designed dual mode ultrasound array (DMUA) system (32Tx/32Rx) for imaging/therapy. The highlights of the system include a fully-programmable, multiple data stream capable data processing engine, and an arbitrarily programmable high power array driver that is able to synthesize complex beam patterns in space and time. The data processing engine features a pipeline-style design that can be programmed on-the-fly by re-arranging the pre-verified GPU-accelerated high performance pipeline blocks, which cover an extensive range from basic functions such as filtering to specialized processing like speckle tracking. Furthermore, the pipeline design also has the option of bringing in MATLAB (Mathworks, Natick, MA, US) as part of the processing chain, thus vastly increase the capability of the system. By properly balancing the processing load between GPU-enabled routine and MATLAB script. This allows one to achieve a high degree of flexibility while meeting real-time constraints. Results are presented from in vivo rat experiment. Where low dose of therapeutic ultrasound was delivered into the hind limb of the Copenhagen rats using DMUA and temperature was tracked using a linear probe (HST, Ultrasonix). The data is processed in realtime with MATLAB in the loop to perform temperature regularization. Results show that we can reliably track the low temperature heating in the presence of motion artifacts (respiration and pulsation).

  7. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and hypersplenism: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Mei, Zhechuan; Jin, Chengbing; Ran, Lifeng; Zhou, Kun; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Lian; She, Chaokun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to preliminarily investigate the efficacy and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and hypersplenism. Nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by hypersplenism (5 male and 4 female; median age, 56 years; range, 51-66 years) were treated with ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound. Complications were recorded. Laboratory examination and magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate the efficacy. After high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment, mean spleen ablation ± SD of 28.76% ± 6.1% was discovered; meanwhile, the white blood cell count, platelet count, and liver function of the patients were substantially improved during the follow-up period. In addition, symptoms such as epistaxis and gingival bleeding were ameliorated or even eliminated, and the quality of life was improved. Follow-up imaging showed a nonperfused volume in the spleen and an absence of a tumor blood supply at the treated lesions in the liver. For the first time to our knowledge, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation was used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by hypersplenism. High-intensity focused ultrasound may be an effective and safe alternative for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by hypersplenism, but further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms.

  8. Comparison of Two Intensities of Aerobic Training (low intensity and High Intensity on Expression of Perlipin 2 Skeletal Muscle, Serum Glucose and Insulin levels in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Lipid metabolism disorder plays an important role in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and lipid drop proteins such as perlipine 2 (PLIN2 are effective in regulating intracellular fat metabolism. One of the suggested pathways for the effects of endurance activity in metabolic diseases is the effect of physical activity on intramuscular. Therefore, the purpose of this study was compare the intensity of aerobic exercise intensity (low intensity and high intensity on expression of PLIN2 skeletal muscle, serum glucose and insulin levels in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.   Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8, including two intervention groups (low intensity endurance training group and high intensity continuous exercise group and one control group. After induction of diabetic rats by injection streptozotocin (55 mg / kg body weight, Intraperitoneally, endurance training was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week in diabetic rats. Exercise intensity in the low-intensity group was equal to 5-8 m / min (equivalent to 50-60% Vo2max, the intensity of training in a high intensity training group was equivalent to a speed of 22-25 m / min (equivalent to 80% Vo2max and the control group did not receive intervene in this time. Relative protein expression of PLIN2 was performed using western blot technique. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test.   Results: The results of the intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference among three groups in the PLIN2 variables (p = 0.037. The results of post hoc test showed a significant increase in PLIN2 in high intensity training diabetic group compared to the control group (p = 0.033 However, there was no significant difference in PLIN2 level in the low exercise group compared to the control group (p = 0.18. Also, there was no significant difference between the low intensity and

  9. A study of daily variation in cosmic ray intensity during high/low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A study of daily variation in cosmic ray intensity during high/low amplitude days ... A detailed study has been conducted on the long-term changes in the diurnal, semi-diurnal and tri-diurnal anisotropies of cosmic rays in terms of the high/low amplitude ... Model Science College (Autonomous), Jabalpur 482 001, India ...

  10. Dynamics of cavitation clouds within a high-intensity focused ultrasonic beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yuan; Katz, Joseph; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this experimental study, we generate a 500 kHz high-intensity focused ultrasonic beam, with pressure amplitude in the focal zone of up to 1.9 MPa, in initially quiescent water. The resulting pressure field and behavior of the cavitation bubbles are measured using high-speed digital in-line

  11. Predictors of individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Laine, T; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Nummela, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training. After the first 8-week preparation period, 37 recreational endurance runners were matched into the high-volume training group (HVT) and high-intensity training group (HIT). During the next 8-week training period, HVT increased their running training volume and HIT increased training intensity. Endurance performance characteristics, heart rate variability (HRV), and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after the training periods. While HIT improved peak treadmill running speed (RSpeak ) 3.1 ± 2.8% (P endurance training in recreational runners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A motorized pellet dispenser to deliver high intensity training of the single pellet reaching and grasping task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Schmidt, Emma K A; Fouad, Karim; Fenrich, Keith K

    2018-01-15

    The single pellet reaching and grasping (SPG) task is widely used to study forelimb motor performance in rodents and to provide rehabilitation after neurological disorders. Nonetheless, the time necessary to train animals precludes its use in settings where high-intensity training is required. In the current study, we developed a novel high-intensity training protocol for the SPG task based on a motorized pellet dispenser and a dual-window enclosure. We tested the protocol in naive adult rats and found 1) an increase in the intensity of training without increasing the task time and without affecting the overall performance of the animals, 2) a reduction in the variability within and between experiments in comparison to manual SPG training, and 3) a reduction in the time required to conduct experiments. In summary, we developed and tested a novel protocol for SPG training that provides higher-intensity training while reducing the variability of results observed with other protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed.

  14. Design study of a radio-frequency quadrupole for high-intensity beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Kim, Eun-San; Choi, Bong-Hyuk

    2017-07-01

    The Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON) heavy-ion accelerator has been designed for the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea. The RAON will produce heavy-ion beams from 660-MeV-proton to 200-MeV/u-uranium with continuous wave (CW) power of 400 kW to support research in various scientific fields. Its system consists of an ECR ion source, LEBTs with 10 keV/u, CW RFQ accelerator with 81.25 MHz and 500 keV/u, a MEBT system, and a SC linac. In detail, the driver linac system consists of a Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) section with 81.25 MHz and a Half Wave Resonator (HWR) section with 162.5 MHz, Linac-1, and a Spoke Cavity section with 325 MHz, Linac-2. These linacs have been designed to optimize the beam parameters to meet the required design goals. At the same time, a light-heavy ion accelerator with high-intensity beam, such as proton, deuteron, and helium beams, is required for experiments. In this paper, we present the design study of the high intensity RFQ for a deuteron beam with energies from 30 keV/u to 1.5 MeV/u and currents in the mA range. This system is composed of an Penning Ionization Gauge ion source, short LEBT with a RF deflector, and shared SC Linac. In order to increase acceleration efficiency in a short length with low cost, the 2nd harmonic of 162.5 MHz is applied as the operation frequency in the D+ RFQ design. The D+ RFQ is designed with 4.97 m, 1.52 bravery factor. Since it operates with 2nd harmonic frequency, the beam should be 50% of the duty factor while the cavity should be operated in CW mode, to protect the downstream linac system. We focus on avoiding emittance growth by the space-charge effect and optimizing the RFQ to achieve a high transmission and low emittance growth. Both the RFQ beam dynamics study and RFQ cavity design study for two and three dimensions will be discussed. Supported by Korea University Future Research Grant

  15. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    to HI20 (7.85±0.82 L; P=0.008) and MOD6 (7.90±0.74 L; P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Warm-up exercise including race-pace and sprint intervals combined with short recovery can reduce subsequent performance in a 4-min maximal test in highly trained cyclists. Thus, a reduced time at high exercise intensity......PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables and the VO2 response. METHODS: Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2-max: 72.4±8.0·mL/min/kg, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO): 432±31 W......; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...

  16. Effects of high-intensity exercise on leptin and testosterone concentrations in well-trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert R; Durand, Robert J; Acevedo, Edmund O; Johnson, Lisa G; Synovitz, Linda B; Kraemer, Ginger R; Gimpel, Terry; Castracane, V Daniel

    2003-08-01

    A number of investigations have examined the effect of exercise on leptin concentrations, because leptin is associated with obesity, satiety, and reproductive function. High-intensity exercise is known to increase testosterone, an inhibitor of leptin. The objective of the study was to determine whether the leptin responses to a progressive, intermittent exercise protocol were related to serum testosterone concentrations. Most previous studies have examined leptin responses to low or moderately high exercise intensities. A second objective was to determine whether leptin responses were different than previous experiments using intermittent moderate and high-intensity exercise. Well-trained runners completed strenuous intermittent exercise consisting of treadmill running at 60, 75, 90, and 100% VO(2 max) and a subsequent resting control trial was also conducted. There were significant increases in mean serum levels of leptin and testosterone with both quickly returning to baseline during recovery, but no relationship between the two hormones was found. After examining individual data for both hormones, it was discovered that subjects could be classified as leptin responders or nonresponders, whereas testosterone increased in all subjects. Responders had elevated serum leptin levels at baseline and exhibited increases after high-intensity exercise, whereas nonresponders did not show changes in leptin during exercise. Data suggest testosterone levels do not acutely affect leptin responses to exercise or 1-h of recovery. Moreover, varied leptin responses to intense exercise in comparable well-trained runners was observed and was associated with baseline leptin concentrations.

  17. Low-intensity red and infrared laser effects at high fluences on Escherichia coli cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, L.L.; Campos, V.M.A.; Magalhaes, L.A.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria; Paoli, F. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Morfologia; Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas

    2015-10-15

    Semiconductor laser devices are readily available and practical radiation sources providing wavelength tenability and high monochromaticity. Low-intensity red and near-infrared lasers are considered safe for use in clinical applications. However, adverse effects can occur via free radical generation, and the biological effects of these lasers from unusually high fluences or high doses have not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluated the survival, filamentation induction and morphology of Escherichia coli cells deficient in repair of oxidative DNA lesions when exposed to low-intensity red and infrared lasers at unusually high fluences. Cultures of wild-type (AB1157), endonuclease III-deficient (JW1625-1), and endonuclease IV-deficient (JW2146-1) E. coli, in exponential and stationary growth phases, were exposed to red and infrared lasers (0, 250, 500, and 1000 J/cm{sup 2}) to evaluate their survival rates, filamentation phenotype induction and cell morphologies. The results showed that low-intensity red and infrared lasers at high fluences are lethal, induce a filamentation phenotype, and alter the morphology of the E. coli cells. Low-intensity red and infrared lasers have potential to induce adverse effects on cells, whether used at unusually high fluences, or at high doses. Hence, there is a need to reinforce the importance of accurate dosimetry in therapeutic protocols. (author)

  18. Effects of air current speed, light intensity and co2 concentration on photosynthesis and transpiration of plant leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tsuruyama, J.; Shibuya, T.; Kiyota, M.

    To obtain basic data for adequate air circulation to promote gas exchange and growth of plants in closed plant culture modules in bioregenerative life support systems in space, the effects of air current speeds less than 0.8 m s-1 on transpiration (Tr) and net photosynthetic rates (Pn) of sweetpotato and barley leaves were determined using a leaf chamber method under different photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFDs) and CO_2 concentrations. The air current speed inside the leaf chamber was controlled by controlling the input voltages for an air circulation fan. The leaf surface boundary layer resistance was determined by the evaporation rate of wet paper and the water vapor pressure difference between the paper and surrounding air in the leaf chamber. The Tr and Pn of leaves rapidly increased as the air current speed increased from 0.01 to 0.1 m s-1 and gradually increased from 0.1 to 0.8 m s-1. These changes are correspondent to the change of the leaf surface boundary layer resistance. The depression of Tr by low air current speeds was greater than that of Pn. Tr and Pn decreased by 0.5 and 0.7 times, respectively, as the air current speed decreased from 0.8 to 0.01 m s-1. The depressions of Tr and Pn by low air current speeds were most notable at PPFDs of 500 and 250 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The air current speeds affected Tr and Pn at a CO_2 concentration of 700 μmol mol-1 as well as at 400 μmol mol-1. The results confirmed the importance of controlling air movement for enhancing Tr and Pn under the relatively high PPFD and elevated CO_2 levels likely in plant culture systems in space.

  19. Psychological symptoms of family members of high-risk intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Jennifer L; Fontaine, Dorrie K; White, Douglas B; Dracup, Kathleen A; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2012-11-01

    Family members of patients in intensive care are at increased risk for psychological symptoms. To compare levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression during and 3 months after the intensive care experience in family members of patients at high risk for dying and to determine if differences were related to the patient's final disposition. Longitudinal descriptive study of 41 family members in 3 tertiary care intensive care units. By repeated-measures analysis of variance, family members' levels of posttraumatic stress disorder were significantly lower (P = .01) at 3 months after (mean score, 1.27; SD, 0.86) than during (mean, 1.61; SD, 0.81) the experience. Mean anxiety and depression scores were significantly lower (P intensive care experience and did not differ according to the patients' final disposition. However, many family members still had significant risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline anxiety and depression at 3 months.

  20. Increased mortality in patients with severe COPD associated with high-intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaadt, Lone; Christensen, Robin; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intensity of exercise is believed to be a key determinant of response to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation. We hypothesized that a higher intensity of exercise, in combination with physiotherapist-led instructions and education in management of breathlessness...... prospective cohort study on severe COPD patients referred to outpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: In 2013, four rehabilitation courses were scheduled (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) each lasting 8 weeks and including eight to ten patients. This preliminary study was designed as a controlled cohort study...... assessed from the participants' medical records in an 18-month period. RESULTS: We were able to enroll 31 patients in total (15 in the high-intensity exercise group and 16 in regular intensity). There were no group differences in the hospitalization rates. However, during review of the medical records, we...

  1. Study of ultra-high gradient wakefield excitation by intense ultrashort laser pulses in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Oketa, Takatsugu; Masuda, Shinichi; Koga, James K.; Kondo, Shuji; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Matoba, Toru; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2002-10-01

    We investigate a laser wakefield excited by intense laser pulses, and the possibility of generating an intense bright electron source by an intense laser pulse. The coherent wakefield excited by 2 TW, 50 fs laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma around 1018 cm-3 is measured with a time-resolved frequency domain interferometer (FDI). The results show an accelerating wakefield excitation of 20 GeV/m with good coherency. This is the first time-resolved measurement of laser wakefield excitation in a gas-jet plasma. The experimental results agree with the simulation results and linear theory. The pump-probe interferometer system of FDI will be modified to the optical injection system as a relativistic electron beam injector. In 1D particle in cell simulation we obtain results of high quality intense electron beam generation.

  2. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields generated from a transmitter with a large aperture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tao; Fan, Tingbo [Institute of Acoustics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Province Institute for Medical Equipment Testing, Nanjing 210012 (China); Zhang, Wei [Jiangsu Province Institute for Medical Equipment Testing, Nanjing 210012 (China); Qiu, Yuanyuan [Department of electronic information, Nantong University, Nantong 226019 (China); Tu, Juan, E-mail: juantu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn; Guo, Xiasheng [Institute of Acoustics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Dong, E-mail: juantu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: dzhang@nju.edu.cn [Institute of Acoustics, Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institute of Acoustics, State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-21

    Prediction and measurement of the acoustic field emitted from a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is essential for the accurate ultrasonic treatment. In this study, the acoustic field generated from a strongly focused HIFU transmitter was characterized by a combined experiment and simulation method. The spheroidal beam equation (SBE) was utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation. The curve of the source pressure amplitude versus voltage excitation was determined by fitting the measured ratio of the second harmonic to the fundamental component of the focal waveform to the simulation result; finally, the acoustic pressure field generated by the strongly focused HIFU transmitter was predicted by using the SBE model. A commercial fiber optic probe hydrophone was utilized to measure the acoustic pressure field generated from a 1.1 MHz HIFU transmitter with a large half aperture angle of 30°. The maximum measured peak-to-peak pressure was up to 72 MPa. The validity of this combined approach was confirmed by the comparison between the measured results and the calculated ones. The results indicate that the current approach might be useful to describe the HIFU field. The results also suggest that this method is not valid for low excitations owing to low sensitivity of the second harmonic.

  3. High-intensity tasks with external load in military applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Eric K; Hornsby, Jared H; Kelleran, Kyle J

    2014-09-01

    This article provides a synopsis of the limited investigations examining the impact of external load (EL) on performance of high-intensity tasks under load (HITL), EL training intervention effects on HITL performance, and injuries from EL training. Repetitive lifting tasks and initiation of locomotion, such as rapidly moving from a prone position to sprinting appear to be more hindered by EL than maximal sprinting velocity and may explain why training with EL does not improve obstacle course or prolonged (200-300 yard shuttle) drills. EL training appears to offer very little if any benefit for HITL in lesser trained populations. This contrast results of multiple studies incorporating ≥ 3 weeks of prolonged hypergravity interventions (wearing EL during daily activities) in elite anaerobic athletes, indicating EL training stimulus is likely only beneficial to well-trained soldiers. Women and lesser trained individuals appear to be more susceptible to increased injury with EL training. A significant limitation concerning current HITL knowledge is the lack of studies incorporating trained soldiers. Future investigations concerning the effects of HITL on marksmanship, repetitive lifting biomechanics, efficacy of hypergravity training for military personnel, and kinematics of sprinting from tactical positions with various EL displacements and technique training are warranted. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Concurrent Training in Rugby Sevens: Effects of High-Intensity Interval Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robineau, Julien; Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Bigard, Xavier; Babault, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    To assess the impact of 2 high-intensity interval-training (HIT) programs (short interval vs sprint interval training) on muscle strength and aerobic performances in a concurrent training program in amateur rugby sevens players. Thirty-six amateur rugby sevens players were randomly assigned to strength and short interval training (INT), strength and sprint interval training (SIT), or a strength-only training group (CON) during an 8-wk period. Maximal strength and power tests, aerobic measurements (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] and maximal aerobic velocity), and a specific repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test were conducted before and immediately after the overall training period. From magnitude-based inference and effect size (ES ± 90% confidence limit) analyses, the current study revealed substantial gains in maximal strength and jump-height performance in all groups. The difference in change of slow concentric torque production was greater in CON than in SIT (0.65 ± 0.72, moderate). VO2peak and, consequently, mean performance in the RSA test were improved in the SIT group only (0.64 ± 0.29, moderate; -0.54 ± 0.35, moderate). The study did not emphasize interference on strength development after INT but showed a slight impairment of slow concentric torque production gains after SIT. Compared with INT, SIT would appear to be more effective to develop VO2peak and RSA but could induce lower muscle-strength gains, especially at low velocity.

  5. Is High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit® Safe for Military Fitness Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Batchelor, David B.

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a promising fitness paradigm that gained popularity among military populations. Rather than biasing workouts toward maximizing fitness domains such as aerobic endurance, HIFT workouts are designed to promote general physical preparedness. HIFT programs have proliferated due to concerns about the relevance of traditional physical training (PT), which historically focused on aerobic condition via running. Other concerns about traditional PT include: 1) the relevance of service fitness tests given current combat demands; 2) the perception that military PT is geared toward passing service fitness tests; and 3) that training for combat requires more than just aerobic endurance. Despite its’ popularity in the military, concerns have been raised about HIFT’s injury potential, leading to some approaches being labeled as “extreme conditioning programs” by several military and civilian experts. Given HIFT programs’ popularity in the military and concerns about injury, a review of data on HIFT injury potential is needed to inform military policy. The purpose of this review is to: 1) provide an overview of scientific methods used to appropriately compare injury rates among fitness activities; and 2) evaluate scientific data regarding HIFT injury risk compared to traditional military PT and other accepted fitness activities PMID:27391615

  6. Is High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit Safe for Military Fitness Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Batchelor, David B

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a promising fitness paradigm that gained popularity among military populations. Rather than biasing workouts toward maximizing fitness domains such as aerobic endurance, HIFT workouts are designed to promote general physical preparedness. HIFT programs have proliferated as a result of concerns about the relevance of traditional physical training (PT), which historically focused on aerobic condition via running. Other concerns about traditional PT include: (1) the relevance of service fitness tests given current combat demands, (2) the perception that military PT is geared toward passing service fitness tests, and (3) that training for combat requires more than just aerobic endurance. Despite its' popularity in the military, concerns have been raised about HIFT's injury potential, leading to some approaches being labeled as "extreme conditioning programs" by several military and civilian experts. Given HIFT programs' popularity in the military and concerns about injury, a review of data on HIFT injury potential is needed to inform military policy. The purpose of this review is to: (1) provide an overview of scientific methods used to appropriately compare injury rates among fitness activities and (2) evaluate scientific data regarding HIFT injury risk compared to traditional military PT and other accepted fitness activities. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Jørgensen, Jørgen R.; Zeeman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-intensity training......INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month...... rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. RESULTS: At baseline, paretic...

  8. Clipper for High-Impedance Current-Drive Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Christopher E.

    1987-01-01

    New circuit leakage reduced by shunting current through saturated input at operational-amplifier follower already part of Howland, or equivalent, current source. Typical application is in circuit of germanium resistance thermometer in cryogenic system.

  9. ICU delirium: a survey into nursing and medical staff knowledge of current practices and perceived barriers towards ICU delirium in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sara R

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is an independent predictor of mortality and morbidity in the intensive care unit and is associated with a prolonged hospital and intensive care unit stay. National guidelines suggest that intensive care unit delirium is screened for daily using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit validated screening tool. Research suggests that there is a lack of knowledge on intensive care unit delirium, its screening tools and that it is inadequately screened for. The aim of the study is to assess nursing and medical staff knowledge, understanding and management of intensive care unit delirium and assess the perceived barriers associated with intensive care unit delirium screening using a validated screening tool. A survey design was used and a questionnaire designed to collect the data. The sample consisted of 149 nursing and medical staff working in three district intensive care units within the United Kingdom. The data yielded reveals that 44% (n = 33) of the respondents were not educated on ICU delirium. Furthermore the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit was only being used in one out of the three sites surveyed and this was found to be at best sporadic, this fails to adhere to current delirium guidelines (NICE, 2010). Those using a non structured way of detecting delirium observed for hallucinations and agitation. Common associated barriers quoted in the literature such as time restraints did not appear to be an issue in this study. This study has shown that despite national guidelines screening with a validated delirium screening tool is not being performed in two of the intensive care unit surveyed and one site employs the confusion assessment method for the intensive care however screening is sporadic. This study contributes to the evidence base suggesting that intensive care unit delirium is under recognised and screened for despite current guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compact submicrosecond, high current generator for wire explosion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranchuk, L. E.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Larour, J.

    2004-01-01

    The PIAF generator was designed for low total energy and high energy density experiments with liners, X-pinch or fiber Z-pinch loads. These studies are of interest for such applications as surface and material science, microscopy of biological specimens, lithography of x-ray sensitive resists, and x-ray backlighting of pulsed-power plasmas. The generator is based on an RLC circuit that includes six NWL 180 nF-50 kV capacitors that store up to 1.3 kJ. The capacitors are connected in parallel to a single multispark switch designed to operate at atmospheric pressure. The switch allows reaching a time delay between the trigger pulse and the current pulse of less than 80 ns and has jitter of 6 ns. The total inductance without a load compartment was optimized to be as low as 16 nH, which leads to extremely low impedance of ˜0.12 Ω. A 40 kV initial voltage provides 250 kA maximum current in a 6 nH inductive load with a 180 ns current rise time. PIAF has dimensions of 660×660×490 mm and weight of less than 100 kg, thus manifesting itself as robust, simple to operate, and cost effective. A description of the PIAF generator and the initial experimental results on PIAF with an X-pinch type load are reported. The generator was demonstrated to operate successfully with an X-pinch type load. The experiments first started with investigation of the previously unexplored X-pinch conduction time range, 100 ns-1 μs. A single short radiation pulse was obtained that came from a small, point-like plasma. The following x-ray source characteristics were achieved: typical hot spot size of 50-100 μm, radiation pulse duration of 1.5-2 ns, and radiation yield of about 250-500 mJ in the softer spectral range (hν⩾700 eV) and 50-100 mJ in the harder one (hν⩾1 keV). These results provide the potential for further application of this source, such as use as a backlight diagnostic tool.

  11. Production of high intensity 48Ca for the 88-Inch Cyclotron and other updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, J Y; Franzen, K Y; Hodgkinson, A; Lyneis, C M; Strohmeier, M; Thullier, T; Todd, D; Xie, D

    2014-02-01

    Recently the Versatile ECR for NUclear Science (VENUS) ion source was engaged in a 60-day long campaign to deliver high intensity (48)Ca(11+) beam to the 88-Inch Cyclotron. As the first long term use of VENUS for multi-week heavy-element research, new methods were developed to maximize oven to target efficiency. First, the tuning parameters of VENUS for injection into the cyclotron proved to be very different than those used to tune VENUS for maximum beam output of the desired charge state immediately following its bending magnet. Second, helium with no oxygen support gas was used to maximize the efficiency. The performance of VENUS and its low temperature oven used to produce the stable requested 75 eμA of (48)Ca(11+) beam current was impressive. The consumption of (48)Ca in VENUS using the low temperature oven was checked roughly weekly, and was found to be on average 0.27 mg/h with an ionization efficiency into the 11+ charge state of 5.0%. No degradation in performance was noted over time. In addition, with the successful operation of VENUS the 88-Inch cyclotron was able to extract a record 2 pμA of (48)Ca(11+), with a VENUS output beam current of 219 eμA. The paper describes the characteristics of the VENUS tune used for maximum transport efficiency into the cyclotron as well as ongoing efforts to improve the transport efficiency from VENUS into the cyclotron. In addition, we briefly present details regarding the recent successful repair of the cryostat vacuum system.

  12. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M.; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. Methods 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. Results A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese

  13. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  14. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  15. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for treating uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X; Zhao, C; Tian, C; Wen, S; He, X; Zhou, Y

    2017-08-01

    To explore HIFU treatment for uterine arteriovenous malformation. A case report. Gynaecological department in a university teaching hospital of China. A patient with uterine arteriovenous malformation. The diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation was made through MRI. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation was performed. HIFU is effective in treating uterine arteriovenous malformation. The patient had reduction of the lesion volume and obvious symptom relief, without significant adverse effects. HIFU can be used as a new treatment option for uterine arteriovenous malformation. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation is effective in treating uterine arteriovenous malformation. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. The Benefits of High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) Fitness Programs for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-01-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps’ High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) program are increasingly popular among military personnel. This article reviews the practical, health, body composition, and military fitness implications of HIFT exercise programs. We conclude that, given the unique benefits of HIFT, the military should consider evaluating whether these programs should be the standard for military fitness training. PMID:27849484

  17. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  18. Fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp use in chambers and greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge lamps have opened up great opportunities for researchers to study plant growth under controlled environment conditions and for commercial growers to increase plant production during low/light periods. Specific technical qualities of fluorescent and HID lamps have been critically reviewed. I will direct my remarks to fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers, growth rooms, and greenhouses. I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each lamp in growth chambers, growth rooms and greenhouses.

  19. Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant...... increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined...

  20. The Effect of Different High-Intensity Periodization Models on Endurance Adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Sylta, Øystein; Tønnessen, Espen; Hammarström, Daniel; Danielsen, Jørgen; Skovereng, Knut; Ravn, Troels; Rønnestad, Bent; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Seiler, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare the effects of three different high-intensity training (HIT) models, balanced for total load but differing in training plan progression, on endurance adaptations. Methods: Sixty-three cyclists (peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) 61.3 ± 5.8 mL·kg−1·min−1) were randomized to three training groups and instructed to follow a 12-wk training program consisting of 24 interval sessions, a high volume of low-intensity training, and laboratory testing. The increasing...

  1. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  2. Fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp use in chambers and greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Robert W.

    1994-03-01

    Fluorescent and High Intensity Discharge lamps have opened up great opportunities for researchers to study plant growth under controlled environment conditions and for commercial growers to increase plant production during low/light periods. Specific technical qualities of fluorescent and HID lamps have been critically reviewed. I will direct my remarks to fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers, growth rooms, and greenhouses. I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each lamp in growth chambers, growth rooms and greenhouses.

  3. High efficiency off-axis current drive by high frequency fast waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, R.; Pinsker, R. I.; Moeller, C. P.; Porkolab, M.; Vdovin, V.

    2014-02-01

    Modeling work shows that current drive can be done off-axis with high efficiency, as required for FNSF and DEMO, by using very high harmonic fast waves ("helicons" or "whistlers"). The modeling indicates that plasmas with high electron beta are needed in order for the current drive to take place off-axis, making DIII-D a highly suitable test vehicle for this process. The calculations show that the driven current is not very sensitive to the launched value of n∥, a result that can be understood from examination of the evolution of n∥ as the waves propagate in the plasma. Because of this insensitivity, relatively large values (˜3) of n∥ can be launched, thereby avoiding some of the problems with mode conversion in the boundary found in some previous experiments. Use of a traveling wave antenna provides a very narrow n∥ spectrum, which also helps avoid mode conversion.

  4. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  5. High-intensity warm-ups: effects during subsequent intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zois, James; Bishop, David; Aughey, Rob

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity, short-duration warm-up techniques improve acute physical performance, but sparse research has examined their consequence when followed by intermittent activity, which is pertinent to team sports. The authors compared a 5-repetitionmaximum (5RM) leg-press, a small-sided game (SSG), and a current team-sport warm-up in 10 semiprofessional soccer players after 2 intermittent-activity protocols consisting of 15 repetitions of a 60-s circuit that included sprinting, slalom, walking, jogging, decelerations, changes of direction, backward running, and striding activities. There was a large improvement in countermovement-jump height in the 5RM after the 1st intermittent-activity protocol (mean, ±90% CL 6.0, ±4.0%, P=.03) and a small improvement after the 2nd (4.6, ±4.0%, P=.04) compared with team sport. Reactive agility was moderately faster via 5RM after the 1st intermittent-activity protocol (3.1, ±2.6%: P=.04) and the 2nd (5.7, ±2.7%, P=.001) than via SSG. There was a small improvement in reactive agility after the 1st intermittent-activity protocol in the 5RM, compared with team sport (3.3, ±2.9%, P=.04). There was a small improvement in mean 20-m-sprint times after both intermittent-activity protocols in the 5RM, compared with SSG (4.2, ±2.0%, P=.01, and 4.3, ±2.0%, P=.01) and, after the 1st intermittent-activity protocol only, compared with team sport (4.2, ±2.1%, P=0.02). Small increases in blood lactate concentration were observed (46.7, ±18.6%, P=.01) in the 5RM compared with the SSG after the 2nd intermittent-activity protocol. Improved performances after the 5RM warm-up should encourage practitioners to reduce activity time and include high-intensity tasks in team-sport warmups aimed at inducing a potentiating effect.

  6. Practice Patterns and Opinions on Current Clinical Practice Guidelines Regarding the Management of Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yoonsun; Zimmermann, Anthony E; Thomas, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine current delirium practices in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting and evaluate awareness and adoption of the 2013 Pain, Agitation, and Delirium (PAD) guidelines with emphasis on delirium management. A large-scale, multidisciplinary, online survey was administered to physician, pharmacist, nurse, and mid-level practitioner members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) between September 2014 and October 2014. A total of 635 respondents completed the survey. Nonpharmacologic interventions such as early mobilization were used in most ICUs (83%) for prevention of delirium. A majority of respondents (97%) reported using pharmacologic agents to treat hyperactive delirium. Ninety percent of the respondents answered that they were aware of the 2013 PAD guidelines, and 75% of respondents felt that their delirium practices have been changed as a result of the new guidelines. In addition, logistic regression analysis of this study showed that respondents who use delirium screening tools were twice more likely to be fully aware of key components of the updated guidelines (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-3.60). Most critical care practitioners are fully aware and knowledgeable of key recommendations in the new guidelines and have changed their delirium practices accordingly.

  7. Ground Return Current Behaviour in High Voltage Alternating Current Insulated Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of ground return current in fault occurrence plays a key role in the dimensioning of the earthing grid of substations and of cable sealing end compounds, in the computation of rise of earth potential at substation sites and in electromagnetic interference (EMI on neighbouring parallel metallic conductors (pipes, handrails, etc.. Moreover, the ground return current evaluation is also important in steady-state regime since this stray current can be responsible for EMI and also for alternating current (AC corrosion. In fault situations and under some assumptions, the ground return current value at a substation site can be computed by means of k-factors. The paper shows that these simplified and approximated approaches have a lot of limitations and only multiconductor analysis can show the ground return current behaviour along the cable (not only the two end values both in steady-state regime and in short circuit occurrence (e.g., phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase-to-ground. Multiconductor cell analysis (MCA considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The sensitivity of ground return current on circuit parameters (cross-bonding box resistances, substation earthing resistances, soil resistivity is presented in the paper.

  8. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  9. Space charge templates for high-current beam modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobiev, Leonid G.; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01

    A computational method to evaluate space charge potential and gradients of charged particle beam in the presence of conducting boundaries, has been introduced. The three-dimensional (3D) field of the beam can be derived as a convolution of macro Green's functions (template fields), satisfying the same boundary conditions, as the original beam. Numerical experiments gave a confidence that space charge effects can be modeled by templates with enough accuracy and generality within dramatically faster computational times than standard combination: a grid density + Poisson solvers, realized in the most of Particle in Cell codes. The achieved rapidity may significantly broaden the high-current beam design space, making the optimization in automatic mode possible, which so far was only feasible for simplest self-field formulations such as rms envelope equations. The template technique may be used as a standalone program, or as an optional field solver in existing beam dynamics codes both in one-passage structures and in rings.

  10. High average current electron guns for high-power free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Sprangle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High average power free-electron lasers (FELs require high average current electron injectors capable of generating high quality, short duration electron bunches with a repetition rate equal to the frequency of the rf linac. In this paper we propose, analyze, and simulate an rf-gated, gridded thermionic electron gun for use in high average power FELs. Thermionic cathodes can provide the necessary high current, have long lifetimes, and require modest vacuums. In the proposed configuration the rf-gated grid is modulated at the fundamental and 3rd harmonic of the linac frequency. The addition of the 3rd harmonic on the grid results in shorter electron bunches. In this configuration, every rf bucket of the linac accelerating field contains an electron bunch. Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that this approach can provide the necessary charge per bunch, bunch duration, longitudinal and transverse emittance, and repetition rate for high average power FELs operating in the IR regime.

  11. High current table-top setup for femtosecond gas electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed an experimental setup for gas phase electron diffraction with femtosecond resolution and a high average beam current. While gas electron diffraction has been successful at determining molecular structures, it has been a challenge to reach femtosecond resolution while maintaining sufficient beam current to retrieve structures with high spatial resolution. The main challenges are the Coulomb force that leads to broadening of the electron pulses and the temporal blurring that results from the velocity mismatch between the laser and electron pulses as they traverse the sample. We present here a device that uses pulse compression to overcome the Coulomb broadening and deliver femtosecond electron pulses on a gas target. The velocity mismatch can be compensated using laser pulses with a tilted intensity front to excite the sample. The temporal resolution of the setup was determined with a streak camera to be better than 400 fs for pulses with up to half a million electrons and a kinetic energy of 90 keV. The high charge per pulse, combined with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, results in an average beam current that is between one and two orders of magnitude higher than previously demonstrated.

  12. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  13. Can harms associated with high-intensity drinking be reduced by increasing the price of alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Joshua; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Petrie, Dennis; Doran, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the price of alcohol is consistently shown to reduce the average level of consumption. However, the evidence for the effect of increasing the price on high-intensity drinking is both limited and equivocal. The aim of this analysis is to estimate the effect of changes in price on patterns of consumption. Self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption and demographic data were obtained from the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, conducted in 2001, 2004 and 2007. A pooled three-stage least-squares estimator was used to simultaneously model the impact of the price on the frequency (measured in days) of consuming no, low, moderate and high quantities of alcohol. A 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a statistically significant increase of 6.41 days per year on which no alcohol is consumed (P ≤ 0.049), and a statistically significant decrease of 7.30 days on which 1-4 standard drinks are consumed (P ≤ 0.021). There was no statistically significant change for high or moderate-intensity drinking. For Australia, and countries with a similar pattern of predominant high-intensity drinking, taxation policies that increase the price of alcohol and are very efficient at decreasing harms associated with reduced average consumption may be relatively inefficient at decreasing alcohol harms associated with high-intensity drinking. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Role transition from mental health nurse to IAPT high intensity psychological therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Simon; Kellett, Stephen; King, Ingrid; Keating, Val

    2012-05-01

    The Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative has depended on the training of a new NHS mental health workforce. At step 3 of the stepped care model, capacity building has required the recruitment of a wide range of mental health professionals into high intensity therapists training posts. This shift naturally entails role transition on the part of trainees into delivering cognitive behavioural psychotherapy (CBP), but no previous research has examined the experience of such transitions. To describe the lived experience of transition from mental health nurse to IAPT high intensity therapist and to identify possible factors which moderate effective role conversions. Six qualified high intensity therapists were interviewed using a semi-structured interview and the subsequent interviews transcribed. Thematic content analysis (TCA) was used to analyze personal accounts of role transition. All participants had previously been mental health nurses and attended the same IAPT high intensity therapist (HIT) training programme. Six key themes were apparent from the TCA. Three interconnected themes concerning supervision (style, impact of approach and historical context) and three additional themes of the challenge of learning a new clinical approach, high need for support, and forming a new psychotherapist identity. Findings suggest supervision is the most important factor in supporting complex psychotherapy role transitions. Clinical supervisors may need to incorporate dedicated time on role and identity shift during CBP training to ensure effective assimilation and transition. Methodological short-comings are identified and discussed.

  15. Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leemans, Wim P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bulanov, Stepan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Esarey, Eric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schroeder, Carl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-29

    In the framework of the project “Novel high-energy physics studies using intense lasers and plasmas” we conducted the study of ion acceleration and “flying mirrors” with high intensity lasers in order to develop sources of ion beams and high frequency radiation for different applications. Since some schemes of laser ion acceleration are also considered a good source of “flying mirrors”, we proposed to investigate the mechanisms of “mirror” formation. As a result we were able to study the laser ion acceleration from thin foils and near critical density targets. We identified several fundamental factors limiting the acceleration in the RPA regime and proposed the target design to compensate these limitations. In the case of near critical density targets, we developed a concept for the laser driven ion source for the hadron therapy. Also we studied the mechanism of “flying mirror” generation during the intense laser interaction with thin solid density targets. As for the laser-based positron creation and capture we initially proposed to study different regimes of positron beam generation and positron beam cooling. Since the for some of these schemes a good quality electron beam is required, we studied the generation of ultra-low emittance electron beams. In order to understand the fundamental physics of high energy electron beam interaction with high intensity laser pulses, which may affect the efficient generation of positron beams, we studied the radiation reaction effects.

  16. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  17. High intensity metallic ion beam from an ecr ion source using the Mivoc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Jaffres, P.A. [Institut des Sciences de la Matiere et du Rayonnement, SIMRa, 14 - Cean (France)

    2000-07-01

    The MIVOC method has been successfully used at GANIL to produce a high intensity nickel beam with the ECR4 ion source: 20 {mu}A {sup 58}Ni{sup 11+} at 24 kV extraction voltage. This beam has been maintained for 8 days and accelerated up to 74.5 MeV/u by our cyclotrons with a mean intensity of 0.13 p{mu}A on target. This high intensity, required for experiment, led to the discovery of the doubly magic {sup 48}Ni isotope. Experimental setup, handling and off-line preparation using a residual gas analyzer are described in this report. The ion source behavior, performances and limitations are presented in the case of nickel and iron. The ionization efficiencies have been measured and compared to the oven method usually used at GANIL. (author)

  18. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Fleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT. An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  19. A PICTORIAL PRESENTATION OF ESOPHAGEAL HIGH RESOLUTION MANOMETRY CURRENT PARAMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafraia, Fernanda M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Kalluf, Julia R; Patti, Marco G

    2017-01-01

    High resolution manometry is the current technology used to the study of esophageal motility and is replacing conventional manometry in important centers for esophageal motility with parameters used on esophageal motility, following the Chicago Classification. This classification unifies high resolution manometry interpretation and classifies esophageal disorders. This review shows, in a pictorial presentation, the new parameters established by the Chicago Classification, version 3.0, aimed to allow an easy comprehension and interpretation of high resolution manometry. Esophageal manometries performed by the authors were reviewed to select illustrative tracings representing Chicago Classification parameters. The parameters are: Esophagogastric Morphology, that classifies this junction according to its physiology and anatomy; Integrated Relaxation Pressure, that measures the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; Distal Contractile Integral, that evaluates the contraction vigor of each wave; and, Distal Latency, that measures the peristalsis velocity from the beginning of the swallow to the epiphrenic ampulla. Clinical applications of these new concepts is still under evaluation. Mostrar, de forma pictórica, os novos parâmetros compilados na versão 3.0 da Classificação de Chicago, buscando facilitar a compreensão e interpretação da manometria de alta resolução. Foram revistas as manometrias da casuística dos autores e selecionados os traçados representativos dos parâmetros da Classificação de Chicago. Entre os parâmetros apresentados foram considerados a Morfologia da Transição Gastroesofágica, que classifica o segmento de acordo com sua fisiologia e anatomia; a Integral da Pressão de Relaxamento, que mede o relaxamento do esfíncter esofagiano inferior; a Integral Contrátil Distal, que avalia o vigor contrátil da onda peristáltica; e, a Latência Distal, que mede o tempo da peristalse, desde o início da deglutição até a ampola epifr

  20. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussy, Christian G; Thüroff, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 25 years, the average life expectancy for men has increased almost 4 years, and the age of prostate cancer detection has decreased an average of 10 years with diagnosis increasingly made at early-stage disease where curative therapy is possible. These changing trends in the age and extent of malignancy at diagnosis have revealed limitations in conventional curative therapies for prostate cancer, including a significant risk of aggressive cancer recurrence, and the risk of long-term genitourinary morbidity and its detrimental impact on patient's quality of life (QOL). Greater awareness of the shortcomings in radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy, and brachytherapy has prompted the search for alternative curative therapies that offer comparable rates of cancer control and less treatment-related morbidity to better preserve QOL. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) possesses characteristics that make it an attractive curative therapy option. HIFU is a noninvasive approach that uses precisely delivered ultrasound energy to achieve tumor cell necrosis without radiation or surgical excision. In current urologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of prostate cancer and is under experimental investigation for therapeutic use in multiple malignancies. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for localized prostate cancer began in the 1990s, and there have now been ∼65,000 prostate cancer patients treated with HIFU, predominantly with the Ablatherm (EDAP TMS, Lyon, France) device. Neoadjuvant transurethral resection of the prostate has been combined with HIFU since 2000 to reduce prostate size, facilitate tissue destruction, and to minimize side effects. Advances in imaging technologies are expected to further improve the already superior efficacy and morbidity outcomes, and ongoing investigation of HIFU as a focal therapy in salvage and palliative indications is serving to expand the role of HIFU as a highly versatile noninvasive therapy

  1. Investigation of therapy improvement using real-time photoacoustic imaging guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huizhong

    There are a lot of risks in cancer treatment by invasive surgery, such as bleeding, wound infection, and long recovery time, etc. Therefore, there is great need for minimally- or non-invasive treatment. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a rapidly growing and truly non-invasive technology. It has been widely used in therapeutic applications, such as rapid tissue heating and tissue ablation. With proper imaging guidance, HIFU treatment can be performed totally noninvasively. Currently, ultrasound imaging-guided HIFU has been extensively studied. However, ultrasound imaging guidance is less precise because of the relatively low imaging contrast, sensitivity, and specificity for noninvasive detection. In this study, we employed photoacoustic imaging (PAI) technique, which has been developed a novel promising imaging technique for early cancer detection, to guide HIFU treatment. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of PAI to guide, monitor in real time and enhance the HIFU therapy. In this dissertation, as the first step, the integrated PAI and HIFU system had been shown to have the feasibility to guide HIFU both ex vivo and in vivo. Then, the system was improved and developed to a real-time PAI-guided HIFU system. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of PA detection for HIFU lesion is very high and the saturation of PA signals can be used as the indicator for tissue coagulation. During the temperature measurement using this system, laser-enhanced HIFU heating was found. Thus, we further investigated the laser enhanced technique in both HIFU heating and pulsed HIFU thrombolysis. In the HIFU therapy, laser light was employed to illuminate the sample concurrently with HIFU radiation. The resulting cavitation was detected with a passive cavitation detector. We demonstrated that concurrent light illumination during HIFU has the potential to significantly enhance HIFU by reducing cavitation threshold.

  2. Microstructure Evolution of Cu-Cored Sn Solder Joints Under High Temperature and High Current Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Xianzhang; Wu, Ping

    2013-08-01

    This work investigated the microstructure evolution of Cu-cored Sn solder joints under high temperature and high current density. The Cu6Sn5 phase formed at both the Cu core/Sn interface and Cu wire/Sn interface right after reflow and grew with increasing annealing time, while the Cu3Sn phase formed and grew at the Cu/Cu6Sn5 interfaces. Intermetallic compound (IMC) growth followed a linear relationship with the square root of annealing time due to a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Under high current density, the thickness of the interfacial IMCs of the Cu core/Sn interface at the cathode side increased and the Cu core/Sn interface at the anode side exhibited an irregular and serrated morphology with prolonged current stressing time. Finite-element simulation was carried out to obtain the distribution of current density in the solder joint. Since Cu has lower resistivity, the electrical current primarily selected the Cu core as its electrical path, resulting in current crowding at the Cu core and the region between the Cu core and Cu wire. Compared with the conventional solder joint, the electromigration (EM) lifetime of the Cu-cored solder joint was much longer.

  3. Similar Anti-Inflammatory Acute Responses from Moderate-Intensity Continuous and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cabral-Santos, José Gerosa-Neto, Daniela Sayuri Inoue, Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Luís Alberto Gobbo, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Fábio Santos Lira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE versus volume matched steady state exercise (SSE on inflammatory and metabolic responses. Eight physically active male subjects completed two experimental sessions, a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (70% vVO2max or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the exercise session. Blood was analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA, uric acid, lactate, cortisol, and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (HIIE 1.34 ± 0.24 to 7.11 ± 2.85, and SSE 1.35 ± 0.14 to 4.06±1.60 mmol·L-1, p 0.05. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels showed time-dependent changes under the different conditions (p < 0.05, however, the area under the curve of TNF-α in the SSE were higher than HIIE (p < 0.05, and the area under the curve of IL-6 in the HIIE showed higher values than SSE (p < 0.05. In addition, both exercise conditions promote increased IL-10 levels and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that both exercise protocols, when volume is matched, promote similar inflammatory responses, leading to an anti-inflammatory status; however, the metabolic responses are different.

  4. Similar Anti-Inflammatory Acute Responses from Moderate-Intensity Continuous and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela Sayuri; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Gobbo, Luís Alberto; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Lira, Fábio Santos

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) versus volume matched steady state exercise (SSE) on inflammatory and metabolic responses. Eight physically active male subjects completed two experimental sessions, a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (70% vVO2max) or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max). Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the exercise session. Blood was analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA), uric acid, lactate, cortisol, and cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) levels. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (HIIE 1.34 ± 0.24 to 7.11 ± 2.85, and SSE 1.35 ± 0.14 to 4.06±1.60 mmol·L(-1), p 0.05). Cortisol, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels showed time-dependent changes under the different conditions (p < 0.05), however, the area under the curve of TNF-α in the SSE were higher than HIIE (p < 0.05), and the area under the curve of IL-6 in the HIIE showed higher values than SSE (p < 0.05). In addition, both exercise conditions promote increased IL-10 levels and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that both exercise protocols, when volume is matched, promote similar inflammatory responses, leading to an anti-inflammatory status; however, the metabolic responses are different. Key pointsMetabolic contribution of both exercise, HIIE and SSE, was different.Both protocols leading to an anti-inflammatory status.HIIE induce a higher energy expenditure take into account total session duration.

  5. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  6. Much potential but many unanswered questions for high-intensity intermittent exercise training for patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkstaff, Sherry O

    2015-01-01

    There is a robust trove of scientific studies that support the positive physical and mental health benefits associated with aerobic exercise for healthy individuals. These recommendations suggest that more vigorous exercise can be performed on fewer days for the same benefit. High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training has begun to show promise. HIIE seems safe and improves physiology, quality of life, and functional capacity. This review defines HIIE, discusses its physiologic benefit for patients with heart failure, outlines the studies that have been conducted to date, and places it in the context of the current clinical environment of exercise training for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  8. High Tension Electric Current Injury and Silent Myocardial Infarction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 55-year-old male, non-diabetic, sustained severe electric current injury as evidenced by the grievous exit wound on the left dorsum of foot as well as entry wound in both palms. There was silent anterior wall myocardial infarction, discovered from incidental electrocardiograph. Keywords: Electric current injury, grievous exit ...

  9. Towards MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlemans, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique which can be used for completely non-invasive tissue ablation. The converging ultrasound beam penetrates the skin and subcutaneous tissues with damage, while heating the tissue only in the focal point. The

  10. MRI-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound of Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckel, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising technique for completely noninvasive tumor ablation. This thesis focuses on its application for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. The first part of the thesis describes the role of breast MRI for

  11. Magnetic Resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound in the presence of biopsy markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mougenot, C; Moonen, Chrit

    2017-01-01

    Background: Magnetic Resonance guided High Intensity Focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) offers precise non-invasive thermotherapy for clinical applications such as the treatment of breast lesions. However, patients with a biopsy marker are usually not eligible for MR-HIFU treatment. This study

  12. Long term high intensity exercise and damage of small joints in rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Z. de; Munneke, M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Kroon, H.M.; Ronday, K.H.; Lems, W.F.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Breedveld, F.C.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Hazes, J.M.W.; Huizinga, T.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of long term high intensity weightbearing exercises on radiological damage of the joints of the hands and feet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Data of the 281 completers of a 2 year randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of usual

  13. Mechanical high-intensity focused ultrasound destruction of soft tissue: working mechanisms and physiologic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, M.; Eikelenboom, D.C.; Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Heerschap, A.; Futterer, J.J.; Adema, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    The best known method of high-intensity focused ultrasound is thermal ablation, but interest in non-thermal, mechanical destruction is increasing. The advantages of mechanical ablation are that thermal protein denaturation remains limited and less damage is created to the surrounding tissue by

  14. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bone metastasis treatment using magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Elevelt, Aaldert; Donato, Katia; van Rietbergen, Bert; ter Hoeve, Natalie D.; van Diest, Paul J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775; Grüll, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bone pain resulting from cancer metastases reduces a patient's quality of life. Magnetic Resonance-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a promising alternative palliative thermal treatment technique for bone metastases that has been tested in a few clinical studies.

  16. A High Intensity Multi-Purpose D-D Neutron Generator for Nuclear Engineering Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ka-Ngo Leung; Jasmina L. Vujic; Edward C. Morse; Per F. Peterson

    2005-11-29

    This NEER project involves the design, construction and testing of a low-cost high intensity D-D neutron generator for teaching nuclear engineering students in a laboratory environment without radioisotopes or a nuclear reactor. The neutron generator was designed, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  17. Effectiveness and Safety of High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Recent research has shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can promote improvements in glucose control and cardiovascular health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes the evidence and highlights the ways in which HIIT might be safely implemented as an adjunct to more traditional exercise approaches. PMID:25717277

  18. Work in progress at the North Area High Intensity Facility (NAHIF)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The photo shows the exit of the two MBN-type magnets in tunnel TDC85 (upstream of TCC8), used to 'switch' the primary proton beam either towards target T8 (to the left) or onto target T10 (straight) to produce the H10 or the F12 (high-intensity electron/gamma) beam, respectively.

  19. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch C. Chow

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation. Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  20. Effects of Respiratory Muscle Warm-up on High-Intensity Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S. Thurston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise performance is partially limited by the functionality of the respiratory musculature. Training these muscles improves steady-state exercise performance. However, less is known about the efficacy of executing a respiratory muscle warm-up (RWU immediately prior to high-intensity exercise. Our study purpose was to use a practitioner-friendly airflow restriction device to investigate the effects of a high, medium, or low intensity RWU on short, high-intensity exercise and pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic function. Eleven recreationally active, males (24.9 ± 4.2 y, 178.8 ± 9.0 cm, 78.5 ± 10.4 kg, 13.4% ± 4.2% body fat cycled at 85% peak power to exhaustion (TTE following four different RWU conditions (separate days, in random order: (1 high; (2 medium; (3 low airflow inspiration restriction, or no RWU. When analyzed as a group, TTE did not improve following any RWU (4.73 ± 0.33 min. However, 10 of the 11 participants improved ≥25 s in one of the three RWU conditions (average = 47.6 ± 13.2 s, which was significantly better than (p < 0.05 the control trial (CON. Neither blood lactate nor perceived difficulty was altered by condition. In general, respiratory exchange ratios were significantly lower during the early stages of TTE in all RWU conditions. Our findings suggest RWU efficacy is predicated on identifying optimal inspiration intensity, which clearly differs between individuals.