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Sample records for high cu compost

  1. Behaviors of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil amended with composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how amendment with sewage sludge compost of different maturation times (3, 6, 12 months) affected metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) bioavailability, fractionation and redistribution in highly contaminated sandy clay soil. Metal transformations during long-term soil stabilization (35 months) were determined. In the contaminated soil, Cd, Ni and Zn were predominately in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, Pb in the reducible fraction and Cu in the reducible, exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. All composts decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Ni and Zn for up to 24 months, which indicates that cyclic amendment with compost is necessary. The bioavailability of Pb and Cu was not affected by compost amendment. Based on the reduced partition index (IR), metal stability in amended soil after 35 months of stabilization was in the following order: Cu > Ni = Pb > Zn > Cd. All composts were more effective in decreasing Cd, Ni and Zn bioavailability than in redistributing the metals, and increasing Cu redistribution more than that of Pb. Thus, sewage sludge compost of as little as 3 months maturation can be used for cyclic amendment of multi-metal-contaminated soil.

  2. Modeling Cd and Cu mobility in soils amended by long-term urban waste compost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Cambier, Philippe; Matijević, Lana; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Urban waste compost application to soil is an effective way for organic waste disposal and at the same time may have a positive effect on various soil rhizosphere processes. However, long term applications of organic waste amendments may lead to a noteworthy accumulation of micropollutants in soil. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro, an INRA-Veolia partnership (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), has been conducted since 1998 with the objectives to characterize the agronomic value of urban composts and the environmental impacts of their application. Numerical modeling was performed using HYDRUS-2D to estimate the movement of Cd and Cu from compost incroporation in the tilled layer. Experimental plots regularly amended with co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW), or a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) have been compared to control plot without any organic amendment (CONT). Field site was equipped with wicks lysimeters, TDR probes and tensiometers in order to determine water balance and trace metal concentrations during a 6 years' time period (2004-2010). In the tilled layer different structures (Δ - compacted clods, Γ - macroporous zone, IF - interfurrows, PP - plough pan) corresponding to the tillage and compost incorporation were delimited and reproduced in a 2-D model. The increase of Cd and Cu concentrations due to each compost addition was assumed to be located in IFs for further modeling. Four compost additions were performed during 2004-2010 period which increased the Cd and Cu concentrations in the IF zones considerably. After successful model description of water flow in highly heterogeneous soil profiles, Cd and Cu were added into the model and their fate was simulated during the same time period. Two approaches were followed to estimate plausible trace metals sorption coefficients (Kd), both while assuming equilibrium between dissolved and EDTA-extractable metals. The first approach was based on Kd estimated from ratios between

  3. Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  4. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  5. Differences in the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn during composting of two types of household bio-waste collected in four seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Ales; Szakova, Jirina; Ochecova, Pavla

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn during 3 different compost aeration rates of household bio-waste, originating in urban settlement (U-bio-waste) and family house buildings (F-bio-waste). The first two weeks, when the thermophilic composting phase became, the highest decline of exchangeable content was recorded. After 12 weeks of composting, lower exchangeable content was found in the case of U-bio-waste composts than F-bio-waste composts, despite higher loss of fresh mass. The order of fractions in both final composts was as follows: residual>oxidizable>reducible>exchangeable. The exchangeable portion of total content in final composts decreased in this order: Zn (17%), Cd (11%), Pb (4%) and Cu (3%). Regarding the low exchangeable content of heavy metals and high-quality organic matter, these types of composts could be used not only as fertilizer, but for remediation of metals contaminated land. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy metal content in compost and earthworms from home composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of compost tests from home composters and earthworms living there, that treating waste into compost. The samples were taken from home composters and allotment gardens from Opole Region. The composting material was green waste. The total content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni Cr in compost and compost earthworms’ samples were determined. It was found that the compost samples were not contaminated with heavy metals. According to the Polish classification of composts from municipal wastes, the composts met the requirements for first class of quality. The composts did not exceed the limits of heavy metals specified in the Polish law for solid organic fertilizers. The degree of metal accumulation by compost earthworms depended on the type of metal. The high value of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was obtained for Cd, Pb and Zn. No accumulation of other metals (Ni, Cr, Cu in earthworm bodies was found. It has been found that earthworm species, naturally occurring in Poland, can also be used as potential bioindicators of metals in the environment, such as the species Eisenia fetida. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in composts from home composters and ability to accumulate metals by compost earthworms.

  7. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  8. Influence of biochars, compost and iron grit, alone and in combination, on copper solubility and phytotoxicity in a Cu-contaminated soil from a wood preservation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Galland, William; Gabbon, Lunel; Lottier, Nathalie; Motelica, Mikael; Mench, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Two biochars, a green waste compost and iron grit were used, alone and in combination, as amendment to improve soil properties and in situ stabilize Cu in a contaminated soil (964mgCukg(-1)) from a wood preservation site. The pot experiment consisted in 9 soil treatments (% w/w): untreated Cu-contaminated soil (Unt); Unt soil amended respectively with compost (5%, C), iron grit (1%, Z), pine bark-derived biochar (1%, PB), poultry-manure-derived biochar (1%, AB), PB or AB+C (5%, PBC and ABC), and PB or AB+Z (1%, PBZ and ABZ). After a 3-month reaction period, the soil pore water (SPW) was sampled in potted soils and dwarf beans were grown for a 2-week period. In the SPW, all amendments decreased the Cu(2+) concentration, but total Cu concentration increased in all AB-amended soils due to high dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration. No treatment improved root and shoot DW yields, which even decreased in the ABC and ABZ treatments. The PBZ treatment decreased total Cu concentration in the SPW while reducing the gap with common values for root and shoot yields of dwarf bean plants. A field trial is underway before any recommendation for the PB-based treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological compost stability influences odor molecules production measured by electronic nose during food-waste high-rate composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Crivelli, Fernando; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Composting is a technique that is used to convert organic waste into agriculturally useful products. Composting is an aerobic, solid-state biological process, which typically can be divided into two phases, a high-rate composting phase and a curing phase. High-rate composting plays an important role during the composting process, owing to the high microbial activity occurring during this phase. It requires an accurate plant design to prevent the formation of anaerobic conditions and odors. The formation of anaerobic conditions mainly depends on the rate of O 2 consumption needed to degrade the substrate, i.e., the biological stability of the substrate. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the biological activity, measured by the dynamic respiration index (DRI) and the odor molecules production, measured by an electronic nose (EN) during two food-waste high-rate composting processes. Although the O 2 concentration in the biomass free air space (FAS) was kept optimal (O 2 > 140 ml l -1 , v/v) during composting, strong anaerobic conditions developed. This was indicated by the high levels of sulfur compounds, methane, and hydrogen in the outlet air stream. Both the high level of O 2 consumption, needed to degrade the high-degradable water-soluble organic matter and the low water O 2 solubility, caused by high temperature reached in this stage (up to 60 deg. C), led to the anaerobic conditions observed in the biofilm-particle level. The application of the partial least square (PLS) analysis demonstrated a good regression between the DRI and the odor molecules produced that was detected by the EN (R 2 = 0.991; R 2 CV = 0.990), signifying the usefulness of the DRI as a parameter to estimate the potential production of odor molecules of the biomass

  10. [Co-composting of high-moisture vegetable waste and flower waste in a batch operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-09-01

    Co-composting of different mixture made of vegetable waste and flower waste were studied. The first stage of composting was aerobic static bed based temperature feedback in a batch operation and control via aeration rate regulation. The second stage was window composting. The total composting period was 45 days. About the station of half of celery and half of carnation, the pile was insulated and temperatures of at least 55 degrees C were maintained for about 11 days. The highest temperature was up to 65 degrees C. This is enough to kill pathogens. Moisture of pile decreased from 64.2% to 46.3% and organic matter was degraded from 74.7% to 55.6% during composting. The value of pH was had stable at 7. Analysis of maturity and nutrition of compost show that end-products of composting were bio-stable and had abundant nutrition. This shows that co-composting of vegetable waste and flower waste can get high quality compost by optimizing composting process during 45 days. Composting can decrease non-point resource of organic solid waste by recycling nutrition to soil and improve fertility of soil.

  11. [Co-composting of high moisture vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter in pilot scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng; Qiu, Xiangyang

    2003-03-01

    Co-composting of different mixture made of vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter were studied. The first stage of composting was aerobic static bed based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation. The second stage was window composting. At first stage, the pile was insulated and temperatures of at least 55 degrees C were maintained for a minimum of 3 days. The highest temperature was up to 73.3 degrees C. This is enough to kill pathogens. Moisture of pile decreased from 75% to 56% and organic matter was degraded from 65% to 50% during composting. The value of pH was stable at 8. Analysis of maturity and nutrition of compost showed that end-products of composting ware bio-stable and had abundant nutrition. This shows that co-composting of vegetable waste, flower waste and chicken litter can get high quality compost by optimizing composting process during 45 days. Composting can decrease nonpoint resource of organic solid waste by recycling nutrition to soil and improve fertility of soil.

  12. Copper and Zinc Uptake by Pakchoi and Rice as Affected by Applying Manure Compost with Different Levels of Cu and Zn Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cu and Zn are frequently added to livestock diets as additives to increase feed efficiency and production. This practice resulted in the higher contents of Cu and Zn in excrement of livestock. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Cu and Zn concentration of manure compost and its application rates on the production and quality of pakchoi and rice. The pot experiments were conducted and the six manure compost were applied at 3 rates (20, 40, and 80 ton/ha, including the control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Results showed that the yield of the crops was enhanced by the compost application, and the Cu and Zn concentration in the edible part of crops were in normal range (pakchoi: Cu 1.8-10.4 mg/kg, Zn 39-160 mg/kg; rice grain: Cu 0.6-4.0 mg/kg, Zn 58-79 mg/kg. The potential risk of long-term manure compost application on soil quality was also evaluated. The total Zn concentration in soils may reach the regulation standard after 22 years of manure compost application at the rate of 40 ton/ha/year.

  13. [Co-composting high moisture vegetable waste and flower waste in a sequential fed operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Nie, Yongfeng

    2003-11-01

    Co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes (celery and cabbage) and flower wastes (carnation) were studied in a sequential fed bed. The preliminary materials of composting were celery and carnation wastes. The sequential fed materials of composting were cabbage wastes and were fed every 4 days. Moisture content of mixture materials was between 60% and 70%. Composting was done in an aerobic static bed of composting based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation. Aeration was ended when temperature of the pile was about 40 degrees C. Changes of composting of temperature, aeration rate, water content, organic matter, ash, pH, volume, NH4(+)-N, and NO3(-)-N were studied. Results show that co-composting of high moisture vegetable wastes and flower wastes, in a sequential fed aerobic static bed based temperature feedback and control via aeration rate regulation, can stabilize organic matter and removal water rapidly. The sequential fed operation are effective to overcome the difficult which traditional composting cannot applied successfully where high moisture vegetable wastes in more excess of flower wastes, such as Dianchi coastal.

  14. Hygienization aspects of composting

    OpenAIRE

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Alsanius, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    Compost use in agriculture always brings about the risk of introducing plant and human pathogens. • The backbone of the hygienization process consists of temperature, moisture content and chemical compounds formed during composting and activity of antagonists. • Compost produced by proper composting, i.e. a process that produces high temperatures during asufficiently long thermophilic phase can be applied safely. • Farmers should invest in good relationships with compost produce...

  15. High-nitrogen compost as a medium for organic container-grown crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Michael; Oka, Yuji; Katan, Jaacov; Hadar, Yitzhak; Yogev, Anat; Medina, Shlomit; Krasnovsky, Arkady; Ziadna, Hammam

    2005-03-01

    Compost was tested as a medium for organic container-grown crops. Nitrogen (N) loss during composting of separated cow manure (SCM) was minimized using high C/N (wheat straw, WS; grape marc, GM) or a slightly acidic (orange peels, OP) additives. N conservation values in the resultant composts were 82%, 95% and 98% for GM-SCM, OP-SCM and WS-SCM, respectively. Physical characteristics of the composts were compatible with use as growing media. The nutritional contribution of the composts was assessed using cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum Mill.) and by means of incubation experiments. Media were either unfertilized or fertilized with guano (sea-bird manure). Plant responses suggest that N availability is the main variable affecting growth. Unfertilized OP-SCM and WS-SCM supplied the N needed for at least 4 months of plant growth. Root-galling index (GI) of tomato roots and number of eggs of the nematode Meloidogyne javanica were reduced by the composts, with the highest reduction obtained by OP-SCM and WS-SCM, at 50% concentrations. These composts, but not peat, reduced the incidence of crown and root-rot disease in tomato as well as the population size of the causal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici.

  16. Dynamics of copper and tetracyclines during composting of water hyacinth biomass amended with peat or pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Liu, Lizhu; Fan, Ruqin; Luo, Jia; Yan, Shaohua; Rengel, Zed; Zhang, Zhenhua

    2017-10-01

    Composting is one of the post-treatment methods for phytoremediation plants. Due to a high potential of water hyacinth to accumulate pollutants, the physicochemical parameters, microbial activity as well as fates of copper (Cu) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for the different amended water hyacinth biomass harvested from intensive livestock and poultry wastewater, including unamended water hyacinth (W), water hyacinth amended with peat (WP), and water hyacinth amended with pig manure (WPM) during the composting process. Pig manure application accelerated the composting process as evidenced by an increase of temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), NH 4 -N, as well as functional diversity of microbial communities compared to W and WP treatments. Composting process was slowed down by high Cu, but not by TCs. The addition of peat significantly increased the residual fraction of Cu, while pig manure addition increased available Cu concentration in the final compost. Cu could be effectively transformed into low available (oxidizable) and residual fractions after fermentation. In contrast, less than 0.5% of initial concentrations of TCs were determined at the end of 60-day composting for all treatments in the final composts. The dissipation of TCs was accelerated by the high Cu concentration during composting. Therefore, composting is an effective method for the post-treatment and resource utilization of phytoremediation plants containing Cu and/or TCs.

  17. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  18. Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of humic substances from a compost amended copper contaminated soil: main features and their potential effects on Cu immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jorge; Monreal, Carlos; Chabot, Denise; Meier, Sebastián; González, María Eugenia; Morales, Esteban; Parillo, Rita; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    We characterized humic substances (HS) extracted from a Cu-contaminated soil without compost addition (C) or amended with a wheat straw-based compost (WSC) (H1), co-composted with Fe 2 O 3 (H2), or co-composted with an allophane-rich soil (H3). Extracted HS were characterized under electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (X-EDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In addition, HS extracted from WSC (H4) were characterized at pH 4.0 and 8.0 with descriptive purposes. At pH 4.0, globular structures of H4 were observed, some of them aggregating within a large network. Contrariwise, at pH 8.0, long tubular and disaggregated structures prevailed. TEM microscopy suggests organo-mineral interactions at scales of 1 to 200 nm with iron oxide nanoparticles. HS extracted from soil-compost incubations showed interactions at nanoscale with minerals and crystal compounds into the organic matrix of HS. Bands associated to acidic functional groups of HS may suggest potential sorption interactions with transition metals. We conclude that metal ions and pH have an important role controlling the morphology and configuration of HS from WSC. Characterization of H4 extracted from WSC showed that physicochemical protection of HS could be present in composting systems treated with inorganic materials. Finally, the humified fractions obtained from compost-amended soils may have an important effect on metal-retention, supporting their potential use in metal-contaminated soils.

  19. Changes in heavy metal mobility and availability from contaminated wetland soil remediated with combined biochar-compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Yang, Zhaoxue; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Guangming; Yu, Man; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Haipeng; Qian, Yingying; Li, Xuemei; Luo, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The combination of biochar and compost has been proven to be effective in heavy metals contaminated wetland soil restoration. However, the influence of different proportions between biochar and compost on immobilization of heavy metals in soil has been less studied up to date. Therefore, we investigated the effect of different ratios of biochar-compost mixtures on availability and speciation distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in wetland soil. The results showed that applying all amendment combinations into wetland soil increased gradually the total organic carbon (TOC) and water-extract organic carbon (WEOC) as the compost percentage rose in biochar-composts. The higher pH was obtained in a certain biochar addition (20% and 40%) in combinations due to efficient interaction of biochar with compost. All amendments could significantly decrease availability of Cd and Zn mainly from pH change, but increase available Cu concentration as the result of increased water-extract organic carbon and high total Cu content in compost. Moreover, amendments can decrease easily exchangeable fraction and increase reducible of Cd and Zn greatly with increase of compost content in combinations, while amendments containing compost promote transformation of Cu from Fe/Mn oxide and residual fractions to organic bindings. These results demonstrate that different ratios of biochar and compost have a significant effect on availability and speciation of heavy metals in multi-metal-contaminated wetland soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentration and speciation of heavy metals in six different sewage sludge-composts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Quanying; Mo Cehui; Wu Qitang; Zeng Qiaoyun; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the concentrations and speciation of heavy metals (HMs) in six different composts of sewage sludges deriving from two wastewater treatment plants in China. After 56 days of sludge composting with rice straw at a low C/N ratio (13:1), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were enriched in sludge composts, exhibiting concentrations that varied from 0.75 to 2.0, 416 to 458, 66 to 168 and 1356 to 1750 mg kg -1 dry weight (d.w.), respectively. The concentrations increased by 12-60% for Cd, 8-17% for Cu, 15-43% for Pb and 14-44% for Zn compared to those in sewage sludges. The total concentrations of individual or total elements in the final composts exceeded the maximum permissible limits proposed for compost or fertilizer. In all the final composts, more than 70% of total Cu was associated with organic matter-bound fraction, while Zn was mainly concentrated in exchangeable and Fe-Mn oxide-bound fractions which implied the high mobility and bioavailability. Continuously aerated composting treatment exhibited better compost quality and lower potential toxicity of HMs, whereas inoculant with microorganism and enzyme spiked during composting had no obvious advantage on humification of organic matter and on reducing HM mobility and bioavailability

  1. Use of high-stability composts in recreational areas: assays on cold season turf grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez de Barreda-Ferraz, D.; Albiach, M. R.; Pomares, F.; Ingelmo, F.; Canet, R.

    2009-01-01

    Recreational and sport areas, steadily increasing on number and occupied surface, show great interest as consumers of large amounts of organic products. High-quality composts could be used to improve soil properties, increasing its water-hold capacity and reducing the amounts of synthetic fertilizers needed to support the vegetal cover. (Author)

  2. Effect of turning frequency and season on composting materials from swine high-rise facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting of swine manure has several advantages, liquid slurries are converted to solid, the total volume of material is reduced and the stabilized product is more easily transported off-site. Despite this, swine waste is generally stored, treated and applied in its liquid form. The high-rise fini...

  3. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  4. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-05

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of co-composting process with high load of an inorganic industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Reis, Marco S; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the co-composting of an inorganic industrial waste (eggshell - ES) in very high levels (up to 60% w/w). Since composting is a process in which solid, liquid and gaseous phases interact in a very complex way, there is a need to shed light on statistical tools that can unravel the main relationships structuring the variability associated to this process. In this study, PCA and data visualisation were used with that purpose. The co-composting tests were designed with increasing quantities of ES (0, 10, 20, 30 and 60%ES w/w) mixed with industrial potato peel and rice husks. Principal component analysis showed that physical properties like free air space, bulk density and moisture are the most relevant variables for explaining the variability due to ES content. On the other hand, variability in time dynamics is mostly driven by some chemical and phytoxicological parameters, such as organic matter decay and nitrate content. Higher ES incorporation (60% ES) enhanced the initial biological activity of the mixture, but the higher bulk density and lower water holding capacity had a negative effect on the aerobic biological activity as the process evolved. Nevertheless, pathogen-killing temperatures (>70°C for 11h) were attained. All the final products obtained after 90days were stable and non-phytotoxic. This work proved that valorisation of high amounts of eggshell by co-composting is feasible, but prone to be influenced by the physical properties of the mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The efficiency of home composting programmes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Soto, M

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of home composting programmes and the quality of the produced compost was evaluated in eight rural areas carrying out home composting programmes (up to 880 composting bins) for all household biowaste including meat and fish leftovers. Efficiency was analysed in terms of reduction of organic waste collected by the municipal services. An efficiency of 77% on average was obtained, corresponding to a composting rate of 126kg/person·year of biowaste (or 380kg/composter·year). Compost quality was determined for a total of 90 composting bins. The operation of composting bins by users was successful, as indicated by a low C/N ratio (10-15), low inappropriate materials (or physical contaminant materials, mean of 0.27±0.44% dry matter), low heavy metal content (94% of samples met required standards for agricultural use) and high nutrient content (2.1% N, 0.6% P, 2.5% K, 0.7% Mg and 3.7% Ca on average, dry matter). The high moisture (above 70% in 48% of the samples) did not compromise the compost quality. Results of this study show that home composting of household organic waste including meat and fish leftovers is a feasible practice. Home composting helps individuals and families to reduce the amount of household waste at the same time gaining a fertiliser material (compost) of excellent quality for gardens or vegetable plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-spin states in 60Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, U.C.; Agard, M.; Bruandet, J.F.; Dauchy, A.; Giorni, A.; Glasser, F.; Morand, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.

    1981-04-01

    The 60 Cu nucleus has been studied via the 58 Ni(α, pnγ) reaction using different in-beam γ spectroscopy techniques. As for the other odd-odd Cu, the gsub(9/2) shell plays an important role for the explanation of observed high-spin states. Some of them (in particular 6 - and 9 + states) could be interpreted as two-nucleon states in the framework of a crude shell model

  8. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  9. Home composting versus industrial composting: influence of composting system on compost quality with focus on compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Font, Xavier; Gabarrell, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    Stability is one of the most important properties of compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. This property is essential for the application of compost to land to avoid further field degradation and emissions of odors, among others. In this study, a massive characterization of compost samples from both home producers and industrial facilities is presented. Results are analyzed in terms of chemical and respiration characterizations, the latter representing the stability of the compost. Results are also analyzed in terms of statistical validation. The main conclusion from this work is that home composting, when properly conducted, can achieve excellent levels of stability, whereas industrial compost produced in the studied facilities can also present a high stability, although an important dispersion is found in these composts. The study also highlights the importance of respiration techniques to have a reliable characterization of compost quality, while the chemical characterization does not provide enough information to have a complete picture of a compost sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Produção comercializável e teores de Cu e Zn em cenoura em decorrência da ação residual de fósforo e composto de lixo em solo sob cerrado Marketable yield and contents of Cu and Zn in carrot as influenced by residual phosphate and urban compost in a cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel V. de Mesquita Filho

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se em 1997, em condições de campo um experimento em Latossolo Vermelho Escuro distrófico argiloso sob cerrado de Brasília, para avaliar o efeito residual das aplicações em anos anteriores, a lanço de doses de fósforo (superfosfato triplo, e de composto de lixo na produção de cenoura (Daucus carota, cv. Brasília, assim como nos teores de cobre e zinco em raízes frescas. Aproveitou-se o mesmo delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições, no mesmo campo experimental dos experimentos anteriores distribuídos num esquema fatorial 3 x 5 incluindo-se 3 níveis de fósforo (0; 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5 e 5 níveis de composto de lixo (0; 20; 40; 60 e 80 t ha-1. A colheita foi realizada aos 90 dias após o plantio. A análise estatística dos dados de produção total de raízes revelou efeito residual da adubação dos últimos dois anos em linear e quadrático altamente significativo (pA field experiment was conducted on a clayey Yellow Red Oxisol to evaluate the residual effect of the application of phosphorus and urban waste compost of the previous two years on the root production of carrot cv. Brasília. The soil of the previous experiment design used a factorial consisting of three levels of phosphorus (0; 400 and 800 kg ha-1, applied as triple superphosphate combined with five levels of urban waste compost (0; 20; 40; 60 and 80 t.ha-1, was arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Carrot plants were harvested 90 days after planting. After the harvest, a linear and quadratic effect for phosphorus and urban waste compost (p<0,01 was observed. The linear interaction P x quadratic urban compost was highly significant (p<0,01. The maximum root total production was 26.5 t.ha-1 corresponding to 18.5 t ha-1 of marketable yield, estimated by the calculated doses of 762.5 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 53.2 t ha-1 of urban waste compost according to the function: Y(PROD = 4.541143 + 4.0088 x 10-2 P2O5 + 2

  11. Highly organic natural media as permeable reactive barriers: TCE partitioning and anaerobic degradation profile in eucalyptus mulch and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Zuhal; Tansel, Berrin; Katsenovich, Yelena; Sukop, Michael; Laha, Shonali

    2012-10-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted with eucalyptus mulch and commercial compost to evaluate suitability of highly organic natural media to support anaerobic decomposition of trichloroethylene (TCE) in groundwater. Experimental data for TCE and its dechlorination byproducts were analyzed with Hydrus-1D model to estimate the partitioning and kinetic parameters for the sequential dechlorination reactions during TCE decomposition. The highly organic natural media allowed development of a bioactive zone capable of decomposing TCE under anaerobic conditions. The first order TCE biodecomposition reaction rates were 0.23 and 1.2d(-1) in eucalyptus mulch and compost media, respectively. The retardation factors in the eucalyptus mulch and compost columns for TCE were 35 and 301, respectively. The results showed that natural organic soil amendments can effectively support the anaerobic bioactive zone for remediation of TCE contaminated groundwater. The natural organic media are effective environmentally sustainable materials for use in permeable reactive barriers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of addition of organic waste on reduction of Escherichia coli during cattle feces composting under high-moisture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajima, Dai; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Haga, Kiyonori

    2006-09-01

    To ensure Escherichia coli reduction during cattle feces composting, co-composting with a variety of organic wastes was examined. A mixture of dairy cattle feces and shredded rice straw (control) was blended with organic wastes (tofu residue, rice bran, rapeseed meal, dried chicken feces, raw chicken feces, or garbage), and composted using a bench-scale composter under the high-moisture condition (78%). The addition of organic waste except chicken feces brought about maximum temperatures of more than 55 degrees C and significantly reduced the number of E. coli from 10(6) to below 10(2)CFU/g-wet after seven days composting, while in the control treatment, E. coli survived at the same level as that of raw feces. Enhancements of the thermophilic phase and E. coli reduction were related to the initial amount of easily digestible carbon in mass determined as BOD. BOD value more than 166.2 mg O2/DMg brought about significant E. coli reduction.

  13. Highly charged swelling mica reduces Cu bioavailability in Cu-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckey, Jason W. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Neaman, Alexander [Facultad de Agronomia, P. Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables (Chile); Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Martinez, Carmen Enid [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 116 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: cem17@psu.edu

    2009-01-15

    This is the first test of a highly charged swelling mica's (Na-2-mica) ability to reduce the plant-absorbed Cu in Cu-contaminated soils from Chile. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was grown in two acid soils (Sector 2: pH 4.2, total Cu = 172 mg Cu kg{sup -1} and Sector 3: pH 4.2, total Cu = 112 mg Cu kg{sup -1}) amended with 0.5% and 1% (w/w) mica, and 1% (w/w) montmorillonite. At 10 weeks of growth, both mica treatments decreased the shoot Cu of ryegrass grown in Sector 2 producing shoot Cu concentrations above 21-22 mg Cu kg{sup -1} (the phytotoxicity threshold for that species), yet the mica treatments did not reduce shoot Cu concentrations when grown in Sector 3, which were at a typical level. The mica treatments improved shoot growth in Sector 3 by reducing free and extractable Cu to low enough levels where other nutrients could compete for plant absorption and translocation. In addition, the mica treatments improved root growth in both soils, and the 1% mica treatment reduced root Cu in both soils. This swelling mica warrants further testing of its ability to assist re-vegetation and reduce Cu bioavailability in Cu-contaminated surface soils. - In situ remediation of Cu-contaminated soils with a synthetic mica (Na-2-mica) will aid in re-vegetative efforts.

  14. High-Iron Biosolids Compost-Induced Changes in Lead and Arsenic Speciation and Bioaccessibility in Co-contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The safety of urban farming has been questioned due to the potential for contamination in urban soils. A laboratory incubation, a field trial, and a second laboratory incubation were conducted to test the ability of high-Fe biosolids–based composts to reduce the bioaccessibil...

  15. Effects of moderate and high rates of biochar and compost on grapevine growth in a greenhouse experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Bozzolo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is used as soil amendment and enhancer of plant growth, but the mechanisms involved in grapevine are not understood. In this study, the short-term effects of amendments were evaluated in a trial combining three substrates (biochar, compost, peat-based media with three doses (30, 70, 100% along a time sequence on 1-year-old bare root cuttings of grapevine. Amendments were analyzed for elemental composition. Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, chlorophyll (CHL, flavonoids (FL, anthocyans (ANT and nitrogen balance index (NBI were measured.Biochar differed from other amendments for stable C structures, where nutrients and lignin residues were high in compost. Biochar increased soil pH, whereas biochar plus compost mixture augmented EC. The amended plants had detrimental effects on root, true and lateral leaves. Nevertheless, at the lowest rate biochar increased the primary shoot and total scion to root biomass ratio. Among biochemicals, ANT and NBI were mostly affected by biochar, while compost gave only slight increments. Thus, although biochar rate was not adequate for the shedding in open field our results suggest that biochar might be useful in nursery when used at low dosages.

  16. Degradation of isobutanal at high loading rates in a compost biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercu, Bram; Demeestere, Kristof; Baillieul, Hans; Van Langenhove, Herman; Verstraete, Willy

    2005-08-01

    Biofiltration has been increasingly used for cleaning waste gases, mostly containing low concentrations of odorous compounds. To expand the application area of this technology, the biofiltration of higher pollutant loading rates has to be investigated. This article focuses on the biodegradation of isobutanal (IBAL) in a compost biofilter (BF) at mass loading rates between 211 and 4123 g/m3/day (30-590 ppm(v)). At mass loading rates up to 785 g/m3/day, near 100% removal efficiencies could be obtained. However, after increasing the loading rate to 1500-1900 g/m3/ day, the degradation efficiency decreased to 62-98%. In addition, a pH decrease and production of isobutanol (IBOL) and isobutyric acid (IBAC) were observed. This is the first report showing that an aldehyde can act as electron donor as well as acceptor in a BF. To study the effects of pH, compost moisture content, and electron acceptor availability on the biofiltration of IBAL, IBOL, and IBAC, additional batch and continuous experiments were performed. A pH of 5.2 reduced the IBAL degradation rate and inhibited the IBOL degradation, although adaptation of the microorganisms to low pH was observed in the BFs. IBAC was not degraded in the batch experiments. High moisture content (51%) initially had no effect on the IBOL production, although it negatively affected the IBAL elimination increasingly during a 21-day time-course experiment. In batch experiments, the reduction of IBAL to IBOL did not decrease when the amount of available electron acceptors (oxygen or nitrate) was increased. The IBAL removal efficiency at higher loading rates was limited by a combination of nutrient limitation, pH decrease, and dehydration, and the importance of each limiting factor depended on the influent concentration.

  17. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOCHAR FOR COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Malińska

    2014-10-01

    for composting of materials with high moisture and/or nitrogen contents. The addition of biochar to composting mixtures can reduce ammonia emissions, and thus limit nitrogen losses during composting, increase water holding capacity and retention of nutrients. Biochar can also function as a carrier substrate for microbial inoculants and a scrubing material used in biofilters at composting facilities. Due to the fact that the literature does not provide many examples of biochar applications for composting, and there is little known about the effects of biochar added to composting mixtures on composting dynamics and properties of final composts, futher investigations should focus on mechanisms of biochar-composting mixtures interactions and analysis of properties of biochar-based composts. The overall goal of the article is to analyze the potentials of biochars for composting, to report the effects of various biochars on composting dynamics and quality of produced biochar-based composts, and to indicate the areas of further studies on biochar properties that would allow optimization of composting and improve the quality of final products.

  18. Compostage et qualité du compost de déchets urbains solides de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Compaoré, E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting and Compost Quality of Urban Solid Wastes in Bobo-Dioulasso Town, Burkina Faso. A study of urban solid wastes composting was conducted to evaluate wastes compost quality. Wastes of municipal dumps of Bobo-Dioulasso have been collected, separated and composted with cow manure, grass and Kodjari phosphate rock. During composting the pH increased up to 8.6, the moisture up to 68% and the temperature up to 65 °C before decreasing and then stabilizing at 7.1; 30% and 31 °C respectively. Particle size distribution of composts showed that the fraction ≤ 2 mm is dominant, about 65%. The organic matter, C, N, P and K contents of the composts are acceptable but the C/N ratio was relatively low in comparison with international standard. The heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn contents in composted urban wastes were relatively high with higher content of Zn and Pb. The compost obtained was of good quality and the addition of Kodjari phosphate rock enhanced this quality.

  19. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-02-07

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  20. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  1. A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The content, behaviour and significance of heavy metals in composted waste materials is important from two potentially conflicting aspects of environmental legislation in terms of: (a) defining end-of-waste criteria and increasing recycling of composted residuals on land and (b) protecting soil quality by preventing contamination. This review examines the effects of heavy metals in compost and amended soil as a basis for achieving a practical and sustainable balance between these different policy objectives, with particular emphasis on agricultural application. All types of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost contain more heavy metals than the background concentrations present in soil and will increase their contents in amended soil. Total concentrations of heavy metals in source-segregated and greenwaste compost are typically below UK PAS100 limits and mechanical segregated material can also comply with the metal limits in UK PAS100, although this is likely to be more challenging. Zinc and Pb are numerically the elements present in the largest amounts in MSW-compost. Lead is the most limiting element to use of mechanically-segregated compost in domestic gardens, but concentrations are typically below risk-based thresholds that protect human health. Composted residuals derived from MSW and greenwaste have a high affinity for binding heavy metals. There is general consensus in the scientific literature that aerobic composting processes increase the complexation of heavy metals in organic waste residuals, and that metals are strongly bound to the compost matrix and organic matter, limiting their solubility and potential bioavailability in soil. Lead is the most strongly bound element and Ni the weakest, with Zn, Cu and Cd showing intermediate sorption characteristics. The strong metal sorption properties of compost produced from MSW or sewage sludge have important benefits for the remediation of metal contaminated industrial and urban soils. Compost and sewage sludge

  2. Municipal compost-based mixture for acid mine drainage bioremediation: Metal retention mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Gibert; Joan de Pablo; Jose Luis Cortina; Carlos Ayora [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Departament d' Enginyeria Qumica

    2005-09-15

    An upflow packed column was operated to evaluate the potential of a mixture of municipal compost and calcite to promote sulphidogenesis in the remediation of a simulated mine water at high flows (>0.1 m d{sup -1}). Results showed that the pH was neutralised and metals (Fe, Al, Zn, Cu) were significantly removed. Metal removal was attributed to the combined result of precipitation as metal (oxy)hydroxides and carbonates, co-precipitation with these (oxy)hydroxides and sorption onto the compost surface rather than to precipitation as metal sulphides. The two last mechanisms are especially significant for Zn, whose hydroxide is not expected to precipitate at pH 6-7. Before the saturation of compost sorption sites, 60% of the influent Zn was estimated to have been removed by co-precipitation with Fe- and Al-(oxy)hydroxide and 40% by sorption onto the municipal compost.

  3. Comparison of the composting process using ear corn residue and three other conventional bulking agents during cow manure composting under high-moisture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajima, Dai

    2014-10-01

    To elucidate the characteristics of ear corn residue as a bulking agent, the composting process using this residue was compared with processes using three other conventional materials such as sawdust, wheat straw and rice husk, employing a bench-scale composting reactor. As evaluated via biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ear corn residue contains 3.3 and 2.0 times more easily digestible materials than sawdust and rice husk, respectively. In addition, mixing ear corn residue with manure resulted in reduced bulk density, which was the same as that of wheat straw and was 0.58 and 0.67 times lower than that of sawdust and a rice husk mixture, respectively. To evaluate temperature generation during the composting process, the maximum temperature and area under the temperature curve (AUCTEMP) were compared among the mixed composts of four bulking agents. Maximum temperature (54.3°C) as well as AUCTEMP (7310°C●h) of ear corn residue were significantly higher than those of sawdust and rice husk (Pcompost. Along with the value of AUCTEMP, the highest organic matter losses of 31.1% were observed in ear corn residue mixed compost, followed by wheat straw, saw dust and rice husk. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  5. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compost Grown Agaricus bisporus Lacks the Ability to Degrade and Consume Highly Substituted Xylan Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurak, Edita; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; de Vries, Ronald P; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown for the production of edible mushrooms. This cultivation occurs on compost, but not all of this substrate is consumed by the fungus. To determine why certain fractions remain unused, carbohydrate degrading enzymes, water-extracted from

  7. High spin states in 62Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan Ung Chan; Agard, M.; Bruandet, J.F.; Giorni, A.; Glasser, F.; Longequeue, J.P.; Morand, C.

    1977-06-01

    The 62 Cu nucleus has been studied via the reactions 60 Ni(α,pnγ), 63 Cu(p,pnγ), 52 Cr( 14 N,2p2nγ) using different in beam γ-spectroscopy techniques. The intensity of the principal γ-lines observed in different reactions leading to the 62 Cu has been compared. A brief discussion is made in terms of the independent particle model. A level scheme including levels with spin up to 9 + is proposed [fr

  8. Highly stable carbon-doped Cu films on barrierless Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Li, X.N.; Nie, L.F.; Chu, J.P.; Wang, Q.; Lin, C.H.; Dong, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical resistivities and thermal stabilities of carbon-doped Cu films on silicon have been investigated. The films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using a Cu-C alloy target. After annealing at 400 deg. C for 1 h, the resistivity maintains a low level at 2.7 μΩ-cm and no Cu-Si reaction is detected in the film by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. According to the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) results, carbon is enriched near the interfacial region of Cu(C)/Si, and is considered responsible for the growth of an amorphous Cu(C)/Si interlayer that inhibits the Cu-Si inter-diffusion. Fine Cu grains, less than 100 nm, were present in the Cu(C) films after long-term and high-temperature annealings. The effect of C shows a combination of forming a self-passivated interface barrier layer and maintaining a fine-grained structure of Cu. A low current leakage measured on this Cu(C) film also provides further evidence for the carbon-induced diffusion barrier interlayer performance.

  9. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Pig Manure : Effect of Compost Bed Porosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems can be composted in passively aerated systems as the high application of straw results in a compost bed with good structure and porosity. The passively aerated composting process was simulated in one-dimensional reactors of 2 m3 for straw-rich

  10. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: Co-composting versus incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R.; Nason, Mark A.; Williamson, Julie C.; Jones, Davey L.

    2009-01-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost. - Co-composting did not provide enhanced stabilization of trace elements over the conventional addition of compost to contaminated land

  11. Cu ion disordering in high ionic conductor Rb4Cu16I7Cl13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaji, Hitoshi; Atake, Tooru; Kanno, Ryoji; Izumi, Fujio; Yamamoto, Osamu.

    1993-01-01

    The properties of a high ionic conductor Rb 4 Cu 16 I 7+x Cl 13-x were studied by neutron and X-ray diffraction, and heat capacity measurements. The structure parameters of Rb 4 Cu 16 I 7.2 Cl 12.8 were obtained by the Rietveld analysis of TOF neutron diffraction data between 50 and 300 K, which showed gradual excitation of migration of Cu ions from Cu(3) site into Cu(2) site with increasing temperature from about 100 K to room temperature. The heat capacity was measured between 10 and 300 K using a high precision adiabatic calorimeter. An abnormal increase was observed in the heat capacity curve above about 100 K. The excess heat capacity showed a broad anomaly with a maximum at about 190 K. The measurements were also made of Rb 4 Cu 16 I 7 Cl 13 which showed slight different properties from Rb 4 Cu 16 I 7.2 Cl 12.8 . (author)

  12. Composting: a growth market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueker, D.; Guenther, H.; Komodromos, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper explains the current state of affairs in composting in Germany from the angles of licensing, engineering, the number and scale of existing and projected plants, the market for compost, and the prospective market for composting plants. (orig.) [de

  13. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  14. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  16. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, John D.; Spitzig, William A.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  17. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  18. Effective Hamiltonian for high Tc Cu oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, H.; Matsukawa, H.

    1989-01-01

    Effective Hamiltonian has been derived for CuO 2 layers in the presence of extra holes doped mainly into O-sites by taking both on-site and intersite Coulomb interaction into account. A special case with a single hole has been examined in detail. It is found that there exist various types of bound states, singlet and triplet with different spatial symmetry, below the hole bank continuum. The spatial extent of the Zhang-Rice singlet state, which is most stabilized, and the effective transfer integral between these singlet states are seen to be very sensitive to the relative magnitude of the direct and the indirect transfer integrals between O-sites. Effective Hamiltonian for the case of electron doping has also been derived

  19. Examinations of content of heavy metals in municipal solid waste and produced compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.; Tykarska, A.; Orzechowska, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic methods of utilization of municipal solid waste are biothermic and aerobic methods to compost. The content of heavy metals in composts depends on the initial their content in wastes as well as on the compost process. The voltammetric method has been applied for measurement of concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Hg in the waste and composts samples. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Combining woody biomass for combustion with green waste composting: Effect of removal of woody biomass on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Boogaerts, Christophe; Vandaele, Elke

    2016-12-01

    The question was tackled on how the green waste compost industry can optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing both bioenergy by combustion of the woody fraction, and high quality soil improvers as renewable sources of carbon and nutrients. Compost trials with removal of woody biomass before or after composting were run at 9 compost facilities during 3 seasons to include seasonal variability of feedstock. The project focused on the changes in feedstock and the effect on the end product characteristics (both compost and recovered woody biomass) of this woody biomass removal. The season of collection during the year clearly affected the biochemical and chemical characteristics of feedstock, woody biomass and compost. On one hand the effect of removal of the woody fraction before composting did not significantly affect compost quality when compared to the scenario where the woody biomass was sieved from the compost at the end of the composting process. On the other hand, quality of the woody biomass was not strongly affected by extraction before or after composting. The holocellulose:lignin ratio was used in this study as an indicator for (a) the decomposition potential of the feedstock mixture and (b) to assess the stability of the composts at the end of the process. Higher microbial activity in green waste composts (indicated by higher oxygen consumption) and thus a lower compost stability resulted in higher N immobilization in the compost. Removal of woody biomass from the green waste before composting did not negatively affect the compost quality when more intensive composting was applied. The effect of removal of the woody fraction on the characteristics of the green waste feedstock and the extracted woody biomass is depending on the season of collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  2. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  3. Enhancement of Cotton Stalks Composting with Certain Microbial Inoculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdel-Twab Seoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inoculation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Azotobacter chrococcum microbes on cotton stalks composting was studied in an attempt to achieve rapid maturity and desirable characteristics of produced compost. Composting process was maintained for 16 weeks under aerobic conditions with proper moisture content and turning piles. The C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to about 30:1 before composting using chicken manure. Temperature evolution and its profile were monitored throughout the composting period. Mineralization rates of organic matter and changes in nitrogen content during composting stages were evaluated. Total plate count of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, cellulose decomposers and Azotobacter were determined during composting periods. The treatment of cotton stalks inoculated with both P. chrysosporium and Azotobacter gave the most desirable characteristics of the final product with respect to the narrow C/N ratio, high nitrogen content and high numbers of Azotobacter. The phytotoxicity test of compost extracts was evaluated. The use of P. chrysosporium in composting accelerated markedly decomposition process, so that 16 weeks composting enough to produce a stable and mature compost suitable for use as fertilizer while the fertilizer obtained by composting cotton stalks mixed with chicken manure and inoculated with microorganisms is highest quality Compost.

  4. Microbial additives in the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Composting is the process of natural degradation of organic matter carried out by environmental microorganisms whose metabolic activities cause the mineralization and partial humification of substances in the pile. This compost can be beneficially applied to the soil as organic fertilizer in horticulture and agriculture. The number of studies involving microbial inoculants has been growing, and they aim to improve processes such as composting. However, the behavior of these inoculants and other microorganisms during the composting process have not yet been described. In this context, this work aimed to investigate the effects of using a microbial inoculum that can improve the composting process and to follow the bacterial population dynamics throughout the process using the high-resolution melt (HRM technique. To do so, we analysed four compost piles inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus + B. megaterium and a control with no inoculum. The analyses were carried out using samples collected at different stages of the process (5th to 110th days. The results showed that the bacterial inocula influenced the process of composting, altering the breakdown of cellulose and hemicelluloses and causing alterations to the temperature and nitrogen levels throughout the composting process. The use of a universal primer (rDNA 16S allowed to follow the microbial succession during the process. However, the design of a specific primer is necessary to follow the inoculum throughout the composting process with more accuracy.

  5. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcătuşu Radu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33% of each waste, 50% of each of the three wastes separately, the difference being made up in equal amounts (25% of the other two wastes. Composting process was performed in Könemann silos (cubs with side by 1.20m and lasted 60 days, from July 19 until September 16, when the composted material has passed the stages of reduction and oxidation. During composting process, in the reductive stage the material has reached a temperature up to 63°C Celsius, enough heat for its sterilization. Initial material, semi composted and final composted material were been chemical analyzed, especially in terms of macro- and microelements, analytical results revealing high and normal content of such chemicals. Therefore the achieved compost could be used in organic farming systems.

  6. Mechanical properties of highly textured Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bufford, D.; Wang, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, X.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with individual layer thicknesses, h, varying from 1 to 200 nm. When, h, decreases to 5 nm or less, X-ray diffraction spectra show epitaxial growth of Cu/Ni multilayers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show the coexistence of nanotwins and coherent layer interfaces in highly (1 1 1) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with smaller h. Hardnesses of multilayer films increase with decreasing h, approach a maximum at h of a few nanometers, and show softening thereafter at smaller h. The influence of layer interfaces as well as twin interfaces on strengthening mechanisms of multilayers and the formation of twins in Ni in multilayers are discussed.

  7. Growth and magnetic properties dependence of the Co–Cu/Cu films electrodeposited under high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franczak, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.franczak@mtm.kuleuven.be [Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Sciences et Naturelles, Bat. 6, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Department of Materials Science (MTM), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, 3001 Haverlee (Leuven) (Belgium); Levesque, Alexandra [Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Sciences et Naturelles, Bat. 6, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Zabinski, Piotr [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30059 Krakow (Poland); Li, Donggang [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, 314 Box, 110004 Shenyang (China); Czapkiewicz, Maciej [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30059 Krakow (Poland); Kowalik, Remigiusz [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30059 Krakow (Poland); Bohr, Frédéric [Laboratoire d’Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux (LISM EA 4695), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Sciences et Naturelles, Bat. 6, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2015-07-15

    The present work is focused on the investigations of magnetic properties dependence on microstructure of Co–Cu/Cu films electrodeposited under superimposed high magnetic field. The experimental results indicate a strong effect of an external magnetic field on the morphology of deposited films, more precisely on the Co:Cu ratio that determines the film growth. It is shown that the Co–Cu/Cu films electrodeposited without superimposed magnetic field consisted of two clearly visible features: compact film with incorporated granular particles. Under a superimposed external high magnetic field the privilege growth of the particles was induced. As a consequence, development of the well-defined branched structure of Co–Cu/Cu film was observed. In contrary, the phase compositional investigations do not reveal any changes in the phase formation during electrodeposition under magnetic field conditions. Thus, it is assumed that a strong growth of Co–Cu/Cu films in (111) direction under magnetic or non-magnetic electrodeposition conditions is related with the growth of Cu (111) plane and embedded into it some of the Co fcc atoms of same (111) orientation, as well as the Co hcp atoms that grows in the (002) direction. This non-equilibrium growth of Co–Cu/Cu films under magnetic deposition conditions affects strongly the magnetic properties of deposited films, revealing that films obtained under magnetic fields higher than 3 T were no more magnetic materials. - Highlights: • Co–Cu/Cu electrodeposits were obtained at elevated temperature under HMFs. • The effects of HMFs on microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. • Interesting morphological changes due to HMFs has been observed. • Changes in Co:Cu ratio due to HMFs modified the magnetic properties of deposits.

  8. Growth and magnetic properties dependence of the Co–Cu/Cu films electrodeposited under high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franczak, Agnieszka; Levesque, Alexandra; Zabinski, Piotr; Li, Donggang; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Kowalik, Remigiusz; Bohr, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The present work is focused on the investigations of magnetic properties dependence on microstructure of Co–Cu/Cu films electrodeposited under superimposed high magnetic field. The experimental results indicate a strong effect of an external magnetic field on the morphology of deposited films, more precisely on the Co:Cu ratio that determines the film growth. It is shown that the Co–Cu/Cu films electrodeposited without superimposed magnetic field consisted of two clearly visible features: compact film with incorporated granular particles. Under a superimposed external high magnetic field the privilege growth of the particles was induced. As a consequence, development of the well-defined branched structure of Co–Cu/Cu film was observed. In contrary, the phase compositional investigations do not reveal any changes in the phase formation during electrodeposition under magnetic field conditions. Thus, it is assumed that a strong growth of Co–Cu/Cu films in (111) direction under magnetic or non-magnetic electrodeposition conditions is related with the growth of Cu (111) plane and embedded into it some of the Co fcc atoms of same (111) orientation, as well as the Co hcp atoms that grows in the (002) direction. This non-equilibrium growth of Co–Cu/Cu films under magnetic deposition conditions affects strongly the magnetic properties of deposited films, revealing that films obtained under magnetic fields higher than 3 T were no more magnetic materials. - Highlights: • Co–Cu/Cu electrodeposits were obtained at elevated temperature under HMFs. • The effects of HMFs on microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. • Interesting morphological changes due to HMFs has been observed. • Changes in Co:Cu ratio due to HMFs modified the magnetic properties of deposits

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from food and garden waste composting

    OpenAIRE

    Ermolaev, Evgheni

    2015-01-01

    Composting is a robust waste treatment technology. Use of finished compost enables plant nutrient recycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure improvement and mineral fertiliser replacement. However, composting also emits greenhouse gases (GHG) such as methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) with high global warming potential (GWP). This thesis analysed emissions of CH₄ and N₂O during composting as influenced by management and process conditions and examined how these emissions could be ...

  10. COMPOSTING AS A WAY TO CONVERT CELLULOSIC BIOMASS AND ORGANIC WASTE INTO HIGH-VALUE SOIL AMENDMENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived cellulosic materials play a critical role when organic wastes are composted to produce a beneficial amendment for topsoil. This review article considers publications dealing with the science of composting, emphasizing ways in which the cellulosic and lignin components of the composted material influence both the process and the product. Cellulose has been described as a main source of energy to drive the biological transformations and the consequent temperature rise and chemical changes that are associated with composting. Lignin can be viewed as a main starting material for the formation of humus, the recalcitrant organic matter that provides the water-holding, ion exchange, and bulking capabilities that can contribute greatly to soil health and productivity. Lignocellulosic materials also contribute to air permeability, bulking, and water retention during the composting process. Critical variables for successful composting include the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, the nature of the cellulosic component, particle size, bed size and format, moisture, pH, aeration, temperature, and time. Composting can help to address solid waste problems and provides a sustainable way to enhance soil fertility.

  11. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  12. Assessing biochar and compost from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste on nutrient availability and plant growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regkouzas, Panagiotis; Manolikaki, Ioanna; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2017-04-01

    Biochars have a high variability in chemical composition, which is determined by types of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. Inorganic compounds, such as N, P, K and Ca, retained in biochar could be released and become available to plants. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of biochar and compost addition, derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes at two different pyrolysis temperatures 3000C (BC300) and 6000C (BC600), on phosphorus availability and plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in an alkaline loam soil. This type of soil is widely available in Greece, leading us to investigate ways to increase its fertility. A 39 d growth period of lettuce was studied in a greenhouse in triplicate. Treatments comprised of control soils (no addition of biochar or compost), soils treated only with compost (5%) or biochar (5%), and combinations of biochar (5%) plus compost (5%). No fertilization was added to any of the treatments. One biomass cut was obtained. Plant shoot yield and height were determined along with elemental concentration (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu) and uptake of shoots. Results showed that BC300 combined with compost significantly increased P uptake of lettuce. On the other hand, BC600 plus compost, along with the two biochar-only treatments, significantly decreased Ca and Mg uptake of lettuce. N, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu uptakes were not affected by the application of biochar, compost or the combined treatments. Despite the significant increase of P uptake, plant height and shoot yield were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments.

  13. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  14. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg -1 and 362 mgCu kg -1 ) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg -1 and 908 mgZn kg -1 ) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. → Compost increased the mobility of As. → Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. → These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  15. Recycling of wastes from fish beneficiation by composting: chemical characteristics of the compost and efficiency of their humic acids in stimulating the growth of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Jader Galba; de Carvalho, Caroline Moreira; Zandonadi, Daniel Basilio; Sodré, Fernando Fabriz; Mol, Alan Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Aline Lima; Navarro, Rodrigo Diana

    2017-11-23

    Waste from the beneficiation of fish was composted with crushed grass aiming to characterize their chemical composition and investigate the possibility of the use of the final compost as source of humic acids (HA) able to stimulate the growth of lettuce. Compost presented pH value, C/N ratio, and electrical conductivity that allow its use as an organic fertilizer. The element content was present in the following order of abundance in the compost: P > Ca > N > Mg > K > Fe > Zn > Mn > Mo > Cu, and the humus composition was similar to that observed in others kind of organic residues composted. The high content of oxygen pointed out a high level of oxidation of HA, in line with the predominance of phenolic acidity in the functional groups. The 13 C-NMR spectra showed marked resonances due to the presence of lipids and other materials resistant to degradation as methoxy substituent and N-alkyl groups. A concentration of 20 mg L -1 HA increased significantly both dry and wet root matter in lettuce but the CO 2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and number of lateral roots of the plants were not affected. However, increases of 64% in the water-use efficiency was observed due to the HA addition, probably related to the root morphology alteration which resulted in 1.6-fold increase of lateral root average length and due to the higher H + extrusion activity. Reuse of residues from the fish beneficiation activity by composting may represent a safe tool to increase the value of recycled organic residues and generate HA with potential use as plant growth stimulants.

  16. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composting of high moisture content swine manure with corncob in a pilot-scale aerated static bin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nengwu

    2006-10-01

    Pilot composting experiments of swine manure with corncob were conducted to evaluate the performance of the aerated static bin composting system. Effects of temperature control (60 and 70 degrees C) and moisture content (70% and 80%) were monitored on the composting by measuring physical and chemical indexes. The results showed that (1) the composting system could destroy pathogens, converted nitrogen from unstable ammonia to stable organic forms, and reduced the volume of waste; (2) significant difference of NH(4)(+)-N (P(12) = 0.074), and (NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-))-N (P(12) = 0.085) was found between the temperature control treatments; (3) anaerobic reaction in the treatment with 80% moisture content resulted in significant difference of pH (P(23) = 0.006), total organic matter (P(23) = 0.003), and germination index (P(23) = 0.040) between 70% and 80%. Therefore, the optimum initial moisture content was less than 80% with the composting of swine manure and corncob by using the composting system.

  18. Wat is goede compost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, K.; Janmaat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Compost wordt voor meerdere doelen ingezet. Als meststof, maar ook om de organische stofbalans op peil te houden. Maar compost heeft nog meer voordelen. Zo worden aan compost ziektewerende eigenschappen toegekend. Het doel van compostgebruik bepaalt voor een groot deel welke prijs er voor wordt

  19. Composting: Fast 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  20. Cu2O/CuO Bilayered Composite as a High-Efficiency Photocathode for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Xu, Di; Wu, Qingyong; Diao, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Solar powered hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the key reactions in solar-to-chemical energy conversion. It is desirable to develop photocathodic materials that exhibit high activity toward photoelectrochemical (PEC) HER at more positive potentials because a higher potential means a lower overpotential for HER. In this work, the Cu2O/CuO bilayered composites were prepared by a facile method that involved an electrodeposition and a subsequent thermal oxidation. The resulting Cu2O/CuO bilayered composites exhibited a surprisingly high activity and good stability toward PEC HER, expecially at high potentials in alkaline solution. The photocurrent density for HER was 3.15 mA·cm-2 at the potential of 0.40 V vs. RHE, which was one of the two highest reported at the same potential on copper-oxide-based photocathode. The high photoactivity of the bilayered composite was ascribed to the following three advantages of the Cu2O/CuO heterojunction: (1) the broadened light absorption band that made more efficient use of solar energy, (2) the large space-charge-region potential that enabled a high efficiency for electron-hole separation, and (3) the high majority carrier density that ensured a faster charge transportation rate. This work reveals the potential of the Cu2O/CuO bilayered composite as a promising photocathodic material for solar water splitting.

  1. Decline in extractable antibiotics in manure-based composts during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-R; Owens, G; Ok, Y S; Park, W-K; Lee, D B; Kwon, S-I

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of antibiotics have been detected in natural water samples and this is of potential concern because of the adverse environmental effects of such antibiotic residues. One of the main sources of antibiotics effluence to the surrounding environment is livestock manures which often contain elevated concentrations of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) which survive digestion in the animal stomach following application in animal husbandry practices. In Korea, livestock manures are normally used for compost production indicating that there is potential for antibiotic release to the environment through compost application to agricultural lands. Therefore, reduction of the amount of VAs in composts is crucial. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence of the composting process and the components of the compost on the levels of three common classes of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and macrolides). Composted materials at different stages of composting were collected from compost manufacturing plants and the variation in antibiotic concentrations was determined. Three different antibiotics, chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), and tylosin (TYL) at three different concentrations (2, 10, and 20mgkg(-1)) were also applied to a mixture of pig manure and sawdust and the mixtures incubated using a laboratory scale composting apparatus to monitor the changes in antibiotic concentrations during composting together with the physicochemical properties of the composts. During composting, in both field and lab-scale investigations, the concentrations of all three different antibiotics declined below the relevant Korean guideline values (0.8mgkg(-1) for tetracyclines, 0.2mgkg(-1) for sulfonamides and 1.0mgkg(-1) for macrolides). The decline of tetracycline and sulfonamide concentrations was highly dependent on the presence of sawdust while there was no influence of sawdust on TYL decline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Vermi compost and Compost tea Application on the Growth criteria of Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Afsharmanesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. .Its value as a cost-effective ruminant feed is one of the main reasons that farmers grow it. However, lack of nutrients such as N and P, are the principal obstacles - to crop production under low input agricultural systems leading to dependency on chemical fertilizers. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers destroy soil physicochemical properties and it reduced permeability which restricts root growth, nutrient uptake and plant production. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers can help to enrich the soil root zone As a result growth and yield will improve. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of different levels of vermicompost and foliar application of tea compost on growth characteristics of the hybrid maize genotype 713, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, during 2013. Treatments were included vermicompost (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% pot weight and tea composts (foliar application, non-foliar application. Measured traits were included root dry weight, root volume, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, macro nutrient concentration (N and P and micro nutrient concentration (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. All the data were subjected to the statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA using SAS software (SAS 9.1.3. Differences between the treatments were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 1% confidence interval. Results and Discussion Results indicated that leaf and stem dry weight affected by the application of vermicompost and tea compost. However, the interaction effects had no significant effects on the leaf and stem dry weight. Application of tea compost increased 20% and 50% leaf dry weight and stem dry weight of corn compared to non- foliar application

  3. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-strength high-conductivity Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet fabricated via multiple roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.C.; Delagi, R.G.; Forster, J.A.; Krotz, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Copper-niobium microcomposites are a new class of high-strength high-conductivity materials that have attractive properties for room- and elevated-temperature applications. Since Nb has little solid solubility in Cu, addition of Nb to Cu does not affect its conductivity. Copper-niobium microcomposites are melted and cast so that the microstructure of cast Cu-Nb ingots consists of 1- to 10 μm Nb dendrites uniformly distributed within the copper matrix. Extensive wire drawing with a true processing strain (η> 12) of Cu-Nb alloy leads to refinement and elongation of Nb dendrites into 1- to 10 nm-thick filaments. The presence of such fine Nb filaments causes a significant increase in the strength of Cu-Nb wires. The tensile strength of heavily drawn Cu-Nb wires was determined to be significantly higher than the values predicted by the rule of mixtures. This article reports the fabrication of high-strength Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet by multiple roll bonding. It is difficult and impractical to attain high processing strains (η>3) by simple cold rolling. In most practical cold-rolling operation, the thickness reduction does not exceed 90 pct (η ≅2). Therefore, innovative processing is required to generate high strength in Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet. Multiple roll bonding of Cu-Nb has been utilized to store high processing strain ( η>10) in the material and refine the Nb particle size within the copper matrix. This article describes the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of roll-bonded Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet

  5. Temperatures In Compost Landfill Covers As Result Of Methane Oxidation And Compost Respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Merono, A. R.; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the temperature on methane (CH4) oxidation and respiration in compost sampled at a full scale biocover implemented at Klintholm landfill exhibiting high temperatures. Compost material was collected at Klintholm landfill and incubated with and without CH4...

  6. Impact of copper on the diazotroph abundance and community composition during swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Hu, Ting; Ma, Jiyue; Wang, Qianzhi

    2018-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a major pathway in ecosystems. This study investigated the effects of adding Cu at different levels (0, 200, and 2000 mg kg -1 ) on the diazotroph community during swine manure composting. Quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing were used to analyze the abundances of diazotrophs and the community composition based on the nifH gene. The nifH gene copy number was relatively high in the early stage of composting and Cu had a significant inhibitory effect on the nifH copy number. Furthermore, Cu decreased the diversity of nifH and changed the microbial community structure in the early stage. The nifH genes from members of Firmicutes and Clostridium were most abundant. Co-occurrence ecological network analysis showed that the Cu treatments affected the co-occurrence patterns of diazotroph communities and reduced the associations between different diazotrophs. Interestingly, Cu may weaken symbiotic diazotrophic interactions and enhance the roles of free-living diazotrophs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High temperature XRD of Cu2GeSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premkumar, D. S.; Malar, P.; Chetty, Raju; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The Cu 2 GeSe 3 is prepared by solid state synthesis method. The high temperature XRD has been done at different temperature from 30 °C to 450 °C. The reitveld refinement confirms Cu 2 GeSe 3 phase and orthorhombic crystal structure. The lattice constants are increasing with increase in the temperature and their rate of increase with respect to temperature are used for finding the thermal expansion coefficient. The calculation of the linear and volume coefficient of thermal expansion is done from 30 °C to 400 °C. Decrease in the values of linear expansion coefficients with temperature are observed along a and c axis. Since thermal expansion coefficient is the consequence of the distortion of atoms in the lattice; this can be further used to find the minimum lattice thermal conductivity at given temperature

  8. Onderzoek naar de herkomst van zware metalen en organische stoffen in GFT-compost. Deel I.1 Kwaliteit van GFT-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker PM; LAE

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a study to the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic in compost from different areas. The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn and As are compared with maximum tolerable levels of metals in compost. More over, a statistical research is carried out to the relation between

  9. Managing physicochemical parameters in compost systems to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Full Length Research Paper ... respiration of compost microorganisms were monitored in each pile. ... which include high cost, production of toxic by-products ... which could promote degradation of xenobioticcompounds.

  10. The physiology of Agaricus bisporus in semi-commercial compost cultivation appears to be highly conserved among unrelated isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes, María Victoria Aguilar; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Jurak, Edita; Hildén, Kristiina; Altelaar, Maarten; Heck, Albert; Kabel, Mirjam A; de Vries, Ronald P; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2017-01-01

    The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and

  11. The physiology of Agaricus bisporus in semi-commercial compost cultivation appears to be highly conserved among unrelated isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes, María Victoria Aguilar; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Post, Harm; Jurak, Edita; Hildén, Kristiina; Altelaar, Maarten; Heck, Albert; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Vries, de Ronald P.; Mäkelä, Miia R.

    2018-01-01

    The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and

  12. Migration of heavy metals in soil as influenced by compost amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Mark, E-mail: m.farrell@bangor.ac.u [School of the Environment and Natural Resources, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Perkins, William T. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3DB (United Kingdom); Hobbs, Phil J. [North Wyke Research, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Griffith, Gareth W. [Institute of Biological Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion SY23 3DA (United Kingdom); Jones, Davey L. [School of the Environment and Natural Resources, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals can pose a major risk to freshwaters and food chains. In this study, the success of organic and inorganic intervention strategies to alleviate toxicity in a highly acidic soil heavily contaminated with As, Cu, Pb, and Zn was evaluated over 112 d in a mesocosm trial. Amelioration of metal toxicity was assessed by measuring changes in soil solution chemistry, metal leaching, plant growth, and foliar metal accumulation. Either green waste- or MSW-derived composts increased plant yield and rooting depth, reduced plant metal uptake, and raised the pH and nutrient status of the soil. We conclude that composts are well suited for promoting the re-vegetation of contaminated sites; however, care must be taken to ensure that very short-term leaching pulses of heavy metals induced by compost amendment are not of sufficient magnitude to cause contamination of the wider environment. - Composts increase rooting depth and vegetation growth over inorganic amendment in an acidic, contaminated soil.

  13. Migration of heavy metals in soil as influenced by compost amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Mark; Perkins, William T.; Hobbs, Phil J.; Griffith, Gareth W.; Jones, Davey L.

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals can pose a major risk to freshwaters and food chains. In this study, the success of organic and inorganic intervention strategies to alleviate toxicity in a highly acidic soil heavily contaminated with As, Cu, Pb, and Zn was evaluated over 112 d in a mesocosm trial. Amelioration of metal toxicity was assessed by measuring changes in soil solution chemistry, metal leaching, plant growth, and foliar metal accumulation. Either green waste- or MSW-derived composts increased plant yield and rooting depth, reduced plant metal uptake, and raised the pH and nutrient status of the soil. We conclude that composts are well suited for promoting the re-vegetation of contaminated sites; however, care must be taken to ensure that very short-term leaching pulses of heavy metals induced by compost amendment are not of sufficient magnitude to cause contamination of the wider environment. - Composts increase rooting depth and vegetation growth over inorganic amendment in an acidic, contaminated soil.

  14. High pressure orthorhombic structure of CuInSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovornratanaraks, T; Saengsuwan, V; Yoodee, K; McMahon, M I; Hejny, C; Ruffolo, D

    2010-01-01

    The structural behaviour of CuInSe 2 under high pressure has been studied up to 53 GPa using angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction techniques. The previously reported structural phase transition from its ambient pressure tetragonal structure to a high pressure phase with a NaCl-like cubic structure at 7.6 GPa has been confirmed. On further compression, another structural phase transition is observed at 39 GPa. A full structural study of this high pressure phase has been carried out and the high pressure structure has been identified as orthorhombic with space group Cmcm and lattice parameters a = 4.867(8) A, b = 5.023(8) A and c = 4.980(3) A at 53.2(2) GPa. This phase transition behaviour is similar to those of analogous binary and trinary semiconductors, where the orthorhombic Cmcm structure can also be viewed as a distortion of the cubic NaCl-type structure.

  15. Trash to Treasure: NREL's High-Solids Digester Converts Wastes to Biogas and Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This article describes a pilot high-solids digester (HSD) plant for use in : American Samoa. The American Samoa is highly dependent on imported fuel. At : the same time, the local tuna canneries produce large amounts of waste : materials. The HSD pro...

  16. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  17. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  18. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  19. Composting Begins at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  20. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of vacancy migration energy in Cu under high strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Satoh, Y.; Xu, Q.; Kiritani, M.

    2003-01-01

    The activation energy for the migration of vacancies in Cu under high strain was calculated by computer simulation using static methods. The migration energy of vacancies was 0.98 eV in the absence of deformation. It varied with the migration direction and stress direction because the distance between a vacancy and its neighboring atoms changes by deformation. For example, the migration energy for the shortest migration distance was reduced to 9.6 and 39.4% of its initial value by 10% compression and 20% elongation, respectively, while that for the longest migration distance was raised to 171.7 by 20% elongation. If many vacancies are created during high-speed deformation, the lowering of migration energy enables vacancies to escape to sinks such as surfaces, even during the shorter deformation period. The critical strain rate above which the strain rate dependence of vacancy accumulation ceases to exist increases with the lowering of vacancy migration energy

  2. High pressure transport properties of Yb2Cu9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spendeler, L.; Jaccard, D.; Sierro, J.; Flouquet, J.

    1992-01-01

    The electrical resistivity (ρ) and the absolute thermopower (S) of high-purity Yb 2 Cu 9 have been measured between 1.2 and 300 K at pressures up to 17 kbar and in magnetic fields up to 6 T. At zero pressure the three measured samples show a Kondo peak in the resistivity at 17 K. Furthermore for one of them the resistivity rises below 5 K. Under pressure, the Kondo peak in ρ slowly moves towards lower temperatures indicating a decrease of the Kondo temperature T K , in good agreement with specific heat results. The increase of ρ below 5 K disappears completely for pressure lower than 1 kbar and the residual resistivity remains high. The thermopower S exhibits similar trends. Magnetic field dependences of both ρ and S are weak. No evidence of magnetic ordering has been detected up to 17.6 kbar

  3. Effects of Copper Addition on Copper Resistance, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and intl1 during Swine Manure Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanan; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Wen; Zhang, Kaiyu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Haichao

    2017-01-01

    Copper is one of the most abundant heavy metals present in swine manure. In this study, a laboratory-scale aerobic composting system was amended with Cu at three levels (0, 200, and 2000 mg kg-1, i.e., control, Cu200, and Cu2000 treatments, respectively) to determine its effect on the fate of copper resistance genes [copper resistance genes (CRGs): pcoA, cusA, copA, and tcrB], antibiotic resistance genes [antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs): erm(A) and erm(B)], and intl1. The results showed that the absolute abundances of pcoA, tcrB, erm(A), erm(B), and intl1 were reduced, whereas those of copA and cusA increased after swine manure composting. Redundancy analysis showed that temperature significantly affected the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1. The decreases in CRGs, ARGs, and intI1 were positively correlated with the exchangeable Cu levels. The bacterial community could be grouped according to the composting time under different treatments, where the high concentration of copper had a more persistent effect on the bacterial community. Network analysis determined that the co-occurrence of CRGs, ARGs, and intI1, and the bacterial community were the main contributors to the changes in CRGs, ARG, and intl1. Thus, temperature, copper, and changes in the bacterial community composition had important effects on the variations in CRGs, ARGs, and intl1 during manure composting in the presence of added copper. PMID:28316595

  4. High-performance supercapacitors of Cu-based porous coordination polymer nanowires and the derived porous CuO nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ke; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Yi, Fei-Yan; Chen, Chen; Li, Yan-Li; Li, Qin; Tao, Kai; Han, Lei

    2017-12-12

    Electrode materials for supercapacitors with one-dimensional porous nanostructures, such as nanowires and nanotubes, are very attractive for high-efficiency storage of electrochemical energy. Herein, ultralong Cu-based porous coordination polymer nanowires (copper-l-aspartic acid) were used as the electrode material for supercapacitors, for the first time. The as-prepared material exhibits a high specific capacitance of 367 F g -1 at 0.6 A g -1 and excellent cycling stability (94% retention over 1000 cycles). Moreover, porous CuO nanotubes were successfully fabricated by the thermal decomposition of this nanowire precursor. The CuO nanotube exhibits good electrochemical performance with high rate capacity (77% retention at 12.5 A g -1 ) and long-term stability (96% retention over 1000 cycles). The strategy developed here for the synthesis of porous nanowires and nanotubes can be extended to the construction of other electrode materials for more efficient energy storage.

  5. Minor-Cu doped soft magnetic Fe-based FeCoBCSiCu amorphous alloys with high saturation magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The effects of Cu alloying on the amorphous-forming ability (AFA) and magnetic properties of the P-free Fe81Co5B11C2Si1 amorphous alloy were investigated. Addition of ≤ 1.0 at.% Cu enhances the AFA of the base alloy without significant deterioration of the soft magnetic properties. The Fe80.5Co5B11C2Si1Cu0.5 alloy with the largest critical thickness for amorphous formation of ˜35 μm possesses a high saturation magnetization (Bs) of ˜1.78 T, low coercivity of ˜14.6 A/m, and good bending ductility upon annealing in a wide temperature range of 513-553 K with maintaining the amorphous state. The fabrication of the new high-Fe-content Fe-Co-B-C-Si-Cu amorphous alloys by minor doping of Cu gives a guideline to developing high Bs amorphous alloys with excellent AFA.

  6. High Tc superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O7-x studied by PAC and PAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shengyun; Li Anli; Zheng Shengnan; Huang Hanchen; Li Donghong; Din Honglin; Du Hongshan; Sun Hancheng

    1993-01-01

    High T c superconductivity has been investigated in YBaCuO by both perturbed angular correlation and positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques as a function of temperature from 77 to 300 K. An abrupt change has been observed in the positron lifetime and Doppler broadening and the electric field gradient and its asymmetry parameter across T c , indicating a transition of two- to one-dimensional Cu-O-Cu chain structure and a charge transfer from CuO layers to CuO chains. An anomaly of the normal state has been demonstrated around 125 K, which is attributed to the structural instability. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kumari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC and aerated static pile composting (SAPC. In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles, volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1 were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems.

  8. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems.

  9. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  10. Assessment of heavy metal pollution with applications of sewage sludge and city compost for maximizing crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Ramachandran, V.; Raghu, K.

    1997-01-01

    Land application of municipal sewage sludge and city compost as organic manures make it imperative to assess heavy-metal pollution in soils and crops. Greenhouse experiments, conducted on maize in a vertisol and an ultisol amended with various doses of dry sewage sludge and city compost from Mumbai, indicated significant increases in dry matter-yields only in the vertisol. Significantly higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni and Cd were obtained in plants grown in the amended ultisol, but not in the amended vertisol. As Cd is the most toxic, experiments were conducted with four contrasting soils amended with varying doses of Cd-enriched sewage sludge and city compost. Results showed significant reductions in dry-matter yields of maize shoots at the higher rates of sludge or compost in the ultisol and an alfisol, but with no significant effects in the vertisol or an entisol. The levels of Cd and Zn were significantly elevated in plants in all four soil types. There were negative residual effects from the sludge and compost amendments: dry-matter yields of a succeeding maize crop were decreased in the ultisol and alfisol. Experiments with soils amended with sludge enriched with either Cd or Zn at 80 mg kg -1 indicated significant reductions in dry matter in all soils with Cd, but not with Zn. The results demonstrate that sewage sludges and city composts may be effectively used for maximizing crop yields, especially in vertisols and entisols. However, caution has to be exercised when using sludges containing even relatively low levels of Cd, or high levels of Zn, depending upon soil type. (author)

  11. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals and Organic Toxicants by Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen V. Barker

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous organic and metallic residues or by-products can enter into plants, soils, and sediments from processes associated with domestic, municipal, agricultural, industrial, and military activities. Handling, ingestion, application to land or other distributions of the contaminated materials into the environment might render harm to humans, livestock, wildlife, crops, or native plants. Considerable remediation of the hazardous wastes or contaminated plants, soils, and sediments can be accomplished by composting. High microbial diversity and activity during composting, due to the abundance of substrates in feedstocks, promotes degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds, such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. For composting of contaminated soils, noncontaminated organic matter should be cocomposted with the soils. Metallic pollutants are not degraded during composting but may be converted into organic combinations that have less bioavailability than mineral combinations of the metals. Degradation of organic contaminants in soils is facilitated by addition of composted or raw organic matter, thereby increasing the substrate levels for cometabolism of the contaminants. Similar to the composting of soils in vessels or piles, the on-site addition of organic matter to soils (sheet composting accelerates degradation of organic pollutants and binds metallic pollutants. Recalcitrant materials, such as organochlorines, may not undergo degradation in composts or in soils, and the effects of forming organic complexes with metallic pollutants may be nonpermanent or short lived. The general conclusion is, however, that composting degrades or binds pollutants to innocuous levels or into innocuous compounds in the finished product.

  12. Changes in cadmium mobility during composting and after soil application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanc, Ales; Tlustos, Pavel; Szakova, Jirina; Habart, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The effect of twelve weeks of composting on the mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in six composts containing sewage sludge, wood chips and grass was studied, along with the cadmium immobilization capacity of compost. Two different soils were used and Cd accumulation measured in above-ground oat biomass (Avena sativa L.). Increasing pH appears to be an important cause of the observed decreases in available cadmium through the composting process. A pot experiment was performed with two different amounts of compost (9.6 and 28.8 g per kg of soil) added into Fluvisol with total Cd 0.255 mg kg -1 , and contaminated Cambisol with total Cd 6.16 mg kg -1 . Decrease of extractable Cd (0.01 mol l -1 CaCl 2 ) was found in both soils after compost application. The higher amount of compost immobilized an exchangeable portion of Cd (0.11 mol l -1 CH 3 COOH extractable) in contaminated Cambisol unlike in light Fluvisol. The addition of a low amount of compost decreased the content of Cd in associated above-ground oat biomass grown in both soils, while a high amount of compost decreased the Cd content in oats only in the Cambisol.

  13. High yield Cu-Co CPP GMR multilayer sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallas, J., Mao, M., Law, B., Grabner, F., Cerjan, C., O'Kane, O.

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated and tested GMR magnetic flux sensors that operate in the CPP mode. This work is a continuation of the ultra-high density magnetic sensor research introduced at INTERMAG 96. We have made two significant modifications to the process sequence. First, contact to the sensor is made through a metal conduit deposited in situ with the multilayers. This deposition replaces electroplating. This configuration ensures a good electrical interface between the top of multilayer stack and the top contact, and a continuous, conductive current path to the sensor. The consequences of this modification are an increase in yield of operational devices to ≥90% per wafer and a significant reduction of the device resistance to ≤560 milliohms and of the uniformity of the device resistance to ≤3%. Second, the as-deposited multilayer structure has been changed from [Cu 30 angstrom/Co 20 angstrom] 18 (third peak) to [Cu 20.5 angstrom/Co 12 angstrom] 30 (second peak) to increase the CPP and CIP responses. The sheet film second peak CIP GMR response is 18% and the sensitivity is 0.08 %/Oe. The sheet film third peak CIP GMR response is 8% and the sensitivity is 0. 05 %/Oe. The second peak CPP GMR response averaged over twenty devices on a four inch silicon substrate is 28% ± 6%. The response decreases radially from the substrate center. The average response at the center of the substrate is 33% ± 4%. The average second peak CPP sensitivity is 0.09 %/Oe ± 0.02 %/Oe. The best second peak CPP response from a single device is 39%. The sensitivity of that device is 0.13 %/Oe. The third peak CPP GMR response is approximately 14 %. The third peak CPP response sensitivity is 0.07 %/Oe. 6 refs., 3 figs

  14. Amorphous Cu-Ag films with high stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, I.M.; Hafner, J.; Pongratz, P.; Wagendristel, A.; Bangert, H.; Bhat, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    Films produced by quenching Cu-Ag vapour onto cooled substrates at liquid nitrogen temperature have been investigated using electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements. In the composition range from 30 to 70 at% Cu the as quenched films are amorphous, and within the range of 35 to 63 at% Cu the amorphous phase is stable above room temperature with a maximum crystallization temperature Tsub(c)=381 K at 47.5 at% Cu. Crystallization results in the formation of a supersaturated fcc solid solution which decomposes in a second crystallization step. The effect of deposition rate, film thickness, temperature and surface of the substrate, and most importantly of the composition on the transition temperatures has been investigated. A comparative study of the formation of amorphous phases in a wide variety of Cu-based alloys is presented. (author)

  15. Highly efficient capture of iodine by Cu/MIL-101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bingbing; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Tao; Gao, Qianhong; Yan, Xuewu; Jiao, Yan; Yang, Yi

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve the uptake capacity of MIL-101 for iodine, Cu nanoparticles doped MIL-101 were successfully synthesized through a facile method. The obtained Cu/MIL-101 was characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS, TEM, IR, TGA and BET to examine the chemical and thermal stabilities. The capture experiments for the adsorbents showed that the capture capacity of Cu/MIL-101 for volatile iodine is 342 wt%, which is higher than that of pure MIL-101. An I2 uptake of 342 wt% is the highest value reported among metal-organic frameworks. Furthermore, Cu/MIL-101 has a cycle ratio of 95% after three cycles and exhibits a better cyclicity than pure MIL-101. Meanwhile, Cu/MIL-101 shows an excellent reversible adsorption of iodine in solution.

  16. First-principle Calculations of Mechanical Properties of Al2Cu, Al2CuMg and MgZn2 Intermetallics in High Strength Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIAO Fei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural stabilities, mechanical properties and electronic structures of Al2Cu, Al2CuMg and MgZn2 intermetallics in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aluminum alloys were determined from the first-principle calculations by VASP based on the density functional theory. The results show that the cohesive energy (Ecoh decreases in the order MgZn2 > Al2CuMg > Al2Cu, whereas the formation enthalpy (ΔH decreases in the order MgZn2 > Al2Cu > Al2CuMg. Al2Cu can act as a strengthening phase for its ductile and high Young's modulus. The Al2CuMg phase exhibits elastic anisotropy and may act as a crack initiation point. MgZn2 has good plasticity and low melting point, which is the main strengthening phase in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aluminum alloys. Metallic bonding mode coexists with a fractional ionic interaction in Al2Cu, Al2CuMg and MgZn2, and that improves the structural stability. In order to improve the alloys' performance further, the generation of MgZn2 phase should be promoted by increasing Zn content while Mg and Cu contents are decreased properly.

  17. Native oxidation of ultra high purity Cu bulk and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, J.; Lim, J.-W.; Hong, S.-H.; Suzuki, S.; Mimura, K.; Isshiki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of microstructure and purity on the native oxidation of Cu was studied by using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). A high quality copper film prepared by ion beam deposition under a substrate bias voltage of -50 V (IBD Cu film at V s = -50 V) showed an oxidation resistance as high as an ultra high purity copper (UHP Cu) bulk, whereas a Cu film deposited without substrate bias voltage (IBD Cu film at V s = 0 V) showed lower oxidation resistance. The growth of Cu 2 O layer on the UHP Cu bulk and both types of the films obeyed in principle a logarithmic rate law. However, the growth of oxide layer on the IBD Cu films at V s = 0 and -50 V deviated upward from the logarithmic rate law after the exposure time of 320 and 800 h, respectively. The deviation from the logarithmic law is due to the formation of CuO on the Cu 2 O layer after a critical time

  18. Opportunities and barriers to on-farm composting and compost application: A case study from northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, J; Van Lancker, J; Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Bijttebier, J; Ruysschaert, G; De Neve, S; Reubens, B

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining and increasing soil quality and fertility in a sustainable way is an important challenge for modern agriculture. The burgeoning bioeconomy is likely to put further pressure on soil resources unless they are managed carefully. Compost has the potential to be an effective soil improver because of its multiple beneficial effects on soil quality. Additionally, it fits within the bioeconomy vision because it can valorize biomass from prior biomass processing or valorize biomass unsuitable for other processes. However, compost is rarely used in intensive agriculture, especially in regions with high manure surpluses. The aim of this research is to identify the barriers to on-farm composting and the application of compost in agriculture, using a mixed method approach for the case of Flanders. The significance of the 28 identified barriers is analyzed and they are categorized as market and financial, policy and institutional, scientific and technological and informational and behavioral barriers. More specifically, the shortage of woody biomass, strict regulation, considerable financial and time investment, and lack of experience and knowledge are hindering on-farm composting. The complex regulation, manure surplus, variable availability and transport of compost, and variable compost quality and composition are barriers to apply compost. In conclusion, five recommendations are suggested that could alleviate certain hindering factors and thus increase attractiveness of compost use in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Science of Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, Flora L.

    1993-01-01

    Students are able to experience cellular respiration in action and become more informed about the environment by creating compost. This article describes an activity that brings a natural process into the classroom. (ZWH)

  20. Composting: Great Rotten Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    To help students investigate both the advantages and disadvantages of composting, various activities are presented dealing with the definitions and the applications of the concepts of recyclable and biodegradable. (MCO)

  1. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: COMPOSTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting is an emerging ex situ biological technology that is potentially applicable to nonvolatile and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in soils. It has been applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explosives. It has been found to be potentially effectiv...

  2. Synthesis of high efficient Cu/TiO2 photocatalysts by grinding and their size-dependent photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dawei; Shen, Haiyan; Li, Huiqiao; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-07-01

    Recently, copper species have been extensively investigated to replace Pt as efficient co-catalysts for the evolution of H2 due to their low cost and relatively high activity. Cu nanoparticles less than 5 nm are successfully decorated on TiO2 surface in this work by an easy and mild milling process. These Cu nanoparticles are highly dispersed on TiO2 when the loading amount of Cu is no more than 10 wt%. The sizes of Cu nanoparticles can be controlled by changing the milling environment and decrease in the order of Cu-ethanol > Cu-water > Cu nanoparticles obtained through drying milling. The highest and stable hydrogen generation can be realized on Cu/TiO2 with 2.0 wt% Cu and sizes of Cu nanoparticles ranging from 2 to 4 nm, in which high and stable photocurrent confirms promoted photogenerated charge separation. Smaller Cu clusters are demonstrated to be detrimental to hydrogen evolution at same Cu content. High loading of Cu nanoparticles of 2-4 nm will benefit photogenerated electron-hole recombination and thus decrease the activity of Cu/TiO2. The results here demonstrate the key roles of Cu cluster size in addition to Cu coverage on photocatalytic activity of Cu/TiO2 composite photocatalysts.

  3. Comparison of GRCop-84 to Other Cu Alloys with High Thermal Conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Ellis, David L.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of six highly conductive copper alloys, GRCop-84, AMZIRC, GlidCop Al-15, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z were compared. Tests were done on as-received hard drawn material, and after a heat treatment designed to simulate a brazing operation at 935 C. In the as-received condition AMZIRC, GlidCop Al-15, Cu- 1Cr-0.1Zr and Cu-0.9Cr had excellent strengths at temperatures below 500 C. However, the brazing heat treatment substantially decreased the mechanical properties of AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z. The properties of GlidCop Al-15 and GRCop-84 were not significantly affected by the heat treatment. Thus there appear to be advantages to GRCop-84 over AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z if use or processing temperatures greater than 500 C are expected. Ductility was lowest in GlidCop Al-15 and Cu-0.9Cr; reduction in area was particularly low in GlidCop Al-15 above 500 C, and as- received Cu-0.9Cr was brittle between 500 and 650 C. Tensile creep tests were done at 500 and 650 C; the creep properties of GRCop-84 were superior to those of brazed AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr- 0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z. In the brazed condition, GRCop-84 was superior to the other alloys due to its greater strength and creep resistance (compared to AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z) and ductility (compared to GlidCop Al-15).

  4. Use of composts in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Mark; Jones, Davey L

    2010-03-15

    High levels of heavy metals in soil can ultimately lead to pollution of drinking water and contamination of food. Consequently, sustainable remediation strategies for treating soil are required. The potential ameliorative effect of several composts derived from source-separated and mixed municipal wastes were evaluated in a highly acidic heavily contaminated soil (As, Cu, Pb, Zn) in the presence and absence of lime. Overall, PTE (potentially toxic element) amelioration was enhanced by compost whilst lime had little effect and even exacerbated PTE mobilization (e.g. As). All composts reduced soil solution PTE levels and raised soil pH and nutrient levels and are well suited to revegetation of contaminated sites. However, care must be taken to ensure correct pH management (pH 5-6) to optimize plant growth whilst minimizing PTE solubilization, particularly at high pH. In addition, 'metal excluder' species should be sown to minimize PTE entry into the food chain. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cu ion ink for a flexible substrate and highly conductive patterning by intensive pulsed light sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Byung-Yong; Yoo, Tae-Hee; Song, Yong-Won; Lim, Dae-Soon; Oh, Young-Jei

    2013-05-22

    Direct printing techniques that utilize nanoparticles to mitigate environmental pollution and reduce the processing time of the routing and formation of electrodes have received much attention lately. In particular, copper (Cu) nanoink using Cu nanoparticles offers high conductivity and can be prepared at low cost. However, it is difficult to produce homogeneous nanoparticles and ensure good dispersion within the ink. Moreover, Cu particles require a sintering process over an extended time at a high temperature due to high melting temperature of Cu. During this process, the nanoparticles oxidize quickly in air. To address these problems, the authors developed a Cu ion ink that is free of Cu particles or any other impurities. It consequently does not require separate dispersion stability. In addition, the developed ink is environmentally friendly and can be sintered even at low temperatures. The Cu ion ink was sintered on a flexible substrate using intense pulsed light (IPL), which facilitates large-area, high-speed calcination at room temperature and at atmospheric pressures. As the applied light energy increases, the Cu2O phase diminishes, leaving only the Cu phase. This is attributed to the influence of formic acid (HCOOH) on the Cu ion ink. Only the Cu phase was observed above 40 J cm(-2). The Cu-patterned film after sintering showed outstanding electrical resistivity in a range of 3.21-5.27 μΩ·cm at an IPL energy of 40-60 J cm(-2). A spiral-type micropattern with a line width of 160 μm on a PI substrate was formed without line bulges or coffee ring effects. The electrical resistivity was 5.27 μΩ·cm at an energy level of 40.6 J cm(-2).

  6. High-purity Cu nanocrystal synthesis by a dynamic decomposition method

    OpenAIRE

    Jian, Xian; Cao, Yu; Chen, Guozhang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Hui; Yin, Liangjun; Luan, Chunhong; Liang, Yinglin; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Sixin; Zeng, Qing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chengui

    2014-01-01

    Cu nanocrystals are applied extensively in several fields, particularly in the microelectron, sensor, and catalysis. The catalytic behavior of Cu nanocrystals depends mainly on the structure and particle size. In this work, formation of high-purity Cu nanocrystals is studied using a common chemical vapor deposition precursor of cupric tartrate. This process is investigated through a combined experimental and computational approach. The decomposition kinetics is researched via differential sca...

  7. Feasibility of medical stone amendment for sewage sludge co-composting and production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Li, Ronghua; Zhao, Junchao; Ren, Xiuna; Wang, Meijing; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-06-15

    The feasibility of medical stone (MS) amendment as an innovative additive for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) co-composting was assessed using a 130-L vessel-scale composter. To verify successful composting, five treatments were designed with four different dosages (2, 4, 6, and 10) % of MS with a 1:1 mixture (dry weight) of DFSS + wheat straw (WS). The WS was used as a bulking agent. A control without any amendment treatment was carried out for the purpose of comparison. For DFSS co-composting, the amendment with MS improved the mineralization efficiency and compost quality in terms of CO 2 emissions, dehydrogenase enzyme (DE), electrical conductivity (EC), water-solubility, and total nutrients transformation. The DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn were also estimated to confirm the immobilization ability of the applied MS. Seed germination and plant growth tests were conducted to ensure the compost stability and phytotoxicity for Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis L.) growth and biomass, as well as chlorophyll content. The results showed that during the bio-oxidative phase, DOC, DON, AP, NH 4 + -N, and NO 3 - -N increased drastically in all the MS-blended treatments, except the application of 2% MS and the control treatment; significantly lower water-soluble nutrients were observed in the 2% MS and control treatments. A novel additive with 6-10% MS dosages considerably enhanced the organic matter conversion in the stable end-product (compost) and reduced the maturity period by two weeks compared to the 2% MS and control treatments. Consequently, the maturity parameters (e.g., EC, SGI, NH 4 + -N, DOC, and DON) confirmed that compost with 6-10% MS became more stable and mature within four weeks of DFSS co-composting. At the end of composting, significantly higher DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn contents were observed in the control treatment, and subsequently, in the very low application (10%) of MS. Higher MS dosage lowered the pH and EC to within the permissible

  8. Highly absorbing Cu-In-O thin films for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemiri, N.; Chaffar Akkari, F.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-01-01

    We report in this paper on the preparation and characterization of improved quality Cu-In-O films for use as a high-efficiency solar cell absorber. Samples were prepared via sequential thermal vacuum deposition of Cu and In or In and Cu (at 10 -5 mbar) on glass substrates heated at 150 deg. C. After what, the obtained binary systems (Cu/In or In/Cu) were annealed in air at 400 deg. C for 3h. These films were characterized for their structural, electrical and optical properties by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrical resistivity and optical (transmittance and reflectance) measurement techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed the presence of CuO and In 2 O 3 phases. The absorption coefficient of Cu-In-O thin films (4.10 5 cm -1 ) is larger than 10 5 cm -1 for the In/Cu case and in the range of 10 4 -10 5 cm -1 for the Cu/In case in the visible spectral range. Direct optical band gaps of 1.40 and 1.52eV were found for the In/Cu and Cu/In cases, respectively. The complex dielectric constants of the Cu-In-O films have been calculated. It was found that the refractive index dispersion data obeyed the Wemple-Di Domenico single oscillator model, from which the dispersion parameters and the high-frequency dielectric constant were determined. The electric free carrier susceptibility and the ratio of the carrier concentration to the effective mass were estimated according to the model of Spitzer and Fan. The electrical measurements show a conversion from a metallic phase to the semiconductor phase by a switching in the electrical resistivity values at an annealing temperature of 275 deg. C. In both cases the samples were highly compensated

  9. Experimental evaluation of compost leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Compost is often used in raingardens, roadsides, and bioretention systems, not only because of : its beneficial properties on soil quality, but also because compost improves water infiltration and : retains stormwater contaminants. However, when comp...

  10. Long-Lived Termite Queens Exhibit High Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Tasaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In most organisms, superoxide dismutases (SODs are among the most effective antioxidant enzymes that regulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by oxidative energy metabolism. ROS are considered main proximate causes of aging. However, it remains unclear if SOD activities are associated with organismal longevity. The queens of eusocial insects, such as termites, ants, and honeybees, exhibit extraordinary longevity in comparison with the nonreproductive castes, such as workers. Therefore, the queens are promising candidates to study the underlying mechanisms of aging. Here, we found that queens have higher Cu/Zn-SOD activity than nonreproductive individuals of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. We identified three Cu/Zn-SOD sequences and one Mn-SOD sequence by RNA sequencing in R. speratus. Although the queens showed higher Cu/Zn-SOD activity than the nonreproductive individuals, there were no differences in their expression levels of the Cu/Zn-SOD genes RsSOD1 and RsSOD3A. Copper (Cu2+ and Cu+ is an essential cofactor for Cu/Zn-SOD enzyme activity, and the queens had higher concentrations of copper than the workers. These results suggest that the high Cu/Zn-SOD activity of termite queens is related to their high levels of the cofactor rather than gene expression. This study highlights that Cu/Zn-SOD activity contributes to extraordinary longevity in termites.

  11. CuO nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jun; Shan, Wanfei; Xia, Xinbei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/GNS nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • CuO/GNSs as LIB anodes exhibit much higher cyclability and capacity than CuO nanostructures. • Such excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect between CuO and GNSs. -- Abstract: CuO/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their application as anodes of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. CuO nanorods are uniformly coating on the surface of graphene nanosheets. CuO/graphene nanocomposites exhibit high cyclability and capacity. After 50 cycles, the capacity can maintain at 692.5 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C rate (10 h per half cycle). Such a high performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and CuO nanorods. The present results indicate that CuO/graphene nanocomposites have potential applications in the anodes of lithium-ion battery

  12. Adsorption of Lead and Copper Using Water Hyacinth Compost (Eichornia Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiky Frederika Rumapar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Adsorption of heavy metals Pb and Cu studies have been carried out using a compost of plant water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes. First steps of the composting is fermenting fresh hyacinth plants that have been enumerated with molasses and water. Once formed, the compost is used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of heavy metals Pb and Cu. After that process, the water hyacinth compost have been characterized to determine the humic acid content, as well as the functional group content of heavy metals Pb and Cu. Determination of general conditions on the adsorption of Pb and Cu performed with adsorbent mass variations, variations in pH and the concentration variation and studying adsorption isotherm. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb in optimum condition occurs in adsorbent mass of 1.2 g with pH 5. As for the adsorption of Cu on the optimum conditions occur in the adsorbent mass of 0.8 g at pH 6. Results also able to adsorb up to 95.13% Pb and up to 91.42% Cu. Pb and Cu adsorption using adsorbents of water hyacinth compost more models to follow Langmuir than Freundlich models.

  13. The potential impact on the biodegradation of organic pollutants from composting technology for soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoya; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Wang, Jingjing; Wan, Jia; Wang, Jiajia; Deng, Yaocheng; Liu, Yani; Peng, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Large numbers of organic pollutants (OPs), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and petroleum, are discharged into soil, posing a huge threat to natural environment. Traditional chemical and physical remediation technologies are either incompetent or expensive, and may cause secondary pollution. The technology of soil composting or use of compost as soil amendment can utilize quantities of active microbes to degrade OPs with the help of available nutrients in the compost matrix. It is highly cost-effective for soil remediation. On the one hand, compost incorporated into contaminated soil is capable of increasing the organic matter content, which improves the soil environment and stimulates the metabolically activity of microbial community. On the other hand, the organic matter in composts would increase the adsorption of OPs and affect their bioavailability, leading to decreased fraction available for microorganism-mediated degradation. Some advanced instrumental analytical approaches developed in recent years may be adopted to expound this process. Therefore, the study on bioavailability of OPs in soil is extremely important for the application of composting technology. This work will discuss the changes of physical and chemical properties of contaminated soils and the bioavailability of OPs by the adsorption of composting matrix. The characteristics of OPs, types and compositions of compost amendments, soil/compost ratio and compost distribution influence the bioavailability of OPs. In addition, the impact of composting factors (composting temperature, co-substrates and exogenous microorganisms) on the removal and bioavailability of OPs is also studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Composting of Sewage Sludge Using Recycled Matured Compost as a Single Bulking Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Jian; Niu, Huasi; Wu, Xingwu

    2010-11-01

    Pretreatment (bulking agent choice and mixing) is an essential phase of dewatered raw sludge (RS) composting affecting its industrialization significantly. In this paper recycled compost (RC) was chosen as a single bulking agent in the composting experiment instead of other agents such as sawdust, rice straw, MSW, and the mixing machine was developed for mixing of SS and RC. According to the mixing experiment, SS and RC can be mixed uniformly and formed into small particles of 10˜15 mm in diameter, which improved the availability of oxygen during composting. The effect of different volumetric ratios of RS to RC, 1:1 (Exp.1), 1:2 (Exp.2) and 1:4 (Exp.3), on the performance of composting was investigated in detail. Temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matter, C/N ratio and moisture content were monitored in each experiment. In despite of low initial C/N of the mixture, intensive fermentation happened in all the experiments. Exp.1 and Exp.2 achieved stability and sanitization, but Exp 1 took more days to accomplish the fermentation. Exp 3 maintained thermophilic temperatures for a shortest time and did not satisfy the necessary sanitation requirements because more RC was recycled. In all experiments, the moisture content of their final composts were too high to be used as bulking agents before extra moisture was reduced. RS: RC = 1:2 (v/v) was the optimum and advisable proportion for the industrialization of sewage sludge composting of, the composting period was about 10 days, and the aeration rate 0.05 m3/(m3ṡmin) was appropriate in this study.

  15. Experimental studies of effect of high current pulse electron and carbon ion beams on high temperature Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Sikolenko, V.V.; Chernakova, A.

    1989-01-01

    This work shows the results of the experiment on the effect of high current electron and carbon ion pulse beams irradiation on High-T c superconductors Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Ca-Cu-O in vacuum (P∼5x10 -5 torr). The parameters of electron beam used in the experiment were: E∼100-300 keV, j e ∼10-1000 A/cm 2 , τ) p ∼300ns. The parameters of carbon ions used in the experiment were: E∼100-300keV j i ∼1-60A/cm, τ p ∼300ns. Experiments had shown the threshold electron beam power density for surface melting in adiabatic heat condition for Y-Ba-Cu-O ceramics up to P 0 >or approx. 10 7 W/cm 2 , and for Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O ceramics up to P 0 ∼4x10 6 W/cm 2 . Increasing of critical current in ∼2 times was observed in samples with a melting surface layer. The integral resistance of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O decreased in ∼2-2.5 times for electron beam irradiated samples and in ∼1.25-1.8 times for ion irradiated samples. Amorphization did not take place and stoichiometry remained after such irradiation. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Dispersive excitations in the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; McMorrow, D.F.; Rønnow, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution neutron scattering experiments on optimally doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (x=0.16) reveal that the magnetic excitations are dispersive. The dispersion is the same as in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.85), and is quantitatively related to that observed with charge sensitive probes. The associated veloc...

  17. Composting of waste paint sludge containing melamine resin as affected by nutrients and gypsum addition and microbial inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yongqiang; Chen Liming; Gao Lihong; Michel, Frederick C.; Wan Caixia; Li Yebo; Dick, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resins have hard and durable properties and are found in many products, including automobile paints. These resins contain high concentrations of nitrogen and, if properly composted, can yield valuable products. We evaluated the effects of starter compost, nutrients, gypsum and microbial inoculation on composting of paint sludge containing melamine resin. A bench-scale composting experiment was conducted at 55 °C for 91 days and then at 30 °C for an additional 56 days. After 91 days, the composts were inoculated with a mixed population of melamine-degrading microorganisms. Melamine resin degradation after the entire 147 days of composting varied between 73 and 95% for the treatments with inoculation of microorganisms compared to 55–74% for the treatments without inoculation. Degradation was also enhanced by nutrients and gypsum additions. Our results infer that large scale composting of melamine resins in paint sludge is possible. - Highlights: ► Melamine resin in waste paint sludges could be efficiently composted at bench scale. ► Melamine resin degradation after 147 days of composting was 73–95% complete. ► Nutrients, gypsum and melamine-degrading microorganisms increased composting rate. ► Melamine degradation products first increased and then decreased in the compost. ► Final compost was enriched in nitrogen and other essential plant nutrients. - Melamine resin in waste paint sludges was efficiently composted at bench scale, with finished composts having low levels of heavy metals and enriched in plant nutrients.

  18. Composting; Konposuto ka shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. [Saitama Univ., Saitama (Japan)

    2000-02-05

    The composting method can be divided roughly into the aerobic process and the anaerobic process. The former one is a method of processing which decomposes organic substances in the work of the micro-aerobion by blowing the air in the compost material layer, and the latter one is a method for mainly decomposing the organic substance by the work of the anaerobiont microorganism without the positive contact of the material and air. Since the anaerobic process has a slow reaction rate, and emits a resistant odor, an aerobic process system is taken in many plants. In this paper, the aerobic process is described. At first, a fermenter, crush equipment, screening system and a deodorizer as the composting facilities are explained, and the problems of the composting process are described. The largest problem is to exploit a demand without a seasonal variation. It is necessary to exploit the market except for farmland and orchards in order to avoid the seasonal variation. For example, there is a demand for compost in parks, green land and golf courses. It can be also utilized for the normal plane protection of roads and railways. In addition, there are utilization applications such as barn bedding, earthworm culture floors and a deodorant of sewage urine disposal facilities. (NEDO)

  19. Structural and elemental characterization of high efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejia; Shin, Byungha; Reuter, Kathleen B.; Todorov, Teodor; Mitzi, David B.; Guha, Supratik

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out detailed microstructural studies of phase separation and grain boundary composition in Cu2ZnSnS4 based solar cells. The absorber layer was fabricated by thermal evaporation followed by post high temperature annealing on hot plate. We show that inter-reactions between the bottom molybdenum and the Cu2ZnSnS4, besides triggering the formation of interfacial MoSx, results in the out-diffusion of Cu from the Cu2ZnSnS4 layer. Phase separation of Cu2ZnSnS4 into ZnS and a Cu-Sn-S compound is observed at the molybdenum-Cu2ZnSnS4 interface, perhaps as a result of the compositional out-diffusion. Additionally, grain boundaries within the thermally evaporated absorber layer are found to be either Cu-rich or at the expected bulk composition. Such interfacial compound formation and grain boundary chemistry likely contributes to the lower than expected open circuit voltages observed for the Cu2ZnSnS4 devices.

  20. Fabrication of CuO nanoplatelets for highly sensitive enzyme-free determination of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Weide, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Adhered growth of CuO nanoplatelets on Cu foils. > Enzyme-free glucose sensor with very high sensitivity. > Excellent stability and good anti-interference ability. - Abstract: CuO nanoplatelets were grown on Cu foils by a one step, template free process. The structure and morphology of the CuO nanoplatelets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The CuO nanoplatelets grown on Cu foil were integrated to be an electrode for glucose sensing. The electrocatalytic activity of the CuO nanoplatelets electrode for glucose in alkaline media was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrode exhibits a sensitivity of 3490.7 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to glucose which is much higher than that of most reported enzyme-free glucose sensors and the linear range was obtained over a concentration up to 0.80 mM with a detection limit of 0.50 {mu}M (signal/noise = 3). Exhilaratingly, the electrode based on the CuO nanoplatelets is resistant against poisoning by chloride ion, and the interference from the oxidation of common interfering species, such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine and carbonhydrate compounds, can also be effectively avoided. Finally, the electrode was applied to analyze glucose concentration in human serum samples.

  1. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Sheet, Goutam; Singh, Chandan K.; Kabir, Mukul; Thakur, Gohil S.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (∼47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  2. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Sheet, Goutam, E-mail: goutam@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Sector 81, S. A. S. Nagar, Manauli PO 140306 (India); Singh, Chandan K.; Kabir, Mukul [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411008 (India); Thakur, Gohil S.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ganguli, Ashok K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Institute of Nano Science & Technology, Mohali 160064 (India)

    2016-06-13

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (∼47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  3. Behavior and fate of heavy metals in the composting of industrial tannery sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi Ahmed; Azni Idris; Omer, S.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that heavy metals, when in high enough concentrations, have the potential to be both phyto toxic and zoo toxic. Heavy metals are frequently found as contaminants in tannery sludge. Any sludge that is subsequently segregated for composting theoretically has the potential to retain the possible contamination. To date, there have been a limited number of publications addressing this issue. most reports have concentrated on the types of heavy metals found in the composting process. As such, this investigation aimed to identify the fate of chromium, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc, concentrations in tannery sludge throughout a fifty day composting cycle. The results of this study showed a general increase in the removal of Cr, Cd, Pb and to a much smaller extent Zn and Cu, evident by a decrease in their overall concentrations within the solid fraction of the final product, by 38.5, 33.3, 31.2, 22.6 and 11.8 percent respectively. (author)

  4. Comparison of GRCop-84 to Other High Thermal Conductive Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Ellis, David L.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of five copper alloys (GRCop-84, AMZIRC, GlidCop Al-15, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr) competing in high temperature, high heat flux applications such as rocket nozzles, were compared. Tensile, creep, thermal expansion, and compression tests are presented. Tests were done on as-received material, and on material which received a simulated brazing heat treatment at 935 C. The 935 C heat treatment weakened AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, and Cu-0.9Cr, and the strength of as-received AMZIRC dropped precipitously as test temperatures exceeded 500 C. The properties of GlidCop Al-15 and GRCop-84 were not significantly affected by the 935 C heat treatment. Thus GRCop-84 is better than AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, and Cu-0.9Cr at temperatures greater than 500 C. Ductility was lowest in GlidCop Al-15 and Cu-0.9Cr. The creep properties of GRCop-84 were superior to those of brazed AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, and Cu-0.9Cr. At equivalent rupture life and stress, GRCop-84 had a 150 C temperature advantage over brazed AMZIRC; for equivalent rupture life and temperature GRCop-84 was two times stronger. The advantages of GRCop-84 over GlidCop Al-15 associated with ease of processing were confirmed by GlidCop s marginal ductility. In the post brazed condition, GRCop-84 was found to be superior to the other alloys due to its greater strength and creep resistance (compared to AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, and Cu-0.9Cr) and ductility (compared to GlidCop Al-15)

  5. Survey the Effect of Pistachio Waste Composting Process with Different Treatments on Concentration of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Composting is one of the pistachio wastes management methods. In the appropriate compost production nutrients and heavy metals are determinant. The aim of this study is survey the effect of pistachio wastes composting process with different treatments on the concentration of heavy metals. Methods: In this study, during the 60-day pistachio wastes composting process with two treatments of dewatered sewage sludge and cow manure, pH, EC, carbon to nitrogen ratio, Heavy metals and nutrients indicators were studied. The results were compared with WHO and Iranian National standard. Drawing the diagrams by Excel software (Version 2007 and Statistical analysis was performed by Spss Software (version 20 at a significance level of 0.005.  Results: During the 60-day composting pH initially had downward trend and then increased. The Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and C/N ratio had downward trend and the EC, Na, K had increasing trend. Eventually, Iron, zinc, copper and manganese were less than the standard, Sodium was in Standard range and potassium was more than specified standards in the produced compost from pistachios waste with both treatments.  Conclusion: The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals and nutrients in the produced compost with both treatments were in the acceptable range. Eventually quality of produced compost with cow manure treatment due to better decomposition and greater stability was better than processed compost with dewatered sewage sludge treatment.

  6. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  7. Processing of Cu-Cr alloy for combined high strength and high conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O Olofinjanaa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High strength and high conductivity (HSHC are two intrinsic properties difficult to combine in metallic alloy design because; almost all strengthening mechanisms also lead to reduced conductivity. Precipitation hardening by nano-sized precipitates had proven to be the most adequate way to achieve the optimum combination of strength and conductivity in copper based alloys. However, established precipitation strengthened Cu- alloys are limited to very dilute concentration of solutes thereby limiting the volume proportion hardening precipitates. In this work, we report the investigation of the reprocessing of higher Cr concentration Cu- based alloys via rapid solidification. It is found that the rapid solidification in the as-cast ribbon imposed combined solution extension and ultra-refinement of Cr rich phases. X-ray diffraction evidences suggest that the solid solution extension was up to 6wt%Cr. Lattice parameters determined confirmed the many folds extension of solid solution of Cr in Cu.  Thermal aging studies of the cast ribbons indicated that peak aging treatments occurred in about twenty minutes. Peak aged hardness ranged from about 200 to well over 300Hv. The maximum peak aged hardness of 380Hv was obtained for alloy containing 6wt.%Cr but with conductivity of about 50%IACS. The best combined strength/conductivity was obtained for 4wt.%Cr  alloy with hardness of 350HV and conductivity of 80% IACS. The high strengths observed are attributed to the increased volume proportion of semi-coherent Cr rich nano-sized precipitates that evolved from the supersaturated solid solution of Cu-Cr that was achieved from the high cooling rates imposed by the ribbon casting process. The rapid overaging of the high Cr concentration Cu-Cr alloy is still a cause for concern in optimising the process for reaching peak HSHC properties. It is still important to investigate a microstructural design to slow or severely restrict the overaging process. The optimum

  8. Influence of sulfur-bearing polyatomic species on high precision measurements of Cu isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, M.J.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.; Borrok, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    An increased interest in high precision Cu isotope ratio measurements using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) has developed recently for various natural geologic systems and environmental applications, these typically contain high concentrations of sulfur, particularly in the form of sulfate (SO42-) and sulfide (S). For example, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) can range from 100??g/L to greater than 50mg/L with sulfur species concentrations reaching greater than 1000mg/L. Routine separation of Cu, Fe and Zn from AMD, Cu-sulfide minerals and other geological matrices usually incorporates single anion exchange resin column chromatography for metal separation. During chromatographic separation, variable breakthrough of SO42- during anion exchange resin column chromatography into the Cu fractions was observed as a function of the initial sulfur to Cu ratio, column properties, and the sample matrix. SO42- present in the Cu fraction can form a polyatomic 32S-14N-16O-1H species causing a direct mass interference with 63Cu and producing artificially light ??65Cu values. Here we report the extent of the mass interference caused by SO42- breakthrough when measuring ??65Cu on natural samples and NIST SRM 976 Cu isotope spiked with SO42- after both single anion column chromatography and double anion column chromatography. A set of five 100??g/L Cu SRM 976 samples spiked with 500mg/L SO42- resulted in an average ??65Cu of -3.50?????5.42??? following single anion column separation with variable SO42- breakthrough but an average concentration of 770??g/L. Following double anion column separation, the average SO42-concentration of 13??g/L resulted in better precision and accuracy for the measured ??65Cu value of 0.01?????0.02??? relative to the expected 0??? for SRM 976. We conclude that attention to SO42- breakthrough on sulfur-rich samples is necessary for accurate and precise measurements of ??65Cu and may require

  9. Synthesis of high-oxidation Y-Ba-Cu-O phases in superoxygenated thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Gauquelin, N.; McMahon, C.; Hawthorn, D. G.; Botton, G. A.; Wei, J. Y. T.

    2018-03-01

    It is known that solid-state reaction in high-pressure oxygen can stabilize high-oxidation phases of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors in powder form. We extend this superoxygenation concept of synthesis to thin films which, due to their large surface-to-volume ratio, are more reactive thermodynamically. Epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3O7 -δ grown by pulsed laser deposition are annealed at up to 700 atm O2 and 900 ∘C , in conjunction with Cu enrichment by solid-state diffusion. The films show the clear formation of Y2Ba4Cu7O15 -δ and Y2Ba4Cu8O16 as well as regions of YBa2Cu5O9 -δ and YBa2Cu6O10 -δ phases, according to scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Similarly annealed YBa2Cu3O7 -δ powders show no phase conversion. Our results demonstrate a route of synthesis towards discovering more complex phases of cuprates and other superconducting oxides.

  10. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong

    2016-06-23

    While recent reports have demonstrated that oxide-derived Cu-based electrodes exhibit high selectivity for CO2 reduction at low overpotential, the low catalytic current density (<2 mA/cm2 at -0.45 V vs. RHE) still largely limits its applications for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open frameworks, the resulting Cu foam electrodes prepared at higher temperatures exhibit enhanced electrochemically active surface area and distinct surface structures. In particular, the Cu foam electrode prepared at 500 °C exhibits an extremely high geometric current density of ~9.4 mA/cm2 in CO2-satrurated 0.1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution and achieving ~39% CO and ~23% HCOOH Faradaic efficiencies at -0.45 V vs. RHE. The high activity and significant selectivity enhancement are attributable to the formation of abundant grain-boundary supported active sites and preferable (100) and (111) facets as a result of reconstruction of Cu surface facets. This work demonstrates that the structural integration of Cu foam with open 3D frameworks and the favorable surface structures is a promising strategy to develop an advanced Cu electrocatalyst that can operate at high current density and low overpotential for CO2 reduction.

  11. Fabrication of high-quality single-crystal Cu thin films using radio-frequency sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Kyung; Kim, Bum-Su; Park, Ji Hun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Cho, Yong Chan; Kim, Jungdae; Oh, Min-Wook; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-08-29

    Copper (Cu) thin films have been widely used as electrodes and interconnection wires in integrated electronic circuits, and more recently as substrates for the synthesis of graphene. However, the ultra-high vacuum processes required for high-quality Cu film fabrication, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), restricts mass production with low cost. In this work, we demonstrated high-quality Cu thin films using a single-crystal Cu target and radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique; the resulting film quality was comparable to that produced using MBE, even under unfavorable conditions for pure Cu film growth. The Cu thin film was epitaxially grown on an Al2O3 (sapphire) (0001) substrate, and had high crystalline orientation along the (111) direction. Despite the 10(-3) Pa vacuum conditions, the resulting thin film was oxygen free due to the high chemical stability of the sputtered specimen from a single-crystal target; moreover, the deposited film had >5× higher adhesion force than that produced using a polycrystalline target. This fabrication method enabled Cu films to be obtained using a simple, manufacturing-friendly process on a large-area substrate, making our findings relevant for industrial applications.

  12. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal-Lara, Beatriz; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Gómez, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose

    2016-11-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter-rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine) for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near) real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS) models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation-RPD = 2.68), humification ratio (RPD = 2.23), total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07) and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66) with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring.

  13. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Temporal-Lara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter–rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation—RPD = 2.68, humification ratio (RPD = 2.23, total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07 and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66 with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring.

  14. Evaluation of biochar amended biosolids co-composting to improve the nutrient transformation and its correlation as a function for the production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Meijing; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Li, Jiao; Guo, Di; Li, Dong-Sheng; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Sun, Xining; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-08-01

    The influence of biochar amended dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS)-wheat straw co-composting on nutrients transformation and end products quality was investigated. This is the first study to examine the biochar applied compost quality with different kgha -1 TKN on Brassica rapa L. growth. Seven mixtures were composted over 8-weeks period in 130-L reactor using the same DFSS with different concentration of biochar (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 12% and 18% on dry weight basis) and without additive added treatment served as control. The results indicated that compost with 8-12% biochar became more humified within 35days of composting, and the compost maturity parameters also showed that this could be much more feasible approach to increased water-soluble nutrients including NO 3 , DOC, DON, PO 4 3- , K + and Na + , but bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb content reduced as compared to control. Finally, results showed that 8-12% biochar was recommended for DFSS composting and 150kgha -1 TKN of compost dosages for organic farming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of high efficient Cu/TiO2 photocatalysts by grinding and their size-dependent photocatalytic hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Dawei; Shen, Haiyan; Li, Huiqiao; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu nanodots were decorated on TiO 2 surface through ball milling method. • Its size distribution was investigated in water and ethanolic medium. • Photocurrent response and hydrogen evolution was improved. • Performance was found to be dependent on size of Cu nanodots. - Abstract: Recently, copper species have been extensively investigated to replace Pt as efficient co-catalysts for the evolution of H 2 due to their low cost and relatively high activity. Cu nanoparticles less than 5 nm are successfully decorated on TiO 2 surface in this work by an easy and mild milling process. These Cu nanoparticles are highly dispersed on TiO 2 when the loading amount of Cu is no more than 10 wt%. The sizes of Cu nanoparticles can be controlled by changing the milling environment and decrease in the order of Cu-ethanol > Cu-water > Cu nanoparticles obtained through drying milling. The highest and stable hydrogen generation can be realized on Cu/TiO 2 with 2.0 wt% Cu and sizes of Cu nanoparticles ranging from 2 to 4 nm, in which high and stable photocurrent confirms promoted photogenerated charge separation. Smaller Cu clusters are demonstrated to be detrimental to hydrogen evolution at same Cu content. High loading of Cu nanoparticles of 2–4 nm will benefit photogenerated electron-hole recombination and thus decrease the activity of Cu/TiO 2 . The results here demonstrate the key roles of Cu cluster size in addition to Cu coverage on photocatalytic activity of Cu/TiO 2 composite photocatalysts.

  16. Trapped magnetic field of a superconducting bulk magnet in high- Tc RE-Ba-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Yoo, Sang Im; Higuchi, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Yuichi; Kamijo, Hiroki; Nagashima, Ken; Murakami, Masato

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting magnets made of high-T c superconductors are promising for industrial applications. It is well known that REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and LRE (light rare-earth) Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductors prepared by melt processes have a high critical current density, J c , at 77 K and high magnetic fields. Therefore, the materials are very prospective for high magnetic field application as a superconducting permanent/bulk magnet with liquid-nitrogen refrigeration. LREBaCuO bulks, compared with REBaCuO bulks, exhibit a larger J c in high magnetic fields and a much improved irreversibility field, H irr , at 77 K. In this study, we discuss the possibility and trapped field properties of a superconducting bulk magnet, as well as the melt processing for bulk superconductors and their characteristic superconducting properties. One of the applications is a superconducting magnet for the future magnetically levitated (Maglev) train

  17. CuO Nanoflowers growing on Carbon Fiber Fabric for Flexible High-Performance Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weina; Dai, Shuge; Liu, Guanlin; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: One of the best electrochemical performances for CuOelectrodes based supercapacitorisachieved by the CuOhierarchical structure growing on the carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF) in aqueous electrolyte. Meanwhile, a flexible solid-state supercapacitoris also fabricated as a promising candidate in energy storage for flexible, wearable and lightweight electronics. - Highlights: • The electrodes are fabricated by cupric oxide growing on carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF). • The capacitor performance is optimized by the mass loading. • One of the best electrochemical performances is achieved for CuO/CFF supercapacitor. • A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor can power 3 light-emitting diodes for about 5 min. - Abstract: A hierarchical CuO nano-structure is prepared by directly growing CuO nanoflowers on carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF) via a hydrothermal method. The CuO/CFF is used as the electrode material of a supercapacitor for electrochemical energy storage. The supercapacitor displays superior electrochemical performance in aqueous electrolyte with the specific capacitance of 839.9 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s, energy density of 10.05 Wh/kg and power density of 1798.5 W/kg, which are the highest values for the CuO/CFF electrodes. Moreover, a flexible symmetric solid-state symmetric supercapacitor is also fabricated by using the CuO/CFF as electrodes. The solid-state supercapacitor exhibits a specific capacitance of 131.34 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s with a power density of 145.12 W/kg, and 95.8% capacitance retention after 2000 charge-discharge cycles.

  18. Is the High Cu Tolerance of Trichoderma atroviride Isolated from the Cu-Polluted Sediment Due to Adaptation? An In Vitro Toxicological Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, C.K.; Yazdani, M.; Abdullah, F.; Tan, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The tolerance of Cu by Trichoderma atroviride, a tolerant fungus isolated from the drainage surface sediment of the Serdang Industrial Area was investigated under in vitro conditions. Only this fungus species can tolerate up to 600 mg/ L of Cu on solid medium Potato Dextrose Agar based on the isolation of the most tolerant fungus from the polluted sediment. Toxicity test performed on T. atroviride, showed a maximum tolerance at 300 mg/L of Cu concentration when grown in liquid medium Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB). The EC 50 value of the isolate was 287.73 mg/ L of Cu concentration in PDB. The Cu concentration in the drainage surface sediment, where the T. atroviride was isolated from, was 347.64 μg/ g while the geochemical distributions of the non-resistant and resistant fractions of Cu were 99.6 and 0.4 %, respectively. The sediment data indicated that the drainage had greatly received anthropogenic Cu from the nearby industries which are involved in the manufacturing of plastics and electronic products. The present findings indicate that the high Cu tolerance showed by T. atroviride could be due to the well adaptation of the fungus to the Cu polluted sediment. Therefore, T. atroviride could be a potential bioremediator of Cu pollution in the freshwater ecosystem. (author)

  19. Inside the small-scale composting of kitchen and garden wastes: Thermal performance and stratification effect in vertical compost bins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Juan Pablo; Paladino, Gabriela; Garibaldi, Lucas Alejandro; Laos, Francisca

    2018-06-01

    Decentralized composting has been proposed as a best available practice, with a highly positive impact on municipal solid wastes management plans. However, in cold climates, decentralized small-scale composting performance to reach thermophilic temperatures (required for the product sanitization) could be poor, due to a lack of critical mass to retain heat. In addition, in these systems the composting process is usually disturbed when new portions of fresh organic waste are combined with previous batches. This causes modifications in the well-known composting evolution pattern. The objective of this work was to improve the understanding of these technical aspects through a real-scale decentralized composting experience carried out under cold climate conditions, in order to assess sanitization performance and to study the effects of fresh feedstock additions in the process evolution. Kitchen and garden organic wastes were composted in 500 L-static compost bins (without turning) for 244 days under cold climate conditions (Bariloche, NW Patagonia, Argentina), using pine wood shavings in a ratio of 1.5:1 v: v (waste: bulking agent). Temperature profile, stability indicators (microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen contents and ratio) and other variables (pH and electrical conductivity), were monitored throughout the experience. Our results indicate that small-scale composting (average generation rate of 7 kg d -1 ) is viable under cold weather conditions, since thermophilic sanitization temperatures (> 55 °C) were maintained for 3 consecutive days in most of the composting mass, according to available USEPA regulations commonly used as a reference for pathogens control in sewage sludge. On the other hand, stability indicators showed a differentiated organic matter degradation process along the compost bins height. Particularly, in the bottommost composting mix layer the process took a longer period to achieve compost stability than the upper layers, suggesting

  20. Comparing composts formed by different technological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckova, B.; Mudrunka, J.; Kucerova, R.; Glogarova, V.

    2017-10-01

    The presented article compares quality of composts which were formed by different technological processes. The subject to comparison was a compost which was created in a closed fermenter where ideal conditions for decomposition and organic substances conversion were ensured, with compost which was produced in an open box of community composting. The created composts were analysed to determine whether it is more important for the final compost to comply with the composting conditions or better sorting of raw materials needed for compost production. The results of the carried out experiments showed that quality of the resulting compost cannot be determined unequivocally.

  1. Self-Assembled Cu-Sn-S Nanotubes with High (De)Lithiation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Lim, Jin-Myoung; Youn, Duck Hyun; Kawashima, Kenta; Kim, Jun-Hyuk; Liu, Yang; Guo, Hang; Henkelman, Graeme; Heller, Adam; Mullins, Charles Buddie

    2017-10-24

    Through a gelation-solvothermal method without heteroadditives, Cu-Sn-S composites self-assemble to form nanotubes, sub-nanotubes, and nanoparticles. The nanotubes with a Cu 3-4 SnS 4 core and Cu 2 SnS 3 shell can tolerate long cycles of expansion/contraction upon lithiation/delithiation, retaining a charge capacity of 774 mAh g -1 after 200 cycles with a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 82.5%. The importance of the Cu component for mitigation of the volume expansion and structural evolution upon lithiation is informed by density functional theory calculations. The self-generated template and calculated results can inspire the design of analogous Cu-M-S (M = metal) nanotubes for lithium batteries or other energy storage systems.

  2. Effects of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation of Cu electrodeposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effects of TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation density of Cu during electrodeposition in a solution of CuSO4 and H2SO4 at 50 degrees C compared with those of pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates. During electrodeposition, the density of Cu nuclei on the TiO2 nanotube substrate increased and the average size of Cu nuclei decreased with increasing anodizing voltage and time for the synthesis of the substrate. In addition, the nucleation density of Cu electrodeposits on the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrate was much higher than that on pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates.

  3. Thermophilic methanogenic Archaea in compost material: occurrence, persistence and possible mechanisms for their distribution to other environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummes, Kathrin; Schäfer, Jenny; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2007-12-01

    Since compost is widely used as soil amendment and the fact that during the processing of compost material high amounts of microorganisms are released into the air, we investigated whether compost may act as a carrier for thermophilic methanogens to temperate soils. All eight investigated compost materials showed a clear methane production potential between 0.01 and 0.98 micromol CH(4) g dw(-1)h(-1) at 50 degrees C. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and cloning analysis indicated the presence of Methanosarcina thermophila, Methanoculleus thermophilus, and Methanobacterium formicicum. Bioaerosols collected during the turning of a compost pile showed both a highly similar SSCP profile compared to the corresponding compost material and clear methane production during anoxic incubation in selective medium at 50 degrees C. Both observations indicated a considerable release of thermophilic methanogens into the air. To analyse the persistence of compost-borne thermophilic methanogens in temperate oxic soils, we therefore studied their potential activity in compost and compost/soil mixtures, which was brought to a meadow soil, as well as in an agricultural soil fertilised with compost. After 24h anoxic incubation at 50 degrees C, all samples containing compost showed a clear methanogenic activity, even 1 year after application. In combination with the in vitro observed resilience of the compost-borne methanogens against desiccation and UV radiation we assume that compost material acts as an effective carrier for the distribution of thermophilic methanogens by fertilisation and wind.

  4. Structural evolution in nanocrystalline Cu obtained by high-energy mechanical milling: Phases formation of copper oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitouni, Mohamed; Daly, Rakia; Mhadhbi, Mohsen; Kolsi, Abdelwaheb

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline copper with mean crystallite size of 18 nm was synthesized by using high-energy mechanical milling. The structural and morphological changes during mechanical milling especially, the formation of CuO and Cu 2 O phases were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmittance mode (FTIR). Mechanical milling of Cu results in a continuous decrease in the Cu means crystallite size and an increase in microstrain. Moreover, milling of Cu, in air synthetic, results in partial oxidation to Cu 2 O and CuO. Prolonged milling supports the formation of CuO oxide. SEM results show that flattened Cu flakes were laid and welded on each other and tend to form a matrix of randomly welded thin layers of highly deformed particles.

  5. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of vermi-compost in northern Ethiopia is not a common practice. It is, therefore, important to understand the possible impediments through studying its chemical and biological properties and its extra contribution compared to other composting techniques. Four compost types (vermi-compost, conventional compost, ...

  6. CHNS ANALYSIS TOWARDS FOOD WASTE IN COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High food waste generation in Malaysia that reached up to 15, 000 tonnes per day assign for major problems towards environment, economy and social aspect. Alternative method had been studied for the past years, but composting was seen among the best possible solution to treat this matter. Composting not only has an environmentally method but it also produces a valuable end product that will benefit in agricultural sector. Further studies had been done in this paper to represent their macro and micro nutrient quality as well as their bioavailability towards plant and the analysis of data collected in both CHNS analyser and mathematical method using ultimate analysis. This study also applied enhanced composting process with its segregation, drying, grinding and standard aeration time. Each container has been rotated for 5 minutes yet different resting time was applied which are 25, 55, 155 minutes namely A, B, C and D within 2 hours period. Result shown that overall Carbon (C, Nitrogen (N and Sulphur (S concentration increases as the higher aeration was applied while the Hydrogen vice versa. The highest elemental percentage distribution recorded is carbon (31% while the lowest recorded is S (0.115%. The data collected from Ultimate Analysis was seen not applicable to be use as it has the same content as food waste after composting. The compound molecular formula recorded was C29H7N5S. Regarding ratio of carbon to nitrogen results, it was found that it ranged from 5.39 to 5.71% for different compost treatment under study, where the lowest value of C and N ratio (5.39% for sample C and the highest value (5.71% was obtained for sample B with all has the same C/N ratio which is 6: 1 which suitable range in application of soil amendment. Therefore, this study found a significant relationship between chemical factors and compost formation which contribute to better analysis, especially to food waste management.

  7. High-temperature deformation of dispersion-strengthened Cu-Zr-Ti-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Rodrigo H.; Sepulveda, Aquiles; Espinoza, Rodrigo; Dianez, M. Jesus; Criado, Jose M.; Sayagues, M. Jesus

    2005-01-01

    The hot mechanical behaviour and microstructure of Cu-5 vol.% TiC, Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 and Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys prepared by reaction milling were studied. After a test of 1 h annealing at 1173 K, the Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloy presented the lower softening resistance to annealing, while the other two ones kept their initial room-temperature hardness (about 2 GPa). Hot-compression tests at 773 and 1123 K, at initial true strain rates of 0.85 x 10 -3 and 0.85 x 10 -4 s -1 were performed. The Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% ZrO 2 and the Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys were the strongest and softest materials, respectively. Moreover, by electron microscopy, nanometric TiC and micrometric particles were detected in the Cu-5 vol.% TiC and Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys, respectively. A possible explanation for the observed behaviour of these materials is proposed. In the compression tests, it was also found that strain rate has a low effect on flow stress, as it has been previously observed by various authors in dispersion-strengthened alloys deformed at high temperatures

  8. Revealing the Microstructural evolution in Cu-Cr nanocrystalline alloys during high pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jinming; Rosalie, Julian M.; Pippan, Reinhard; Zhang, Zaoli, E-mail: zaoli.zhang@oeaw.ac.at

    2017-05-17

    Usually immiscible Cu-Cr compounds in equilibrium condition were mechanically processed via high pressure torsion with large and controlled strains. A systematical investigation on 57 wt%Cu − 43 wt%Cr was carried out to get insights into the microstructural evolution of Cu-Cr nanocomposites and their dissolution process, as well as to determine the solid solubility limit of Cu and Cr elements under severe deformation. Microstructural evolution was captured with grain refinement from micron-size down to less than 20 nm as the increase of strains. A strain-saturated state in 57 wt%Cu − 43 wt%Cr bulk was achieved after 100 rotations deformation (effective strain 1360), with a stable grain size of 13.7 nm and invariable hardness of 480–495 HV. Fine scanning of X-ray diffraction and sub-nanometer scale measurements of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that 32 wt% Cu could be fully dissolved into Cr matrix, and conversely solubility of Cr in Cu was determined to be about 3 wt% after an enough amount of deformation. The phase fraction change associated with Cu dissolution into Cr matrix during continuous deformation was captured and accurately calculated, indicating a negative exponential phase change mode. A phenomenological intermixing mechanism based on the kinetic competition between external forcing mixing and thermal-diffusion induced decomposition was proposed, which was well accordant with the phase evolution observed from experimental results.

  9. Junction structures based on the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijs, M.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the investigations of the Josephson effect in junction structures based on the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , which were carried out at the Philips Research Laboratories in Eindhoven in the 1988-1990 period. The reported results are presented in their international scientific context, without attempting a complete review of the subject. However, the various junction types studied give a good idea of the scientific pursuits of high-T c junction researchers in this period. The following junctions are considered: in the category of 'weak link'-type junctions we have investigated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ -Ag-Nb point contact junctions, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ Dayem bridges and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ -Ag(-Al)-Pb proximity junctions. In these structures we combine a high-T c with a low-T c superconductor. We also fabricated planar 'all high-T c ' YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ -Ag-YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ junctions using a submicron structuring process. Next we have made tunnel junctions to study density of states effects of the high-T c superconductor : YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ -Pb junctions using the degraded YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ -Pb interface as a tunnel barrier, and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ -Ag-Al/Al 2 O 3 /Pb tunnel junctions based on the superconducting proximity effect. Our junction structures are electrically characterized and mostly studied in microwave and magnetic fields. Results are compared with current theoretical models. (orig.)

  10. Highly sensitive optical chemosensor for the detection of Cu using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Highly sensitive colorimetric chemosensor molecule RHN for selective detection of Cu. 2+ in ... colour development against the colourless blank during the sensing event, a feature that would facilitate ... ever reported, much attention has been.

  11. Compost maturity and nitrogen availability by co-composting of paddy husk and chicken manure amended with clinoptilolite zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Omar; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Susilawati, Kassim; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2015-04-01

    The availability of paddy husk from rice processing plants remains high owing to increase in the worldwide rice consumption. Increasing demand for chicken products leads to poultry wastes production. Co-composting of the aforementioned wastes could solve the indiscriminate disposal of these wastes. Thus, co-composting of paddy husk and chicken slurry with clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additive was carried out. Clinoptilolite zeolite was used to enhance ammonium and nitrate retention in the compost. Temperature of the compost was monitored three times daily for 55 days. Cation exchange capacity, organic matter, ash, humic acids, pH, total C, N, C/N ratio; total P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, NH4+, NO3-, and heavy metals contents were determined using standard procedures. pH, total N, humic acids, ash, NH4+, NO3-, P, Ca, Mg, and K contents increased but the salinity, heavy metals contents, and microbial population were low after the co-composting process. Zea mays L. (test crop) seed germination rate in distilled water and the compost were not significantly different. Growth of Spinach oleracea (test crop) on a peat-based growing medium and the compost was also not significantly different. These findings were possible because the clinoptilolite zeolite used in co-composting reduced accumulation of heavy metals that may have damage effects on the test crops. Mature compost with good agronomic properties can be produced by co-composting chicken slurry and paddy husk using clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additives. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Production of well-matured compost from night-soil sludge by an extremely short period of thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Ohtaki, Akihito; Takemoto, Minoru; Fujiwara, Shunrokuro

    2011-03-01

    The effect of various operational conditions on the decomposition of organic material during the composting of night-soil treatment sludge was quantitatively examined. The optimum composting conditions were found to be a temperature of ca. 60°C and an initial pH value of 8. Rapid decomposition of organic matter ceased by the sixth day of composting under these optimum conditions, and the final value of the cumulative emission of carbon (E(C)), which represents the degree of organic matter decomposition, was less than 40%, indicating that the sludge contained only a small amount of easily degradable organic material. A plant growth assay using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L. var. rapiferafroug) in a 1/5000a standard cultivation pot was then conducted for the compost at various degrees of organic matter decomposition: the raw composting material, the final compost obtained on day 6, and the 2 intermediate compost products (i.e., E(C)=10% and 20%). It was found that the larger the E(C), the greater the yield of Komatsuna growth. It was also found that 6 days of composting is sufficient to promote Komatsuna growth at the standard loading level, which is equivalent to a 1.5 g N/pot, since the promotion effect was as high as that obtained using chemical fertilizer. It can therefore be concluded that well-matured compost could be obtained in a short period of time (i.e., as early as 6 days), when night-soil sludge is composted under optimum conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of significantly high barrier height in Cu/GaN Schottky diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current-voltage (I-V measurements combined with analytical calculations have been used to explain mechanisms for forward-bias current flow in Copper (Cu Schottky diodes fabricated on Gallium Nitride (GaN epitaxial films. An ideality factor of 1.7 was found at room temperature (RT, which indicated deviation from thermionic emission (TE mechanism for current flow in the Schottky diode. Instead the current transport was better explained using the thermionic field-emission (TFE mechanism. A high barrier height of 1.19 eV was obtained at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was used to investigate the plausible reason for observing Schottky barrier height (SBH that is significantly higher than as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model for Cu/GaN diodes. XPS measurements revealed the presence of an ultrathin cuprous oxide (Cu2O layer at the interface between Cu and GaN. With Cu2O acting as a degenerate p-type semiconductor with high work function of 5.36 eV, a high barrier height of 1.19 eV is obtained for the Cu/Cu2O/GaN Schottky diode. Moreover, the ideality factor and barrier height were found to be temperature dependent, implying spatial inhomogeneity of barrier height at the metal semiconductor interface.

  14. Compost levert complete bemesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, K.; Janmaat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Compost is een zeer goed bemestingsproduct. Het kan kort voor het zaaien worden aangebracht, belemmert de wortelgroei niet en levert een kant-en-klaar ecosysteem als aanvulling en versterking van de bodembiologie. Ook de pH van de bodem en de lucht- en waterhuishouding varen wel bij de toepassing

  15. Composting or Thermal valorisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutgen, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    It is shown how thermal valorisation of organic wastes it is much more promising, from the economical and environmental points of view, than composting. Obviously, it implies that the incineration should be done under very controlled conditions. With examples taken from Europe. The author argues for this affirmation

  16. High-temperature stability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(P)/Cu surface finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. E.; Hsieh, W. Z.; Lee, P. T.; Huang, Y. H.; Kuo, T. T.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal reliability of Au/Pd/Cu and Au/Pd(4-6 wt.% P)/Cu trilayers in the isothermal annealing at 180 °C were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pure Pd film possessed a nanocrystalline structure with numerous grain boundaries, thereby facilitating the interdiffusion between Au and Cu. Out-diffusion of Cu through Pd and Au grain boundaries yielded a significant amount of Cu oxides (CuO and Cu2O) over the Au surface and gave rise to void formation in the Cu film. By contrast, the Pd(P) film was amorphous and served as a good diffusion barrier against Cu diffusion. The results of this study indicated that amorphous Pd(P) possessed better oxidation resistance and thermal reliability than crystalline Pd.

  17. Mesoporous carbon nitride based biosensor for highly sensitive and selective analysis of phenol and catechol in compost bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaoyu; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Jun; Cai, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Guide; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chen; Tang, Wangwang

    2014-11-15

    Herein, we reported here a promising biosensor by taking advantage of the unique ordered mesoporous carbon nitride material (MCN) to convert the recognition information into a detectable signal with enzyme firstly, which could realize the sensitive, especially, selective detection of catechol and phenol in compost bioremediation samples. The mechanism including the MCN based on electrochemical, biosensor assembly, enzyme immobilization, and enzyme kinetics (elucidating the lower detection limit, different linear range and sensitivity) was discussed in detail. Under optimal conditions, GCE/MCN/Tyr biosensor was evaluated by chronoamperometry measurements and the reduction current of phenol and catechol was proportional to their concentration in the range of 5.00 × 10(-8)-9.50 × 10(-6)M and 5.00 × 10(-8)-1.25 × 10(-5)M with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991 and 0.9881, respectively. The detection limits of catechol and phenol were 10.24 nM and 15.00 nM (S/N=3), respectively. Besides, the data obtained from interference experiments indicated that the biosensor had good specificity. All the results showed that this material is suitable for load enzyme and applied to the biosensor due to the proposed biosensor exhibited improved analytical performances in terms of the detection limit and specificity, provided a powerful tool for rapid, sensitive, especially, selective monitoring of catechol and phenol simultaneously. Moreover, the obtained results may open the way to other MCN-enzyme applications in the environmental field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of Titanium Diboride-Cu Composite by Self-High Temperature Synthesis plus Quick Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinyong ZHANG; Zhengyi FU; Weimin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Titanium diboride based composites, good candidates for contact materials, have high hardness, Young's modulus,high temperature stability, and excellent electrical, thermal conductivity. However a good interface of TiB2/Cu is very difficult to achieve for oxidation of TiB2. To avoid this oxidation behavior, the in situ combusting synthesis technology, SHS, was used to prepare TiB2/Cu composite. Thecharacters of Ti-B-xCu SHS were studied in detail,such as combustion temperature, products phases and grain size. Based on the experimental results a proper technology way of self-high temperature synthesis plus quick press (SHS/QP) was determined and compact TiB2/Cu composites with relative density over than 97 pct of the theoretical were fabricated by this method. The properties and microstructures of these TiB2 based composites were also investigated.

  19. Intermittent rainstorms cause pulses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper in leachate from compost in bioretention systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullane, Jessica M. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Flury, Markus, E-mail: flury@wsu.edu [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Iqbal, Hamid [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Freeze, Patrick M. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Hinman, Curtis [Natural Resources Program Extension, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371 (United States); Cogger, Craig G.; Shi, Zhenqing [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Puyallup, WA 98371, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Bioretention systems rely on vegetation and mixtures of soil, sand, and compost to filter stormwater runoff. However, bioretention systems can also leach metals and nutrients, and compost may be a major contributor to this leaching. To safely implement bioretention systems, it is crucial to determine the composition of compost leachate. We characterized and quantified the leachate composition of compost following intermittent, simulated storm events. Columns of municipal compost were irrigated to simulate 6-month, 24-hour rain storms in the Seattle–Tacoma region. Outflow was analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particulate concentration, surface tension, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper. Results indicate a decrease of chemical concentrations over the course of individual storms and following repeated storms, but each new storm released another peak of constituents. The decrease in phosphorus, copper, and DOC concentrations with repeated storms was slower than for nitrate and EC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the DOC consisted mainly of aliphatic and aromatic components typical of fulvic and humic acids. Less than 3% of the original copper content from the compost leached out even after nine storm events. Nonetheless, copper concentrations in the leachate exceeded regulatory discharge standards. Our results show that compost can serve as a sustained source of leaching of nutrients and metals. - Highlights: • Intermittent rainstorms release N, P, and Cu from compost in bioretention systems. • Leaching of Cu is sustained over several years of rainfall. • Leaching of Cu is correlated with DOC concentrations. • Compost in bioretention systems can be a source of pollution.

  20. Intermittent rainstorms cause pulses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper in leachate from compost in bioretention systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullane, Jessica M.; Flury, Markus; Iqbal, Hamid; Freeze, Patrick M.; Hinman, Curtis; Cogger, Craig G.; Shi, Zhenqing

    2015-01-01

    Bioretention systems rely on vegetation and mixtures of soil, sand, and compost to filter stormwater runoff. However, bioretention systems can also leach metals and nutrients, and compost may be a major contributor to this leaching. To safely implement bioretention systems, it is crucial to determine the composition of compost leachate. We characterized and quantified the leachate composition of compost following intermittent, simulated storm events. Columns of municipal compost were irrigated to simulate 6-month, 24-hour rain storms in the Seattle–Tacoma region. Outflow was analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particulate concentration, surface tension, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper. Results indicate a decrease of chemical concentrations over the course of individual storms and following repeated storms, but each new storm released another peak of constituents. The decrease in phosphorus, copper, and DOC concentrations with repeated storms was slower than for nitrate and EC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the DOC consisted mainly of aliphatic and aromatic components typical of fulvic and humic acids. Less than 3% of the original copper content from the compost leached out even after nine storm events. Nonetheless, copper concentrations in the leachate exceeded regulatory discharge standards. Our results show that compost can serve as a sustained source of leaching of nutrients and metals. - Highlights: • Intermittent rainstorms release N, P, and Cu from compost in bioretention systems. • Leaching of Cu is sustained over several years of rainfall. • Leaching of Cu is correlated with DOC concentrations. • Compost in bioretention systems can be a source of pollution.

  1. Designing 3D highly ordered nanoporous CuO electrodes for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavifard, Seyyed E; El-Kady, Maher F; Rahmanifar, Mohammad S; Kaner, Richard B; Mousavi, Mir F

    2015-03-04

    The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research efforts for the development of lightweight and durable energy storage devices. Herein, we report a simple, yet effective, strategy for high-performance supercapacitors by building three-dimensional pseudocapacitive CuO frameworks with highly ordered and interconnected bimodal nanopores, nanosized walls (∼4 nm) and large specific surface area of 149 m(2) g(-1). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing facilitated ion transport, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and more active sites for electrochemical reactions. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 431 F g(-1) (1.51 F cm(-2)) at 3.5 mA cm(-2) and retains over 70% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrafast rate of 70 mA cm(-2). When this highly ordered CuO electrode is assembled in an asymmetric cell with an activated carbon electrode, the as-fabricated device demonstrates remarkable performance with an energy density of 19.7 W h kg(-1), power density of 7 kW kg(-1), and excellent cycle life. This work presents a new platform for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors for the next generation of portable electronics and electric vehicles.

  2. Properties of amalgams made from lathe-cut, high Cu amalgam alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espevik, S

    1980-01-01

    Two alloys for dental amalgams made from lathe-cut powder with high Cu content have been developed. The alloys have been characterized with respect to physical properties and microstructure. The strongest amalgam exhibited minimal dimensional changes during setting and had low flow and creep values. It had the highest Cu content of the two amalgams investigated and no gamma 2 phase. The epsilon and eta' phases may dispersion-strenthen the amalgam which in compressive strength was comparable to the strongest amalgams available. A new mechanism for gamma 2 disappearance is suggested where Cu replaces Hg directly in the gamma 2 phase thus forming the eta' phase.

  3. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The use of composting in bioremediation has received little attention (Potter et al., ..... Counts of microorganisms in the compost during composting. Values are means of three ..... chlorinated pesticides. J. Water Poll. Cont. Fed.

  4. Compost supplementation with nutrients and microorganisms in composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Ospina, Diego A; Montoya, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The composting is an aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process by which different organic materials are transformed into more stable compounds. The product obtained is the compost, which contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. However, the compost usage in agriculture is constrained because of its long-time action and reduced supply of nutrients to the crops. To enhance the content of nutrients assimilable by the plants in the compost, its supplementation with nutrients and inoculation with microorganisms have been proposed. The objective of this work was to review the state of the art on compost supplementation with nutrients and the role played by the microorganisms involved (or added) in their transformation during the composting process. The phases of composting are briefly compiled and different strategies for supplementation are analyzed. The utilization of nitrogenous materials and addition of microorganisms fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere or oxidizing ammonia into more assimilable for plants nitrogenous forms are analyzed. Several strategies for nitrogen conservation during composting are presented as well. The supplementation with phosphorus and utilization of microorganisms solubilizing phosphorus and potassium are also discussed. Main groups of microorganisms relevant during the composting process are described as well as most important strategies to identify them. In general, the development of this type of nutrient-enriched bio-inputs requires research and development not only in the supplementation of compost itself, but also in the isolation and identification of microorganisms and genes allowing the degradation and conversion of nitrogenous substances and materials containing potassium and phosphorus present in the feedstocks undergoing the composting process. In this sense, most important research trends and strategies to increase nutrient content in the compost

  5. Adding Cellulosic Ash to Composting Mix as a Soil Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jathwa Abd Alkareem Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generation and composition in Baghdad is typically affected by population growth, urbanization, improved economic conditions, changes in lifestyles and social and cultural habits. A burning chamber was installed to burn cellulosic waste only. It was found that combustion reduced the original volume and weight of cellulosic waste by 97.4% and 85% respectively. A batch composting study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of co-composting organic food waste with the cellulosic bottom ash in three different weight ratios (w/w [95/5, 75/25, 50/50]. The composters were kept in controlled aerobic conditions for 7 days. Temperature, moisture, and pH were measured hourly as process successful indicators. Maximum temperature ranged between (41 to 53 ºC. Results showed that the blend of M2 [OFMSW: BCA] [75:25] was the most beneficial to composting. It maintained the highest temperature for the longest duration for 9hrs. at (53 ºC, achieved the highest nitrogen content(1.65% , a C/N ratio of (14.18 %, nitrification index(N-NH4/N-NO3 of (0.29,nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium(NPK(1.65, 1.22, 1.73% respectively, seed germination 80% indicating that the achieved compost is mature and stable. Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were detected in the above compost and all were lower than the regulation limits of the metal quality standards for compost and stabilized bio-waste.

  6. The effects of bio-available copper on macrolide antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements during tylosin fermentation dregs co-composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Meng Meng; Wang, Bing; Xin, Yanjun; Gao, Jiaqi; Liu, Huiling

    2018-03-01

    In this study, aerobic co-composting of tylosin fermentation dregs (TFDs) and sewage sludge with different adding concentrations of copper (Cu) was investigated to inspect the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), metal resistance genes (MRGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Results showed that two concentrations of Cu did affect not only the abiotic factors but the relative abundances of resistance genes. High concentration of Cu inhibited the metabolic capacity of microbial community and the nitrogen-fixing process while had little effect on the degradation of TYL and TOC. The abundance of ermT, mefA, mphA increased partly attributed to the toxic effects and co-selective pressure from heavy metal reflected by MRGs. There was significant correlation among some environmental factors like pH, bio-Cu, organic matters and ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solvothermal Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Hierarchical CuS Microspheres from a Cu-Based Ionic Liquid Precursor for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Feng, Huijie; Yang, Jiaqin; Qin, Qing; Fan, Hongmin; Wei, Caiying; Zheng, Wenjun

    2015-10-07

    It is meaningful to exploit copper sulfide materials with desired structure as well as potential application due to their cheapness and low toxicity. A low-temperature and facile solvothermal method for preparing three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical covellite (CuS) microspheres from an ionic liquid precursor [Bmim]2Cu2Cl6 (Bmim = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) is reported. The formation of CuS nanostructures was achieved by decomposition of intermediate complex Cu(Tu)3Cl (thiourea = Tu), which produced CuS microspheres with diameters of 2.5-4 μm assembled by nanosheets with thicknesses of 10-15 nm. The ionic liquid, as an "all-in-one" medium, played a key role for the fabrication and self-assembly of CuS nanosheets. The alkylimidazolium rings ([Bmim](+)) were found to adsorb onto the (001) facets of CuS crystals, which inhibited the crystal growth along the [001] direction, while the alkyl chain had influence on the assembly of CuS nanosheets. The CuS microspheres showed enhanced electrochemical performance and high stability for the application in supercapacitors due to intriguing structural design and large specific surface area. When this well-defined CuS electrode was assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) with an activated carbon (AC) electrode, the CuS//AC-ASC demonstrated good cycle performance (∼88% capacitance after 4000 cycles) and high energy density (15.06 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 392.9 W kg(-1)). This work provides new insights into the use of copper sulfide electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors and other electrochemical devices.

  8. Layered Cu-based electrode for high-dielectric constant oxide thin film-based devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, W.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    Ti-Al/Cu/Ta multilayered electrodes were fabricated on SiO 2 /Si substrates by ion beam sputtering deposition, to overcome the problems of Cu diffusion and oxidation encountered during the high dielectric constant (κ) materials integration. The Cu and Ta layers remained intact through the annealing in oxygen environment up to 600 deg. C. The thin oxide layer, formed on the Ti-Al surface, effectively prevented the oxygen penetration toward underneath layers. Complex oxide (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the layered Ti-Al/Cu/Ta electrodes using rf magnetron sputtering. The deposited BST films exhibited relatively high permittivity (150), low dielectric loss (0.007) at zero bias, and low leakage current -8 A/cm 2 at 100 kV/cm

  9. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gradient Self-Doped CuBi2O4 with Highly Improved Charge Separation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuxian; Septina, Wilman; Chemseddine, Abdelkrim; Abdi, Fatwa F; Friedrich, Dennis; Bogdanoff, Peter; van de Krol, Roel; Tilley, S David; Berglund, Sean P

    2017-10-25

    A new strategy of using forward gradient self-doping to improve the charge separation efficiency in metal oxide photoelectrodes is proposed. Gradient self-doped CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes are prepared with forward and reverse gradients in copper vacancies using a two-step, diffusion-assisted spray pyrolysis process. Decreasing the Cu/Bi ratio of the CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes introduces Cu vacancies that increase the carrier (hole) concentration and lowers the Fermi level, as evidenced by a shift in the flat band toward more positive potentials. Thus, a gradient in Cu vacancies leads to an internal electric field within CuBi 2 O 4 , which can facilitate charge separation. Compared to homogeneous CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes, CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes with a forward gradient show highly improved charge separation efficiency and enhanced photoelectrochemical performance for reduction reactions, while CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes with a reverse gradient show significantly reduced charge separation efficiency and photoelectrochemical performance. The CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes with a forward gradient produce record AM 1.5 photocurrent densities for CuBi 2 O 4 up to -2.5 mA/cm 2 at 0.6 V vs RHE with H 2 O 2 as an electron scavenger, and they show a charge separation efficiency of 34% for 550 nm light. The gradient self-doping accomplishes this without the introduction of external dopants, and therefore the tetragonal crystal structure and carrier mobility of CuBi 2 O 4 are maintained. Lastly, forward gradient self-doped CuBi 2 O 4 photocathodes are protected with a CdS/TiO 2 heterojunction and coated with Pt as an electrocatalyst. These photocathodes demonstrate photocurrent densities on the order of -1.0 mA/cm 2 at 0.0 V vs RHE and evolve hydrogen with a faradaic efficiency of ∼91%.

  11. Study of Cu-Al-Ni-Ga as high-temperature shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Fang; Liu, Qingsuo

    2018-03-01

    The effect of Ga element on the microstructure, mechanical properties and shape memory effect of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa (wt%) high-temperature shape memory alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, SEM, XRD and compression test. The microstructure observation results showed that the Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa ( x = 0.5 and 1.0) alloys displayed dual-phase morphology which consisted of 18R martensite and (Al, Ga)Cu phase, and their grain size was about several hundred microns, smaller than that of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni alloy. The compression test results proved that the mechanical properties of Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni- xGa alloys were improved by addition of Ga element owing to the grain refinement and solid solution strengthening, and the compressive fracture strains were 11.5% for x = 0.5 and 14.9% for x = 1.0, respectively. When the pre-strain was 8%, the shape memory effect of 4.2 and 4.6% were obtained for Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni-0.5 Ga and Cu-13.0Al-4.0Ni-1.0 Ga alloys after being heated to 400 °C for 1 min.

  12. High resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction of YBa2Cu3O(7-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakow, W.; Shaw, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental high resolution electron micrographs and computer simulation experiments have been used to evaluate the visibility of the atomic constituents of YBa 2 Cu 3 O(7-x). In practice, the detection of oxygen has not been possible in contradiction to that predicted by modelling of perfect crystalline material. Preliminary computer experiments of the electron diffraction patterns when oxygen vacancies are introduced on the Cu-O sheets separating Ba layers show the diffuse streaks characteristic of short range ordering. 7 references

  13. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  14. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  15. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C; Pascual, Jose A; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases.

  16. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Blaya

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75% of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases.

  17. High-pressure x-ray diffraction of icosahedral Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Ag quasicrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Saksl, Karel; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl

    2001-01-01

    temperature using synchrotron radiation. The icosahedral quasicrystal structure is retained up to the highest hydrostatic pressure used (approximately 28 GPa) and is reversible after decompression. The bulk modulus at zero pressure and its pressure derivative of the icosahedral Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Ag quasicrystal......The effect of pressure on the structural stability of icosahedral Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-Ag quasicrystals forming from a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass with a supercooled liquid region of 44 K has been investigated by in situ high-pressure angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction at ambient......-Al-Ni-Cu-Ag quasicrystals induced by pressure....

  18. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISTIC OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA AND PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM SOIL HIGH IN MERCURY IN TAILINGS AND COMPOST AREAS OF ARTISANAL GOLD MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nuraini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at Brawijaya University and West Nusa Tenggara, from March 2013 to October 2013. The tailings areas of the gold mine contains high mercury (Hg as much as 1,090 ppm, and living microbes (resistance exist in a small number in such a condition. Microbial P solvents encountered came from the genus Bacillus with a population of 23 x 103 cfu g-1 and N-fixing bacteria encountered are of the genus Bacillus, with a population of 4 x 103 cfu g-1. Identification of species using Becton Dickinson Phoenix test, both species belong to Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus. While the waste corn and peanuts that has been composted for 4 weeks acquired P-solubilizing bacteria, such as Enterobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas, and N-fixing bacteria found was Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. While testing the activity and antagonism of N-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria, the result on agar media did not show antagonism in its growth. Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium effective at 5 % molasses medium with the number of 0.15 x 1012 on seven days of incubation.

  19. Critical evaluation of municipal solid waste composting and potential compost markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M; Jones, D L

    2009-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of mixed waste streams is becoming increasingly popular as a method for treating municipal solid waste (MSW). Whilst this process can separate many recyclates from mixed waste, the resultant organic residue can contain high levels of heavy metals and physical and biological contaminants. This review assesses the potential end uses and sustainable markets for this organic residue. Critical evaluation reveals that the best option for using this organic resource is in land remediation and restoration schemes. For example, application of MSW-derived composts at acidic heavy metal contaminated sites has ameliorated soil pollution with minimal risk. We conclude that although MSW-derived composts are of low value, they still represent a valuable resource particularly for use in post-industrial environments. A holistic view should be taken when regulating the use of such composts, taking into account the specific situation of application and the environmental pitfalls of alternative disposal routes.

  20. Porous SnO2-CuO nanotubes for highly reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jun Young; Kim, Chanhoon; Jung, Ji-Won; Yoon, Ki Ro; Kim, Il-Doo

    2018-01-01

    Facile synthesis of rationally designed structures is critical to realize a high performance electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Among different candidates, tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) is one of the most actively researched electrode materials due to its high theoretical capacity (1493 mAh g-1), abundance, inexpensive costs, and environmental friendliness. However, severe capacity decay from the volume expansion and low conductivity of SnO2 have hampered its use as a feasible electrode for LIBs. Rationally designed SnO2-based nanostructures with conductive materials can be an ideal solution to resolve such limitations. In this work, we have successfully fabricated porous SnO2-CuO composite nanotubes (SnO2-CuO p-NTs) by electrospinning and subsequent calcination step. The porous nanotubular structure is expected to mitigate the volume expansion of SnO2, while the as-formed Cu from CuO upon lithiation allows faster electron transport by improving the low conductivity of SnO2. With a synergistic effect of both Sn and Cu-based oxides, SnO2-CuO p-NTs deliver stable cycling performance (91.3% of capacity retention, ∼538 mAh g-1) even after 350 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1, along with enhanced rate capabilities compared with SnO2.

  1. Highly selective detection of glutathione using a NIP/Cu2+ complex fluorescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wenrui; Zhao Zhi; Zhang Yang; Wang Qiusheng; Zhao Xin; Ouyang Jie

    2012-01-01

    A novel fluorescent compound, 4-(trimethyl ammonium chloride)acetamide-2-(1H-naphtho[2,3-d]imidazol-2-yl)phenol (TMACA-NIP), was synthesized and used as a fluorescent probe for detecting glutathione reduced (GSH). The new NIP-based probe exhibited high fluorescence in water, which was quenched during the presence of copper (II) due to the complexation between TMACA-NIP and Cu 2+ . But after adding GSH into the TMACA-NIP and Cu 2+ system, the fluorescence of TMACA-NIP was recovered because the binding force between GSH and Cu 2+ is stronger than that between TMACA-NIP and Cu 2+ , which destroys the equilibrium between NIP and copper (II) ions and releases the fluorescence probe of TMACA-NIP. This three-component competing system of NIP/Cu 2+ /GSH can be used to detect GSH simply and rapidly. - Highlights: ► A novel fluorescence probe was developed to detect GSH that operates in aqueous solution. ► TMACA-NIP was synthesized and employed as “read-out” units of NIP/Cu 2+ /GSH. ► NIP-based probe shows high selectivity over other sulfhydryl compounds.

  2. EFFECT OF COMPOST FROM BY-PRODUCT OF THE FISHING INDUSTRY ON CROP YIELD AND MICROELEMENT CONTENT IN MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of compost from fish waste with mineral and manure fertilization on the yield and chemical composition of the overground parts of maize (Zea mays L.. The experiment comprised two series: I – composts at a dose of 1 g of compost per pot, and II – composts with 0.5 g of urea. The treatments were conducted on the following types of composts: compost 1: fish waste (80% d.m., sawdust (20% d.m.; compost 2: fish waste (80% d.m., straw (20% d.m.; compost 3: fish waste (80% d.m., bark (20% d.m.; compost 4: fish waste (79.3% d.m., sawdust (19.7% d.m., lignite (1% d.m.; compost 5: fish waste (79.3% d.m., straw (19.7% d.m.; lignite (1% d.m.; compost 6: fish waste (79.3% d.m., bark (19.7% d.m, lignite (1% d.m. The contents of Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu and Cd were determined in an air-acetylene flame using the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The average crop yield of the overground parts of maize in the series without additional mineral fertilization and with mineral N-fertilization was higher compared to objects without mineral N-fertilization. The highest crop yield was noted in the case of compost containing fish waste and straw with addition of lignite and with bark and lignite. The addition of lignite to the compost mass in the series with mineral N-fertilization had stronger influence on the content of cadmium, chromium, nickel and zinc in the overground parts of maize.

  3. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effect of Nb and Cu on the high temperature creep properties of a high Mn–N austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu-Ho; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Huh, Joo-Youl; Park, Dae-Bum; Hong, Sung-Min; Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Jung, Woo-Sang

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Nb and Cu addition on the creep properties of a high Mn–N austenitic stainless steel was investigated at 600 and 650 °C. In the original high Mn–N steel, which was initially precipitate-free, the precipitation of M 23 C 6 (M = Cr, Fe) and Cr 2 N took place mostly on grain boudaries during creep deformation. On the other hand, the minor addition of Nb resulted in high number density of Z-phases (CrNbN) and MX (M = Nb; X = C, N) carbonitrides inside grains by combining with a high content of N, while suppressing the formation of Cr 2 N. The addition of Cu gave rise to the independent precipitation of nanometer-sized metallic Cu particles. The combination of the different precipitate-forming mechanisms associated with Z-phase, MX and Cu-rich precipitates turned out to improve the creep-resistance significantly. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the precipitation were discussed using thermo-kinetic simulations. - Highlights: • The creep rupture life was improved by Nb and Cu addition. • The creep resistance of the steel A2 in this study was comparable to that of TP347HFG. • The size of Z-phase and MX carbonitride did not change significantly after creep test. • The nanometer sized Cu-rich precipitate was observed after creep. • The predicted size of precipitates by MatCalc agreed well with measured size

  5. Compost duurzaam ingezet. De Compost Scorekaarten: een instrument voor het afwegen van de waarde van compost

    OpenAIRE

    Schrik, Yannick; Koopmans, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Het duurzame gebruik van een reststof zoals compost hangt sterk samen met de waarde die de compost heeft bij toepassing. Deze publicatie geeft via heldere Compost Score Kaarten inzicht in het vinden van de juiste compostsoort voor het gewenste doel. Of het nu gaat om organischestofvoorziening, verbetering van de bodemstructuur of de nutriëntenvoorziening van gewassen: een bewuste keuze voor de compostsoort en –kwaliteit draagt bij aan een duurzame inzet en duurzaam hergebruik van reststoffen.

  6. Influence of Nitrogen Partial Pressure on Microstructure and Tribological Properties of Mo-Cu-V-N Composite Coatings with High Cu Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijuan Mei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings with high Cu content of ~18 at.% were deposited on 316L stainless steel and YT14 cemented carbide substrates by high power impulse magnetron sputtering in Ar–N2 gas mixtures. The influence of N2 partial pressure was investigated with respect to the microstructure and tribological properties of the coatings. The results indicated that the Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings exhibited FCC B1-MoN phase with a strong (200 preferred orientation, and Cu phase was found to exist as metallic species. As the N2 partial pressure increased from 0.11 to 0.35 Pa, the peak intensity of (200 plane decreased gradually and simultaneous peak broadening was observed, which was typical for grain refinement. With increasing the N2 partial pressure, the columnar microstructure became much coarser, which led to the decrease of residual stress and hardness. The Mo-Cu-V-N composite coatings with high Cu content exhibited a relatively low wear rate of 10−8 mm3/N·m at 25 °C, which was believed to be attributed to the mixed lubricious oxides of MoO2, CuO and V2O5 formed during tribo-oxidation, which cannot be formed in the coatings with low Cu content. When the wear temperature was increased up to 400 °C, the wear rate increased sharply up to 10−6 mm3/N·m despite the formation of lubricious oxides of MoO3/CuMoO4 and V2O5. This could be due to the loss of nitrogen and pronounced oxidation at high temperatures, which led the wear mechanism to be transformed from mild oxidation wear to severe oxidation wear.

  7. Evaluation of Composting and the Quality of Compost from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aerobic composting potential and quality of Source Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SSMSW) was studied using four different treatments for over 80 days. Four different types of treatments using different inoculums were used for the composting of source separated municipal solid waste. The phytotoxicity tests of the ...

  8. Effect of pieces size of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) on composting of EFB mixed with activated liquid organic fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Mhardela, P.; Husaini, T.; Irvan; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    This research was to determine the effect of pieces sizes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) on the composting of EFB mixed with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) in a basket composter in order to obtain high quality compost. The composting process was started by cutting the EFB into pieces with varies sizes, inserting the EFB pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding ALOF until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the compost pile was turned every 3 days and the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The sizes of the EFB pieces were varied into <1, 1-3, 4-7, 8-11, and 12-15 cm. The parameters analysed during the composting were temperature, pH, MC, compost weight, water holding capacity (WHC), CN ratio, and the quality of the final compost. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the best result obtained at EFB pieces size was 1-3 cm with compost characteristic were pH 9.0; MC 52.59%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15; N 1.96%; P 0.58%; and K 0. 95%.

  9. Compost versus vermicompost as substrate constituents for rooting shrub cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornes, F.; Mendoza-Hernandez, D.; Belda, R. M.

    2013-06-01

    The feasibility of composted (C), composted plus vermicomposted (V1) and straight vermicomposted (V2) tomato crop waste as component of rooting media for Euonymus japonicus Microphylla and Lavandula angustifolia vegetative propagation was studied. Mixes of C, V1 and V2 with coir fibre (CF) at the proportions 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 (v:v) were assayed. Physical, physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of all materials and mixes were determined and correlated with cutting rooting and growth performances. The compost and the two vermicomposts were markedly different from CF. They had higher bulk density and lower total porosity than CF. Compost had lower water-holding capacity and shrinkage in response to drying than vermicomposts and CF. Compost and vermicomposts were alkaline materials whilst CF was almost neutral. Electrical conductivity (EC) was low in CF and vermicomposts, and high in compost due to the high mineral contents, mainly of K+, SO{sub 4} {sup 2}- and Na+ in this material. EC and the ions contributing to it (K+, SO{sub 4} {sup 2}-, Na+) showed highly significative inverse correlations with rooting percentage for the two species and with root and shoot growth but only for E. japonicus. Due to its high EC, compost C (average rooting = 22.5%) performed worse than vermicomposts V1 (av. rooting = 97%) and V2 (av. rooting = 98%) whilst the latter performed similarly to CF control (av. rooting = 100%). Thus vermicomposts appeared to be more appropriate than compost as rooting media constituent. (Author) 39 refs.

  10. Compost versus vermicompost as substrate constituents for rooting shrub cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fornes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of composted (C, composted plus vermicomposted (V1 and straight vermicomposted (V2 tomato crop waste as component of rooting media for Euonymus japonicus ‘Microphylla’ and Lavandula angustifolia vegetative propagation was studied. Mixes of C, V1 and V2 with coir fibre (CF at the proportions 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 (v:v were assayed. Physical, physico chemical and nutritional characteristics of all materials and mixes were determined and correlated with cutting rooting and growth performances. The compost and the two vermicomposts were markedly different from CF. They had higher bulk density and lower total porosity than CF. Compost had lower water holding capacity and shrinkage in response to drying than vermicomposts and CF. Compost and vermicomposts were alkaline materials whilst CF was almost neutral. Electrical conductivity (EC was low in CF and vermicomposts, and high in compost due to the high mineral contents, mainly of K+, SO42– and Na+ in this material. EC and the ions contributing to it (K+, SO42–, Na+ showed highly significative inverse correlations with rooting percentage for the two species and with root and shoot growth but only for E. japonicus. Due to its high EC, compost C (average rooting = 22.5% performed worse than vermicomposts V1 (av. rooting = 97% and V2 (av. rooting = 98% whilst the latter performed similarly to CF control (av. rooting = 100%. Thus vermicomposts appeared to be more appropriate than compost as rooting media constituent.

  11. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Kopeć; Krzysztof Gondek; Kalina Orłowska; Zdzisław Kulpa

    2014-01-01

    Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum...

  12. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly stable acyclic bifunctional chelator for {sup 64}Cu PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, S.; Lecointre, A.; Christine, C.; Charbonniere, L. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. d' Ingenierie Appliquee a l' Analyse; Dechamps-Olivier, I. [Univ. de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Reims (France). Group Chimie de Coordination; Platas-Iglesias, C. [Univ. da Coruna (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Elhabiri, M. [CNRS/UDS, EPCM, Strasbourg (France). Lab. de Physico-Chimie Bioinorganique

    2011-07-01

    Ligand L{sup 1}, based on a pyridine scaffold, functionalized by two bis(methane phosphonate)aminomethyl groups, was shown to display a very high affinity towards Cu(II) (log K{sub CuL}=22.7) and selectivity over Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II) and Ga(III) ({delta} log K{sub ML}>4) as shown by the values of the stability constants obtained from potentiometric measurements. Insights into the coordination mode of the ligand around Cu(II) cation were obtained by UV-Vis absorption and EPR spectroscopies as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP model) performed in aqueous solution. The results point to a pentacoordination pattern of the metal ion in the fully deprotonated [CuL{sup 1}]{sup 6-} species. Considering the beneficial thermodynamic parameters of this ligand, kinetic experiments were run to follow the formation of the copper(II) complexes, indicating a very rapid formation of the complex, appropriate for {sup 64}Cu complexation. As L{sup 1} represents a particularly interesting target within the frame of {sup 64}Cu PET imaging, a synthetic protocol was developed to introduce a labeling function on the pyridyl moiety of L{sup 1}, thereby affording L{sup 2}, a potential bifunctional chelator (BFC) for PET imaging.

  14. Aerobic composting reduces antibiotic resistance genes in cattle manure and the resistome dissemination in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Min; Hu, Hang-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Hayden, Helen; Tang, Yue-Qin; He, Ji-Zheng

    2018-01-15

    Composting has been suggested as a potential strategy to eliminate antibiotic residues and pathogens in livestock manure before its application as an organic fertilizer in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of composting on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock manure and their temporal succession following the application of compost to land are not well understood. We examined how aerobic composting affected the resistome profiles of cattle manure, and by constructing laboratory microcosms we compared the effects of manure and compost application to agricultural soils on the temporal succession of a wide spectrum of ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR array detected a total of 144 ARGs across all the soil, manure and compost samples, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B, aminoglycoside, multidrug, tetracycline, and β-lactam resistance as the most dominant types. Composting significantly reduced the diversity and relative abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the cattle manure. In the 120-day microcosm incubation, the diversity and abundance of ARGs in manure-treated soils were significantly higher than those in compost-treated soils at the beginning of the experiment. The level of antibiotic resistance rapidly declined over time in all manure- and compost-treated soils, coupled with similar temporal patterns of manure- and compost-derived bacterial communities as revealed by SourceTracker analysis. The network analysis revealed more intensive interactions/associations among ARGs and MGEs in manure-treated soils than in compost-treated soils, suggesting that mobility potential of ARGs was lower in soils amended with compost. Our results provide evidence that aerobic composting of cattle manure may be an effective approach to mitigate the risk of antibiotic resistance propagation associated with land application of organic wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High critical currents in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, S.; Tiefel, T.H.; Sherwood, R.C.; Davis, M.E.; van Dover, R.B.; Kammlott, G.W.; Fastnacht, R.A.; Keith, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    Melt-textured growth of polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 √/sub δ/ superconductor using directional solidification created an essentially 100% dense structure consisting of long, needle- or plate-shaped crystals preferentially aligned parallel to the a-b conduction plane. The new microstructure, which completely replaces the previous granular and random structure in the sintered precursor, exhibits dramatically improved transport J/sub c/ values at 77 K of ∼17 000 Acm 2 in zero field and ∼4000 Acm 2 at H = 1 T (as compared to ∼500 and ∼1 Acm 2 , respectively, for the as-sintered structure), with the severe field dependence of J/sub c/ (''weak-link'' problem) no longer evident in the new melt-textured material. The improvement in J/sub c/ is attributed to the combined effects of densification, alignment of crystals, and formation of cleaner grain boundaries. Microstructure and distribution of various phases present in the melt-textured material are discussed in relation to the superconducting properties

  16. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Faverial

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that the quality of tropical composts is poorer than that of composts produced in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to test the type of manure, the use of co-composting with green waste, and the stabilization method for their ability to improve compost quality in the tropics. We produced 68 composts and vermicomposts that were analysed for their C, lignin and NPK contents throughout the composting process. Bayesian networks were used to assess the mechanisms controlling compost quality. The concentration effect, for C and lignin, and the initial blend quality, for NPK content, were the main factors affecting compost quality. Cattle manure composts presented the highest C and lignin contents, and poultry litter composts exhibited the highest NPK content. Co-composting improved quality by enhancing the concentration effect, which reduced the impact of C and nutrient losses. Vermicomposting did not improve compost quality; co-composting without earthworms thus appears to be a suitable stabilization method under the conditions of this study because it produced high quality composts and is easier to implement.

  17. Multivariate Analysis of the Determinants of the End-Product Quality of Manure-Based Composts and Vermicomposts Using Bayesian Network Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverial, Julie; Cornet, Denis; Paul, Jacky; Sierra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the quality of tropical composts is poorer than that of composts produced in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to test the type of manure, the use of co-composting with green waste, and the stabilization method for their ability to improve compost quality in the tropics. We produced 68 composts and vermicomposts that were analysed for their C, lignin and NPK contents throughout the composting process. Bayesian networks were used to assess the mechanisms controlling compost quality. The concentration effect, for C and lignin, and the initial blend quality, for NPK content, were the main factors affecting compost quality. Cattle manure composts presented the highest C and lignin contents, and poultry litter composts exhibited the highest NPK content. Co-composting improved quality by enhancing the concentration effect, which reduced the impact of C and nutrient losses. Vermicomposting did not improve compost quality; co-composting without earthworms thus appears to be a suitable stabilization method under the conditions of this study because it produced high quality composts and is easier to implement.

  18. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J.; Carrasco, J.E.; Negro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs

  19. Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC sup TM ) of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; O' Keefe, D.M.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Owens, J.M. (Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US)); Legrand, R. (Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas (US))

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic high-solids digestion (anaerobic composting) is an attractive option for treatment of organic wastes. The main advantages of anaerobic composting are the lack of aeration requirements and production of methane. An anaerobic composting design, sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC{sup TM}), has been developed and demonstrated at the pilot scale which has proven to be stable and effective for treatment of the non-yeard waste and yard waste organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design employs leachate recycle for wetting, inoculation, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. Performance is similar to that of other designs requiring heavy solids inoculation and mixing and which do not have a mechanism for volatile organic acid removal during imbalance. (au) (12 refs.).

  20. Role of biochar as an additive in organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Monedero, M A; Cayuela, M L; Roig, A; Jindo, K; Mondini, C; Bolan, N

    2018-01-01

    The use of biochar in organic waste composting has attracted interest in the last decade due to the environmental and agronomical benefits obtained during the process. Biochar presents favourable physicochemical properties, such as large porosity, surface area and high cation exchange capacity, enabling interaction with major nutrient cycles and favouring microbial growth in the composting pile. The enhanced environmental conditions can promote a change in the microbial communities that can affect important microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles: organic matter degradation and humification, nitrification, denitrification and methanogenesis. The main benefits of the use of biochar in composting are reviewed in this article, with special attention to those related to the process performance, compost microbiology, organic matter degradation and humification, reduction of N losses and greenhouse gas emissions and fate of heavy metals. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Creation of the best performance high-$T_{c}$ superconductor based on Cu-1234

    CERN Document Server

    Ihara, H; Iyo, A; Kito, H; Terada, N; Tokumoto, M; Ishida, K; Sekita, Y; Yamamoto, H; Hayashi, H; Khan, N A; Sundaresan, A; Nie, J; Harashima, E; Ishiura, Y; Tateai, F; Kawamura, M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to create the best performance superconductor on the basis of our original Cu-1234 (CuBa/sub 2/Ca /sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/) superconductor. Its best performance superconductor will be realized by the modification of superconducting wave function (MSWF) and application of new preparation techniques of thin films. The MSWF leads to the enhancement of coherence length along the c-axis and transformation from d-wave to (d+is)-wave, and then low superconducting anisotropy. The thin film techniques are APE (amorphous phase epitaxy) method and SAE (self assembling epitaxy) method by using a structure stabilizer such as Tl. The best superconductor with long coherence length, low anisotropy, high T/sub c/, high J/sub c/ and high H/sub irr/ will be realized for wire and Josephson junctions and microwave device application at 77 K. (16 refs).

  2. High-purity Cu nanocrystal synthesis by a dynamic decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xian; Cao, Yu; Chen, Guozhang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Hui; Yin, Liangjun; Luan, Chunhong; Liang, Yinglin; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Sixin; Zeng, Qing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chengui

    2014-12-01

    Cu nanocrystals are applied extensively in several fields, particularly in the microelectron, sensor, and catalysis. The catalytic behavior of Cu nanocrystals depends mainly on the structure and particle size. In this work, formation of high-purity Cu nanocrystals is studied using a common chemical vapor deposition precursor of cupric tartrate. This process is investigated through a combined experimental and computational approach. The decomposition kinetics is researched via differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger, and Starink methods. The growth was found to be influenced by the factors of reaction temperature, protective gas, and time. And microstructural and thermal characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Decomposition of cupric tartrate at different temperatures was simulated by density functional theory calculations under the generalized gradient approximation. High crystalline Cu nanocrystals without floccules were obtained from thermal decomposition of cupric tartrate at 271°C for 8 h under Ar. This general approach paves a way to controllable synthesis of Cu nanocrystals with high purity.

  3. Ammonia emissions from the composting of different organic wastes : dependency on process temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Pagans i Miró, Estel·la

    2006-01-01

    Ammonia emissions were quantified for the laboratory-scale composting of three typical organic wastes with medium nitrogen content: organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge; and the composting of two wastes with high nitrogen content: animal by-products from slaughterhouses and partially hydrolysed hair from the leather industry. All the wastes were mixed with the proper amount of bulking agent. Ammonia emitted in the composting of the five wast...

  4. The microscopic twins and their crystal phase in the high Tc Y-Ba-Cu-O and Dy-Ba-Cu-O superconductive ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu, Z.J.; Chen, Y.L.

    1988-01-01

    Most consider that the structure of Y-Ba- Cu-O and Dy-Ba-Cu-O stable superconductive crystals with high Tc is associated with the right-angled phase. The superconductivity is closely connected with the right-angled character of the crystalline texture; the better the right- angled character, the better the superconductivity. From statistical investigations of examples the authors have discovered that most of the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Dy-Ba-Cu-O superconductivity with high Tc ceramic crystals is in the monoclinic phase, which, consists of microscopic, lamellar, single twins. The long-columnar grains consisting of lamellar twin slabs show the optical characteristics of right-angled phase. The microscopic twinning and grain morphologies are summarized in this paper

  5. Research Regarding the Accumulation in Soybeans of Heavy Metals from Anaerobic Composted Sewage Sludge Used as Organic Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment stations can often be find high levels of Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn andCd. Aerobic or anaerobic composting of this sewage sludge does not eliminate the possibility of bioaccumulation ofthese metals in plants through metabolic processes of phytoextraction type. Researches regarding the accumulationdegree of heavy metals through phytoextraction processes were performed on soybean plants (Glycine max, Condorvariety. Plants were fertilized with anaerobic composted sludge in amounts of 25 t of / ha, 50 t / ha and 100 t / ha.The chemical analysis was done on an average sample of three repetitions. Metal concentration in soybeans wasanalyzed by reporting to the maximum allowance level for sheep, considered one of the most sensitive farm speciesto heavy metal toxicity. Our results showed a higher level than normal with 5.8 mg / kg only in the case of copperions. Zn, Pb, Mn and Cd concentration in soybeans was below the maximum allowance limits set by the rules offeeding farm animals. Also, heavy metal content of soybeans was not affected by the amount of composted sludgeused as fertilizer.

  6. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  7. Crystallization behavior and magnetic properties in High Fe content FeBCSiCu alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.D., E-mail: fanxd@seu.edu.cn; Shen, B.L., E-mail: blshen@seu.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    High Fe content FeBCSiCu nanocrystalline alloys are prepared by annealing melt-spun amorphous ribbons with aim at increasing saturation magnetic flux density. Microstructures identified by XRD and TEM reveal that Cu addition inhibits the surface crystallization of Fe{sub 86}B{sub 7}C{sub 7} alloy and improve its glass-forming ability. Activation energy of crystallization calculated by Kissinger's equation indicates that both Cu and Si addition promotes the precipitation of α-Fe phase and improves the thermal stability. VSM and DC B–H loop tracer measurements show that the Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density of 1.8 T and low coercivity of 10 A/m, respectively. AC properties measured by AC B–H analyzer show this alloy exhibits low core loss of 0.35 W/kg at 1 T at 50 Hz. Low material cost and convenient productivity make the Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy an economical application in industry. - Highlights: • Cu addition inhibits the surface crystallization and improves the GFA. • The competitive formation of Fe{sub 3}C and α-Fe phase impedes the devitrification. • Fe{sub 85.5}B{sub 7}C{sub 6}Si{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.5} nanocrystalline alloy exhibits excellent magnetic properties. • The alloy system has an economical advantage and convenient productivity.

  8. Preparation of high critical temperature YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting coatings by thermal spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is the elaboration of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 superconducting coatings by thermal spray. These coatings must have a high adherence, a high cohesion, and the best possible electrical characteristics. The author first briefly presents physical-chemical characteristics of this ceramic, and proposes a bibliographical synthesis on thick coatings prepared by thermal spray. In the next parts, he studies and describes conditions of elaboration of poly-granular coatings of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , and their structural and electric characteristics [fr

  9. Utilization of household organic compost in zinc adsorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, Lia; Isvaringga, Nyiayu Dita; Arinda, Yesica Maharani

    2017-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the heavy metals which is polluted to the environment in an amount greater than 15 mg/L [1]. Zinc contamination caused by the disposal of industrial waste such as batteries, electroplating, paint and other industries. One of the Zinc recovery technique that is relatively inexpensive, simple, high effectiveness and efficiency, and can be regenerated is adsorption using compost. This study has been carried out the preparation of compost from organic household waste and cow manure and its application to Zinc recovery. In this research, the raw material of compost is varied. There is an organic household waste (A1) and a mixture of organic household waste and cow manure with ratio 7:6 (A2). Decomposition of A1 and A2 with addition Effective Microorganism (EM4) requires 21 days, with 3 times inversion. Zinc adsorption is done by using a compost variation of 0.5 g, 1 g, and 2 g in every 100 and 200 mg/L Zn concentration solution. The batch process is applied to analyze the capacity of adsorption. Determination of capacity of adsorption based on the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm model. Direct observation and spectrophotometry are applied in research methodology. The results show that compost A1 and A2 have fulfilled Indonesian Standart of compost and have the ability to reduce Zinc concentration to 94-96%. It indicates highly recommended biosorbent that can be applied to Zinc adsorption.

  10. Vibrational spectra and lattice instabilities in the high-T/sub c/ superconductors YBa2Cu3O7 and GdBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozovic, I.; Mitzi, D.; Beasley, M.

    1987-01-01

    The exceptionally high T/sub c/ of layered cuprates was proposed recently as originating from electronically driven structural instabilities. We have studied the infrared and Raman spectra of YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub δ/ and GdBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub δ/ over a broad range of temperatures, from 10 to 300 K. We observed neither mode softening nor any other spectroscopic signature of lattice instabilities

  11. HOW DO DEGRADABLE/BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC MATERIALS DECOMPOSE IN HOME COMPOSTING ENVIRONMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Vaverková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information about biodegradability of polymeric (biodegradable/degradable materials advertised as 100%-degradable or certified as compostable, which may be a part of biodegradable waste, in home composting conditions. It describes an experiment that took place in home wooden compost bins and contained 9 samples that are commonly available in retail chains in the Czech Republic and Poland. The experiment lasted for the period of 12 weeks. Based on the results thereof it can be concluded that polyethylene samples with additive (samples 2, 4, 7 have not decomposed, their color has not changed and that no degradation or physical changes have occurred. Samples 1, 3 and 5 certified as compostable have not decomposed. Sample 6 exhibited the highest decomposition rate. Samples 8, 9 (tableware exhibited high degree of decomposition. The main conclusion from this study is that degradable/biodegradable plastics or plastics certified as compostable are not suitable for home composting.

  12. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...... these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in compost engineering and for establishing and running a successful composting facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the compost product. Use in agriculture is described in Chapter 9.10 and the use of compost in soil amendment...

  13. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongpat, S.; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)

  14. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongpat, S. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author).

  15. Highly active dealloyed Cu@Pt core-shell electrocatalyst towards 2-propanol electrooxidation in acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poochai, Chatwarin, E-mail: p_chatwarin@yahoo.com

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • This is the first report on electrooxidation of 2-propanol in acidic media on dealloyed Cu@Pt/CP core-shell electrocatalyst. • The dealloyed Cu@Pt/CP is prepared using cyclic co-electrodeposition and selective Cu dealloying (CCEd-sCuD). • The structure of dealloyed Cu@Pt/CP is core-shell structure with Cu-rich core and Pt-rich surface. • The dealloyed Cu@Pt/CP shows high activity and great stability towards 2-propanol electrooxidation in acidic media. - Abstract: Dealloyed Cu@Pt core-shell electrocatalyst was fabricated by cyclic co-electrodeposition and selective Cu dealloying (CCEd-sCuD) on carbon paper (CP), namely Cu@Pt/CP. The Cu@Pt/CP exhibited a core-shell structure comprising with a Cu-rich core and a Pt-rich shell. The crystalline phases of Pt/CP and Cu@Pt/CP were a face-centered cubic (fcc). The compressive lattice strain approximately 0.85% was found in the Cu@Pt/CP owing to a lattice mismatch between a core and a shell region. In the core-region, Cu was formed Pt-Cu alloy as major and copper oxide and also metallic copper as minor. The morphology and grain size of the Cu@Pt/CP displayed a porous spherical shape with 100 nm in diameter, while those of Pt/CP seemed to be a cubic shape with smaller diameter of 40 nm. In electrochemical and catalytic activity, the surface of Cu@Pt/CP had a larger electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) than that of Pt/CP due to a porous formation caused by Cu dealloying. It is not surprising that the Cu@Pt/CP showed higher catalytic activity and greater stability towards 0.5 M 2-propanol electrooxidation in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in terms of peak current density (j{sub p}), peak potential (E{sub p}), onset potential (E{sub onset}), diffusion coefficient (D), and charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) which were caused by electronic structure modification, higher compressive lattice strain, and larger ECSA, compared with Pt/CP.

  16. Synthesis of FeSiBPNbCu nanocrystalline soft-magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zongzhen [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Anding; Chang, Chuntao [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Zhenhai District, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Wang, Yanguo [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China); Dong, Bangshao [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100081 (China); Zhou, Shaoxiong, E-mail: sxzhou@atmcn.com [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Advanced Technology and Materials Co., Ltd., Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Thermal stability of the FeSiBPNbCu alloys is strongly dependent on the Fe content. • The FeSiBPNbCu alloys with high Fe content exhibit good soft magnetic properties. • The coexistence of Cu, P and Nb leads to the excellent soft magnetic properties. - Abstract: A series of [Fe{sub 0.76+x}(Si{sub 0.4}B{sub 0.4}P{sub 0.2}){sub 0.24−x}]{sub 98.25}Nb{sub 1}Cu{sub 0.75} (x = 0–0.08) nanocrystalline soft-magnetic alloys with high saturation magnetization were synthesized by adjusting Fe content and improving the crystallization behavior, soft-magnetic properties and microstructure. It is found that the temperature interval between the two crystallization peaks is significantly enlarged from 50 to 180 °C when the Fe content of the alloys increases from x = 0 to x = 0.08, which greatly expands the optimum annealing temperature range. The alloys with higher Fe content are prone to form more uniform nanocomposite microstructure with better thermal stability and soft magnetic properties. The Fe-rich FeSiBPNbCu nanocrystalline alloys with x = 0.08 exhibit excellent soft-magnetic properties, including the high saturation magnetic flux density of up to 1.74 T, low coercivity of about 3.3 A/m and high effective permeability of more than 2.2 × 10{sup 4} at 1 kHz under a field of 1 A/m. The combination of excellent soft-magnetic properties, low cost and good productivity makes the FeSiBPNbCu alloys to be a kind of promising soft-magnetic materials for electrical and electronic industry applications.

  17. Temperature control strategy to enhance the activity of yeast inoculated into compost raw material for accelerated composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Hirai, Hidehira

    2017-07-01

    The effects of inoculating the mesophilic yeast Pichia kudriavzevii RB1, which is able to degrade organic acids, on organic matter degradation in composting were elucidated. When model food waste with high carbohydrate content (C/N=22.3) was used, fluctuation in the inoculated yeast cell density was observed, as well as fluctuation in the composting temperature until day 5 when the temperature rose to 60°C, which is lethal for the yeast. After the decrease in yeast, acetic acid accumulated to levels as high as 20mg/g-ds in the composting material and vigorous organic matter degradation was inhibited. However, by maintaining the temperature at 40°C for 2days during the heating phase in the early stage of composting, both the organic acids originally contained in the raw material and acetic acid produced during the heating phase were degraded by the yeast. The concentration of acetic acid was kept at a relatively low level (10.1mg/g-ds at the highest), thereby promoting the degradation of organic matter by other microorganisms and accelerating the composting process. These results indicate that temperature control enhances the effects of microbial inoculation into composts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High conductivity Be-Cu alloys for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilley, E.A.; Adachi, Takao; Ishibashi, Yoshiki

    1995-01-01

    The optimum material has not yet been identified. This will result in heat from plasma to the first wall and divertor. That is, because of cracks and melting by thermal power and shock. Today, it is considered to be some kinds of copper, alloys, however, for using, it must have high conductivity. And it is also needed another property, for example, high strength and so on. We have developed some new beryllium copper alloys with high conductivity, high strength, and high endurance. Therefore, we are introducing these new alloys as suitable materials for the heat sink in fusion reactors

  19. Phytotoxicity and Chemical Characterization of Compost Derived from Pig Slurry Solid Fraction for Organic Pellet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytotoxicity of four different composts obtained from pig slurry solid fraction composted by itself (SSFC and mixed with sawdust (SC, woodchips (WCC and wheat straw (WSC was tested with bioassay methods. For each compost type, the effect of water extracts of compost on seed germination and primary root growth of cress (Lepidium Sativum L. was investigated. Composts were also chemically analysed for total nitrogen, ammonium, electrical conductivity and heavy metal (Cu and Zn. The chemicals were correlated to phytotoxicity indices. The mean values of the germination index (GI obtained were 160.7, 187.9, 200.9 and 264.4 for WSC, WCC, SC and SSFC, respectively. Growth index (GrI ranged from the 229.4%, the highest value, for SSFC, followed by 201.9% for SC, and 193.1% for WCC, to the lowest value, 121.4%, for WSC. Electrical conductivity showed a significant and negative correlation with relative seed germination at the 50% and 75% concentrations. A strong positive correlation was found for water-extractable Cu with relative root growth and germination index at the 10% concentration. Water-extractable Zn showed a significant positive correlation with relative root growth and GI at the 10% concentration. These results highlighted that the four composts could be used for organic pellet production and subsequently distributed as a soil amendment with positive effects on seed germination and plant growth (GI > 80%.

  20. Bioavailability of phosphorus from composts and struvite in acid soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmo Horta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the type and fractions of phosphorus (P forms in composts and struvite and how these P forms affect the bioavailability of P in the soil. P fertilization was performed with compost from sewage sludge (CSS, compost from poultry litter (CPL and struvite (SV and compared with single superphosphate (SSP. P forms were quantified through a sequential fractionation scheme. The first extraction was performed with H2O, the second with 0.5 M NaHCO3, the third with 0.1 M NaOH and the fourth with 1 M HCl. The release of P over time, after soil P fertilization, was assessed by incubating the fertilizers with a low-P acid soil. P bioavailability was assessed through a micro-pot experiment with the incubated soils in a growth chamber using rye plants (Secale cereale L.. Inorganic P forms in the first two fractions represented ~50% (composts, 32% (SV and 86% (SSP of the total P; and in the HCl fraction, ~40% (composts, 26% (SV and 13% (SSP of the total P. Despite the variability of the P form fractions in the composts and struvite, the P release and bioavailability were similar among the fertilized treatments. The acidic nature of the soil, which improve solubility of Ca-P forms, and the high efficiency of rye, which favors P uptake, were factors that contributed to these results.

  1. Effects of moisture content and initial pH in composting process on heavy metal removal characteristics of grass clipping compost used for stormwater filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Khaodhir, Sutha; Ruangrote, Darin

    2009-10-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants in stormwater runoff. One of the devices that can be used to effectively and economically remove heavy metals from runoff is a yard waste compost stormwater filter. The primary goal of composting is to reduce waste volume rather than to produce stormwater filter media. Moisture content (MC) and initial pH, the two important parameters in composting, were studied for their effects on yard waste volume reduction and heavy metal adsorption performances of the compost. The main objective of this investigation was to examine whether the conditions that provided high yard waste volume reduction would also result in compost with good heavy metal removal performances. Manila grass was composted at different initial pHs (5-9) and MCs (30-70%) and the composts were used to adsorb cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from water. Results indicated that MC is more critical than initial pH for both volume reduction and production of compost with high metal adsorption performances. The most optimal conditions for the two attributes were not exactly the same but lower MCs of 30-40% and pH 7 or higher tended to satisfy both high volume reduction and effective metal adsorption.

  2. Fractionation characterization and speciation of heavy metals in composts and compost and compost-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwegbue, C. M.A.; Emuh, F.N.; Isirimah, N.O.; Egun, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation and chemical extraction. Chemical extraction schemes are most frequently used approach to fractionate trace metals in soils, sewage sludge and composts. Several variations exist in the sequential extraction procedures. These variations include reagent types, strength, volume and extraction time. A main drawback shared by all sequential extraction schemes is that the procedures themselves are complex and time consuming. This setback has been overcome by the use of ultrasound accelerated extraction which reduce the extraction time for the entire extraction steps to about 90 minutes allowing composting process to be monitored more frequently which help to provide detailed understanding of the partitioning behaviour of heavy metals. Inspite of the variability the sequential extraction schemes, they all aimed at correlating each fraction with the mobility and plant availability of each metal. Several studies have shown that phase association of heavy metal in composts include water-soluble, exchangeable, precipitated as discrete phases, co-precipitate in metal oxides and adsorbed or complexed by organic ligands and residual forms. The phase association and solubility of metals changes over composting time thereby altering metal availability. It is apparent that the positive effects of resulting from compost application far outweigh the negative effect, but more research is needed on a wide range of municipal solid waste compost with more precise determination of the fate of municipal solid waste compost applied trace metals in the environment. (author)

  3. Characterization and open windrow composting of MSW in Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Bhushan; Sharma, Sunil; Sharma, Yukti; Sharma, Yagya

    2013-07-01

    Solid waste is sometimes not suitable for direct land application. Processing solid waste through composting converts it to a humus-containing organic material advantageous for agriculture/horticulture use. Major advantages of composting are stabilization of the wastes; substantially reduced C/N ratio and gas formation, and virtually elimination of odors and pathogens. Composting is accomplished under aerobic conditions developing temperatures of 55 degrees C or above. The windrow technique is simple and accomplished easily with standard equipments. The open windrow composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) in windrows was analyzed in this study for six weeks. The raw MSW was introduced to active composting without any source segregations. The moisture content of the MSW dropped from 58.88% to 48.06% and windrow attained a thermophillic temperature for about two weeks. It was observed that the pH, C/N ratio and temperature variations were comparable to that of traditional windrow composting. The peak temperature recorded was 68 degrees C and temperature remained above 60 degrees C for more than three weeks. The volume reduction was obtained by using one-cu.m. cage. The results indicate that the bulk composting could reduce by about 29% the total mass of the waste.

  4. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  5. High performance hybrid silicon micropillar solar cell based on light trapping characteristics of Cu nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance silicon combined structure (micropillar with Cu nanoparticles solar cell has been synthesized from N-type silicon substrates based on the micropillar array. The combined structure solar cell exhibited higher short circuit current rather than the silicon miropillar solar cell, which the parameters of micropillar array are the same. Due to the Cu nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of silicon micropillar array, the photovoltaic properties of cells have been improved. In addition, the optimal efficiency of 11.5% was measured for the combined structure solar cell, which is better than the silicon micropillar cell.

  6. High strength and utilizable ductility of bulk ultrafine-grained Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, X. H.; Han, W. Z.; Huang, C. X.; Zhang, P.; Yang, G.; Wu, S. D.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2008-05-01

    Lack of plasticity is the main drawback for nearly all ultrafine-grained (UFG) materials, which restricts their practical applications. Bulk UFG Cu-Al alloys have been fabricated by using equal channel angular pressing technique. Its ductility was improved to exceed the criteria for structural utility while maintaining a high strength by designing the microstructure via alloying. Factors resulting in the simultaneously enhanced strength and ductility of UFG Cu-Al alloys are the formation of deformation twins and their extensive intersections facilitating accumulation of dislocations.

  7. High performance hybrid silicon micropillar solar cell based on light trapping characteristics of Cu nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Weijia; Ma, Qiang; Jiang, Zhaoyi; Ma, Denghao

    2018-05-01

    High performance silicon combined structure (micropillar with Cu nanoparticles) solar cell has been synthesized from N-type silicon substrates based on the micropillar array. The combined structure solar cell exhibited higher short circuit current rather than the silicon miropillar solar cell, which the parameters of micropillar array are the same. Due to the Cu nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of silicon micropillar array, the photovoltaic properties of cells have been improved. In addition, the optimal efficiency of 11.5% was measured for the combined structure solar cell, which is better than the silicon micropillar cell.

  8. Point-contact electron tunneling into the high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M. D.; Smith, D. P. E.; Mitzi, D. B.; Sun, J. Z.; Webb, D. J.

    1987-06-01

    Results are reported from a study of electron tunneling into bulk samples of the new high-Tc superconductor Y-Ba-Cu-O using point-contact tunneling. Based on a superconductive tunneling interpretation, the results show exceptionally large energy gaps in these materials (roughly 2Delta = 100 MeV), implying 2Delta/kBTc = about 13. Similar values were found for La-Sr-Cu-O. The structure in the I-V curves is also similar to that seen in La-Sr-Cu-O. From the asymmetries observed in the I-V characteristics, it is inferred that the natural tunneling barrier on this material is of the Schottky type.

  9. Carbon dioxide and water adsorption on highly epitaxial Delafossite CuFeO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, S.; Joshi, T.; Borisov, P.; Sarabia, M.; Lederman, D.; Cabrera, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    Thermal programmed desorption (TPD) of CO2 and H2O from a 200 nm thick CuFeO2 Delafossite surface was performed in a standard UHV chamber, The CuFeO2 thin film grown using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) over an Al2O3 (0001) substrate with controlled O2 atmosphere resulted with highly epitaxial crystal structure. The adsorption/desorption of CO2 and H2O process was also monitored with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Our results revealed that carbon dioxide interacts with CuFeO2 forming Fe carbonates compounds on its surface. Hydroxides were also formed on the surface due to water presence. Using TPD data, Arrhenius plots for CO2 and water desorption were done and activation energy for desorption was obtained. Funds FONDECyT 1130372; Thanks to P. Ferrari.

  10. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong; Yang, Xiulin; Lu, Ang-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open

  11. Positron annihilation study on Y-Ba-Cu-O high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, A.G.; Liszkay, L.; Molnar, B.; Puff, W.

    1987-08-01

    First positron annihilation measurements are reported on high T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . The lifetime and Doppler broadening spectra show a slight but significant change about 240K suggesting a deviation from the normal structure far above 90K where the resistance falls to zero. (author)

  12. Thermal expansion of the heavy-fermion compound CeInCu2 at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagayama, Tomoko; Oomi, Gendo; Onuki, Yoshichika; Komatsubara, Takemi

    1994-01-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient α of the heavy-fermion compound CeInCu 2 has been measured at high pressure up to 2 GPa in the temperature range from 6 to 300 K. It is found that the linear term in α(T) at low temperature decreases by the application of pressure. ((orig.))

  13. Recrystallization textures and microstructures of Al-0.3%Cu alloy after deformation to high strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.R.; Wakeel, A.; Huang, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    An Al-0.3%Cu alloy was deformed to high strains by cold rolling. The as-deformed samples were annealed at different temperatures until complete recrystallization. The cold rolling textures were determined by X-ray diffraction while the recrystallization textures and microstructures were...

  14. Preparation of high dielectric constant thin films of CaCu3 Ti4 by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    group Im3 in which the Ti. 4+ ions occupy centrosymmetric position in the octahedral sites. The angle of tilt is suffi- ciently large that the Cu. 2+ ions occupy an essentially square-planer environment (Adams et al 2006). High di- electric constant, as shown by CCTO, is usually found in ferroelectric materials; however, no ...

  15. Extended abstract on the potential for Phytophthora ramorum to infest finished compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Swain; Matteo Garbelotto

    2006-01-01

    The survival rate of Phytophthora ramorum was assessed when introduced at high rates into composts of varying provenance and curing time, produced by both "turned windrow" and "forced air static pile" techniques. Survival in some compost media was high and statistically indistinguishable from positive controls (P

  16. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Response of Maize Grown on Overburden Soil in a Coal Mining Area without Top Soil to Various Compost Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Purnomo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil in Kalimantan Island is considered infertile. To obtain a reasonable crop yield a high input fertilizer package should be applied. The situation will be worsening when an open pit system of coal mining adopted. Failure in re-arranging the soil layers can result in decreasing soil fertility compared to original soil prior to mining. This study aimed to determine the improvement of soil fertility of a disposal without top soil by using composts from various sources, namely, the public garbage pile, commercial compost, and compost from kitchen waste. The experiment was conducted in a disposal area of a coal mining of PT AI. A series of application rate of compost was set. This was 0, 5, 10, and 20 tonne compost ha-1. A plot with top soil was involved for another control. Maize was selected as the plant indicator to evaluate the effect of treatments applied. It can be concluded that application of composts to reclamation area without top soil significantly improve soil fertility. Among the composts used, K-compost (compost from kitchen waste was the best in improving soil fertility. There were some characters of the compost that had not enough to support maize yield. These were P, K, and pH. Addition of P and K fertilizers and lime material are needed. Of the equation coefficients obtained, the b coefficient of equation belong to K-compost was higher than of the others.

  18. Evaluation of Composting and the Quality of Compost from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    3Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Sciences, Environmental Science Program, P.O.Box:1176, Addis ... practices of solid waste management of the city. ..... Basic Principles for composting of ... (http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/natu.

  19. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste management opportunities in small and medium companies were highlighted. • Pilot scale program for windrow co-composting of natural casings was investigated. • Compost preparation, characterization and application phases were discussed. • Natural casings co-composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution. - Abstract: After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6–0.9–0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations

  20. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makan, Abdelhadi, E-mail: abdelhadi.makan@gmail.com

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Waste management opportunities in small and medium companies were highlighted. • Pilot scale program for windrow co-composting of natural casings was investigated. • Compost preparation, characterization and application phases were discussed. • Natural casings co-composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution. - Abstract: After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6–0.9–0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations.

  1. Hierarchical, porous CuS microspheres integrated with carbon nanotubes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Liu, Xianming; Wang, Weixiao; Cheng, Jinbing; Yan, Hailong; Tang, Chengchun; Kim, Jang-Kyo; Luo, Yongsong

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated porous 3-dimensional (3D) CuS microspheres have been successfully synthesized via a simple refluxing method assisted by PVP. The composites are composed of flower-shaped CuS secondary microspheres, which in turn are assembled with primary nanosheets of 15-30 nm in thickness and fully integrated with CNT. The composites possess a large specific surface area of 189.6 m2 g-1 and a high conductivity of 0.471 S cm-1. As electrode materials for supercapacitors, the nanocomposites show excellent cyclability and rate capability and deliver an average reversible capacitance as high as 1960 F g-1 at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 over 10000 cycles. The high electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of CNTs and the unique microstructure of CuS. The CNTs serve as not only a conductive agent to accelerate the transfer of electrons in the composites, but also as a buffer matrix to restrain the volume change and stabilize the electrode structure during the charge/discharge process. The porous structure of CuS also helps to stabilize the electrode structure and facilitates the transport for electrons.

  2. Culturable fungi in potting soils and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Doris; Lesch, Susanne; Buzina, Walter; Galler, Herbert; Gutschi, Anna Maria; Habib, Juliana; Pfeifer, Bettina; Luxner, Josefa; Reinthaler, Franz F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the spectrum and the incidence of fungi in potting soils and compost was investigated. Since soil is one of the most important biotopes for fungi, relatively high concentrations of fungal propagules are to be expected. For detection of fungi, samples of commercial soils, compost and soils from potted plants (both surface and sub-surface) were suspended and plated onto several mycological media. The resulting colonies were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results from the different sampling series vary, but concentrations on the surface of potted plants and in commercial soils are increased tenfold compared to compost and sub-surface soils. Median values range from 9.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/g to 5.5 × 10(5) CFU/g. The spectrum of fungi also varies in the soils. However, all sampling series show high proportion of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including potentially pathogenic species such as Aspergillus fumigatus. Cladosporium, a genus dominant in the ambient air, was found preferably in samples which were in contact with the air. The results show that potentially pathogenic fungi are present in soils. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid handling soils or potted plants in their immediate vicinity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. High PEC conversion efficiencies from CuSe film electrodes modified with metalloporphyrin/polyethylene matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyoud, Ahed; Al-Kerm, Rola S.; Al-Kerm, Rana S.; Waseem, Mansur; Mohammed, H.S. Helal; Park, DaeHoon; Campet, Guy; Sabli, Nordin; Hilal, Hikmat S.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of hole-transfer across CuSe electrode/liquid junction can be facilitated by coating with metalloporphyrin complexes embedded inside polyethylene matrices. - Highlights: • CuSe films were electrochemically deposited onto FTO/Glass • Annealing CuSe film electrodes enhanced PEC characteristics • PEC characteristics were further enhanced by metalloporphyrin/polyethylene matrices, yielding ∼15% efficiency • Matrix behavior as charge transfer mediator enhanced electrode conversion efficiency and stability - Abstract: Electrodeposited CuSe film electrodes have been prepared onto FTO/glass by a facile method based on earlier methods described for other systems. The films were characterized, modified by annealing and further characterized. The films were then modified by coating with tetra(-4-pyridyl) pophyrinato-manganese (MnTPyP) complexes embedded inside commercial polyethylene (PE) matrices. The effects of modifications on different film properties, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, surface morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and electronic absorption spectra were investigated. Compared with other thin film electrode systems, very high photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion efficiency values have been observed here. Pre-annealing the CuSe films at 150°C for 2 h, followed by attaching the MnTPyP/PE matrices remarkably enhanced their PEC characteristics. The conversion efficiency was significantly enhanced, from less than 1.0% to more than 15%. Fill factor (FF) was also enhanced from ∼30% to ∼80%. Values of open-circuit potential (V OC ) and short-circuit current (J SC ) were significantly enhanced. While annealing affects uniformity, particle inter-connection and surface texture of the CuSe films, the MnTPyP complex species behaves as an additional charge-transfer mediator across the film/electrolyte junction. Optimization of PEC characteristics, using different deposition times, different annealing temperatures, different

  4. Investigation of biomethylation of arsenic and tellurium during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Bone, Roland A.; Raabe, Maren; Awissus, Simone; Keuter, Bianca; Menzel, Bernd; Kueppers, Klaus; Widmann, Renatus; Hirner, Alfred V.

    2011-01-01

    Though the process of composting features a high microbiological activity, its potential to methylate metals and metalloids has been little investigated so far in spite of the high impact of this process on metal(loid) toxicity and mobility. Here, we studied the biotransformation of arsenic, tellurium, antimony, tin and germanium during composting. Time resolved investigation revealed a highly dynamic process during self-heated composting with markedly differing time patterns for arsenic and tellurium species. Extraordinary high concentrations of up to 150 mg kg -1 methylated arsenic species as well as conversion rates up to 50% for arsenic and 5% for tellurium were observed. In contrast, little to no conversion was observed for antimony, tin and germanium. In addition to experiments with metal(loid) salts, composting of arsenic hyperaccumulating ferns Pteris vittata and P. cretica grown on As-amended soils was studied. Arsenic accumulated in the fronds was efficiently methylated resulting in up to 8 mg kg -1 methylated arsenic species. Overall, these studies indicate that metal(loid)s can undergo intensive biomethylation during composting. Due to the high mobility of methylated species this process needs to be considered in organic waste treatment of metal(loid) contaminated waste materials.

  5. Highly-enhanced reflow characteristics of sputter deposited Cu alloy thin films for large scale integrated interconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Takashi [Advanced Technology Information Center, Shinko Research Co., Ltd., 2-7, 4-Chome, Iwaya-Nakamachi, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-0845 (Japan); Mizuno, Masao [Technical Development Group, Electronics Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 5-5, Takatsukadai 1-chome, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Munemasa, Jun [Machinery and Engineering Company, Kobe Steel, Ltd., 2-3-1, Shinhama, Arai-cho, Takasago 676-8670 (Japan); Mizuno, Masataka; Kihara, Teruo; Araki, Hideki [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Shirai, Yasuharu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2011-08-01

    An attempt to improve the reflow characteristics of sputtered Cu films was made by alloying the Cu with various elements. We selected Y, Sb, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, In, Sn, Mg, and P for the alloys, and ''the elasto-plastic deformation behavior at high temperature'' and ''the filling level of Cu into via holes'' were estimated for Cu films containing each of these elements. From the results, it was found that adding a small amount of Sb or Dy to the sputtered Cu was remarkably effective in improve the reflow characteristics. The microstructure and imperfections in the Cu films before and after high-temperature high-pressure annealing were investigated by secondary ion micrographs and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results imply that the embedding or deformation mechanism is different for the Cu-Sb alloy films compared to the Cu-Dy alloy films. We consider that the former is embedded by softening or deformation of the Cu matrix, which has a polycrystalline structure, and the latter is embedded by grain boundary sliding.

  6. Synthesis of a highly dispersed CuO catalyst on CoAl-HT for the epoxidation of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Yang, Pengfei; Pan, Yongning; Li, Yunpeng; He, Yufei; Feng, Junting; Li, Dianqing

    2017-10-10

    A highly dispersed CuO catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and evaluated for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under solvent acetonitrile conditions. Compared with MgAl hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT)-, MgO-, TiO 2 -, C-, and MCM-22-supported catalysts, CuO/CoAl-HT exhibited preferable activity and selectivity towards styrene oxide (72% selectivity at 99.5% styrene conversion) due to its high dispersion of CuO and surface area of Cu. The improved dispersion of CuO/CoAl-HT could be ascribed to the nature of HT support, especially the synergistic effect of acidic and basic sites on the surface, which facilitated the formation of highly dispersed CuO species. A structure-performance relationship study indicated that copper(ii) in CuO was the active site for the epoxidation and oxidation of styrene, and that Cu II of rich electronic density favored the improvement of selectivity of styrene oxide. Based on these results, a reaction mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the preferred catalytic performance of CuO/CoAl-HT could be maintained in five reused cycles.

  7. Effects of pH and microbial composition on odour in food waste composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Cecilia; Yu, Dan; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid; Kauppi, Sari; Smårs, Sven; Insam, Heribert; Romantschuk, Martin; Jönsson, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    A major problem for composting plants is odour emission. Slow decomposition during prolonged low-pH conditions is a frequent process problem in food waste composting. The aim was to investigate correlations between low pH, odour and microbial composition during food waste composting. Samples from laboratory composting experiments and two large scale composting plants were analysed for odour by olfactometry, as well as physico-chemical and microbial composition. There was large variation in odour, and samples clustered in two groups, one with low odour and high pH (above 6.5), the other with high odour and low pH (below 6.0). The low-odour samples were significantly drier, had lower nitrate and TVOC concentrations and no detectable organic acids. Samples of both groups were dominated by Bacillales or Actinobacteria, organisms which are often indicative of well-functioning composting processes, but the high-odour group DNA sequences were similar to those of anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic species, not to typical thermophilic composting species. High-odour samples also contained Lactobacteria and Clostridia, known to produce odorous substances. A proposed odour reduction strategy is to rapidly overcome the low pH phase, through high initial aeration rates and the use of additives such as recycled compost. PMID:23122203

  8. Intratumoral distribution of CU-ATSM and FDG: immunohistochemical characterization of the region with high CU-ATSM or FDG accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takako, Furukawa; Tsuneo, Saga; Yasuhisa, Fujibayashi [Institute of Radiological Sciences, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging Center, Nationa, Chiba (Japan); Takako, Furukawa; Takeshi, Tanaka; Yasuhisa, Fujibayashi [Fukui Univ., Biomedica Imaging Research Center (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    Intratumoral distribution of [Cu-64]Cu-di-acetyl-bis (N4-methyl-thio-semi-carbazone ) ({sup 64}Cu-ATSM) and fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) in mice bearing tumors of four different origins, LLC1 (Lewis lung carcinoma), Meth-A (sarcoma), B16 (melanoma) and colon26 (adenocarcinoma), were compared to the immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cells (Ki67), blood vessels (CD34 or von Willebrand Factor (vWF)) and apoptotic cells (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method). With all the cell lines, {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and {sup 18}FDG were distributed to different regions of the tumor mass. The immunohistochemical study demonstrated that the high {sup 64}Cu-ASTM uptake regions were hypo-vascular and consisted of tumor cells arrested in cell cycle, while the high {sup 18}FGD uptake regions were hyper-vascular and consisted of proliferating cells. Through our study, it was revealed that one tumor mass contains two regions of different characteristics, which can be distinguished by {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and {sup 18}FDG. Since hypoxia and cell cycle arrest are critical factors to reduce the sensitivity of tumor to radiation and conventional chemotherapy, regions with such characteristics in tumor should be treated intensively as one of the primary targets. {sup 64}Cu-ATSM which can delineate hypoxic and cell cycle arrested regions in tumors can provide valuable information for cancer treatment as well as the possibility to treat such regions directly as an internal radiotherapy reagent. (author)

  9. A statistical analysis to assess the maturity and stability of six composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios P; Tziouvaras, Ioannis S

    2009-05-01

    Despite the long-time application of organic waste derived composts to crops, there is still no universally accepted index to assess compost maturity and stability. The research presented in this article investigated the suitability of seven types of seeds for use in germination bioassays to assess the maturity and phytotoxicity of six composts. The composts used in the study were derived from cow manure, sea weeds, olive pulp, poultry manure and municipal solid waste. The seeds used in the germination bioassays were radish, pepper, spinach, tomato, cress, cucumber and lettuce. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance at two levels and with pair-wise comparisons. The analysis revealed that composts rendered as phytotoxic to one type of seed could enhance the growth of another type of seed. Therefore, germination indices, which ranged from 0% to 262%, were highly dependent on the type of seed used in the germination bioassay. The poultry manure compost was highly phytotoxic to all seeds. At the 99% confidence level, the type of seed and the interaction between the seeds and the composts were found to significantly affect germination. In addition, the stability of composts was assessed by their microbial respiration, which ranged from approximately 4 to 16g O(2)/kg organic matter and from 2.6 to approximately 11g CO(2)-C/kg C, after seven days. Initial average oxygen uptake rates were all less than approximately 0.35g O(2)/kg organic matter/h for all six composts. A high statistically significant correlation coefficient was calculated between the cumulative carbon dioxide production, over a 7-day period, and the radish seed germination index. It appears that a germination bioassay with radish can be a valid test to assess both compost stability and compost phytotoxicity.

  10. High spin states in 63Cu. 17/2+ isomeric yrast state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan Ung Chan; Bruandet, J.F.; Dauchy, A.; Giorni, A.; Glasser, F.; Morand, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.

    1979-01-01

    The 63 Cu nucleus has been studied via the reaction 61 Ni(α, pnγ), using different in beam γ spectroscopy techniques. An isomeric high-spin Yrast state 17/2 + (tau = 6.1 +- 0.6ns) is located at 4498 keV. The gsub(9/2) shell must be involved to explain positive high-spin states established in this work [fr

  11. A next generation sequencing approach with a suitable bioinformatics workflow to study fungal diversity in bioaerosols released from two different types of composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbareche, Hamza; Veillette, Marc; Bonifait, Laetitia; Dubuis, Marie-Eve; Benard, Yves; Marchand, Geneviève; Bilodeau, Guillaume J; Duchaine, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    Composting is used all over the world to transform different types of organic matter through the actions of complex microbial communities. Moving and handling composting material may lead to the emission of high concentrations of bioaerosols. High exposure levels are associated with adverse health effects among compost industry workers. Fungal spores are suspected to play a role in many respiratory illnesses. There is a paucity of information related to the detailed fungal diversity in compost as well as in the aerosols emitted through composting activities. The aim of this study was to analyze the fungal diversity of both organic matter and aerosols present in facilities that process domestic compost and facilities that process pig carcasses. This was accomplished using a next generation sequencing approach that targets the ITS1 genomic region. Multivariate analyses revealed differences in the fungal community present in samples coming from compost treating both raw materials. Furthermore, results show that the compost type affects the fungal diversity of aerosols emitted. Although 8 classes were evenly distributed in all samples, Eurotiomycetes were more dominant in carcass compost while Sordariomycetes were dominant in domestic compost. A large diversity profile was observed in bioaerosols from both compost types showing the presence of a number of pathogenic fungi newly identified in bioaerosols emitted from composting plants. Members of the family Herpotrichiellaceae and Gymnoascaceae which have been shown to cause human diseases were detected in compost and air samples. Moreover, some fungi were identified in higher proportion in air compared to compost. This is the first study to identify a high level of fungal diversity in bioaerosols present in composting plants suggesting a potential exposure risk for workers. This study suggests the need for creating guidelines that address human exposure to bioaerosols. The implementation of technical and organizational

  12. Composting of food wastes: Status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Barrena, Raquel; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    This review analyses the main challenges of the process of food waste composting and examines the crucial aspects related to the quality of the produced compost. Although recent advances have been made in crucial aspects of the process, such composting microbiology, improvements are needed in process monitoring. Therefore, specific problems related to food waste composting, such as the presence of impurities, are thoroughly analysed in this study. In addition, environmental impacts related to food waste composting, such as emissions of greenhouse gases and odours, are discussed. Finally, the use of food waste compost in soil bioremediation is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of compost fertilization in organic farming on micronutrients and heavy metals in soil and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Sager, Manfred; Bonell, Marion; Fuchs, Katrin; Haas, Dieter; Ableidinger, Christoph; Hartl, Wilfried

    2015-04-01

    397-445, Mo 0.7-1.0, Cu 15-17, Ni 21-22, Zn 45-52, Cr 26-28, Pb 13-17, Co 7.5-8.4). Total soil concentrations of Cd (0.37-0.46 mg kg-1) were the same as the background values. No significant differences were found between the treatments and the unfertilized control. Similarly, the plant available LiCl-fraction and the long-term available HCl-fraction did not show significant differences between the treatments. In the soil saturation extracts, Cu content was 18-22 µg kg-1, B 172-187 µg kg-1, Fe 62-113 µg kg-1 and Ca 62-71 mg kg-1, all in the usual range of soil saturation extracts of agricultural fields without significant differences between treatments. The other elements were below the limit of determination. In the wheat, contents of micronutrients, heavy metals and beneficial elements were in the same range as in other Austrian wheat samples (Spiegel and Sager, 2008) with the exception of Ca. Element contents were (all in mg kg-1): B 0.5-0.6, Ca 387-464, Cd 0.023-0.028, Co 0.006, Cr 0.10-0.17, Cu 4.7-5.3, Fe 36-50, Mn 30-33, Mo 0.31-0.35, Ni 0.11-0.15, Se 0.15-0.27 and Zn 28-31. Pb was below the limit of determination in the wheat grains. No significant differences were detected between the treatments. After 20 years of compost fertilization with high quality biowaste compost at the above rates no increase in micronutrients and heavy metals was detected in total soil contents and in plant-available fractions nor in wheat grains.

  14. Composting of urban solid waste in Lomé, Togo: Fate of some heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metals may constitute problems in waste management because of their multiple sources and potentially high toxicity of some constituents. Processes of composting do not always guarantee acceptable quality of the compost in terms of hazardous metals. The aim of this article is to assess the balance of some heavy metals ...

  15. Biochar and compost as amendments in copper-enriched vineyard soils - stabilization or mobilization of copper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Fristak, Vladimir; Wimmer, Bernhard; Bell, Stephen; Chamier Glisczinski, Julia; Pardeller, Georg; Dersch, Georg; Rosner, Franz; Wenzel, Walter; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an important ingredient for several fungicides that have been used in agriculture. For organic viticulture, several diseases as e.g. downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) can only be antagonized with Cu-containing fungicides. This long-lasting dependence on Cu-fungicides has led to a gradual Cu enrichment of vineyard soils in traditional wine-growing areas, occasionally exceeding 300 mg/kg. Although these concentrations do not affect the vines or wine quality, they may impair soil microbiological functions in the top soil layer or the root growth of green cover plants. Therefore measures are demanded that reduce the bioavailability of copper, thereby reducing the ecotoxicological effects. The use of biochar and compost as soil amendment has been suggested as a strategy to immobilize Cu and reduce the exchangeable fractions. This study consisted of lab and greenhouse experiments that were designed to test the sorption and desorption behavior of copper in vineyard soils with or without biochar and/or compost as soil amendment. Slightly acidic soils (pHeffects were more evident for a reduction of the ionic form Cu2+ than for total soluble copper, even in alkaline soils. Biochar modified with citric or tartaric acid did not significantly decrease the solubility of copper based on total dissolved concentrations although CEC was higher than in unmodified biochar. Treatments consisting of compost only or that had an equal amount of compost and biochar rather had a mobilizing effect on biochar. Sorption experiments with different DOC concentrations and biochar, however, showed a positive effect on copper sorption. Apparently in vineyard soils the predisposition to form organic-Cu-complexes may outbalance the binding possibilities of these complexes to biochar, occasionally resulting in enhanced mobilization. Presumably immobilization of copper with biochar would work best in acidic soils low in organic carbon and with low or no compost addition although this might

  16. Thermal characteristic of sintered AgeCu nano-paste for high-temperature die-attach application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kim Seah; Cheong, Kuan Yew; Wong, Yew Hoong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, thermal characteristic of silver-copper (Ag-Cu) nano-paste that consists of a mixture of nano-sized Ag and Cu particles and organic compounds meant for high-temperature die-attach application is reported. The Ag-Cu nano-paste was sintered at 380 deg. C for 30 min without the need of applying external pressure and the effect of Cu loading (20-80 wt%) on the thermal properties was investigated in against of pure Ag nano-paste and pure Cu nano-paste. The results showed the specific heat of sintered Ag-Cu nano-paste was increased as the loading of Cu increased. For thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of sintered Ag-Cu nano-paste, a declining trend has been recorded with the increment of Cu loading. Overall, the sintered Ag-Cu nano-paste with 20 wt% of Cu loading has demonstrated the best combination of thermal conductivity (K) and CTE (α), which were 159 W/m K and 13 x 10 -6 /K, respectively. It has proven that there was a strong correlation between the amount of pores and thermal properties of the nano-paste. The ratio of K/α is a performance index (M), which has shown a higher value (12.2 x 10 6 W/m) than most of the commonly used die-attach systems. Finally, the Ag-Cu nano-paste has demonstrated a melting point of 955 deg. C, which can be proposed as an alternative high-temperature die-attach material

  17. Production of nitrate-rich compost from the solid fraction of dairy manure by a lab-scale composting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient composting process for the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) using lab-scale systems. We first evaluated the factors affecting the SFDM composting process using different thermophilic phase durations (TPD, 6 or 3days) and aeration rates (AR, 0.4 or 0.2 lmin(-1)kg(-1)-total solid (TS)). Results indicated that a similar volatile total solid (VTS) degradation efficiency (approximately 60%) was achieved with a TPD of 6 or 3days and an AR of 0.4 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called higher AR), and a TPD of 3days resulted in less N loss caused by ammonia stripping. N loss was least when AR was decreased to 0.2 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called lower AR) during the SFDM composting process. However, moisture content (MC) in the composting pile increased at the lower AR because of water production by VTS degradation and less water volatilization. Reduced oxygen availability caused by excess water led to lower VTS degradation efficiency and inhibition of nitrification. Adding sawdust to adjust the C/N ratio and decrease the MC improved nitrification during the composing processes; however, the addition of increasing amounts of sawdust decreased NO3(-) concentration in matured compost. When an improved composting reactor with a condensate removal and collection system was used for the SFDM composting process, the MC of the composting pile was significantly reduced, and nitrification was detected 10-14days earlier. This was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Highly matured compost could be generated within 40-50days. The VTS degradation efficiency reached 62.0% and the final N content, NO3(-) concentration, and germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process were 3.3%, 15.5×10(3)mg kg(-1)-TS, and 112.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High Pressure Properties of a Ba-Cu-Zn-P Clathrate-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli-Anna Dolyniuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure properties of the novel tetrel-free clathrate, Ba8Cu13.1Zn3.3P29.6, were investigated using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The pressure was applied using a diamond anvil cell. No structural transitions or decomposition were detected in the studied pressure range of 0.1–7 GPa. The calculated bulk modulus for Ba8Cu13.1Zn3.3P29.6 using a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state is 65(6 GPa at 300 K. This bulk modulus is comparable to the bulk moduli of Ge- and Sn-based clathrates, like A8Ga16Ge30 (A = Sr, Ba and Sn19.3Cu4.7P22I8, but lower than those for the transition metal-containing silicon-based clathrates, Ba8TxSi46−x, T = Ni, Cu; 3 ≤ x ≤ 5.

  19. Closing the natural cycles - using biowaste compost in organic farming in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Rogalski, Wojciech; Maurer, Ludwig; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    One of the basic principles of organic farming - that organic management should fit the cycles and ecological balances in nature - is put into practice in Vienna on a large scale. In Vienna, compost produced from separately collected biowaste and greenwaste is used on more than 1000 ha of organic farmland. These municipally owned farms are managed organically, but are stockless, like the vast majority of farms in the region. The apparent need for a substitute for animal manure triggered the development of an innovative biowaste management. Together with the Municipal Department 48 responsible for waste management, which was keen for the reduction of residual waste, the Municipal Department 49 - Forestry Office and Urban Agriculture and Bio Forschung Austria developed Vienna's biowaste management model. Organic household wastes and greenwastes are source-separated by the urban population and collected in a closely monitored system to ensure high compost quality. A composting plant was constructed which today produces a total of 43000 t compost per year in a monitored open windrow process. The quality of the compost produced conforms to the EU regulation 834/2007. A large part of the compost is used as organic fertilizer on the organic farmland in Vienna, and the remainder is used in arable farming and in viticulture in the region around Vienna and for substrate production. Vienna`s biowaste management-model is operating successfully since the 1980s and has gained international recognition in form of the Best Practice-Award of the United Nations Development Programme. In order to assess the effects of biowaste compost fertilization on crop yield and on the environment, a field experiment was set up near Vienna in 1992, which is now one of the longest standing compost experiments in Europe. The results showed, that the yields increased for 7 - 10 % with compost fertilization compared to the unfertilized control and the nitrogen recovery by crops was between 4 and 6

  20. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  1. Aerobic composting of digested residue eluted from dry methane fermentation to develop a zero-emission process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Wang, Ting-Ting; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Digested residue remained at the end of a process for the production of fuel ethanol and methane from kitchen garbage. To develop a zero-emission process, the compostability of the digested residue was assessed to obtain an added-value fertilizer. Composting of the digested residue by adding matured compost and a bulking agent was performed using a lab-scale composting reactor. The composting process showed that volatile total solid (VTS) degradation mainly occurred during the first 13days, and the highest VTS degradation efficiency was about 27% at the end. The raw material was not suitable as a fertilizer due to its high NH 4 + and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration. However, the composting process produced remarkable results; the physicochemical properties indicated that highly matured compost was obtained within 62days of the composting process, and the final N concentration, NO 3 - concentration, and the germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process was 16.4gkg -1 -TS, 9.7gkg -1 -TS, and 151%, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of ammonia oxidizers indicated that the occurrence of nitrification during the composting of digested residue was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Increasing Sn Content on High-Temperature Mechanical Deformation of an Mg-3%Cu-1%Ca Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S.E. Antipas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chill casting of magnesium alloy samples with secondary alloying elements of Cu, Ca and Sn at % w.t. concentrations in the range 1–5, 0.1–5 and 0.1–3 respectively, gave rise to appreciably enhanced resistance to high-temperature creep, while maintaining good heat conductivity. The latter was considered to be driven by Cu and Mg-Cu intermetallics while it was clear that Sn mediated the high-temperature performance, mainly via networks of Mg2Sn and MgCaSn precipitates along the Mg matrix grain boundaries. It was postulated that Sn formed intermetallics by preferential substitution of Ca atoms and, thus, did not degrade the heat conductivity by retaining Cu. The % w.t. stoichiometry with the optimum combination of heat conductivity and resistance to high-temperature creep was found to be Mg-3Cu-1Ca-0.1Sn.

  3. Nanoporous CuS nano-hollow spheres as advanced material for high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hamid [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moosavifard, Seyyed Ebrahim, E-mail: info_seyyed@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Elyasi, Saeed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraki, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Nanoporous CuS nano-hollow spheres were synthesized by a facile method. • Nano-hollow spheres have a large specific surface area (97 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and nanoscale shell thickness (<20 nm). • Such unique structures exhibit excellent electrochemical properties for high-performance SCs. - Abstract: Due to unique advantages, the development of high-performance supercapacitors has stimulated a great deal of scientific research over the past decade. The electrochemical performance of a supercapacitor is strongly affected by the surface and structural properties of its electrode materials. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-performance supercapacitor electrode material based on CuS nano-hollow spheres with nanoporous structures, large specific surface area (97 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and nanoscale shell thickness (<20 nm). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and facilitated ion transport. The CuS nano-hollow spheres electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance including a maximum specific capacitance of 948 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}, significant rate capability of 46% capacitance retention at a high current density of 50 A g{sup −1}, and outstanding long-term cycling stability at various current densities. This work not only demonstrates the promising potential of the CuS-NHS electrodes for application in high-performance supercapacitors, but also sheds a new light on the metal sulfides design philosophy.

  4. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  5. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  6. Positron annihilation studies in the high-temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3Osub(7-x) and HoBa2Cu3Osub(7-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, P.; Poddar, A.; Nambissan, P.M.G.; Choudhury, P.; Ghosh, B.; Sen, P.; Majumdar, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    In the high-Tsub(c) superconductors YBa 2 Cu 3 Osub(7-x) and HoBa 2 Cu 3 Osub(7-x) the Doppler-broadened positron annihilation lineshape parameter is studied as a function of temperature. Anomalies are detected around the transition temperature found by resistance measurements, giving indirect support for an electronic mechanism for superconductivity. The positron lifetimes in these compounds are measured at room temperature and are found to be similar. The origins of the several lifetimes found and their intensities are discussed. (author)

  7. Formation of high-Tc YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films on Y2BaCuO5 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. N.; Lu, H. B.; Lin, W. J.; Yao, P. C.; Hsu, H. E.

    1988-07-01

    High-Tc superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) films have been successfully prepared on green Y2BaCuO5 (2115) ceramic substrate. The films have been formed by RF sputtering and screen printing with post annealing at 925 C. Regarding superconducting features, the sharp resistivity drop with Tc onset around 95 K (midpoint 84 K) and 99 K (midpoint 89 K) has been observed for RF sputtered and printed films respectively. Both films show the excellent adhesion towards the 2115 substrate. Powder X-ray diffraction profiles indicate a majority of 1237 phase with preferred orientation for RF sputtered thin film.

  8. Nitrous oxide flux from landfill leachate-sawdust nitrogenous compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, C.H.; So, M.K.; Lee, C.M.; Chan, G.Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    Composted nitrogenous waste has the potential to produce excessive amounts of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potent greenhouse gas that also contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. In this laboratory study, sawdust was irrigated with varying amounts of landfill leachate with high NH 4 + -N content (3950 mg l -1 ). Physicochemical properties, including the amount of N 2 O produced, were monitored during the composting process over 28 days. A rapid decline in NH 4 + -N in the first 4 days and increasing NO 3 - -N for 11 days was followed by lower but stabilized levels of available-N, even with repeated leachate irrigation. Less than 0.03% of the leachate-applied N was lost as N 2 O. Higher leachate applications as much as tripled N 2 O production, but this represented a lesser proportion overall of the total nitrogen. Addition of glucose to the composting process had no significant effect on N 2 O production. The derived sawdust-leachate compost supported healthy growth of Sesbania rostrata. It is concluded that compost can be produced from sawdust irrigated with landfill leachate without substantial emission of N 2 O, although excessive flux of N 2 O remains about high application rates over longer time periods. (Author)

  9. High-speed photography of laser ablation plasmas from the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.; Huntley, J.M.; Phillips, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    The luminous plume formed by laser ablation of the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ has been investigated using high-speed framing photography. Variation of the background oxygen pressure was found to significantly influence the velocity distribution of the ablated species, leading in particular to shock wave formation and instabilities on the shock front at higher pressures. Spectral characteristics of the plume were studied using optical interference filters, and two distinct regions of emission were identified. (orig.)

  10. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmiller, Jochen; Spolenak, Ralph; Gruber, Patric A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility

  11. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmiller, Jochen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, Ralph [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gruber, Patric A., E-mail: patric.gruber@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility.

  12. Nutrient composition of banana fruit as affected by farm manure, composted pressmud and mineral fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.; Memon, M.; Memon, K.S.; Tunio, S.; Sial, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Major area under banana cultivation in Pakistan consists of a single cultivar D warf Cavendish c alled B asrai . Quality of banana relies on the available nutrients in soil. Under poor fertility and organic matter scenario coupled with high requirement of banana, this study evaluated the combined effect of organic (farm manure and composted pressmud) and inorganic (NPK) sources of nutrients on nutrient composition of locally grown banana. Application of full NPK (500-250-500 kg ha-1) increased the fruit P (0.08-0.12%), K (0.77-1.50%) and Zn (1.74-2.17 mg kg-1) over full N and the respective values further increased to 0.14 and 0.22%, 2.28 and 1.79% and 2.42 and 2.21% with farm manure and composted pressmud additions. Moreover, there was a non-significant increase in N and significant one in Cu and Fe. There was no additional benefit of 1.25 NP. In fact, the higher rates i.e. full NPK and 1.25 NP reduced the micronutrient contents of fruit due to dilution effect. However, the P requirement was same even with application of organic sources. The regression analysis of the yield data with fruit nutrients (N, P, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) showed a highly significant relationship with respective rv alues of 0.65, 0.66, 0.75, 0.48, 0.65, 0.71 and 0.73. The integrated use of mineral fertilizers and organic amendments resulted in enhanced banana fruit nutrients and highlights the advantage of conjunctive use over their separate applications. (author)

  13. Electron yield from Be-Cu induced by highly charged Xe q+ ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Stöckli, M. P.; Fehrenbach, C. W.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 196, - (2002), s. 61-67 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010105; GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : highly charged ion-induced electron emission * angle impact effect * Be-Cu Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2002

  14. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  15. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Xu, A; Galstyan, E; Delgado, L; Cantoni, C

    2015-01-19

    REBa2Cu3Ox ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50K and fields of 2-30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J(c)) above 20 MA/cm(2) at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol.% Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J(c) typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m(3) have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J(c) (ratio of J(c) at 30 K, 3 T to the J(c) at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 x 10(11) cm(-2) as well as 2-3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J(c) films. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  16. Fabrication of Highly Stable and Efficient PtCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Highly Porous Carbon for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inayat Ali; Qian, Yuhong; Badshah, Amin; Zhao, Dan; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2016-08-17

    Boosting the durability of Pt nanoparticles by controlling the composition and morphology is extremely important for fuel cells commercialization. We deposit the Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles over high surface area carbon in different metallic molar ratios and optimize the conditions to achieve desired material. The novel bimetallic electro-catalyst {Pt-Cu/PC-950 (15:15%)} offers exceptional electrocatalytic activity when tested for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reactions. A high mass activity of 0.043 mA/μgPt (based on Pt mass) is recorded for ORR. An outstanding longevity of this electro-catalyst is noticed when compared to 20 wt % Pt loaded either on PC-950 or commercial carbon. The high surface area carbon support offers enhanced activity and prevents the nanoparticles from agglomeration, migration, and dissolution as evident by TEM analysis.

  17. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  19. Ammonia emission mitigation in food waste composting: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Zeng, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Composting is a reliable technology to treat food waste (FW) and produce high quality compost. The ammonia (NH 3 ) emission accounts for the largest nitrogen loss and leads to various environmental impacts. This review introduced the recent progresses on NH 3 mitigation in FW composting. The basic characteristics of FW from various sources were given. Seven NH 3 emission strategies proven effective in the literature were presented. The links between these strategies and the mechanisms of NH 3 production were addressed. Application of hydrothermally treated C rich substrates, biochar or struvite salts had a broad prospect in FW composting if these strategies were proven cost-effective enough. Regulation of nitrogen assimilation and nitrification using biological additive had the potential to achieve NH 3 mitigation but the existing evidence was not enough. In the end, the future prospects highlighted four research topics that needed further investigation to improve NH 3 mitigation and nitrogen conservation in FW composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  1. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  2. Peroxymonosulfate activation and pollutants degradation over highly dispersed CuO in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ye, Peng; Fang, Jia; Wang, Manye; Wu, Deming; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-11-01

    Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) supported CuO catalysts were synthesized, characterized and used in the removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution by an oxidation process involving peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that the CuO species were highly dispersed in OMS-2 with a high ratio of easily reduced surface oxygen species. The synergetic effect between CuO and OMS-2 significantly improved the dye degradation rate and catalytic stability, compared with CuO, OMS-2 and supported CuO on other materials. About 97% of the dye was removed within 15 min at neutral solution pH by using 0.2 g/L of CuO/OMS-2 and PMS. The effect of initial solution pH, PMS concentration, reaction temperature and CuO content in the composites on AO7 degradation was also investigated. Mechanism study indicated that SO4-rad radicals generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn and Cu species with different oxidation states, mainly accounted for the degradation.

  3. Modeling composting kinetics: A review of approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Composting kinetics modeling is necessary to design and operate composting facilities that comply with strict market demands and tight environmental legislation. Current composting kinetics modeling can be characterized as inductive, i.e. the data are the starting point of the modeling process and

  4. Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Western Europe, approximately 25% of the 200 million tons of municipal solid waste that is generated each year is of organic origin and therefore compostable. Presently 35% of this organic waste is composted, resulting in 9 million tons of compost, and used mainly in agriculture,

  5. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    is potentially better growth medium amendment when compared with traditional compost types. The use of vermi-compost is, therefore, very helpful in terms of providing beneficial soil nutrients as compared to other compost types. In contrast to the other chemical and biological properties, the highest pH was recorded in the.

  6. Influence of composting techniques on microbial succession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pH also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the pit. Good quality compost was obtained in 5 weeks when PACT was used. Conventional pit method lasted over several weeks. Key Words: Municipal wastes; passive aeration; pit composting; temperature; microbial succession. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  7. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  8. Synthesis of high efficient Cu/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts by grinding and their size-dependent photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Dawei; Shen, Haiyan; Li, Huiqiao; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou, E-mail: yingma@hust.edu.cn

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Cu nanodots were decorated on TiO{sub 2} surface through ball milling method. • Its size distribution was investigated in water and ethanolic medium. • Photocurrent response and hydrogen evolution was improved. • Performance was found to be dependent on size of Cu nanodots. - Abstract: Recently, copper species have been extensively investigated to replace Pt as efficient co-catalysts for the evolution of H{sub 2} due to their low cost and relatively high activity. Cu nanoparticles less than 5 nm are successfully decorated on TiO{sub 2} surface in this work by an easy and mild milling process. These Cu nanoparticles are highly dispersed on TiO{sub 2} when the loading amount of Cu is no more than 10 wt%. The sizes of Cu nanoparticles can be controlled by changing the milling environment and decrease in the order of Cu-ethanol > Cu-water > Cu nanoparticles obtained through drying milling. The highest and stable hydrogen generation can be realized on Cu/TiO{sub 2} with 2.0 wt% Cu and sizes of Cu nanoparticles ranging from 2 to 4 nm, in which high and stable photocurrent confirms promoted photogenerated charge separation. Smaller Cu clusters are demonstrated to be detrimental to hydrogen evolution at same Cu content. High loading of Cu nanoparticles of 2–4 nm will benefit photogenerated electron-hole recombination and thus decrease the activity of Cu/TiO{sub 2}. The results here demonstrate the key roles of Cu cluster size in addition to Cu coverage on photocatalytic activity of Cu/TiO{sub 2} composite photocatalysts.

  9. The use of sustainable 'biochar compost' for remediation of contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aoife; Street-Perrott, Alayne; Eastwood, Daniel; Brackenbury, Sion

    2014-05-01

    South Wales (UK) has a long industrial history which, since the collapse of the coal-mining industry, has left a large number of contaminated former colliery sites. Bio-remediation of these areas by re-vegetation with native grasses aims to prevent erosion and leaching of pollutants into drainage waters. However, acid pH, low organic-matter content and unsuitable soil structure have limited the success of re-vegetation and prompted research into the development of artificial soils. This study aims to assess the value of creating an artificial soil cover by adding "biochar compost" to the top 10cm of a large volume of contaminated colliery spoil (high in As and Cu) to be moved during construction of a flood-alleviation barrage in Cwm Dulais (Swansea). It is proposed to use biochar, manufactured from chipped biomass sourced from a local stand of invasive Rhododendron ponticum using a BiGchar 1000 fast pyrolysis-gasification unit, in combination with locally produced BSI PAS100-certified Pteridium aquilinum (bracken) compost, to remediate a large area (2.3ha) of landscaped colliery waste and re-establish a cover of native grasses suitable for sheep grazing. Pot and field trials are being used to determine the most appropriate biochar:compost mix. In a 90-day outdoor pot trial, a commercial acid-grassland seed mix was grown in screened (remediation trial at Ffos-y-Frân (Jarvis & Walton, WRAP Report, 2011). Varying application rates of biochar (0%, 2%, 5%, 10% or 20%v/v) were employed. Additional benefits of adding mycorrhizal inoculant or Trifolium repens (white clover) seed were also tested. Six-fold replication was used, with appropriate controls. The performance of each treatment was assessed from its maximum sward height and final above-ground dry phytomass. To evaluate the quality of the resulting grassland for sheep grazing, grass samples are being analysed for nutrients, heavy metals and metalloids by elemental analysis (EA) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

  10. Probing the CuO planes with positrons in high Tc cuprates: theoretical predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, B.; Jarlborg, T.; Massidda, S.; Peter, M.

    1995-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a useful tool to investigate the Fermi surface in high T c superconductors. To study the physics of the copper-oxygen subsystem that forms the Cu-O layers, it is important to provide theoretical predictions, on materials where there is a large overlap between the positron and the interesting Cu-O planes. We have performed first-principle electronic structure calculations obtained using the linear muffin-tin orbital and the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave methods. The positron charge distributions and their sensitivity to different potentials are calculated. Secondly, we have computed the annihilation rates and the electron-positron momentum density in order to give predictions of the Fermi surface signals. (orig.)

  11. RE-Ba-Cu-O for high functional superconducting permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S.I.; Higuchi, T.; Sakai, N.; Murakami, M.; Fujimoto, H.

    1998-01-01

    Among various potential applications of melt-textured RE-Ba-Cu-O (REBCO, RE: rare earth elements) superconductors, we have examined the bulk application as the superconducting permanent magnet, especially for the magnetically-levitated (MAGLEV) train. Compared with Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO), oxygen-controlled melt-growth (OCMG)-processed LREBCO (LRE: light rare earth elements) bulk superconductors are more promising for this application because of larger critical current density (J c ) values in high field and higher irreversibility field (B irr ) within the range of the liquid nitrogen refrigeration (63-77 K), implying that even higher trapped fields (B t ) are achievable in principle. In this paper, material requirements of superconducting bulks for the MAGLEV train are first presented and then processing aspects for the fabrication of good LREBCO bulks are described. (orig.)

  12. High-pressure phases of CuI studied by 129I-Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaindl, G.; Nowik, I.; Frank, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of an 129 I-Moessbauer study of the high-pressure phases of CuI at 4.2 K and for external pressures up to 71 kbar are reported. The isomer shift S and the electric quadrupole interaction E q are found to undergo large discontinuities at the crystallographic phase-transition pressures of ≅18 kbar from zinc-blende to rhombohedral structure and at ≅46 kbar from rhombohedral to tetragonal. The pressure coefficients of these hyperfine parameters are significantly different for the three phases (zinc-blende; rhombohedral; tetragonal): dS/dP=-3.3; =+1.5; =+2.5x10 -3 mm/s/kbar. These results cannot be explained in terms of a simple molecular-orbital picture; instead, they reflect pressure-induced variations of the halogen-p/metal-d hybridization in the valence bands of the various phases of CuI. (orig.)

  13. The potential applications of using compost chars for removing the hydrophobic herbicide atrazine from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Lo; Roy, William R

    2008-09-01

    One commercial compost sample was pyrolyzed to produce chars as a sorbent for removing the herbicide atrazine from solution. The sorption behavior of compost-based char was compared with that of an activated carbon derived from corn stillage. When compost was pyrolyzed, the char yield was greater than 45% when heated under air, and 52% when heated under N(2). In contrast, when the corn stillage was pyrolyzed under N(2), the yield was only 22%. The N(2)-BET surface area of corn stillage activated carbon was 439 m(2)/g, which was much greater than the maximum compost char surface area of 72 m(2)/g. However, the sorption affinity of the compost char for dissolved atrazine was comparable to that of the corn stillage activated carbon. This similarity could have resulted from the initial organic waste being subjected to a relatively long period of thermal processes during composting, and thus, the compost was more thermally stable when compared with the raw materials. In addition, microorganisms transformed the organic wastes into amorphous humic substances, and thus, it was likely that the microporisity was enhanced. Although this micropore structure could not be detected by the N(2)-BET method, it was apparent in the atrazine sorption experiment. Overall, the experimental results suggested that the compost sample in current study was a relatively stable material thermally for producing char, and that it has the potential as a feed stock for making high-quality activated carbon.

  14. Growth of eucalyptus rooted cuttings in toxic organic waste compost of textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila F. de Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBiodegradation techniques may help contaminated organic wastes to become useful for plant production. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of composting in the biodegradation of toxic residues from the textile industry and its use as substrate in saplings production. Cotton cloths contaminated with oil and grease, used in loom maintenance, were composted in a mixture with cattle manure. The composted material replaced coconut fiber in the substrate for the production of eucalyptus rooted cuttings: mixture of vermiculite, carbonized rice husk and coconut fiber in the ratio of 2:1:1 (v/v and using it as control. Thus, the amount of rice husks remained unchanged and the amount of vermiculite and compost varied. The compost proportion in the tested substrates were 0, 19, 37, 56 and 75%. The compost produced from textile wastes showed high nutrient levels and low levels of heavy metals. In general, the survival, growth and some growth indices of rooted cuttings produced on substrates with 19 and 37% compost were similar to those of rooted cuttings grown in commercial substrate. Composting is efficient and the material is useful for rooted cuttings production.

  15. Effect of light Sphagnum peat on odour formation in the early stages of biowaste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of two bulking materials, Sphagnum peat and pine wood chips, on the early stages of biowaste composting in two pilot-scale processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the formation conditions of malodorous compost gases in the initial phases of the processes. The results showed that gas emission leaving an open windrow and a closed drum composting system contained elevated concentrations of fermentative microbial metabolites when acid Sphagnum peat (pH 3.2) was used as a bulking material. Moreover, the gas emission of the peat amended drum composter contained a high concentration of odour (up to 450,000oum(-3) of air). The highest odour values in the outlet gas of peat amended composts coincided with the elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds such as acetoin and buthanedion. We conclude that the acidifying qualities of composting substrates or bulking material may intensify odour emission from biowaste composts and prolong the early stages of the composting process. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of psychrotrophic bacteria in organic domestic waste composting in cold regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ning; Wen, Luming; Cao, Huiming; Liu, Keran; An, Xuejiao; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Hailan; Du, Xiaopeng; Li, Chunyan

    2017-07-01

    To study the influence of psychrotrophic bacteria on organic domestic waste (ODW) composting in cold regions, twelve new efficient psychrotrophic composting strains were isolated. Together with the published representative composting strains, a phylogenetic tree was constructed showing that although the strains belong to the same phylum, the genera were markedly different. The twelve strains were inoculated into the ODW in the composting reactor at 13°C. After treatment, the indices of temperature, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, C/N, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen indicated that the compost had reached maturity. The thermophilic phase was reached at 17d, and composting was completed at 42d, a markedly shorter composting time than that in previous studies. High-throughput sequencing indicated that the inoculative strains became the dominant community during the mesophilic phase and that they enhanced the stability of the microbial community structure. Thus, psychrotrophic bacteria played a key role in low-temperature composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chinese medicinal herbal residues as a bulking agent for food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to co-compost Chinese medicinal herbal residues (CMHRs) as the bulking agent with food waste (FW) to develop a high value antipathogenic compost. The FW, sawdust (SD) and CMHRs were mixed at three different mixing ratios, 5:5:1, 2:2:1 and 1:1:1 on dry weight basis. Lime at 2.25% was added to the composting mix to buffer the pH during the composting. A control without lime addition was also included. The mixtures were composted in 20-L in-vessel composters for 56 days. A maximum of 67.2% organic decomposition was achieved with 1:1:1 mixing ratio within 8 weeks. The seed germination index was 157.2% in 1:1:1 mixing ratio, while other ratios showed compost food waste at the dry weight ratio of 1:1:1 (FW: SD: CMHRs) was recommended for FW-CMHRs composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Respirometric screening of several types of manure and mixtures intended for composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Turet, Josep; Busquets, Anna; Farrés, Moisès; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    The viability of mixtures from manure and agricultural wastes as composting sources were systematically studied using a physicochemical and biological characterization. The combination of different parameters such as C:N ratio, free air space (FAS) and moisture content can help in the formulation of the mixtures. Nevertheless, the composting process may be challenging, particularly at industrial scales. The results of this study suggest that if the respirometric potential is known, it is possible to predict the behaviour of a full scale composting process. Respiration indices can be used as a tool for determining the suitability of composting as applied to manure and complementary wastes. Accordingly, manure and agricultural wastes with a high potential for composting and some proposed mixtures have been characterized in terms of respiration activity. Specifically, the potential of samples to be composted has been determined by means of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the dynamic respirometric index (DRI). During this study, four of these mixtures were composted at full scale in a system consisting of a confined pile with forced aeration. The biological activity was monitored by means of the oxygen uptake rate inside the material (OURinsitu). This new parameter represents the real activity of the process. The comparison between the potential respirometric activities at laboratory scale with the in situ respirometric activity observed at full scale may be a useful tool in the design and optimization of composting systems for manure and other organic agricultural wastes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and Structural Study of Sr2CuO3+δ Superconductor under High Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-Qing, Liu; Fu-Ren, Wang; Feng-Ying, Li; Liang-Chen, Chen; Ri-Cheng, Yu; Chang-Qing, Jin; Yan-Chun, Li; Jing, Liu

    2008-01-01

    A single-phase Sr 2 CuO 3+δ superconductor is synthesized under high temperature and high pressure, in which oxygen atoms only partially occupy the apical sites next to the CuO 2 planes and act as hole-dopants. The superconducting transition temperature with T c max = 75 K is achieved in the material. Structure analysis from x-ray powder diffraction data show that this material crystallizes into a K 2 NiF 4 structure with tetragonal unit cell of a = 3. 795(3) Å and c = 12. 507(1) Å. Energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray-diffraction studies at ambient are performed on powder samples of Sr 2 CuO 3+δ in a diamond-anvil cell at pressure up to 35 GPa. Anisotropic compressibility is found. Pressure-induced isostructural phase transition might exist as revealed by the discontinuous change of crystal cell volume V with pressure. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. Experimental Preparation and Numerical Simulation of High Thermal Conductive Cu/CNTs Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsan Ali Samer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of high performance electronics devices accompanied by overheating problem, heat dissipater nanocomposites material having ultra-high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion was proposed. In this work, a nanocomposite material made of copper (Cu reinforced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs up to 10 vol. % was prepared and their thermal behaviour was measured experimentally and evaluated using numerical simulation. In order to numerically predict the thermal behaviour of Cu/CNTs composites, three different prediction methods were performed. The results showed that rules of mixture method records the highest thermal conductivity for all predicted composites. In contrast, the prediction model which takes into account the influence of the interface thermal resistance between CNTs and copper particles, has shown the lowest thermal conductivity which considered as the closest results to the experimental measurement. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities showed remarkable increase after adding 5 vol.% CNTs and higher than the thermal conductivities predicted via Nan models, indicating that the improved fabrication technique of powder injection molding that has been used to produced Cu/CNTs nanocomposites has overcome the challenges assumed in the mathematical models.

  1. High strain rate tensile behavior of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Paman, Ashish; Madhu, V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to perform quasi static and high strain rate tensile tests on Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy under different strain rates ranging from 0.01–3500/s and also at temperatures of 25,100, 200 and 300 °C. The combined effect of strain rate, temperature and stress triaxiality on the material behavior is studied by testing both smooth and notched specimens. Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive and fracture models are established based on high strain rate tensile data obtained from Split hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) and quasi-static tests. By modifying the strain hardening and strain rate hardening terms in the Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive model, a new J–C constitutive model of Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy was obtained. The improved Johnson–Cook constitutive model matched the experiment results very well. With the Johnson–Cook constitutive and fracture models, numerical simulations of tensile tests at different conditions for Al-4.8Cu-1.2Mg alloy were conducted. Numerical simulations are performed using a non-linear explicit finite element code autodyn. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical simulation results and the experiment results. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested under various strain rates and temperatures were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  2. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Atsushi, E-mail: asatou@ari.pref.niigata.jp [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroyuki [Niigata Horticultural Research Center, 177 Mano, Seiro, Niigata 957-0111 (Japan); Oyanagi, Wataru [Niigata Livestock Research Center, 178 Tanahire, Sanjo, Niigata 955-0143 (Japan); Nishihara, Eiji [Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8550 (Japan); Murakami, Masaharu [Soil Environment Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  3. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oyanagi, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Murakami, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  4. Date palm and the activated sludge co-composting actinobacteria sanitization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fels, Loubna; Hafidi, Mohamed; Ouhdouch, Yedir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find a connection between the development of the compost actinobacteria and the potential involvement of antagonistic thermophilic actinomycetes in compost sanitization as high temperature additional role. An abundance of actinobacteria and coliforms during the activated sludge and date palm co-composting is determined. Hundred actinomycete isolates were isolated from the sample collected at different composting times. To evaluate the antagonistic effects of the different recovered actinomycete isolates, several wastewater-linked microorganisms known as human and plant potential pathogens were used. The results showed that 12 isolates have an in vitro inhibitory effect on at least 9 of the indicator microorganisms while only 4 active strains inhibit all these pathogens. The antimicrobial activities of sterilized composting time extracts are also investigated.

  5. An efficient route to Cu_2O nanorod array film for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yumei; Wang, Kun; Yang, Zeheng; Zhang, Yingmeng; Gu, Heyun; Zhang, Weixin; Li, Errui; Zhou, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of well-organized one-dimensional nanostructured arrays on conducting substrates as binder free electrodes allows us to synergize and integrate multi-functionalities into lithium ion batteries. In this contribution, we report a metal-induced thermal reduction (MITR) method to prepare free-standing Cu_2O nanorod array film with average diameters of 400 ± 100 nm and lengths of several microns on copper substrates by direct thermal reduction of Cu(OH)_2 nanorod arrays on copper foils in nitrogen atmosphere at 500 °C. The presence of Cu substrates reduces the Cu(OH)_2 to Cu_2O and decreases the reduction temperature significantly through changing the reaction Gibbs energy. Compared with some previously-reported methods about thermal reduction, the MITR method is facile, controllable, efficient and low energy consumption. The free-standing Cu_2O nanorod array film on Cu substrates as anode can achieve high rate capability (315 mAh g"−"1 at 10 C) and good cyclability (358 mAh g"−"1 after 200 cycles at 1 C), demonstrating their excellent electrochemical performance in lithium ion batteries, which results from relatively faster electron and ion transport, easier electrolyte diffusion and better accommodation of strains from the repeated conversion reactions based on their one-dimensional nanostructured arrays. - Highlights: • A metal-induced thermal reduction method was used to prepare Cu_2O nanorod array film. • Copper substrate takes an important part in the conversion of Cu(OH)_2 to Cu_2O. • The Cu_2O films show excellent electrochemical properties as anode for Li-ion battery.

  6. Biochar composts and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekebafe, Marian Osazoduwa; Ekebafe, Lawrence Olu; Ugbesia, Stella Omozee

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the carbon content of wastes decreases during composting with an increase in the nitrogen content. This indicates that the increased microbial activity in the process results in an increased mineralisation rate of organic nitrogen. A formula containing biochar in the form of terra preta, biochar bokashi, biochar glomalin, biochar hydrogel and biochar mokusaku-eki could further enhance the stability of the system and its effectiveness as a soil ameliorant. It could increase the cation exchange capacity, reuse crop residue, reduce runoff, reduce watering, reduce the quantity of fertiliser increase crop yield, build and multiply soil biodiversity, strengthen and rebuild our soil food web, sequester atmospheric carbon in a carbon negative process, increase soil pH, restructure poor soils, and reduce carbon dioxide/methane/ nitrous oxide/ammonia emissions from gardens and fields. This paper considers these claims and also the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processes. The intention of this overview is not just to summarise current knowledge of the subject, but also to identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  7. Effects of Cu and B addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength bainitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Yong; Han, Seung Youb; Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Chang Gil; Lee, Sunghak

    2009-01-01

    Effects of Cu and B addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength bainitic steels were investigated in this study. Six kinds of steels were fabricated by controlling the amount of Cu and B addition, and their microstructures and tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated. Their effective grain sizes were also characterized by the electron back-scatter diffraction analysis. The tensile test results indicated that the B- or Cu-containing steels had the higher yield and tensile strengths than the B- or Cu-free steels because their volume fractions of acicular ferrite and martensite were quite high. The B- or Cu-free steels had the higher upper shelf energy than the B- or Cu-containing steels because of their lower volume fraction of martensite. In the steel containing 10 ppm B without Cu, the best combination of high strengths, high upper shelf energy, and low energy transition temperature could be obtained by the decrease in effective grain size due to the presence of acicular ferrite having fine effective grain size.

  8. Tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress is due to high levels of Zn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie T Celino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogonia are highly tolerant to reactive oxygen species (ROS attack while advanced-stage germ cells such as spermatozoa are much more susceptible, but the precise reason for this variation in ROS tolerance remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Japanese eel testicular culture system that enables a complete spermatogenesis in vitro, we report that advanced-stage germ cells undergo intense apoptosis and exhibit strong signal for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative DNA damage marker, upon exposure to hypoxanthine-generated ROS while spermatogonia remain unaltered. Activity assay of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Western blot analysis using an anti-Copper/Zinc (Cu/Zn SOD antibody showed a high SOD activity and Cu/Zn SOD protein concentration during early spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemistry showed a strong expression for Cu/Zn SOD in spermatogonia but weak expression in advanced-stage germ cells. Zn deficiency reduced activity of the recombinant eel Cu/Zn SOD protein. Cu/Zn SOD siRNA decreased Cu/Zn SOD expression in spermatogonia and led to increased oxidative damage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that the presence of high levels of Cu/Zn SOD and Zn render spermatogonia resistant to ROS, and consequently protected from oxidative stress. These findings provide the biochemical basis for the high tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress.

  9. Cu2+-RGDFRGDS: exploring the mechanism and high efficacy of the nanoparticle in antithrombotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianhui Wu,1 Yuji Wang,1 Yaonan Wang,1 Ming Zhao,1,2 Xiaoyi Zhang,1 Lin Gui,1 Shurui Zhao,1 Haimei Zhu,1 Jinghua Zhao,1 Shiqi Peng11Beijing Area Major Laboratory of Peptide and Small Molecular Drugs, Engineering Research Center of Endogenous Prophylactic of Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, TaiwanAbstract: Thrombosis disease has been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the discovery of antithrombotic agents, three complexes of Cu2+ and repetitive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD sequences, Cu(II-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (Cu[II]-4a, Cu(II-Arg-Gly-Asp-Val-Arg-Gly-Asp-Val (Cu[II]-4b, and Cu(II-Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe (Cu[II]-4c, were previously reported, of which Cu(II-4a and Cu(II-4c possessed the highest in vitro and in vivo activity, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images visualized that Cu(II-4a and Cu(II-4c formed nanoaggregates and nanoparticles, respectively. However, the details of the formation of the nanospecies complexes and of the mechanism for inhibiting thrombosis remain to be clarified. For this purpose, this study designed a novel complex of Cu(II and the RGD octapeptide, Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDFRGDS, consisting of Arg-Gly-Asp-Phe of Cu(II-4c and Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser of Cu(II-4a, to colligate their biological and nanostructural benefits. In contrast with Cu(II-4a, -4b, and -4c, Cu(II-RGDFRGDS (Cu2+-FS had high antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities, with the formed nanoparticles having a porous surface. Additionally, this paper evidenced the dimer had the basic structural unit of Cu2+-FS in water, theoretically simulated the formation of Cu2+-FS nanoparticles, and identified that Cu2+-FS activity in decreasing

  10. Eutectic crystallization behavior of new Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 alloy with high glass-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q S; Zhang, W; Xie, G Q; Inoue, A

    2009-01-01

    A water quenching method is used to produce as-cast Zr 48 Cu 36 Al 8 Ag 8 rods with diameters from 20 mm to 25 mm. The microstructures of the as-cast samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the crystallization behavior of the Zr 48 Cu 36 Al 8 Ag 8 glassy alloy was examined by XRD and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the results obtained one can assume that the simultaneous precipitation of the Zr 2 Cu+AlCu 2 Zr eutectic phases is the possible reason for the high stabilization of the quaternary Zr 48 Cu 36 Al 8 Ag 8 supercooled liquid.

  11. The effects of H sub 2 addition on the enhanced deposition rate and high quality Cu films by MOCVD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J H; Park, S J; Choi, S Y

    1998-01-01

    High-quality Cu thin films were deposited on the TiN/Si substrate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate Copper thrmethylvinylsilane [Cu (hfac) (tmvs)] source using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The optimum deposition condition is with a substrate temperature of 200 .deg. C and the hydrogen flow rate of 80 sccm. The deposition rate, electrical resistivity, surface morphology, grain size, and optical properties of the deposited Cu films were investigated by the AES, four-point probe, SEM, XRD, and the visible spectrophotometer as a function of hydrogen gas flow rate, The results indicated that additional hydrogen gas affects the CVD hydrogen reduction reaction improving the purity, deposition rate, and electrical resistivity of Cu thin films. A prospective idea will be discussed for the preparation of Cu thin films showing a more enhanced electromigration resistance applicable to the next-generation interconnection.

  12. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactor by using compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgae are well known for its high photosynthetic activity and ability to accumulate large amount of lipids within their cells. Compost fertilizers are derived from manure or food wastes which contain high concentration of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate. Hence, this study was to investigate the potential of ...

  13. Hierarchical CuCo2O4 nanobelts as a supercapacitor electrode with high areal and specific capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Subbukalai; Lee, Seong-Hun; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First time we report the synthesis of CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts using hydrothermal method. • The spinel CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts exhibit maximum areal capacitance of 2.42 F cm −2 . • After 1800 cycles, 127% of the initial specific capacitance was retained. - Abstract: One dimensional hierarchical CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelt like architecture was synthesized via hydrothermal method. The synthesized nanomaterial was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM image clearly shows the nanobelt like architecture of CuCo 2 O 4 . The supercapacitor properties of CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts electrode were tested using cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The spinel CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts exhibit maximum areal and specific capacitance of 2.42 F cm −2 (809 F g −1 ). After 1800 continuous charge-discharge cycles, 127% of the initial capacitance was retained. This superior electrochemical supercapacitor property is mainly due to increased surface area and ion transport of nanobelt like architecture. The charge transfer resistance (R ct ) value of CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelt electrode is 3.85 Ω. This high capacitance and cyclic stability demonstrate that the prepared CuCo 2 O 4 nanobelts are a promising candidate for supercapacitors.

  14. Additives aided composting of green waste: effects on organic matter degradation, compost maturity, and quality of the finished compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Bidyadhar, Rajnikant; Bhilawe, Priya; Anand, Duraisamy; Vaidya, Atul N; Wate, Satish R

    2012-06-01

    The effect of various additives such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, jaggery, lime, and polyethylene glycol on green waste composting was investigated through assessing their influence on microbial growth, enzymatic activities, organic matter degradation, bulk density, quality of finished compost including gradation test, heavy metal analysis, etc. A perusal of results showed that addition of jaggery and polyethylene glycol were helpful to facilitate composting process as they significantly influenced the growth of microbes and cellulase activity. The quality of finished compost prepared from jaggery and polyethylene glycol added treatments were superior to other composts, wherein reduction in C/N ratio was more than 8% in jaggery treatment. All other parameters of compost quality including gradation test also favored jaggery and polyethylene glycol as the best additives for green waste composting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards low carbon society in Iskandar Malaysia: Implementation and feasibility of community organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Cassendra Phun-Chien; Goh, Rebecca Kar Yee; Lim, Jeng-Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew-Tin; Hashim, Haslenda; Abu Mansor, Nur Naha; Ho, Chin Siong; Ramli, Abdul Rahim; Takeshi, Fujiwara

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth and urbanisation have generated large amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many cities. Up to 40-60% of Malaysia's MSW is reported to be food waste where such waste is highly putrescible and can cause bad odour and public health issue if its disposal is delayed. In this study, the implementation of community composting in a village within Iskandar Malaysia is presented as a case study to showcase effective MSW management and mitigation of GHG emission. The selected village, Felda Taib Andak (FTA), is located within a palm oil plantation and a crude palm oil processing mill. This project showcases a community-composting prototype to compost food and oil palm wastes into high quality compost. The objective of this article is to highlight the economic and environment impacts of a community-based composting project to the key stakeholders in the community, including residents, oil palm plantation owners and palm oil mill operators by comparing three different scenarios, through a life cycle approach, in terms of the greenhouse gas emission and cost benefit analysis. First scenario is the baseline case, where all the domestic waste is sent to landfill site. In the second scenario, a small-scale centralised composting project was implemented. In the third scenario, the data obtained from Scenario 2 was used to do a projection on the GHG emission and costing analysis for a pilot-scale centralised composting plant. The study showed a reduction potential of 71.64% on GHG emission through the diversion of food waste from landfill, compost utilisation and significant revenue from the compost sale in Scenario 3. This thus provided better insight into the feasibility and desirability in implementing a pilot-scale centralised composting plant for a sub-urban community in Malaysia to achieve a low carbon and self-sustainable society, in terms of environment and economic aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CuNi NPs supported on MIL-101 as highly active catalysts for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Doudou; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhou, Liqun; Yang, Kunzhou

    2018-01-01

    The catalysts containing Cu, Ni bi-metallic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by in-situ reduction of Cu2+ and Ni2+ salts into the highly porous and hydrothermally stable metal-organic framework MIL-101 via a simple liquid impregnation method. When the total amount of loading metal is 3 × 10-4 mol, Cu2Ni1@MIL-101 catalyst shows higher catalytic activity comparing to CuxNiy@MIL-101 with different molar ratio of Cu and Ni (x, y = 0, 0.5, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3). Cu2Ni1@MIL-101 catalyst has the highest catalytic activity comparing to mono-metallic Cu and Ni counterparts and pure bi-metallic CuNi nanoparticles in hydrolytic dehydrogeneration of ammonia borane (AB) at room temperature. Additionally, in the hydrolysis reaction, the Cu2Ni1@MIL- 101 catalyst possesses excellent catalytic performances, which exhibit highly catalytic activity with turn over frequency (TOF) value of 20.9 mol H2 min-1 Cu mol-1 and a very low activation energy value of 32.2 kJ mol-1. The excellent catalytic activity has been successfully achieved thanks to the strong bi-metallic synergistic effects, uniform distribution of nanoparticles and the bi-functional effects between CuNi nanoparticles and the host of MIL-101. Moreover, the catalyst also displays satisfied durable stability after five cycles for the hydrolytically releasing H2 from AB. The non-noble metal catalysts have broad prospects for commercial applications in the field of hydrogen-stored materials due to the low prices and excellent catalytic activity.

  17. Stabilization of high-temperature supeconductor Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Valentovich, D.; Lushchikov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    A technique is suggested for stabilization of a high-temperature superconductor Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ surface by means of a high-current pulsed electron beam (J=12.5-65 A/cm 2 , E=70-200 keV, t=300 ns, P=0.001 Pa). The quality of the remelted surface film is characterized and first experimental results are discussed. It is shown that within 50 days after the electron beam processing, no dielectric film was developed at the superconductor surface and superconductor characteristics did not change

  18. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content......, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds......, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N2O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability...

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of pore gas concentrations during mainstream large-scale trough composting in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianfei; Shen, Xiuli; Sun, Xiaoxi; Liu, Ning; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-05-01

    With the advantages of high treatment capacity and low operational cost, large-scale trough composting has become one of the mainstream composting patterns in composting plants in China. This study measured concentrations of O 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 and NH 3 on-site to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of pore gas concentrations during mainstream large-scale trough composting in China. The results showed that the temperature in the center of the pile was obviously higher than that in the side of the pile. Pore O 2 concentration rapidly decreased and maintained composting process during large-scale trough composting when the pile was naturally aerated, which will contribute to improving the current undesirable atmosphere environment in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas; Kuyper, Thomas W

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N 2 O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability and suggested that feeding ratio should be considered when assessing the earthworms' effect on stabilisation and greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutron scattering studies on the high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu306+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurgens, M.J.G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this thesis is to clarify some of the magnetic aspects of high T c superconductors across the phase diagram as a function of doping and temperature, for which YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x has been chosen. Mainly the neutron scattering technique has been employed, which supplies a very powerful tool for this kind of research, for it directly shows the microscopic phenomena of the magnetism involved. First an introduction to the neutron scattering technique is given and a description of the spectrometers employed (ch. 2). The determination of the crystal structure of YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x is described, and the single crystals which were used during all the experiments on the magnetic properties as described in this thesis, are characterized (ch. 3). Ch. 4 deals with the phase diagram of the insulating antiferromagnetic phase in YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x , as obtained with neutron scattering. The inelastic scattering experiments on the magnetic excitations in this system are presented in ch. 5. In ch. 6 the total susceptibility, measure with a AQUID, is discussed. The local magnetizations, as determined with a polarized neutron scattering technique are the subject of ch. 7. (author). 254 refs.; 77 figs.; 25 tabs

  2. A high performance quasi-solid-state supercapacitor based on CuMnO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Arif, Muhammad; Duan, Guorong; Chen, Shenming; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-07-01

    Mixed metal or transition metal oxides hold an unveiled potential as one of the most promising energy storage material because of their excellent stability, reliable conductivity, and convenient use. In this work, CuMnO2 nanoparticles are successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal process with the help of dispersing agent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). CuMnO2 nanoparticles possess a uniform quadrilateral shape, small size (approximately 25 × 25 nm-35 × 35 nm), excellent dispersity, and large specific surface specific (56.9 m2 g-1) with an interparticle mesoporous structure. All these characteristics can bring benefit for their application in supercapacitor. A quasi-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device is assembled by using CuMnO2 nanoparticles as both positive electrode and negative electrode. The device exhibits good supercapacitive performance with a high specific capacitance (272 F g-1), a maximum power density of 7.56 kW kg-1 and a superior cycling stability of 18,000 continuous cycles, indicating an excellent potential to be used in energy storage device.

  3. A reclamation recipe: Composting answers reclamation worries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverty, K.

    2004-06-01

    A much simplified recipe for successful wellsite remediation, an alternative to landfill cuttings, is described. The process is co-composting, and the recipe consists of combining oil and gas wellbore cuttings with wood waste, spread it out thinly, allowing the resulting mixture to stand for a period of two years, and adding seed. The result is a stabilized, non-toxic soil with a lush green carpet of grass, the product of combining two waste material streams into a valuable product that is also environmentally benign. Co-composting is essentially a biodegradation process where the work is done by indigenous microorganisms in the wood waste. Proponents of this process claim that the forestry industry is only too happy to provide the needed raw material as stored piles of wood waste are a fire hazard and have no market value. The process was pioneered by Newpark Environmental Services. Since 1996 they have successfully reclaimed some 500 drilling sites in Alberta and British Columbia, combining an estimated 400,000 cu. m of wood waste and wellbore cuttings to provide nutrient-rich topsoil, frequently in heavily-forested areas. Although faced initially with skepticism, the Newpark system now appears to have won respectability and is about to become part of the mainstream in that bioremediation is being added to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board's 'Guide 50', the industry's principal guide to site remediation. Part of the reason for the acceptance of bioremediation as an acceptable method for site remediation is a change of heart at the EUB itself; prior to 1996 the EUB was quite fond of 'land-farming', a process which not only requires a period of five to ten years, but is also less than effective, particularly in areas that received a lot of rain and snow. photos.

  4. A reclamation recipe: Composting answers reclamation worries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverty, K.

    2004-01-01

    A much simplified recipe for successful wellsite remediation, an alternative to landfill cuttings, is described. The process is co-composting, and the recipe consists of combining oil and gas wellbore cuttings with wood waste, spread it out thinly, allowing the resulting mixture to stand for a period of two years, and adding seed. The result is a stabilized, non-toxic soil with a lush green carpet of grass, the product of combining two waste material streams into a valuable product that is also environmentally benign. Co-composting is essentially a biodegradation process where the work is done by indigenous microorganisms in the wood waste. Proponents of this process claim that the forestry industry is only too happy to provide the needed raw material as stored piles of wood waste are a fire hazard and have no market value. The process was pioneered by Newpark Environmental Services. Since 1996 they have successfully reclaimed some 500 drilling sites in Alberta and British Columbia, combining an estimated 400,000 cu. m of wood waste and wellbore cuttings to provide nutrient-rich topsoil, frequently in heavily-forested areas. Although faced initially with skepticism, the Newpark system now appears to have won respectability and is about to become part of the mainstream in that bioremediation is being added to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board's 'Guide 50', the industry's principal guide to site remediation. Part of the reason for the acceptance of bioremediation as an acceptable method for site remediation is a change of heart at the EUB itself; prior to 1996 the EUB was quite fond of 'land-farming', a process which not only requires a period of five to ten years, but is also less than effective, particularly in areas that received a lot of rain and snow. photos

  5. Significance of stacking fault energy on microstructural evolution in Cu and Cu-Al alloys processed by high-pressure torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, X. H.; Lin, Q. Y.; Wu, S. D.; Zhang, Z. F.; Figueiredo, R. B.; Gao, N.; Langdon, T. G.

    2011-09-01

    Disks of pure Cu and several Cu-Al alloys were processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature through different numbers of turns to systematically investigate the influence of the stacking fault energy (SFE) on the evolution of microstructural homogeneity. The results show there is initially an inhomogeneous microhardness distribution but this inhomogneity decreases with increasing numbers of turns and the saturation microhardness increases with increasing Al concentration. Uniform microstructures are more readily achieved in materials with high or low SFE than in materials with medium SFE, because there are different mechanisms governing the microstructural evolution. Specifically, recovery processes are dominant in high or medium SFE materials, whereas twin fragmentation is dominant in materials having low SFE. The limiting minimum grain size (d min) of metals processed by HPT decreases with decreasing SFE and there is additional evidence suggesting that the dependence of d min on the SFE decreases when the severity of the external loading conditions is increased.

  6. Low-cost automatic station for compost temperature monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. L. Jordão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Temperature monitoring is an important procedure to control the composting process. Due to cost limitation, temperature monitoring is manual and with daily sampling resolution. The objective of this study was to develop an automatic station with US$ 150 dollars, able to monitor air temperature at two different points in a compost pile, with a 5-min time resolution. In the calibration test, the sensors showed an estimated uncertainty from ± 1 to ± 1.9 ºC. In the field validation test, the station guaranteed secure autonomy for seven days and endured high humidity and extreme temperature (> 70 °C.

  7. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  8. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbin Huang

    Full Text Available Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu-lead (Pb-zinc (Zn mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7, the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5, EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content and local soil (weathered shale and schist, respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed, oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2, ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg(CO32 and siderite (FeCO3, as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,FeS, ZnS, (Zn,CdS may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  9. Effect of biochar and humic acid on the copper, lead, and cadmium passivation during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haibin; Meng, Haibo; Zhao, Lixin; Shen, Yujun; Hou, Yueqing; Cheng, Hongsheng; Song, Liqiu

    2018-06-01

    In this study, two different biochars (sawdust charcoal (SDC) and wheat straw charcoal (WSC)) and biological humic acid (BHA) were used with different addition rates in pig manure composting to illustrate the effect on heavy metals passivation. And the composts were applied to rape (Brassica campestris L.) growth to illustrate the stability of the passivation. Results showed the concentration of Cu, Cd, and Pb increased after composting, whereas the passivation rates of Cu, Pb, and Cd reached a maximum of 94.98%, 65.55%, and 68.78%, respectively. When the composts were applied to rape growth, the exchangeable fraction of Cu, Pb, and Cd in the soil further decreased and reduced the accumulation of heavy metals in the rape plant. The rape yield increased by 19.39%-34.35%. The optimal addition ratios of the three passivators were SDC 5%, WSC 7.5% and BHA 2.5% to reduce the health risk of heavy metals in rape products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study and assessment of segregated biowaste composting: The case study of Attica municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, D; Bourka, A; Stamatopoulou, Ε; Moustakas, K; Skiadi, O; Loizidou, M

    2017-12-01

    This work aims to assess the operation of the first large scale segregated biowaste composting scheme in Greece to divert Household Food Waste (HFW) from landfill and produce a material which can be recovered and used as compost. The source separation and collection of HFW was deployed in selected areas in Attica Region serving about 3700 households. Sorted HFW is collected & transported to the Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plant in Attica Region that has been designed to produce Compost Like Output (CLO) from mixed MSW. The MBT facility has been adjusted in order to receive and treat aerobically HFW mixed with shredded green waste in a dedicated composting tunnel. The composting process was monitored against temperature, moisture and oxygen content indicating that the biological conditions are sufficiently developed. The product quality was examined and assessed against the quality specifications of EU End of Waste Criteria for biowaste subjected to composting aiming to specify whether the HFW that has undergone recovery ceases to be waste and can be classified as compost. More specifically, the heavy metals concentrations (Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg) are within the set limits and much lower compared to the CLO material that currently is being produced at the MBT plant. In regard to the hygienic requirements of the product it has been found that the process conditions result in a pathogen free material (i.e. E. Coli and Salmonella) which does not favor the growth of viable weeds and plant propagules, while it acquires sufficient organic matter content for soil fertilization. Noticeable physical impurities (mainly fractions of glass) have been detected exceeding the quality control threshold limit of 0.5% w/w (plastics, metals and glass). The latter is related to the missorted materials and to the limited pre-treatment configurations prior to composting. The above findings indicate that effective source separation of biowaste is prerequisite for

  11. Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elango, D.; Thinakaran, N.; Panneerselvam, P.; Sivanesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Process of composting has been developed for recycling of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The bioreactor design was modified to reduce the composting process time. The main goal of this investigation was to find the optimal value of time period for composting of MSW in thermophilic bioreactor under aerobic condition. The temperature profiles correlated well with experimental data obtained during the maturation process. During this period biological degraders are introduced in to the reactor to accelerate the composting process. The compost materials were analyzed at various stages and the environmental parameters were considered. The final composting materials contained large organic content with in a short duration of 40 days. The quantity of volume reduction of raw MSW was 78%. The test result shows that the final compost material from the thermophilic reactor provides good humus to build up soil characteristics and some basic plant nutrients

  12. Integration of a Communal Henhouse and Community Composter to Increase Motivation in Recycling Programs: Overview of a Three-Year Pilot Experience in Noáin (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Storino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-year pilot experience of a new municipal waste management system developed in Navarre, Spain that integrates composting and hens. The aim of this new system is to motivate the general public to participate more in waste prevention programs. The Composter-Henhouse (CH is a compact facility comprised of a henhouse and three composters. This is shared by 30 families who provide the organic part of their kitchen waste to feed the hens. Hens help speed up the composting process by depositing their droppings and turning the organic residue into compost. This study assesses the CH in terms of treatment capacity, the technical adequacy of the composting process, the quality and safety of the compost obtained and some social aspects. Over three years, the CH has managed nearly 16.5 tons of organic waste and produced approximately 5600 kg of compost and more than 6000 high-quality fresh eggs. No problems or nuisances have been reported and the level of animal welfare has been very high. The follow up of the composting process (temperature, volume reduction and compost maturity and a physicochemical and microbiological analysis of the compost have ensured the proper management of the process. The level of involvement and user satisfaction has been outstanding and the project has presented clear social benefits.

  13. Graphene/CuS/ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for high performance photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, Jini; Varghese, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a novel, high performance ternary nanocomposite composed of Graphene doped with nano Copper Sulphide and Zinc Oxide nanotubes (GCZ) for photodegradation of organic pollutants. Investigations were made to estimate and compare the Methyl Orange dye (MO) degradation using GCZ, synthesized pristine Graphene (Gr) and Graphene–ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (GZ) under UV light irradiations. The synthesis of nanocomposites involves the simple ultra-sonication and mixing methods. The nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area method. The as synthesized GCZ shows better surface area, porosity and band gap energy than as synthesized Gr and GZ. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye follows as Gr  > GZ due to the stronger adsorbability, large number of photo induced electrons and highest inhibition of charge carrier's recombination of GCZ. The kinetic investigation demonstrates that dye degradation exhibit the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constant 0.1322, 0.049 and0.0109 min"−"1 corresponding to GCZ, GZ and Gr. The mechanism of dye degradation in presence of photocatalyst is also discussed. This study confirms that GCZ is a more promising material for high performance catalytic applications especially in the dye waste water purification. - Highlights: • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show better surface area, porosity and adsorbability. • CuS–ZnO hybrid nanostructure highly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Graphene. • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show superior photocatalytic efficiency, rate constant and quantum yield.

  14. Graphene/CuS/ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for high performance photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Jini, E-mail: jini.nano@gmail.com; Varghese, K.T., E-mail: ktvscs@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    We herein report a novel, high performance ternary nanocomposite composed of Graphene doped with nano Copper Sulphide and Zinc Oxide nanotubes (GCZ) for photodegradation of organic pollutants. Investigations were made to estimate and compare the Methyl Orange dye (MO) degradation using GCZ, synthesized pristine Graphene (Gr) and Graphene–ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (GZ) under UV light irradiations. The synthesis of nanocomposites involves the simple ultra-sonication and mixing methods. The nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area method. The as synthesized GCZ shows better surface area, porosity and band gap energy than as synthesized Gr and GZ. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye follows as Gr <<< GCZ >> GZ due to the stronger adsorbability, large number of photo induced electrons and highest inhibition of charge carrier's recombination of GCZ. The kinetic investigation demonstrates that dye degradation exhibit the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constant 0.1322, 0.049 and0.0109 min{sup −1} corresponding to GCZ, GZ and Gr. The mechanism of dye degradation in presence of photocatalyst is also discussed. This study confirms that GCZ is a more promising material for high performance catalytic applications especially in the dye waste water purification. - Highlights: • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show better surface area, porosity and adsorbability. • CuS–ZnO hybrid nanostructure highly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Graphene. • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show superior photocatalytic efficiency, rate constant and quantum yield.

  15. Grain Refinement and High-Performance of Equal-Channel Angular Pressed Cu-Mg Alloy for Electrical Contact Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibin Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing (EACP was applied to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG Cu-0.2wt%Mg alloy contact wire with high mechanical/electric performance, aim to overcome the catenary barrier of high-speed trains by maximizing the tension and improving the power delivery. Microstructure evolution and overall properties of the Cu-Mg alloy after different severe-plastic-deformation (SPD routes were investigated by microscopic observation, tensile and electric tests. The results show that the Cu-Mg alloy after multi-pass ECAP at 473 K obtains ultrafine grains, higher strength and desired conductivity. More passes of ECAP leads to finer grains and higher strength, but increasing ECAP temperature significantly lower the strength increment of the UFG alloy. Grain refinement via continuous SPD processing can endow the Cu-Mg alloy superior strength and good conductivity characteristics, which are advantageous to high-speed electrification railway systems.

  16. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha and high (45 Mg/ha levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in

  17. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Gu, Siyu; Xin, Ying; Bello, Ayodeji; Sun, Wenpeng; Xu, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha) on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha) and high (45 Mg/ha) levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH) density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha) level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in black soil of

  18. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Gu, Siyu; Xin, Ying; Bello, Ayodeji; Sun, Wenpeng; Xu, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha) on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha) and high (45 Mg/ha) levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH) density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha) level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in black soil of

  19. Unique hyper-thermal composting process in Kagoshima City forms distinct bacterial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Tabata, Hanae; Itahara, Asuka; Shimizu, Natsuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-11-01

    A unique compost, Satsuma soil, is produced from three types of wastewater sludge using hyper-thermal processes at temperatures much higher than that of general thermophilic processes in Kagoshima City, Japan. We analyzed the bacterial community structures of this hyper-thermal compost sample and other sludges and composts by a high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 621,076 reads were derived from 17 samples and filtered. Artificial sequences were deleted and the reads were clustered based on the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity. Phylum-level analysis of the hyper-thermal compost revealed drastic changes of the sludge structures (each relative abundance) from Firmicutes (average 47.8%), Proteobacteria (average 22.3%), and Bacteroidetes (average 10.1%) to two main phyla including Firmicutes (73.6%) and Actinobacteria (25.0%) with less Proteobacteria (∼0.3%) and Bacteroidetes (∼0.1%). Furthermore, we determined the predominant species (each relative abundance) of the hyper-thermal compost including Firmicutes related to Staphylococcus cohnii (13.8%), Jeotgalicoccus coquinae (8.01%), and Staphylococcus lentus (5.96%), and Actinobacteria related to Corynebacterium stationis (6.41%), and found that these species were not predominant in wastewater sludge. In contrast, we did not observe any common structures among eight other composts produced, using the hyper-thermal composts as the inoculums, under thermophilic conditions from different materials. Principle coordinate analysis of the hyper-thermal compost indicated a large difference in bacterial community structures from material sludge and other composts. These results suggested that a distinct bacterial community structure was formed by hyper-thermal composting. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Housefly maggot-treated composting as sustainable option for pig manure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Wang, Su-Juan; Du, Rong-Guang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Hong, Chun-Lai; Qi, Bing; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In traditional composting, large amounts of bulking agents must be added to reduce the moisture of pig manure, which increases the cost of composting and dilutes the N, P and K content in organic fertilizers. In this study, maggot treatment was used in composting instead of bulking agents. In experiment of selecting an optimal inoculum level for composting, the treatment of 0.5% maggot inoculum resulted in the maximum yield of late instar maggots, 11.6% (maggots weight/manure weight). The manure residue became noticeably granular by day 6 and its moisture content was below 60%, which was suitable for further composting without bulking agents. Moreover, in composting experiment with a natural compost without maggot inoculum and maggot-treated compost at 0.5% inoculum level, there were no significant differences in nutrient content between the two organic fertilizers from the two treatments (paired Student's t15=1.0032, P=0.3317). Therefore, maggot culturing did not affect the characteristics of the organic fertilizer. The content of TNPK (total nitrogen+total phosphorus+total potassium) in organic fertilizer from maggot treatment was 10.72% (dry weight), which was far more than that of organic fertilizer made by conventional composting with bulking agents (about 8.0%). Dried maggots as feed meet the national standard (GB/T19164-2003) for commercial fish meal in China, which contained 55.32 ± 1.09% protein; 1.34 ± 0.02% methionine; 4.15 ± 0.10% lysine. This study highlights housefly maggot-treated composting can be considered sustainable alternatives for pig manure management to achieve high-quality organic fertilizer and maggots as feed without bulking agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional analysis of some composted and non-composted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Key words: Wood ear mushrooms, fresh and composted agricultural wastes, wheat bran, Kenya. ... substrate, especially the C : N ratio which is attained by getting the right ... was excess water, sun drying was done followed by a squeeze test ..... dependent on free circulation of moisture and air in the.

  2. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Rafael, E-mail: rclemente@cebas.csic.e [Faculty of Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Hartley, William [Faculty of Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Riby, Philip [School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Lepp, Nicholas W. [Faculty of Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (approx900, 200 and 500 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (<0.01% As, <0.001% other trace elements), but the effect of compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils. - Arsenic solubility and bioavailability increases in soil two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch.

  3. Trace element mobility in a contaminated soil two years after field-amendment with a greenwaste compost mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Rafael; Hartley, William; Riby, Philip; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2010-01-01

    Application of greenwaste compost to brownfield land is increasingly common in soil and landscape restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects of this material on trace element mobility. A pot experiment with homogenised soil/compost investigated distribution and mobility of trace elements, two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch to shallow soils overlying a former alkali-works contaminated with Pb, Cu and As (∼900, 200 and 500 mg kg -1 , respectively). Compost mulch increased organic carbon and Fe in soil pore water, which in turn increased As and Sb mobilization; this enhanced uptake by lettuce and sunflower. A very small proportion of the total soil trace element pool was in readily-exchangeable form (<0.01% As, <0.001% other trace elements), but the effect of compost on behaviour of metals was variable and ambiguous. It is concluded that greenwaste compost should be applied with caution to multi-element contaminated soils. - Arsenic solubility and bioavailability increases in soil two years after application of greenwaste compost mulch.

  4. End-product quality of composts produced under tropical and temperate climates using different raw materials: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faverial, Julie; Boval, Maryline; Sierra, Jorge; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A meta-analysis on end-product quality of 442 composts was performed to assess the effects of climate and raw materials on compost quality. The analysis was performed using an ANOVA including a mixed model with nested factors (climate, raw material and publication effect). Tropical composts presented lower carbon, nitrogen, potassium and soluble-carbon contents, and higher electrical conductivity. The results suggest that compost quality in the tropics was affected by weather conditions during composting (e.g. high temperature and rainfall), which induced high losses of carbon and nutrients. For most properties, industrial, sewage sludge and manure-based composts displayed the highest quality under both climates, while the contrary was found for household and municipal solid waste-based composts. The publication effect represented >50% of total variance, which was mainly due to the heterogeneity of the composting procedures. The meta-analysis was found to be a helpful tool to analyse the imbalanced worldwide database on compost quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational hygiene of windrow composting. Aumakompostoinnin tyoehygienia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, K; Wihersaari, M [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Combustion and Thermal Engineering Lab.; Huvio, T; Lundstroem, Y [Helsingin kaupungin vesi- ja viemaerilaitos, Helsinki (Finland); Veijalainen, A [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-01-01

    The occupational air in windrow composting of digested sewage sludge, raw sludge and source separated biowaste was investigated for microbe, endotoxin and dust concentrations and for odour level during turning and sieving of composts. The normal parameters of composting were investigated at the same time. The composting of the source separated biowaste was so vigorous that the drying due to heat generation may have slowed the process. Composting of the digested and the raw sludge took place much more slowly. In all composts, the measured values for heavy metals stayed well below specified norms. The composts were hygienic: no Salmonella bacteria were found in a single sample. The formation of odorous compounds was measured in small composters: more such compounds were formed in the thermophile stage of biowaste composts than in the digested sludge composts. Among the gases that were released, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, e-pinene and limonene clearly exceeded the odour threashould. Endotoxins and dust concentrations in the occupational air were small. Total dust concentrations in the cabs of composting machines at times exceeded the eight-hour HTP concentration for organic dust. Especially in the occupational air of the biowaste and raw sludge composts, the concentrations of bacteria and fungi exceeded 10[sup 2]-10[sup 5] cfu/m[sup 3] during turning. This concentration level may cause respiratory ailments. The identified fungi included members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillum and Cladosporum, which are associated with allergies. The microbes and dust concentrations measured in this study of windrow composting are comparable to the findings of corresponding studies from other composting plants, landfills and waste treatment plants.

  6. High-pressure synthesis of CuBa2Ca3Cu4O10+δ superconductor from precursors prepared by a polymerized complex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoba, Tomoya; Bizen, Takeshi; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Niihara, Koichi; Katsumata, Tetsuhiro; Inaguma, Yoshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Samples of a CuBa 2 Ca 3 Cu 4 O 10+ δ superconductor were synthesized under a high pressure of 5 GPa at 1100-1200degC for 30 min using precursors produced by solid-state reaction and polymerized complex methods. Compared with the precursors prepared by the solid-state reaction method, the precursors produced by the polymerized complex method have low grain sizes. The superconductive transition temperature of the samples prepared using precursors made by the polymerized complex method was found to be 113 K. The volume fractions of the superconducting phase in the samples prepared using precursors made by the solid-state reaction and polymerized complex methods were 49 and 36%, respectively. From these results, precursors made by the polymerized complex method can be used in the high-pressure synthesis of superconductors similarly to those made by the solid-state reaction method. (author)

  7. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  8. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Xu, A.; Galstyan, E.; Delgado, L.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-01

    REBa 2 Cu 3 O x ((REBCO), RE = rare earth) superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50 K and fields of 2–30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (J c ) above 20 MA/cm 2 at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol. % Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba 2 Cu 3 O x superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher than the J c typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m 3 have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in J c (ratio of J c at 30 K, 3 T to the J c at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO 3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 × 10 11  cm −2 as well as 2–3 nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high J c films

  9. Industrialization of nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys for high magnetic flux density cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Setyawan, Albertus D.; Sharma, Parmanand; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Makino, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys exhibit high saturation magnetic flux density (B s ) and extremely low magnetic core loss (W), simultaneously. Low amorphous-forming ability of these alloys hinders their application potential in power transformers and motors. Here we report a solution to this problem. Minor addition of C is found to be effective in increasing the amorphous-forming ability of Fe–Si–B–P–Cu alloys. It allows fabrication of 120 mm wide ribbons (which was limited to less than 40 mm) without noticeable degradation in magnetic properties. The nanocrystalline (Fe 85.7 Si 0.5 B 9.5 P 3.5 Cu 0.8 ) 99 C 1 ribbons exhibit low coercivity (H c )~4.5 A/m, high B s ~1.83 T and low W~0.27 W/kg (@ 1.5 T and 50 Hz). Success in fabrication of long (60–100 m) and wide (~120 mm) ribbons, which are made up of low cost elements is promising for mass production of energy efficient high power transformers and motors - Highlights: • Minor addition of C in FeSiBPCu alloy increases amorphous-forming ability. • The FeSiBPCuC alloy exhibits B s close to Si-steel and Core loss lower than it. • Excellent soft magnetic properties were obtained for 120 mm wide ribbons. • Nanocrystalline FeSiBPCuC alloy can be produced at industrial scale with low cost. • The alloy is suitable for making low energy loss power transformers and motors.

  10. Positron annihilation in a high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavryshchuk, Ya.; Levandovski, M.; Rybakov, V.N.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Positron annihilation as a function of temperature in high-temperature superconductors YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ has been investigated. It is shown that a change in the annihilation capacity at the transition into superconducting state is relatively small. The change of r 1 and r 2 positron lifetimes as well as of the intensity of the component with r 2 -J 2 and Doppler broadening S parameter allows one to assume that transition into superconducting state is accompanied with a certain decrease in electron density and with decreasing number of defects or increasing size of crystalline net

  11. Raman scattering diagnostics of YBa2Cu3Ox high temperature superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, V.N.; Burimov, V.N.; Denisov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films produced by laser spraying of ceramic material are investigated by light Raman scattering (LCS). It is shown that using LCS it is possible to obtain data on phase composition and prevailing film orientation and to find optical conditions for their synthesis. The LCS method feature consists in a possibility of non-destructive remote control and high space resolution (several microns). Experimental results have shown that the best parameters (the highest T c and the narrowest Δ T c interval) are typical of films with prevailing orientation of 0 xy crystallite plane parallel to the surface

  12. Growth of high Tc Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Sangeeta; Khare, Neeraj; Gupta, A.K.; Nagpal, K.C.; Ojha, V.N.; Reddy, G.S.N.; Tomar, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    Thick films of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O were deposited on (100) MgO substrates by screen-printing technique with the starting composition 1112. To attain the superconducting state, the films were subjected to two-step heat-treatment. R-T and XRD have been studied for films annealed at different durations of the second step. Initially T c (R=O) increased from 77 to 103 K as the annealing duration was increased after which T c decreased. Kinetics of the growth of high T c phase is discussed in the light of results. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. High-frequency properties of superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, E.S.; Su, M.; Howng, W.

    1992-01-01

    rf and microwave properties of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin films were measured and analyzed using a coplanar resonator structure. The films were developed by sequential electron-beam evaporation of the metals followed by postanneal processing. dc properties of the films were obtained from resistance-temperature and current-voltage measurements to evaluate the transition temperature and current densities. High-frequency properties were measured from 70 to 10 K and in the frequency range 1--3 GHz to determine the film characteristics as compared to pure copper films on the same substrates

  14. High performance ceramic carbon electrode-based anodes for use in the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Santhanam; Easton, E. Bradley [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    A high performance ceramic carbon electrode (CCE) was fabricated by the sol-gel method to study the CuCl electrolysis in Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the CCE was investigated by polarization experiments at different concentrations of CuCl/HCl system. The CCE displayed excellent anodic performance and vastly outperformed the bare carbon fiber paper (CFP) even at high concentrations of CuCl (0.5 M) and HCl (6 M), which is explained in terms of increased active area and enhanced anion transport properties. Further enhancement of activity was achieved by coating the CCE layer onto both sides of the CFP substrate. (author)

  15. Pinning down high-performance Cu-chalcogenides as thin-film solar cell absorbers: A successive screening approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Wenqing, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu [Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Jiawei; Xi, Lili [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Peihong, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu [Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    Photovoltaic performances of Cu-chalcogenides solar cells are strongly correlated with the absorber fundamental properties such as optimal bandgap, desired band alignment with window material, and high photon absorption ability. According to these criteria, we carry out a successive screening for 90 Cu-chalcogenides using efficient theoretical approaches. Besides the well-recognized CuInSe{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} materials, several novel candidates are identified to have optimal bandgaps of around 1.0–1.5 eV, spike-like band alignments with CdS window layer, sharp photon absorption edges, and high absorption coefficients. These new systems have great potential to be superior absorbers for photovolatic applications if their carrrier transport and defect properties are properly optimized.

  16. Role of biochar as an additive in organic waste composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Monedero, M.A.; Cayuela, M.L.; Roig, A.; Jindo, Keiji; Mondini, C.; Bolan, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    The use of biochar in organic waste composting has attracted interest in the last decade due to the environmental and agronomical benefits obtained during the process. Biochar presents favourable physicochemical properties, such as large porosity, surface area and high cation exchange capacity,

  17. Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Ming, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also can recycle agricultural wastes and transform them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue. Physical and chemical characteristics were measured over the course of 63 days of composting. The data indicate that higher temperatures and more rapid moisture removal generally result from a turning treatment of once every 2-4 days than in fewer, or no, turning treatments. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium contents increased in all windrows as the organic matter content decreased, but both the increases and decrease were greater in windrows that were turned more frequently. The reduction of the organic matter mass by 53.7-66.0% for a turning of once every 2-8 days is significantly higher than that for the static windrow (39.1%). Although there is an increase in nitrogen mass loss with an increased turning frequency, lower nitrogen mass losses (12.7-25.7%) in all treatments were noted compared with previous studies. A final compost product with less moisture, less weight, higher nutrient content (N, P, and K), and greater stability was obtained in windrows with turning frequencies of once every 2-4 days, which is recommended when composting pig manure and fungus residue. Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but recycling of agricultural wastes transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for

  18. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  19. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-08-01

    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  20. High-quality PVD graphene growth by fullerene decomposition on Cu foils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpeitia, J; Otero-Irurueta, G; Palacio, I; Martinez, J I; Del Árbol, N Ruiz; Santoro, G; Gutiérrez, A; Aballe, L; Foerster, M; Kalbac, M; Vales, V; Mompeán, F J; García-Hernández, M; Martín-Gago, J A; Munuera, C; López, M F

    2017-08-01

    We present a new protocol to grow large-area, high-quality single-layer graphene on Cu foils at relatively low temperatures. We use C 60 molecules evaporated in ultra high vacuum conditions as carbon source. This clean environment results in a strong reduction of oxygen-containing groups as depicted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Unzipping of C 60 is thermally promoted by annealing the substrate at 800ºC during evaporation. The graphene layer extends over areas larger than the Cu crystallite size, although it is changing its orientation with respect to the surface in the wrinkles and grain boundaries, producing a modulated ring in the low energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. This protocol is a self-limiting process leading exclusively to one single graphene layer. Raman spectroscopy confirms the high quality of the grown graphene. This layer exhibits an unperturbed Dirac-cone with a clear n-doping of 0.77 eV, which is caused by the interaction between graphene and substrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that this interaction can be induced by a coupling between graphene and substrate at specific points of the structure leading to a local sp 3 configuration, which also contribute to the D-band in the Raman spectra.

  1. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  2. Production and characterization of APAT-RM004 (compost) and APAT-RM005 (agricultural soil) matrix reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M.; Balzamo, S.; Barbizzi, S.; Centioli, D.; Zorzi, P. de; Galas, C.; Gaudino, S.; Guagnini, T.; Pati, A.; Ravaioli, C.; Rosamilia, S.; Sentina, G.

    2006-01-01

    Compost is the decomposed remnants of organic materials (usually those with plant origins) and it is used in gardening and agriculture, mixed in with the soil. It improves soil structure, increases the amount of organic matter, and provides nutrients. Compost is a common name for humus, which is the result of the decomposition of organic matter. Generally, compost is the raw material obtained by the aerobic decomposition of the organic residues of the municipal waste or of the vegetable market waste. Composting is the industrial operation to produce compost on a large scale and it is the controlled decomposition technique of organic matter. Rather than allowing nature to take its slow course, a composter provides an optimal environment in which decomposer can thrive. The compost raw material used to prepare the APAT-RM004 reference material has been obtained from an aerobic composting plant located near Rome (Italy). This plant produces compost from organic waste originating from municipal routine plant trimmings, pruning, lawn mowing and wastes deriving from vegetable markets. The homogeneity test was carried out on 10 different units (bottles) sequentially selected over the whole bottling process. This study has been carried by measuring the total contents of C by CHN-S considering a sample intake of 0.02g and by the determination of the Hg content by direct mercury analyzer (DMA-80) considering a sample intake of 0.5g. Both techniques achieve high precision levels and require little or no sample processing prior to analysis

  3. Recyclable Cu(II)-Coordination Crosslinked Poly(benzimidazolyl pyridine)s as High-Performance Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Li; Chang, Guanjun

    2018-03-01

    Crosslinked high-performance polymers have many industrial applications, but are difficult to recycle or rework. A novel class of recyclable crosslinking Cu(II)-metallo-supramolecular coordination polymers are successfully prepared, which possess outstanding thermal stability and mechanical property. More importantly, the Cu 2+ coordination interactions can be further removed via external pyrophosphate to recover the linear polymers, which endow the crosslinking polymers with recyclability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Minor-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys with high hardness and electric conductivity designed by a cluster formula approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Ni-Si alloys are widely used due to their good electrical conductivities in combination with high strength and hardness. In the present work, minor-alloying with M = (Cr, Fe, Mo, Zr was conducted for the objective of further improving their hardness while maintaining their conductivity level. A cluster-plus-glue-atom model was introduced to design the compositions of M-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys, in which an ideal composition formula [(Ni,Si,M-Cu12]Cu3 (molar proportion was proposed. To guarantee the complete precipitation of solute elements in fine δ-Ni2Si precipitates, the atomic ratio of (Ni,M/Si was set as 2/1. Thus the designed alloy series of Cu93.75(Ni/Zr3.75Si2.08(Cr/Fe/Mo0.42 (at% were arc-melted into ingots under argon atmosphere, and solid-solutioned at 950 °C for 1 h plus water quenching and then aged at 450 °C for different hours. The experimental results showed that these designed alloys exhibit high hardness (HV > 1.7 GPa and good electrical conductivities (≥ 35% IACS. Specifically, the quinary Cu93.75Ni3.54Si2.08(Cr/Fe0.42Zr0.21 alloys (Cu-3.32Ni-0.93Si-0.37(Cr/Fe−0.30Zr wt% possess both a high hardness with HV = 2.5–2.7 GPa, comparable to the high-strength KLFA85 alloy (Cu-3.2Ni-0.7Si-1.1Zn wt%, HV = 2.548 GPa, and a good electrical conductivity (35–36% IACS.

  5. Substrates with green manure compost and leaf application of biofertilizer on seedlings of yellow passion fruit plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Muniz Barbosa Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Substrates and fertilization are fundamental for seedling production, which well nourished can produce earlier and are more resistant to stresses. Animal manures are often used in non-industrialized substrates with good results, but their costs are increasing. Other residues may be used for plant nutrition, in substrates or in leaf fertilization. The aim of this work was to evaluate substrates prepared with green manure composts and the leaf application of biofertilizer on the formation of yellow passion fruit seedlings. A greenhouse experiment was conducted between December 2009 and February 2010, with a split-plot random block design. Plots received or not leaf application of supermagro biofertilizer. Subplots consisted of different substrates: soil; soil + cattle manure; soil + cattle manure composted with black oats straw; soil + cattle manure composted with ryegrass straw; soil + cattle manure composted with turnip straw; and soil + cattle manure composted with vetch straw. There were three dates of leaf fertilization: 10, 25 and 40 days after emergence (DAE. At 50 DAE plants were collected for evaluation of growth and accumulation of biomass and nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn and Zn. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test. The substrate soil + cattle manure promoted higher stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, root length and volume and nutrient accumulation. Among substrates with green manure composts, those prepared with black oats and turnip straw outranked the others. The use of leaf biofertilizer showed diverse results on seedling formation, being beneficial when combined to substrates with black oats composted straw, and prejudicial when combined to soil + cattle manure and soil + turnip composted straw substrates. The accumulation of nutrients by the seedlings occurred in the following order: K>Ca>N>Mg>P>Zn>Cu=Mn.

  6. THE EFFECT OF COMPOST MADE WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN SOIL AND IN LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Malinowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the effects of different doses of sewage sludge compost mixed with wheat straw on heavy metal content in Italian ryegrass and in soil. A two year experiment with the Italian ryegrass was set up in autumn 2012. The experimental design consisted of a control plot, a plot with NPK fertiliser and three plots with three different doses of municipal sewage sludge compost (5, 10 and 15 Mg of fresh matter·ha-1. Those different compost doses contained the amounts of Nitrogen equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 kg N·ha-1. The two lower doses of compost were supplemented with nitrogen fertiliser so that the amount of this chemical element introduced to the soil of all plots with compost stood at 180 kg·ha-1. During 2013 and 2014 seasons the grass was cut three times a year after about a 30-day growing period. After dry mineralisation the content of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd in the plant samples was measured with the ICP-AES method. The fertilisers applied significantly diversified the content of chemical elements in the grass and in the soil. The highest dose of compost resulted in the highest concentration of Zn, Cu and Cd in the grass while the highest concentration of Ni and Pb was in the soil and the grass from the plot where the mid dose of compost had been applied. Cadmium concentration in the soil was the highest in the plot where the mid dose was applied. The experiment proved that compost made with sewage sludge and wheat straw is beneficial for plants.

  7. Management of sewage sludge by composting using fermented water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Andrade, A F; Jiménez-Moleón, M C; Sánchez-Galván, G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present research work was to assess the management of sewage sludge (SS) by composting using fermented water hyacinth (WHferm) as an amendment. The water hyacinth was fermented, and a higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (782.67 mg L(-1)) and soluble organic carbon (CSOL) (4788.34 mg L(-1)) was obtained using a particle size of 7 mm compared to 50 mm. For composting, four treatments (10 kg fresh weight each) were evaluated: treatment A (100 % SS + 0 % WHferm), treatment B (75 % SS + 25 % WHferm), treatment C (50 % SS + 50 % WHferm), and treatment D (25 % SS + 75 % WHferm). The WHferm added to SS, especially in treatments C (50 %) and D (75 %), increased the initial contents of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (CORG), CSOL, the C/N ratio, and the germination index (GI). The heavy metal content (HMC) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the beginning was below the maximum allowed by USEPA regulations. All of the samples were free of Salmonella sp. from the beginning. The reduction of the CORG, CSOL, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and C/N ratio indicated the degradation of the OM by day 198. The treatments with WHferm (B, C, and D) yielded higher values of electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and GI than SS at day 198. No significant differences were observed in GI among the treatments with WHferm. The fecal coliforms were eliminated (Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces (penicillin producers), and Fusariella isolated from the compost may have promoted the elimination of pathogens since no thermophile temperatures were obtained. WHferm as an amendment in the composting of SS improved the characteristics of the final product, especially when it was used in proportions of 25 and 50 %. An excellent product was obtained in terms of HMC, and the product was B class in terms of pathogens.

  8. Characterization of isolated fractions of dissolved organic matter derived from municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minda; He, Xiaosong; Liu, Jiaomei; Wang, Yuefeng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Chao

    2018-04-14

    Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting. The high-MW humic substances and building blocks in the HA fraction degraded faster during composting than polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. Similarly, the low MW acid FA factions transformed faster than the low weight neutral fractions, followed by building blocks, and finally polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. The evolutions of HyI fractions during composting occurred first for building blocks, followed by low MW acids, and finally low weight neutrals. With the progress of composting, the hydrophobic properties of the HA and FA fractions were enhanced. The degradation/humification process of the hydrophilic and transphilic components was faster than that of the hydrophobic component. Compared with the FA and HyI fractions, the HA fraction exhibited a higher MW and increased hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Agroindustrial composts to reduce the use of peat and fungicides in the cultivation of muskmelon seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ana Belen; Ros, Margarita; Ayuso, Luis Miguel; Bustamante, Maria de Los Angeles; Moral, Raul; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Environmental concerns about peat extraction in wetland ecosystems have increased. Therefore, there is an international effort to evaluate alternative organic substrates for the partial substitution of peat. The aim of this work was to use different composts (C1-C10) obtained from the fruit and vegetable processing industry (pepper, carrot, broccoli, orange, artichoke residues, sewage sludge (citric and pepper) and vineyard pruning wastes) to produce added-value composts as growing media with suppressive effect against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis (FOM) in muskmelon. Composts showed values of water-soluble carbon fractions and dehydrogenase activity that allowed them to be considered mature and stabilized. All compost treatments produced significantly (F = 7.382; P values. Treatments T-C5, T-C7 and T-C8 showed percentages of disease incidence that were significantly (F = 16.052; P values below 50%. Composts produced are suitable components of mixed compost-peat growing media, providing a 50% substitution of peat. Furthermore, some of these composts also showed an added value as a suppressive organic medium against Fusarium wilt in muskmelon seedling, a fact probably related to high pH and pepper wastes and high content of pruning waste as initial raw materials. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Measurements of N2O and CH4 from the aerated composting of food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.; Sun, T.; Inamori, Y.; Mizuochi, M.; Kong, H.; Iwami, N.

    2000-01-01

    Emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 from an aerated composting system were investigated using small-scale simulated reactors. The results show relatively high emissions of N 2 O at the beginning of composting, in proportion to the application amount of food waste. After 2 days, the N 2 O emission decreased to 0.53 ppmv on average, near to the background level in the atmosphere (0.45 ppmv). The addition of composted cattle manure increased N 2 O emissions not only at the beginning of composting, but also during the later period and resulted in two peak emission curves. Good correlation was observed between the N 2 O concentration at the air outlet and NO 2 - concentration in waste, suggesting a generation pathway for N 2 O from NO 2 - to N 2 O. Methane was only detected in treatments containing composted cattle manure. The high emission of methane illustrates the involvement of anoxic/anaerobic microorganisms with the addition of composted manure. The result suggests the existence of anoxic or anaerobic microsite inside the waste particles even though ventilation was employed during the composting process

  11. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study on the development of nanostructured precipitates in Al-Cu obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Villalba, L.S., E-mail: luzgomez@geo.ucm.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Geociencias-(CSIC-UCM), Madrid (Spain); Delgado, M.L.; Ruiz-Navas, E.M. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of defect structures and nanoprecipitates after 10 h of mechanical alloying in Al-Cu system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defects act as nucleation sites of the {epsilon}Al{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incoherent and semicoherent precipitates are identified by TEM-HRTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moire patterns are associated to the {epsilon}Al{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phase. - Abstract: Aluminum alloy 2014 is used to obtain nanostructured powders via mechanical alloying. The evolution of the diffusion processes is observed by the development of defect structures and nanoprecipitates after 10 h of milling. The characterization includes analytical and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Dislocations associated with different Al/Cu ratio affect the material. These defects act as nucleation sites where precipitates of the {epsilon}Al{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} hexagonal phase have been identified. Moire fringes show the interference of {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}{sub Al} with {l_brace}10{sup -}10{r_brace}{sub {epsilon}Al{sub 2Cu{sub 3}}} glide planes and locally small shifts of 1/3{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}{sub Al} and 1/3{l_brace}10{sup -}10{r_brace}{sub {epsilon}Al{sub 2Cu{sub 3}}}. Changes in the Al/Cu ratio lead to the formation of other solid solutions identified in the Cu rich area and could correspond to transition phases.

  12. Behavior of tungsten coatings on CuCrZr heat sink with the different interlayers under high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, F.L.; Chen, J.L.; Li, J.G.; Zheng, X.B.; Hu, D.Y.; Ding, C.X.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, tungsten coated CuCrZr by means of vacuum plasma spraying technology was studied at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). Plasma spraying technology is a good integration way of armor material and heat sink, which overcomes the disadvantage of heavy weight and poor workability of tungsten, and offers the ability to coat large area, even complex shapes and in situ repair of damaged parts. But tungsten coated CuCrZr is a challenge due to the larger mismatch of their thermal expansion coefficients (CTE), which will induce the stress concentration on the joint interface of plasma facing component. In order to enhance the adhesion of W coating on CuCrZr substrate and avoid the thermal stress concentration, it is necessary to use a compliant interlayer. At present, titanium (Ti), nickel-chromium-aluminum (NiCrAl) alloys and W/Cu mixtures were chosen as the compliant layers to insert between W coating and CuCrZr substrate. The adhesion strength was performed at RT. The behaviors of W/Cu mock up under high heat flux were carried out by means of the electron beam facility with actively cooling. The results indicated that the mock-ups with the interlayer architectures can withstand the higher heat flux compared to that with the sharp interface, which exhibited the effect of interlayers on reducing the maximum stress and enhancing the properties of resistant heat flux load, though the maximum surface temperature increased due to inserting the interlayers. Among three interlayers, W/Cu interlayer was much better due to its good heat removal capability and flexible W/Cu ratios. Meanwhile, the behaviors of W/Cu mock-ups with the different interlayers were analyzed and optimized by ANSYS finite element code. (authors)

  13. Cucumber nitrogen utilization as affected by compost levels and nitrogen rates using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, M.F.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abdalla, M.M.F.; El-Oksh, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    The beneficial effect of compost application to the sandy soil on dry matter production of shoots and fruits as well as its effect on l5N-uptake and nitrogen utilization percent of cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus L.) were studied under field conditions. Two types of natural compost (i.e. sugar cane bagasse (SC) and beet compost (BC)) with three levels (2, 4, 6 ton/fed) in addition to check treatment for each kind of compost (sheep manure with rate of 20 in/fed) combined with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer rates (50, 75, 100% from the recommended rate, i.e. 75 kg /fed) were used. The bagasse compost in both seasons gave a significantly higher response than the beet compost. There was a greet reduction in cucumber dry weight, N yield, Ndff%, FN yield and N utilization % of shoots and fruits as the level of compost application decreased. However, cucumber plants grown on high compost application level (6 ton/fed) were similar in their responses to plants grown on the check treatment. The results of N utilization indicated that the fertilizer utilization by the cucumber shoots and fruits during both seasons was significantly higher for the medium N rate (75% N) in comparison to the lowest fertigation treatment (50% N) and similar to the highest N fertigation rate (100% N). Generally, the results showed that under the experimental conditions to reach an acceptable yield with a high fertilizer utilization, it could be suggested to apply relatively medium rates of N fertigation (56.25 kg N/fed) combined with the high level ofSC compost application (6 t/fed) keeping in mind the regional site conditions

  14. High temperature dielectric studies of indium-substituted NiCuZn nanoferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd.; Raghasudha, M.; Shah, Jyoti; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Ravinder, D.; Kumar, Shalendra; Meena, Sher Singh; Bhatt, Pramod; Alimuddin; Kumar, Ravi; Kotnala, R. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, indium (In3+)-substituted NiCuZn nanostructured ceramic ferrites with a chemical composition of Ni0.5Cu0.25Zn0.25Fe2-xInxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were prepared by chemical synthesis involving sol-gel chemistry. Single phased cubic spinel structure materials were prepared successfully according to X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The dielectric properties of the prepared ferrites were measured using an LCR HiTester at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300 °C at different frequencies from 102 Hz to 5 × 106 Hz. The variations in the dielectric parameters ε‧ and (tanδ) with temperature demonstrated the frequency- and temperature-dependent characteristics due to electron hopping between the ions. The materials had low dielectric loss values in the high frequency range at all temperatures, which makes them suitable for high frequency microwave applications. A qualitative explanation is provided for the dependences of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent on the frequency, temperature, and composition. Mӧssbauer spectroscopy was employed at room temperature to characterize the magnetic behavior.

  15. Studies of high coverage oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using low energy positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Maddox, W. B.; Weiss, A. H.

    2012-02-01

    The study of oxidation of single crystal metal surfaces is important in understanding the corrosive and catalytic processes associated with thin film metal oxides. The structures formed on oxidized transition metal surfaces vary from simple adlayers of chemisorbed oxygen to more complex structures which result from the diffusion of oxygen into subsurface regions. In this work we present the results of theoretical studies of positron surface and bulk states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons at the oxidized Cu(100) surface under conditions of high oxygen coverage. Calculations are performed for various high coverage missing row structures ranging between 0.50 and 1.50 ML oxygen coverage. The results of calculations of positron binding energy, positron work function, and annihilation characteristics of surface trapped positrons with relevant core electrons as function of oxygen coverage are compared with experimental data obtained from studies of oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES).

  16. High temperature defect equilibrium in ZnS:Cu single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, K.; Shinkarenko, S.; Tuern, L.; Nirk, T.; Oepik, A. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia); Kallavus, U. [Centre for Materials Research, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia); Gorokhova, E. [Scientific Research and Technological Institute of Optical Material Science, S. I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, All-Russia Science Center, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Grebennik, A.; Vishnjakov, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, D. Mendelejev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    High temperature investigations in ZnS:Cu crystals were performed under defined conditions. High temperature electrical conductivity and copper solubility data were obtained under different component vapour pressures and under different sample temperatures. The experimental data at sulphur vapour pressure can be explained by the inclusion of abnormal site occupation i.e. by antistructural disorder. Compensating association of copper with this antistructure defect may occur. Antistructure disorder disappears with increasing of zinc vapour pressure and with increasing role of holes in bipolar conductivity. The method for solving the system of quasichemical reactions without approximation was used to model high temperature defect equilibrium. This model contains antistructure disorder and copper solubility limitation. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7 high-Tc superconductor with KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ki Hyun; Chang, Sung Sik

    1990-03-01

    The lattice parameters, microstructural change, transition temperature, and electrical properties of the YBa2-xKxCu3O7 high-Tc superconductor in the range from x=0 to x=0.25 have been investigated. The high-Tc orthorhombic phase increases with increasing KCl up to x=0.20, above which it decreases. The lattice parameters decrease with increasing KCl up to x=0.10, and then become nearly uniform. The grain size increases with increasing KCl up to x=0.20 due to its role as sintering agent. The specimens with x=0.2 have transition temperatures of 96 K and high magnetic susceptibility due to the contraction of lattice parameters a and b and the increase of orthorhombic distortion.

  18. Composting trial with BioFoam® products in a full scale commercial composting facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the trial was to be able to judge whether BioFoam® material degrades at sufficient rate to be composted together with regular source separated municipal solid biowaste in a full scale industrial composting facility.

  19. Toepassingsmogelijkheden van compostering in de ecologische varkenshouderij : een milieutechnische benadering

    OpenAIRE

    Hilkens, W.

    1993-01-01

    Student report in which the possibilities of composting for a pig farming system in Gemert, The Netherlands, with an ecological basis, are investigated. The process of composting and different composting systems were evaluated

  20. High temperature neutron powder diffraction study of the Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} and Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}S{sub 16} phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, Pierric, E-mail: pierric.lemoine@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Bourgès, Cédric; Barbier, Tristan [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR-CNRS 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex 04 (France); Nassif, Vivian [CNRS Institut NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Université de Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Cordier, Stéphane [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Guilmeau, Emmanuel [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR-CNRS 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex 04 (France)

    2017-03-15

    Ternary copper-containing sulfides Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} and Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}S{sub 16} have attracted considerable interest since few years due to their high-efficiency conversion as absorbers for solar energy and promising thermoelectric materials. We report therein on the decomposition study of Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} and Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}S{sub 16} phases using high temperature in situ neutron powder diffraction. Our results obtained at a heating rate of 2.5 K/min indicate that: (i) Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} decomposes above ≈792 K into Cu{sub 3}SbS{sub 3}, and (ii) Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}S{sub 16} decomposes above ≈891 K into Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} and a copper-rich sulfide phase of sphalerite ZnS-type structure with an assumed Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} stoichiometry. Both phase decompositions are associated to a sulfur volatilization. While the results on Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} are in fair agreement with recent published data, the decomposition behavior of Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}S{sub 16} differs from other studies in terms of decomposition temperature, thermal stability and products of reaction. Finally, the crystal structure refinements from neutron powder diffraction data are reported and discussed for the Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}S{sub 16} and tetrahedrite Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} phases at 300 K, and for the high temperature form of skinnerite Cu{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} at 843 K. - Graphical abstract: In situ neutron powder diffraction data (heating rate of 2.5 K/min) indicates that (i) the ternary Cu{sub 12}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 13} phase is stable up to 792 K and decomposes at higher temperature into Cu{sub 3}SbS{sub 3} and Cu{sub 1.5}Sb{sub 0.5}S{sub 2}, and (ii) the Cu{sub 4}Sn{sub 7}S{sub 16} phase is stable up to 891 K and decomposes at higher temperature into Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} and a cubic phase of sphalerite ZnS-type structure. Sulfur volatilization likely occurs in order to balance the overall stoichiometry.

  1. Growth of high-quality CuInSe sub 2 polycrystalline films by magnetron sputtering and vacuum selenization

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Da Tao; Wang Li; Zhu Feng; Quan Sheng Wen; Meng Tie Jun; Zhang Bao Cheng; Chen J

    2002-01-01

    High-quality CuInSe sub 2 thin films have been prepared using a two stages process. Cu and In were co-deposited onto glass substrates by magnetron sputtering method to produce a predominant Cu sub 1 sub 1 In sub 9 phase. The alloy films were selenised and annealed in vacuum at different temperature in the range of 200-500 degree C using elemental selenium in a closed graphite box. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the films. It is found that the polycrystalline and single-phase CuInSe sub 2 films were uniform and densely packed with a grain size of about 3.0 mu m

  2. Ag-Cu nanoalloyed film as a high-performance cathode electrocatalytic material for zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yimin; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Liu, Zongwen

    2015-04-01

    A novel Ag50Cu50 film electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The electrocatalyst actually is Ag-Cu alloyed nanoparticles embedded in amorphous Cu film, based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization. The rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements provide evidence that the ORR proceed via a four-electron pathway on the electrocatalysts in alkaline solution. And it is much more efficient than pure Ag catalyst. The catalytic layer has maximum power density of 67 mW cm-2 and an acceptable cell voltage at 0.863 V when current densities increased up to 100 mA cm-2 in the Ag50Cu50-based primary zinc-air battery. The resulting rechargeable zinc-air battery exhibits low charge-discharge voltage polarization of 1.1 V at 20 mAcm-2 and high durability over 100 cycles in natural air.

  3. Radiation disinfection of sewage sludge and composting of the irradiated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1985-01-01

    In the radiation disinfected sewage sludge, its stabilization is necessary with the composting. In this disinfected sludge, there is no need of keeping it at high temperature at the cost of fermentation velocity. The fermentation velocity can thus be set to obtain its maximum value. In sewage sludge utilization of farm land, to prevent the contamination with pathogenic bacteria and the secondary pollution, the radiation disinfection of dehydrated sludge and the composting of the disinfected sludge have been studied. The disinfection effect when an electron accelerator is used for the radiation source is described. Then, the composting of the disinfected sludge is described in chemical kinetics of the microorganisms. (Mori, K.)

  4. Sieving Effect of Sorting Machine with Vibration Table Type on Cacao Pod Based Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswoyo Soekarno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cacao pod is the biggest part (70% of weight of Cacao, which was not optimaly utilized.Cacao podis one of organic material that can be functioned as an organic fertilizer, such as compost. When utilizedwith right proportion, organic fertilizer is safe for plants and not degrades the soil composition. Compostingprocess is one of utilization form of Cacao pod. The size reduction of cacao pod in the organic fertilizerprocess would help to accelerate the composting process. Smaller particle size would faster interacting withenvironment, so the composting process would be well accelerated if compared to the material with biggersize. Chopping machine of Cacao pod is used to cut the biomass to be small particle in order to be able tobe utilized as some important necessity, i.e. fertilizer or farm animals feed. However, Varies compost sizewas one of the problems faced in the composting process. Therefore, the sorting process was needed tobe done after chopping process, so the compost size became uniform and fulfill the user demand. Thisresearch was aimed at knowing the slope effect of sorting machine and rotation speed (RPM. The methodused in analyzing the results of this research was comparing the treatment factors, which are shown withhistogram. As the super small size of compost recommended for applying in the fertilizing process, so theoptimum treatment combination for having high mass fraction of SS compost grade was achieved at 12oslope of sieve table and 1400 RPM motor rotation speed. As bigger the particle densities of the compostsize as smaller the compost porosity. Mass loss was very low at all treatment combination with the valuearound 0.43-1.33%, so the sieving efficiency can be said very high.

  5. Manufacturing and High Heat Flux Testing of Brazed Flat-Type W/CuCrZr Plasma Facing Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Zhengkui; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Water-cooled flat-type W/CuCrZr plasma facing components with an interlayer of oxygen-free copper (OFC) have been developed by using vacuum brazing route. The OFC layer for the accommodation of thermal stresses was cast onto the surface of W at a temperature range of 1150 °C-1200 °C in a vacuum furnace. The W/OFC cast tiles were vacuum brazed to a CuCrZr heat sink at 940 °C using the silver-free filler material CuMnSiCr. The microstructure, bonding strength, and high heat flux properties of the brazed W/CuCrZr joint samples were investigated. The W/Cu joint exhibits an average tensile strength of 134 MPa, which is about the same strength as pure annealed copper. High heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility EMS-60. Experimental results indicated that the brazed W/CuCrZr mock-up experienced screening tests of up to 15 MW/m2 and cyclic tests of 9 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles without visible damage. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11205049) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2011GB110004)

  6. Use of Jatropha curcas hull biomass for bioactive compost production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, A.K.; Lata [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2009-01-15

    The paper deals with utilization of biomass of Jatropha hulls for production of bioactive compost. In the process of Jatropha oil extraction, a large amount of hull waste is generated. It has been found that the direct incorporation of hull into soil is considerably inefficient in providing value addition to soil due to its unfavorable physicochemical characteristics (high pH, EC and phenolic content). An alternative to this problem is the bioconversion of Jatropha hulls using effective lignocellulolytic fungal consortium, which can reduce the phytotoxicity of the degraded material. Inoculation with the fungal consortium resulted in better compost of jatropha hulls within 1 month, but it takes nearly 4 months for complete compost maturation as evident from the results of phytotoxicity test. Such compost can be applied to the acidic soil as a remedial organic manure to help maintaining sustainability of the agro-ecosystem. Likewise, high levels of cellulolytic enzymes observed during bioconversion indicate possible use of fungi for ethanol production from fermentation of hulls. (author)

  7. [Fungal community structure in phase II composting of Volvariella volvacea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changqing; Li, Tong; Jiang, Yun; Li, Yu

    2014-12-04

    To understand the fungal community succession during the phase II of Volvariella volvacea compost and clarify the predominant fungi in different fermentation stages, to monitor the dynamic compost at the molecular level accurately and quickly, and reveal the mechanism. The 18S rDNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing methods were used to analyze the fungal community structure during the course of compost. The DGGE profile shows that there were differences in the diversity of fungal community with the fermentation progress. The diversity was higher in the stages of high temperature. And the dynamic changes of predominant community and relative intensity was observed. Among the 20 predominant clone strains, 9 were unknown eukaryote and fungi, the others were Eurotiales, Aspergillus sp., Melanocarpus albomyces, Colletotrichum sp., Rhizomucor sp., Verticillium sp., Penicillium commune, Microascus trigonosporus and Trichosporon lactis. The 14 clone strains were detected in the stages of high and durative temperature. The fungal community structure and predominant community have taken dynamic succession during the phase II of Volvariella volvacea compost.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of Cu/YSZ cermet high temperature electrolysis cathode material prepared by high-energy ball-milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Kim, Jong-Min; Hong, Hyun Seon; Woo, Sang-Kook

    2009-01-01

    Cu/YSZ cermet (40 and 60 vol.% Cu powder with balance YSZ) is a more economical cathode material than the conventional Ni/YSZ cermet for high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of water vapor and it was successfully fabricated by high-energy ball-milling of Cu and YSZ powders, pressing into pellets (o 13 mm x 2 mm) and subsequent sintering process at 700 deg. C under flowing 5%-H 2 /Ar gas. The Cu/YSZ composite material thus fabricated was characterized using various analytical tools such as XRD, SEM, and laser diffraction and scattering method. Electrical conductivity of sintered Cu/YSZ cermet pellets thus fabricated was measured by using 4-probe technique for comparison with that of conventional Ni/YSZ cermets. The effect of composite composition on the electrical conductivity was investigated and a marked increase in electrical conductivity for copper contents greater than 40 vol.% in the composite was explained by percolation threshold. Also, Cu/YSZ cermet was selected as a candidate for HTE cathode of self-supporting planar unit cell and its electrochemical performance was investigated, paving the way for preliminary correlation of high-energy ball-milling parameters with observed physical and electrochemical performance of Cu/YSZ cermets

  9. Interactions Between Beneficial and Harmful Microorganisms: From the Composting Process to Compost Application

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Jacques G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous microorganisms are involved in the composting process, but their precise roles are often unknown. Compost microorganisms are influenced by the composition of the substrate and by the temperature in the compost pile. In addition, different microorganisms also influence each other, e.g. through competition. In the first phase of composting, microbial activity increase drastically, leading to a rise in temperature. The initial bacterial dominance is replaced by a fungal one during compo...

  10. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic composting of manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Subdiaga, Edisson; Orsetti, Silvia; de la Rosa, José María; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil. In this study, we used different spectroscopic techniques to compare the organic carbon speciation of manure compost amended with three different biochars. A non-biochar-amended compost served as control. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy we did not observe any differences in carbon speciation of the bulk compost independent of biochar type, despite a change in the FTIR absorbance ratio 2925cm -1 /1034cm -1 , that is suggested as an indicator for compost maturity. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and emission-excitation matrixes (EEM) revealed minor differences in the extractable carbon fractions, which only accounted for ~2-3% of total organic carbon. Increased total organic carbon content of biochar-amended composts was only due to the addition of biochar-C and not enhanced preservation of compost feedstock-C. Our results suggest that biochars do not alter the carbon speciation in compost organic matter under conditions optimized for aerobic decomposition of compost feedstock. Considering the effects of biochar on compost nutrient retention, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration, biochar addition during aerobic composting of manure might be an attractive strategy to produce a sustainable, slow

  11. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in-vessel co-composting of tobacco and apple waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopčić, Nina; Vuković Domanovac, Marija; Kučić, Dajana; Briški, Felicita

    2014-02-01

    Efficient composting process requires set of adequate parameters among which physical-chemical properties of the composting substrate play the key-role. Combining different types of biodegradable solid waste it is possible to obtain a substrate eligible to microorganisms in the composting process. In this work the composting of apple and tobacco solid waste mixture (1:7, dry weight) was explored. The aim of the work was to investigate an efficiency of biodegradation of the given mixture and to characterize incurred raw compost. Composting was conducted in 24 L thermally insulated column reactor at airflow rate of 1.1 L min(-1). During 22 days several parameters were closely monitored: temperature and mass of the substrate, volatile solids content, C/N ratio and pH-value of the mixture and oxygen consumption. The composting of the apple and tobacco waste resulted with high degradation of the volatile solids (53.1%). During the experiment 1.76 kg of oxygen was consumed and the C/N ratio of the product was 11.6. The obtained temperature curve was almost a "mirror image" of the oxygen concentration curve while the peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5h after the peak oxygen consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlling the process of composting farm biomass with the use of fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugebauer, M. [Warmia and Mazury Univ., Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The process of composting organic waste produces organic fertilizer. The main phases of composting include the mesophilic and thermophilic stages followed by cooling down and maturing. The thermophilic phase involves a relatively high temperature, from 45 to 80 degrees C and carbon dioxide emission. Extending this phase of the composting process may reduce the entire process time and the amount of methane produced. The process can be controlled by adjusting the amount of air supplied to the compost heap and controlling the temperature in the bed or oxygen content in the air leaving the heap. Precise control would help optimize the composting process in terms of heat reception, duration of the process and the temperature inside the bed. Excess heat could be put to use elsewhere, such as warming the substrate in a greenhouse. However, overheating the heap reduces the amount of thermophilic microorganisms and may actually reduce the compost temperature, thus slow down or even stop the thermophilic phase of the composting process. A literature survey focused on complex non-linear processes has shown that systems based on fuzzy logic are effective in controlling the process.

  13. Rapid estimation of compost enzymatic activity by spectral analysis method combined with machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somsubhra; Das, Bhabani S; Ali, Md Nasim; Li, Bin; Sarathjith, M C; Majumdar, K; Ray, D P

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using visible near-infrared (VisNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) as an easy, inexpensive, and rapid method to predict compost enzymatic activity, which traditionally measured by fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA-HR) assay. Compost samples representative of five different compost facilities were scanned by DRS, and the raw reflectance spectra were preprocessed using seven spectral transformations for predicting compost FDA-HR with six multivariate algorithms. Although principal component analysis for all spectral pretreatments satisfactorily identified the clusters by compost types, it could not separate different FDA contents. Furthermore, the artificial neural network multilayer perceptron (residual prediction deviation=3.2, validation r(2)=0.91 and RMSE=13.38 μg g(-1) h(-1)) outperformed other multivariate models to capture the highly non-linear relationships between compost enzymatic activity and VisNIR reflectance spectra after Savitzky-Golay first derivative pretreatment. This work demonstrates the efficiency of VisNIR DRS for predicting compost enzymatic as well as microbial activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress Dispersed Cu Metal Anode by Laser Multiscale Patterning for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young So

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric power production continues to increase as the industry advances, and the demand for high-capacity batteries for efficient operation of the electric power produced is higher than ever before. Si has been attracting a great deal of attention recently as an anode electrode material because of its high theoretical capacity. However, it suffers from significant capacity-loss, resulting from the volume-expansion of Si during charge and discharge cycles. Inspired by the multiscale structures commonly found in nature, we attempt to solve this problem by patterning the surface of the Cu current-collector. To this end, we develop a direct, one-step method using laser patterning to manufacture a multiscale structure on the surface of the current-collector. The inherent exfoliation characteristic of the Cu current-collector allows the spontaneous formation of the multiscale structure while being irradiated with a laser. A micro/nano structure, with a different surface area, is fabricated by varying the laser output at three levels, and the batteries prepared with the fabricated Cu current-collector are tested to evaluate their charge-discharge characteristics and electrochemical impedance. The results show that the multiscale structure reduces mechanical stress. The initial capacity of the Cu current-collector is proportional to the laser output, and the initial capacity of the coin cell prepared with the Cu current-collector, fabricated at the highest laser output, is 396.7% higher than that of the coin cell prepared with a bare Cu current-collector. The impedance is inversely proportional to the laser output. The charge transfer resistance of the coin cell prepared with the Cu current-collector and irradiated with the highest laser output is 190.2% lower than that of the coin cell prepared with the bare Cu current-collector.

  16. Effect of ageing on the availability of heavy metals in soils amended with compost and biochar: evaluation of changes in soil and amendment properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, A; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2016-10-01

    Remediation strategies using soil amendments should consider the time dependence of metal availability to identify amendments that can sustainably reduce available pollutant concentrations over time. Drying-wetting cycles were applied on amendments, soils and soil + amendment mixtures, to mimic ageing at field level and investigate its effect on extractable Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations from three contaminated soils. The amendments investigated were municipal waste organic compost and biochars. The amendments, soils and mixtures were characterised by their physicochemical properties at different ageing times. The amendments were also characterised in terms of sorption capacity for Cd and Cu. The sorption capacity and the physicochemical properties of the amendments remained constant over the period examined. When mixed with the soils, amendments, especially the compost, immediately reduced the extractable metals in the soils with low pH and acid neutralisation capacity, due to the increase in pH and buffering capacity of the mixtures. The amendments had a relatively minor impact on the metal availability concentrations for the soil with substantially high acid neutralisation capacity. The most important changes in extractable metal concentrations were observed at the beginning of the experiments, ageing having a minor effect on metal concentrations when compared with the initial effect of amendments.

  17. Frozen-in vacancies in PVD-Cu films with improved high-pressure reflowability studied using a slow positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, A; Kubo, D; Mizuno, M; Araki, H [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Onishi, T [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd., 5-5 Takatsukadai 1-chome, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Shirai, Y [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: atsushi.yabuuchi@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Recently, a new process has been proposed for fabricating a LSI interconnection; filling trenches and via holes with Cu using high-pressure annealing treatment. It is already known that a Cu film produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) has a lower reflowability compared to a Cu film produced by electrochemical deposition (ECD). Additionally, it has also been recognized that the addition of Sb to the PVD-Cu film improves the reflowability. However, the factors responsible for the reflowability of Cu films have not yet been studied. In this work, we evaluated a PVD pure-Cu film and a PVD Cu-0.5at%Sb film by using a slow positron beam. Addition of Sb led to the introduction of lattice defects in the as-deposited film. These defects that were observed in the PVD-CuSb dilute alloy film were identified as frozen-in vacancies that were produced during deposition.

  18. Frozen-in vacancies in PVD-Cu films with improved high-pressure reflowability studied using a slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuuchi, A; Kubo, D; Mizuno, M; Araki, H; Onishi, T; Shirai, Y

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a new process has been proposed for fabricating a LSI interconnection; filling trenches and via holes with Cu using high-pressure annealing treatment. It is already known that a Cu film produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) has a lower reflowability compared to a Cu film produced by electrochemical deposition (ECD). Additionally, it has also been recognized that the addition of Sb to the PVD-Cu film improves the reflowability. However, the factors responsible for the reflowability of Cu films have not yet been studied. In this work, we evaluated a PVD pure-Cu film and a PVD Cu-0.5at%Sb film by using a slow positron beam. Addition of Sb led to the introduction of lattice defects in the as-deposited film. These defects that were observed in the PVD-CuSb dilute alloy film were identified as frozen-in vacancies that were produced during deposition.

  19. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regenerable Cu-intercalated MnO2 layered cathode for highly cyclable energy dense batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Gautam G.; Gallaway, Joshua W.; Turney, Damon E.; Nyce, Michael; Huang, Jinchao; Wei, Xia; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2017-03-06

    Manganese dioxide cathodes are inexpensive and have high theoretical capacity (based on two electrons) of 617 mAh g-1, making them attractive for low-cost, energy-dense batteries. They are used in non-rechargeable batteries with anodes like zinc. Only ~10% of the theoretical capacity is currently accessible in rechargeable alkaline systems. Attempts to access the full capacity using additives have been unsuccessful. We report a class of Bi-birnessite (a layered manganese oxide polymorph mixed with bismuth oxide (Bi2O3)) cathodes intercalated with Cu2+ that deliver near-full two-electron capacity reversibly for >6,000 cycles. The key to rechargeability lies in exploiting the redox potentials of Cu to reversibly intercalate into the Bi-birnessite-layered structure during its dissolution and precipitation process for stabilizing and enhancing its charge transfer characteristics. This process holds promise for other applications like catalysis and intercalation of metal ions into layered structures. A large prismatic rechargeable Zn-birnessite cell delivering ~140 Wh l-1 is shown.

  1. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON THE STUDDED AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL MUSHROOM COMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Rózsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Almond mushroom, Agaricus blazei Murrill, is the so-called secondary saprophyte, developing on partially processed substrate, in which microorganisms reduced complex ligno-cellulose compounds. Numerous authors have shown that due to the similar life cycle in the cultivation of almond mushroom technologies developed for white button mushroom may be applied. However, almond mushroom requires high temperature and high humidity as well as access to light to form fruiting bodies. In Brazil, due to the advantageous climatic conditions this species is frequently grown outdoors; however, in other countries - mainly due to its high temperature requirements - such cultivation system is risky and may only be successful during very warm summers. In this study, we analyzed four kind of compost studded by Agaricus blazei Murrill mushroom mycelium. We recorded every hour the air and compost temperature and the air relative humidity. The best studded compost was the classical, followed by synthetic and then by the mixt compost.

  2. High resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of neutron-rich $^{76,77,78}$Cu isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083035

    In this work, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spins and changes in the mean-squared charge radii of radioactive copper isotopes are presented. Reaching up to $^{78}$Cu ($Z=29$, $N=49$), produced at rates of only 10 particles per second, these measurements represent the most exotic laser spectroscopic investigations near the doubly-magic and very exotic $^{78}$Ni ($Z=28$,$N=50$) to date. This thesis outlines the technical developments and investigations of laser-atom interactions that were performed during this thesis. These developments were crucial for establishing a high-resolution, high sensitivity collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy experiment at ISOLDE, CERN. This thesis furthermore provides a detailed description of the analysis tools that were implemented and applied to extract the nuclear observables from the experimental data. The results were compared to several large-scale shell model calculations, and provide deep insight into the structure of $^{78}$N...

  3. Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilă, Adrian; Buecheler, Stephan; Pianezzi, Fabian; Bloesch, Patrick; Gretener, Christina; Uhl, Alexander R; Fella, Carolin; Kranz, Lukas; Perrenoud, Julian; Seyrling, Sieghard; Verma, Rajneesh; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Bilger, Gerhard; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2011-09-18

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) absorber layers have yielded the highest conversion efficiency among all thin-film technologies, and the use of flexible polymer films as substrates offers several advantages in lowering manufacturing costs. However, given that conversion efficiency is crucial for cost-competitiveness, it is necessary to develop devices on flexible substrates that perform as well as those obtained on rigid substrates. Such comparable performance has not previously been achieved, primarily because polymer films require much lower substrate temperatures during absorber deposition, generally resulting in much lower efficiencies. Here we identify a strong composition gradient in the absorber layer as the main reason for inferior performance and show that, by adjusting it appropriately, very high efficiencies can be obtained. This implies that future manufacturing of highly efficient flexible solar cells could lower the cost of solar electricity and thus become a significant branch of the photovoltaic industry.

  4. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  5. Valorization of beer brewing wastes by composting

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Elisabete; Brás, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the residual yeast and diatomaceous earth (RYDE) slurry generated by the beer brewing industry by composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: cow manure/RYDE slurry (Pile CM) and sheep manure/RYDE slurry (Pile SM). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored b...

  6. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lăcătuşu Radu; Căpăţână Romeo; Lăcătuşu Anca-Rovena

    2016-01-01

    The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33%) of...

  7. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  8. The presence of insect at composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudruňka, J.; Lyčková, B.; Kučerová, R.; Glogarová, V.; Závada, J.; Gibesová, B.; Takač, D.

    2017-10-01

    During composting biodegradable waste, microbic organisms reproduce massively, most of which belong to serious biopathogens which are able to penetrate various environmental layers. Their vector species include dipterous insect (Diptera) which reaches considerable amounts in composting plant premises as well as home composting units, mainly during summer months. Therefore measures must be taken to eliminate or reduce this unwanted phenomenon (sanitisation, disinfection). For evaluating obtained results, relative abundance calculation was chosen.

  9. High absorption coefficients of the CuSb(Se,Te2 and CuBi(S,Se2 alloys enable high-efficient 100 nm thin-film photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that the band-gap energies Eg of CuSb(Se,Te2 and CuBi(S,Se2 can be optimized for high energy conversion in very thin photovoltaic devices, and that the alloys then exhibit excellent optical properties, especially for tellurium rich CuSb(Se1−xTex2. This is explained by multi-valley band structure with flat energy dispersions, mainly due to the localized character of the Sb/Bi p-like conduction band states. Still the effective electron mass is reasonable small: mc ≈ 0.25m0 for CuSbTe2. The absorption coefficient α(ω for CuSb(Se1−xTex2 is at ħω = Eg + 1 eV as much as 5–7 times larger than α(ω for traditional thin-film absorber materials. Auger recombination does limit the efficiency if the carrier concentration becomes too high, and this effect needs to be suppressed. However with high absorptivity, the alloys can be utilized for extremely thin inorganic solar cells with the maximum efficiency ηmax ≈ 25% even for film thicknesses d ≈ 50 − 150 nm, and the efficiency increases to ∼30% if the Auger effect is diminished.

  10. High absorption coefficients of the CuSb(Se,Te)2 and CuBi(S,Se)2 alloys enable high-efficient 100 nm thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongzhen; Persson, Clas

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the band-gap energies Eg of CuSb(Se,Te)2 and CuBi(S,Se)2 can be optimized for high energy conversion in very thin photovoltaic devices, and that the alloys then exhibit excellent optical properties, especially for tellurium rich CuSb(Se1-xTex)2. This is explained by multi-valley band structure with flat energy dispersions, mainly due to the localized character of the Sb/Bi p-like conduction band states. Still the effective electron mass is reasonable small: mc ≈ 0.25m0 for CuSbTe2. The absorption coefficient α(ω) for CuSb(Se1-xTex)2 is at ħω = Eg + 1 eV as much as 5-7 times larger than α(ω) for traditional thin-film absorber materials. Auger recombination does limit the efficiency if the carrier concentration becomes too high, and this effect needs to be suppressed. However with high absorptivity, the alloys can be utilized for extremely thin inorganic solar cells with the maximum efficiency ηmax ≈ 25% even for film thicknesses d ≈ 50 - 150 nm, and the efficiency increases to ˜30% if the Auger effect is diminished.

  11. Effect of iron content on the structure and mechanical properties of Al25Ti25Ni25Cu25 and (AlTi)60-xNi20Cu20Fex (x=15, 20) high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazakas, É.; Zadorozhnyy, V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three new refractory alloys namely: Al 25 Ti 25 Ni 25 Cu 25 , Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 and Al 20 Ti 20 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 20 , were produced by induction-melting and casting. • This kind of alloys exhibits high resistance to annealing softening. • Most the alloys in the annealed state possess even higher Vickers microhardness than the as-cast alloys. • The Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 and Al 20 Ti 20 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 20 alloys annealed at 973 K show the highest compressive stress and ductility values. - Abstract: In this work, we investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al 25 Ti 25 Ni 25 C u25 Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 and Al 20 Ti 20 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 20 high entropy alloys, produced by arc melting and casting in an inert atmosphere. The structure of these alloys was studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The as-cast alloys were heat treated at 773, 973 and 1173 K for 1800 s to investigate the effects of aging on the plasticity, hardness and elastic properties. Compared to the conventional high-entropy alloys the Al 25 Ti 25 Ni 25 Cu 25 , Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 and Al 20 Ti 20 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 20 alloys are relatively hard and ductile. Being heat treated at 973 K the Al 22.5 Ti 22.5 Ni 20 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy shows considerably high strength and relatively homogeneous deformation under compression. The plasticity, hardness and elastic properties of the studied alloys depend on the fraction and intrinsic properties of the constituent phases. Significant hardening effect by the annealing is found.

  12. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compost addition reduces porosity and chlordecone transfer in soil microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woignier, Thierry; Clostre, Florence; Fernandes, Paula; Rangon, Luc; Soler, Alain; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2016-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, pollutes soils and contaminates crops and water resources and is biomagnified by food chains. As chlordecone is partly trapped in the soil, one possible alternative to decontamination may be to increase its containment in the soil, thereby reducing its diffusion into the environment. Containing the pesticide in the soil could be achieved by adding compost because the pollutant has an affinity for organic matter. We hypothesized that adding compost would also change soil porosity, as well as transport and containment of the pesticide. We measured the pore features and studied the nanoscale structure to assess the effect of adding compost on soil microstructure. We simulated changes in the transport properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusion) associated with changes in porosity. During compost incubation, the clay microstructure collapsed due to capillary stresses. Simulated data showed that the hydraulic conductivity and diffusion coefficient were reduced by 95 and 70% in the clay microstructure, respectively. Reduced transport properties affected pesticide mobility and thus helped reduce its transfer from the soil to water and to the crop. We propose that the containment effect is due not only to the high affinity of chlordecone for soil organic matter but also to a trapping mechanism in the soil porosity.

  14. Quantification Of Greenhouse Gases From Three Danish Composting Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Samuelsson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A measurement method combining a controlled trace gas release with downwind concentrations measurements was successfully used to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three Danish open windrow composting facilities. Overall, the results showed that composting of organic waste generate GHG...... emissions in terms of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and thus contribute to climate change. At all three facilities significant CH4 emissions were occurring. The CH4 emission varied between 0.50 and 5.73 kg CH4 h-1. The highest CH4 emission (5.73 kg CH4 h-1) were measured at the Aarhus composting...... facility and was believed to be a result of the windrow lay-out with very broad and high windrows and a low turning frequency. The lowest CH4 emission (0.50 kg CH4 h-1) was measured at Fakse composting area and was most likely a result of the relatively small windrows and frequent weekly turnings. For all...

  15. Application of compost for effective bioremediation of organic contaminants and pollutants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals worldwide are awaiting remediation activities; bioremediation is often considered as a cost-effective remediation approach. Potential bioapproaches are biostimulation, e.g. by addition of nutrients, fertiliser and organic substrates, and bioaugmentation by addition of compound-degrading microbes or of organic amendments containing active microorganisms, e.g. activated sludge or compost. In most contaminated soils, the abundance of the intrinsic metabolic potential is too low to be improved by biostimulation alone, since the physical and chemical conditions in these soils are not conducive to biodegradation. In the last few decades, compost or farmyard manure addition as well as composting with various organic supplements have been found to be very efficient for soil bioremediation. In the present minireview, we provide an overview of the composting and compost addition approaches as 'stimulants' of natural attenuation. Laboratory degradation experiments are often biased either by not considering the abiotic factors or by focusing solely on the elimination of the chemicals without taking the biotic factors and processes into account. Therefore, we first systemise the concepts of composting and compost addition, then summarise the relevant physical, chemical and biotic factors and mechanisms for improved contaminant degradation triggered by compost addition. These factors and mechanisms are of particular interest, since they are more relevant and easier to determine than the composition of the degrading community, which is also addressed in this review. Due to the mostly empirical knowledge and the nonstandardised biowaste or compost materials, the field use of these approaches is highly challenging, but also promising. Based on the huge metabolic diversity of microorganisms developing during the composting processes, a highly complex metabolic diversity is established as a 'metabolic memory' within developing and mature

  16. The Learning of Compost Practice in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, T. W.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Riandi; Purwianingsih, W.

    2017-09-01

    The compost as one of the topics of the Urban Farming Movement in Bandung city, Indonesia. The preliminary study aims to obtain a description of the performance capabilities and compost products made by students with STREAM (Science-Technology-Religion-Art-Mathematics) approach. The method was explanatory sequential mixed method. The study was conducted on one class of Biology Education students at the one of the universities in Bandung, Indonesia. The sample was chosen purposively with the number of students as many as 44 people. The instruments were making Student Worksheets, Observation Sheets of Performance and Product Assessment, Rubric of Performance and Product, and Field Notes. The indicators of performance assessment rubrics include Stirring of Compost Materials and Composting Technology in accordance with the design. The product assessment rubric are a Good Composting Criteria and Compost Packaging. The result of can be stated most students have good performance. However, the ability to design of compost technology, compost products and the ability to pack compost are still lacking. The implication of study is students of Biology Education require habituation in the ability of designing technology.

  17. Ultrahigh performance composting of sludge from food industry-comparative study of fermentation in sawdust and paper mixing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.; Masanori, M.; Mizuho, M.; Hiroe, K.; Shahjahan, M.M.; Tohru, H.; Hori, H.

    2005-01-01

    We succeeded to develop an ultra high performance composting system for food industrial sludge by employing paper mixing method. Sludge was mixed with cut pieces (3 x 12 mm) of waste paper, like newspapers, in the range of 10-20 % (w/w) in an electric mixer to enhance the porosity and reduce water content of the mass. We followed conventional way of sawdust mixing as control. The mixture was subjected to aeration at room temperature with an electric blower at 86 L/min/m/sup 2/ bottom area of bio-reactor. The composting process completed in 10 days, in contrast to the conventional cases where it takes 60 to 90 days to complete composting, thereby reducing the time course 6 to 9 fold. Chemical analyses of the compost showed concentration nitrogen (N) 5.0%, phosphorus (P) 4.9% and potassium (K) 0.6% while all heavy metal contents were below the standard required level. The compost showed pH 7.1, EC 5.6 and C/N ratio 8. We analyzed for nitrogen release into the soil and efficacy on the germination and growth of Brassica Tapa L. the compost showed markedly good effect on the growth of the plantlets. The present study demonstrated that the paper-mixed composting method is highly efficient and energy saving. In addition, this method can lead to design a reactor which is compact but with very high capacity to convert municipal organic waste to compost. (author)

  18. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of High-Quality Cu7 S4 Nanocrystals for Efficient Light-Induced Water Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changbo; Yan, Cong; Xue, Zhenjie; Yu, Wei; Xie, Yinde; Wang, Tie

    2016-10-01

    Copper sulfides (Cu 2-x S), are a novel kind of photothermal material exhibiting significant photothermal conversion efficiency, making them very attractive in various energy conversion related devices. Preparing high quality uniform Cu 2-x S nanocrystals (NCs) is a top priority for further energy-and sustainability relevant nanodevices. Here, a shape-controlled high quality Cu 7 S 4 NCs synthesis strategy is reported using sulfur in 1-octadecene as precursor by varying the heating temperature, as well as its forming mechanism. The performance of the Cu 7 S 4 NCs is further explored for light-driven water evaporation without the need of heating the bulk liquid to the boiling point, and the results suggest that as-synthesized highly monodisperse NCs perform higher evaporation rate than polydisperse NCs under the identical morphology. Furthermore, disk-like NCs exhibit higher water evaporation rate than spherical NCs. The water evaporation rate can be further enhanced by assembling the organic phase Cu 7 S 4 NCs into a dense film on the aqueous solution surface. The maximum photothermal conversion efficiency is as high as 77.1%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effects of Vermi-compost Fertilizer Application and Foliar Spraying on Yield and Yield Component of Isabgol (Plantago ovate L. Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Rahimi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vermi-compost is the ability of some species of earthworms to consume and break down a wide range of organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial refuse. Vermi-composts are usually more stable than their parent materials with increased availability of nutrients and improved physicochemical and microbiological properties. Aerial compost tea contains high populations of live microorganism consisting of rhizobactria, trichoderma and pseudomonas species which increase the growth and yield of the plant. Acid humic is the main humic substance and the important ingredient of soil organic matter (humus which causes increase of yield and quality of crop. The aim of this research is evaluating the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of compost tea and acid humic on yield, yield component and mucilage content of isabgol. Vermiwash as the extract of vermi-compost is liquid organic fertilizer obtained from unit of vermiculture and vermi-compost as drainage. It is used as a foliar spraying on the leaf. Vermiwash stimulate and increase the yield of crop products and foliar application of vermiwash can be caused of plant resistance to different factors and can prevent leaf necrosis. Material and Methods In order to study the effect of vermi-compost and foliar application of tea compost and acid humic on growth indices of isabgol (Plantago ovata, an experiment was conducted as a factorial based on complete randomized design with three replications in agricultural research farm at Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan. Treatments were included application of vermi-compost (0 (control, 4, 8, 12 and 16 t.ha-1 and 3 levels of foliar application (distilled water as control, acid humic and compost tea. Samples for evaluating of yield, yield components and mucilage content were taken from 1 m2 area of each treatment. Tea compost solution prepared using mix of vermi-compost, acid humic, yeast and alga extract

  20. High salinity volatile phases in magmatic Ni-Cu-platinum group element deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J. J.; Mungall, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    The role of "deuteric" fluids (exsolved magmatic volatile phases) in the development of Ni-Cu-PGE (platinum group element) deposits in mafic-ultramafic igneous systems is poorly understood. Although considerable field evidence demonstrates unambiguously that fluids modified most large primary Ni-Cu-PGE concentrations, models which hypothesize that fluids alone were largely responsible for the economic concentration of the base and precious metals are not widely accepted. Determination of the trace element composition of magmatic volatile phases in such ore-forming systems can offer considerable insight into the origin of potentially mineralizing fluids in such igneous environments. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis allows researchers to confirm the original metal budget of magmatic volatile phases and quantify the behavior of trace ore metals in the fluid phase in the absence of well-constrained theoretical or experimental predictions of ore metal solubility. In this study, we present new evidence from major deposits (Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Stillwater Complex, Montana, U.S.A.) that compositionally distinct magmatic brines and halide melt phases were exsolved from crystallizing residual silicate melt and trapped within high-T fluid conduits now comprised of evolved rock compositions (albite-quartz graphic granite, orthoclase-quartz granophyre). Petrographic evidence demonstrates that brines and halide melts coexisted with immiscible carbonic phases at the time of entrapment (light aliphatic hydrocarbons, CO2). Brine and halide melt inclusions are rich in Na, Fe, Mn, K, Pb, Zn, Ba, Sr, Al and Cl, and homogenize by either halite dissolution at high T ( ˜450-700° C) or by melting of the salt phase (700-800° C). LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions demonstrate that high salinity volatile phases contained abundant base metals (Cu, Fe, Sn, Bi) and precious metals (Pt, Pd, Au, Ag) at the time of entrapment. Notably, precious metal concentrations in the inclusions

  1. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Different Composting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiung Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate green house gas emissions from compost preparations, methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and emission rates at different accumulative times and composting periods were determined. While the accumulative time was less than 10 min with a closed acrylic chamber, meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions in creased slightly but with high fluntuation in the sampling e ror, and these values decreased significantly when the accumulative time was more than 20 min. During the 8 weeks of composting, the methane emission rate reaches its peak near the end of the second week and the carbon dioxide emission rate does the same near the end of third week. Meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions had high val ues at the first stage of com post ing and then de creased grad u ally for the ma tu rity of com post. Carbon dioxide emission (y was significantly related to temperature (x1, moisture content (x2, and total or ganiccarbon (x3; and there gression equation is: y = 3.11907x1 + 6.19236x2 - 6.63081x3 - 50.62498. The re gres sion equa tion be tween meth ane emis sion (y? and mois ture con tent (x2, pH (x4, C/N ra tio (x5, and ash con tent (x6 is: y?= 0.13225x2 - 0.97046x4 - 1.10599x5 - 0.55220x6 + 50.77057 in the ini tial com post ing stage (weeks 1 to 3; while, the equa tion is: y?= 0.02824x2 - 0.0037x4 - 0.1499x5 - 0.07013x6 + 4.13589 in the later compost ing stage (weeks 4 to 8. Dif ferent stage composts have significant variation of properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the emissions may be reduced by manipulating the proper factors.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of High-Entropy Alloy AlFeCoNiCuCr by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-entropy alloys have been recently found to have novel microstructures and unique properties. In this study, a novel AlFeCoNiCuCr high-entropy alloy was prepared by laser cladding. The microstructure, chemical composition, and constituent phases of the synthesized alloy were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD, and TEM, respectively. High-temperature hardness was also evaluated. Experimental results demonstrate that the AlFeCoNiCuCr clad layer is composed of only BCC and FCC phases. The clad layers exhibit higher hardness at higher Al atomic content. The AlFeCoNiCuCr clad layer exhibits increased hardness at temperature between 400–700°C.

  3. Composting projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: Sustainable contribution to mitigate climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogger, Cyrill; Beaurain, Francois; Schmidt, Tobias S.

    2011-01-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and at the same time to assist these countries in sustainable development. While composting as a suitable mitigation option in the waste sector can clearly contribute to the former goal there are indications that high rents can also be achieved regarding the latter. In this article composting is compared with other CDM project types inside and outside the waste sector with regards to both project numbers and contribution to sustainable development. It is found that, despite the high number of waste projects, composting is underrepresented and a major reason for this fact is identified. Based on a multi-criteria analysis it is shown that composting has a higher potential for contribution to sustainable development than most other best in class projects. As these contributions can only be assured if certain requirements are followed, eight key obligations are presented.

  4. Cu-Au alloy nanostructures coated with aptamers: a simple, stable and highly effective platform for in vivo cancer theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaosheng; Shi, Hui; He, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Yanru; He, Dinggeng; Tang, Jinlu; Lei, Yanli; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity and lower cost was introduced to generate a novel Cu-Au alloy nanostructure produced by a simple, gentle and one-pot synthetic method. Having the good qualities of both Cu and Au, the irregularly-shaped Cu-Au alloy nanostructures showed several advantages over traditional Au nanorods, including a broad and intense near-infrared (NIR) absorption band from 400 to 1100 nm, an excellent heating performance under laser irradiation at different wavelengths and even a notable photostability against melting. Then, via a simple conjugation of fluorophore-labeled aptamers on the Cu-Au alloy nanostructures, active targeting and signal output were simultaneously introduced, thus constructing a theranostic platform based on fluorophore-labeled, aptamer-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures. By using human leukemia CCRF-CEM cancer and Cy5-labeled aptamer Sgc8c (Cy5-Sgc8c) as the model, a selective fluorescence imaging and NIR photothermal therapy was successfully realized for both in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor tissues. It was revealed that Cy5-Sgc8c-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures were not only capable of robust target recognition and stable signal output for molecular imaging in complex biological systems, but also killed target cancer cells in mice with only five minutes of 980 nm irradiation. The platform was found to be simple, stable, biocompatible and highly effective, and shows great potential as a versatile tool for cancer theranostics.As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity

  5. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  6. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic composting of banana peels treated with different inoculums for soil nutrient replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemelawa, Frank; Nishihara, Eiji; Endo, Tsuneyoshi; Ahmad, Zahoor; Yeasmin, Rumana; Tenywa, Moses M; Yamamoto, Sadahiro

    2012-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of aerobic and anaerobic composting of inoculated banana peels, and assess the agronomic value of banana peel-based compost. Changes in the chemical composition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were examined for four formulations of banana peel-based wastes over a period of 12 weeks. The formulations i.e. plain banana peel (B), and a mixture with either cow dung (BC), poultry litter (BP) or earthworm (BE) were separately composted under aerobic and anaerobic conditions under laboratory conditions. Inoculation with either cow dung or poultry litter significantly facilitated mineralization in the order: BP>BC>B. The rate of decomposition was significantly faster under aerobic than in anaerobic composting conditions. The final composts contained high K (>100 g kg(-1)) and TN (>2%), indicating high potential as a source of K and N fertilizer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Composting of domestic wastes: development and optimization of reactor continuous; Compostaje domestico : desarrollo y optimizacion de un reactor en continuo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rad, C.; Gonzalez-Carcedo, S.; Revenga, J. M.; Bustillo-Nunez, J. M.; Marcos-Naveira, L. A. [Universidad de Burgos (Spain); Monje, J. C.; Bustillo-Iglesias, A.

    2002-07-01

    In this work, a mixture of the organic fraction of a domestic waste and wooden chips has been composted using an in vessel composting apparatus with forced aeration and a continuous compost collection system. After three months with a daily addition of a fixed organic charge,temperature and moisture control, five samples of compost were collected and tested in their chemical and biological characteristics. Odour production and low temperatures and moisture contents during the process,high saline concentration and the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the final product are the main disadvantages of this experience. Although, a good C/N ratio, neutral pH and high levels of nutrients (N and P) in the compost have been achieved,the parameters controlling the process must be improved. (Author) 16 refs.

  9. High T[sub c] superconductivity in YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] studied by PAC and PAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shengyun (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)); Li Anli (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)); Zheng Shengnan (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)); Huang Hanchen (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)); Li Donghong (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)); Din Honglin (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)); Du Hongshan (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China)); Sun Hancheng (China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing, BJ (China))

    1993-11-01

    High T[sub c] superconductivity has been investigated in YBaCuO by both perturbed angular correlation and positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques as a function of temperature from 77 to 300 K. An abrupt change has been observed in the positron lifetime and Doppler broadening and the electric field gradient and its asymmetry parameter across T[sub c], indicating a transition of two- to one-dimensional Cu-O-Cu chain structure and a charge transfer from CuO layers to CuO chains. An anomaly of the normal state has been demonstrated around 125 K, which is attributed to the structural instability. (orig.)

  10. Growth of highly mesoporous CuCo2O4@C core-shell arrays as advanced electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Lu, Yang; Zhu, Kejia; Peng, Tao; Liu, Xianming; Liu, Yunxin; Luo, Yongsong

    2018-05-01

    A series of CuCo2O4 nanostructures with different morphologies were prepared by a hydrothermal method in combination with thermal treatment. The morphology, structure and composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As the electrode materials for supercapacitors, CuCo2O4 nanoneedles delivered the highest specific capacitance compared with other CuCo2O4 nanostructures. Electrochemical performance measurements demonstrate that the carbon layer can improve the electrochemical stability of CuCo2O4 nanoneedles. The CuCo2O4@C electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1432.4 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1, with capacitance retention of 98.2% after 3000 circles. These characteristics of CuCo2O4@C composite are mainly due to the unique one dimensional needle-liked architecture and the conducting carbon, which provide a faster ion/electron transfer rate. These excellent performances of the CuCo2O4@C electrode confirmed the material as a positive electrode for hybrid supercapacitor application.

  11. Construction of Hierarchical CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 Nanowire Arrays on Copper Foam for High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luoxiao; He, Ying; Jia, Congpu; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Saha, Petr; Cheng, Qilin

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical copper oxide @ ternary nickel cobalt sulfide (CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4) core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu foam have been successfully constructed by a facile two-step strategy. Vertically aligned CuO/Cu2O nanowire arrays are firstly grown on Cu foam by one-step thermal oxidation of Cu foam, followed by electrodeposition of NiCo2S4 nanosheets on the surface of CuO/Cu2O nanowires to form the CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 core-shell nanostructures. Structural and morphological characterizations indicate that the average thickness of the NiCo2S4 nanosheets is ~20 nm and the diameter of CuO/Cu2O core is ~50 nm. Electrochemical properties of the hierarchical composites as integrated binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor were evaluated by various electrochemical methods. The hierarchical composite electrodes could achieve ultrahigh specific capacitance of 3.186 F cm−2 at 10 mA cm−2, good rate capability (82.06% capacitance retention at the current density from 2 to 50 mA cm−2) and excellent cycling stability, with capacitance retention of 96.73% after 2000 cycles at 10 mA cm−2. These results demonstrate the significance of optimized design and fabrication of electrode materials with more sufficient electrolyte-electrode interface, robust structural integrity and fast ion/electron transfer. PMID:28914819

  12. Construction of Hierarchical CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 Nanowire Arrays on Copper Foam for High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoxiao Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical copper oxide @ ternary nickel cobalt sulfide (CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu foam have been successfully constructed by a facile two-step strategy. Vertically aligned CuO/Cu2O nanowire arrays are firstly grown on Cu foam by one-step thermal oxidation of Cu foam, followed by electrodeposition of NiCo2S4 nanosheets on the surface of CuO/Cu2O nanowires to form the CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 core-shell nanostructures. Structural and morphological characterizations indicate that the average thickness of the NiCo2S4 nanosheets is ~20 nm and the diameter of CuO/Cu2O core is ~50 nm. Electrochemical properties of the hierarchical composites as integrated binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor were evaluated by various electrochemical methods. The hierarchical composite electrodes could achieve ultrahigh specific capacitance of 3.186 F cm−2 at 10 mA cm−2, good rate capability (82.06% capacitance retention at the current density from 2 to 50 mA cm−2 and excellent cycling stability, with capacitance retention of 96.73% after 2000 cycles at 10 mA cm−2. These results demonstrate the significance of optimized design and fabrication of electrode materials with more sufficient electrolyte-electrode interface, robust structural integrity and fast ion/electron transfer.

  13. Hall effect in high- Tc Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7-δ superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, G. C.; Burke, T.; Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Safari, A.; Sundar, H. G. K.; Bonometti, R.; Alexander, C.; Rau, C.; Waters, K.

    1989-04-01

    We have performed point-by-point and continuous Hall effect experiments as a function of temperature in polycrystalline Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7-δ. We have shown that the positive Hall constant shows an abrupt increase upon decreasing temperature at a value just above Tc. This temperature corresponds to where the resistance versus temperature data deviates from linearity. At very high fields of 6.8 and 15 T we observe a subsequent decrease in RH. We interpret these data as supportive of a contribution toward the superconductivity mechanism arising from internal excitions or change transfer excitations such that the bound exciton concentration increases near Tc at the expense of positive carries which are reflected in both bound and free holes.

  14. Surface topography and roughness of high-speed milled AlMn1Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Yuan, Juntang; Yin, Zengbin; Hu, Xiaoqiu

    2016-10-01

    The aluminum alloy AlMn1Cu has been broadly applied for functional parts production because of its good properties. But few researches about the machining mechanism and the surface roughness were reported. The high-speed milling experiments are carried out in order to improve the machining quality and reveal the machining mechanism. The typical topography features of machined surface are observed by scan electron microscope(SEM). The results show that the milled surface topography is mainly characterized by the plastic shearing deformation surface and material piling zone. The material flows plastically along the end cutting edge of the flat-end milling tool and meanwhile is extruded by the end cutting edge, resulting in that materials partly adhere to the machined surface and form the material piling zone. As the depth of cut and the feed per tooth increase, the plastic flow of materials is strengthened and the machined surface becomes rougher. However, as the cutting speed increases, the plastic flow of materials is weakened and the milled surface becomes smoother. The cutting parameters (e.g. cutting speed, feed per tooth and depth of cut) influencing the surface roughness are analyzed. It can be concluded that the roughness of the machined surface formed by the end cutting edge is less than that by the cylindrical cutting edge when a cylindrical flat-end mill tool is used for milling. The proposed research provides the typical topography features of machined surface of the anti-rust aluminum alloy AlMn1Cu in high speed milling.

  15. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens. PMID:24963997

  16. Chemical and Microbial Dynamics during Composting of Herbal Pharmaceutical Industrial Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Zameer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to analyze the dynamics of chemical, biochemical and microbial parameters during composting of herbal pharmaceutical waste. All the parameters were analyzed at three different intervals of composting (1st, 15th and 60th days. Temperature of the compost pile was initially high (46.2 °C and on 60th day it dropped to 33.3 °C. The pH of the sample was initially acidic (2.39 and with the progress of decomposition gradually changed to neutrality (7.55. Electrical conductivity (EC value was high (3.8 mS during last day of composting compared to other stages. The activity of degradative enzymes namely amylase, invertase and urease were initially high (4.1, 4.79 mg of glucose/g/h and 0.19 mg of ammonia/g/h respectively while it decreased with composting. The beneficial microbial load was initially low and very high at the last stages of decomposition. The bioassay studies using compost extracts revealed that the 60th day old sample was not phytotoxic in nature.

  17. Composting of empty fruit bunches in the tower composter - effect of air intake holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Husaini, T.; Trisakti, B.; Batubara, F.; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    The process of composting empty fruit bunches (EFB) by mixing with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative utilization of solid waste generated from palm oil mill. This study aims to find composting techniques of EFB and to obtain degradation data of composting EFB by varying the air intake holes to produce good quality compost. Composting process was carried out by tearing the EFB into four shreds, then put into the tower composter while adding ALOF until it reached the optimum moisture content of 55 -65%. During the composting process, we maintained moisture content at optimum conditions by adding ALOF. Variations of air intake holes area to the outer surface area of the composter are 0/44.314; 72.39/44.314 and 144.78/44.314 (cm2/cm2). Composting is carried out for forty days, however, based on the result, compost began to mature on the 10th day. The results revealed that there was an influence of air intake holes to the composting process. The best degradation of EFB was obtained on the variation of air intake holes 72.39/44.314 (cm2/cm2), pH 8.1, moisture content 79.14%, water holding capacity 60%, electrical conductivity 4.725 dS/m and C/N ratio 20.97.

  18. Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae from potting compost purchasable in the Hungarian retail trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boros, G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The high humus and organic material content of potting compost is favourable for detritivores such as enchytraeidworms. An investigation was carried out to clarify which enchytraeid species can be found in this medium. A really lowabundance and number of species were found and all of them were well known cosmopolitan species. Consequently, the use ofthese composts probably cannot cause the increase or invasion of new species, in spite of the worm’s special breeding strategies.

  19. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  20. Composting of bio solids by composting tunnels; Compostaje de biosolidos mediante tunes de compostado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varo, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Prats, D.; Soto, R.; Pastor, B.; Monges, M.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the bio-solid composting process carried out in the composting plant of Aspe (Alicante) by means of open composting tunnels, and to determine the quality of the resulting compost. The parameters under control are temperature. humidity, density, pH, conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, ammonium nitride and organic nitrogen. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and copper were monitored during the composting process. Observing the parameters analyzed we can conclude that the composting process of the sewage sludge from Aspe procedures a product suitable for agricultural use. The values obtained allow the product resulting from the process to be designated as compost. (Author)

  1. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Huang

    Full Text Available Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different.

  2. Ambient growth of highly oriented Cu{sub 2}S dendrites of superior thermoelectric behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulla, Rafiq; Rabinal, M.K., E-mail: mkrabinal@yahoo.com

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • A simple and ambient route to synthesize highly oriented dendrites of copper sulfide is proposed. • Remarkable enhancement is observed in Seebeck coefficient by room temperature, solution phase doping. • High thermoelectric power factor is observed at room temperature, indicating promising behaviour. - Abstract: Low-cost, non-toxic and efficient material is an urgent need for the thermoelectric energy conversion. Here, a rapid and ambient chemical route has been developed to grow dense and highly oriented dendrites of copper sulfide (Cu{sub 2}S) on copper substrate in a very simple approach, these films are uniform and covered with dense nanosheets. Room temperature solution doping of copper ions is carried out to improve thermoelectric performance. The Seebeck coefficient increased from ∼100 to 415 μV K{sup −1} with a slight decrease in electrical conductivity, this gives a high power factor (S{sup 2}σ) of about ∼400 μW m{sup −1} K{sup −2}. The improved thermoelectric properties in these films are accounted for resonant energy level doping and high phonon scattering. Such films with improved thermoelectric behaviour can be promising materials for energy conversion. The earth abundant, low cost, non toxic with a good thermoelectric property makes copper sulfide as a promising thermoelectric material for future applications.

  3. La2CuO4+δ: Synthesis under high oxygen pressure and study of phase relations and energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.P.; Mehta, A.; DiCarlo, J.; Navrotsky, A.

    1994-01-01

    High oxygen pressures have been achieved in a piston-cylinder apparatus using a double capsule assembly consisting of a sealed outer Au capsule, containing an oxygen source (KMnO 4 ), and an inner, open Pt capsule containing the sample. Using this technique, La 2 CuO 4 was annealed at 800 degree C, 5--25 kbar for 2--4 h. Transposed temperature drop calorimetry at 704 degree C was used to determine the enthalpy of oxidation, and weight loss measurements characterized the oxygen nonstoichiometry, δ, in La 2 CuO 4+δ , in the high-pressure, oxygen annealed samples. For samples analyzed at room temperature, x-ray diffraction measurements show that beyond δ∼0.10--0.13, additional oxygen is accommodated in a perovskite-like LaCuO 3-α phase. An analysis of the thermochemical measurements indicates that the nature of holes in La 2 CuO 4+δ could change in the range of δ∼0.03--0.06. 16,17 It is further suggested that the observed change in the thermochemical behavior in the range of δ∼0.01--0.06 could be the driving influence behind the spinodal decomposition of La 2 CuO 4+δ at low temperatures (Dabrowski et al. 10 )

  4. Effects of wood vinegar on properties and mechanism of heavy metal competitive adsorption on secondary fermentation based composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Guo, Xiaoping; Wang, Shuqi; Li, Lei; Zeng, Yang; Liu, Guanhong

    2018-04-15

    In this study, secondary municipal solid waste composts (SC) and wood vinegar treated secondary compost (WV-SC) was prepared to investigate the capability for single-heavy metals and multi-metal systems adsorption. The adsorption sequence of WV-SC for the maximum single metals sorption capacities was Cd (42.7mgg -1 ) > Cu (38.6mgg -1 ) > Zn (34.9mgg -1 ) > Ni (28.7mgg -1 ) and showed higher than that of SC adsorption isotherm. In binary/quaternary-metal systems, Ni adsorption showed a stronger inhibitory effect compared with Zn, Cd and Cu on both SC and WV-SC. According to Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models, as well as desorption behaviors and speciation analysis of heavy metals, competitive adsorption behaviors were differed from single-metal adsorption. Especially, the three-dimensional simulation of competitive adsorption indicated that the Ni was easily exchanged and desorbed. The amount of exchangeable heavy metal fraction were in the lowest level for the metal-loaded adsorbents, composting treated by wood vinegar improved the adsorbed metals converted to the residue fraction. This was an essential start in estimating the multiple heavy metal adsorption behaviors of secondary composts, the results proved that wood vinegar was an effective additive to improve the composts quality and decrease the metal toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Responses of Wheat Yield, Macro- and Micro-Nutrients, and Heavy Metals in Soil and Wheat following the Application of Manure Compost on the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Kou, Changlin; Ma, Zhenghua; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of livestock manure in cropping systems is considered to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there have been no systematic long-term studies of the effects of manure application on soil and crop macro- and micro-nutrients, heavy metals, and crop yields in China, despite their great importance for sustainable crop production and food safety. Thus, we conducted field experiments in a typical cereal crop production area of the North China Plain to investigate the effects of compost manure application rates on wheat yield, as well as on the macro-/micro-nutrients and heavy metals contents of soil and wheat. We found that compost application increased the soil total N and the available K, Fe, Zn, and Mn concentrations, whereas the available P in soil was not affected, and the available Cu decreased. In general, compost application had no significant effects on the grain yield, biomass, and harvest index of winter wheat. However, during 2012 and 2013, the N concentration decreased by 9% and 18% in straw, and by 16% and 12% in grain, respectively. With compost application, the straw P concentration only increased in 2012 but the grain P generally increased, while the straw K concentration tended to decrease and the grain K concentration increased in 2013. Compost application generally increased the Fe and Zn concentrations in straw and grain, whereas the Cu and Mn concentrations decreased significantly compared with the control. The heavy metal concentrations increased at some compost application rates, but they were still within the safe range. The balances of the macro-and micro-nutrients indicated that the removal of nutrients by wheat was compensated for by the addition of compost, whereas the level of N decreased without the application of compost. The daily intake levels of micronutrients via the consumption of wheat grain were still lower than the recommended levels when sheep manure compost was applied, except for that of Mn. PMID

  6. The single-crystal multinary compound Cu2ZnSnS4 as an environmentally friendly high-performance thermoelectric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Akira; Masuda, Taizo; Yasui, Shintaro; Taniyama, Tomoyasu; Nose, Yoshitaro

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the thermoelectric properties of high-quality p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals. This material showed two advantages: low thermal conductivity because of lattice scattering caused by the easily formed Cu/Zn disordered structure, and high conductivity because of high doping from changes to the composition. All samples showed a thermal conductivity of 3.0 W m‑1 K‑1 at 300 K, and the Cu-poor sample showed a conductivity of 7.5 S/cm at 300 K because of the high density of shallow-acceptor Cu vacancies. The figure of merit of the Cu-poor Cu2ZnSnS4 reached 0.2 at 400 K, which is 1.4–45 times higher than those of related compounds.

  7. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  8. Electrofocusing the compost organic matter obtained by coupling SEC-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavani, Luciano; Trubetskaya, Olga; Grigatti, Marco; Trubetskoj, Oleg; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    Humic acids (HA)-like extracted from compost at the beginning (t(0)) and after 130 days of composting (t(130)) were fractionated by coupling size exclusion chromatography to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SEC-PAGE). HA-like fractions with the same molecular size (MS) and electrophoretic mobility were pooled and further characterised by analytical polyacrylamide gel electrofocusing (EF) and compared with HA separated from a Typic Chernozem soil. During the composting process all fractions were subjected to quantitative and qualitative modifications: the high MS fraction was degraded, the mid MS fractions were qualitatively changed, the content of low MS fractions increased and changed qualitatively. The main changes in EF pattern of the non fractionated HA-like t(130) were associated to low MS fractions. Such data seem to be reliable for explanation what mechanisms and monitoring of the evolution of the compost organic matter for their agricultural uses.

  9. Role of biochar on composting of organic wastes and remediation of contaminated soils-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohua; He, Huijun; Inthapanya, Xayanto; Yang, Chunping; Lu, Li; Zeng, Guangming; Han, Zhenfeng

    2017-07-01

    Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of biomass residues under limited oxygen conditions. In recent years, biochar as an amendment has received increasing attention on composting and soil remediation, due to its unique properties such as chemical recalcitrance, high porosity and sorption capacity, and large surface area. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the chemical characteristics (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen loss, decomposition and humification of organic matter) and microbial community structure during composting of organic wastes. This review also discusses the use of biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals as well as related mechanisms. Besides its aging, the effects of biochar on the environment fate and efficacy of pesticides deserve special attention. Moreover, the combined application of biochar and compost affects synergistically on soil remediation and plant growth. Future research needs are identified to ensure a wide application of biochar in composting and soil remediation. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retarded growth or necrotic changes were not recorded. The performed phytotoxicity tests show that the analyzed composts produced in the composting plant situated on the landfill surface achieved high percentages of the germinating capacity of white mustard (Sinapis alba seeds and can be therefore used in the subsequent reclamation of the concerned landfill.

  11. Influence of maize straw content with sewage sludge on composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekała Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After entrance to EU in 2004, the management of sewage sludge has become more and more important problem for the new members. In Poland, one of the most promising technologies is composting process of sewage sludge with carbonaceous materials. However, the high price of typically used cereal straw forces the specialists to look for new and cheap materials used as donor of carbon and substrates creating good, porous structure of composted heap. This work presents the results of sewage sludge composting mixed with sawdust and maize straw used to create structure favorable for air exchange. The results show dynamic thermophilic phase of composting process in all cases where maize straw was used.

  12. Bacterial and fungal communities and contribution of physicochemical factors during cattle farm waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Yanpei; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-12-01

    During composting, the composition of microbial communities is subject to constant change owing to interactions with fluctuating physicochemical parameters. This study explored the changes in bacterial and fungal communities during cattle farm waste composting and aimed to identify and prioritize the contributing physicochemical factors. Microbial community compositions were determined by high-throughput sequencing. While the predominant phyla in the bacterial and fungal communities were largely consistent during the composting, differences in relative abundances were observed. Bacterial and fungal community diversity and relative abundance varied significantly, and inversely, over time. Relationships between physicochemical factors and microbial community compositions were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The variation in bacterial community composition was significantly related to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and pile temperature and moisture (p composts. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Co-composting of hair waste from the tanning industry with de-inking and municipal wastewater sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Pagans, Estel la; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Production of waste hair in the leather manufacturing industry is increasing every year due to the adoption of hair-save unhairing techniques, leaving the tanners with the problem of coping with yet another solid by-product. Numerous potential strategies for hair utilisation have been proposed. However, the use of hair waste as agricultural fertiliser is one of its most promising applications due to the high nitrogen content of hair. Agricultural value of hair can be increased by composting. This paper deals with the composting of hair from the unhairing of bovine hide. Results indicated that hair cannot be either composted on its own or co-composted with de-inking sludge, a chemical complementary co-substrate. However, good results were obtained when co-composted with raw sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant at hair:raw sludge weight ratios 1:1, 1:2 and, 1:4 in lab scale and pilot plant scale composters. In all cases, a more stable product was achieved at the end of the process. Composting in the pilot plant composter was effectively monitored using Static Respiration Indices determined at process temperature at sampling (SRI(T)) and at 37 degrees C (SRI(37)). Notably, SRI(T) values were more sensitive to changes in the biological activity. In contrast, Respiratory Quotient (RQ) values were not adequate to follow the development of the process.

  14. Characterization of Bacterial Community Dynamics during the Decomposition of Pig Carcasses in Simulated Soil Burial and Composting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Bo-Min; Kim, Yu Mi; Jeon, Jun Min; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-12-28

    Soil burial is the most widely used disposal method for infected pig carcasses, but composting has gained attention as an alternative disposal method because pig carcasses can be decomposed rapidly and safely by composting. To understand the pig carcass decomposition process in soil burial and by composting, pilot-scale test systems that simulated soil burial and composting were designed and constructed in the field. The envelope material samples were collected using special sampling devices without disturbance, and bacterial community dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing for 340 days. Based on the odor gas intensity profiles, it was estimated that the active and advanced decay stages were reached earlier by composting than by soil burial. The dominant bacterial communities in the soil were aerobic and/or facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Gelidibacter, Mucilaginibacter , and Brevundimonas . However, the dominant bacteria in the composting system were anaerobic, thermophilic, endospore-forming, and/or halophilic gram-positive bacteria such as Pelotomaculum, Lentibacillus, Clostridium , and Caldicoprobacter . Different dominant bacteria played important roles in the decomposition of pig carcasses in the soil and compost. This study provides useful comparative date for the degradation of pig carcasses in the soil burial and composting systems.

  15. New WC-Cu thermal barriers for fusion applications: High temperature mechanical behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejado, E.; Dias, M.; Correia, J. B.; Palacios, T.; Carvalho, P. A.; Alves, E.; Pastor, J. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The combination of tungsten carbide and copper as a thermal barrier could effectively reduce the thermal mismatch between tungsten and copper alloy, which are proposed as base armour and heat sink, respectively, in the divertor of future fusion reactors. Furthermore, since the optimum operating temperature windows for these divertor materials do not overlap, a compatible thermal barrier interlayer between them is required to guarantee a smooth thermal transition, which in addition may mitigate radiation damage. The aim of this work is to study the thermo-mechanical properties of WC-Cu cermets fabricated by hot pressing. Focus is placed on the temperature effect and composition dependence, as the volume fraction of copper varies from 25 to 50 and 75 vol%. To explore this behaviour, fracture experiments are performed within a temperature range from room temperature to 800 °C under vacuum. In addition, elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated from these tests. Results reveal a strong dependence of the performance on temperature and on the volume fraction of copper and, surprisingly, a slight percent of Cu (25 vol%) can effectively reduce the large difference in thermal expansion between tungsten and copper alloy, which is a critical point for in service applications. The thermal performance of these materials, together with their mechanical properties could indeed reduce the heat transfer from the PFM to the underlying element while supporting the high thermal stresses of the joint. Thus, the presence of these cermets could allow the reactor to operate above the ductile to brittle transition temperature of tungsten, without compromising the underlying materials.

  16. Precipitation strengthened high strength, high conductivity Cu-Cr-Nb alloys produced by chill block melt spinning. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of Cu-based alloys containing 2 to 10 a/o Cr and 1 to 5 a/o Nb were produced by chill block melt spinning (CBMS). The melt spun ribbons were consolidated and hot rolled to sheet to produce a supersaturated Cu-Cr-Nb solid solution from which the high melting point intermetallic compound Cr2Nb could be precipitated to strengthen the Cu matrix. The results show that the materials possess electrical conductivities in excess of 90 percent that of pure Cu at 200 C and above. The strengths of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys were much greater than Cu, Cu-0.6 Cr, NARloy-A, and NARloy-Z in the as-melt spun condition. The strengths of the consolidated materials were less than Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr below 500 C and 600 C respectively, but were significantly better above these temperatures. The strengths of the consolidated materials were greater than NARloy-Z, at all temperatures. The GLIDCOP possessed similar strength levels up to 750 C when the strength of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys begins to degrade. The long term stability of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys was measured by the microhardness of aged samples and the growth of precipitates. The microhardness measurements indicate that the alloys overage rapidly, but do not suffer much loss in strength between 10 and 100 hours which confirms the results of the electrical resistivity measurements taken during the aging of the alloys at 500 C. The loss in strength from peak strength levels is significant, but the strength remains exceptionally good. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the as-melt spun samples revealed that Cr2Nb precipitates formed in the liquid Cu during the chill block melt spinning, indicating a very strong driving force for the formation of the precipitates. The TEM of the aged and consolidated materials indicates that the precipitates coarsen considerably, but remain in the submicron range.

  17. The structural and functional contributions of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities to cellulose degradation in composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiangyun; Liu, Meiting; Fan, Yihong; Xu, Jie; Xu, Xiuhong; Li, Hongtao

    2018-01-01

    Compost habitats sustain a vast ensemble of microbes that engender the degradation of cellulose, which is an important part of global carbon cycle. β-Glucosidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of degradation of cellulose. Thus, analysis of regulation of β-glucosidase gene expression in composting is beneficial to a better understanding of cellulose degradation mechanism. Genetic diversity and expression of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities, and relationships of cellulose degradation, metabolic products and the relative enzyme activity during natural composting and inoculated composting were evaluated. Compared with natural composting, adding inoculation agent effectively improved the degradation of cellulose, and maintained high level of the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase) and β-glucosidase activities in thermophilic phase. Gene expression analysis showed that glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) family of β-glucosidase genes contributed more to β-glucosidase activity in the later thermophilic phase in inoculated compost. In the cooling phase of natural compost, glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) family of β-glucosidase genes contributed more to β-glucosidase activity. Intracellular β-glucosidase activity played a crucial role in the regulation of β-glucosidase gene expression, and upregulation or downregulation was also determined by extracellular concentration of glucose. At sufficiently high glucose concentrations, the functional microbial community in compost was altered, which may contribute to maintaining β-glucosidase activity despite the high glucose content. This research provides an ecological functional map of microorganisms involved in carbon metabolism in cattle manure-rice straw composting. The performance of the functional microbial groups in the two composting treatments is different, which is related to the cellulase activity and cellulose degradation, respectively.

  18. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  19. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The current investigation represented an initial survey on the presence of organic contaminants in Bio-waste compost (garden, fruit and vegetable wast). This report provides an indicative comparison between the pollution levels in compost and the target value for soil (H=20%). Partly based on this

  20. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    Het onderhavige onderzoek is een eerste verkenning geweest naar de aanwezigheid van organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost. In deze rapportage is een indicatieve vergelijking van de gehalten in compost met de streefwaarden voor bodem (H=20%) gemaakt. Mede op basis van dit onderzoek

  1. Compost: Brown gold or toxic trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard