Sample records for high concentrations led

  1. Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko


    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  2. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.


    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  3. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert


    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  4. LED controlled flow photolysis for concentration gradients in microfluidic systems. (United States)

    Potter, Oscar G; Thomas, Mark E; Breadmore, Michael C; Hilder, Emily F


    Many of the channels and reservoirs in microfluidic systems are used simply to allow liquids with different compositions to be delivered to where they are needed. An alternative approach is to use dissolved photochemicals and variable intensity LEDs to generate composition changes in situ. We applied this approach to generate concentration gradients of HCl for gradient ion chromatography.

  5. High-power LED package requirements (United States)

    Wall, Frank; Martin, Paul S.; Harbers, Gerard


    Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.

  6. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough


    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat

  7. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred


    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  8. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred


    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  9. Determination of glucose concentrations using photonic crystal LEDs (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Yang; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Chang, Cheng-Yu; Lan, Wen-Yi; Huang, Jian-Jang


    As internet of things (IOT) has become a popular topic in current consumer electronics, there is a demand for cost-effective sensors to monitor bio-signals. Traditional optical sensors employ low-dimensional gratings and high-resolution spectrometers to detect the refractive index changes of the solutions. In this work, we develop an alternative approach to correlate the concentration of molecules to the band diagrams of the photonic crystals. A relatively low-resolution spectrum analyzer can be employed, yet achieves higher sensitivity than traditional approaches.

  10. LED module with high index lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierhuizen, Serge J.; Wang, Nanze Patrick; Eng, Gregory W.; Sun, Decai; Wei, Yajun


    An array of housings with housing bodies and lenses is molded, or an array of housing bodies is molded and bonded with lenses to form an array of housings with housing bodies and lenses. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are attached to the housings in the array. An array of metal pads may be bonded to the back of the array or insert molded with the housing array to form bond pads on the back of the housings. The array is singulated to form individual LED modules.

  11. LED module with high index lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierhuizen, Serge J.; Wang, Nanze Patrick; Eng, Gregory W.; Sun, Decai; Wei, Yajun


    An array of housings with housing bodies and lenses is molded, or an array of housing bodies is molded and bonded with lenses to form an array of housings with housing bodies and lenses. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are attached to the housings in the array. An array of metal pads may be bonded to the back of the array or insert molded with the housing array to form bond pads on the back of the housings. The array is singulated to form individual LED modules.

  12. High brightness near-ultraviolet resonant LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, B.; Roycroft, B.; Maaskant, P.; Akhter, M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Zhu, D.; McAleese, C.; Kappers, M.J.; Humphreys, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)


    Planar near-ultraviolet 385 nm emitting resonant LEDs containing three quantum wells have been investigated as a function of the separation between the wells and a reflective and injecting metal mirror. The output power and far-field extracted through the substrate of the LEDs depend on the precise positions of the wells with each well having a significant individual influence on these properties. A doubling of the output power is obtained when the wells are located around the antinode position of the standing wave while narrower far-fields are obtained with other placement of the wells. A power of 0.4 mW into a numerical aperture of 0.5 is obtained for a current of 30 mA into a 50 {mu}m diameter contact. Calibration of the growth rate along with accurate knowledge of the material properties of the semiconductor and metal mirrors is required for controlled and enhanced emission from planar UV LEDs. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Thermal design for the high-power LED lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Xiaogai; Chen Wei; Zhang Jiyong, E-mail: [NVC Lighting Technology Corporation Research and Development Center (Shanghai), Shanghai 201112 (China)


    This paper summarizes different kinds of heat sinks on the market for high power LED lamps. Analysis is made on the thermal model of LED, PCB and heat sink separately with a simplified mode provided. Two examples of simulation are illustrated as a demonstration for the thermal simulation as guidance for LED lamp design. (semiconductor devices)

  14. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Anand


    New generation of standalone LED driver platforms developed, which are more efficient These LED Drivers are more efficient (≥90%), smaller in size ( 0.15 in3/watt), lower in cost ( 12 cents/watt in high volumes in millions of units). And these products are very reliable having an operating life of over 50,000 hours. This technology will enable growth of LED light sources in the use. This will also help in energy saving and reducing total life cycle cost of LED units. Two topologies selected for next generation of LED drivers: 1) Value engineered single stage Flyback topology. This is suitable for low powered LED drivers up to 50W power. 2) Two stage boost power factor correction (PFC) plus LLC half bridge platform for higher powers. This topology is suitable for 40W to 300W LED drivers. Three new product platforms were developed to cover a wide range of LED drivers: 1) 120V 40W LED driver, 2) Intellivolt 75W LED driver, & 3) Intellivolt 150W LED driver. These are standalone LED drivers for rugged outdoor lighting applications. Based on these platforms number of products are developed and successfully introduced in the market place meeting key performance, size and cost goals.

  15. High performance LED lamps for the automobile: needs and opportunities (United States)

    Pohlmann, Wolfgang; Vieregge, Thomas; Rode, Martin


    Light emitting diodes have been an option in automotive lighting for more than 15 years now. The capacities and colours of LEDs available in the recent past were sufficient to realize interior lighting and rear signalling functions. In the meantime, series applications, such as position or daytime running lights, using white LEDs for signal functions in headlamps, are no longer a rarity. The next step - realizing main lighting functions for series applications - is imminent. LED will offer a multitude of styling options in rear and front lighting, as well as a light colour which differs considerably from that of the previous halogen and xenon headlamp systems. The further advantages of the LED compared with conventional light sources with regard to service life, power efficiency and package space requirements can thus only be sensibly exploited by means of suitable structural and connection techniques. Increasing complexity and installation conditions in an often rough environment are demanding challenge to realize the hardware of LED lamps. In this paper at first the requirements on LEDs and LED modules in automotive exterior lighting will be discussed. Furthermore the status of industrialization and modular concepts for signal lamps and full LED headlamps will be presented. The paper will finish with a discussion of new headlamp active lighting functions like maker light or glare free high beam, implemented in hybrid or with pure LED technology. In the subsequent headlamp integration, from about 2012, freely-addressable LED-Arrays will possibly enable these new types of lighting functions.

  16. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.


    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Single phase forced convection cooling of high power leds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozdemir, M.Z.; Chestakov, D.; Frijns, A.J.H.


    LEDs are strong candidates for future illumination applications dueto their much lower consumption of energy compared to conventional lighting options. One of key problems in development of LEDs is successful thermal management during illumination. Therefore, current research ongoing related to high

  18. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True


    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  19. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    Recent developments in power light emitting diode (LED) industry have made LEDs suitable for being efficiently used in high intensity lighting fixtures instead of the commonly used high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. A high output LEDbased profile-light fixture is presented in this paper....... The system consists of a power supply with power factor correction (PFC), a LED-driver and an optical system designed for an overall high efficiency. An interleaved boost converter was chosen as PFC converter. A soft switching phase-shifted full-bridge converter with current doubler provides isolation from...... the grid and delivers the required voltage to the LEDdriver which is a dual interleaved buck converter. Twelve highpower CBT-90 LEDs have been connected in a 4xRGBconfiguration to deliver high output of saturated colors without the need for subtractive color filters. More than 6000 lm of fixture light...

  20. Prognostics and Health Monitoring of High Power LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bailey


    Full Text Available Prognostics is seen as a key component of health usage monitoring systems, where prognostics algorithms can both detect anomalies in the behavior/performance of a micro-device/system, and predict its remaining useful life when subjected to monitored operational and environmental conditions. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs are optoelectronic micro-devices that are now replacing traditional incandescent and fluorescent lighting, as they have many advantages including higher reliability, greater energy efficiency, long life time and faster switching speed. For some LED applications there is a requirement to monitor the health of LED lighting systems and predict when failure is likely to occur. This is very important in the case of safety critical and emergency applications. This paper provides both experimental and theoretical results that demonstrate the use of prognostics and health monitoring techniques for high power LEDs subjected to harsh operating conditions.

  1. Current State of the Art in High Brightness LEDs (United States)

    Craford, George


    LED's have been commercially available since the 1960's. For many years they were used primarily for indicator applications. The remarkable increase in materials technology and efficiency that has been achieved since the early 1990's for AlInGaP red and amber LEDs, and InGaN green and blue LEDs, has enabled the penetration of markets such as outdoor display, signaling, and automotive brake light and turn signal applications. White LEDs, which are either blue LEDs combined with a phosphor, or a combination of red, green, and blue LEDs, are being used in emerging applications such as cell phone flash, television backlights, projection, and automotive headlights. In addition, to efficiency improvements these applications have required the development of higher power packages and, in some of these applications which are etendue limited, higher luminance devices. High power devices are commercially available which are capable of 140 lumens output and have an efficacy of around 70 lm/W for white emission. New package and chip technologies have been demonstrated which have a luminance of 38 mega nits (Mcd/m^2), approximately 50% more luminance than that of an automotive headlamp halogen bulb (˜25 mega nits). The recent progress in materials technology, packaging, and chip technology makes it clear that LED's will become important for general illumination applications. The rate of LED penetration of this market will depend upon continued increases in performance and lower costs as well as better control of the white spectral emission. Efficiency, current density, and costs are closely linked because the cost in dollars/lumen is inversely proportional to how many lumens can be realized from each unit of device area for a given device type. Performance as high as 138 lm/W, and over 40% wall plug efficiency, has been reported for low power research devices and over 90 lm/W for high power research devices. It is clear that high power commercial products with performance in

  2. High Output LED-Based Profile Lighting Fixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;


    . The system consists of a power supply with power factor correction (PFC), a LED-driver and an optical system designed for an overall high efficiency. An interleaved boost converter was chosen as PFC converter. A soft switching phase-shifted full-bridge converter with current doubler provides isolation from...... the grid and delivers the required voltage to the LEDdriver which is a dual interleaved buck converter. Twelve highpower CBT-90 LEDs have been connected in a 4xRGBconfiguration to deliver high output of saturated colors without the need for subtractive color filters. More than 6000 lm of fixture light...

  3. A thermosyphon heat pipe cooler for high power LEDs cooling (United States)

    Li, Ji; Tian, Wenkai; Lv, Lucang


    Light emitting diode (LED) cooling is facing the challenge of high heat flux more seriously with the increase of input power and diode density. The proposed unique thermosyphon heat pipe heat sink is particularly suitable for cooling of high power density LED chips and other electronics, which has a heat dissipation potential of up to 280 W within an area of 20 mm × 22 mm (>60 W/cm2) under natural air convection. Meanwhile, a thorough visualization investigation was carried out to explore the two phase flow characteristics in the proposed thermosyphon heat pipe. Implementing this novel thermosyphon heat pipe heat sink in the cooling of a commercial 100 W LED integrated chip, a very low apparent thermal resistance of 0.34 K/W was obtained under natural air convection with the aid of the enhanced boiling heat transfer at the evaporation side and the enhanced natural air convection at the condensation side.

  4. Highly Efficient Small Form Factor LED Retrofit Lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Allen; Fred Palmer; Ming Li


    This report summarizes work to develop a high efficiency LED-based MR16 lamp downlight at OSRAM SYLVANIA under US Department of Energy contract DE-EE0000611. A new multichip LED package, electronic driver, and reflector optic were developed for these lamps. At steady-state, the lamp luminous flux was 409 lumens (lm), luminous efficacy of 87 lumens per watt (LPW), CRI (Ra) of 87, and R9 of 85 at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3285K. The LED alone achieved 120 lumens per watt efficacy and 600 lumen flux output at 25 C. The driver had 90% electrical conversion efficiency while maintaining excellent power quality with power factor >0.90 at a power of only 5 watts. Compared to similar existing MR16 lamps using LED sources, these lamps had much higher efficacy and color quality. The objective of this work was to demonstrate a LED-based MR16 retrofit lamp for replacement of 35W halogen MR16 lamps having (1) luminous flux of 500 lumens, (2) luminous efficacy of 100 lumens per watt, (3) beam angle less than 40{sup o} and center beam candlepower of at least 1000 candelas, and (4) excellent color quality.

  5. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Lumileds LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)


    LED luminaires have seen dramatic changes in cost breakdown over the past few years. The LED component cost, which until recently was the dominant portion of luminaire cost, has fallen to a level of the same order as the other luminaire components, such as the driver, housing, optics etc. With the current state of the technology, further luminaire performance improvement and cost reduction is realized most effectively by optimization of the whole system, rather than a single component. This project focuses on improving the integration between LEDs and drivers. Lumileds has developed a light engine platform based on low-cost high-power LEDs and driver topologies optimized for integration with these LEDs on a single substrate. The integration of driver and LEDs enables an estimated luminaire cost reduction of about 25% for targeted applications, mostly due to significant reductions in driver and housing cost. The high-power LEDs are based on Lumileds’ patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) technology, affording reduced die fabrication and packaging cost compared to existing technology. Two general versions of PSS-FC die were developed in order to create the desired voltage and flux increments for driver integration: (i) small single-junction die (0.5 mm2), optimal for distributed lighting applications, and (ii) larger multi-junction die (2 mm2 and 4 mm2) for high-power directional applications. Two driver topologies were developed: a tapped linear driver topology and a single-stage switch-mode topology, taking advantage of the flexible voltage configurations of the new PSS-FC die and the simplification opportunities enabled by integration of LEDs and driver on the same board. A prototype light engine was developed for an outdoor “core module” application based on the multi-junction PSS-FC die and the single-stage switch-mode driver. The light engine meets the project efficacy target of 128 lm/W at a luminous flux

  6. High-Voltage LED Light Engine with Integrated Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter [Lumileds LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)


    LED luminaires have seen dramatic changes in cost breakdown over the past few years. The LED component cost, which until recently was the dominant portion of luminaire cost, has fallen to a level of the same order as the other luminaire components, such as the driver, housing, optics etc. With the current state of the technology, further luminaire performance improvement and cost reduction is realized most effectively by optimization of the whole system, rather than a single component. This project focuses on improving the integration between LEDs and drivers. Lumileds has developed a light engine platform based on low-cost high-power LEDs and driver topologies optimized for integration with these LEDs on a single substrate. The integration of driver and LEDs enables an estimated luminaire cost reduction of about 25% for targeted applications, mostly due to significant reductions in driver and housing cost. The high-power LEDs are based on Lumileds’ patterned sapphire substrate flip-chip (PSS-FC) technology, affording reduced die fabrication and packaging cost compared to existing technology. Two general versions of PSS-FC die were developed in order to create the desired voltage and flux increments for driver integration: (i) small single-junction die (0.5 mm2), optimal for distributed lighting applications, and (ii) larger multi-junction die (2 mm2 and 4 mm2) for high-power directional applications. Two driver topologies were developed: a tapped linear driver topology and a single-stage switch-mode topology, taking advantage of the flexible voltage configurations of the new PSS-FC die and the simplification opportunities enabled by integration of LEDs and driver on the same board. A prototype light engine was developed for an outdoor “core module” application based on the multi-junction PSS-FC die and the single-stage switch-mode driver. The light engine meets the project efficacy target of 128 lm/W at a luminous flux greater than 4100 lm, a correlated

  7. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA


    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  8. Digital controlling system to the set of high power LEDs (United States)

    Gilewski, Marian; Gryko, Lukasz; Zajac, Andrzej


    In the paper is described the concept and architecture of the multi-channel control system for set of high-power LEDs. The broadband source of radiation for prototype illuminator is dedicated to the investigation of Low Level Laser Therapy procedures. The general scheme of the system, detailed schemes, control algorithm and its implementation description in FPGA structure is presented. The temperature conditions and the opportunity to work with a microcomputer are characterized.

  9. Design method for automotive high-beam LED optics (United States)

    Byzov, Egor V.; Moiseev, Mikhail A.; Doskolovich, Leonid L.; Kazanskiy, Nikolay L.


    New analytical method for the calculation of the LED secondary optics for automotive high-beam lamps is presented. Automotive headlamps should illuminate the road and the curb at the distance of 100-150 meters and create a bright, flat, relatively powerful light beam. To generate intensity distribution of this kind we propose to use TIR optical element (collimator working on the total internal reflection principle) with array of microlenses (optical corrector) on the upper surface. TIR part of the optical element enables reflection of the side rays to the front direction and provides a collimated beam which incidents on the microrelief. Microrelief, in its turn, dissipates the light flux in horizontal direction to meet the requirements of the Regulations 112, 113 and to provide well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. As an example, we computed and simulated the optical element with the diameter of 33 millimeters and the height of 22 millimeters. Simulation data shows that three illuminating modules including Cree XP-G2 LED and lens allow generating an appropriate intensity distribution for the class D of UNECE Regulations.

  10. Compound parabolic concentrator design for red, green, blue, and white LED light mixing (United States)

    Wei, An-Chi; Lo, Shih-Chieh; Hung, Pei-Fang; Lee, Ju-Yi; Yeh, Hong-Yih; Huang, Hong-Cheng; Li, Chia-Ming


    A light-mixing module consisting of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a fiber for mixing light from red, green, blue, and white (RGBW) LEDs was proposed. The design principle was investigated and a design prototype was demonstrated in a simulation. The simulated results showed that the chromatic nonuniformity was reduced to 1/10 when the fiber length was 40 times the core width, and the module efficiencies were more than 80% and more than 60% when the fiber lengths were 350 mm and 5 m, respectively. The proposed module is suitable for solar lighting compensation or indoor lighting, such as plant-factory lighting.

  11. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography. (United States)

    Hölz, K; Lietard, J; Somoza, M M


    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p-type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications. These UV LEDs exceed the spectral radiance of mercury lamps even at the intense I-line at 365 nm. Here we present the successful exchange of a high-pressure mercury arc lamp for a new generation UV LED as a light source in photolithographic chemistry and its use in the fabrication of high-density DNA microarrays. We show that the improved light radiance and efficiency of these LEDs offer substantial practical, economic and ecological advantages, including faster synthesis, lower hardware costs, very long lifetime, an >85-fold reduction in electricity consumption and the elimination of mercury waste and contamination.

  12. Two phase interleaved buck converter for driving high power LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    increases luminous efficacy of LED compared to PWM dimmed system. Because of the low dynamic resistance of LEDs the duty cycle of the converter does not change greatly with controlled current. By setting the input voltage of the buck converter to around twice the voltage of diode strings, converter can...

  13. Reliability test and failure analysis of high power LED packages*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhaohui; Zhang Qin; Wang Kai; Luo Xiaobing; Liu Sheng


    A new type application specific light emitting diode (LED) package (ASLP) with freeform polycarbonate lens for street lighting is developed, whose manufacturing processes are compatible with a typical LED packaging process. The reliability test methods and failure criterions from different vendors are reviewed and compared. It is found that test methods and failure criterions are quite different. The rapid reliability assessment standards are urgently needed for the LED industry. 85 ℃/85 RH with 700 mA is used to test our LED modules with three other vendors for 1000 h, showing no visible degradation in optical performance for our modules, with two other vendors showing significant degradation. Some failure analysis methods such as C-SAM, Nano X-ray CT and optical microscope are used for LED packages. Some failure mechanisms such as delaminations and cracks are detected in the LED packages after the accelerated reliability testing. The finite element simulation method is helpful for the failure analysis and design of the reliability of the LED packaging. One example is used to show one currently used module in industry is vulnerable and may not easily pass the harsh thermal cycle testing.

  14. Heat Transfer Characteristics in High Power LED Packaging


    Chi-Hung Chung; Kai-Shing Yang; Kuo-Hsiang Chien; Ming-Shan Jeng; Ming-Tsang Lee


    This study uses the T3Ster transient thermal resistance measuring device to investigate the effects to heat transfer performances from different LED crystal grains, packaging methods and heat-sink substrates through the experimental method. The experimental parameters are six different types of LED modules that are made alternatively with the crystal grain structure, the die attach method and the carrying substrate. The crystal grain structure includes the lateral type, flip chip type and ver...

  15. 大功率 LED 散热结构的优化设计%Optimization Design Based on the Heat Radiation Structure of High -power LED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马验宗; 张忠山; 智郁雯; 陈鹏宇; 严一民


    大功率 LED 与传统光源相比优势明显,应用前景非常广阔。但由于体积小,发热集中,LED 芯片不能承受高温等原因,散热问题成为了制约大功率 LED 发展的主要原因。该文结合三维模型设计软件 Pro /Engineer 5.0和流体传热分析软件FloEFD PRO12.1对5 W 的 LED 的散热模型进行建模和热仿真,运用控制变量的方法来探索散热器翅片厚度、曲率及微结构对散热性能的影响规律,并依据规律对散热器结构进行优化。%Compared to the traditional light source,high -power LED retains decided advantages,along with wide application pros-pects.However,heat dissipation has been the major obstacle to the further development of high power LED because of its small vol-ume,heat concentration,and bad resistance to high temperature of the LED chip.Through combining the 3D model design software Pro /Engineer 5.0 heat transfer and fluid analysis software FloEFD PRO12.1,one achieves the model and thermal simulation of 5 W LED heat cooling model.In addition,by applying the method of controlled variable,the radiator fin thickness,curvature and the effect laws of microstructure on the heat dissipation performance have further been explored,therefore enable the structure of radiator get fur-ther optimized.

  16. High quality Danish design with intelligent LED light. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Paul Michael; Dam-Hansen, C.; Thestrup, B.; Pedersen, Henrik (Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU Fotonik, Roskilde (Denmark)); Olsen, Jesper (JesperOlsen ApS, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Falleboe, H.; Andersen, Jakob (MORFOSO, Copenhagen (Denmark))


    Based on the results achieved in a previous project, which enabled a number of designers to be trained in the potential of LED lighting technology, this project developed intelligent LED fixtures for work purposes and for private homes. The two types of fixtures both meet the original project objective of good colour rendition with Ra indices above 90 and colour temperatures variable within the interval 3,300 to 4,400 K. Furthermore, with luminous efficacies of 60 lumen/W, both fixtures have energy efficiencies exceeding that of an average energy-friendly light source. (ln)

  17. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineke, Sebastian


    }(acac). Compared to Ir(ppy){sub 3}, this emitter has a much smaller ground state dipole moment, suggesting that the improved performance is a result of weaker aggregation in the mixed film. The knowledge gained in the investigation of triplet-triplet annihilation is further used to develop a novel emission layer design for white organic LEDs. It comprises three phosphorescent emitters for blue, green, and red emission embedded in a multilayer architecture. The key feature of this concept is the matrix material used for the blue emitter FIrpic: Its triplet energy is in resonance with the FIrpic excited state energy which enables low operating voltages and high power efficiencies by reducing thermal relaxation. In order to further increase the device efficiency, the OLED architecture is optically optimized using high refractive index substrates and thick electron transport layers. These devices reach efficiencies which are on par with fluorescent tubes - the current efficiency benchmark for light sources. (orig.)

  18. Nanoscale carrier injectors for high luminescence Si-based LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccolo, G.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    In this paper we present the increased light emission for Sip–i–n light emitting diodes (LEDs) by geometrical scaling of the injector size for p- and n- type carriers. Simulations and electrical and optical characteristics of our realized devices support our findings. Reducing the injector size

  19. Nanoscale carrier injectors for high luminescence Si-based LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccolo, G.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Schmitz, J.


    In this paper we present the increased light emission for Sip–i–n light emitting diodes (LEDs) by geometrical scaling of the injector size for p- and n- type carriers. Simulations and electrical and optical characteristics of our realized devices support our findings. Reducing the injector size decr

  20. High Efficacy Green LEDs by Polarization Controlled MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)


    Amazing performance in GaInN/GaN based LEDs has become possible by advanced epitaxial growth on a wide variety of substrates over the last decade. An immediate push towards product development and worldwide competition for market share have effectively reduced production cost and generated substantial primary energy savings on a worldwide scale. At all times of the development, this economic pressure forced very fundamental decisions that would shape huge industrial investment. One of those major aspects is the choice of epitaxial growth substrate. The natural questions are to what extend a decision for a certain substrate will limit the ultimate performance and to what extent, the choice of a currently more expensive substrate such as native GaN could overcome any of the remaining performance limitations. Therefore, this project has set out to explore what performance characteristic could be achieved under the utilization of bulk GaN substrate. Our work was guided by the hypotheses that line defects such as threading dislocations in the active region should be avoided and the huge piezoelectric polarization needs to be attenuated – if not turned off – for higher performing LEDs, particularly in the longer wavelength green and deep green portions of the visible spectrum. At their relatively lower performance level, deep green LEDs are a stronger indicator of relative performance improvements and seem particular sensitive to the challenges at hand.

  1. Highly efficient and reliable high power LEDs with patterned sapphire substrate and strip-shaped distributed current blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengjun [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yuan, Shu; Liu, Yingce [Quantum Wafer Inc., Foshan 528251 (China); Guo, L. Jay [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Liu, Sheng, E-mail: [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ding, Han [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TEM is used to characterize threading dislocation existing in GaN epitaxial layer. • Effect of threading dislocation on optical and electrical of LEDs is discussed. • Strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL is designed to improve current spreading performance of LEDs. - Abstract: We demonstrated that the improvement in optical and electrical performance of high power LEDs was achieved using cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) and strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} distributed current blocking layer (DCBL). We found through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation that densities of both the screw dislocation and edge dislocation existing in GaN epitaxial layer grown on PSS were much less than that of GaN epitaxial layer grown on flat sapphire substrate (FSS). Compared to LED grown on FSS, LED grown on PSS showed higher sub-threshold forward-bias voltage and lower reverse leakage current, resulting in an enhancement in device reliability. We also designed a strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL beneath a strip-shaped p-electrode, which prevents the current from being concentrated on regions immediately adjacent the strip-shaped p-electrode, thereby facilitating uniform current spreading into the active region. By implementing strip-shaped SiO{sub 2} DCBL, light output power of high power PSS-LED chip could be further increased by 13%.

  2. Heat Transfer Characteristics in High Power LED Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Chung


    Full Text Available This study uses the T3Ster transient thermal resistance measuring device to investigate the effects to heat transfer performances from different LED crystal grains, packaging methods and heat-sink substrates through the experimental method. The experimental parameters are six different types of LED modules that are made alternatively with the crystal grain structure, the die attach method and the carrying substrate. The crystal grain structure includes the lateral type, flip chip type and vertical type. The die attach method includes silver paste and the eutectic structure. The carrying substrates are aluminum oxide (Alumina and aluminum nitride (AIN ceramic substrates and metal core PCB (MCPCB. The experimental results show that, under the conditions of the same crystal grain and die attach method, the thermal resistance values for the AIN substrate and the Alumina substrate are 2.1K/W and 5.1K/W, respectively and the total thermal resistance values are 7.3K/W and 10.8K/W. Compared to the Alumina substrate, the AIN substrate can effectively lower the total thermal resistance value by 32.4%. This is because the heat transfer coefficient of the AIN substrate is higher than that of the Alumina substrate, thus effectively increasing its thermal conductivity. In addition, under the conditions of the same crystal grain and the same substrate, the packaging methods are using silver paste and the eutectic structure for die attach. Their thermal resistance values are 5.7K/W and 2.7K/W, respectively, with a variance of 3K/W. Comparisons of the crystal grain structure show that the thermal resistance for the flip chip type is lower than that of the traditional lateral type by 0.9K/W. This is because the light emitting layer of the flip chip crystal grain is closer to the heat-sink substrate, shortening the heat dissipation route, and thus lowering the thermal resistance value. For the total thermal resistance, the crystal grain structure has a lesser

  3. Characteristics of High-Efficient InGaN-Based White LED Lighting (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11311 TITLE: Characteristics of High-Efficient InGaN -Based White LED ...thru ADP011332 UNCLASSIFIED Characteristics of high-efficient InGaN -based white LED lighting Yuji Uchida’, Tatsumi Setomoto’, Tsunemasa Taguchi...characteristics of an efficient white LEDs lighting source, which is composed of cannon-ball type 10 cd-class InGaN -based white LEDs , are described. It is

  4. Computer Modeling and Simulation Evaluation of High Power LED Sources for Secondary Optical Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Hong-dong; WANG Ya-jun; DONG Ji-yang; CHEN Zhong


    Proposed and demonstrated is a novel computer modeling method for high power light emitting diodes(LEDs). It contains geometrical structure and optical property of high power LED as well as LED dies definition with its spatial and angular distribution. Merits and non-merits of traditional modeling methods when applied to high power LEDs based on secondary optical design are discussed. Two commercial high power LEDs are simulated using the proposed computer modeling method. Correlation coefficient is proposed to compare and analyze the simulation results and manufacturing specifications. The source model is precisely demonstrated by obtaining above 99% in correlation coefficient with different surface incident angle intervals.

  5. Integrated Automotive High-Power LED-Lighting Systems in 3D-MID Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, W.


    The growing energy consumption of lighting as well as rising luminous efficacies and -fluxes of high-power Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have contributed to the widespread use of LEDs in modern lighting systems. One of the most prominent users of the LED-technology is automotive (exterior) lighting.

  6. Highly-efficient, tunable green, phosphor-converted LEDs using a long-pass dichroic filter and a series of orthosilicate phosphors for tri-color white LEDs. (United States)

    Oh, Ji Hye; Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Hoo Keun; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Young Rag


    This study introduces a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF) on top of a phosphor-converted LED (pc-LED) packing associated with each corresponding tunable orthosilicate ((Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu) phosphor in order to fabricate tunable green pc-LEDs. These LPDF-capped green pc-LEDs provide luminous efficacies between 143–173 lm/W at 60 mA in a wavelength range between 515 and 560 nm. These tunable green pc-LEDs can replace green semiconductor-type III-V LEDs, which present challenges with respect to generating high luminous efficacy. We also introduce the highly-efficient tunable green pc-LEDs into tri-color white LED systems that combine an InGaN blue LED and green/red full down-converted pc-LEDs. The effect of peak wavelength in the tunable green pc-LEDs on the optical properties of a tri-color package white LED is analyzed to determine the proper wavelength of green color for tri-color white LEDs. The tri-color white LED provides excellent luminous efficacy (81.5–109 lm/W) and a good color rendering index (64–87) at 6500 K of correlated color temperature (CCT) with the peak wavelength of green pc-LEDs. The luminous efficacy of the LPDF-capped green monochromatic pc-LED and tri-color package with tunable green pc-LEDs can be increased by improving the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs and the conversion efficiency of green pc-LEDs.

  7. Multichip on Aluminum Metal Plate Technology for High Power LED Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choong-mo NAM; Mi-hee JI


    Multichip on Aluminum Metal Plate(MOAMP) technology with simple structure and low thermal resistance is developed for effective heat removal of Light Emitting Diode(LED) p-n junction and LED lighting module to have high reliability. The thermal resistance of LED modules was numerical and experimental. Thermal resistance from the junction to aluminum metal plate, considering input power of LED module using MOAMP technology, is 3.02 K/W, 3.23 K/W for the measured and calculated, respectively. We expect that the reported MOAMP technology with low thermal resistance will be a promising solution for high power LED lighting modules.

  8. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Ibbetson


    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  9. Veterans’ Health Care: Limited Progress Made to Address Concerns That Led to High Risk Designation (United States)


    VETERANS’ HEALTH CARE Limited Progress Made to Address Concerns That Led to High-Risk Designation Statement of Debra A...Progress Made to Address Concerns That Led to High-Risk Designation What GAO Found The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has taken action to...establishing a task force, working groups, and a governance structure for addressing the issues that led to the high-risk designation. VA provided

  10. High-power LEDs influence on germination rate of tomato seeds (United States)

    Tudora, Cătălina; Ristici, M.; Ristici, Esofina


    Artificial lighting for plants cultivation is an important factor that can determine the nutritional quality of vegetables. The improvement of quality is determined by the emission spectrum of LED, suitable for vegetables. This spectrum values must be inside the solar ones. So, by using red high-power LEDs we can supplement the conventional lighting (ex. HPS) and we can enrich the red light from the emission light. We have used a special device that has 200 high-power red LEDs, having emission wavelength in 640-670 nm range, which is presented below. Using red LEDs on tomato seeds, we can observe that the germination rate significantly increased.

  11. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.


    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique was developed for battery charging control which can increase the charging capacity by 78%. For high-efficiency lighting, the LED is directly driven by battery using a PWM discharge control to eliminate a DC/DC converter. Two solar-powered LED lighting systems (50W and 100W LED) were built. The long-term outdoor tests have shown that the loss of load probability for full-night lighting requirement is zero for 50W LED and 3.6% for 100W LED. © 2010 IEEE.

  12. Degradation Physics of High Power LEDs in Outdoor Environment and the Role of Phosphor in the degradation process


    Preetpal Singh; Cher Ming Tan


    A moisture- electrical ? temperature (MET) test is proposed to evaluate the outdoor reliability of high power blue LEDs, with and without phosphor, and to understand the degradation physics of LEDs under the environment of combined humidity, temperature and electrical stresses. The blue LEDs with phosphor will be the high power white LEDs. Scanning acoustic microscopy is used to examine the resulted delamination during this test for the LEDs. The degradation mechanisms of blue LEDs (LEDs with...

  13. High-power InGaN LEDs: present status and future prospects (United States)

    Hahn, B.; Weimar, A.; Peter, M.; Baur, J.


    The ThinGaN ® technology of OSRAM Opto semiconductors enables high power LEDs with wall plug efficiencies of currently up to 50%, enabling efficacies of > 100lm/W for white and green LEDs. The good scalability of the technology enables devices which deliver high luminous flux. The future limitations regarding efficacy of white LED can be estimated to be 150lm/W for high color rendering. Besides efficiency long term stability and high temperature capability are requirements for market adoption

  14. High quality GaN-based LED epitaxial layers grown in a homemade MOCVD system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Haibo; Wang Xiaoliang; Ran Junxue; Hu Guoxin; Zhang Lu; Xiao Hongling; Li Jing; Li Jinmin


    A homemade 7 × 2 inch MOCVD system is presented.With this system,high quality GaN epitaxial layers,InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and blue LED structural epitaxial layers have been successfully grown.The non-uniformity of undoped GaN epitaxial layers is as low as 2.86%.Using the LED structural epitaxial layers,blue LED chips with area of 350 × 350μm2 were fabricated.Under 20 mA injection current,the optical output power of the blue LED is 8.62 mW.

  15. Development of high-frame-rate LED panel and its applications for stereoscopic 3D display (United States)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Kajimoto, K.; Suyama, S.


    In this paper, we report development of a high-frame-rate LED display. Full-color images are refreshed at 480 frames per second. In order to transmit such a high frame-rate signal via conventional 120-Hz DVI, we have introduced a spatiotemporal mapping of image signal. A processor of LED image signal and FPGAs in LED modules have been reprogrammed so that four adjacent pixels in the input image are converted into successive four fields. The pitch of LED panel is 20 mm. The developed 480-fps LED display is utilized for stereoscopic 3D display by use of parallax barrier. The horizontal resolution of a viewed image decreases to one-half by the parallax barrier. This degradation is critical for LED because the pitch of LED displays is as large as tens of times of other flat panel displays. We have conducted experiments to improve quality of the viewed image through the parallax barrier. The improvement is based on interpolation by afterimages. It is shown that the HFR LED provides detailed afterimages. Furthermore, the HFR LED has been utilized for unconscious imaging, which provide a sensation of discovery of conscious visual information from unconscious images.

  16. High Efficiency SEPIC Converter For High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) System


    Qin, Yaxiao


    ABSTRACT This thesis presents an investigation into the characteristics of and driving methods for light emitting diode (LED) lamp system. A comprehensive overview on the lighting development is proposed. The characteristic of the light emitting diode (LED) lamp is described and the requirements of the ballast for the light emitting diode (LED) lamp are presented. Although LED lamps have longer lifetime than fluorescent lamps, the short lifetime limitation of LED driver imposed by ele...

  17. Phosphor-in-glass for high-powered remote-type white AC-LED. (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Wang, Bo; Xu, Ju; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Hui; Yu, Yunlong; Wang, Yuansheng


    The high-powered alternating current (AC) light-emitting diode (LED) (AC-LED), featuring low cost, high energy utilization efficiency, and long service life, will become a new economic growth point in the field of semiconductor lighting. However, flicker of AC-LED in the AC cycles is not healthy for human eyes, and therefore need to be restrained. Herein we report an innovation of persistent "phosphor-in-glass" (PiG) for the remote-type AC-LED, whose afterglow can be efficiently activated by the blue light. It is experimentally demonstrated that the afterglow decay of PiG in the microsecond range can partly compensate the AC time gap. Moreover, the substitution of inorganic glass for organic resins or silicones as the encapsulants would bring out several technological benefits to AC-LED, such as good heat-dissipation, low glare, and excellent physical/chemical stability.

  18. High-efficiency solar concentrator (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Dorman, J.


    A new type of solar concentrator is presented using liquid lenses and simple translational tracking mechanism. The concentrator achieves a 100:1 nominal concentration ratio and is compared in performance with a flat-plate collector having two sheets of glazing and non-selective coating. The results of the thermal analysis show that higher temperatures can be obtained with the concentrator than is possible with the non-concentrator flat-plate type. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency far exceeds that of the comparative flat-plate type for all operating conditions.

  19. Novel high refractive index, thermally conductive additives for high brightness white LEDs (United States)

    Hutchison, Richard Stephen

    In prior works the inclusion of nanoparticle fillers has typically been shown to increase the thermal conductivity or refractive index of polymer nanocomposites separately. High refractive index zirconia nanoparticles have already proved their merit in increasing the optical efficiency of encapsulated light emitting diodes. However, the thermal properties of zirconia-silicone nanocomposites have yet to be investigated. While phosphor-converted light emitting diodes are at the forefront of solid-state lighting technologies for producing white light, they are plagued by efficiency losses due to excessive heating at the semiconductor die and in and around the phosphor particles, as well as photon scattering losses in the phosphor layer. It would then be of great interest if the high refractive index nanoparticles were found to both be capable of increasing the refractive index, thus reducing the optical scattering, and also the thermal conductivity, channeling more heat away from the LED die and phosphors, mitigating efficiency losses from heat. Thermal conductance measurements on unfilled and nanoparticle loaded silicone samples were conducted to quantify the effect of the zirconia nanoparticle loading on silicone nanocomposite thermal conductivity. An increase in thermal conductivity from 0.27 W/mK to 0.49 W/mK from base silicone to silicone with 33.5 wt% zirconia nanoparticles was observed. This trend closely mirrored a basic rule of mixtures prediction, implying a further enhancement in thermal conductivity could be achieved at higher nanoparticle loadings. The optical properties of transparency and light extraction efficiency of these composites were also investigated. While overall the zirconia nanocomposite showed good transparency, there was a slight decrease at the shorter wavelengths with increasing zirconia content. For longer wavelength LEDs, such as green or red, this might not matter, but phosphor-converted white LEDs use a blue LED as the photon source

  20. Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Jin-Ping [Satellite Venture Business Laboratory, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Sato, Hisao; Mizobuchi, Takashi; Morioka, Kenji; Kawano, Shunsuke; Muramoto, Yoshihiko; Sato, Daisuke; Sakai, Shiro [Nitride Semiconductor Co. Ltd., Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan); Lee, Young-Bae; Ohno, Yasuo [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)


    Design and fabrication of monolithic blue LED series arrays that can be operated under high ac voltage are described. Several LEDs, such as 3, 7, and 20, are connected in series and in parallel to meet ac operation. The chip size of a single device is 150 {mu}m x 120 {mu}m and the total size is 1.1 mm x 1 mm for a 40(20+20) LED array. Deep dry etching was performed as device isolation. Two-layer interconnection and air bridge are utilized to connect the devices in an array. The monolithic series array exhibit the expected operation function under dc and ac bias. The output power and forward voltage are almost proportional to LED numbers connected in series. On-wafer measurement shows that the output power is 40 mW for 40(20+20) LED array under ac 72 V. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. A high efficiency and power factor, segmented linear constant current LED driver (United States)

    Yongyuan, Li; Wei, Guo; Zhangming, Zhu


    A high efficiency, high power factor, and linear constant current LED driver based on adaptive segmented linear architecture is presented. When the input voltage varied, the proposed LED driver automatically switched over LED strings according to the segmented LED voltage drop, which increased the LED lighting time. The efficiency and power factor are improved, while the system design is simplified by this control scheme. Without the usage of electrolytic capacitor and magnetic components, the proposed driver possesses advantages of smaller size, longer lifetime and lower cost over others. The proposed driver is implemented in 0.8 μm 5 V/40 V HVCMOS process, which occupies an active area of 820 × 920 μm2. The measured results show that the average value of the internal reference voltage is 500 ± 7 mV, with a standard deviation of only 4.629 mV, thus LED current can be set accurately. Under 220 V root mean square 50 Hz utility voltage and the number ratio of the three LED strings being 47 : 17 : 16, the system can realize a high power factor of 0.974 and power conversion efficiency of 93.4%. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61322405, 61306044, 61376033).

  2. Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods (United States)

    Gu, Yimin; Narendran, Nadarajah; Dong, Tianming; Wu, Huiying


    Dimming is an important and necessary feature for light sources used in general lighting applications. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power colored and pc-white LEDs under continuous current reduction (CCR) and pulse-width modulation (PWM) dimming schemes. For InGaN-based blue, green, and pc-white LEDs, the peak wavelength shifts were in opposite directions for the two dimming schemes. The peak wavelength showed a blue shift with increased current, most likely due to band filling and QCSE dominated effects. InGaN LEDs exhibited red shifts with increased duty cycle, which is dominated by junction heat. AlInGaP red LEDs show mainly thermal-induced red shift with increased current or duty cycle. In addition, the luminous efficacy was always higher for the CCR dimming scheme at dimmed levels, irrespective of the LED type. Keywords: Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), white LEDs, mixed-color white LEDs, pulse-width modulation (PWM), continuous current reduction (CCR), peak wavelength shift, luminous efficacy

  3. Measuring the temperature of high-luminous exitance surfaces with infrared thermography in LED applications (United States)

    Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah


    Recently, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems have become popular due to their increased system performance. LED lighting system performance is affected by heat; therefore, it is important to know the temperature of a target surface or bulk medium in the LED system. In-situ temperature measurements of a surface or bulk medium using intrusive methods cause measurement errors. Typically, thermocouples are used in these applications to measure the temperatures of the various components in an LED system. This practice leads to significant errors, specifically when measuring surfaces with high-luminous exitance. In the experimental study presented in this paper, an infrared camera was used as an alternative to temperature probes in measuring LED surfaces with high-luminous exitance. Infrared thermography is a promising method because it does not respond to the visible radiation spectrum in the range of 0.38 to 0.78 micrometers. Usually, infrared thermography equipment is designed to operate either in the 3 to 5 micrometer or the 7 to 14 micrometer wavelength bands. To characterize the LED primary lens, the surface emissivity of the LED phosphor surface, the temperature dependence of the surface emissivity, the temperature of the target surface compared to the surrounding temperature, the field of view of the target, and the aim angle to the target surface need to be investigated, because these factors could contribute towards experimental errors. In this study, the effects of the above-stated parameters on the accuracy of the measured surface temperature were analyzed and reported.

  4. High-power UV-LED degradation: Continuous and cycled working condition influence (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, F. J.; Nuñez, N.; Vazquez, M.; Segura-Antunez, C.; González-Posadas, V.


    High-power (HP) UV-LEDs can replace UV lamps for real-time fluoro-sensing applications by allowing portable and autonomous systems. However, HP UV-LEDs are not a mature technology, and there are still open issues regarding their performance evolution over time. This paper presents a reliability study of 3 W UV-LEDs, with special focus on LED degradation for two working conditions: continuous and cycled (30 s ON and 30 s OFF). Accelerated life tests are developed to evaluate the influence of temperature and electrical working conditions in high-power LEDs degradation, being the predominant failure mechanism the degradation of the package. An analysis that includes dynamic thermal and optical HP UV-LED measurements has been performed. Static thermal and stress simulation analysis with the finite element method (FEM) identifies the causes of package degradation. Accelerated life test results prove that HP UV-LEDs working in cycled condition have a better performance than those working in continuous condition.

  5. InGaN micro-LED-pillar as the building block for high brightness emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao


    In summary, we confirmed the improved electrical and optical characteristics, with reduced efficiency droop in InGaN μLED-pillars when these devices were scaled down in size. We demonstrated that strain relief contributed to further improvement in EQE characteristics in small InGaN μLED-pillars (D < 50 μm), apart from the current spreading effect. The μLED-pillar can be deployed as the building block for large effective-area, high brightness emitter. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Design a light pattern of multiple concentric circles for LED fishing lamps using Fourier series and an energy mapping method. (United States)

    Shen, S C; Li, J S; Huang, M C


    Fourier series and an energy mapping method were used in this study to design a lens that produces a light pattern of multiple concentric circles (LPMCC) for a light-emitting diode (LED) fishing lamp. Fourier series were used to represent the light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) of the LPMCC light pattern. Energy mapping involves performing angular energy mapping based on the LIDCs of an LED light source and LPMCC to design a freeform lens. Type I and Type II LPMCC lenses were designed according to the phototaxis behavior of fish to create a LPMCC light pattern of interleaving light-dark zones that attracts fish shoals to stay in an area for a long period. The experimental results indicated that, in comparing the LIDCs of the Type I and II lenses with the respective simulation values, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) value reached 96%. According to a 24-hour observation of the phototaxis of Poecilia reticulata to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed light pattern to attract fish, when a fish shoal was habituated to a light source that emitted constant illumination light, it gradually moved away from the intense light zone and hovered around the junction of the light and dark zones. In the future, the design used in this study can be applied to LED fishing lamps to replace traditional fishing lamps.

  7. Heat dissipation performance of a high-brightness LED package assembly using high-thermal conductivity filler. (United States)

    Yung, K C; Liem, H; Choy, H S


    This paper presents a thermal analysis and experimental validation of natural convective heat transfer of a high-brightness light-emitting diode (LED) package assembly. The substrate materials used in the LED package assembly were filled and doped using boron nitride (BN) filler. The thermal conductivity of the BN-filled substrate was measured. The temperature distribution and heat flow of the LED package were assessed by thermal profile measurement using an infrared (IR) camera and thermocouples. In addition, the heat transfer process of the LED package assembly in natural convection was also simulated using the computational fluid dynamics method. The optical performance of the LED package was monitored and investigated with various filler contents. The heat conduction mechanism in the substrate was analyzed. IR thermogram showed that the BN-doped substrate could effectively lower the surface temperature of the LED package by 21.5°C compared with the traditional FR4 substrate. According to the IESNA LM 80 lifetime testing method, reduction in LED temperature can prolong the LED's lifetime by 19,000 h. The optical performance of the LED package assembly was also found to be improved significantly in lighting power by 10%. As a result, the overall heat dissipation capability of the LED package to the surrounding is enhanced, which improves the LED's efficacy.

  8. Determining contrast sensitivity functions for monochromatic light emitted by high-brightness LEDs (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Vasudha; Narendran, Nadarajah; Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Raghavan, Ramesh; Boyce, Peter


    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is becoming the choice for many lighting applications that require monochromatic light. However, one potential problem with LED-based lighting systems is uneven luminance patterns. Having a uniform luminance distribution is more important in some applications. One example where LEDs are becoming a viable alternative and luminance uniformity is an important criterion is backlighted monochromatic signage. The question is how much uniformity is required for these applications. Presently, there is no accepted metric that quantifies luminance uniformity. A recent publication proposed a method based on digital image analysis to quantify beam quality of reflectorized halogen lamps. To be able to employ such a technique to analyze colored beams generated by LED systems, it is necessary to have contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) for monochromatic light produced by LEDs. Several factors including the luminance, visual field size, and spectral power distribution of the light affect the CSFs. Although CSFs exist for a variety of light sources at visual fields ranging from 2 degrees to 20 degrees, CSFs do not exist for red, green, and blue light produced by high-brightness LEDs at 2-degree and 10-degree visual fields and at luminances typical for backlighted signage. Therefore, the goal of the study was to develop a family of CSFs for 2-degree and 10-degree visual fields illuminated by narrow-band LEDs at typical luminances seen in backlighted signs. The details of the experiment and the results are presented in this manuscript.

  9. Injection molding of high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Christian; Röbig, Malte [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), RWTH Aachen University, Pontstraße 49, 52062 Aachen (Germany)


    Light Emitting Diodes (LED) conquer the growing global market of lighting technologies. Due to their advantages, they are increasingly used in consumer products, in lighting applications in the home and in the mobility sector as well as in industrial applications. Particularly, with regard to the increasing use of high-power LED (HP-LED) the materials in the surrounding area of the light emitting semiconductor chip are of utmost importance. While the materials behind the semiconductor chip are optimized for maximum heat dissipation, the materials currently used for the encapsulation of the semiconductor chip (primary optics) and the secondary optics encounter their limits due to the high temperatures. In addition certain amounts of blue UV radiation degrade the currently used materials such as epoxy resins or polyurethanes for primary optics. In the context of an ongoing joint research project with various partners from the industry, an innovative manufacturing method for high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) is analyzed at the Institut of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen. The aim of this project is to utilize the material-specific advantages of high transparent LSR, especially the excellent high temperature resistance and the great freedom in design. Therefore, a high integrated injection molding process is developed. For the production of combined LED primary and secondary optics a LED board is placed in an injection mold and overmolded with LSR. Due to the integrated process and the reduction of subcomponents like the secondary optics the economics of the production process can be improved significantly. Furthermore combined LED optics offer an improved effectiveness, because there are no losses of the light power at the transition of the primary and secondary optics.

  10. The High-efficiency LED Driver for Visible Light Communication Applications (United States)

    Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lee, Yu-Chen; Lai, Jyun-Liang; Yu, Chueh-Hao; Huang, Li Ren; Yang, Chia-Yen


    This paper presents a LED driver for VLC. The main purpose is to solve the low data rate problem used to be in switching type LED driver. The GaN power device is proposed to replace the traditional silicon power device of switching LED driver for the purpose of increasing switching frequency of converter, thereby increasing the bandwidth of data transmission. To achieve high efficiency, the diode-connected GaN power transistor is utilized to replace the traditional ultrafast recovery diode used to be in switching type LED driver. This work has been experimentally evaluated on 350-mA output current. The results demonstrate that it supports the data of PWM dimming level encoded in the PPM scheme for VLC application. The experimental results also show that system’s efficiency of 80.8% can be achieved at 1-Mb/s data rate.

  11. Fabrication of High-power White LEDs and White Light Uniformity Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin-mei; RAO Hai-bo; HU Yue; LI Jun-fei; HOU Bin


    As the blue and yellow lights are complementary colors,a blue InGaN LED chip is coated by a yellow phosphor film to generate white light based on luminescence conversion mechanism.The emitted light of a blue LED is used as the primary source for exciting fluorescent material such as cerium doped yttrium aluminum garnet with the formula Y3Al5O12:Ce3+(in short:YAG:Ce3+).The matching of the spectrum of the blue LED chips and the YAG:Ce3+ yellow phosphor is studied to improve the conversion efficiency.The packaging methods and manufacturing processes for high-power single-chip-white-LEDs are introduced.The uniformity of the output white light is investigated.Based on the characteristics of the high-power white LEDs,some approaches and processes are suggested to improve the light uniformity when they are fabricated.The effectiveness of those approaches on the improvement of LEDs is discussed in detail and some interesting conclusions are also presented.

  12. Testing a high-power LED based light source for hyperspectral imaging microscopy (United States)

    Klomkaew, Phiwat; Mayes, Sam A.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.


    Our lab has worked to develop high-speed hyperspectral imaging systems that scan the fluorescence excitation spectrum for biomedical imaging applications. Hyperspectral imaging can be used in remote sensing, medical imaging, reaction analysis, and other applications. Here, we describe the development of a hyperspectral imaging system that comprised an inverted Nikon Eclipse microscope, sCMOS camera, and a custom light source that utilized a series of high-power LEDs. LED selection was performed to achieve wavelengths of 350-590 nm. To reduce scattering, LEDs with low viewing angles were selected. LEDs were surface-mount soldered and powered by an RCD. We utilized 3D printed mounting brackets to assemble all circuit components. Spectraradiometric calibration was performed using a spectrometer (QE65000, Ocean Optics) and integrating sphere (FOIS-1, Ocean Optics). Optical output and LED driving current were measured over a range of illumination intensities. A normalization algorithm was used to calibrate and optimize the intensity of the light source. The highest illumination power was at 375 nm (3300 mW/cm2), while the lowest illumination power was at 515, 525, and 590 nm (5200 mW/cm2). Comparing the intensities supplied by each LED to the intensities measured at the microscope stage, we found there was a great loss in power output. Future work will focus on using two of the same LEDs to double the power and finding more LED and/or laser diodes and chips around the range. This custom hyperspectral imaging system could be used for the detection of cancer and the identification of biomolecules.

  13. Increase of energy efficiency in horticultural tissue culture with high-power-LED lighting systems; Energieeffizienzsteigerung pflanzlicher In-vitro-Kulturverfahren mit Hochleistungs-LED-Belichtungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornwasser, Thorsten


    The lighting of tissue cultures is one of the main cost factors in growing rooms due to the high energy need. A lighting system with high-power light-emitting diodes (HP-LEDs) was tested as an alternative to the conventionally used fluorescent tubes. Therefore the HP-LED-types royal-blue, red, and cool white were used to create different spectral outputs. The photon flux yield, level of efficiency, and spectral shift of the single HP-LEDs were measured beforehand at different operating conditions (i.e. increasing current and junction temperature). The energy efficiency of the HP-LED lighting system was determined at 0.83 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} with the same shelf board distance (300 mm) and average PPFD on the exposed surface as compared to the control lighting system. The energy efficiency of the fluorescent lighting system could reach a maximum value of 0.68 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1}. In addition to the reduced energy needs, HP-LED lighting systems reduce the need for cooling energy in culture rooms to regulate the room temperature. HP-LED lighting systems allow the reduction of the shelf board distance due to the small mass volume of LEDs and diminished radiant heat output towards the plant. The lower shelf board distance led to an additional increase of the energy efficiency up to 1.16 {mu}mol W{sup -1}s{sup -1} at a distance of 210 mm. Simultaneously the PPFD distribution was more regular than under the exposure with a fluorescent tube. Beside the increase of energy efficiency, HP-LEDs facilitate the control of the spectral composition. The spectral output can be adjusted to the plants' needs and thereby permit a more optimal production and influence the plant morphology (Nhut und Na, 2010; Morrow, 2008). Various plant tissue cultures and their response to different spectral compositions were investigated with the developed HP-LED lighting system. For none of the tested cultures could a preference for one of the spectral compositions be determined

  14. Experimental study on high-power LEDs integrated with micro heat pipe (United States)

    LI, Cong-ming; Zhou, Chuan-peng; Luo, Yi; Hamidnia, Mohammad; Wang, Xiao-dong; You, Bo


    Micro heat pipe (MHP) is applied to implement the efficient heat transfer of light emitting diode (LED) device. The fabrication of MHP is based on micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) technique, 15 micro grooves were etched on one side of silicon (Si) substrate, which was then packaged with aluminum heat sink to form an MHP. On the other side of Si substrate, three LED chips were fixed by die bonding. Then experiments were performed to study the thermal performance of this LED device. The results show that the LED device with higher filling ratio is better when the input power is 1.0 W; with the increase of input power, the optimum filling ratio changes from 30% to 48%, and the time reaching stable state is reduced; when the input power is equal to 2.5 W, only the LED device with filling ratio of 48% can work normally. So integrating MHP into high-power LED device can implement the effective control of junction temperature.

  15. Prognostics-based qualification of high-power white LEDs using Lévy process approach (United States)

    Yung, Kam-Chuen; Sun, Bo; Jiang, Xiaopeng


    Due to their versatility in a variety of applications and the growing market demand, high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted considerable attention. Reliability qualification testing is an essential part of the product development process to ensure the reliability of a new LED product before its release. However, the widely used IES-TM-21 method does not provide comprehensive reliability information. For more accurate and effective qualification, this paper presents a novel method based on prognostics techniques. Prognostics is an engineering technology predicting the future reliability or determining the remaining useful lifetime (RUL) of a product by assessing the extent of deviation or degradation from its expected normal operating conditions. A Lévy subordinator of a mixed Gamma and compound Poisson process is used to describe the actual degradation process of LEDs characterized by random sporadic small jumps of degradation degree, and the reliability function is derived for qualification with different distribution forms of jump sizes. The IES LM-80 test results reported by different LED vendors are used to develop and validate the qualification methodology. This study will be helpful for LED manufacturers to reduce the total test time and cost required to qualify the reliability of an LED product.

  16. Analysis of heat transfer of loop heat pipe used to cool high power LED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel loop heat pipe(LHP)cooling device for high power LED is developed.The thermal capabilities, including startup performance,temperature uniformity and thermal resistance of the loop heat pipe under different heat loads and incline angles have been investigated experimentally.The obtained results indicate that the thermal resistance of the heat pipe heat sink is in the range of 0.19―3.1 K/W,the temperature uniformity in the evaporator is controlled within 1.5℃,and the junction temperature of high power LED can be controlled steadily under 100℃for a heat load of 100 W.

  17. Very High Frequency Resonant DC/DC Converters for LED Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper presents a very high frequency DC/DC converter for LED lighting. Several resonant topologies are compared and their usability discussed. At the end the resonant SEPIC converter is chosen based on the achievable power density and total bill of material. Simulations of a 51 MHz converter...

  18. Design and implementation of a high dimming ratio LED drive controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐孝如; 吴晓波; 赵梦恋; 严晓浪


    This paper presents a high dimming ratio light emitting diode (LED) drive controller chip with digital mode dimming (DMD). The chip is composed of a boost power converter and a dimming control block. A novel constant on time (COT) control strategy is proposed for boost converter to achieve high dimming ratio. In addition, a fast enough load transient response of the converter power stage ensures its high dimming ratio. The COT control circuit operates mainly based on two current-capacitor timers and a finite state machine (FSM). The LED drive con-troller chip is designed and fabricated in 1.5μm bipolar CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process with a die area of 1.31 × 1.43 mm2. Experimental results show that the proposed LED drive system works well. And, as expected, the minimum LED dimming on time of 1.0μs and the corresponding dimming ratio of 1000 : 1 at 1 kHz dimming frequency are successfully achieved.

  19. Semi-polar GaN materials technology for high IQE green LEDs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleske, Daniel; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary H; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Fini, Paul


    The goal of this NETL funded program was to improve the IQE in green (and longer wavelength) nitride- based LEDs structures by using semi-polar GaN planar orientations for InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) growth. These semi-polar orientations have the advantage of significantly reducing the piezoelectric fields that distort the QW band structure and decrease electron-hole overlap. In addition, semipolar surfaces potentially provide a more open surface bonding environment for indium incorporation, thus enabling higher indium concentrations in the InGaN MQW. The goal of the proposed work was to select the optimal semi-polar orientation and explore wafer miscuts around this orientation that produced the highest quantum efficiency LEDs. At the end of this program we had hoped to have MQWs active regions at 540 nm with an IQE of 50% and an EQE of 40%, which would be approximately twice the estimated current state-of-the-art.

  20. Design and development of a high-concentration photovoltaic concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, R C


    The design and development of a high concentration photovoltaic concentrator module is discussed. The design concept described herein incorporates a curved groove domed Fresnel lens, a high concentration etched multiple vertical junction (EMVJ) solar cell and a passively cooled direct-bonded copper cell mount all packaged in a plastic module. Two seven inch diameter 1200x domed Fresnel lenses were fabricated using single point diamond turning technology. Testing at both GE and Sandia confirmed optical transmission efficiencies of over 83%. Samples of the latest available EMVJ cells were mounted and installed, with a domed Fresnel lens, into a prototype module. Subsequent testing demonstrated net lens-cell efficiencies of 10 to 13%. As a result of this program, salient conclusions have been formulated as to this technology.

  1. Thermal performance of direct illumination high-power LED backlight units with different assembling structures (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Cen, Jiwen; Cao, Wenjiong; Jiang, Fangming


    This work presents a detailed study about the heat dissipation performance of direct illumination high-power light emitting diode (LED) backlight units with two different assembling structures, one of which is traditional and the other is new. The traditional structure, referred to by structure-1, consists of multiple LEDs being directly welded to the printed circuit board (PCB), where the PCB is used as a physical support, an electrical connector and also as a heat dissipation medium. The new structure, referred to by structure-2, places the LEDs directly on the cooling boss; in this case the PCB plays mainly the role of an electrical connector. Thermal characteristics related to the two backlight units are analyzed in terms of thermal resistance network, numerically simulated and experimentally tested. The obtained results by different methods accord with each other reasonably well and all indicate that both structures can meet the requirements of heat dissipation for backlight units at an ambient temperature of 30 °C. Among the two structures, the LED junction temperature of structure-1 backlight unit is 7-8 °C higher and the temperature distribution in the back plane of the backlight unit is also more uniform.

  2. The improvement of photocatalytic processes: Design of a photoreactor using high-power LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Khademalrasool


    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to survey the benefits of a well-designed photoreactor containing just 6 ultraviolet (UV high power light emitting diodes (HPLEDs; the power and wavelength of each UV HPLED are 1 W and 365 nm, respectively, the latter being an efficient source for photocatalytic studies. Although the experiment with the 365-nm LEDs is reported here, other LEDs were predicted for conducting similar experiments including green photocatalytic ones. We installed diodes with respect to the luminescence intensity distribution curves (LIDCs or intensity patterns. Then, in order to compare the efficiency of the UV-HPLEDs of the HP-LED photoreactor (HPLED-PhR with that of traditional UV lamps which are extensively used in photocatalytic processes, a set of UV HPLEDs was designed and made up. Next, the performance of HPLED-PhR was compared with that of a traditional fluorescent lamp photoreactor (FL-PhR. As a typical photocatalytic experiment, Zinc Oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method and used as photocatalyst for purification of water polluted with the reactive blue dye (RB, under UV irradiation in two photoreactors. The results showed that the rate of photocatalytic reaction under the UV-LEDs was two times greater than the rate under the traditional fluorescent UV lamps, while both electrical power consumption and manufacturing cost of the HPLED-PhR were less than a quarter of them for the FL-PhR.

  3. Analysis of junction temperatures in high-power GaN-based LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We presented the analysis of the incomplete conduction in bonding medium in high power GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) packages. A numerical study was carried out with parametric model to understand the junction temperature variation due to bonding medium defects. Transient thermal measurement was performed to evaluate LED’s junction temperature. Thermal resistance from chip to lead frame was 20 K/W in our sample LED. It was suggested that only 60% of the surface area of the bonding medium was involved in the thermal conduction. This result was also supported by the SEM image. Blocking of thermal path induced by ineffective area of the bonding medium was regarded as a factor of its thermal resistance. Thus, the effective area of the bonding medium should be included in the FEM model and considered as another important factor in high power LED’s thermal management.

  4. Reflective Optics Design for an LED High Beam Headlamp of Motorbikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ge


    Full Text Available We propose a reflective optics design for an LED motorbike high beam lamp. We set the measuring screen as an elliptical zone and divide it into many small lattices and divide the spatial angle of the LED source into many parts and make relationships between them. According to the conservation law of energy and the Snell’s law, the reflector is generated by freeform optics design method. Then the optical system is simulated by Monte Carlo method using ASAP software. Light pattern of simulation could meet the standard. The high beam headlamp is finally fabricated and assembled into a physical object. Experiment results can fully comply with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE vehicle regulations R113 revision 2 (Class C.

  5. High-Power Warm-White Hybrid LED Package for Illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soer, Wouter


    In this project, an integrated warm-white hybrid light engine was developed. The hybrid approach involves combining phosphor-converted off-white InGaN LEDs and direct-emitting red AlInGaP LEDs in a single light engine to achieve high efficacy together with high color rendering index. We developed and integrated technology improvements in InGaN and AlInGaP die technology, phosphor technology, package architecture and encapsulation, to realize a hybrid warm-white LED package with an efficacy of 140 lm/W at a correlated color temperature of 3000K and a color rendering index of 90, measured under representative operating conditions. This efficacy is 26% higher than the best warm-white LEDs of similar specification that are commercially available at the end of the project. Since the InGaN- and AlInGaP-based LEDs used in the hybrid engine show different behavior as a function of current and temperature, a control system needs to be in place to ensure a stable color point over all operating conditions. In this project, we developed an electronic control circuit that is fully integrated into the light engine in such a way that the module can simply be driven by a conventional single-channel driver. The integrated control circuit uses a switch-mode boost converter topology to control the LED drive currents based on the temperature and the input current of the light engine. A color control performance of 5 SDCM was demonstrated, and improvement to 3 SDCM is considered well within reach. The combination of high efficacy and ease of integration with existing single-channel drivers is expected to facilitate the adoption of the hybrid technology and accelerate the energy savings associated with solid-state lighting. In the product commercialization plan, downlights and indirect-lit troffers have been selected as the first target applications for this product concept. Fully functional integrated prototypes have been developed for both applications, and the business case

  6. Degradation of phosphor-in-glass encapsulants with various phosphor types for high power LEDs (United States)

    Iqbal, Fauzia; Kim, Sunil; Kim, Hyungsun


    In order to replace conventional silicone-based phosphor light emitting diodes (LEDs), inorganic color converters with high thermal stabilities and transparencies, i.e., phosphors-in-glass (PiGs), have been investigated as encapsulants for high-power LEDs. In this paper, the effect of various types of phosphors, i.e., LuAG (green, Lu3Al5O12:Ce3+), silicate (yellow, Sr2SiO4:Eu2+), CASN (red, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+), and oxynitride (yellow, (Sr,Ba) Si2O2N2:Eu2+), on the reliability/degradation of the remote PiG encapsulants is explored for high power LEDs. For this purpose, a glass composition (SiO2-B2O3-ZnO-Na2O) was separately mixed with each type of phosphor and then sintered at appropriate temperatures to make the corresponding PiG. The reliabilities of the formed PiGs were evaluated by standard accelerated-aging tests (85 °C/85% RH) for 1000 h. Luminosity losses and shifts in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the PiGs were measured before and after aging. Thermal, and moisture-induced quenching behavior was also analyzed. The surface of PiGs with different phosphors degraded differently, possibly because of structural incompatibilities between the glass matrix and phosphor type. Determining the compatibility of the glass composition with the type of phosphor used is therefore important in order to ensure the long-term stabilities of encapsulants for use in commercial LEDs.

  7. High dynamic grayscale lithography with an LED-based micro-image stepper (United States)

    Eckstein, Hans-Christoph; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Leitel, Robert; Stumpf, Marko; Schleicher, Philipp; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas


    We developed a novel LED projection based direct write grayscale lithography system for the generation of optical surface profiles such as micro-lenses, diffractive elements, diffusors, and micro freeforms. The image formation is realized by a LCoS micro-display which is illuminated by a 405 nm UV High Power LED. The image on the display can be demagnified from factors 5x to 100x with an exchangeable lens. By controlling exposure time and LED power, the presented technique enables a highly dynamic dosage control for the exposure of h-line sensitive photo resist. In addition, the LCoS micro-display allows for an intensity control within the micro-image which is particularly advantageous to eliminate surface profile errors from stitching and limited homogeneity from LED illumination. Together with an accurate calibration of the resist response this leads to a superior low surface error of realized profiles below area of 500 × 500 mm2 with a positioning accuracy of 80°. Another benefit of the approach is a patterning speed up to 100 cm2/h, which allows fabricating large-scale optics and microstructures in an acceptable time. We present the setup and show examples of micro-structures to demonstrate the performance of the system, namely a refractive freeform array, where the RMS surface deviation does not exceed 0.2% of the total structure depth of 75 μm. Furthermore, we show that this exposure tool is suitable to generate diffractive optical elements as well as freeform optics and arrays with a high aspect ratio and structure depth showing a superior optical performance. Lastly we demonstrate a multi-level diffraction grating on a curved substrate.

  8. High-performance epoxy casting resins for SMD-LED packaging (United States)

    Bogner, Georg; Debray, Alexandra; Hoehn, Klaus


    In order to come up with high volume SMD-LED production encompassing 1.9 billion devices for current fiscal year we did basic exploratory work to establish structure-processing- property relations for robust epoxy casting resin packages with identical ppm level of one. Bisphenol A-based epoxy casting resins (DGEBA) with acidic ester modified Hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) hardeners using strictly controlled high-grade raw materials were formulated and thermally transferred to highly transparent polyester networks. For 1 mm thick samples transparency in the 400 to 800 nm region is above 90%. Thermal aging tests for 6 weeks at 120 degrees Celsius reveal only slight discoloration with a color distance of 2. To avoid significant light losses within the LED operating life of 100,000 hrs stress on mechanically sensitive light-emitting chips was reduced by matching glass transition temperature Tg and E-modulus to 115 degrees Celsius and 2,800 MPa, respectively. Total chloride content below 1,000 ppm imply low corrosion potential. Further, resin composition, epoxy-hardener mixing ratio as well as curing profile were adapted to materialize fast curing for demand quantities while introducing effective low stress moieties in the final structure. Low internal stress, superior thermal shock and crack resistance were derived from supreme fracture toughness: KIC and GIC values were 1.350 MPam1/2 and 560 J/m2. With favorable water absorption behavior LED-packages withstand all soldering processes including TTW (through the wave) soldering. Thus, SMD-LEDs fulfill electronic industry standard JEDEC LEVEL 2.

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental research of the integrated high-power LED radiator (United States)

    Xiang, J. H.; Zhang, C. L.; Gan, Z. J.; Zhou, C.; Chen, C. G.; Chen, S.


    The thermal management has become an urgent problem to be solved with the increasing power and the improving integration of the LED (light emitting diode) chip. In order to eliminate the contact resistance of the radiator, this paper presented an integrated high-power LED radiator based on phase-change heat transfer, which realized the seamless connection between the vapor chamber and the cooling fins. The radiator was optimized by combining the numerical simulation and the experimental research. The effects of the chamber diameter and the parameters of fin on the heat dissipation performance were analyzed. The numerical simulation results were compared with the measured values by experiment. The results showed that the fin thickness, the fin number, the fin height and the chamber diameter were the factors which affected the performance of radiator from primary to secondary.

  10. High-output LED-based light engine for profile lighting fixtures with high color uniformity using freeform reflectors. (United States)

    Gadegaard, Jesper; Jensen, Thøger Kari; Jørgensen, Dennis Thykjær; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Søndergaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pedersen, Kjeld


    In the stage lighting and entertainment market, light engines (LEs) for lighting fixtures are often based on high-intensity discharge (HID) bulbs. Switching to LED-based light engines gives possibilities for fast switching, additive color mixing, a longer lifetime, and potentially, more energy-efficient systems. The lumen output of a single LED is still not sufficient to replace an HID source in high-output profile fixtures, but combining multiple LEDs can create an LE with a similar output, but with added complexity. This paper presents the results of modeling and testing such a light engine. Custom ray-tracing software was used to design a high-output red, green and blue LED-based light engine with twelve CBT-90 LEDs using a dual-reflector principle. The simulated optical system efficiency was 0.626 with a perfect (R=1) reflector coating for light delivered on a target surface through the entire optical system. A profile lighting fixture prototype was created, and provided an output of 6744 lumen and an efficiency of 0.412. The lower efficiency was mainly due to a non-optimal reflector coating, and the optimized design is expected to reach a significantly higher efficiency.

  11. Low-noise moisture meter with high-speed LED techniques (United States)

    Aikio, Rami; Lindström, Hannu; Suopajärvi, Pekka; Malinen, Jouko; Mäntylä, Markku


    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can provide inexpensive, rapid and contact-free chemical content measurements for on-line, hand-held and laboratory applications. Traditionally multiwavelength NIR analyzers are based on incandescent lamp light sources with rotating filter wheels, even though designs relying on lamp technology and moving parts mean larger size, require frequent maintenance and eventually limit measurement speed of the system. Today, optical power and available wavelength range of LEDs enable their use in chemical content analyzers. In this publication, a paper moisture meter with high speed LED techniques is presented. A prototype developed at VTT utilizes an extended InGaAs detector to measure diffuse reflection at four NIR wavelengths ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 μm. Source LED currents are amplitude modulated with fixed sinusoidal frequencies. Optical signals at each wavelength are demodulated from the detector signal using real-time digital lock-in detection method on an FPGA. Moisture content is calculated and displayed on the embedded platform. The design allows very high speed operation, where the result is updated every 1 ms. Performance of the prototype system was studied by measuring a set of known sealed paper samples. Paper moisture measurement accuracy was 0.14, repeatability 0.01 and 2σ noise 0.04 moisture percent. Laboratory tests showed that channel crosstalk after detection is below background noise level. The measured signal-to-noise ratios per channel were 70 - 85 dB when all LEDs were on. The overall performance equals the level of incandescent lamp based on-line moisture meters currently in use in paper mill and process automation. The developed system forms a good basis also for other content measurements.

  12. Cooling of High-Power LED Lamp Using a Commercial Paraffin Wax (United States)

    Zmywaczyk, J.; Zbińkowski, P.; Smogór, H.; Olejnik, A.; Koniorczyk, P.


    Commercial paraffin wax used by Bolsius Nederland B.V. for manufacturing various kinds of candles was applied as a phase-change material (PCM) for cooling a 28 W high-power light emitting diode (LED) panel during its operation. The main problem arising during operation of an LED is thermal management. According to the manufacturer's datasheet specifications (BioSolution Ltd., the operating temperature range for the LED street lamp UL28W is (-30 {°}C) to (+40 {°}C). The object of the present study was an LED panel containing 28 pieces of high-power 1W LEDs connected in series (4 LEDs in each of the 7 rows) mounted on an aluminum plate of dimensions 80 mm by 135 mm. The tested aluminum plate was placed in a block made of aluminum with a hollow compartment containing Bolsius paraffin wax of density 914 kg\\cdot m^{-3} at room temperature. Temperatures were recorded using K-type thermocouples at selected locations of the tested LED panel for several values of the power supplied to it, while utilizing PCM and without it. As the manufacturer of Bolsius wax candles does not provide any data on the thermal properties of the material used, it was necessary to carry out micro-calorimetric research. Thermophysical properties of the paraffin wax such as the apparent specific heat, enthalpy of phase transition and temperature of phase change transition during heating and cooling were determined using the Netzsch DSC 214 Polyma. The Netzsch TG 209F3 Tarsus was used for TG/DTG measurements. DSC investigations revealed the following thermal transitions taking place during the first heating: solid-solid transition (onset 30.4 {°}C, peak at 40.9 {°}C), solid-liquid transition (onset 47.7 {°}C, peak at 54.9 {°}C, end at 58.3 {°}C), latent heat of energy storage 201 J\\cdot g^{-1}, apparent specific heat corresponding to peak at 41.5 {°}C (5.498 J\\cdot g^{-1}\\cdot K^{-1}). DTG investigations revealed that the decomposition of paraffin wax is a two

  13. Efficient Disinfection of Tap and Surface Water with Single High Power 285 nm LED and Square Quartz Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hessling


    Full Text Available A small water disinfection system based on the combination of a strong single 25 mW LED with a wavelength of 285 nm and a short quartz tube with an outer rectangular cross section is presented. For the disinfection tests clear tap water and slightly turbid and yellow pond water are contaminated with high concentrations of Escherichia coli bacteria. These water samples are exposed to the germicidal 285 nm LED radiation while they flow through the quartz tube. The portion of surviving germs is determined by membrane filtration for different water qualities and flow rates. For clear tap water the bacteria concentration can be reduced by at least three orders of magnitude up to flow rates of about 20 L/h. In pond water the maximum flow rate for such a reduction is less than 3 L/h. These high disinfection capabilities and the small size of this system, allow its integration in medical systems for point of use disinfection or even its application in the Third World for decentralized water disinfection powered by small solar cells, because this disinfection capacity should be sufficient for small groups or families.

  14. Degradation Physics of High Power LEDs in Outdoor Environment and the Role of Phosphor in the degradation process. (United States)

    Singh, Preetpal; Tan, Cher Ming


    A moisture- electrical - temperature (MET) test is proposed to evaluate the outdoor reliability of high power blue LEDs, with and without phosphor, and to understand the degradation physics of LEDs under the environment of combined humidity, temperature and electrical stresses. The blue LEDs with phosphor will be the high power white LEDs. Scanning acoustic microscopy is used to examine the resulted delamination during this test for the LEDs. The degradation mechanisms of blue LEDs (LEDs without phosphor) and white LEDs (LEDs with phosphor) are found to be different, under both the power on (i.e. with 350 mA through each LED) and power off (i.e. without current supply) conditions. Difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the molding part and the lens material as well as the heat generated by the phosphor layer are found to account for the major differences in the degradation mechanisms observed. The findings indicate that the proposed MET test is necessary for the LED industry in evaluating the reliability of LEDs under practical outdoor usage environment.

  15. High Luminescence White LEDs Prepared with 2D Island-Pattern of Quantum Dots Dispersed Photopolymer Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Guk Hong


    Full Text Available Since the reabsorption loss among different size quantum dots (QDs is a critical issue in the QD based white LEDs, we proposed and fabricated new film structure of 2D island-patterns consisting of separate green and red QDs dispersed photopolymer patterns in a zigzag form. A small air-gap such as 60 μm between QD islands helps to control the optical path at the interface to reduce the lateral reabsorption loss to enhance the optical efficiency of white LED. The 2D island-patterns of QD phosphor film were fabricated using a UV imprinting process and compared the optical efficiency with the other QD film structure prepared with same QD concentrations and thicknesses such as a mixed and separately layered QD structure. Experimental and simulation analysis were performed to confirm the better optical efficiency from the 2D island-patterns of QD films due to the reduced reabsorption loss. High luminescence white LED was finally realized with 2D island-patterns of QD film, resulting in a luminous efficiency of 62.2 lm/W and CRI of 83 with CCT of 4537 K at the operation current of 60 mA.

  16. Single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs (United States)

    Víllora, Encarnación G.; Arjoca, Stelian; Inomata, Daisuke; Shimamura, Kiyoshi


    White light-emitting diodes (wLEDs) are the new environmental friendly sources for general lighting purposes. For applications requiring a high-brightness, current wLEDs present overheating problems, which drastically decrease their emission efficiency, color quality and lifetime. This work gives an overview of the recent investigations on single-crystal phosphors (SCPs), which are proposed as novel alternative to conventional ceramic powder phosphors (CPPs). This totally new approach takes advantage of the superior properties of single-crystals in comparison with ceramic materials. SCPs exhibit an outstanding conversion efficiency and thermal stability up to 300°C. Furthermore, compared with encapsulated CPPs, SCPs possess a superior thermal conductivity, so that generated heat can be released efficiently. The conjunction of all these characteristics results in a low temperature rise of SCPs even under high blue irradiances, where conventional CPPs are overheated or even burned. Therefore, SCPs represent the ideal, long-demanded all-inorganic phosphors for high-brightness white light sources, especially those involving the use of high-density laser-diode beams.

  17. Growth of highly bright-white silica nanowires as diffusive reflection coating in LED lighting. (United States)

    Xi, Shuang; Shi, Tielin; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Dan; Lai, Wuxing; Tang, Zirong


    Large quantities of silica nanowires were synthesized through thermal treatment of silicon wafer in the atmosphere of N(2)/H(2)(5%) under 1200 °C with Cu as catalyst. These nanowires grew to form a natural bright-white mat, which showed highly diffusive reflectivity over the UV-visible range, with more than 60% at the whole range and up to 88% at 350 nm. The utilization of silica nanowires in diffusive coating on the reflector cup of LED is demonstrated, which shows greatly improved light distribution comparing with the specular reflector cup. It is expected that these nanowires can be promising coating material for optoelectronic applications.

  18. Emergency positioning system accuracy with infrared LEDs in high-security facilities (United States)

    Knoch, Sierra N.; Nelson, Charles; Walker, Owens


    Instantaneous personnel location presents a challenge in Department of Defense applications where high levels of security restrict real-time tracking of crew members. During emergency situations, command and control requires immediate accountability of all personnel. Current radio frequency (RF) based indoor positioning systems can be unsuitable due to RF leakage and electromagnetic interference with sensitively calibrated machinery on variable platforms like ships, submarines and high-security facilities. Infrared light provide a possible solution to this problem. This paper proposes and evaluates an indoor line-of-sight positioning system that is comprised of IR and high-sensitivity CMOS camera receivers. In this system the movement of the LEDs is captured by the camera, uploaded and analyzed; the highest point of power is located and plotted to create a blueprint of crewmember location. Results provided evaluate accuracy as a function of both wavelength and environmental conditions. Research will further evaluate the accuracy of the LED transmitter and CMOS camera receiver system. Transmissions in both the 780 and 850nm IR are analyzed.

  19. Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors (United States)

    Jang, H. S.; Won, Y.-H.; Jeon, D. Y.


    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) were fabricated by combining InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with highly luminescent Tb3Al5O12:Ce3+ (TAG:Ce), Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce), and Sr3SiO5:Eu2+ (SS:Eu). The TAG:Ce-based WLED showed a color rendering index ( R a ) of 79 and a luminous efficiency ( η L ) of 34.1 lm/W at 20 mA. The YAG:Ce-based WLED and the SS:Eu-based WLED showed low R a values of 75 and 57 but high luminous efficiency values of 38.9 and 41.3 lm/W at 20 mA, respectively. When a mixture of YAG:Ce and SS:Eu was coated on a blue LED and the resultant WLED operated at 20 mA, the WLED showed a highly bright white light similar to daylight ( η L =40.9 lm/W, color temperature T c =5,716 K, and R a =76). Moreover, the WLED showed stable color coordinates against a considerable variation of applied current.

  20. Producing a highly concentrated coal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokudzu, K.; Atsudzima, T.; Kiyedzuka, Y.


    Coal from wet and dry grinding is loaded into a mixer with a mixer arm with the acquisition of a highly concentrated suspension. Foamers (for instance, alkylbenzolsulfonate) and foam stabilizers (for instance diethanolamide of lauric acid) are added in a ratio of 10 to (2 to 5). The high fluidity of the suspension is maintained by injecting air into the suspension and an 80 percent concentration of the suspension is achieved.

  1. Experimental and numerical study on a micro jet cooling solution for high power LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An active cooling solution based on close-looped micro impinging jet is proposed for high power light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this system, a micro pump is utilized to enable the fluid circulation, impinging jet is used for heat exchange between LED chips and the present system. To check the feasibility of the present cooling system, the preliminary experiments are conducted without the intention of parameter opti-mization on micro jet device and other system components. The experiment results demonstrate that the present cooling system can achieve good cooling effect. For a 16.4 W input power, the surface temperature of 2 by 2 LED array is just 44.2℃ after 10 min operation, much lower than 112.2℃, which is measured without any active cool-ing techniques at the same input power. Experimental results also show that increase in the flow rate of micro pump will greatly enhance the heat transfer efficiency, how-ever, it will increase power consumption. Therefore, it should have a trade-off be-tween the flow rate and the power consumption. To find a suitable numerical model for next step parameter optimization, numerical simulation on the above experiment system is also conducted in this paper. The comparison between numerical and ex-periment results is presented. For two by two chip array, when the input power is 4 W, the surface average temperature achieved by a steady numerical simulation is 34℃, which is close to the value of 32.8℃ obtained by surface experiment test. The simu-lation results also demonstrate that the micro jet device in the present cooling sys-tem needs parameter optimization.

  2. Experimental and numerical study on a micro jet cooling solution for high power LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO XiaoBing; LIU Sheng; JIANG XiaoPing; CHENG Ting


    An active cooling solution based on close-looped micro impinging jet is proposed for high power light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this system, a micro pump is utilized to enable the fluid circulation, impinging jet is used for heat exchange between LED chips and the present system. To check the feasibility of the present cooling system, the preliminary experiments are conducted without the intention of parameter optimization on micro jet device and other system components. The experiment results demonstrate that the present cooling system can achieve good cooling effect. For a 16.4 W input power, the surface temperature of 2 by 2 LED array is just 44.2℃ after 10 min operation, much lower than 112.2℃, which is measured without any active cooling techniques at the same input power. Experimental results also show that increase in the flow rate of micro pump will greatly enhance the heat transfer efficiency, however, it will increase power consumption. Therefore, it should have a trade-off between the flow rate and the power consumption. To find a suitable numerical model for next step parameter optimization, numerical simulation on the above experiment system is also conducted in this paper. The comparison between numerical and experiment results is presented. For two by two chip array, when the input power is 4 W, the surface average temperature achieved by a steady numerical simulation is 34℃, which is close to the value of 32.8℃ obtained by surface experiment test. The simulation results also demonstrate that the micro jet device in the present cooling system needs parameter optimization.

  3. Fabrication and property analysis of AIGalnP red light LED with high bright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The LED with DBR and enhancing transmission film was grown by MOCVD. At 20 mA DC injection current, the LED peak wavelength was 623 nm, the light intensity was 200 mcd, and the output light power was 2.14 mW. The light intensity and output light power have been improved than traditional LED.

  4. Application of Inkjet Printing in High-Density Pixelated RGB Quantum Dot-Hybrid LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Haverinen, Hanna


    Recently, an intriguing solution to obtain better color purity has been to introduce inorganic emissive quantum dots (QDs) into an otherwise OLED structure. The emphasis of this chapter is to present a simple discussion of the first attempts to fabricate high-density, pixelated (quarter video graphics array (QVGA) format), monochromatic and RGB quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs), where inkjet printing is used to deposit the light-emitting layer of QDs. It shows some of the factors that have to be considered in order to achieve the desired accuracy and printing quality. The successful operation of the RGB printed devices indicates the potential of the inkjet printing approach in the fabrication of full-color QDLEDs for display application. However, further optimization of print quality is still needed in order to eliminate the formation of pinholes, thus maximizing energy transfer from organic layers to the QDs and in turn increasing the performance of the devices. Controlled Vocabulary Terms: ink jet printing; LED displays; LED lamps; organic light emitting diodes; quantum dots

  5. Dicing of high-power white LEDs in heat sinks with the water jet-guided laser (United States)

    Mai, Tuan Anh; Housh, Roy; Brulé, Arnaud; Richerzhagen, Bernold


    High-brightness LEDs are compound semiconductor devices and distinguish themselves from conventional LEDs by their exceptional luminosity. Today they are increasingly used as light sources, replacing conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamp technologies. HB LEDs are difficult to manufacture, as they must be grown by sophisticated epitaxial growth techniques such as MOCVD. They are packaged like power semiconductors, using surface mount technology and thermal pads. After having been successfully applied to GaN scribing for side-emitting LEDs, the Laser MicroJet (R) is used today for cutting heat sinks of HB white LEDs. Due to the high-emitted light power, the generated heat must be dissipated through a heat sink. Materials typically employed are metals with high heat conductivity, notably CuW and molybdenum. Applying the Laser MicroJet (R) the achieved cutting quality in these metals is outstanding - smooth edges, no contamination, no burrs, no heat damage, no warping - all this at high speed.

  6. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning


    that low free water availability contributes to cellulase inhibition. Of the hydrolytic enzymes involved, those acting on the cellulose substrate, that is, exo- and endoglucanases, were the most inhibited. The β -glucosidases were shown to be less sensitive to high monosaccharide concentrations except...

  7. Comparison of Bond Strength of Metal and Ceramic Brackets Bonded with Conventional and High-Power LED Light Curing Units (United States)

    Chalipa, Javad; Jalali, Yasamin Farajzadeh; Gorjizadeh, Fatemeh; Baghaeian, Pedram; Hoseini, Mohammad Hashem


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and high-power light emitting diode (LED) light curing units on shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets to tooth surface. Materials and Methods: Forty sound bovine maxillary central incisors were used for the study. The teeth were divided into four groups (n=10). Teeth surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 20 seconds. After applying a uniform layer of adhesive primer on the etched enamel, composite was placed on the base of brackets. The samples were light cured according to the manufacturer’s instructions and thermocycled. The SBS was measured. The failure mode was scored using the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Results: The mean SBS of samples in groups A (high-power LED, metal bracket), B (high-power LED, ceramic bracket), C (conventional LED, metal bracket) and D (conventional LED, ceramic bracket) was 23.1±3.69, 10.7±2.06, 24.92±6.37 and 10.74±3.18MPa, respectively. The interaction effect of type of LED unit (high-power/conventional) and bracket type on SBS was not statistically significant (P=0.483). In general, type of LED unit did not affect SBS. Type of bracket significantly affected SBS (P<0.001). The ARI score was not significantly influenced by the interaction between the type of LED unit and bracket. Conclusions: The obtained SBS is the same for both bracket types by use of high-power and conventional LED light curing units. Regardless of the type of LED unit, SBS of ceramic brackets was significantly lower than that of metal brackets.

  8. Sterile Filtration of Highly Concentrated Protein Formulations: Impact of Protein Concentration, Formulation Composition, and Filter Material. (United States)

    Allmendinger, Andrea; Mueller, Robert; Huwyler, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Fischer, Stefan


    Differences in filtration behavior of concentrated protein formulations were observed during aseptic drug product manufacturing of biologics dependent on formulation composition. The present study investigates filtration forces of monoclonal antibody formulations in a small-scale set-up using polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethersulfone (PES) filters. Different factors like formulation composition and protein concentration related to differences in viscosity, as well as different filtration rates were evaluated. The present study showed that filtration behavior was influenced by the presence or absence of a surfactant in the formulation, which defines the interaction between filter membrane and surface active formulation components. This can lead to a change in filter resistance (PES filter) independent on the buffer system used. Filtration behavior was additionally defined by rheological non-Newtonian flow behavior. The data showed that high shear rates resulting from small pore sizes and filtration pressure up to 1.0 bar led to shear-thinning behavior for highly concentrated protein formulations. Differences in non-Newtonian behavior were attributed to ionic strength related to differences in repulsive and attractive interactions. The present study showed that the interplay of formulation composition, filter material, and filtration rate can explain differences in filtration behavior/filtration flux observed for highly concentrated protein formulations thus guiding filter selection.

  9. Volume structuring of high power LED encapsulates by femtosecond laser direct writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuna, L.; Sommer, C.; Zinterl, E.; Krenn, J.R.; Wenzl, F.P. [Joanneum Research Forschungsges. mbH, Institute of Nanostructured Materials and Photonics, Weiz (Austria); Pachler, P.; Hartmann, P.; Tasch, S. [TridonicAtco Optoelectronics GmbH, Jennersdorf (Austria); Leising, G. [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz (Austria)


    We report on the micro-fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) such as 1D, 2D and concentric grating structures inside the volume of thin silicone films by femtosecond laser direct writing. In addition, we show that such structures can also be integrated into silicone films that act as encapsulation layers of high power light-emitting diodes. The latter strategy opens new possibilities to homogenize and to control the light emitted from such devices. (orig.)

  10. High-dimensional entanglement concentration of twisted photon pairs High-dimensional entanglement concentration (United States)

    Chen, L. X.; Wu, Q. P.


    Recently, Dada et al. reported on the experimental entanglement concentration and violation of generalized Bell inequalities with orbital angular momentum (OAM) [Nat. Phys. 7, 677 (2011)]. Here we demonstrate that the high-dimensional entanglement concentration can be performed in arbitrary OAM subspaces with selectivity. Instead of violating the generalized Bell inequalities, the working principle of present entanglement concentration is visualized by the biphoton OAM Klyshko picture, and its good performance is confirmed and quantified through the experimental Shannon dimensionalities after concentration.

  11. Fundamental Studies and Development of III-N Visible LEDs for High-Power Solid-State Lighting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, Russell


    The goal of this program is to understand in a fundamental way the impact of strain, defects, polarization, and Stokes loss in relation to unique device structures upon the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and efficiency droop (ED) of III-nitride (III-N) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and to employ this understanding in the design and growth of high-efficiency LEDs capable of highly-reliable, high-current, high-power operation. This knowledge will be the basis for our advanced device epitaxial designs that lead to improved device performance. The primary approach we will employ is to exploit new scientific and engineering knowledge generated through the application of a set of unique advanced growth and characterization tools to develop new concepts in strain-, polarization-, and carrier dynamics-engineered and low-defect materials and device designs having reduced dislocations and improved carrier collection followed by efficient photon generation. We studied the effects of crystalline defect, polarizations, hole transport, electron-spillover, electron blocking layer, underlying layer below the multiplequantum- well active region, and developed high-efficiency and efficiency-droop-mitigated blue LEDs with a new LED epitaxial structures. We believe new LEDs developed in this program will make a breakthrough in the development of high-efficiency high-power visible III-N LEDs from violet to green spectral region.

  12. Commerical Transition to LEDs: A Pathway to High-Value Products (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.


    The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to support plant growth is a radical departure from use of gas-discharge lamps, which were developed in mid-19th and widely adopted by the industry during the 20th century. Initial investigation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the late 1980s on the use of LEDs to grow plant in space is resulting in an industry-wide transition from gas discharge to solid-state lighting systems. This global transformation is given urgency by national policies to reduce energy consumption and being facilitated by ready access to information on LEDs. The combination of research, government policy, and information technology has resulted in an exponential increase in research into the use and application of LED technology in horticulture. Commercial horticulture has identified the opportunities provided by LEDs to optimize light spectra to promote growth, regulate morphology, increase nutrient content, and reduce operating costs. LED-light technology is enabling the development of innovative lighting systems, and is being incorporated into large-scale plant factories for the production of edible, ornamental, and medicinal plants. An overview of prevalence of readily accessible information on LEDs and implications for future adoption in horticulture is discussed.

  13. Copper Aluminum Nano Junction Normal Temperature Processes and Methods Applied to the LED High Heat Transfer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wen Wang


    Full Text Available High-power light-emitting diodes (LED have extremely broad applications. However, with the job requirements of high-brightness and high color temperature from light-emitting diodes, it must be followed to enlarge the operating current, thus heating up more rapidly. If its heat dissipation problem cannot be effectively solved, operation will be prone to bring about color shift, and it may even considerably shorten its life. Moreover, application value will therefore be greatly reduced. So in order to enhance the high-power LED luminous brightness and life to cope with the future development needs of high-power LED components, it is necessary to replace the use of conductive silver paste to stick thermally conductive Cu slug fixing grain and lead frame heat dissipation aluminum sheet. This is done by directly bonding thermally conductive Cu slug with pure aluminum, the formation of highly efficient direct heat conduction cooling structure. Therefore the topic points at the crux of the LED heat dissipation difficulty, puts forward of copper and aluminum bonding technology in the ordinary temperature and pressure, method to effectively improve thermal conductivity performance between LED die bond Cu slug and joining aluminum cooling module. This will ultimately make the LED's operation and applications perfect.

  14. Big Data Meets Physics Education Research: From MOOCs to University-Led High School Programs (United States)

    Seaton, Daniel


    The Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) movement has catalyzed discussions of digital learning on campuses around the world and highlighted the increasingly large, complex datasets related to learning. Physics Education Research can and should play a key role in measuring outcomes of this most recent wave of digital education. In this talk, I will discuss big data and learning analytics through multiple modes of teaching and learning enabled by the open-source edX platform: open-online, flipped, and blended. Open-Online learning will be described through analysis of MOOC offerings from Harvard and MIT, where 2.5 million unique users have led to 9 million enrollments across nearly 300 courses. Flipped instruction will be discussed through an Advanced Placement program at Davidson College that empowers high school teachers to use AP aligned, MOOC content directly in their classrooms with only their students. Analysis of this program will be highlighted, including results from a pilot study showing a positive correlation between content usage and externally validated AP exam scores. Lastly, blended learning will be discussed through specific residential use cases at Davidson College and MIT, highlighting unique course models that blend open-online and residential experiences. My hope for this talk is that listeners will better understand the current wave of digital education and the opportunities it provides for data-driven teaching and learning.

  15. The fabrication of a patterned ZnO nanorod array for high brightness LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyoungwon; Byeon, Kyeong-Jae; Yang, Ki-Yeon; Cho, Joong-Yeon; Lee, Heon, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, a patterned ZnO nanorod array was formed on the ITO layer of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), to increase the light extraction efficiency of the LED. The bi-layer imprinted resin pattern was used for selective growth of the ZnO nanorod array on the ITO layer. Compared to conventional LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS), the deposition of the blanket ZnO layer on the ITO layer increased the light extraction efficiency of the LED by about 10%. Further growth of the ZnO nanorod layer on the blanket ZnO layer increased the light extraction efficiency of the LED by about 23%. In the case that a patterned ZnO nanorod layer was formed on a blanket ZnO layer, the light extraction efficiency increased by about 34%. These enhancements of the device were caused by modulation of the refractive-index in ZnO layers and the surface roughening effects because of the unique design of the pattern, which was nanostructure-in-nanopattern, resulting in the formation of many escape cones on the LED surface.

  16. LED surgical lighting system with multiple free-form surfaces for highly sterile operating theater application. (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yaqin; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu


    Although the ventilation system is widely employed in the operating theater, a strictly sterile surgical environment still cannot be ensured because of laminar disturbance, which is mainly caused by the surgical lighting system. Abandoning traditional products, we propose an LED surgical lighting system, which can alleviate the laminar disturbance and provide an appropriate lighting condition for surgery. It contains a certain amount of LED lens units, which are embedded in the ceiling and arranged around the air supply smallpox. The LED lens unit integrated with an LED light source and a free-form lens is required to produce a uniform circular illumination with a large tolerance to the change of lighting distance. To achieve such a dedicated lens, two free-form refractive surfaces, which are converted into two ordinary differential equations by the design method presented in this paper, are used to deflect the rays. The results show that the LED surgical lighting system can provide an excellent illumination environment for surgery, and, apparently, the laminar disturbance also can be relieved.

  17. Development of a High Irradiance LED Configuration for Small Field of View Motion Estimation of Fertilizer Particles. (United States)

    Cool, Simon; Pieters, Jan G; Mertens, Koen C; Mora, Sergio; Cointault, Frédéric; Dubois, Julien; van de Gucht, Tim; Vangeyte, Jürgen


    Better characterization of the fertilizer spreading process, especially the fertilizer pattern distribution on the ground, requires an accurate measurement of individual particle properties and dynamics. Both 2D and 3D high speed imaging techniques have been developed for this purpose. To maximize the accuracy of the predictions, a specific illumination level is required. This paper describes the development of a high irradiance LED system for high speed motion estimation of fertilizer particles. A spectral sensitivity factor was used to select the optimal LED in relation to the used camera from a range of commercially available high power LEDs. A multiple objective genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal configuration of LEDs resulting in the most homogeneous irradiance in the target area. Simulations were carried out for different lenses and number of LEDs. The chosen configuration resulted in an average irradiance level of 452 W/m² with coefficient of variation less than 2%. The algorithm proved superior and more flexible to other approaches reported in the literature and can be used for various other applications.

  18. Development of a High Irradiance LED Configuration for Small Field of View Motion Estimation of Fertilizer Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cool


    Full Text Available Better characterization of the fertilizer spreading process, especially the fertilizer pattern distribution on the ground, requires an accurate measurement of individual particle properties and dynamics. Both 2D and 3D high speed imaging techniques have been developed for this purpose. To maximize the accuracy of the predictions, a specific illumination level is required. This paper describes the development of a high irradiance LED system for high speed motion estimation of fertilizer particles. A spectral sensitivity factor was used to select the optimal LED in relation to the used camera from a range of commercially available high power LEDs. A multiple objective genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal configuration of LEDs resulting in the most homogeneous irradiance in the target area. Simulations were carried out for different lenses and number of LEDs. The chosen configuration resulted in an average irradiance level of 452 W/m2 with coefficient of variation less than 2%. The algorithm proved superior and more flexible to other approaches reported in the literature and can be used for various other applications.

  19. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen


    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  20. Red emission generation through highly efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) in CaO for warm white LEDs. (United States)

    Feng, Leyu; Hao, Zhendong; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Liangliang; Pan, Guohui; Luo, Yongshi; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhang, Jiahua


    CaO:Ce(3+),Mn(2+) phosphors with various Mn(2+) concentrations were synthesized by a solid state reaction method. Efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) was observed and it allows the emission color of CaO:Ce(3+),Mn(2+) to be continuously tuned from yellow (contributed by Ce(3+)) to red (by Mn(2+)) with an increase in Mn(2+) concentration and upon blue light excitation. The red emission becomes dominant when the Mn(2+) concentration is ≥0.014 with an energy transfer efficiency higher than 87% which can reach as high as 94% for a Mn(2+) concentration of only 0.02. A critical distance of 10.5 Å for the Ce(3+)-Mn(2+) energy transfer was determined. A faster decrease of Ce(3+) luminescence intensity in comparison with its lifetime was observed on increasing the Mn(2+) concentration. The analysis of this feature reveals that the Ce(3+) excitation energy can be completely transferred to Mn(2+) if the Ce(3+)-Mn(2+) distance is shorter than 7.6 Å. A warm white LED was fabricated through integrating an InGaN blue LED chip and a blend of two phosphors (YAG:Ce(3+) yellow phosphor and CaO:0.007Ce(3+),0.014Mn(2+) red phosphor) into a single package, which has CIE chromaticity coordinates of (x = 0.37, y = 0.35), a correlated color temperature of 3973 K and a color rendering index of 83.1. The results indicate that CaO:Ce(3+),Mn(2+) may serve as a potential red phosphor for blue LED based warm white LEDs.

  1. An approach to utilize the artificial high power LED UV-A radiation in photoreactors for the degradation of methylene blue. (United States)

    Betancourt-Buitrago, L A; Vásquez, C; Veitia, L; Ossa-Echeverry, O; Rodriguez-Vallejo, J; Barraza-Burgos, J; Marriaga-Cabrales, N; Machuca-Martínez, F


    Utilization of UV LED light is trending in the development of photoreactors for pollutant treatment. In this study, two different geometries were studied in the degradation of methylenebBlue (MB) using high power UVA LED as a source of light. The dosage, initial concentration, electric power, and H2O2 addition were evaluated in the two geometries: a mini CPC (Cilindrical Parabolic Collector) and a vertical cylindrical with external irradiation both coupled with LED UVA. Best degradation was obtained for 0.3 g L(-1) TiO2, 40 min, and 15 ppm of MB of initial concentration in the standard batch reactor. It was found that the best system was a cpc geometry. Also, hydrogen peroxide was used as an electron acceptor and 97% degradation was obtained in 30 min with 10 mM H2O2 and 0.4 g TiO2/L. Power of the LEDs was also evaluated and it was found that 20 W m(-2) is the best operational condition to achieve the best MB degradation avoiding the oxidant species recombination.

  2. Quality engineering tools focused on high power LED driver design using boost power stages in switch mode (United States)

    Ileana, Ioan; Risteiu, Mircea; Marc, Gheorghe


    This paper is a part of our research dedicated to high power LED lamps designing. The boost-up selected technology wants to meet driver producers' tendency in the frame of efficiency and disturbances constrains. In our work we used modeling and simulation tools for implementing scenarios of the driver work when some controlling functions are executed (output voltage/ current versus input voltage and fixed switching frequency, input and output electric power transfer versus switching frequency, transient inductor voltage analysis, and transient out capacitor analysis). Some electrical and thermal stress conditions are also analyzed. Based on these aspects, a high reliable power LED driver has been designed.

  3. New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training. (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador


    Phototherapy improves cellular activation which is an important factor for the treatment of cellulite. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate the effects of a new (noninvasive and nonpharmacological) clinical procedure to improve body aesthetics: infrared-LED (850 nm) plus treadmill training. Twenty women (25-55 years old) participated in this study. They were separated in two groups: the control group, which carried out only the treadmill training (n = 10), and the LED group, with phototherapy during the treadmill training (n = 10). The training was performed for 45 minutes twice a week over 3 months at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HR(max)). The irradiation parameters were 39 mW/cm(2) and a fluence of 106 J/cm(2). The treatment was evaluated by interpreting body composition parameters, photographs and thermography. This was primarily a treatment for cellulite with a reduction of saddlebag and thigh circumference. At the same time, the treadmill training prevented an increase of body fat, as well as the loss of lean mass. Moreover, thermal images of the temperature modification of the thighs are presented. These positive effects can result in a further improvement of body aesthetics using infrared-LED together with treadmill training.

  4. Physical chemistry of highly concentrated emulsions. (United States)

    Foudazi, Reza; Qavi, Sahar; Masalova, Irina; Malkin, Alexander Ya


    This review explores the physics underlying the rheology of highly concentrated emulsions (HCEs) to determine the relationship between elasticity and HCE stability, and to consider whether it is possible to describe all physicochemical properties of HCEs on the basis of a unique physical approach. We define HCEs as emulsions with a volume fraction above the maximum closest packing fraction of monodisperse spheres, φm=0.74, even if droplets are not of polyhedron shape. The solid-like rheological behavior of HCEs is characterized by yield stress and elasticity, properties which depend on droplet polydispersity and which are affected by caging at volume fractions about the jamming concentration, φj. A bimodal size distribution in HCEs diminishes caging and facilitates droplet movement, resulting in HCEs with negligible yield stress and no plateau in storage modulus. Thermodynamic forces automatically move HCEs toward the lowest free energy state, but since interdroplet forces create local minimums - points beyond which free energy temporarily increases before it reaches the global minimum of the system - the free energy of HCEs will settle at a local minimum unless additional energy is added. Several attempts have been undertaken to predict the elasticity of HCEs. In many cases, the elastic modulus of HCEs is higher than the one predicted from classical models, which only take into account spatial repulsion (or simply interfacial energy). Improved models based on free energy calculation should be developed to consider the disjoining pressure and interfacial rheology in addition to spatial repulsion. The disjoining pressure and interfacial viscoelasticity, which result in the deviation of elasticity from the classical model, can be regarded as parameters for quantifying the stability of HCEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper Aluminum Nano Junction Normal Temperature Processes and Methods Applied to the LED High Heat Transfer Performance


    Ming-Wen Wang; Bo-An Gao; Ding-Jun Lin; Jun-Han Chen


    High-power light-emitting diodes (LED) have extremely broad applications. However, with the job requirements of high-brightness and high color temperature from light-emitting diodes, it must be followed to enlarge the operating current, thus heating up more rapidly. If its heat dissipation problem cannot be effectively solved, operation will be prone to bring about color shift, and it may even considerably shorten its life. Moreover, application value will therefore be greatly reduced. So in ...

  6. Biaxial flexural strength of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements heat-cured with an LED lamp during setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina, G. Fabian; Cabral, R.J.; Mazzola, I.; Lascano, L. Brain; Frencken, J.E.F.M.


    Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ket

  7. Employing low-temperature barriers to achieve strain-relaxed and high-performance GaN-based LEDs. (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenliang; Lin, Yunhao; Yang, Meijuan; Chen, Shuqi; Li, Guoqiang


    The epitaxial structure design of low-temperature barriers has been adopted to promote strain relaxation in multiple quantum well (MQWs) and achieve high-efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With these barriers, the relaxation value of wells increases from 0 to 4.59%. The strain-relaxed mechanism of low-temperature barriers is also discussed. The LED chip with the barriers grown at the TMIn flow of 75 sccm and the growth temperature of 830 °C has an optimal strain relaxation value of 1.53% in wells, and exhibits the largest light output power of 63.83 mW at the injection current of 65 mA, which is higher than that of conventional LED (51.89 mW) by 23%. In-depth studies reveal that the optimal low-temperature barriers remarkably promote the strain relaxation in wells without forming large density of crystalline defects. This achievement of high-efficiency LEDs sheds light on the future solid-state lighting applications.

  8. High-Temperature, High-Concentration Solar Thermoelectric Generators (United States)

    Warren, Emily; Baranowski, Lauryn; Olsen, Michele; Ndione, Paul; Netter, Judy; Goodrich, Alan; Gray, Matthew; Parilla, Philip; Ginley, David; Toberer, Eric


    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) powered with concentrated solar energy have potential for use as primary energy converters or as topping-cycles for more conventional concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. Modeling based on current record modules from JPL suggests thermoelectric efficiencies of 18 % could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000 - 100°C. Integrating these state-of-the-art TEGs with a concentrating solar receiver requires simultaneous optimization of optical, thermal, and thermoelectric systems. This talk will discuss the modeling, design, and experimental testing of STEG devices under concentrated sunlight. We have developed a model that combines thermal circuit modeling with optical ray tracing to design selective absorber coatings and cavities to minimize radiation losses from the system. We have fabricated selective absorber coatings and demonstrated that these selective absorber films can minimize blackbody radiation losses at high temperature and are stable after thermal cycling to 1000°C. On-sun testing of STEG devices and thermal simulators is ongoing and preliminary results will be discussed.

  9. Production of high concentrations of yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A microbe is aerobically cultured using O/sub 2/ or a gas rich in O/sub 2/. The grown cells are washed, concentrated and a portion of the cells used as a seed culture. Thus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers' yeast) was cultured in a jar fermentor by flow down system maintaining the dissolved O/sub 2/ at 2-5 mg/L; volume of the initial medium containing 30% glucose was 350 mL and the initial washed cell concentration was 50 g dry cells/L. After 12 hours of cultivation, the volume of the medium increased to 750 mL and the cell concentration rose to 102 g dry cells/L; the yield was 49% with respect to glucose. The cells were washed and the cultivation was repeated by use of the washed cells; cell concentration reached 105 g dry cells/L.

  10. LED lamp (United States)

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David


    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  11. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin


    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  12. Thermal behavior of silicon-copper micro vapor chamber for high power LEDs (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Li, Zhi-xin; Zhou, Chuan-peng; Wang, Xiao-dong; You, Bo


    Micro vapor chamber (MVC) for light emitting diodes (LEDs) can be designed and fabricated to enhance the heat dissipation efficiency and improve the reliability. In this paper, we used photoresist SU-8 and electroforming copper (Cu) to fabricate three kinds of wick structures, which are star, radiation and parallel ones, and the substrate is silicon with thickness of 0.5 mm. Electroforming Cu on silicon to make micro wick structure was a critical step, the ampere-hour factor was used, and accordingly the electroforming time was predicted. The composition of electroforming solution and parameters of electroforming were optimized too. After charging and packaging, thermal behavior tests were carried out to study the heat dissipation performance of MVCs. When the input power was 8 W, the parallel wick structure reached the equivalent temperature of 69.0 °C in 226 s, while the others were higher than that. The experimental results prove that the wick structures have significant influence on the heat transfer capability of MVCs.

  13. Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications. (United States)

    Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Zhao, Chao; Oubei, Hassan Makine; Shen, Chao; Prabaswara, Aditya; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Alhamoud, Abdullah Ali; Alatawi, Abdullah Awaad; Albadri, Abdulrahman M; Alyamani, Ahmed Y; El-Desouki, Munir M; Ooi, Boon S


    Group-III-nitride laser diode (LD)-based solid-state lighting device has been demonstrated to be droop-free compared to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and highly energy-efficient compared to that of the traditional incandescent and fluorescent white light systems. The YAG:Ce3+ phosphor used in LD-based solid-state lighting, however, is associated with rapid degradation issue. An alternate phosphor/LD architecture, which is capable of sustaining high temperature, high power density, while still intensity- and bandwidth-tunable for high color-quality remained unexplored. In this paper, we present for the first time, the proof-of-concept of the generation of high-quality white light using an InGaN-based orange nanowires (NWs) LED grown on silicon, in conjunction with a blue LD, and in place of the compound-phosphor. By changing the relative intensities of the ultrabroad linewidth orange and narrow-linewidth blue components, our LED/LD device architecture achieved correlated color temperature (CCT) ranging from 3000 K to above 6000K with color rendering index (CRI) values reaching 83.1, a value unsurpassed by the YAG-phosphor/blue-LD counterpart. The white-light wireless communications was implemented using the blue LD through on-off keying (OOK) modulation to obtain a data rate of 1.06 Gbps. We therefore achieved the best of both worlds when orange-emitting NWs LED are utilized as "active-phosphor", while blue LD is used for both color mixing and optical wireless communications.

  14. Ultrabroad linewidth orange-emitting nanowires LED for high CRI laser-based white lighting and gigahertz communications

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    Group-III-nitride laser diode (LD)-based solid-state lighting device has been demonstrated to be droop-free compared to light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and highly energy-efficient compared to that of the traditional incandescent and fluorescent white light systems. The YAG:Ce3+ phosphor used in LD-based solid-state lighting, however, is associated with rapid degradation issue. An alternate phosphor/LD architecture, which is capable of sustaining high temperature, high power density, while still intensity- and bandwidth-tunable for high color-quality remained unexplored. In this paper, we present for the first time, the proof-of-concept of the generation of high-quality white light using an InGaN-based orange nanowires (NWs) LED grown on silicon, in conjunction with a blue LD, and in place of the compound-phosphor. By changing the relative intensities of the ultrabroad linewidth orange and narrow-linewidth blue components, our LED/LD device architecture achieved correlated color temperature (CCT) ranging from 3000 K to above 6000K with color rendering index (CRI) values reaching 83.1, a value unsurpassed by the YAG-phosphor/blue-LD counterpart. The white-light wireless communications was implemented using the blue LD through on-off keying (OOK) modulation to obtain a data rate of 1.06 Gbps. We therefore achieved the best of both worlds when orange-emitting NWs LED are utilized as “active-phosphor”, while blue LD is used for both color mixing and optical wireless communications.

  15. Time dependent and temperature dependent properties of the forward voltage characteristic of InGaN high power LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Fulmek


    Full Text Available Estimating the junction temperature and its dynamic behavior in dependence of various operating conditions is an important issue, since these properties influence the optical characteristics as well as the aging processes of a light-emitting diode (LED. Particularly for high-power LEDs and pulsed operation, the dynamic behavior and the resulting thermal cycles are of interest. The forward voltage method relies on the existence of a time-independent unique triple of forward-voltage, forward-current, and junction temperature. These three figures should as well uniquely define the optical output power and spectrum, as well as the loss power of the LED, which is responsible for an increase of the junction temperature. From transient FEM-simulations one may expect an increase of the temperature of the active semiconductor layer of some 1/10 K within the first 10 μs. Most of the well-established techniques for junction temperature measurement via forward voltage method evaluate the measurement data several dozens of microseconds after switching on or switching off and estimate the junction temperature by extrapolation towards the time of switching. In contrast, the authors developed a measurement procedure with the focus on the first microseconds after switching. Besides a fast data acquisition system, a precise control of the switching process is required, i.e. a precisely defined current pulse amplitude with fast rise-time and negligible transient by-effects. We start with a short description of the measurement setup and the newly developed control algorithm for the generation of short current pulses. The thermal characterization of the LED chip during the measurement procedures is accomplished by an IR thermography system and transient finite element simulations. The same experimental setup is used to investigate the optical properties of the LED in an Ulbricht-sphere. Our experiments are performed on InGaN LED chips mounted on an Al based

  16. A new Cu(TiBN x ) alloy film for boosting the per-watt illuminance of high power LEDs (United States)

    Lin, Chon-Hsin


    In this study, a new Cu(TiBN x ) alloy film has been explored and utilized as a flexible heat dissipation layer for the substrate of high power LEDs to boost their per-watt illuminance by reducing the thermal resistance and increasing the thermal conductivity of the substrate. The new film is a Cu-alloy seed layer fabricated by co-sputtering Cu and TiB in an N2 atmosphere on a Ta/polyimide (Ta/PI) substrate. The film was then annealed at 340 °C for 1 h without noticeable Cu oxide formation around the film-substrate interface. The new film exhibits low resistivity, high thermal conductivity and low thermal resistance, rendering a substantially higher per-watt illuminance for LEDs that utilize the film as their additional heat dissipation layer. The experimental results gained in the study appear to confirm the new Cu(TiBN x ) film as a good candidate material, at least, for boosting the per-watt illuminance of high power LEDs.

  17. Schlieren study of a sonic jet injected into a supersonic cross flow using high-current pulsed LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Giskes, Ella; Segerink, Frans B; Venner, Cornelis H


    In the research of supersonic flows, flow visualization continues to be an important tool, and even today it is difficult to create high quality images. In this study we present a low-cost and easy-to use Schlieren setup. The setup makes use of LEDs, pulsed with high currents to increase the optical output to sufficient levels, exploiting the advantages of LED light over conventional light sources. As a test-case we study the interaction of a Mach 1.7 cross flow and a transverse underexpanded jet, which is commonly studied considering the mixing and combustion in scramjet engines. Using 130 nanosecond LED light pulses, we captured the flow structures sharply and in great detail. We observed a large-gradient wave, which was seen in numerical studies but hitherto not reported in experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that time-correlated images can be obtained with this Schlieren setup, so that also flow unsteadiness can be studied, such as the movement of shock waves and vortices.

  18. The Effectiveness of Peer-Led FAS/FAE Prevention Presentations in Middle and High Schools (United States)

    Boulter, Lyn


    Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…

  19. The Effectiveness of Peer-Led FAS/FAE Prevention Presentations in Middle and High Schools (United States)

    Boulter, Lyn


    Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…

  20. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams (United States)

    Ainsworth, Judith


    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  1. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams (United States)

    Ainsworth, Judith


    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  2. Strain relief InGaN/GaN MQW micro-pillars for high brightness LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao


    Micro-structured group-III-nitrides are considered as promising strain relief structures for high efficiency solid state lighting. In this work, the strain field in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) micro-pillars is investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and the design of micro-pillars were studied experimentally. We distinguished the strained and strain-relieved signatures of the GaN layer from the E2 phonon peak split from the Raman scattering signatures at 572 cm-1 and 568 cm-1, respectively. The extent of strain relief is examined considering the height and size of micro-pillars fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) micro-machining technique. A significant strain relief can be achieved when one micro-machined through the entire epi-layers, 3 μm in our study. The dependence of strain relief on micro-pillar diameter (D) suggested that micro-pillar with D < 3 μm showed high degree of strain relief. Our results shed new insights into designing strain-relieved InGaN/GaN microstructures for high brightness light emitting diode arrays. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Effect of high soil copper concentration on mycorrhizal grapevines (United States)

    Nogales, Amaia; Santos, Erika S.; Viegas, Wanda; Aran, Diego; Pereira, Sofia H.; Vidigal, Patricia; Lopes, Carlos M.; Abreu, M. Manuela


    Repeated application of Copper (Cu) based fungicides in vineyards since the end of the 19th century has led to a significant increase in the concentration of this chemical element in many viticultural soils. Although Cu is an essential micronutrient for most organisms, it can be toxic for the development and survival of plants and soil (micro)organisms at high concentrations and eventually lead to yield loses in viticulture, as it negatively affects key physiological and biogeochemical processes. However, some soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), have developed adaptive mechanisms for persistence in environments with supra-optimal levels of essential elements or in the presence of harmful ones, as well as for increasing plant tolerance to such abiotic stress conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a high total soil concentration of Cu on microbial soil activity as well as on the development of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal grapevines. A microcosm assay was set up under greenhouse and controlled conditions. Touriga Nacional grapevine variety plants grafted onto 1103P rootstocks were inoculated either with the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mosseae, or were left as non-inoculated controls. After three months, they were transplanted to containers filled with 4 kg of a sandy soil (pH: 7.0; electrical conductivity: 0.08 mS/cm; [organic C]: 5.6 g/kg; [N-NO3]: 1.1 mg/kg; [N-NH4]: 2.5 mg/kg; [extractable K]: 45.1 mg/kg; [extractable P]: 52.3 mg/kg), collected near to a vineyard in Pegões (Portugal). Two treatments were carried out: with and without Cu application. The soil with high Cu concentration was prepared by adding 300 mg Cu/kg (in the form of an aqueous solution of CuSO4·5H2O) followed by an incubation during four weeks in plastic bags at room temperature in dark. Physico-chemical soil characteristics (pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients concentration in available fraction), soil

  4. Biaxial Flexural Strength of High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomer Cements Heat-Cured with an LED Lamp during Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabián Molina


    Full Text Available Adding heat to glass ionomers during setting might improve mechanical properties. The aim was to compare the biaxial flexural strength (BFS between and within four glass ionomers, by time of exposure to a high-intensity LED light-curing unit. Materials and methods. Samples of Fuji 9 Gold Label, Ketac Molar Easymix, ChemFil Rock, and the EQUIA system were divided into three treatment groups (n=30: without heating (Group 1, heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 30 s while setting (Group 2, and heated with LED lamp of 1400 mW/cm2 for 60 s while setting (Group 3. Samples were stored for 48 hours in distilled water at 37°C until tested. BFS was tested, using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed, using ANOVA test with the Bonferroni correction (α=0.05. Heating the glass-ionomer cements with an LED curing light of 1400 mW/cm2 during setting for 30 s increased the BFS value of all GICs. No statistically significant difference in mean BFS scores was found between the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock at 30 s and 60 s. The mean BFS value was statistically significantly higher for the EQUIA system and ChemFil Rock than for Fuji 9 Gold Label and Ketac Molar Easymix at all exposure times.

  5. Highly efficient low color temperature organic LED using blend carrier modulation layer (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Ching; Chen, Szu-Hao; Shen, Shih-Ming; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Jou, Jwo-Huei


    Color temperature (CT) of light has great effect on human physiology and psychology, and low CT light, minimizing melatonin suppression and decreasing the risk of breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. We demonstrates the incorporation of a blend carrier modulation interlayer (CML) between emissive layers to improve the device performance of low CT organic light emitting diodes, which exhibits an external quantum efficiency of 22.7% and 36 lm W-1 (54 cd A-1) with 1880 K at 100 cd m-2, or 20.8% and 29 lm W-1 (50 cd A-1) with 1940 K at 1000 cd m-2. The result shows a CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs, which is 2500 K with 15 lmW-1 efficiency, and even as low as that of candles, which is 2000 K with 0.1 lmW-1. The high efficiency of the proposed device may be attributed to its CML, which helps effectively distribute the entering carriers into the available recombination zones.

  6. Infrared LED Enhanced Spectroscopic CdZnTe Detector Working under High Fluxes of X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Pekárek


    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of infrared light-induced de-polarization applied on a polarized CdZnTe detector working under high radiation fluxes. We newly demonstrate the influence of a high flux of X-rays and simultaneous 1200-nm LED illumination on the spectroscopic properties of a CdZnTe detector. CdZnTe detectors operating under high radiation fluxes usually suffer from the polarization effect, which occurs due to a screening of the internal electric field by a positive space charge caused by photogenerated holes trapped at a deep level. Polarization results in the degradation of detector charge collection efficiency. We studied the spectroscopic behavior of CdZnTe under various X-ray fluxes ranging between 5 × 10 5 and 8 × 10 6 photons per mm 2 per second. It was observed that polarization occurs at an X-ray flux higher than 3 × 10 6 mm − 2 ·s − 1 . Using simultaneous illumination of the detector by a de-polarizing LED at 1200 nm, it was possible to recover X-ray spectra originally deformed by the polarization effect.

  7. Infrared LED Enhanced Spectroscopic CdZnTe Detector Working under High Fluxes of X-rays. (United States)

    Pekárek, Jakub; Dědič, Václav; Franc, Jan; Belas, Eduard; Rejhon, Martin; Moravec, Pavel; Touš, Jan; Voltr, Josef


    This paper describes an application of infrared light-induced de-polarization applied on a polarized CdZnTe detector working under high radiation fluxes. We newly demonstrate the influence of a high flux of X-rays and simultaneous 1200-nm LED illumination on the spectroscopic properties of a CdZnTe detector. CdZnTe detectors operating under high radiation fluxes usually suffer from the polarization effect, which occurs due to a screening of the internal electric field by a positive space charge caused by photogenerated holes trapped at a deep level. Polarization results in the degradation of detector charge collection efficiency. We studied the spectroscopic behavior of CdZnTe under various X-ray fluxes ranging between 5 × 10 5 and 8 × 10 6 photons per mm 2 per second. It was observed that polarization occurs at an X-ray flux higher than 3 × 10 6 mm - 2 ·s - 1 . Using simultaneous illumination of the detector by a de-polarizing LED at 1200 nm, it was possible to recover X-ray spectra originally deformed by the polarization effect.

  8. High-voltage thin-film GaN LEDs fabricated on ceramic substrates: the alleviated droop effect at 670 W/cm(2). (United States)

    Tsai, M L; Liao, J H; Yeh, J H; Hsu, T C; Hon, S J; Chung, T Y; Lai, K Y


    High-voltage thin-film GaN LEDs with the emission wavelength of 455 nm were fabricated on ceramic substrates (230 W/m · K). The high-voltage operation was achieved by three cascaded sub-LEDs with dielectric passivation and metal bridges conformally deposited on the side walls. Under the driving power of 670 W/cm(2), the high-voltage LEDs exhibit much alleviated efficiency droop and the operative temperature below 80 °C. The excellent performances were attributed to the improved current spreading within each sub-LED and the superior heat sinking of the ceramic substrate.

  9. Highly efficient narrow-band green and red phosphors enabling wider color-gamut LED backlight for more brilliant displays. (United States)

    Wang, Le; Wang, Xiaojun; Kohsei, Takahashi; Yoshimura, Ken-ichi; Izumi, Makoto; Hirosaki, Naoto; Xie, Rong-Jun


    In this contribution, we propose to combine both narrow-band green (β-sialon:Eu(2+)) and red (K(2)SiF(6):Mn(4+)) phosphors with a blue InGaN chip to achieve white light-emitting diodes (wLEDs) with a large color gamut and a high efficiency for use as the liquid crystal display (LCD) backlighting. β-sialon:Eu(2+), prepared by a gas-pressure sinteing technique, has a peak emission at 535 nm, a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 54 nm, and an external quantum efficiency of 54.0% under the 450 nm excitation. K(2)SiF(6):Mn(4+) was synthesized by a twe-step co-precipitation methods, and exhibits a sharp line emission spectrum with the most intensified peak at 631 nm, a FWHM of ~3 nm, and an external quantum efficiency of 54.5%. The prepared three-band wLEDs have a high color temperature of 11,184 - 13,769 K (i.e., 7,828 - 8,611 K for LCD displays), and a luminous efficacy of 91 - 96 lm/W, measured under an applied current of 120 mA. The color gamut defined in the CIE 1931 and CIE 1976 color spaces are 85.5 - 85.9% and 94.3 - 96.2% of the NTSC stanadard, respectively. These optical properties are better than those phosphor-cpnverted wLED backlights using wide-band green or red phosphoprs, suggesting that the two narrow-band phosphors investigated are the most suitable luminescent materials for achieving more bright and vivid displays.

  10. Fabrication of high color rendering index white LED using Cd-free wavelength tunable Zn doped CuInS2 nanocrystals. (United States)

    Chung, Wonkeun; Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun


    Highly luminescent Cd-free Zn doped CuInS(2) nanocrystals (ZCIS NCs) were synthesized, and their properties were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Raman, UV, and photoluminescence. The crystal structure of the ZCIS NCs was similar to the zinc blende, and the lattice constant decreased with increasing Zn concentration. By incorporation of Zn, the emission wavelength was tuned from 536 to 637 nm with concomitant enhancement of the quantum yield up to 45%. A white light emitting diodes, integrating dual ZCIS NCs (λ(em) = 567, and 617 nm) and a 460 nm InGaN LED, exhibited a high color rendering index of 84.1 with a warm color temperature of 4256.2K. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates were slightly shifted from (0.3626, 0.3378) at 20 mA to (0.3480, 0.3206) at 50 mA.

  11. [Research on the Highly Stable White LED with CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot as Light Conversion Layer]. (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Jing-weil; Chen, An-ping; Zhang, Xuel; Yin, Lu-qiao; Zhang, Jian-hua


    In accordance with the one-step synthesis, in this paper, we synthesized 510, 550 and 630 nm three emission peaks CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots with high stability and high quantum yield whose quantum yield were 82%, 98% and 97%. We used the quantum dot material to replace the phosphor material, and mixed QDs with the silicone uniformly, then dispersed the QDs/silicone composites onto the blue InGaN LEDs to fabricate the QDs-WLEDs. By successively adding different colors of quantum dots for the preparation of quantum dot light converting layer, We investigated that how does the ratio of the three kind of quantum dots whose peaks were 510, 550 and 630 nm effect on the properties of the white LED devices. This paper also studied the mechanism of energy conversion between different colors of quantum dots. We also utilized the mechanism that the quantum dots effect on the white spectrum and color coordinates; we got the results of the optimization of the white device and the ratio of three-color quantum dots. The results show that when the quantum dot ratio is 24:7:10, white LED devices with high stability and high efficiency can be obtained, in the current range of 20-200 mA, the range of color temperature is from 4 607 to 5 920 K, the CIE-1931 coordinates is from (0.355 1,0.348 3) to (0.323 4, 0.336 1), the color rendering index is from 77. 6 to 84. 2, and the highest power efficiency of the devices achieves to 31.69 lm · W⁻¹ @ 20 mA. In addition, in order to further investigate the reason of stable device performance, We studied the effects of time, temperature, UV treatment on the stability of CdSe/ZnS QDs/silicone light conversion material, the results show that the excellent stability of the devices attributes to the stability of the one-step synthesis of core-shell structure of the quantum dot material, the final optimized device is a low-power high-quality white light source and the device has good application prospects in the field of standard white

  12. Highly efficient degradation of thidiazuron with Ag/AgCl- activated carbon composites under LED light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yisi [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Zhang, Yan [Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Application of Catalytic Materials, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Dong, Mingguang; Yan, Ting; Zhang, Maosheng [College of Chemical Engineering, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000 (China); Zeng, Qingru, E-mail: [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China)


    Highlights: • Photocatalytic degradation of thidiazuron was performed in a neutral water matrix. • This was carried out in the presence of Ag/AgCl-activated carbon composites and LED light. • The pH effect and the dominant active species were explored. • Degradation products and pathways in water were studied for the first time. - Abstract: Thidiazuron (TDZ; 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)urea) is one of the most widely used defoliant and easy to dissolve in surface water. Risk associated with the pesticide is not clearly defined, so it is important to remove/degrade TDZ with an efficient and environment friendly technology. Here, we investigated the use of Ag/AgCl-activated carbon (Ag/AgCl–AC) composites in photocatalytic degradation of TDZ under LED light. By the synergic effect of Ag/AgCl and AC, the optimum Ag/carbon weight ratio of 2:1 exhibited superior visible-light photocatalytic activity, the highest removal efficiency was close to 91% in pH 7 matrix. Different types of Ag/AgCl–AC composites were tested, all showed much faster photodegradation kinetics than bare Ag/AgCl in 210 min. The degradation products as identified by HPLC–MS revealed that the hydroxylation by hydroxyl radicals and that of oxidation by superoxide radicals as well as holes were the two main pathways for TDZ degradation. Results revealed that the adsorption concentrated TDZ molecules and the photocatalytically generated radicals rapidly degradated TDZ, the two contributions functioned together for removal of the pollutant from water.

  13. Factors Impeding Enzymatic Wheat Gluten Hydrolysis at High Solid Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.


    Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased

  14. Depth-specific optogenetic control in vivo with a scalable, high-density μLED neural probe (United States)

    Scharf, Robert; Tsunematsu, Tomomi; McAlinden, Niall; Dawson, Martin D.; Sakata, Shuzo; Mathieson, Keith


    Controlling neural circuits is a powerful approach to uncover a causal link between neural activity and behaviour. Optogenetics has been widely adopted by the neuroscience community as it offers cell-type-specific perturbation with millisecond precision. However, these studies require light delivery in complex patterns with cellular-scale resolution, while covering a large volume of tissue at depth in vivo. Here we describe a novel high-density silicon-based microscale light-emitting diode (μLED) array, consisting of up to ninety-six 25 μm-diameter μLEDs emitting at a wavelength of 450 nm with a peak irradiance of 400 mW/mm2. A width of 100 μm, tapering to a 1 μm point, and a 40 μm thickness help minimise tissue damage during insertion. Thermal properties permit a set of optogenetic operating regimes, with ~0.5 °C average temperature increase. We demonstrate depth-dependent activation of mouse neocortical neurons in vivo, offering an inexpensive novel tool for the precise manipulation of neural activity.

  15. Nurse led telephone assessment of expanded disability status scale assessment in MS patients at high levels of disability. (United States)

    Huda, S; Cavey, A; Izat, A; Mattison, P; Boggild, M; Palace, J


    In clinical trials drop out bias reduces the validity of results. This is a particular problem in long-term multiple sclerosis (MS) studies, particularly when patients become progressively disabled and have increasing difficulty attending assessment clinics. To assess the validity of nurse led telephone assessment of Expanded Disability Status Scale (TEDSS) in MS patients with EDSS scores >6.0. We performed a multi-centre, single blind trial to assess nurse derived TEDSS against physician face-to-face EDSS scores derived from neurological examination (FEDSS) in patients with clinically definite MS and EDSS >6.0. Ninety patients (n=15 primary progressive MS, n=74 secondary progressive MS, n=1 relapsing remitting MS) had a mean baseline FEDSS of 7.5. TEDSS correlated with FEDSS (r=0.76, pEDSS points, and within 1 EDSS point were 0.25, 0.86, and 1.0 respectively. Intra-class correlation between the scoring systems was 0.88, representing a high level of agreement. Nurse-led telephone assessment of EDSS gives good agreement with physician derived face-to-face EDSS in MS patients with higher disability scores. This may be a valuable tool to improve clinical follow-up in routine clinical practice and improve patient retention in long-term outcome studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. LED and low level laser therapy association in tooth bleaching using a novel low concentration H2O2/N-doped TiO2 bleaching agent (United States)

    Bezerra Dias, Hércules; Teixeira Carrera, Emanuelle; Freitas Bortolatto, Janaína; Ferrarezi de Andrade, Marcelo; Nara de Souza Rastelli, Alessandra


    Since low concentration bleaching agents containing N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been introduced as an alternative to conventional agents, it is important to verify their efficacy and the hypersensitivity effect in clinical practice. Six volunteer patients were evaluated for color change and hypersensitivity after bleaching using 35% H2O2 (one session of two 12 min applications) and 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 (one session of three 12 min applications) and after low level laser therapy application (LLLT) (780 nm, 40 mW, 10, 10 s). Based on this case study, the nanobleaching agent provided better or similar aesthetic results than the conventional agent under high concentration, and its association with LLLT satisfactorily decreased the hypersensitivity. The 6% H2O2/N-doped TiO2 agent could be used instead of conventional in-office bleaching agents under high concentrations to fulfill the rising patient demand for aesthetics.

  17. Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator Demonstrated High-Temperature Operation (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.


    Space applications that utilize solar thermal energy--such as electric power conversion systems, thermal propulsion systems, and furnaces--require highly efficient solar concentration systems. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced lightweight primary concentrators, such as inflatable thin films, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios and very high temperatures. Last year, Glenn successfully demonstrated a secondary concentrator throughput efficiency of 87 percent, with a projected efficiency of 93 percent using an antireflective coating. Building on this achievement, Glenn recently successfully demonstrated high-temperature operation of the secondary concentrator when it was used to heat a rhenium receiver to 2330 F. The high-temperature demonstration of the concentrator was conducted in Glenn's 68-ft long Tank 6 thermal vacuum facility equipped with a solar simulator. The facility has a rigid panel primary concentrator that was used to concentrate the light from the solar simulator onto the refractive secondary concentrator. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center provided a rhenium cavity, part of a solar thermal propulsion engine, to serve as the high-temperature receiver. The prototype refractive secondary concentrator, measuring 3.5 in. in diameter and 11.2 in. long, is made of single-crystal sapphire. A water-cooled splash shield absorbs spillage light outside of the 3.5-in. concentrator aperture. Multilayer foil insulation composed of tungsten, molybdenum, and niobium is used to minimize heat loss from the hightemperature receiver. A liquid-cooled canister calorimeter is used to measure the heat loss through the multilayer foil insulation.

  18. Hybrid 2D photonic crystal-assisted Lu3Al5O12:Ce ceramic-plate phosphor and free-standing red film phosphor for white LEDs with high color-rendering index. (United States)

    Park, Hoo Keun; Oh, Ji Hye; Kang, Heejoon; Zhang, Jian; Do, Young Rag


    This paper reports the combined optical effects of a two-dimensional (2D) SiNx photonic crystal layer (PCL)-assisted Lu3Al5O12:Ce (LuAG:Ce) green ceramic-plate phosphor (CPP) and a free-standing (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu red film phosphor to enhance luminous efficacy, color rendering index (CRI), and special CRI (R9) of LuAG:Ce CPP-capped white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for high-power white LEDs at 350 mA. By introducing the 2D SiNx PCL, the luminous efficacy was improved by a factor of 1.25 and 1.15 compared to that of the conventional flat CPP-capped LED and the thickness-increased CPP-capped LED (with a thickness of 0.15 mm), respectively, while maintaining low color-rendering properties. The combining of the free-standing red film phosphor in the flat CPP-capped, the 2D PCL-assisted CPP-capped, and the thickness-increased CPP-capped LEDs led to enhancement of the CRI and the special CRI (R9); it also led to a decrease of the correlated color temperature (CCT) due to broad wavelength coverage via the addition of red emission. High CRI (94), natural white CCT (4450 K), and acceptable luminous efficacy (71.1 lm/W) were attained from the 2D PCL-assisted LuAG:Ce CPP/free-standing red film phosphor-based LED using a red phosphor concentration of 7.5 wt %. It is expected that the combination of the 2D PCL and the free-standing red film phosphor will be a good candidate for achieving a high-power white CPP-capped LED with excellent CRI.

  19. Fabrication and tolerances of optics for high concentration photovoltaics


    Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Ahmadpanaih, Hamed; Mendes Lopes, Joao; Zamora Herranz, Pablo


    High Concentration Photovoltaics (HCPV) require an optical system with high efficiency, low cost and large tolerance. We describe the particularities of the HCPV applications, which constrain the optics design and the manufacturing techonologies.

  20. Economic feasibility of replacing sodium vapor and high pressure mercury vapor bulbs with LEDs for street lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olorunfemi Bamisile


    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to examine the feasibility of an energy audit program. LEDs are used to replace the sodium vapor lamps and high-pressured mercury vapor lamps that are currently used for the street lighting system in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 44% of the fossil fuels imported into the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is used for electricity generation, which makes the reduction in the consumption of electicity very important. This project will save as much as 36,880,410 kWh on site annually and 111,758,818 kWh from the source. The economic, environmental, and fossil fuels savings of this project are also evaluated.

  1. Effect of reduced exposure times on the cytotoxicity of resin luting cements cured by high-power led

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfem Ergun


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Applications of resin luting agents and high-power light-emitting diodes (LED light-curing units (LCUs have increased considerably over the last few years. However, it is not clear whether the effect of reduced exposure time on cytotoxicity of such products have adequate biocompatibility to meet clinical success. This study aimed at assessing the effect of reduced curing time of five resin luting cements (RLCs polymerized by high-power LED curing unit on the viability of a cell of L-929 fibroblast cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disc-shaped samples were prepared in polytetrafluoroethylene moulds with cylindrical cavities. The samples were irradiated from the top through the ceramic discs and acetate strips using LED LCU for 20 s (50% of the manufacturer's recommended exposure time and 40 s (100% exposure time. After curing, the samples were transferred into a culture medium for 24 h. The eluates were obtained and pipetted onto L-929 fibroblast cultures (3x10(4 per well and incubated for evaluating after 24 h. Measurements were performed by dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium assay. Statistical significance was determined by two-way ANOVA and two independent samples were compared by t-test. RESULTS: Results showed that eluates of most of the materials polymerized for 20 s (except Rely X Unicem and Illusion reduced to a higher extent cell viability compared to samples of the same materials polymerized for 40 s. Illusion exhibited the least cytotoxicity for 20 s exposure time compared to the control (culture without samples followed by Rely X Unicem and Rely X ARC (90.81%, 88.90%, and 83.11%, respectively. For Rely X ARC, Duolink and Lute-It 40 s exposure time was better (t=-1.262 p=0,276; t=-9.399 p=0.001; and t=-20.418 p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that reduction of curing time significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of the studied resin cement materials, therefore compromising their clinical

  2. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag


    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.


    High-speed optical sorting of seeds in commercial processing is routinely practiced for removal of discolored seeds, seeds from volunteer plants, and non-seed objects. Sorters are conventionally based on monochromatic or bichromatic light from broad wavebands in the visible and near-infrared region...

  4. Large area LED package (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.


    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  5. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.


    [1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide......-swath synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scenes. The analysis is confined to the high-concentration Arctic sea ice, where the ice cover is near 100%. During winter the results indicate that the variability of the SSM/I concentration estimates is larger than the true variability of ice concentration. Results from...... a trusted subset of the SAR scenes across the central Arctic allow the separation of the ice concentration uncertainty due to emissivity variations and sensor noise from other error sources during the winter of 2003-2004. Depending on the algorithm, error standard deviations from 2.5 to 5.0% are found...

  6. High Stokes shift perylene dyes for luminescent solar concentrators. (United States)

    Sanguineti, Alessandro; Sassi, Mauro; Turrisi, Riccardo; Ruffo, Riccardo; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Meinardi, Francesco; Beverina, Luca


    Highly efficient plastic based single layer Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) require the design of luminophores having complete spectral separation between absorption and emission spectra (large Stokes shift). We describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a new perylene dye possessing Stokes shift as high as 300 meV, fluorescent quantum yield in the LSC slab of 70% and high chemical and photochemical stability.

  7. Hair and toenail arsenic concentrations of residents living in areas with high environmental arsenic concentrations.


    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H


    Surface soil and groundwater in Australia have been found to contain high concentrations of arsenic. The relative importance of long-term human exposure to these sources has not been established. Several studies have investigated long-term exposure to environmental arsenic concentrations using hair and toenails as the measure of exposure. Few have compared the difference in these measures of environmental sources of exposure. In this study we aimed to investigate risk factors for elevated hai...

  8. Ammonium hydroxide modulated synthesis of high-quality fluorescent carbon dots for white LEDs with excellent color rendering properties (United States)

    Wang, Shengda; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Nan; Li, Guopeng; Yu, Dabin; Jiang, Yang


    A novel type of aqueous fluorescent carbon dot (CD) was synthesized using citric acid as the only carbon source via an ammonium hydroxide modulated method, providing a blue color gamut. The amino group is considered to be the key factor in the high fluorescence of CDs and a model is established to investigate the mechanism of fluorescence. In addition, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the prepared CDs and rare earth luminescent materials (SrSi2O2N2:Eu and Sr2Si5N8:Eu) as color conversion layers and UV-LED chips as the excitation light source. The WLEDs produce bright white light with attractive color rendering properties including a color rendering index of up to 95.1, a CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.37), and a T c of 5447 K under a 100 mA driven current, indicating that the CDs are promising in the field of optoelectronic devices.

  9. Large-scale SiO2 photonic crystal for high efficiency GaN LEDs by nanospherical-lens lithography (United States)

    Wu, Kui; Wei, Tong-Bo; Lan, Ding; Zheng, Hai-Yang; Wang, Jun-Xi; Luo, Yi; Li, Jin-Min


    Wafer-scale SiO2 photonic crystal (PhC) patterns (SiO2 air-hole PhC, SiO2-pillar PhC) on indium tin oxide (ITO) layer of GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) are fabricated via novel nanospherical-lens lithography. Nanoscale polystyrene spheres are self-assembled into a hexagonal closed-packed monolayer array acting as convex lens for exposure using conventional lithography instrument. The light output power is enhanced by as great as 40.5% and 61% over those of as-grown LEDs, for SiO2-hole PhC and SiO2-pillar PhC LEDs, respectively. No degradation to LED electrical properties is found due to the fact that SiO2 PhC structures are fabricated on ITO current spreading electrode. For SiO2-pillar PhC LEDs, which have the largest light output power in all LEDs, no dry etching, which would introduce etching damage, was involved. Our method is demonstrated to be a simple, low cost, and high-yield technique for fabricating the PhC LEDs. Furthermore, the finite difference time domain simulation is also performed to further reveal the emission characteristics of LEDs with PhC structures.

  10. Applications of nonimaging optics for very high solar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.


    Using the principles and techniques of nonimaging optics, solar concentrations that approach the theoretical maximum can be achieved. This has applications in solar energy collection wherever concentration is desired. In this paper, we survey recent progress in attaining and using high and ultrahigh solar fluxes. We review a number of potential applications for highly concentrated solar energy and the current status of the associated technology. By making possible new and unique applications for intense solar flux, these techniques have opened a whole new frontier for research and development of potentially economic uses of solar energy.

  11. Implementation of a Low-Cost Automated LED Photometer for Enzymatic Reaction Detection to Teach Basic Bioelectronics Technologies in Vocational High Schools (United States)

    Chen, Huai-Yi; Nieh, Hwa-Ming; Yang, Ming-Feng; Chou, Yu-Kung; Chung, Jui-Hsu; Liou, Je-Wen


    This study proposes a home-assembled, low-cost blue light-emitting diode (LED) photometer that uses simple and low-cost hardware and software, costing about US $150. This 425-nm wavelength photometer is controlled by an 89C51 microcontroller chip. Glucose concentration detection experiments involving enzyme coupling reactions were carried out to…

  12. Self-assembling semicrystalline polymer into highly ordered, microscopic concentric rings by evaporation. (United States)

    Byun, Myunghwan; Hong, Suck Won; Zhu, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun


    A drop of semicrystalline polymer, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), solution was placed in a restricted geometry consisting of a sphere on a flat substrate (i.e., sphere-on-flat geometry). Upon solvent evaporation from the sphere-on-flat geometry, microscopic concentric rings of PEO with appropriate high molecular weight were produced via controlled, repetitive pinning ("stick") and depinning ("slip") cycles of the contact line. The evaporation-induced concentric rings of PEO exhibited a fibrillar-like surface morphology. Subsequent isothermal crystallization of rings at 40 and 58 degrees C led to the formation of multilayer of flat-on lamellae (i.e., spiral morphology). In between adjacent spirals, depletion zones were developed during crystallization, as revealed by AFM measurements. The present highly ordered, concentric PEO rings may serve as a platform to study cell adhesion and motility, neuron guidance, cell mechanotransduction, and other biological processes.

  13. Optimal spectra of the phosphor-coated white LEDs with excellent color rendering property and high luminous efficacy of radiation. (United States)

    He, Guoxing; Yan, Huafeng


    A model for spectra of the phosphor-coated white LED (p-W LED) with a blue chip, a red chip, and green and yellow phosphors is presented. The optimal spectra of p-W LEDs with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2700-6500 K have been obtained with a nonlinear program for maximizing luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) under conditions of both color-rendering indices (CRIs) and special CRIs of R9 strong red above 98. The simulation results show that p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue (450 nm) chip, one AlGaInP red (634 nm) chip, and green (507 nm) and yellow (580 nm) silicate phosphors can realize white lights with CRIs of about 98 and special CRIs of R9 for strong red above 98. The average of the special CRIs R9 to R12 for the four saturated colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) is above 95. R13 for the skin of women's faces at about 100, as well as LERs above 296 lm/W at CCTs of 2700-6500 K. LERs of excellent CRI p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue chip, one AlGaInP red chip, and green and yellow silicate phosphors increased by 19-49% when compared with that of excellent CRI p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue chip and green and yellow silicate phosphors, as well as red nitride phosphor.

  14. Electron beam treatment of exhaust gas with high NOx concentration (United States)

    Licki, Janusz; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Pawelec, Andrzej; Zimek, Zbigniew; Witman, Sylwia


    Simulated exhaust gases with a high NOx concentration, ranging from 200 to 1700 ppmv, were irradiated by an electron beam from an accelerator. In the first part of this study, only exhaust gases were treated. Low NOx removal efficiencies were obtained for high NOx concentrations, even with high irradiation doses applied. In the second part of study, gaseous ammonia or/and vapor ethanol were added to the exhaust gas before its inlet to the plasma reactor. These additions significantly enhanced the NOx removal efficiency. The synergistic effect of high SO2 concentration on NOx removal was observed. The combination of electron beam treatment with the introduction of the above additions and with the performance of irradiation under optimal parameters ensured high NOx removal efficiency without the application of a solid-state catalyst.

  15. [Reasons of high concentration ammonium in Yellow River, China]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-qing; Xia, Xing-hui; Yang, Zhi-feng


    Ammonium nitrogen contamination is one of the major problems of the Yellow River in China. The speciation, concentration and sources of nitrogen compounds as well as the water environment conditions of the Yellow River had been analyzed to study the reasons for the fact that the ammonium nitrogen concentration was above the water quality standard. In addition, laboratory experiments had been carried out to investigate the effects of suspended sediment (SS) on nitrification rate. The results indicated that the presence of SS could accelerate the nitrification process, therefore, the effects of SS on nitrification rate was not the reason for the high level of ammonium nitrogen in the river. The excessive and continuous input of nitrogen contaminants to the river was the fundamental reason for the high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. Organic and ammonium nitrogen with high concentration inhibitted the nitrification processes. When the initial NH4+ -N concentrations were 10.1, 18.4 and 28.2 mg/L, nitrification efficiencies were 17.4%, 13.0% and 2.5%, respectively. When the initial organic nitrogen concentrations were 5.5 and 8.6 mg/L, the maximum concentrations of ammonium nitrogen produced by the oxidation of organic nitrogen would reach 0.47 and 1.69 mg/L and they would last for 2 days and 6 days, respectively. The oxygen-consuming organics and toxic substance existing in the river water could inhibit the activity of nitrifying bacteria, and thus lead to the accumulation of ammonium nitrogen. In addition, the high pH value of river water resulted in the high concentration of nonionic ammonium nitrogen which would reduce the activity of nitrifying bacteria and decrease the nitrification rates. Besides, low river runoff, low SS content and low activity of nitrifying bacteria resulted in the high level of ammonium nitrogen of the river in the low water season.

  16. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy


    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  17. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.


    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  18. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, William [Veeco Process Equipment, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)


    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LED's into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield

  19. Graphene oxide modified ZnO nanorods hybrid with high reusable photocatalytic activity under UV-LED irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Kai, E-mail: [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China); Lu, Luhua, E-mail: [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liang, Changhao; Dai, Jianming [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhu, Guangping; Liu, Zhongliang; Liu, Qinzhuang; Zhang, Yongxing [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China)


    In this work, graphene oxide/zinc oxide (GO/ZnO) hybrid was prepared through a facile hydrothermal process. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectra and N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption isotherms were used to investigate the morphology, crystal structure, optical properties and specific surface area of GO/ZnO hybrid. It was shown that the well-dispersed ZnO nanorods were deposited on GO homogeneously. Photocatalytic properties of GO/ZnO nanorods hybrid were evaluated under 375 nm light-emitting diode light irradiation for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB). The synergic effect between GO and ZnO was found to lead to an improved photo-generated carrier separation. An optimal GO content has been determined to be 3 wt%, and corresponding the apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant k{sub app} is 0.0248 min{sup −1}, 4.3 times and 2.5 times more than that of pure ZnO nanorods and commercial P25 photocatalyst, respectively. Moreover, the cyclic photocatalytic test indicated that GO/ZnO hybrid can be reused for degradation of MB, suggesting the possible application of GO/ZnO hybrid as excellent candidate for water treatment. - Highlights: • GO/ZnO hybrid was successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process. • GO/ZnO hybrid showed high photocatalytic activity with irradiation of LED light. • Effective photo-electrons separation and fast transportation. • Excellent recycled performance was achieved by GO/ZnO hybrid.

  20. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature. (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young


    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  1. High efficiency GaN-based LEDs using plasma selective treatment of p-GaN surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Bae; Naoi, Yoshiki; Sakai, Shiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Takaki, Ryohei; Sato, Hisao [Nitride Semiconductor Co., Ltd., 115-7 Itayajima, Akinokami, Seto-cho, Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan)


    We have studied a new method of increasing the extraction efficiency of a GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) using a plasma surface treatment. In this method, prior to the evaporation of a semitransparent p-metal, the surface of a p-GaN located beneath a p-pad is selectively exposed to a nitrogen plasma in a reactive ion etching (RIE) chamber. The electrical characteristics of the plasma treated p-GaN remarkably changes its resistivity into semi-insulator without any parasitic damage. Since the LEDs with a new method have no light absorption in a p-pad region, a higher optical power can be extracted compared to a conventional LEDs without plasma selective treatment on the p-GaN surface. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C......Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.4...

  3. High estrogen concentrations in receiving river discharge from a concentrated livestock feedlot. (United States)

    Chen, Te-San; Chen, Ting-Chien; Yeh, Kuei-Jyum C; Chao, How-Ran; Liaw, Ean-Tun; Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Yeh, Yi-Lung


    Environmental estrogenic chemicals interrupt endocrine systems and generate reproductive abnormalities in wildlife, especially natural and synthetic estrogenic steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) are of particular concern since large amounts of naturally excreted estrogens are discharged into aquatic environments. This study investigated E2, E1, E3, EE2, and DES with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass (HPLC-MS/MS) analyses along Wulo Creek in southern Taiwan, near a concentrated livestock feedlot containing 1,030,000 broiler chickens, 934,000 laying hens, 85,000 pigs, and 1500 cattle. Sampling was performed from December 2008 to May 2009, in which 54 samples were collected. Experimental results indicate that concentrations of EE2 were lower than the limit of detection (LOD), and concentrations of DES were only detected twice. Concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 1267 ng/L for E1, from not detected (ND) to 313.6 ng/L for E2, and from ND to 210 ng/L for E3. E1 had the highest average mass fraction (72.2 + or - 3.6%), which was significantly higher than E3 (16.2 + or - 1.7%) and E2 (11.5 + or - 2.6%). Additionally, the mean E2 equivalent quotient (EEQ) ranged from 17.3 to 137.9 ng-E2/L. Despite having a markedly lower concentration than E1, E2 more significantly contributed (52.4 + or - 6.0%) EEQ than E1 (19.7 + or - 3.5%). Moreover, the concentrations of E2, E1, and E3 upstream were significantly higher than concentrations downstream, suggesting a high attenuation effect and fast degradation in the study water. Most concentrations in winter season were higher than those of spring season due to the low dilution effect and low microbial activity in the winter season. Based on the results of this study, we recommend further treatment of the wastewater discharge from the feedlot.

  4. Biodegradation dynamics of high catechol concentrations by Aspergillus awamori. (United States)

    Stanchev, Veselin; Stoilova, Ivanka; Krastanov, Albert


    The biodegradation process of high catechol concentrations by Aspergillus awamori was investigated. The values of the kinetic constants for a model of specific growth rate at different initial conditions were determined. At 1.0 g/L catechol concentration, the biodegradation process proceeded in the conditions of substrate limitation. At higher catechol concentrations (2.0 and 3.0 g/L) a presence of substrate inhibition was established. The dynamics of the specific catechol degradation rate was studied and the values of catechol and biomass concentrations, maximizing the specific catechol degradation rate, were estimated analytically. The specified ratio catechol/biomass could serve as a starting base for determination of the initial conditions for a batch process, for specifying the moment of feeding for a fed-batch process, and for monitoring and control of a continuous process by the aim of time-optimal control.

  5. Denali Geographic 2012 : A University led scientific field experience for High School students at the Alaska Summer Research Academy (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Burke, S.; Chebul, E.; Dempsey, A.; Hastings, H.; Terry, R.; Drake, J.


    The Alaska Summer Research Academy (ASRA) annually provides the opportunity for ~150 exceptional high school students to engage in scientific exploration at the university level. In July 2012, University of Alaska Fairbanks instructors led a two-week long ASRA module, called 'Denali Geographic', where eight student participants from across the USA and Canada learned how to observe changes in the natural world and design their own experiments for a field expedition to Denali National Park and Preserve, with assistance from the National Park Service. Each student designed an experiment/observational project prior to the expedition to investigate changes across the expanse of the park. Projects included wildlife documentation; scat and track observations; soil ph and moisture with elevation and vegetation changes; wildflowers species distribution; waterborne insect populations; atmospheric pressure and temperature variations; construction of sustainable buildings to minimize human impact on the park; and park geology comparisons between outcrop and distal stream deposits. The students learned how to design experiments, purchase supplies needed to conduct the work, and select good locations in which to sample in the park. Students used equipment such as GPS to mark field locations; a range finder to determine distance from wildlife; a hygrometer for temperature and pressure; nets and sorting equipments to analyze insects; and the preparation of Plaster of Paris for creating casts of animal tracks. All observations were documented in their field notebooks and blog entries made to share their experiences. Day excursions as part of the module included Poker Flats Research Range, where students learned about the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in scientific exploration; Alaska Volcano Observatory, where students learned about volcanic hazards in Alaska and the North Pacific; Chena Hot Springs and the Ice Museum, where students learned about thermal imaging using a Forward

  6. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders. (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen


    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  7. 功率型LED封装用高分子材料的研究进展%Research Progress of Polymer Materials for High-Power LED Encapsulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高南; 刘伟区; 闫振龙; 孙越; 陈海生


    With the development of high-power light emitting diode (HP-LED), the packaging material of LED has become an important key technique for LED lighting in daily life. As for high-power LED, the characteristics of high refractive index, high transmittance, high thermal conductivity, excellent UV/thermal resistance, low stress and water absorption are required. At present, the polymer materials for LED packaging mainly included epoxy resins and organosilicones, and a lot of researches about modifications of them are focused on improving the refractive index, aging resistance, thermal conductivity, water absorption and mechanical property to satisfy the demands of high-power LED packaging. Among the materials, cycloaliphatic epoxy resins and nano-composite of organosilicones have wide development prospections for high-power LED encapsulations.%随着发光二极管(LED)亮度和功率的不断提高,封装材料已成为制约LED进入照明领域的关键技术之一。对于功率型LED封装材料,要求具有高折射率、高透光率、高导热率、耐紫外、耐热老化、低应力、低吸水率等性能特点。目前LED封装用两大主要高分子材料是环氧树脂和有机硅复合材料。对这两种材料的改性主要集中在折射率、耐老化性、导热性、吸水性和力学性能等方面。脂环族环氧树脂及纳米有机硅复合材料作为高功率LED封装材料具有广阔的发展前景。

  8. Thermo-mechanical model optimization of HB-LED packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Erinc, M.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Waal, A. van der; Driel, W. van; Zhang, K.


    Lighting is an advancing phenomenon both on the technology and on the market level due to the rapid development of the solid state lighting technology. The efforts in improving the efficacy of high brightness LED's (HB-LED) have concentrated on the packaging architecture. Packaging plays a significa

  9. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.


    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system solar cell at >660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  10. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  11. Optimization of Scatterer Concentration in High-Gain Scattering Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jiu-Gao; ZHU He-Yuan; SUN Die-Chi; DU Ge-Guo; LI Fu-Ming


    We report the scatterer concentration-dependent behaviour of laser action in high-gain scattering media. Amodified model of a random laser is proposed to explain the experimental results in good agreement. We mayuse this modified model to design and optimize the random laser system. A further detailed model is needed toquantitatively analyse the far-field distribution of random laser action.

  12. Comparison of LED and conventional fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in an area with high tuberculosis incidence. (United States)

    Marzouk, Manel; Ferjani, Asma; Dhaou, Mohamed; Ali, Moufida Haj; Hannachi, Naila; Boukadida, Jalel


    The objective of the study is to compare the performance of conventional fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy (FM) for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in clinical samples. We included AFB smears, stained using the auramine O method and blindly examined with both CFM and LED-FM. Culture results were used as reference for evaluating the reliability of the FM. We included 180 culture positive specimens and an equal number of culture negative specimens. Sensitivities for the CFM and LED-FM were 79.4% and 82.2%, respectively. Both microscopes had a high specificity (97.2%). The negative-positive (>1 cross) inter-reader agreement of LED-FM and CFM was excellent. Therefore, detection of scanty AFB was higher with LED-FM. Both microscopes were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears. Although it was not faster than CFM, the higher detection of scanty AFB smears combined with ease of use supports the consideration of LED microscopy by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes.

  13. Research Update: Challenges for high-efficiency hybrid lead-halide perovskite LEDs and the path towards electrically pumped lasing


    Guangru Li; Michael Price; Felix Deschler


    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as promising solution-processed semiconductor materials for thin-film optoelectronics. In this review, we discuss current challenges in perovskite LED performance, using thin-film and nano-crystalline perovskite as emitter layers, and look at device performance and stability. Fabrication of electrically pumped, optical-feedback devices with hybrid lead halide perovskites as gain medium is a future challenge, initiated by the demonstration of optical...

  14. [Toxic effects of high concentrations of ammonia on Euglena gracilis]. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei


    Ammonia is among the common contaminants in aquatic environments. The present study aimed at evaluation of the toxicity of ammonia at high concentration by detecting its effects on the growth, pigment contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and DNA damage (comet assay) of a unicellular microalga, Euglena gracilis. Ammonia restrained the growth of E. gracilis, while at higher concentrations, ammonia showed notable inhibition effect, the growth at 2 000 mg x L(-1) was restrained to 55.7% compared with that of the control; The contents of photosynthetic pigments and protein went up with increasing ammonia dosage and decreased when the ammonia concentration was above 1000 mg x L(-1); In addition, there was an obvious increase in SOD and POD activities, at higher concentration (2 000 mg x L(-1)), activities of SOD and POD increased by 30.7% and 49.4% compared with those of the control, indicating that ammonia could promote activities of antioxidant enzymes in E. gracilis; The degree of DNA damage observed in the comet assay increased with increasing ammonia concentration, which suggested that high dose of ammonia may have potential mutagenicity on E. gracilis.

  15. 一种高功率因数交流 LED 驱动电路的设计%Design of AC LED Driver Circuit with High Power Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘生建; 马桂芳; 邱晓芬


    传统的LED驱动电路由于采用AC-DC变换器,需要大的电感和电解电容,导致LED驱动电路存在体积大、成本高、寿命短等问题,提出一种新型交流电压直接驱动的LED驱动电路。该驱动电路仅需要MOSFETs和运放等有源器件,输入电流能跟随输入电压呈正弦波形变换,以获得高功率因数和低THD。仿真和实验验证该驱动电路的电气特性。%Conventional LED drivers consist of AC -DC converters which require passive components such as high value inductors and electrolytic capacitors for their operation ,the use of such components increases the size and cost of the LED system while de-creasing the overall life time , a novel driver circuit that can directly run from AC voltage is presented .The proposed driver circuit only needs active devices like MOSFETs and op -amps for power processing ,the input current is selectively controlled to follow a sinusoidal waveform to achieve low harmonic distortion and high power factor .The efficiency of the proposed system is around 80%for a 1.5W converter with 8% total harmonic distortion and 0.97 power factor,both simulation and experimental results have been presented to verify the operation of the proposed circuit .

  16. High-efficiency organic solar concentrators for photovoltaics. (United States)

    Currie, Michael J; Mapel, Jonathan K; Heidel, Timothy D; Goffri, Shalom; Baldo, Marc A


    The cost of photovoltaic power can be reduced with organic solar concentrators. These are planar waveguides with a thin-film organic coating on the face and inorganic solar cells attached to the edges. Light is absorbed by the coating and reemitted into waveguide modes for collection by the solar cells. We report single- and tandem-waveguide organic solar concentrators with quantum efficiencies exceeding 50% and projected power conversion efficiencies as high as 6.8%. The exploitation of near-field energy transfer, solid-state solvation, and phosphorescence enables 10-fold increases in the power obtained from photovoltaic cells, without the need for solar tracking.

  17. Bioleaching of marmatite in high concentration of iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱冠周; 吴伯增; 覃文庆; 蓝卓越


    Bioleaching of marmatite with a culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans in high concentration of iron was studied, the results show that the zinc leaching rate of the mixed culture is faster than that of the sole Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, the increasing iron concentration in leaching solution enhances the zinc leaching rate. The SEM analysis indicates that the chemical leaching residues is covered with porous solid layer of elemental sulfur, while elemental sulfur is not found in the bacterial leaching residues. The primary role of bacteria in bioleaching of sphalerite is to oxidize the chemical leaching products of ferrous ion and elemental sulfur, thus the indirect mechanism prevails in the bioleaching of marmatite.

  18. High concentration of calcium ions in Golgi apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The interphase NIH3T3 cells were vitally fluorescentstained with calcium indicator fluo-3 and Glogi probe C6-NBD-ceramide,and then the single cells were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy(LSCFM) for subcellular distributions of Ca2+ and the location of Golgi apparatus.In these cells,the intracellular Ca2+ were found to be highly concentrated in the Golgi apparatus.The changes of distribution of cytosolic high Ca2+ region and the Golgi apparatus coincided with the cell cycle phase.In calcium free medium,when the plasma membrane of the cells which had been loaded with fluo-3/AM were permeated by digitonin,the fluorescence of the Golgi region decreased far less than that of the cytosol.Our results indicated that the Glogi lumen retained significantly high concentration of free calcium.

  19. Review of silicon solar cells for high concentrations (United States)

    Schwartz, R. J.


    The factors that limit the performance of high concentration silicon solar cells are reviewed. The design of a conventional high concentration cell is discussed, together with the present state of the art. Unconventional cell designs that have been proposed to overcome the limitations of the conventional design are reviewed and compared. The current status of unconventional cells is reviewed. Among the unconventional cells discussed are the interdigitated back-contact cell, the double-sided cell, the polka dot cell, and the V-groove cell. It is noted that all the designs for unconventional cells require long diffusion lengths for high efficiency operation, even though the demands in this respect are less for those cells with the optical path longer than the diffusion path.

  20. Facile Preparation and Ultrastable Performance of Single-Component White-Light-Emitting Phosphor-in-Glass used for High-Power Warm White LEDs. (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Yu, Jinbo; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Chenbiao; Zhang, Jinhui; Zou, Rui; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, YingLiang; Wu, Mingmei


    Long lifetime, excellent chromatic stability, and easily obtainable white light are becoming three outstanding challenges faced by the state-of-the-art high-power white LEDs. This study explored a novel single-component white-light-emitting phosphor-in-glass (PiG) for the first time. It has a quantum efficiency of 26.2% and exhibits excellent heat-resistance and good humidity-resistance characteristics which are rarely reported in traditional phosphor slurry. A proof-of-concept warm white LEDs was fabricated by combining PiG with near-ultraviolet chip-on-board (n-UV COB). This method reported in this letter will open a new and simple approach to obtain excellent performance single-component luminescent convertor for advanced high-power white LEDs.

  1. Decomposition of high concentration SF6 using an electron beam (United States)

    Son, Youn-Suk; Lee, Sung-Joo; Choi, Chang Yong; Park, Jun-Hyeong; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Jung, In-Ha


    In this study, high concentration SF6 (2-10%) was decomposed using an electron beam irradiation. Various influential factors were investigated to improve the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF6. The initial concentrations of SF6, absorbed doses, SF6/H2 ratios and retention times were the main factors of concern. As a result, the DRE increased as the adsorbed dose and retention time increased. The DRE of SF6 also increased up to 20% approximately when H2 was added to the reaction mixture. On the other hand, the DRE of SF6 decreased as initial concentrations of SF6 increased. Finally, the main by-product formed from SF6 decomposition by the electron beam was HF.

  2. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon eOren


    Full Text Available Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments.

  3. Research Update: Challenges for high-efficiency hybrid lead-halide perovskite LEDs and the path towards electrically pumped lasing (United States)

    Li, Guangru; Price, Michael; Deschler, Felix


    Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as promising solution-processed semiconductor materials for thin-film optoelectronics. In this review, we discuss current challenges in perovskite LED performance, using thin-film and nano-crystalline perovskite as emitter layers, and look at device performance and stability. Fabrication of electrically pumped, optical-feedback devices with hybrid lead halide perovskites as gain medium is a future challenge, initiated by the demonstration of optically pumped lasing structures with low gain thresholds. We explain the material parameters affecting optical gain in perovskites and discuss the challenges towards electrically pumped perovskite lasers.

  4. Research Update: Challenges for high-efficiency hybrid lead-halide perovskite LEDs and the path towards electrically pumped lasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangru Li


    Full Text Available Hybrid lead-halide perovskites have emerged as promising solution-processed semiconductor materials for thin-film optoelectronics. In this review, we discuss current challenges in perovskite LED performance, using thin-film and nano-crystalline perovskite as emitter layers, and look at device performance and stability. Fabrication of electrically pumped, optical-feedback devices with hybrid lead halide perovskites as gain medium is a future challenge, initiated by the demonstration of optically pumped lasing structures with low gain thresholds. We explain the material parameters affecting optical gain in perovskites and discuss the challenges towards electrically pumped perovskite lasers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Paniagua-Pardo


    Full Text Available Dado su alto valor nutricional y los beneficios a la salud por los compuestos anticancerígenos que posee, el brócoli (Brassica oleraceaL. se ha convertido en un cultivo de importancia dentro de las hortalizas, por lo que es necesario incrementar su consumo y producción por la sociedad mexicana. Esta investigación planteó como objetivo evaluar el efecto de la luz LED de alta intensidad de distinta longitud de onda (rojo, azul y verde, en germinación y crecimiento de plántulas de brócoli, evaluando las variables velocidad de germinación (VG, porcentaje de germinación (PGF, longitud media de hipocótilo (LMH, peso fresco (PF y seco (PS de las plántulas, en busca de alternativas de iluminación para la producción en ambiente controlado. Los tiempos de exposición con luz roja, azul y verde, proveniente de LEDs de alta intensidad fueron de 12, seis y tres horas, con un complemento de tiempo para los últimos dos tratamientos con luz LED blanca. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con cuatro repeticiones de 30 semillas por unidad experimental. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los tratamientos de las variables evaluadas. Los tratamientos con luz roja presentaron los mayores valores de VG, donde el rojo por 12 horas fue el mejor con incrementos del 25% contra el control. La variable LMH en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas tuvo incremento del 39% respecto al control, convirtiéndose en el mejor. Por otro lado, en la variable PF, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento verde por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 16%. Finalmente en la variable PS, el mayor peso se presentó en el tratamiento rojo por 12 horas con un incremento contra el control del 6%. Estos resultados mostraron que las respuestas fisiológicas producidas por la exposición a distintas longitudes de onda de luz LED de alta intensidad en semilla de brócoli variaron de acuerdo con el tiempo de exposición y

  6. Development of Active Temperature Control System for High-power LED%大功率LED有源温控系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世俊; 刘超


    Most of the power energy of high-power LEDs convert into the heat energy when it is turned on. The light intensity and life time of high-power LED will be influenced seriously if the heat energy can not be diffused efficently. Considering the actual demand of the high-power LED heat dissipation) a LED active temperature control system is presented in this paper. The LED driver is used as the refrigeration driver power supply of TEC. The temperature monitoring circuit based on the semiconductor transducer is made. The closed-loop control system is formed through PI regulator. The tested data shows that the LED active temperature control system is stable and reliable.%由于大功率LED供电时其大部分能量转化为热能,如果热量不能有效散出,将严重影响其光照亮度及其使用寿命.为了大功率LED散热的实际需要,提出并实现了一种LED有源温控系统的开发,采用热电制冷效应,使用LED驱动器本身作为制冷器的驱动电源,同时建立基于半导体传感器的温控监测电路,通过内部数字PI调节器形成一个完整的闭环控制系统,最后获得LED有源温控系统的具体配置方式,并分析测试的数据结果,展示了有源温控系统的准确性和可靠性.

  7. Biodegradation studies of oil sludge containing high hydrocarbons concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin-Lora, P.; Munoz-Colunga, A.; Castorena-Cortes, G.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Quej Ake, L.; Reyes-Avila, J.; Zapata-Penasco, I.; Marin-Cruz, J.


    Oil industry has a significant impact on environment due to the emission of, dust, gases, waste water and solids generated during oil production all the way to basic petrochemical product manufacturing stages. the aim of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of sludge containing high hydrocarbon concentration originated by a petroleum facility. A sludge sampling was done at the oil residuals pool (ORP) on a gas processing center. (Author)

  8. Particle sedimentation monitoring in high-concentration slurries (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshihiro; Kato, Zenji; Tanaka, Satoshi


    In this study, the sedimentation states of particles in high-concentration slurries were elucidated by monitoring their internal states. We prepared transparent high-concentration silica slurries by adjusting the refractive index of the aqueous glycerol liquid in which the particles were dispersed to match that of the silica particles. In addition, a fluorescent dye was dissolved in the liquid. Then, we directly observed the individual and flocculated particles in the slurries during sedimentation by confocal laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The particles were found to sediment very slowly while exhibiting fluctuating motion. The particle sedimentation rate in the high-concentration slurry with the aqueous glycerol solution (η =0.068 Pa. s ) and a particle volume fraction on the order of 0.3 was determined to be 1.58 ± 0.66 μ m. min-1 on the basis of the obtained image sequences for 24.9 h. In-situ observation provides a large amount of information about the sedimentation behavior of particles in condensed matter.

  9. Improved Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymers at High Concentrations (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Xuan; Choi, Jin-Woo


    The polymer nanocomposite used in this work comprises elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as a polymer matrix and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a conductive nanofiller. To achieve uniform distribution of carbon nanotubes within the polymer, an optimized dispersion process was developed, featuring a strong organic solvent—chloroform, which dissolved PDMS base polymer easily and allowed high quality dispersion of MWCNTs. At concentrations as high as 9 wt.%, MWCNTs were dispersed uniformly through the polymer matrix, which presented a major improvement over prior techniques. The dispersion procedure was optimized via extended experimentation, which is discussed in detail. PMID:28348312

  10. Feasibility Study on High Concentrating Photovoltaic Power Towers (United States)

    Frohberger, Dirk; Jaus, Joachim; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Schramek, Philipp; Bett, Andreas W.


    This paper presents an analysis on the concept of high concentrating PV power towers. A feasibility study is conducted in order to evaluate the future potential of this technology. Objective of the analysis is to provide an improved basis for establishing research and development priorities for the PV power tower concept. Performance assessments and cost calculations for a 1 MW prototype PV tower power are derived. Based on the assumption of a highly homogeneously illuminated receiver, levelized costs of electricity of 0.29 €/kWh have been calculated for a prototype PV tower power.

  11. New Phosphors for White LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ru-Shi


    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or UV LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. GaN-based highly efficient blue InGaN LEDs combined with phosphors can produce white light. These solid-state LED lamps have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability, and long operating lifetime (about 100,000 hours). For the purpose of development of high energy-efficient white light sources, we need to produce highly efficient new phosphors, which can absorb excitation energy from blue or UV LEDs and generate emissions.In this paper, we investigate the development of blue or UV LEDs by the appropriate combination of new phosphors which can lead us to obtain high brightness white light. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (380-450 nm) and UV (360-400 nm) LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance light between the light emission from blue LEDs and the yellow YAG:Ce,Gd phosphor is important to obtain white light with high color temperature. The phosphors with high efficiency which can be excited by UV LEDs are important to obtain the white light with high color rendering index.

  12. New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes (United States)

    Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jabłoński, R.


    Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ▵E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ▵E~1.2 and in the best case ▵E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.

  13. Effects of high nitrogen concentrations on the growth of submersed macrophytes at moderate phosphorus concentrations. (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Li, Yan; Shao, Jian-Chun; Liang, Xiao-Min; Jeppesen, Erik; Wang, Hai-Jun


    Eutrophication of lakes leading to loss of submersed macrophytes and higher turbidity is a worldwide phenomenon, attributed to excessive loading of phosphorus (P). However, recently, the role of nitrogen (N) for macrophyte recession has received increasing attention. Due to the close relationship between N and P loading, disentanglement of the specific effects of these two nutrients is often difficult, and some controversy still exists as to the effects of N. We studied the effects of N on submersed macrophytes represented by Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara in pots positioned at three depths (0.4 m, 0.8 m, and 1.2 m to form a gradient of underwater light conditions) in 10 large ponds having moderate concentrations of P (TP 0.03 ± 0.04 mg L(-1)) and five targeted concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) (0.5, 2, 10, 20, and 100 mg L(-1)), there were two ponds for each treatment. To study the potential shading effects of other primary producers, we also measured the biomass of phytoplankton (ChlaPhyt) and periphyton (ChlaPeri) expressed as chlorophyll a. We found that leaf length, leaf mass, and root length of macrophytes declined with increasing concentrations of TN and ammonium, while shoot number and root mass did not. All the measured growth indices of macrophytes declined significantly with ChlaPhyt, while none were significantly related to ChlaPeri. Neither ChlaPhyt nor ChlaPeri were, however, significantly negatively related to the various N concentrations. Our results indicate that shading by phytoplankton unrelated to the variation in N loading and perhaps toxic stress exerted by high nitrogen were responsible for the decline in macrophyte growth.

  14. Performance of high power LEDs based on Ce:YAG ceramics for automotive application%基于YAG陶瓷封装的大功率车用LED的发光性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晔明; 芶立; 时佳男; 高江东


    5 W blue light LED chips based on InGaN were packaged using the Ce:YAG ceramics with different Ce doping levels. The luminescent properties of packaged LED beads were evaluated. Electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the ceramic-packaged LEDs show that Ce:YAG ceramic is a more compact and efficient fluorescent material. More activation centers of Ce3+can be contained in ceramic with a low doping concentration at a small volume. With a concentration of x=0.03 (Cex:Y3-xAl5O12) and a thickness of 0.4 mm, YAG ceramic-packaged LED shows a high luminous efficiency of 88.2 lm/W. The optical performance of this kind of LEDs based on YAG ceramic makes them promising in automotive headlamps.%不同掺杂量的Ce:YAG陶瓷与5 W蓝光芯片封装后得到发光二极管(LED)灯珠并表征了其发光性能。这种陶瓷灯珠的电致发光光谱结果表明,Ce:YAG陶瓷是一种更加紧凑高效的荧光材料,在较低的Ce3+掺杂量和较小体积下可容纳更多的激活中心。采用Ce3+掺杂量为x=0.03(Cex:Y3-xAl5O12),厚度为0.4 mm的YAG陶瓷封装的LED灯珠发光效率可以达到88.2 lm/W,此种陶瓷灯珠在LED车大灯应用领域有很大潜力。

  15. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration. (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario


    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  16. Long-term stable stacked CsPbBr3 quantum dot films for highly efficient white light generation in LEDs. (United States)

    Song, Young Hyun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kang, Bong Kyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Dae Ho


    We report highly efficient ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr3 perovskite QD films for white light generation in LED application. Ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr3 quantum dots is applied with Sr2Si5N8 : Eu(2+) red phosphor on an InGaN blue chip, achieving a highly efficient luminous efficacy of 67.93 lm W(-1) under 20 mA current.

  17. Strategies for the production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds: production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds. (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku


    Bioethanol has attracted attention as an alternative to petroleum-derived fuel. Seaweeds have been proposed as some of the most promising raw materials for bioethanol production because they have several advantages over lignocellulosic biomass. However, because seaweeds contain low contents of glucans, i.e., polysaccharides composed of glucose, the conversion of only the glucans from seaweed is not sufficient to produce high concentrations of ethanol. Therefore, it is also necessary to produce ethanol from other specific carbohydrate components of seaweeds, including sulfated polysaccharides, mannitol, alginate, agar and carrageenan. This review summarizes the current state of research on the production of ethanol from seaweed carbohydrates for which the conversion of carbohydrates to sugars is a key step and makes comparisons with the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. This review provides valuable information necessary for the production of high concentrations of ethanol from seaweeds.

  18. Structure and Substrate for High Power White LED Package%大功率白光LED封装结构和封装基板

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方军; 花刚; 傅仁利; 顾席光; 赵维维; 钱凤娇; 钱斐


    随着LED在照明领域的不断发展,功率和亮度不断提高,尤其是大功率白光LED的出现,热问题成为制约LED进一步发展的关键问题.介绍了大功率白光LED引脚式封装、表面贴装式(SMT)、板上芯片直装式(COB)和系统封装式(SiP)封装结构和金属、金属基复合以及陶瓷封装材料.重点阐述了金属芯印刷电路板(MCPCB)、金属基复合材料板以及陶瓷基板(如厚膜陶瓷基板、薄膜陶瓷基板、低温共烧陶瓷基板)等应用于大功率白光LED的封装基板,对各个基板的特点和散热能力进行了分析和对比.最后对大功率白光LED封装结构和封装基板的发展趋势进行了展望.%With the development of light emitting diode ( LED) in the lighting field, especially the appearance of high power white LED whose power and brightness become more and higher, thermal problems become the key factors of LED further development. The lamp LED, surface mounted technology (SMT) , chip on board (COB) and system in package (SiP) package structure, and metal, metal matrix composites and ceramics package materials used in high power white LED are introduced. At the same time, the metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB) , metal matrix composites plate and the ceramic substrate ( such as thick film ceramic substrate, thin film ceramic substrate and low temperature co-fired ceramic substrate) used in high power white LED package substrate are reviewed. And the various characteristics and thermal conductivity of the substrate are analyzed and compared. Finally, the high power white LED package development trend of the structure and the package substrate is prospected.

  19. Comparison of different LED Packages (United States)

    Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Püttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard


    In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

  20. Process and Outcomes From a Youth-Led Campaign to Address Healthy Eating in an Urban High School. (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Sjolie, Sarah; Curtis, Matthew; Peterson, Melissa; Huang, Terry T-K


    This article describes a pilot youth advocacy initiative for obesity prevention informed by social cognitive theory, social network theory, and theories of community mobilization. With assistance from school and health leaders, adolescent-aged youth led a cafeteria food labeling and social marketing campaign. We implemented an anonymous survey 2 weeks prior to and again at the conclusion of the campaign, and used cafeteria records to track servings of fruits and vegetables. The campaign resulted in a significant increase in youths' confidence to identify healthy foods (OR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.01, 3.84, p = .048), and a significant increase in per person per day servings of fruits (0.02, p = .03) and vegetables (0.01, p = .02). The results of our pilot were promising, and the integration of concepts from multiple theories benefited the implementation process. Obesity prevention initiatives should include strategies that encourage youth to create health promotion community networks and lead changes to their social and physical environments.

  1. Chronic Diarrhea Associated with High Teriflunomide Blood Concentration


    Duquette, André; Frenette, Anne Julie; Doré, Maxime


    Objective To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. Case Summary An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient’s general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of ...

  2. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.


    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  3. Functional Analysis in Long-Term Operation of High Power UV-LEDs in Continuous Fluoro-Sensing Systems for Hydrocarbon Pollution. (United States)

    Arques-Orobon, Francisco Jose; Nuñez, Neftali; Vazquez, Manuel; Gonzalez-Posadas, Vicente


    This work analyzes the long-term functionality of HP (High-power) UV-LEDs (Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes) as the exciting light source in non-contact, continuous 24/7 real-time fluoro-sensing pollutant identification in inland water. Fluorescence is an effective alternative in the detection and identification of hydrocarbons. The HP UV-LEDs are more advantageous than classical light sources (xenon and mercury lamps) and helps in the development of a low cost, non-contact, and compact system for continuous real-time fieldwork. This work analyzes the wavelength, output optical power, and the effects of viscosity, temperature of the water pollutants, and the functional consistency for long-term HP UV-LED working operation. To accomplish the latter, an analysis of the influence of two types 365 nm HP UV-LEDs degradation under two continuous real-system working mode conditions was done, by temperature Accelerated Life Tests (ALTs). These tests estimate the mean life under continuous working conditions of 6200 h and for cycled working conditions (30 s ON & 30 s OFF) of 66,000 h, over 7 years of 24/7 operating life of hydrocarbon pollution monitoring. In addition, the durability in the face of the internal and external parameter system variations is evaluated.

  4. High manganese concentrations in rocks at Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Lanza, Nina L.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Wiens, Roger C.; Grotzinger, John; Ollila, Ann M.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Clark, Benton C.; Gellert, Ralf; Mangold, Nicolas; Maurice, Sylvestre; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Nachon, Marion; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Berger, Jeffrey; Clegg, Samuel M.; Forni, Olivier; Hardgrove, Craig; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton E.; Sautter, Violaine


    The surface of Mars has long been considered a relatively oxidizing environment, an idea supported by the abundance of ferric iron phases observed there. However, compared to iron, manganese is sensitive only to high redox potential oxidants, and when concentrated in rocks, it provides a more specific redox indicator of aqueous environments. Observations from the ChemCam instrument on the Curiosity rover indicate abundances of manganese in and on some rock targets that are 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than previously observed on Mars, suggesting the presence of an as-yet unidentified manganese-rich phase. These results show that the Martian surface has at some point in time hosted much more highly oxidizing conditions than has previously been recognized.

  5. Shock initiation studies on high concentration hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibson, L. Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been known to detonate for many years. However, because of its reactivity and the difficulty in handling and confining it, along with the large critical diameter, few studies providing basic information about the initiation and detonation properties have been published. We are conducting a study to understand and quantify the initiation and detonation properties of highly concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} using a gas-driven two-stage gun to produce well defined shock inputs. Multiple magnetic gauges are used to make in-situ measurements of the growth of reaction and subsequent detonation in the liquid. These experiments are designed to be one-dimensional to eliminate any difficulties that might be encountered with large critical diameters. Because of the concern of the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the confining materials, a remote loading system has been developed. The gun is pressurized, then the cell is filled and the experiment shot within less than three minutes. TV cameras are attached to the target so the cell filling can be monitored. Several experiments have been completed on {approx}98 wt % H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures; initiation has been observed in some experiments that shows homogeneous shock initiation behavior. The initial shock pressurizes and heats the mixture. After an induction time, a thermal explosion type reaction produces an evolving reactive wave that strengthens and eventually overdrives the first wave producing a detonation. From these measurements, we have determined unreacted Hugoniot information, times (distances) to detonation (Pop-plot points) that indicate low sensitivity, and detonation velocities of high concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O solutions that agree with earlier estimates.

  6. Shock initiation studies on high concentration hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gibson, L. Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) has been known to detonate for many years. However, because of its reactivity and the difficulty in handling and confining it, along with the large critical diameter, few studies providing basic information about the initiation and detonation properties have been published. We are conducting a study to understand and quantify the initiation and detonation properties of highly concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} using a gas-driven two-stage gun to produce well defined shock inputs. Multiple magnetic gauges are used to make in-situ measurements of the growth of reaction and subsequent detonation in the liquid. These experiments are designed to be one-dimensional to eliminate any difficulties that might be encountered with large critical diameters. Because of the concern of the reactivity of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the confining materials, a remote loading system has been developed. The gun is pressurized, then the cell is filled and the experiment shot within less than three minutes. TV cameras are attached to the target so the cell filling can be monitored. Several experiments have been completed on {approx}98 wt % H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O mixtures; initiation has been observed in some experiments that shows homogeneous shock initiation behavior. The initial shock pressurizes and heats the mixture. After an induction time, a thermal explosion type reaction produces an evolving reactive wave that strengthens and eventually overdrives the first wave producing a detonation. From these measurements, we have determined unreacted Hugoniot information, times (distances) to detonation (Pop-plot points) that indicate low sensitivity, and detonation velocities of high concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O solutions that agree with earlier estimates.

  7. Avaliação da eficácia clínica de uma nova modalidade de fototerapia utilizando diodos emissores de luz Efficacy of new microprocessed phototherapy system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca M. R. Martins


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia terapêutica de um sistema de fototerapia microprocessada que utiliza diodos emissores de luz (Super LED de alta intensidade no tratamento da hiperbilirrubinemia em recém-nascidos prematuros. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico, randomizado e controlado, utilizando a fototerapia Super LED no grupo experimental e duas fototerapias halógenas no grupo controle. A randomização foi realizada em blocos e estratificada por peso de nascimento. A duração da fototerapia e a queda nos níveis séricos de bilirrubina total nas primeiras 24 horas de tratamento foram os principais desfechos analisados. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 88 recém-nascidos, 44 no grupo da fototerapia Super LED e 44 no grupo da fototerapia halógena. As características demográficas da população foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. O nível sérico médio inicial de bilirrubina no grupo do Super LED (10,1±2,4 mg% foi semelhante ao do grupo que recebeu fototerapia halógena (10,9±2,0 mg%. A queda percentual na concentração sérica de bilirrubina total nas primeiras 24 horas de tratamento foi significativamente maior (27,9 versus 10,7%, p OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a microprocessed phototherapy (PT system with five high intensity light emitting diodes (Super LED for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia of premature infants. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial using Super LED phototherapy in the study group and twin halogen spotlight phototherapy in the control group. A stratified blocked randomization, based on birth weight, was performed. The duration of phototherapy and the rate of decrease of total serum bilirubin (TSB concentration in the first 24 hours of treatment were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: We studied 88 infants, 44 in the Super LED group and 44 in the halogen spotlight PT group. The demographic characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. Infants in the Super LED group had a similar mean initial

  8. Study on Luminescence Performance of GaN-based μLEDs under High Injection Level%GaN基微米LED大注入条件下发光特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王溯源; 陶岳彬; 陈志忠; 俞锋; 姜爽; 张国义


    The luminescence performance of micro-light emitting diodes(μLEDs) under high injection level was investigated by injection current dependent electroluminescence(EL) and numerical simulations.It is shown in EL measurements that the power output density of μLED(10 μm) seems not saturate under extremely high current density of 16 kA/cm2,and also there is no obvious self-heating-related wavelength redshift under high injection level.The degree of strain relaxation is estimated to be 23% for 10 μm LED based on the blueshift of EL peak under the same injection level as compared to 300 μm LED.APSYS simulations show that the current distribution and carrier concentration are much more homogeneous among the wells for μLED due to strain relaxation and uniform current spreading.These uniform distributions lead to high luminous efficiency and high current density endurance for μLED.%利用变注入强度的电致发光(EL)测试和数值模拟方法研究了微米LED大注入条件下的发光特性。EL测试结果显示,微米LED(10μm)在工作电流密度高达16kA/cm2时光功率密度输出未饱和,同时不存在明显的由于自热效应引起的发光波长红移。和300μm LED相比,相同注入水平下,10μm LED的EL峰值波长相对蓝移,表明微米LED中存在应力弛豫,10μmLED相对300μm LED应力弛豫大了约23%。APYSY模拟发现,由于应力弛豫和良好的电流扩展,微米LED中电流分布和载流子浓度更加均匀,这种均匀的分布使得微米LED具有高的发光效率,同时能够承受高的电流密度。

  9. Impact of high pyruvate concentration on kinetics of rabbit muscle lactate dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Eggert, Matthew Warren; Byrne, Mark E; Chambers, Robert P


    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of L: -lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rabbit muscle as a regenerative catalyst of the biologically important cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the kinetics over broad concentrations were studied to develop a suitable kinetic rate expression. Despite robust literature describing the intricate complexations, the mammalian rabbit muscle LDH lacks a quantitative kinetic rate expression accounting for simultaneous inhibition parameters, specifically at high pyruvate concentrations. Product inhibition by L: -lactate was observed to reduce activity at concentrations greater than 25 mM, while expected substrate inhibition by pyruvate was significant above 4.3 mM concentration. The combined effect of ternary and binary complexes of pyruvate and the coenzymes led to experimental rates as little as a third of expected activity. The convenience of the statistical software package JMP allowed for effective determination of experimental kinetic constants and simplification to a suitable rate expression: [formula: see text] where the last three terms represent the inhibition complex terms for lactate, pyruvate, and pyruvate-NAD, respectively. The corresponding values of K (I-Lac), K (I-Pyr), and K (I-Pyr-NAD) for rabbit muscle LDH are 487.33 mM(-1) and 29.91 mM and 97.47 mM at 22 °C and pH 7.8.

  10. Source identification of high glyme concentrations in the Oder River. (United States)

    Stepien, D K; Püttmann, W


    The objective of the following study was to identify the source of high concentrations of glycol diethers (diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme) in the Oder River. Altogether four sampling campaigns were conducted and over 50 surface samples collected. During the first two samplings of the Oder River in the Oderbruch region (km 626-690), glymes were detected at concentrations reaching 0.065 μg L(-1) (diglyme), 0.54 μg L(-1) (triglyme) and 1.7 μg L(-1) (tetraglyme). The subsequent sampling of the Oder River, from the area close to the source to the Poland-Germany border (about 500 km) helped to identify the possible area of the dominating glyme entry into the river between km 310 and km 331. During that sampling, the maximum concentration of triglyme was 0.46 μg L(-1) and tetraglyme 2.2 μg L(-1); diglyme was not detected. The final sampling focused on the previously identified area of glyme entry, as well as on tributaries of the Oder River. Samples from Czarna Woda stream and Kaczawa River contained even higher concentrations of diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme, reaching 5.2 μg L(-1), 13 μg L(-1) and 81 μg L(-1), respectively. Finally, three water samples were analyzed from a wastewater treatment plant receiving influents from a Copper Smelter and Refinery; diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme were present at a maximum concentration of 1700 μg L(-1), 13,000 μg L(-1), and 190,000 μg L(-1), respectively. Further research helped to identify the source of glymes in the wastewater. The gas desulfurization process Solinox uses a mixture of glymes (Genosorb(®)1900) as a physical absorption medium to remove sulfur dioxide from off-gases from the power plant. The wastewater generated from the process and from the maintenance of the equipment is initially directed to the wastewater treatment plant where it undergoes mechanical and chemical treatment processes before being discharged to the tributaries of the Oder River. Although monoglyme was

  11. Mn(4+),Li(+) co-doped SrMgAl10O17 phosphor-in-glass: application in high-power warm w-LEDs. (United States)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xu, Wei; Chen, Qingli; Yuan, Shuo; Ji, Zhengguo; Chen, Daqin


    Currently, the shortage of red components and easy aging of organic silicone still remain challenges for high-power phosphor-converted warm white light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs). Aiming to alleviate these issues, phosphor-in-glass (PiG), fabricated by co-sintering red- and yellow-emitting phosphors and low-melting glass, has been regarded as a promising color converter for w-LEDs. In this study, a Li(+),Mn(4+) co-doped SrMgAl10O17 red phosphor was synthesized via a conventional solid-state reaction. The as-prepared phosphor exhibits a deep red emission, ascribed to Mn(4+):(2)Eg→(4)A2g spin-forbidden transition in the range of 600-700 nm with a narrow-band full width at half maximum of 55 nm, and provides an ideal broadband excitation extending from 250 to 530 nm. Impressively, the Li(+) additive used as charge compensation was beneficial to enhance the Mn(4+) luminescence by allowing more Mn(4+) to replace Al(3+). Furthermore, the developed SrMgAl10O17:Mn(4+),Li(+) red phosphor and commercial YAG:Ce(3+) yellow phosphor co-doped inorganic PiG were successfully fabricated as color converters to substitute organic silicone. The w-LED was fabricated by combining an InGaN blue LED chip with a PiG plate. Importantly, the constructed w-LEDs exhibited superior optical performance and tuned chromaticity feature with the correlated color temperature evolved from bluish cool white (6903 K) to yellowish warm white (3717 K), and the color rendering index increased from 69.4 to 85.5, meeting the requirements for indoor lighting.

  12. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  13. Research and Manufacturing of High Power Integrated LED Light Conversion Source%大功率集成LED光转换光源的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂龙; 隋玉龙; 吴粤宁; 戴兴建


    介绍了一种应用远程激发技术的大功率集成LED光转换光源,通过使用固晶区无绝缘层的镜面铝基板进行集成封装蓝光LED光源,即COB光源.所制蓝光光源与远程激发荧光粉模块结合制成LED光转换光源.利用镜面铝基板的高导热系数,解决多种LED封装形式下芯片点亮温度过高、光源衰减快的问题.采用LED荧光高分子模块与蓝光芯片分离结合的远程激发技术制成白光光源,解决荧光粉分布不均、热老化、色偏移问题.通过与传统粉胶封装方式制得的大功率集成LED器件比较测试,该种光源具有防眩光、光色均匀度高、长寿命、节能和环保的优点,从而具有更广泛的用途.%A high-power integrated LED light conversion light source applying remote excitation technique was introduced. The blue LED that is COB package blue LED through mirror-free aluminum plate without insulating layer in solid crystal area to develop to LED light conversion source with remote excited phosphor module. The problems of lots of package chip light temperature too high and light attenuation too fast were solved by using high thermal conductivity coefficient of mirror aluminum plate. And it is an effective solution to the issue of uneven distribution of phosphor, thermal aging of phosphor and color offset. Compared with traditional phosphor and resin glue package pattern, the high-power LED has the advantages of anti-dazzle, high light color degree of homogeneity, long life, energy saving, and environmental protection, so as to achieve more widely uses.

  14. Research on the Cooling Technology for the High-Power LED Bay Lamp%LED工矿灯散热技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为满足LED工矿灯的散热需求,设计了一款新型烧结热管式的散热模组,对该模组进行了应用于不同环境温度条件的数值模拟研究,并与实验数据进行了比较分析。结果发现,数值模拟与实验所得结果偏差在4.01%以内。这表明,所设计散热方案能够很好地满足该种LED工矿灯在不同环境下的散热需求,该数值模拟方法能够为今后设计同类产品提供设计理论依据。%To meet the cooling requirement of the high-power LED bay lamp, a novel cooling module was designed. Furthermore, the numerical simulation research on the cooling module used for LED bay lamp was carried out,and the simulation result has been compared with the experimental data. The simulation result agrees well with the experimental data,and the relative error is within 4.01%. The result shows that the cooling solution proposed can meets the cooling requirement of the LED high bay designed on the different operating condition.

  15. Catalytic wet air oxidation of high concentration pharmaceutical wastewater. (United States)

    Zhan, Wei; Wang, Xiaocong; Li, Daosheng; Ren, Yongzheng; Liu, Dongqi; Kang, Jianxiong


    In this study, we investigated the pretreatment of a high concentration pharmaceutical wastewater by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) process. Different experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the catalyst type, operating temperature, initial system pH, and oxygen partial pressure on the oxidation of the wastewater. Results show that the catalysts prepared by the co-precipitation method have better catalytic activity compared to others. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) conversion increased with the increase in temperature from 160 to 220 °C and decreased with the increase in pH. Moreover, the effect of the oxygen partial pressure on the COD conversion was significant only during the first 20 min of the reaction. Furthermore, the biodegradability of the wastewater improved greatly after CWAO, the ratio of BOD5/COD increased less than 0.1-0.75 when treated at 220 °C (BOD: biochemical oxygen demand).

  16. Acquisition and Analysis of Data from High Concentration Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Besong, Tabot M.D.


    The problems associated with ultracentrifugal analysis of macromolecular solutions at high (>10 mg/ml) are reviewed. Especially for the case of solutes which are non-monodisperse, meaningful results are not readily achievable using sedimentation velocity approaches. It is shown however by both simulation and analysis of practical data that using a modified form of an algorithm (INVEQ) published in other contexts, sedimentation equilibrium (SE) profiles can be analysed successfully, enabling topics such as oligomer presence or formation to be defined.To achieve this, it is necessary to employ an approach in which the solution density, which in an SE profile is radius-dependent, is taken into consideration. Simulation suggests that any reasonable level of solute concentration can be analysed.

  17. High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED. (United States)

    Kuo, Te-Wen; Liu, Wei-Ren; Chen, Teng-Ming


    A red phosphor CaZnOS:Eu(2+) was synthesized by solid state reaction and has been evaluated as a candidate for white LEDs. For this material, the XRD, PL, PL excitation (PLE) and diffuse reflection spectra have also been investigated. CaZnOS:Eu(2+) reveals a broad absorption band and good color purity. By utilizing a mixture of red-emitting CaZnOS:Eu(2+), green-emitting (Ba,Sr)(2)SiO(4):Eu(2+) and yellow-emitting Y(3)Al(5)O(12):Ce(3+) as light converters, an intense white InGaN-based blue-LED (~460 nm) was fabricated to exhibit a high color-rendering index Ra of 85 at a correlated color temperature of 4870 K. Based on the results, we are currently evaluating the potential application of CaZnOS:Eu(2+) as a red-emitting blue-chip convertible phosphor.

  18. Rheological properties of highly concentrated protein-stabilized emulsions. (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tatiana D; Leal-Calderon, Fernando


    We prepared concentrated quasi monodisperse hexadecane-in-water emulsions stabilized by various proteins and investigated their rheological properties. Some protein-stabilized emulsions possess remarkably high elasticity and at the same time they are considerably fragile--they exhibit coalescence at yield strain and practically do not flow. The elastic storage modulus G' and the loss modulus G" of the emulsions were determined for different oil volume fractions above the random close packing. Surprisingly, the dimensionless elastic moduli G'/(sigma/a), sigma being the interfacial tension, and a being the mean drop radius, obtained for emulsions stabilized by different proteins do not collapse on a single master curve. They are almost always substantially higher than the corresponding values obtained for equivalent Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-stabilized emulsions. The unusually high elasticity cannot be attributed to a specificity of the continuous phase, because the osmotic equation of state of our emulsions is found identical to the one obtained for samples stabilized by classical surfactants. In parallel, we mimicked the thin films that separate the droplets in the concentrated emulsion and found that the protein adsorption layers contain a substantial number of sticky surface aggregates. These severely obstruct local rearrangements of individual drops in respect to their neighbors which leads to coalescence at yield strain. Furthermore, we found that G'/(sigma/a) is correlated (for a given oil volume fraction) to the dilatational elastic modulus, of the protein layer adsorbed on the droplets. The intrinsic elasticity of the protein layers, together with the blocked local rearrangements are considered as the main factors determining the unusual bulk elasticity of the studied emulsions.

  19. Do high concentrations of microcystin prevent Daphnia control of phytoplankton? (United States)

    Chislock, Michael F; Sarnelle, Orlando; Jernigan, Lauren M; Wilson, Alan E


    Toxin-producing cyanobacteria have frequently been hypothesized to limit the ability of herbivorous zooplankton (such as Daphnia) to control phytoplankton biomass by inhibiting feeding, and in extreme cases, causing zooplankton mortality. Using limnocorral experiments in hyper-eutrophic ponds located in Alabama and Michigan (U.S.A.), we tested the hypothesis that high levels of cyanobacteria and microcystin, a class of hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial genera, prevent Daphnia from strongly reducing phytoplankton abundance. At the start of the first experiment (Michigan), phytoplankton communities were dominated by toxic Microcystis and Anabaena (∼96% of total phytoplankton biomass), and concentrations of microcystin were ∼3 μg L⁻¹. Two weeks after adding Daphnia pulicaria from a nearby eutrophic lake, microcystin levels increased to ∼6.5 μg L⁻¹, yet Daphnia populations increased exponentially (r = 0.24 day⁻¹). By the third week, Daphnia had suppressed phytoplankton biomass by ∼74% relative to the no Daphnia controls and maintained reduced phytoplankton biomass until the conclusion of the five-week experiment. In the second experiment (Alabama), microcystin concentrations were greater than 100 μg L⁻¹, yet a mixture of three D. pulicaria clones from eutrophic lakes in southern MI increased and again reduced phytoplankton biomass, in this case by over 80%. The ability of Daphnia to increase in abundance and suppress phytoplankton biomass, despite high initial levels of cyanobacteria and microcystin, indicates that the latter does not prevent strong control of phytoplankton biomass by Daphnia genotypes that are adapted to environments with abundant cyanobacteria and associated cyanotoxins.

  20. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin


    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  1. Nurse-led care interventions for high blood pressure control: Implications for non-communicable disease programs in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Katende


    Conclusion: Nurses play a significant role in the control of high blood pressure when they employ effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of hypertension. Adapting effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of non-communicable diseases could improve patient outcomes in Uganda.

  2. Effect of a Cooling Step Treatment on a High-Voltage GaN LED During ICP Dry Etching (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Sheng; Hsiao, Sheng-Yu; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Shen, Ching-Hsing; Chiang, Jung-Sheng


    In this study, a lower dislocation density for a GaN surface and a reduced current path are observed at the interface of a SiO2 isolation sidewall, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This is grown using a 3-min cooling step treatment during inductivity coupled plasma dry etching. The lower forward voltage is measured, the leakage current decreases from 53nA to 32nA, and the maximum output power increases from 354.8 W to 357.2 W for an input current of 30 mA. The microstructure and the optoelectronic properties of high-voltage light-emitting-diodes is proven to be affected by the cooling step treatment, which allows enough time to release the thermal energy of the SiO2 isolation well.

  3. Effect of a Cooling Step Treatment on a High-Voltage GaN LED During ICP Dry Etching (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Sheng; Hsiao, Sheng-Yu; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Shen, Ching-Hsing; Chiang, Jung-Sheng


    In this study, a lower dislocation density for a GaN surface and a reduced current path are observed at the interface of a SiO2 isolation sidewall, using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This is grown using a 3-min cooling step treatment during inductivity coupled plasma dry etching. The lower forward voltage is measured, the leakage current decreases from 53nA to 32nA, and the maximum output power increases from 354.8 W to 357.2 W for an input current of 30 mA. The microstructure and the optoelectronic properties of high-voltage light-emitting-diodes is proven to be affected by the cooling step treatment, which allows enough time to release the thermal energy of the SiO2 isolation well.

  4. The High-Temperature Synthesis of the Nanoscaled White-Light Phosphors Applied in the White-Light LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ying Lu


    Full Text Available The white-light phosphors consisting of Dy3+ doped YPO4 and Dy3+ doped YP1-XVXO4 were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method. After the 1200°C thermal treatment in the air atmosphere, the white-light phosphors with particle sizes around 90 nm can be obtained. In order to reduce the average particle size of phosphors, the alkaline washing method was applied to the original synthesis process, which reduces the particle sizes to 65 nm. From the PLE spectra, four absorption peaks locating at 325, 352, 366, and 390 nm can be observed in the YPO4-based phosphors. These peaks appear due to the following electron transitions: 6H15/2→4K15/2, 6H15/2→4M15/2+6P7/2, 6H15/2→4I11/2, and 6H15/2→4M19/2. Besides, the emission peaks of wavelengths 484 nm and 576 nm can be observed in the PL spectra. In order to obtain the white-light phosphors, the vanadium ions were applied to substitute the phosphorus ions to compose the YP1-XVXO4 phosphors. From the PL spectra, the strongest PL intensity can be obtained with 30% vanadium ions. As the concentration of vanadium ions increases to 40%, the phosphors with the CIE coordinates locating at the white-light area can be obtained.

  5. Modelling acceptance of sunlight in high and low photovoltaic concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutz, Ralf, E-mail: [Leutz Optics and Illumination UG (haftungsbeschränkt), Marburg (Germany)


    A simple model incorporating linear radiation characteristics, along with the optical trains and geometrical concentration ratios of solar concentrators is presented with performance examples for optical trains of HCPV, LCPV and benchmark flat-plate PV.

  6. Thermally Stable White Emitting Eu(3+) Complex@Nanozeolite@Luminescent Glass Composite with High CRI for Organic-Resin-Free Warm White LEDs. (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhui; Gong, Shuming; Yu, Jinbo; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xuejie; He, Yuwei; Zhou, Jianbang; Shi, Rui; Li, Huanrong; Peng, Aiyun; Wang, Jing


    Nowadays, it is still a great challenge for lanthanide complexes to be applied in solid state lighting, especially for high-power LEDs because they will suffer severe thermal-induced luminescence quenching and transmittance loss when LEDs are operated at high current. In this paper, we have not only obtained high efficient and thermally chemical stable red emitting hybrid material by introducing europium complex into nanozeolite (NZ) functionalized with the imidazolium-based stopper but also abated its thermal-induced transmittance loss and luminescence quenching behavior via coating it onto a heat-resistant luminescent glass (LG) with high thermal conductivity (1.07 W/mK). The results show that the intensity at 400 K for Eu(PPO)n-C4Si@NZ@LG remains 21.48% of the initial intensity at 300 K, which is virtually 153 and 13 times the intensity of Eu(PPO)3·2H2O and Eu(PPO)n-C4Si@NZ, respectively. Moreover, an organic-resin-free warm white LEDs device with a low CCT of 3994K, a high Ra of 90.2 and R9 of 57.9 was successfully fabricated simply by combining NUV-Chip-On-Board with a warm white emitting glass-film composite (i.e., yellowish-green emitting luminescent glass coated with red emitting hybrid film). Our method and results provide a feasible and promising way for lanthanide complexes to be used for general illumination in the future.

  7. Design philosophy and construction of a high concentration compound parabolic concentrator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH


    Full Text Available A compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with a concentration ratio of 16:1 is under development at CSIR for volumetric receiver and solar fuels development. The ideal shape has been approximated by 6 and 12 facets in the longitudinal...

  8. High-performance deployable structures for the support of high-concentration ratio solar array modules (United States)

    Mobrem, M.


    A study conducted on high-performance deployable structures for the support of high-concentration ratio solar array modules is discussed. Serious consideration is being given to the use of high-concentration ratio solar array modules or applications such as space stations. These concentrator solar array designs offer the potential of reduced cost, reduced electrical complexity, higher power per unit area, and improved survivability. Arrays of concentrators, such as the miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator modules, present a serious challenge to the structural design because their mass per unit area (5.7 kg/square meters) is higher than that of flexible solar array blankets, and the requirement for accurate orientation towards the Sun (plus or minus 0.5 degree) requires structures with improved accuracy potentials. In addition, use on a space station requires relatively high structural natural frequencies to avoid deleterious interactions with control systems and other large structural components. The objective here is to identify and evaluate conceptual designs of structures suitable for deploying and accurately supporting high-concentration ratio solar array modules.

  9. LEDs for greenhouse lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.


    Light Emitting Diodes (LED's) are a promising technology for greenhouse lighting with their efficiency to activate plant photosynthesis potentially higher in red LEDs than in HPS lamps. Due to their particular light colour, LEDs can initiate special effects in plants or steer plant processes and

  10. Impurity Influence on Nitride LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Rabinovich


    Full Text Available Light emitting diodes (LEDs are widely used nowadays. They are used in major parts of our life. But it is still necessary to improve their characteristics. In this paper the impurity and Indium atoms influence on the LEDs characteristics is investigated by computer simulation. Simulation was carried out in Sim Windows. The program was improved for this purpose by creating new files for AlGaInN heterostructure and devices including more than 25 basic parameters. It was found that characteristics depend on impurity and indium atoms changes a lot. The optimum impurity concentration for doping barriers between quantum wells was achieved. By varying impurity and Indium concentration the distribution in AlGaInN heterostructure LEDs characteristics could be improved.

  11. Design and development of a high-concentration and high-efficiency photovoltaic concentrator using a curved Fresnel lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharlack, R.S.; Moffat, A.


    Thermo Electron has designed a high concentration photovoltaic module that uses a domed, point-focus Fresnel lens. Their design, design optimization process, and results from lens and receiver tests are described in this report. A complete module has not been fabricated and probably will not be fabricated in the future; however, Thermo Electron's optical design, analysis, and testing of both secondary optical units and domed Fresnel lenses have made a significant contribution to our project. Tooling errors prevented the lens from reaching its potential efficiency by the end of the contract, and resolution of these tooling problems is currently being attempted with a follow-on contract, No. 68-9463.

  12. High-efficiency blue LEDs with thin AlGaN interlayers in InGaN/GaN MQWs grown on Si (111) substrates (United States)

    Kimura, Shigeya; Yoshida, Hisashi; Ito, Toshihide; Okada, Aoi; Uesugi, Kenjiro; Nunoue, Shinya


    We demonstrate high-efficiency blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with thin AlGaN interlayers in InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells (MQWs) grown on Si (111) substrates. The peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) ηEQE of 82% at room temperature and the hot/cold factor (HCF) of 94% have been obtained by using the functional thin AlGaN interlayers in the MQWs in addition to reducing threading dislocation densities (TDDs) in the blue LEDs. An HCF is defined as ηEQE(85°C)/ηEQE(25°C). The blue LED structures were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on Si (111) substrates. The MQWs applied as an active layer have 8- pairs of InGaN/AlyGa1-yN/GaN (0transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe analysis that the 1 nm-thick AlyGa1-yN interlayers, whose Al content is y=0.3 or less, are continuously formed. EQE and the HCFs of the LEDs with thin Al0.15Ga0.85N interlayers are enhanced compared with those of the samples without the interlayers in the low-current-density region. We consider that the enhancement is due to both the reduction of the nonradiative recombination centers and the increase of the radiative recombination rate mediated by the strain-induced hole carriers indicated by the simulation of the energy band diagram.

  13. Package Technology of Silicon-based High-power LEDs with TSV%带有TSV的硅基大功率LED封装技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师帅; 吕植成; 汪学方; 王飞; 袁娇娇; 方靖


    Introduced is the fabrication of silicon base with groove and TSV (through silicon via) for wafer level packaging of white LED.Based on the structure of silicon-based high-power LEDs,the heat transfer model is established and finite element software is employed to simulate and analyze the heat dissipation of this package.Simulation results show that the silicon base packaging meets the temperature requirement of LED chip p-n junction.Combined with semiconductor manufacturing process,the fabrication of the groove and TSV was carried out on the silicon substrate,realizing effective packaging of LED chips.The thermal resistance of silicon substrate measured by T3Ster is 1.068 K/W.Experimental results show that this method is effective for realizing LED chip packaging with low cost,low thermal resistance and high density.%介绍了一种带有凹槽和硅通孔(through silicon via,TSV)的硅基制备以及晶圆级白光LED的封装方法.针对硅基大功率LED的封装结构建立了热传导模型,并通过有限元软件模拟分析了这种封装形式的散热效果.模拟结果显示,硅基封装满足LED芯片p-n结的温度要求.实验结合半导体制造工艺,在硅基板上完成了凹槽和通孔的制造,实现了LED芯片的有效封装.热阻测试仪测得硅基的热阻为1.068 K/W.实验结果证明,这种方法有效实现了低热阻、低成本、高密度的LED芯片封装,是大功率LED封装发展的重要方向.

  14. LED-roulette: LED's vervangen balletje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.


    Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED-roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te beoef

  15. LED-roulette: LED's vervangen balletje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.


    Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED-roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te

  16. Design of a lighting system with high-power LEDs, large area electronics, and light management structure in the LUMENTILE European project (United States)

    Carraro, L.; Simonetta, M.; Benetti, G.; Tramonte, A.; Capelli, G.; Benedetti, M.; Randone, E. M.; Ylisaukko-oja, A.; Keränen, K.; Facchinetti, T.; Giuliani, G.


    LUMENTILE (LUMinous ElectroNic TILE) is a project funded by the European Commission with the goal of developing a luminous tile with novel functionalities, capable of changing its color and interact with the user. Applications include interior/exterior tile for walls and floors covering, high-efficiency luminaries, and advertising under the form of giant video screens. High overall electrical efficiency of the tile is mandatory, as several millions of square meters are foreseen to be installed each year. Demand is for high uniformity of the illumination of the top tile surface, and for high optical extraction efficiency. These features are achieved by smart light management, using a new approach based on light guiding slab and spatially selective light extraction obtained using both diffusion and/or reflection from the top and bottom interfaces of the optical layer. Planar and edge configurations for the RGB LEDs are considered and compared. A square shape with side length from 20cm to 60cm is considered for the tiles. The electronic circuit layout must optimize the electrical efficiency, and be compatible with low-cost roll-to-roll production on flexible substrates. LED heat management is tackled by using dedicated solutions that allow operation in thermally harsh environment. An approach based on OLEDs has also been considered, still needing improvement on emitted power and ruggedness.

  17. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration. (United States)

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano


    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. A little adjustment of synthetic strategy led to a new highly repeated heteropolyblue: Structure, characterizations and photocatalytic properties (United States)

    Chen, Wu-Hua; Zhang, Zhu-Sen; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qiu, Ze-Hai; Yuan, Qiu-Lan; Huang, Tian-Fu; Lin, Xue-Yu; Hu, Zhi-Biao


    Hydrothermal synthesis is known as the most efficient method to prepare novel structural polyoxometalate (POM)-based materials, but controlled synthesis of a structure-directing POM is always challenging task. The experimental repeatability is usually one of the key topics. To explore a reliable hydrothermal synthesis approach for new POMs will be a meaningful work. Our previous work, which we have hydrothermally synthesized the first Cr-complexes-capped Keggin-type POM, [Hdma]3[H2phen]{[Cr(phen)]2[MoV8MoVI4O36(PO4)]}·nH2O (n ≈ 2) (Chen et al., polyhedron, 2015, 85, 117), afford us some commendable synthetic experiences, arouse us some introspections as well for its tricky preparation conditions and low experimental repeatability. Based on the aforementioned work, a new high-repetition-rate and more steady heteropolyblue, [H3O]0.5(Hdma)2.5(dma)0.25{[Cr(phen)]2[MoV6MoVI6O8(PO4)]}·2H2O (1) (dma = dimethylamine (C2H7N), phen = 1,10-phenanthroline (C12H8N2)), has been successfully obtained by virtue of reasonably adjusting synthetic strategy. The adjustment of synthetic strategy includes controlling ratio of reactants and aging time, reasonably using redoxes and stepwise self-assembly plans. Compound 1 is the second POM with Keggin-type polyanion capped by Cr-complexes. Experiments demonstrate that compound 1 has good catalytic activity in the both degradation reactions of rhodamine B (RHB) and methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet (UV)-light and oxidant H2O2 conditions. Detailed structural characterizations include single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analyses, elemental analyses, cerate oxidimetry, powder XRD, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) solid diffuse reflection spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The electrochemical property (cyclic voltammetry (CV)) of compound 1 has also been studied.

  19. Carbon Nanofibers Modified Graphite Felt for High Performance Anode in High Substrate Concentration Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youliang Shen


    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers modified graphite fibers (CNFs/GF composite electrode was prepared for anode in high substrate concentration microbial fuel cells. Electrochemical tests showed that the CNFs/GF anode generated a peak current density of 2.42 mA cm−2 at a low acetate concentration of 20 mM, which was 54% higher than that from bare GF. Increase of the acetate concentration to 80 mM, in which the peak current density of the CNFs/GF anode greatly increased and was up to 3.57 mA cm−2, was seven times as that of GF anode. Morphology characterization revealed that the biofilms in the CNFs/GF anode were much denser than those in the bare GF. This result revealed that the nanostructure in the anode not only enhanced current generation but also could tolerate high substrate concentration.

  20. An Automatic High Efficient Method for Dish Concentrator Alignment


    Yong Wang; Song Li; Jinshan Xu; Yijiang Wang; Xu Cheng; Changgui Gu; Shengyong Chen; Bin Wan


    Alignment of dish concentrator is a key factor to the performance of solar energy system. We propose a new method for the alignment of faceted solar dish concentrator. The isosceles triangle configuration of facet’s footholds determines a fixed relation between light spot displacements and foothold movements, which allows an automatic determination of the amount of adjustments. Tests on a 25 kW Stirling Energy System dish concentrator verify the feasibility, accuracy, and efficiency of our...

  1. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  2. Preparation and Properties of High Refractive Index LED Encapsulation Rubber with Long Life%高折射率、长寿命 LED 灌封胶的制备及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文波; 汤胜山


    以甲基苯基混合环体、八甲基环四硅氧烷、四甲基四乙烯基环四硅氧烷、四甲基二乙烯基二硅氧烷等为原料制得甲基苯基硅油;以苯基三氯基硅烷、二苯基二氯硅烷、二甲基二氯硅烷和二甲基乙烯基氯硅烷等为原料,制得甲基乙烯基苯基有机硅树脂;以二苯基二甲氧基硅烷、苯基三甲氧基硅烷、四甲基环四硅氧烷为原料制得苯基交联剂。按甲基乙烯基苯基硅油、甲基苯基乙烯基硅树质量比和nSi—H/nVi筛选出符合LED芯片封装基本要求的灌封胶,其折射率为1.5441,操作黏度(25℃)4000~5500 mPa・s,固化后的初始邵尔D硬度为33~37度,可见光(550 nm)透光率大于85%。耐热老化性能测试研究表明,150℃热老化1000 h后,硬度增幅为5度,无黄变现象,在550 nm的透光率大于80%。进一步的光通量测试研究表明,点灯测试1000 h后,该灌封胶的光衰<2%。表明该款灌封胶具有高折射率和较长的应用寿命。%Phenyl methyl silicone fluid was prepared with methylphenyl cyclics mixture, octamethyl cy-clotetrasiloxane, tetramethyl tetravinyl cyclotetrasiloxane, tetramethyl divinyl disiloxane.Then methyl vinyl phenyl silicone resin was prepared with phenyl trichlorosilane, diphenyl dichlorosilane, dimethyl dichloride si-lane and dimethyl vinyl chlorosilane.At last, the phenyl crosslinkers were prepared with diphenyl dimethoxy silane, phenyl trimethoxy silane, and tetramethyl cyclotetrasiloxane.By varying the mass ratios of vinyl methyl phenyl silicone oil and methyl vinyl phenyl silicone resin and Si-H/Vi molar ratio, the optimal composition meeting LED chip packaging was selected.The material has a viscosity of 4000-5500mPa・ s (25 °C) , a re-fractive index of 1.5441 , an initial degree of hardness shore D 33-37°after curing, the visible light trans-mittance (550nm) over 85%.Research of the heat aging testing shows that after thermal

  3. An Automatic High Efficient Method for Dish Concentrator Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang


    for the alignment of faceted solar dish concentrator. The isosceles triangle configuration of facet’s footholds determines a fixed relation between light spot displacements and foothold movements, which allows an automatic determination of the amount of adjustments. Tests on a 25 kW Stirling Energy System dish concentrator verify the feasibility, accuracy, and efficiency of our method.

  4. New Research Frontier of High Power LED Lamp Cooling System%LED照明散热技术现状及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾昱君; 刘中良


    对当前大功率发光二极管(LED)照明散热技术的现状进行了介绍。针对LED照明热源的特点,开发了一系列具有特殊翅片结构的热管换热器,并对不同工况下各种热管的散热能力进行了测试,测试结果表明,所研发的新型热管换热器散热能力比普通热管换热器有明显提高,结构更加紧凑,其中,外翻形翅片结构的热管换热器散热能力最好,可为LED照明散热技术的发展和研究提供参考。%Various cooling systems and methods applied to high power LED lamps are introduced.According to the characteristics of high power LED lamps,a series of heat pipes with specific fin structures are developed and tested under different conditions.Test results show that the new heat pipe heat exchangers feature higher efficiency of heat dissipation and more compact construction than the conventional heat pipe heat exchangers and that the new heat exchanger with outwards-radiate fins has the best heat dissipation performance.The research findings can provide reference for the development of LED lamp cooling technology.

  5. Starch source in high concentrate rations does not affect rumen pH, histamine and lipopolysaccharide concentrations in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.; Schonewille, J.T.; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C.; Aiumlamai, S.; Wachirapakom, C.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.


    The replacement of ground corn by cassava meal on rumen pH, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histamine concentrations under typical Thai feeding conditions (high concentrate diets and rice straw as the sole source of roughage) was investigated. Four rumen-fistulated crossbred Holstein, non-pregnant, dry

  6. Bandgap Engineering in High-Efficiency Multijunction Concentrator Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R. R.; Sherif, R. A.; Kinsey, G. S.; Kurtz, S.; Fetzer, C. M.; Edmondson, K. M.; Law, D. C.; Cotal, H. L.; Krut, D. D.; Ermer, J. H.; Karam, N. H.


    This paper discusses semiconductor device research paths under investigation with the aim of reaching the milestone efficiency of 40%. A cost analysis shows that achieving very high cell efficiencies is crucial for the realization of cost-effective photovoltaics, because of the strongly leveraging effect of efficiency on module packaging and balance-of systems costs. Lattice-matched (LM) GaInP/ GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cells have achieved the highest independently confirmed efficiency at 175 suns, 25?C, of 37.3% under the standard AM1.5D, low-AOD terrestrial spectrum. Lattice-mismatched, or metamorphic (MM), materials offer still higher potential efficiencies, if the crystal quality can be maintained. Theoretical efficiencies well over 50% are possible for a MM GaInP/ 1.17-eV GaInAs/ Ge 3-junction cell limited by radiative recombination at 500 suns. The bandgap - open circuit voltage offset, (Eg/q) - Voc, is used as a valuable theoretical and experimental tool to characterize multijunction cells with subcell bandgaps ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 eV. Experimental results are presented for prototype 6-junction cells employing an active {approx}1.1-eV dilute nitride GaInNAs subcell, with active-area efficiency greater than 23% and over 5.3 V open-circuit voltage under the 1-sun AM0 space spectrum. Such cell designs have theoretical efficiencies under the terrestrial spectrum at 500 suns concentration exceeding 55% efficiency, even for lattice-matched designs.

  7. LPWCO method for the treatment of high concentrated organic wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on wet air oxidation (WAO) and Fenton reagent, thispaper raises a new low pressure wet catalytic oxidation(LPWCO)which requires low pressure for the treatment of highlyconcentrated and refractory organic wastewater. Compared withgeneral wet air oxidation, the pressure of the treatment(0.1-0.6MPa) is only one of tens to percentage of latter(3.5-10MPa). Inaddition, its temperature is no more than 180℃.Compared withFenton reagent, while H2O2/COD(weight ratio) less than 1.2, theremoval of COD in the treatment is over twenty percents more thanFenton's even the value of COD is more than 14000mg/L. In thispaper, we study the effect factor of COD removal and the mechanismof this treatment. The existence of synergistic effect (catalytic oxidation and carbonization) for COD removal in H2SO4-Fenton reagent system under the condition of applied pressure and heating (0.1-0.6MPa, 104-165℃) was verified. The best condition of this disposal are as follows:H2O2/COD(weight ratio)=0.2-1.0, Fe2+ 0.6×10-3 mol, H2SO4 0.5mol, COD>1×104mg/L, the operating pressure is 0.1-0.6MPa and temperature is 104-165℃. This method suit to dispose the high-concentrated refractory wastewater, especially to the wastewater containing H2SO produced in the manufacture of pesticide, dyestuff and petrochemical works.

  8. Effect of p-GaN layer grown with H2 carrier gas on wall-plug efficiency of high-power LEDs (United States)

    Lu, Kuan Fu; Lin, Tien Kun; Liou, Jian Kai; Yang, Chyi Da; Lee, Chong Yi; Tsai, Jeng Da


    The effect of employing different carrier gases (H2 only and 1:1 vol% N2:H2) in the p-type GaN (p-GaN) layer on the wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is studied. Since GaN crystal could be a two-dimension (2-D) growth mode in H2 ambient, better quality and smoother surface of the p-GaN were obtained. The current spreading performance of the p-GaN layer using H2 alone as the carrier gas was enhanced, resulting in advanced light output power (LOP). In addition, turn-on voltage and dynamic resistance at 500 mA, which can strongly contribute to the WPE, were also reduced by 0.12 V and 0.13 Ω, respectively. The studied device with H2 as the carrier gas in the p-GaN layer (p-H2 layer) exhibits 9.5% and 12.4% improvements in LOP and WPE at 500 mA over the device (N2/H2 = 1:1), as well as significantly better electrostatic discharge robustness. Therefore, the use of a p-H2 layer can effectively improve the performance of GaN-based LEDs for high power applications.

  9. High Oxygen Concentrations Adversely Affect the Performance of Pulmonary Surfactant. (United States)

    Smallwood, Craig D; Boloori-Zadeh, Parnian; Silva, Maricris R; Gouldstone, Andrew


    Although effective in the neonatal population, exogenous pulmonary surfactant has not demonstrated a benefit in pediatric and adult subjects with hypoxic lung injury despite a sound physiologic rationale. Importantly, neonatal surfactant replacement therapy is administered in conjunction with low fractional FIO2 while pediatric/adult therapy is administered with high FIO2 . We suspected a connection between FIO2 and surfactant performance. Therefore, we sought to assess a possible mechanism by which the activity of pulmonary surfactant is adversely affected by direct oxygen exposure in in vitro experiments. The mechanical performance of pulmonary surfactant was evaluated using 2 methods. First, Langmuir-Wilhelmy balance was utilized to study the reduction in surface area (δA) of surfactant to achieve a low bound value of surface tension after repeated compression and expansion cycles. Second, dynamic light scattering was utilized to measure the size of pulmonary surfactant particles in aqueous suspension. For both experiments, comparisons were made between surfactant exposed to 21% and 100% oxygen. The δA of surfactant was 21.1 ± 2.0% and 35.8 ± 2.0% during exposure to 21% and 100% oxygen, respectively (P = .02). Furthermore, dynamic light-scattering experiments revealed a micelle diameter of 336.0 ± 12.5 μm and 280.2 ± 11.0 μm in 21% and 100% oxygen, respectively (P < .001), corresponding to a ∼16% decrease in micelle diameter following exposure to 100% oxygen. The characteristics of pulmonary surfactant were adversely affected by short-term exposure to oxygen. Specifically, surface tension studies revealed that short-term exposure of surfactant film to high concentrations of oxygen expedited the frangibility of pulmonary surfactant, as shown with the δA. This suggests that reductions in pulmonary compliance and associated adverse effects could begin to take effect in a very short period of time. If these findings can be demonstrated in vivo, a role for

  10. Excellent color rendering indexes of multi-package white LEDs. (United States)

    Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Su Ji; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Y R


    This study introduces multi-package white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) system with the ability to realize high luminous efficacy and an excellent color rendering index (CRI, R a) using the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B (R B,M A B,M G B,M denoted as a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF)-capped, monochromatic red, amber and green phosphor converted-LED (pc-LED) pumped by a blue LED chip, and C B denoted as a cyan and blue mixed pc-LED pumped by a blue LED) system. The luminous efficacy and color rendering index (CRI) of multi-package white LED systems are compared while changing the concentration of the cyan phosphor used in the paste of a cyan-blue LED package and the driving current of individual LEDs in multi-package white LEDs at correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 6,500 K (cold white) to 2,700 K (warm white) using a set of eight CCTs as specified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard number C78.377-2008. A R B,M A B,M G B,M C B white LED system provides high luminous efficacy (≥ 96 lm/W) and a color rendering index (≥ 91) encompassing the complete CCT range. We also compare the optical properties of the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B system with those of the R B,M A B,M G B,M B and RAGB (red, amber, green, and blue semiconductor-type narrow-spectrum-band LEDs) systems. It can be expected that the cyan color added to a blue LED in multi-package white LEDs based on LPDF-capped, phosphor-converted monochromatic LEDs will meet the needs of the high-quality, highly efficient, full-color white LED lighting market in the near future.

  11. High-Efficiency Organic Solar Concentrators for Photovoltaics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael J. Currie; Jonathan K. Mapel; Timothy D. Heidel; Shalom Goffri; Marc A. Baldo


    The cost of photovoltaic power can be reduced with organic solar concentrators. These are planar waveguides with a thin-film organic coating on the face and inorganic solar cells attached to the edges...

  12. The effect of nitrogen source on photosynthesis of carob at high CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, C.; Martins-Loucao, M.A. (Depto. de Biologia Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)); Lips, S.H. (Desert Agrobiology Center, J. Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Gen-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel))


    Carob seedlings (Ceratonia siliqua L. cv. Mulata), fed with nitrate or ammonium, were grown in growth chambers containing two levels of CO[sub 2] (360 or 800 [mu]l l[sup -1]), three root temperatures (15, 20 or 25 deg. C), and the same shoot temperature (20/24 deg. C, night/day temperature). The response of the plants to CO[sub 2] enrichment was affected by environmental factors such as the type of inorganic nitrogen in the medium and root temperature. Increasing root temperature enhanced photosynthesis rate more in the presence of nitrate than in the presence of ammonium. Differences in photosynthetic products were also observed between nitrate- and ammonium-fed carob seedlings. Nitrate-grown plants showed an enhanced content of sucrose, while ammonium led to enhanced storage of starch. Increase in root temperature caused an increase in dry mass of the plants of similar proportions in both nitrogen sources. The enhancement of the rates of photosynthesis by CO[sub 2] enrichment was proportionally much larger than the resulting increases in dry mass production when nitrate was the nitrogen source. Ammonium was the preferred nitrogen source for carob at both ambient and high CO[sub 2] concentrations. The level of photosynthesis of a plant is limited not only by atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration but also by the nutritional and environmental conditions of the root. (au) (17 refs.)

  13. LED minilidar for Mars rover (United States)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Yamada, Sonoko; Senshu, Hiroki; Otobe, Naohito; Hashimoto, George; Kawabata, Yasuhiro


    A mini-lidar to observe the activity of Martian atmosphere is developed. The 10cm-cube LED mini-lidar was designed to be onboard a Mars rover. The light source of the mini-lidar is a high powered LED of 385nm. LED was adopted as light source because of its toughness against circumference change and physical shock for launch. The pulsed power and the pulse repetition frequency of LED beam were designed as 0.75W (=7.5nJ/10ns) and 500kHz, respectively. Lidar echoes were caught by the specially designed Cassegrain telescope, which has the shorter telescope tube than the usual to meet the 10cm-cube size limit. The high-speed photon counter was developed to pursue to the pulse repetition frequency of the LED light. The measurement range is no shorter than 30m depending back-ground condition. Its spatial resolution was improved as 0.15m (=1ns) by this photon counter. The demonstrative experiment was conducted at large wind tunnel facility of Japan Meteorological Agency. The measurement target was smoke of glycerin particles. The smoke was flowed in the wind tunnel with wind speed of 0 - 5m. Smoke diffusion and its propagation due to the wind flow were observed by the LED mini-lidar. This result suggests that the developed lidar can pursue the structure and the motion of dust devil of >2m.

  14. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  15. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan


    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...

  16. The distribution of InCl sub x compounds in model polymeric LEDs A combined low and high-energy ion beam analysis study

    CERN Document Server

    Reijme, M A; Simons, D P L; Schok, M; Ijzendoorn, L J V; Brongersma, H H; De Voigt, M J A


    A combination of low- and high-energy ion beam analysis techniques was used to determine the distribution of indium chloride compounds in model polymeric light-emitting diodes (p-LEDs). Parts of polymeric LEDs (polydialkoxyphenylenevinylene (OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrates) were exposed to a HCl/Ar flow to simulate the processes occurring during conversion of precursor PPVs and acid treatment of polymers. Samples with variable exposure times as well as pristine samples were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The RBS measurements show that after HCl exposure indium is distributed throughout the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. LEIS and XPS measurements indicate that the indium and chlorine are present at the outermost surface of the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. PIXE measurements in combination with the RBS data demonstrate that th...

  17. Effects of high-fidelity patient simulation led clinical reasoning course: Focused on nursing core competencies, problem solving, and academic self-efficacy. (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Lee, Yoonju; Lee, Senah; Bae, Juyeon


    To examine the effects of high-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) led clinical reasoning course among undergraduate nursing students. A quasi-experimental study of non-equivalent control group pretest-post test design was applied. A total of 49 senior nursing students participated in this study. The experimental group consisted of the students who took the "clinical reasoning" course (n = 23) while the control group consisted of students who did not (n = 26). Self-administered scales including the nursing core competencies, problem solving, academic self-efficacy, and Kolb learning style inventory were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS version 20.0. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ancova due to a significant difference in nursing core competencies between the experimental group and control group. There was a significant improvement in nursing core competencies in the experimental group (F = 7.747, P = 0.008). The scores of problem solving and academic self-efficacy were higher in the experimental group after the HFPS led clinical reasoning course without statistical difference. There is a need for the development of effective instructional methods to improve learning outcomes in nursing education. Future research is needed related to simulation education as well as management strategies so that learning outcomes can be achieved within different students' learning style. © 2015 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  18. Development of manufacturing capability for high-concentration, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Verlinden, P.J.; Crane, R.A.; Swanson, R.N. [SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)


    This report presents a summary of the major results from a program to develop a manufacturable, high-efficiency silicon concentrator solar cell and a cost-effective manufacturing facility. The program was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Sandia National Laboratories through the Concentrator Initiative, and SunPower Corporation. The key achievements of the program include the demonstration of 26%-efficient silicon concentrator solar cells with design-point (20 W/cm{sup 2}) efficiencies over 25%. High-performance front-surface passivations; that were developed to achieve this result were verified to be absolutely stable against degradation by 475 days of field exposure at twice the design concentration. SunPower demonstrated pilot production of more than 1500 of these cells. This cell technology was also applied to pilot production to supply 7000 17.7-cm{sup 2} one-sun cells (3500 yielded wafers) that demonstrated exceptional quality control. The average efficiency of 21.3% for these cells approaches the peak efficiency ever demonstrated for a single small laboratory cell within 2% (absolute). Extensive cost models were developed through this program and calibrated by the pilot-production project. The production levels achieved indicate that SunPower could produce 7-10 MW of concentrator cells per year in the current facility based upon the cell performance demonstrated during the program.

  19. Highly Sensitive Cadmium Concentration Sensor Using Long Period Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lalasangi


    Full Text Available In this paper we have proposed a simple and effective Long Period Grating chemical sensor for detecting the traces of Cadmium (Cd++ in drinking water at ppm level. Long Period gratings (LPG were fabricated by point-by-point technique with CO2 laser. We have characterized the LPG concentration sensor sensitivity for different solutions of Cd concentrations varying from 0.01 ppm to 0.04 ppm by injecting white Light source and observed transmitted spectra using Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA. Proper reagents have been used in the solutions for detection of the Cd species. The overall shift in wavelength is 10 nm when surrounding medium gradually changed from water to 0.04 ppm of cadmium concentrations. A comparative study has been done using sophisticated spectroscopic atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP instruments. The spectral sensitivity enhancement was done by modifying grating surface with gold nanoparticles.

  20. Methods and devices for high-throughput dielectrophoretic concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA); Fiechtner, Gregory J. (Germantown, MD); Fintschenko, Yolanda (Livermore, CA); McGraw, Gregory J. (Ann Arbor, MI); Salmi, Allen (Escalon, CA)


    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for assaying and concentrating analytes in a fluid sample using dielectrophoresis. As disclosed, the methods and devices utilize substrates having a plurality of pores through which analytes can be selectively prevented from passing, or inhibited, on application of an appropriate electric field waveform. The pores of the substrate produce nonuniform electric field having local extrema located near the pores. These nonuniform fields drive dielectrophoresis, which produces the inhibition. Arrangements of electrodes and porous substrates support continuous, bulk, multi-dimensional, and staged selective concentration.

  1. Methods and devices for high-throughput dielectrophoretic concentration (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A.; Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen


    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for assaying and concentrating analytes in a fluid sample using dielectrophoresis. As disclosed, the methods and devices utilize substrates having a plurality of pores through which analytes can be selectively prevented from passing, or inhibited, on application of an appropriate electric field waveform. The pores of the substrate produce nonuniform electric field having local extrema located near the pores. These nonuniform fields drive dielectrophoresis, which produces the inhibition. Arrangements of electrodes and porous substrates support continuous, bulk, multi-dimensional, and staged selective concentration.

  2. High Quantum Efficiency and High Concentration Erbium-Doped Silica Glasses Fabricated by Sintering Nanoporous Glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new method was used to prepare erbium-doped high silica (SiO2%>96%) glasses by sintering nanoporous glasses. The concentration of erbium ions in high silica glasses can be considerably more than that in silica glasses prepared by using conventional methods. The fluorescence of 1532 nm has an FWHM (Full Wave at Half Maximum) of 50 nm, wider than 35 nm of EDSFA (erbium-doped silica fiber amplifer), and hence the glass possesses potential application in broadband fiber amplifiers. The Judd-Ofelt theoretical analysis reflects that the quantum efficiency of this erbium-doped glass is about 0.78, although the erbium concentration in this glass (6×103) is about twenty times higher than that in silica glass. These excellent characteristics of Er-doped high silica glass will be conducive to its usage in optical amplifiers and microchip lasers.

  3. Concentration measurement of yeast suspensions using high frequency ultrasound backscattering. (United States)

    Elvira, Luis; Vera, Pedro; Cañadas, Francisco Jesús; Shukla, Shiva Kant; Montero, Francisco


    This work proposes the use of an ultrasound based technique to measure the concentration of yeasts in liquid suspension. This measurement was achieved by the detection and quantification of ultrasonic echoes backscattered by the cells. More specifically, the technique was applied to the detection and quantification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A theoretical approach was proposed to get the average density and sound speed of the yeasts, which were found to be 1116 kg/m(3) and 1679 m/s, respectively. These parameters were needed to model the waves backscattered by each single cell. A pulse-echo arrangement working around 50 MHz, being able to detect echoes from single yeasts was used to characterize experimentally yeast solutions from 10(2) to 10(7)cells/ml. The Non-negative Matrix Factorization denoising technique was applied for data analysis. This technique required a previous learning of the spectral patterns of the echoes reflected from yeasts in solution and the base noise from the liquid medium. Comparison between pulse correlation (without denoising) and theoretical and experimental pattern learning was made to select the best signal processing. A linear relation between ultrasound output and concentration was obtained with correlation coefficient R(2)=0.996 for the experimental learning. Concentrations from 10(4) to 10(7)cells/ml were detected above the base noise. These results show the viability of using the ultrasound backscattering technique to detect yeasts and measure their concentration in liquid cultures, improving the sensitivity obtained using spectrophotometric methods by one order of magnitude.

  4. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Monomucleotides (United States)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia


    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2+ in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MeImpU and 2-MeImpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-linked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of internucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MeImpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  5. High concentrations of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from children with cystic fibrosis are associated with high interleukin-8 concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P


    BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is thought to be associated with pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. The measurement of pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently been suggested to be a reliable indicator of aspiration. The prevalence of pulmonary aspiration in a group of children with CF was assessed and its association with lung inflammation investigated. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. BAL fluid was collected from individuals with CF (n=31) and healthy controls (n=7). Interleukin-8 (IL-8), pepsin, neutrophil numbers and neutrophil elastase activity levels were measured in all samples. Clinical, microbiological and lung function data were collected from medical notes. RESULTS: The pepsin concentration in BAL fluid was higher in the CF group than in controls (mean (SD) 24.4 (27.4) ng\\/ml vs 4.3 (4.0) ng\\/ml, p=0.03). Those with CF who had raised pepsin concentrations had higher levels of IL-8 in the BAL fluid than those with a concentration comparable to controls (3.7 (2.7) ng\\/ml vs 1.4 (0.9) ng\\/ml, p=0.004). Within the CF group there was a moderate positive correlation between pepsin concentration and IL-8 in BAL fluid (r=0.48, p=0.04). There was no association between BAL fluid pepsin concentrations and age, sex, body mass index z score, forced expiratory volume in 1 s or Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation status. CONCLUSIONS: Many children with CF have increased levels of pepsin in the BAL fluid compared with normal controls. Increased pepsin levels were associated with higher IL-8 concentrations in BAL fluid. These data suggest that aspiration of gastric contents occurs in a subset of patients with CF and is associated with more pronounced lung inflammation.

  6. Mono- and dichromatic LED illumination leads to enhanced growth and energy conversion for high-efficiency cultivation of microalgae for application in space. (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Steinweg, Christian; Posten, Clemens


    Illumination with red and blue photons is known to be efficient for cultivation of higher plants. For microalgae cultivation, illumination with specific wavelengths rather than full spectrum illumination can be an alternative where there is a lack of knowledge about achievable biomass yields. This study deals with the usage of color LED illumination to cultivate microalgae integrated into closed life support systems for outer space. The goal is to quantify biomass yields using color illumination (red, blue, green and mixtures) compared to white light. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was cultivated in plate reactors with color compared to white illumination regarding PCE, specific pigment concentration and cell size. Highest PCE values were achieved under low PFDs with a red/blue illumination (680 nm/447 nm) at a 90 to 10% molar ratio. At higher PFDs saturation effects can be observed resulting from light absorption characteristics and the linear part of PI curve. Cell size and aggregation are also influenced by the applied light color. Red/blue color illumination is a promising option applicable for microalgae-based modules of life support systems under low to saturating light intensities and double-sided illumination. Results of higher PCE with addition of blue photons to red light indicate an influence of sensory pigments. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Spectroradiometry for LED characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    Radiospectroscopy is the absolute measurement of electromagnetic radiation within a specific wavelength range. For characterization of LED components, light sources and lamps we are interested in absolute measurement of the spectral power distribution, SPD, in the visible and near infrared region....... Using integrating spheres for light collection setups for absolute total spectral flux is realized at the LED Light Lab at DTU Fotonik, Risø Campus. From these, both total radiant and luminous flux is determined and through electrical power measurement also the efficiency is determined. From the SPD...... colorimetric quantities like color coordinates, color temperature and color rendering indices are calculated. The facilities and special issues concerning LED measurements compared to traditional light sources are explained and examples from the “LED lighting quality program”, a project supported by the Danish...

  8. Modeling LED street lighting. (United States)

    Moreno, Ivan; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Saucedo-A, Tonatiuh; Bugarin, Alejandra


    LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street. The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position (pole height and arm length), luminary angle (fixture tilt), and the angular intensity profile (radiation pattern) of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps.

  9. LEDs Are Diodes. (United States)

    Lisensky, George C.; Condren, S. Michael; Widstrand, Cynthia G.; Breitzer, Jonathan; Ellis, Arthur B.


    Describes an activity comparing incandescent bulbs and LEDs powered by dc and ac voltage sources to illustrate properties of matter and the interactions of energy and matter. Includes both instructor information and student activity sheet. (Author/YDS)

  10. High pressure inertial focusing for separating and concentrating bacteria at high throughput (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Hooshmand Zadeh, S.; Graells, T.; Andersson, M.; Malmström, J.; Wu, Z. G.; Hjort, K.


    Inertial focusing is a promising microfluidic technology for concentration and separation of particles by size. However, there is a strong correlation of increased pressure with decreased particle size. Theory and experimental results for larger particles were used to scale down the phenomenon and find the conditions that focus 1 µm particles. High pressure experiments in robust glass chips were used to demonstrate the alignment. We show how the technique works for 1 µm spherical polystyrene particles and for Escherichia coli, not being harmful for the bacteria at 50 µl min-1. The potential to focus bacteria, simplicity of use and high throughput make this technology interesting for healthcare applications, where concentration and purification of a sample may be required as an initial step.

  11. RS-232 Led Board

    CERN Document Server

    Tskhvaradze, Vladimir


    This article demonstrates how to develop a Microchip PIC16F84 based device that supports RS-232 interface with PC. Circuit (LED Board) design and software development will be discussed. PicBasic Pro Compiler from microEngineering Labs, Inc. is used for PIC programming. Development of LED Board Control Console using C/C++ is also briefly discussed. The project requires basic work experience with Microchip PICs, serial communication and programming.

  12. A novel imaging system of optical detection on cancers and tissues in gastrointestinal endoscope using high-color-rendering white and color tunable LEDs (United States)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Taguchi, Tsunemasa; Uchida, Yuji; Kurai, Satoshi; Yanai, Hideo; Kiyotoki, Shu; Okamoto, Takeshi; Higaki, Shingo; Sakaida, Isao


    The use of white or color tunable LEDs (light-emitting diodes), which can replace a large light source apparatus and light-guiding fiber bundle, enable the miniaturization of the whole endoscope system and remove constraints on the design of its shape. We have developed a novel white LED for a new experimental prototype LED-illuminated gastrointestinal endoscope having the color rendering in the clinically important red range at around 600 nm.­

  13. New PSA high concentration solar furnace SF40 (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Cañadas, Inmaculada; Zarza, Eduardo


    A new solar furnace has been designed and built at Plataforma Solar de Almería. In this work, its main components such as heliostat, concentrator, attenuator and test table, and the method used to align them are described. Other equipment like the auxiliary systems necessary for the solar operation, vacuum chamber and gas system are outlined too. Finally, the thermal characteristics of the focus were measured during a test campaign, where different planes along the optical axis were scanned with a radiometer, and the peak flux was obtained and is presented in the last section of this report.

  14. High-performance flat-panel solar thermoelectric generators with high thermal concentration. (United States)

    Kraemer, Daniel; Poudel, Bed; Feng, Hsien-Ping; Caylor, J Christopher; Yu, Bo; Yan, Xiao; Ma, Yi; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Dezhi; Muto, Andrew; McEnaney, Kenneth; Chiesa, Matteo; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Gang


    The conversion of sunlight into electricity has been dominated by photovoltaic and solar thermal power generation. Photovoltaic cells are deployed widely, mostly as flat panels, whereas solar thermal electricity generation relying on optical concentrators and mechanical heat engines is only seen in large-scale power plants. Here we demonstrate a promising flat-panel solar thermal to electric power conversion technology based on the Seebeck effect and high thermal concentration, thus enabling wider applications. The developed solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) achieved a peak efficiency of 4.6% under AM1.5G (1 kW m(-2)) conditions. The efficiency is 7-8 times higher than the previously reported best value for a flat-panel STEG, and is enabled by the use of high-performance nanostructured thermoelectric materials and spectrally-selective solar absorbers in an innovative design that exploits high thermal concentration in an evacuated environment. Our work opens up a promising new approach which has the potential to achieve cost-effective conversion of solar energy into electricity.

  15. Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) tolerates high concentrations of dietary nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Nickel hyperaccumulator plants contain unusually elevated levels of Ni (> 1 000 μg Ni/g). Some insect herbivores, including Lygus hesperus (Western tarnished plant bug), have been observed feeding on the California Ni hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides. This bug may be able to utilize S. polygaloides as a host either through its feeding behavior or by physiological tolerance of Ni. This experiment determined the Ni tolerance of L. hesperus by offering insects artificial diet amended with 0,0.4, 1, 2, 4.5,10, 20 and 40 mmol Ni/L and recording survival. Survival varied due to Ni concentration, with diets containing 10 mmol Ni/L and greater resulting in significantly lower survival compared to the control (0 mmol Ni/L) treatment. Insects tolerated diet containing as much as 4.5 mmol Ni/L, a relatively elevated Ni concentration. I conclude that L. hesperus can feed on S. polygaloides because it is Ni-tolerant, probably due to physiological mechanisms that provide it with resistance to plant chemical defenses including elemental defenses such as hyperaccumulated Ni.

  16. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  17. GaN-based LEDs for light communication (United States)

    Zhao, LiXia; Zhu, ShiChao; Wu, ChunHui; Yang, Chao; Yu, ZhiGuo; Yang, Hua; Liu, Lei


    Rapid improvement in the efficiency of GaN-based LEDs not only speed up its applications for general illumination, but offer the possibilities for data transmission. This review is to provide an overview of current progresses of GaN-based LEDs for light communications. The modulation bandwidth of GaN-based LEDs has been first improved by optimizing the LED epilayer structures and the modulation bandwidth of 73 MHz was achieved at the driving current density of 40 A/cm2 by changing the multi-quantum well structures. After that, in order to increase the current density tolerance, different parallel flip-chip micro-LED arrays were fabricated. With a high injected current density of ˜7900 A/cm2, a maximum modulation bandwidth of ˜227 MHz was obtained with optical power greater than 30 mW. Besides the increase of carrier concentrations, the radiative recombination coefficient B was also enhanced by modifying the photon surrounding environment based on some novel nanostructures such as resonant cavity, surface plasmon, and photonic crystals. The optical 3 dB modulation bandwidth of GaN-based nanostructure LEDs with Ag nanoparticles was enhanced by 2 times compared with GaN-based nanostructure LEDs without Ag nanoparticles. Our results demonstrate that using the QW-SP coupling can effectively help to enhance the carrier spontaneous emission rate and also increase the modulation bandwidth for LEDs, especially for LEDs with high intrinsic IQE. In addition, we discuss the progress of the faster color conversion stimulated by GaN-based LEDs.

  18. Celecoxib concentration predicts decrease in prostaglandin E2 concentrations in nipple aspirate fluid from high risk women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn John T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies suggest that long term low dose celecoxib use significantly lowers breast cancer risk. We previously demonstrated that 400 mg celecoxib taken twice daily for 2 weeks lowered circulating plasma and breast nipple aspirate fluid (NAF prostaglandin (PGE2 concentrations in post- but not premenopausal high risk women. We hypothesized that circulating concentrations of celecoxib influenced PGE2 response, and that plasma levels of the drug are influenced by menopausal status. To address these hypotheses, the aims of the study were to determine: 1 if circulating plasma concentrations of celecoxib correlated with the change in plasma or NAF PGE2 concentrations from baseline to end of treatment, and 2 whether menopausal status influenced circulating levels of celecoxib. Methods Matched NAF and plasma were collected from 46 high risk women who were administered celecoxib twice daily for two weeks, 20 subjects receiving 200 mg and 26 subjects 400 mg of the agent. NAF and plasma samples were collected before and 2 weeks after taking celecoxib. Results In women taking 400 mg bid celecoxib, plasma concentrations of the agent correlated inversely with the change in NAF PGE2 levels from pre- to posttreatment. Nonsignificant trends toward higher celecoxib levels were observed in post- compared to premenopausal women. There was a significant decrease in NAF but not plasma PGE2 concentrations in postmenopausal women who took 400 mg celecoxib (p = 0.03. Conclusion In high risk women taking 400 mg celecoxib twice daily, plasma concentrations of celecoxib correlated with downregulation of PGE2 production by breast tissue. Strategies synergistic with celecoxib to downregulate PGE2 are of interest, in order to minimize the celecoxib dose required to have an effect.

  19. Synthesis of tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride by high-concentration phosphine in industrial off-gas. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yanfu; Zhou, Tao; Qin, Yangsong; Gao, Kunyang; Ding, Xinyue


    With increasing consumption of phosphate rock and acceleration of global phosphate production, the shortage of phosphate resources is increasing with the development and utilization of phosphate. China's Ministry of Land and Resources has classified phosphate as a mineral that cannot meet China's growing demand for phosphate rock in 2010. The phosphorus chemical industry is one of the important economic pillars for Yunnan province. Yellow phosphorus production in enterprises has led to a significant increase in the amount of phosphorus sludge. This paper focuses on phosphine generation in the process of phosphoric sludge utilization, where the flame retardant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) is synthesized by high concentrations of phosphine. The optimum conditions are determined at a space velocity of 150 h(-1), a reaction temperature of 60 °C, 0.75 g of catalyst, and a ratio of raw materials of 4:1. Because of the catalytic oxidation of copper chloride (CuCl2), the synthesis of THPC was accelerated significantly. In conclusion, THPC can be efficiently synthesized under optimal conditions and with CuCl2 as a catalyst.

  20. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (United States)


    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  1. Side-illuminating LED luminaires with accurate projection in high uniformity and high optical utilization factor for large-area field illumination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Yi-Chien; Cai, Jhih-You; Tasi, Ming-Shiou; Tasi, Zheng-Yu; Sun, Ching-Cherng


    A novel light luminaire is proposed and experimentally analyzed, which accurately projects light into a large rectangular area to achieve uniform illumination and a high optical utilization factor at the target...

  2. Determination of water quality variables, endotoxin concentration, and enterobacteriaceae concentration and identification in Southern High Plains dairy lagoons (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of endotoxin, determine 20 water quality variables, and identify and enumerate fungal and bacterial pathogens from United States southern High Plains dairy lagoons and control lakes during summer and winter. Water samples were collecte...

  3. High-Performance Near-Infrared Luminescent Solar Concentrators. (United States)

    Rondão, Raquel; Frias, Ana R; Correia, Sandra F H; Fu, Lianshe; de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S; Carlos, Luís D


    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) appear as candidates to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells and contribute to reduce the size of PV systems, decreasing, therefore, the amount of material needed and thus the cost associated with energy conversion. One way to maximize the device performance is to explore near-infrared (NIR)-emitting centers, resonant with the maximum optical response of the most common Si-based PV cells. Nevertheless, very few examples in the literature demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating LSCs emitting in the NIR region. In this work, NIR-emitting LSCs are reported using silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis(trihexylsilyloxide) (SiNc or NIR775) immobilized in an organic-inorganic tri-ureasil matrix (t-U(5000)). The photophysical properties of the SiNc dye incorporated into the tri-ureasil host closely resembled those of SiNc in tetrahydrofuran solution (an absolute emission quantum yield of ∼0.17 and a fluorescence lifetime of ∼3.6 ns). The LSC coupled to a Si-based PV device revealed an optical conversion efficiency of ∼1.5%, which is among the largest values known in the literature for NIR-emitting LSCs. The LSCs were posteriorly coupled to a Si-based commercial PV cell, and the synergy between the t-U(5000) and SiNc molecules enabled an effective increase in the external quantum efficiency of PV cells, exceeding 20% in the SiNc absorption region.

  4. An astigmatic corrected target-aligned heliostat for high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaibel, R.; Dagan, E.; Karni, J. [Solar Research Facility, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Ries, Harald [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Sektion Physik, Munich (Germany)


    Conventional heliostats suffer from astigmatism for non-normal incidence. For tangential rays the focal length is shortened while for sagittal rays it is longer than the nominal focal length. Due to this astigmatism it is impossible to produce a sharp image of the sun, and the rays will be spread over a larger area. In order to correct this the heliostat should have different curvature radii along the sagittal and tangential direction in the heliostat plane just like a non axial part of a paraboloid. In conventional heliostats, where the first axis, fixed with respect to the ground, is vertical while the second, fixed with respect to the reflector surface, is horizontal, such an astigmatism correction is not practical because the sagittal and tangential directions rotate with respect to the reflector. We suggest an alternative mount where the first axis is oriented towards the target. The second axis, perpendicular to the first and tangent to the reflector, coincides with the tangential direction. With this mounting sagittal and tangential direction are fixed with respect to the reflector during operation. Therefore a partial astigmatism compensation is possible. We calculate the optimum correction and show the performance of the heliostat. We also show predicted yearly average concentrations

  5. Semiconducting polymer LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Braun


    The field of semiconducting polymers has its root in the 1977 discovery of the semiconducting properties of polyacetylene1. This breakthrough earned Alan Heeger, Alan MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for ‘the discovery and development of conductive polymers’2–5. Other review articles capture how more than two decades of developments in the physical and chemical understanding of these novel materials has led to new device applications as active and passive electronic and optoelectronic devices ranging from diodes and transistors to polymer LEDs, photodiodes, lasers, and solar cells6–11. Much interest in plastic devices derives from the opportunities to use clever control of polymer structure combined with relatively economical polymer synthesis and processing techniques to obtain simultaneous control over electronic, optical, chemical, and mechanical features5. This article focuses on the advances leading to polymer LEDs12–14.

  6. [LED lights in dermatology]. (United States)

    Noé, C; Pelletier-Aouizerate, M; Cartier, H


    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology.

  7. High-Efficiency Robust Free-Standing Composited Phosphor Films with 2D and 3D Nanostructures for High-Power Remote White LEDs. (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Feng; Li, Jia-Sian; Shen, Chung-Wen


    This study demonstrated that combined free-standing quasi-amorphous/micropattern (QA/MP) composited resin film-assisted phosphor films enhanced the mechanical robustness, luminous efficacy, color rendering index (CRI), and special R9 of high-power remote warm white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). Introducing QA/MP nanostructures into phosphor film resulted in high efficiency of remote warm WLEDs with low phosphor thickness (approximately 25 μm) and reduced the correlated color temperature (CCT) from cold white light (approximately 5565 K) to warm white light (approximately 3178 K). The QA/MP composited phosphor films (CPFs) used for high-power remote WLEDs enhanced the CRI and special R9 and reduced the CCT. These results were attributed to that QA resin film reflected the blue light and re-emitted the added red emission. CIR (84), a natural warm white CCT (3178 K), and an acceptable luminous efficacy (102.5 lm/W) were achieved from the QA/MP CPFs of high-power remote WLEDs during operation at an input power of 10 W (current of 700 mA). The bending strength of QA/MP CPFs at approximately 112 N was significantly enhanced by 40% compared with that of flat CPFs. The QA/MP CPFs applied to high-power remote WLEDs exhibited good thermal and optical stability. QA/MP CPFs were also conducted to a reliability analysis (RA), in which temperature of 85 °C and relative humidity of 85% were applied for 3288 h. Lumen maintenance was degraded by 8% during RA test because the transmittance of trimethylolopropane ethoxylate triacrylate resins was degraded under high temperature. Overall, we implemented a reliable and inexpensive technology that can potentially reduce phosphor thickness, address the out-bin problems of defective WLEDs, and fabricate flat-panel lighting source with good lighting quality.

  8. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions


    Kovalenko, I. L.; V.P. Kuprin


    The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifie...

  9. High urinary phthalate concentration associated with delayed pubarche in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H; Sørensen, K; Mouritsen, A;


    Phthalates are a group of chemicals present in numerous consumer products. They have anti-androgenic properties in experimental studies and are suspected to be involved in human male reproductive health problems. A few studies have shown associations between phthalate exposure and changes...... and controls. We demonstrated that delayed pubarche, but not thelarche, was associated with high phthalate excretion in urine samples from 725 healthy school girls, which may suggest anti-androgenic actions of phthalates in our study group of girls....

  10. Deep Sea Memory of High Atmospheric CO2 Concentration (United States)

    Mathesius, Sabine; Hofmann, Matthias; Caldeira, Ken; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim


    Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere has been proposed as a powerful measure to mitigate global warming and ocean acidification. Planetary-scale interventions of that kind are often portrayed as "last-resort strategies", which need to weigh in if humankind keeps on enhancing the climate-system stock of CO2. Yet even if CDR could restore atmospheric CO2 to substantially lower concentrations, would it really qualify to undo the critical impacts of past emissions? In the study presented here, we employed an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) to investigate how CDR might erase the emissions legacy in the marine environment, focusing on pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen. Against a background of a world following the RCP8.5 emissions path ("business-as-usual") for centuries, we simulated the effects of two massive CDR interventions with CO2 extraction rates of 5 GtC yr-1 and 25 GtC yr-1, respectively, starting in 2250. We found that the 5 GtC yr-1 scheme would have only minor ameliorative influence on the oceans, even after several centuries of application. By way of contrast, the extreme 25 GtC yr-1 scheme eventually leads to tangible improvements. However, even with such an aggressive measure, past CO2 emissions leave a substantial legacy in the marine environment within the simulated period (i.e., until 2700). In summary, our study demonstrates that anthropogenic alterations of the oceans, caused by continued business-as-usual emissions, may not be reversed on a multi-centennial time scale by the most aspirational geoengineering measures. We also found that a transition from the RCP8.5 state to the state of a strong mitigation scenario (RCP2.6) is not possible, even under the assumption of extreme extraction rates (25 GtC yr-1). This is explicitly demonstrated by simulating additional scenarios, starting CDR already in 2150 and operating until the atmospheric CO2 concentration reaches 280 ppm and 180 ppm, respectively. The simulated

  11. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick


    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  12. Design requirements for high-efficiency high concentration ratio space solar cells (United States)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Patterson, R.


    A miniaturized Cassegrainian concentrator system concept was developed for low cost, multikilowatt space solar arrays. The system imposes some requirements on solar cells which are new and different from those imposed for conventional applications. The solar cells require a circular active area of approximately 4 mm in diameter. High reliability contacts are required on both front and back surfaces. The back area must be metallurgically bonded to a heat sink. The cell should be designed to achieve the highest practical efficiency at 100 AMO suns and at 80 C. The cell design must minimize losses due to nonuniform illumination intensity and nonnormal light incidence. The primary radiation concern is the omnidirectional proton environment.

  13. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;


    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  14. Waste to Energy Potential - A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor (United States)


    REPORT DATE 23 MAY 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Waste to Energy Potential - A High...and fermentative bacteria break down organic carbon to VFAs Acetogens break down VFAs to CH3CO2 − and H2 + Acetoclastic methanogens break...s -999999 999999 7 481 su -999999 999999 0 .. -999999 999999 HCA8 pti Flo$&-tdgc Tan.\\ feed su -999999 999999 0 .. -999999 999999 A-l>o -999999

  15. Effects of different light wavelengths from LEDs on oxidative stress and apoptosis in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) at high water temperatures. (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Seok; Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Cheol Young; Kim, Jae-Woo


    We investigated how different light spectra affect thermal stress in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), using light emitting diodes (LEDs; blue, 450 nm; green, 530 nm; red, 630 nm) at two intensities (0.3 and 0.5 W/m(2)) at relatively high water temperatures (25 and 30 °C, compared to a control condition of 20 °C). We measured the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the levels of plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Furthermore, the levels and mRNA expression of caspase-3 were measured, and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays of liver and comet assays were performed. The expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, as well as plasma H2O2 and LPO levels were significantly higher after exposure to high temperatures, and significantly lower after exposure to green and blue light. Caspase-3 levels and mRNA expression showed a similar pattern. The TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis markedly increased at higher water temperatures, compared with the 20 °C control. In contrast, green light irradiation decreased apoptosis rate. Furthermore, the comet assays showed that nuclear DNA damage was caused by thermal stress, and that green light irradiation played a role in partially preventing this damage. Overall, these results suggest that light with green and blue wavelengths can reduce both high temperature-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, and that particularly green light is efficient for this. Therefore, green light can play a role in protecting in olive flounder from thermal stress damage.

  16. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.


    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific ex

  17. Spectroradiometry for LED characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    Radiospectroscopy is the absolute measurement of electromagnetic radiation within a specific wavelength range. For characterization of LED components, light sources and lamps we are interested in absolute measurement of the spectral power distribution, SPD, in the visible and near infrared region...

  18. Generation of solar spectrum by using LEDs (United States)

    Lu, Pengzhi; Yang, Hua; Pei, Yanrong; Li, Jing; Xue, Bin; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin


    Light emitting diode (LED) has been recognized as an applicable light source for indoor and outdoor lighting, city beautifying, landscape facilities, and municipal engineering etc. Conventional LED has superior characteristics such as long life time, low power consumption, high contrast, and wide viewing angle. Recently, LED with high color-rendering index and special spectral characteristics has received more and more attention. This paper is intended to report a solar spectrum simulated by multichip LED light source. The typical solar spectrum of 5500k released by CIE was simulated as a reference. Four types of LEDs with different spectral power distributions would be used in the LED light source, which included a 430nm LED, a 480nm LED, a 500nm LED and a white LED. In order to obtain better simulation results, the white LED was achieved by a 450nm LED chip with the mixture of phosphor. The phosphor combination was prepared by mixing green phosphor, yellow phosphor and red phosphor in a certain proportion. The multichip LED light source could provide a high fidelity spectral match with the typical solar spectrum of 5500k by adjusting injection current to each device. The luminous flux, CIE chromaticity coordinate x, y, CCT, and Ra were 104.7 lm, 0.3337, 0.3681, 5460K, and 88.6, respectively. Because of high color-rendering index and highly match to the solar spectrum, the multichip LED light source is a competitive candidate for applications where special spectral is required, such as colorimetric measurements, visual inspection, gemstone identification and agriculture.

  19. a New Red Phosphor of the Mn Activated Non-Stoichiometric Strontium Aluminate 3SrO•5Al2O3 for High Color Rendering White Leds (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Fayong; Deng, Xiaorong; Xue, Shaochan; Luo, Anqi; Jiang, Yang; Chen, Shifu; Zhang, Wenhua


    A new red phosphor of strontium aluminate activated by Mn4+ was developed for high color rendering and warm white light-emitting diodes. The phosphor composition and conditions for synthesis were optimized through solid-state reaction. Meanwhile, the structure and morphology were investigated with XRD and SEM analysis. The results show that the 3SrO•5Al2O3 activated by 0.0005 M Mn fired at 1300°C in air ambient by adopting 2.5 wt.% AlF3 as flux exhibits most efficient luminescence. A white LED device prototype with CIE (0.3291, 0.3571), CCT 5639 K, CRI Ra 92.6, and efficacy 63 lm/W driven at 20 mA has been packaged by pre-coating the red phosphor combined with a yellow one Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ on a blue InGaN chip. The analysis of critical distance and luminescence quench reveal that the mechanism of energy transfer for luminescence is through dipole-dipole interaction.

  20. Recent testing of secondary concentrators at NREL`s high-flux solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D.; Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bingham, C.; Lewandowski, A.; Pitts, R.; Scholl, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    Several tests have been completed on new secondary concentrators at the High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The first test measured the power from the exit of a High-Index secondary that achieves an average concentration of 50,000 suns. The second concentrator tested pumped an Nd:YAG laser crystal. The concentrator designs are presented, along with data from on-sun testing at the HFSF.

  1. Visible light communication based on high-power white light LED%基于大功率白光LED的可见光通信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋其岩; 赵阳; 刘福有; 杨婧


    The visible light communication system is based on STM32 high⁃power white light LED,whose transmission dis⁃tance from transmitting to receiving of white light can reach as far as 5 m. The system can transmit 300 Hz~8 kHz analog signal and high fidelity audio⁃frequency. Its baud rate is up to 1.6 Mb/s. The output signal has no obvious distortion on oscilloscope. Analog signal takes octuple sampling,and audio⁃frequency signal takes sextuple sampling. The signal was sampled by 12⁃bit A/D converter after pulling up and amplifying,and emitted by the principal station through white light LED after △ compression. The signal is received by the receiving station through photoelectric receiving tube,and then converted into analog signal by decoding and D/A converting. The analog signal is output to oscilloscope or audio frequency amplifier after filtering and amplifying.%该设计是基于STM32的大功率白光LED可见光通信系统,白光从发送到接收传输距离最高可达5 m。可传输频率为300 Hz~8 kHz的模拟信号及高保真音频,波特率可达1.6 Mb/s,输出信号在示波器上无明显失真。该系统具备双信道通信,两路信道同时均可传输300 Hz~8 kHz的模拟信号。由从站LCD12864液晶显示当前单信道通信或双信道通信。模拟信号经传输后在示波器上显示无明显失真。模拟信号为8倍采样,音频为6倍采样,采样信号经上拉放大后由12位A/D转换器采样,经过△压缩后由主站通过白光LED发射。接收站通过光电接收管接收信号后经解码、D/A转换,转换为模拟信号,模拟信号经滤波放大后输出至示波器或音频放大器。

  2. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations (United States)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing


    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The diffusion characteristics of the high concentration jet flowissued from a round nozzle above the free surface into moving waterbody were experimentally investigated. By means of flow visualization technique, the diffusion behavior of the high concentration jet was observed and analysed, Concentration distribution in the near region was obtained by sampling and quantitative measurements. Experimental results indicate that the diffusion mechanics of the high concentration jet flow are greatly influenced by initial momentum, buoyancy, turbulent structure, ambient current and boundary conditions, showing complicated flow patterns and concentration distribution characteristics that are different from previous results for submerged jets.

  4. Effect of profile and size of isolation trench on the optical and electrical performance of GaN-based high-voltage LEDs (United States)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Zheng, Chenju; Lv, Jiajiang; Liu, Yingce; Yuan, Shu; Liu, Sheng; Ding, Han


    Four types of HV-LEDs with different isolation trench width were presented. The isolation trench with an oblique angle of 45.6° was obtained using a combination of Cl2/BCl3 plasma chemistry and a thermally reflowed photoresist mask layer, enabling conformal metal lines coverage across the isolation trench. The effect of isolation trench width on the optical and electrical characteristics of HV LEDs was also investigated. A quantitative model was developed to analyze light coupling propagation phenomenon occurring within HV LEDs. The suppression of light coupling propagation among adjacent LED cells was achieved by extending isolation trench width from 3.81 μm to 12.30 μm, which improved light extraction efficiency and thus increased light output power of HV LEDs. However, the significantly increasing loss of MQW active region area, which was caused by further extending isolation trench width from 12.30 μm to 40.49 μm, decreased light output power of HV LEDs.

  5. Emulsifier development for high-concentrated reverse emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Kovalenko


    Full Text Available The reverse emulsions have found broad application in ore mining industry as matrixes of emulsion explosive substances and boring washing waters. The defining characteristic of reverse emulsions of industrial explosive substances is the high stability and immunity to crystallization. Aim: The aim of this work is to assess the mechanism of emulsifiers effect like SMO and some PIBSA-derivatives, that are most abundantly used in world practice, and also to develop an effective domestic emulsifier of reverse emulsions. Materials and methods: Using the semi-dynamic method with use of the reverse stalagmometer it was determined the decreasing in interfacial tension on “water / diesel fuel” border in the presence of 0.5 wt % sorbitan monooleate of various producers. Emulsions with use of the chosen emulsifiers using the dynamic mixer on the basis of monosolution of ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel have been produced. The emulsions have the following composition, wt %: ammonium nitrate – 76.8; water – 15.6; diesel fuel – 6.0; emulsifier – 1.6. Results: By the researches results of the interfacial tension “surfactant water / solution in diesel fuel”, the stability of emulsions using monosolution of ammonium nitrate and the IR spectrums of SMO of various producers it is established that presence in product of impurity of oleic acid, di- and trioleates leads to decreasing in interphase activity, increasing of emulsifier oil solubility and decreasing the resistance of emulsions to crystallization. On the basis of the spectral data analysis it is suggested about possibility of specific interaction on the mechanism of “spectral resonance” between emulsifiers of the PIBSA-MEA, LZX type and crystals nucleus of NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate in dispersed phase of emulsion. Amidation of vegetable oils by monoethanol amine is implemented at the reduced temperatures (90…100 °C. It was proved the availability mainly of fatty acids amides in product

  6. CooLED - efficient LED bulbs with custrom optics - final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Jesper; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet EUDP 64012-0226, CooLED – en ny generation LED Lyskilde for det tidsløse high-end marked.......Denne rapport indeholder en beskrivelse af arbejdet udført i og resultaterne af forsknings- og udviklingsprojektet EUDP 64012-0226, CooLED – en ny generation LED Lyskilde for det tidsløse high-end marked....

  7. Experimental Study of Sorbitol Production by Zymomonas mobilis in High Sucrose Concentration


    Rui Sérgio dos Santos Ferreira da Silva; João Batista Buzato; Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi; Marcos Roberto de Oliveira


    The sorbitol presents several industrial applications and its conventional production is of high cost and low yield. Sorbitol production by Zymomonas mobilis production has attracted attention as both production cost and environmental impact are low. The sorbitol plays an osmo-protective rule so that its production is promoted by high sugar concentrations. This work has evaluated the effect of high sucrose concentration in the sorbitol production. The raise of sucrose concentration from 100 t...

  8. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András


    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  9. White LED visible light communication technology research (United States)

    Yang, Chao


    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  10. Design of Knight LED system (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Lou, Yuna; Xiao, Zhihong


    This design introduces a used car on the design of LED decorative light strip. This LED named Knight LED. In This system we use ATMEGA8 as the Master MCU Chip. Through the microcontroller to implement the wireless remote control receiver and the LED lights of different modes of switching, different brightness control. Also we use ULN2803 as the LED driver.

  11. High catechin concentrations detected in Withania somnifera (ashwagandha by high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Siti


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activities in methanolic extracts of W. somnifera fruits, roots and leaves (WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt. Methods WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt was prepared by using 80% aqueous methanol and total polyphenols, flavonoids as well as DPPH radical scavenging activities were determined by spectrophotometric methods and phenolic acid profiles were determined by HPLC methods. Results High concentrations of both phenolics and flavonoids were detected in all parts of the plant with the former ranging between 17.80 ± 5.80 and 32.58 ± 3.16 mg/g (dry weight and the latter ranging between 15.49 ± 1.02 and 31.58 ± 5.07 mg/g. All of the three different plant parts showed strong DPPH radical scavenging activities (59.16 ± 1.20 to 91.84 ± 0.38%. Eight polyphenols (gallic, syringic, benzoic, p-coumaric and vanillic acids as well as catechin, kaempferol and naringenin have been identified by HPLC in parts of the plant as well. Among all the polyphenols, catechin was detected in the highest concentration (13.01 ± 8.93 to 30.61 ± 11.41 mg/g. Conclusion The results indicating that W. somnifera is a plant with strong therapeutic properties thus further supporting its traditional claims. All major parts of W. somnifera such as the roots, fruits and leaves provide potential benefits for human health because of its high content of polyphenols and antioxidant activities with the leaves containing the highest amounts of polyphenols specially catechin with strong antioxidant properties.

  12. High-efficiency Technology of LED White Light Based on Phosphor Glass%基于荧光玻璃的高效LED白光技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄波; 童玉珍; 李成明; 胡西多; 何苗; 郑树文; 李述体


    in PG, all of which are at a high level. Under different wavelength excitation, x and y in the chromaticity coordinates present roughly same linear rate of change when the mass fraction of phosphor in PG increases from 6% to 15%. In addition, the temperature of PG rose relative slowly and dropped sharply when the PG sam-ple was excited by 450 nm laser, indicating a nice property of heat resistance. The experiment re-sults show that the superior optical properties and heat resistance can be obtained by PG packaged LED, and excellent white light output can be formed.

  13. High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Vacuum Demonstration Completed for Refractive Secondary Concentrator (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.


    Common to many of the space applications that utilize solar thermal energy--such as electric power conversion, thermal propulsion, and furnaces--is a need for highly efficient, solar concentration systems. An effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced lightweight primary concentrators, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios (10,000 to 1) and very high temperatures (>2000 K). The innovative refractive secondary concentrator offers significant advantages over all other types of secondary concentrators. The refractive secondary offers the highest throughput efficiency, provides for flux tailoring, requires no active cooling, relaxes the pointing and tracking requirements of the primary concentrator, and enables very high system concentration ratios. This technology has broad applicability to any system that requires the conversion of solar energy to heat. Glenn initiated the development of the refractive secondary concentrator in support of Shooting Star, a solar thermal propulsion flight experiment, and continued the development in support of Space Solar Power.

  14. Thermal Performance Analysis of LED with Multichips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yuanyuan; GUO Hong; ZHANG Ximin; YIN Fazhang; CHU Ke; FAN Yeming


    The package and system level temperature and thermal stress distributions of 10 W light emitting diode (LED) with 4 chips and 100 W LED with 100 chips were investigated using finite element analysis.The chips were arranged on a Si sheet which is soldered on the copper/diamond composite slug with very high conductivity.The experimental results show that the maximal temperature appears in the chips of both two high power LEDs packages.Compared with the 10 W LEDs package with 4 chips array,the heat issue caused by stacking and coupling of the heat in 100 W LEDs package with 100 chips array is more serious.The chip temperature in the center of the array is much higher,and it decreases with the distance between the chip and the center of LEDs increases.Great thermal stress lies between the chips and the solder,which will reduce the reliability of the package.

  15. High-sensitivity in situ QCLAS-based ammonia concentration sensor for high-temperature applications (United States)

    Peng, W. Y.; Sur, R.; Strand, C. L.; Spearrin, R. M.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.


    A novel quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption sensor is presented for high-sensitivity in situ measurements of ammonia (hbox {NH}_3) in high-temperature environments, using scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with first-harmonic-normalized second-harmonic detection (scanned WMS-2 f/1 f) to neutralize the effect of non-absorption losses in the harsh environment. The sensor utilized the sQ(9,9) transition of the fundamental symmetric stretch band of hbox {NH}_3 at 10.39 {\\upmu }hbox {m} and was sinusoidally modulated at 10 kHz and scanned across the peak of the absorption feature at 50 Hz, leading to a detection bandwidth of 100 Hz. A novel technique was used to select an optimal WMS modulation depth parameter that reduced the sensor's sensitivity to spectral interference from hbox {H}_2hbox {O} and hbox {CO}_2 without significantly sacrificing signal-to-noise ratio. The sensor performance was validated by measuring known concentrations of hbox {NH}_3 in a flowing gas cell. The sensor was then demonstrated in a laboratory-scale methane-air burner seeded with hbox {NH}_3, achieving a demonstrated detection limit of 2.8 ± 0.26 ppm hbox {NH}_3 by mole at a path length of 179 cm, equivalence ratio of 0.6, pressure of 1 atm, and temperatures of up to 600 K.

  16. Infrared LED irradiation applied during high-intensity treadmill training improves maximal exercise tolerance in postmenopausal women: a 6-month longitudinal study. (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Corazza, Adalberto Vieira; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador


    Reduced aerobic fitness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases among the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LED irradiation (850 nm) applied during treadmill training on the maximal exercise tolerance in postmenopausal women. At the beginning of the study, 45 postmenopausal women were assigned randomly to three groups, and 30 women completed the entire 6 months of the study. The groups were: (1) the LED group (treadmill training associated with phototherapy, n = 10), (2) the exercise group (treadmill training, n = 10), and (3) the sedentary group (neither physical training nor phototherapy, n = 10). The training was performed for 45 min twice a week for 6 months at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HRmax). The irradiation parameters were 39 mW/cm(2), 45 min and 108 J/cm(2). The cardiovascular parameters were measured at baseline and after 6 months. As expected, no significant differences were found in the sedentary group (p ≥ 0.05). The maximal time of tolerance (Tlim), metabolic equivalents (METs) and Bruce stage reached significantly higher values in the LED group and the exercise group (p training (delta values) for the Tlim, METs and HR at isotime were greater in the LED group than in the exercise group with a significant intergroup difference (p training can improve maximal performance and post-exercise recovery in postmenopausal women.

  17. Vitamin C at high concentrations induces cytotoxicity in malignant melanoma but promotes tumor growth at low concentrations. (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Yan, Yao; Ma, Younan; Yang, Yixin


    Vitamin C has been used in complementary and alternative medicine for cancers regardless of its ineffectiveness in clinical trials and the paradoxical effects antioxidants have on cancer. Vitamin C was found to induce cytotoxicity against cancers. However, the mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, and the effects of vitamin C on human malignant melanoma have not been examined. This study revealed that vitamin C at millimolar concentrations significantly reduced the cell viability as well as invasiveness, and induced apoptosis in human malignant melanoma cells. Vitamin C displayed stronger cytotoxicity against the Vemurafenib-resistance cell line A2058 compared with SK-MEL-28. In contrast, vitamin C at micromolar concentrations promoted cell growth, migration and cell cycle progression, and protected against mitochondrial stress. Vemurafenib paradoxically activated the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the Vemurafenib-resistant A2058, however, vitamin C abolished the activations. Vitamin C displayed synergistic cytotoxicity with Vemurafenib against the Vemurafenib-resistant A2058. In vivo assay suggested that lower dosage (equivalent to 0.5 g/70 kg) of vitamin C administered orally increased the melanoma growth. Therefore, vitamin C may exert pro- or anti-melanoma effect depending on concentration. The combination of vitamin C at high dosage and Vemurafenib is promising in overcoming the action of drug resistance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Tri-Lateral Noor al Salaam High Concentration Solar Central Receiver Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmon, James B


    This report documents the efforts conducted primarily under the Noor al Salaam (“Light of Peace”) program under DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FC36-02GO12030, together with relevant technical results from a closely related technology development effort, the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Foundation (USISTF) High Concentration Solar Central Receiver program. These efforts involved preliminary design, development, and test of selected prototype power production subsystems and documentation of an initial version of the system definition for a high concentration solar hybrid/gas electrical power plant to be built in Zaafarana, Egypt as a first step in planned commercialization. A major part of the planned work was halted in 2007 with an amendment in October 2007 requiring that we complete the technical effort by December 31, 2007 and provide a final report to DOE within the following 90 days. This document summarizes the work conducted. The USISTF program was a 50/50 cost-shared program supported by the Department of Commerce through the U.S./Israel Science and Technology Commission (USISTC). The USISTC was cooperatively developed by President Clinton and the late Prime Minister Rabin of Israel "to encourage technological collaboration" and "support peace in the Middle East through economic development". The program was conducted as a follow-on effort to Israel's Magnet/CONSOLAR Program, which was an advanced development effort to design, fabricate, and test a solar central receiver and secondary optics for a "beam down" central receiver concept. The status of these hardware development programs is reviewed, since they form the basis for the Noor al Salaam program. Descriptions are provided of the integrated system and the major subsystems, including the heliostat, the high temperature air receiver, the power conversion unit, tower and tower reflector, compound parabolic concentrator, and the master control system. One objective of the USISTF program was to conduct

  19. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting (United States)

    Wieg, A. T.; Penilla, E. H.; Hardin, C. L.; Kodera, Y.; Garay, J. E.


    We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN) as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL) emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  20. Broadband white light emission from Ce:AlN ceramics: High thermal conductivity down-converters for LED and laser-driven solid state lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wieg


    Full Text Available We introduce high thermal conductivity aluminum nitride (AlN as a transparent ceramic host for Ce3+, a well-known active ion dopant. We show that the Ce:AlN ceramics have overlapping photoluminescent (PL emission peaks that cover almost the entire visible range resulting in a white appearance under 375 nm excitation without the need for color mixing. The PL is due to a combination of intrinsic AlN defect complexes and Ce3+ electronic transitions. Importantly, the peak intensities can be tuned by varying the Ce concentration and processing parameters, causing different shades of white light without the need for multiple phosphors or light sources. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates calculated from the measured spectra confirm white light emission. In addition, we demonstrate the viability of laser driven white light emission by coupling the Ce:AlN to a readily available frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. The high thermal conductivity of these ceramic down-converters holds significant promise for producing higher power white light sources than those available today.

  1. Quantitation of low concentrations of polysorbates in high protein concentration formulations by solid phase extraction and cobalt-thiocyanate derivatization. (United States)

    Kim, Justin; Qiu, Jinshu


    A spectrophotometric method was developed to quantify low polysorbate (PS) levels in biopharmaceutical formulations containing high protein concentrations. In the method, Oasis HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was used to extract PS from high protein concentration formulations. After loading a sample, the cartridge was washed with 4M guanidine HCl and 10% (v/v) methanol, and the retained PS was eluted by acetonitrile. Following the evaporation of acetonitrile, aqueous cobalt-thiocyanate reagent was added to react with the polyoxyethylene oxide chain of polysorbates to form a blue colored PS-cobaltothiocyante complex. This colored complex was then extracted into methylene chloride and measured spectrophotometrically at 620 nm. The method performance was evaluated on three products containing 30-40 mg L(-1) PS-20 and PS-80 in ≤70 g L(-1) protein formulations. The method was specific (no matrix interference identified in three types of protein formulations), sensitive (quantitation limit of 10 mg L(-1) PS) and robust with good precision (relative standard deviation ≤6.4%) and accuracy (spike recoveries from 95% to 101%). The linear range of the method for both PS-20 and PS-80 was 10 to 80 mg L(-1) PS. By diluting samples with 6M guanidine HCl and/or using different methylene chloride volumes to extract the colored complexes of standards and samples, the method could accurately and precisely quantify 40 mg L(-1) PS in up to 300 g L(-1) protein formulations.

  2. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Decai [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, San Jose, CA (United States)


    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramica and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package

  3. Design, Fabrication and Test of a High Efficiency Refractive Secondary Concentrator for Solar Applications (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Geng, Steven M.; Castle, Charles H.; Macosko, Robert P.


    Common to many of the space applications that utilize solar thermal energy such as electric power conversion, thermal propulsion, and furnaces, is a need for highly efficient, solar concentration systems. An effort is underway to develop the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced primary concentrators, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios (10,000 to 1) and very high temperatures (greater than 2000 K). Presented is an overview of the effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of a prototype single crystal sapphire refractive secondary concentrator and to compare the performance with analytical models. The effort involves the design and fabrication of a secondary concentrator, design and fabrication of a calorimeter and its support hardware, calibration of the calorimeter, testing of the secondary concentrator in NASA Glenn's Tank 6 solar thermal vacuum facility, and comparing the test results with predictions. Test results indicate an average throughput efficiency of 87%. It is anticipated that reduction of a known reflection loss with an anti-reflective coating would result in a secondary concentrator throughput efficiency of approximately 93%.

  4. Exploring high charge of phosphate as new draw solute in a forward osmosis-membrane distillation hybrid system for concentrating high-nutrient sludge. (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Hau Thi; Ho, Su-Thing; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Ray, Saikat Sinha; Hsu, Hung-Te


    For the first time, a high charge of phosphate was used as the draw solute in a forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system for concentrating high-nutrient sludge. A high water flux (12.5L/m(2)h) and a low reverse salt flux (0.84g/m(2)) were simultaneously achieved at pH9 by using 0.1M Na3PO4 as the draw solute and deionized water as the feed solution in the FO process. The specific reverse salt flux of 0.1M Na3PO4 (Js/Jw=0.07g/L) was considerably less than that of 0.1M NaCl (Js/Jw=0.37g/L) because the complexion between Na(+) and HPO4(2-) at pH9 led to the reduction of free Na(+) ions, which subsequently reduced the reverse salt diffusion substantially. Moreover, for a feed solution with an initial sludge concentration of 3500mg/L, the sludge concentration could be concentrated to 19,800 and 22,000mg/L in the pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) and FO membrane orientations, respectively, after 15h of operation. Four types of MD membranes were selected for draw solution recovery; of these, a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane with a pore size of 0.45μm was the most effective in achieving a high water flux (10.28L/m(2)h) and high salt rejection (approximately 100%) in a diluted Na3PO4 draw solution.

  5. An episode of extremely high PM concentrations over Central Europe caused by dust emitted over the southern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Birmili


    Full Text Available On 24 March 2007, the atmosphere over Central Europe was affected by an episode of exceptionally high mass concentrations of aerosol particles, most likely caused by a dust storm in the Southern Ukraine on the preceding day. At ground-based measurement stations in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany PM10 mass concentrations rose to values between 200 and 1400 μg m−3. An evaluation of PM10 measurements from 360 monitoring stations showed that the dust cloud advanced along a narrow corridor at speeds of up to 70 km h−1. According to lidar observations over Leipzig, Germany, the high aerosol concentrations were confined to a homogeneous boundary layer of 1800 m height. The wavelength dependence of light extinction using both lidar and sun photometer measurements suggested the dominance of coarse particles during the main event. At a wavelength of 532 nm, relatively high volume extinction coefficients (300–400 Mm−1 and a particle optical depth of 0.65 was observed. In-situ measurements with an aerodynamic particle sizer at Melpitz, Germany, confirmed the presence of a coarse particle mode with a mode diameter >2 μm, whose maximum concentration coincided with that of PM10. A chemical particle analysis confirmed the dominance of non-volatile and insoluble matter in the coarse mode as well as high enrichments of Ti and Fe, which are characteristic of soil dust. A combination of back trajectory calculations and satellite images allowed to identify the dust source with confidence: On 23 March 2007, large amounts of dust were emitted from dried-out farmlands in the southern Ukraine, facilitated by wind gusts up to 100 km h−1. The unusual vertical stability and confined height of this dust layer as well as the rapid transport under dry conditions led to the conservation of high aerosol mass concentrations along the transect and thus to the extraordinary

  6. A brief history of LED photopolymerization. (United States)

    Jandt, Klaus D; Mills, Robin W


    The majority of modern resin-based oral restorative biomaterials are cured via photopolymerization processes. A variety of light sources are available for this light curing of dental materials, such as composites or fissure sealants. Quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) light curing units (LCUs) have dominated light curing of dental materials for decades and are now almost entirely replaced by modern light emitting diode light curing units (LED LCUs). Exactly 50 years ago, visible LEDs were invented. Nevertheless, it was not before the 1990s that LEDs were seriously considered by scientists or manufactures of commercial LCUs as light sources to photopolymerize dental composites and other dental materials. The objective of this review paper is to give an overview of the scientific development and state-of-the-art of LED photopolymerization of oral biomaterials. The materials science of LED LCU devices and dental materials photopolymerized with LED LCU, as well as advantages and limits of LED photopolymerization of oral biomaterials, are discussed. This is mainly based on a review of the most frequently cited scientific papers in international peer reviewed journals. The developments of commercial LED LCUs as well as aspects of their clinical use are considered in this review. The development of LED LCUs has progressed in steps and was made possible by (i) the invention of visible light emitting diodes 50 years ago; (ii) the introduction of high brightness blue light emitting GaN LEDs in 1994; and (iii) the creation of the first blue LED LCUs for the photopolymerization of oral biomaterials. The proof of concept of LED LCUs had to be demonstrated by the satisfactory performance of resin based restorative dental materials photopolymerized by these devices, before LED photopolymerization was generally accepted. Hallmarks of LED LCUs include a unique light emission spectrum, high curing efficiency, long life, low energy consumption and compact device form factor. By

  7. Effect of Laser and LED on Enzymatic Production of Ceramide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongyu, Zhang; Zhang, Long; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    An enzyme (Phospholipase C Type I from Clostridium perfringens) was exposed to 0-810J/cm2 of energy using laser light at wavelengths 808 nm, 532nm, 1064 nm, and 1342 nm and two LED light sources at wavelengths 810 nm and 640 nm. Enzyme responses were evaluated by measuring ceramide concentration...... using HPTLC (high performance thin-layer chromatography) at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 17, 24 h after irradiation. The duration of effect was evaluated from the experimental data. The results show that enzyme activity can be increased by using both laser and LED sources whose wavelength is located within...... irradiation on enzymes. We also find that laser sources and LED sources have the same effect on enzyme activity if the wavelength and absorbed energy are equal....

  8. High concentrate diet induced mucosal injuries by enhancing epithelial apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Tao

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that lipopolysaccharide and volatile fatty acids (VFA accumulate in the digestive tract of ruminants fed diets containing high portions of grain. Compared to the ruminal epithelium, the hindgut epithelium is composed of a monolayer structure that is more "leaky" for lipopolysaccharide and susceptible to organic acid-induced damage. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in epithelial structure, apoptosis and inflammatory response in the hindgut of goats fed a high-concentrate diet for 6 weeks.Eight local Chinese goats with rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to two groups: one group was fed a high-concentrate diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, HC and the other group was fed a low-concentrate diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, LC for 6 wks. Ruminal fluid, plasma, and hindgut mucosa tissues were collected. Histological techniques, real-time PCR and western blotting were used to evaluate the tissues structure, cell apoptosis and local inflammation in the hindguts.Feeding HC diet for 6 wks resulted in a significant decrease of ruminal pH (p<0.01, and ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly increased in HC goats (p<0.05. Obvious damage was observed to mucosal epithelium of the hindgut and the intercellular tight junctions in HC, but not in LC, goats. The expression of MyD88 and caspase-8 mRNA was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats compared to LC (p<0.05, and the expression of TLR-4 and caspase-3 showed a tendency to increase. In the cecum, interleukin-1β mRNA expression was decreased (p<0.05, and caspase-3 showed a potential increase (p = 0.07 in HC goats. The level of NF-κB protein was increased in colonic epithelium of HC goats. Caspase-3 activity was elevated in both colon and cecum, whereas caspase-8 activity was statistically increased only in colon.Feeding a high-concentrate diet to goats for 6 wks led to hindgut mucosal injuries via activating epithelial cells apoptosis

  9. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.


    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  10. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno


    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  11. Thermodynamically consistent description of the hydrodynamics of free surfaces covered by insoluble surfactants of high concentration


    Thiele, Uwe; Archer, Andrew J.; Plapp, Mathis


    In this paper we propose several models that describe the dynamics of liquid films which are covered by a high concentration layer of insoluble surfactant. First, we briefly review the 'classical' hydrodynamic form of the coupled evolution equations for the film height and surfactant concentration that are well established for small concentrations. Then we re-formulate the basic model as a gradient dynamics based on an underlying free energy functional that accounts for wettability and capill...

  12. Incomplete Ion Dissociation Underlies the Weakened Attraction between DNA Helices at High Spermidine Concentrations


    Yang,Jie; Rau, Donald C


    We have investigated the salt sensitivity of the hexagonal-to-cholesteric phase transition of spermidine-condensed DNA. This transition precedes the resolubilization of precipitated DNA that occurs at high spermidine concentration. The sensitivity of the critical spermidine concentration at the transition point to the anion species and the NaCl concentration indicates that ion pairing of this trivalent ion underlies this unusual transition. Osmotic pressure measurements of spermidine salt sol...

  13. Effect of digestion time on anaerobic digestion with high ammonia concentration (United States)

    Oktavitri, Nur Indradewi; Purnobasuki, Hery; Kuncoro, Eko Prasetyo; Purnamasari, Indah; Semma Hadinnata, P.


    Anaerobic digestion was developed to treat high concentration organic compound efficiently in certain Digestion Time (DT). High ammonia concentration could influenced removal organic compound in digestion. This bench scale study investigated the effect of digestion time on anaerobic batch reactor with high ammonia concentration. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) concentration was adjusted 4000 and 5000 mg/1, Digestion time was ranged from 0-26 d, operation temperature was ranged from 28-29°C, inoculum was collected from slaughter house sludge. The degradation of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) correlated with digestion time. The concentration of TAN from synthetic wastewater contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN more fluctuated than those use 4000 mg/1 of TAN. However, the biogas production from wastewater contained 4000 mg/1 of TAN gradually increased until 24 d of DT. The reactor contain 5000 mg/1 of TAN only growth until 12 d and steady state at over 12 d of digestion time.

  14. Melatonin in Arabidopsis thaliana acts as plant growth regulator at low concentrations and preserves seed viability at high concentrations. (United States)

    Hernández, Ismaél Gatica; Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Cerutti, Soledad; Arana, María Verónica; Silva, María Fernanda


    Since the discovery of melatonin in plants, several roles have been described for different species, organs, and developmental stages. Arabidopsis thaliana, being a model plant species, is adequate to contribute to the elucidation of the role of melatonin in plants. In this work, melatonin was monitored daily by UHPLC-MS/MS in leaves, in order to study its diurnal accumulation as well as the effects of natural and artificial light treatments on its concentration. Furthermore, the effects of exogenous application of melatonin to assess its role in seed viability after heat stress and as a regulator of growth and development of vegetative tissues were evaluated. Our results indicate that melatonin contents in Arabidopsis were higher in plants growing under natural radiation when compared to those growing under artificial conditions, and its levels were not diurnally-regulated. Exogenous melatonin applications prolonged seed viability after heat stress conditions. In addition, melatonin applications retarded leaf senescence. Its effects as growth promoter were dose and tissue-dependent; stimulating root growth at low concentrations and decreasing leaf area at high doses.

  15. Prodigious Effects of Concentration Intensification on Nanoparticle Synthesis: A High-Quality, Scalable Approach. (United States)

    Williamson, Curtis B; Nevers, Douglas R; Hanrath, Tobias; Robinson, Richard D


    Realizing the promise of nanoparticle-based technologies demands more efficient, robust synthesis methods (i.e., process intensification) that consistently produce large quantities of high-quality nanoparticles (NPs). We explored NP synthesis via the heat-up method in a regime of previously unexplored high concentrations near the solubility limit of the precursors. We discovered that in this highly concentrated and viscous regime the NP synthesis parameters are less sensitive to experimental variability and thereby provide a robust, scalable, and size-focusing NP synthesis. Specifically, we synthesize high-quality metal sulfide NPs (200 g) relative to the current field of large-scale (0.1-5 g yields) and laboratory-scale (<0.1 g) efforts. Compared to conventional synthesis methods (hot injection with dilute precursor concentration) characterized by rapid growth and low yield, our highly concentrated NP system supplies remarkably controlled growth rates and a 10-fold increase in NP volumetric production capacity (86 g/L). The controlled growth, high yield, and robust nature of highly concentrated solutions can facilitate large-scale nanomanufacturing of NPs by relaxing the synthesis requirements to achieve monodisperse products. Mechanistically, our investigation of the thermal and rheological properties and growth rates reveals that this high concentration regime has reduced mass diffusion (a 5-fold increase in solution viscosity), is stable to thermal perturbations (∼64% increase in heat capacity), and is resistant to Ostwald ripening.

  16. High-concentration-gradient dispersion in porous media : experiments, analysis and approximations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Schotting; H. Moser; S.M. Hassanizadeh


    textabstractVarious experimental and theoretical studies have shown that Fick's law, based on the assumption of a linear relation between solute dispersive mass flux and concentration gradient, is not valid when high concentration gradients are encountered in a porous medium. The value of the macrod

  17. Critical phenomena in ethylbenzene oxidation in acetic acid solution at high cobalt(II) concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrichkov, AA; Zakharov, [No Value


    Critical phenomena in ethylbenzene oxidation in an acetic acid solution at high cobalt(ill) concentrations (from 0.01 to 0.2 mol L-1) were studied at 60-90 degrees C by the gasometric (O-2 absorption), spectrophotometric (Co-III accumulation), and chemiluminescence (relative concentration of radical

  18. Whey protein particles modulate mechanical properties of gels at high protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Berg, van den L.; Linden, van der E.


    We have studied the influence of dense whey protein particles on the mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels at high protein concentrations (16–22% (w/w)). Incorporation of dense whey protein particles in the gel, while keeping the total protein concentration constant, leads to a co

  19. Rheology of dilute acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (United States)

    M.R. Ehrhardt; T.O. Monz; T.W. Root; R.K. Connelly; Tim Scott; D.J. Klingenberg


    The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20–35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction...

  20. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on the bioflocculation process in high loaded MBRs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faust, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kemperman, A.J.B.; Rijnaarts, H.


    High-loaded membrane bioreactors (HL-MBRs), i.e. MBRs which are operated at extremely short sludge and hydraulic retention times, can be applied to flocculate and concentrate sewage organic matter. The concentrated organics can be used for energy recovery, or for the production of more valuable

  1. A High-Efficiency Refractive Secondary Solar Concentrator for High Temperature Solar Thermal Applications (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; Macosko, Robert P.


    A refractive secondary solar concentrator is a non-imaging optical device that accepts focused solar energy from a primary concentrator and redirects that light, by means of refraction and total internal reflection (TIR) into a cavity where the solar energy is used for power and/or propulsion applications. This concept offers a variety of advantages compared to typical reflective secondary concentrators (or the use of no secondary at all): higher optical efficiency, minimal secondary cooling requirements, a smaller cavity aperture, a reduction of outgassing from the cavity and flux tailoring of the solar energy within the heat receiver. During the past 2 years, NASA Lewis has been aggressively developing this concept in support of the NASA Marshall Shooting Star Flight Experiment. This paper provides a brief overview of the advantages and technical challenges associated with the development of a refractive secondary concentrator and the fabrication of a working unit in support of the flight demonstration program.

  2. Investigating cold gelation properties of recombined highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate and cream for use in cheese making. (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J; Vollmer, A H


    Highly concentrated micellar casein concentrate (HC-MCC), a potential ingredient for cheese making, contains ~20% casein with ~70% of serum proteins removed by microfiltration and diafiltration of skim milk, followed by vacuum evaporation. Our objective was to investigate cold gelation properties of recombined concentrated milk (RCM) by mixing thawed frozen HC-MCC and cream under different casein levels, pH, and protein-to-fat ratios, and with addition of sodium citrate or calcium. The HC-MCC was recombined with cream using low shear at 50°C for 30 min, and rheological measurements were conducted. Cold-gelling temperature [the temperature at which storage modulus (G')=loss modulus (G″)] was linearly correlated with casein levels from 8.6 to 11.5% (R(2)=0.71), pH from 6.6 to 7.0 (R(2)=0.96), and addition of sodium citrate from 0 to 0.36mmol/g of casein (R(2)=0.80). At pH 7.0, gelation occurred at 12, 26, and 38°C with 9, 10, and 11% casein, respectively. At pH 6.6, 6.8, and 7.0, RCM with 12% casein gelled at a mean temperature of 12, 26, and 37°C, respectively. Adding calcium chloride at 0.17mmol/g of casein significantly increased cold-gelling temperature from 18 to ≥50°C, whereas no significant change was observed at levels up to 0.12mmol/g of casein. Different protein to fat ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 did not significantly influence gelling temperature. In transmission electron micrographs of RCM with 12% casein, casein micelles were nonspherical and partially dissociated into small protein strands. Upon addition of calcium chloride at 0.21mmol/g of casein, casein micelles were more spherical and retained colloidal structure with the presence of aggregated casein micelles. These gelation processes of RCM with or without addition of trisodium citrate were both reversible. We propose that cold gelation of RCM occurs when protein strands that have been partially released from the casein micelles entangle, restrict their mobility, and form a fine

  3. 照明用大功率LED射灯散热建模研究%Heat Dissipation Modeling Research of High Power LED Spot Lamp for Lighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 陈忠; 李小红; 沈亚锋; 熊敬康; 王阳夏


    Heat dissipation is one of the key problems need to be solved for LED lamps as a new generation of lighting light. A heat dissipation modeling method was presented for the LED lamp. The LED spot lamp was selected for dissipative research, 3D models were established by modeling softwares, then the models were transferred into finite element thermal analysis software (CFD) for simulation. Several key aspects such as thermal resistance setting, heat load calculation and boundary conditions were considered in the analysis process, and the simulation result was compared with laboratory test data. The results show that the method can be used for accurate thermal analysis simulation of indoor LED lighting, with the temperature error less than 4 ℃, and the simulation result is of a great reference value for lighting design.%散热问题是LED灯具成为新一代照明光源亟待解决的关键问题之一.提出一种LED灯具散热建模方法:选用LED射灯作为代表产品进行散热建模研究,采用三维造型软件建立LED灯具产品三维模型,然后导入有限元流体热分析软件(CFD)进行热仿真.研究散热仿真过程中的热阻设置、热量载荷计算和边界条件设定等关键问题,并求解LED射灯的工作温度分布情况;将仿真分析结果与实验室测试数据进行对比分析研究.研究结果表明,运用该方法可以对室内照明LED灯具进行较为准确的散热分析,仿真温度误差在4℃左右,仿真结果对灯具开发设计具有重要参考价值.

  4. Potassium double tungstate waveguides with high ytterbium concentration for optical amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, Yean-Sheng


    In this thesis, the research work concerning high ytterbium concentration potassium double tungstate waveguides catered for optical amplification purpose is presented. The scope of the research work includes the investigation of spectroscopic and optical gain properties in epitaxy layers with

  5. Methods to assess high-resolution subsurface gas concentrations and gas fluxes in wetland ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Kühl, Michael; Glud, Ronnie N.


    The need for measurements of soil gas concentrations and surface fluxes of greenhouse gases at high temporal and spatial resolution in wetland ecosystem has lead to the introduction of several new analytical techniques and methods. In addition to the automated flux chamber methodology for high......-resolution estimates of greenhouse gas fluxes across the soil-atmosphere interface, these high-resolution methods include microsensors for quantification of spatiotemporal concentration dynamics in O2 and N2O at micrometer scales, fiber-optic optodes for long-term continuous point measurements of O2 concentrations...... and peat soils are highly heterogeneous, containing a mosaic of dynamic macropore systems created by both macrofauna and flora leading to distinct spatial and temporal variations in gas concentration on a scale of millimeters and minutes. Applications of these new methodologies allow measurements...

  6. High-performance InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layers grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Yong; Pei, Yan-Li; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zi-Min; Hu, Rui-Qin; Cai, Guang-Shuo; Wang, Gang


    In this study, the high performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layers (TCLs) has been demonstrated. The AZO-TCLs were fabricated on the n+-InGaN contact layer by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using H2O as an oxidizer at temperatures as low as 400 °C without any post-deposition annealing. It shows a high transparency (98%), low resistivity (510-4 Ω·cm), and an epitaxial-like excellent interface on p-GaN with an n+-InGaN contact layer. A forward voltage of 2.82 V @ 20 mA was obtained. Most importantly, the power efficiencies can be markedly improved by 53.8%@20 mA current injection and 39.6%@350 mA current injection compared with conventional LEDs with indium tin oxide TCL (LED-III), and by 28.8%@20 mA current injection and 4.92%@350 mA current injection compared with LEDs with AZO-TCL prepared by MOCVD using O2 as an oxidizer (LED-II), respectively. The results indicate that the AZO-TCL grown by MOCVD using H2O as an oxidizer is a promising TCL for a low-cost and high-efficiency GaN-based LED application. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61204091, 61404177, 51402366, and U1201254) and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2015B010132006).

  7. Concentration influences on recovery in a high gradient magnetic separation axial filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murariu, V.; Rezlescu, N.; Rotariu, O.; Badescu, V. [Inst. of Technical Physics, Iasi (Romania)


    The buildup differential equations for the case of a single wire in high gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF)-axial configuration taking into account the suspension concentration are solved. A new equation for the deposit contour surface at different moments and for different suspension concentrations are obtained. The existence of a particulate suspension concentration, for which the radial extension velocity of deposit is maximum, is evidenced. The recovery for an ordered ferromagnetic matrix is calculated. The influence of the solid particle concentration from suspension on the filtration efficiency is presented.

  8. Subcutaneous absorption kinetics of two highly concentrated preparations of recombinant human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Susgaard, Søren;


    Abstract OBJECTIVE: The relative bioavailability of two highly concentrated (12 IU/ml) formulations of biosynthetic human growth hormone (GH) administered subcutaneously was compared. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study. Conventional GH therapy was withdrawn 72 hours before each study period. T....... CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference between the absorption kinetics and short-term metabolic effects of these two highly concentrated formulations of biosynthetic GH. The two formulations are bioequivalent....

  9. ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Xie, Yiyang; Ma, Huali; Du, Yinxiao; Zeng, Fanguang; Ding, Pei; Gao, Zhiyuan; Xu, Chen; Sun, Jie


    In this paper, by virtue of one-dimensional ZnO nanorods and two-dimensional graphene film hybrid structures, both the enhanced current spreading and enhanced light extraction were realized at the same time. A 1 nm/1 nm Ni/Au layer was used as an interlayer between graphene and pGaN to form ohmic contact, which makes the device have a good forward conduction properties. Through the comparison of the two groups of making ZnO nanorods or not, it was found that the 30% light extraction efficiency of the device was improved by using the ZnO nanorods. By analysis key parameters of two groups such as the turn-on voltage, work voltage and reverse leakage current, it was proved that the method for preparing surface nano structure by hydrothermal method self-organization growth ZnO nanorods applied in GaN LEDs has no influence to device's electrical properties. The hybrid structure application in GaN LED, make an achievement of a good ohmic contact, no use of ITO and enhancement of light extraction at the same time, meanwhile it does not change the device structure, introduce additional process, worsen the electrical properties.

  10. 低成本三基色大功率LED驱动控制方案设计%Low-cost driver design for high-power tricolor LED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张修红; 刘廷章; 闫斌; 金碧瑶; 周壮丽


    针对三基色LED(Light Emitting Diode)驱动成本高、电路设计复杂的问题,设计了一款用于三基色大功率LED驱动控制方案.设计并制作电路驱动LED模型装置,通过单片机产生三路PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)波来控制MOSFET,从而分别控制三路LED,这样只需要一个DC/DC (Direct Current/Direct Current)驱动器,就能实现三路LED的调节,而且通过特定算法将上位机传送的标准Yxz值(遵循标准ZLL,ZigBee Light Link协议[1])转化为RGB (Red Green Blue)值.根据实验测得,三路LED调节反应迅速,显色效果优秀.

  11. Incomplete ion dissociation underlies the weakened attraction between DNA helices at high spermidine concentrations. (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Rau, Donald C


    We have investigated the salt sensitivity of the hexagonal-to-cholesteric phase transition of spermidine-condensed DNA. This transition precedes the resolubilization of precipitated DNA that occurs at high spermidine concentration. The sensitivity of the critical spermidine concentration at the transition point to the anion species and the NaCl concentration indicates that ion pairing of this trivalent ion underlies this unusual transition. Osmotic pressure measurements of spermidine salt solutions are consistent with this interpretation. Spermidine salts are not fully dissociated at higher concentrations. The competition for DNA binding among the fully charged trivalent ion and the lesser charged complex species at higher concentrations significantly weakens attraction between DNA helices in the condensed state. This is contrary to the suggestion that the binding of spermidine at higher concentrations causes DNA overcharging and consequent electrostatic repulsion.

  12. Transcriptional analysis of adaptation to high glucose concentrations in Zymomonas mobilis. (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; He, Ming-Xiong; Wu, Bo; Feng, Hong


    The ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is usually tolerant to high concentrations of glucose. The addition of sorbitol decreases the lag phase and increases ethanol yield and productivity of the bacteria in high glucose concentrations. The molecular mechanisms of adaptation to high glucose concentrations and the effect of sorbitol are still unclear. In this study, microarray analysis was used to study the global transcriptional adaptation responses of Z. mobilis to high glucose concentrations. A total of 235 genes were differentially expressed when 220 g/L glucose was added with or without 10 mM sorbitol. These genes are involved in diverse aspects of cell metabolism and regulation, including membrane transporters, nitrogen metabolism, and plasmid-encoded genes. However, most differentially expressed genes were downregulated when sorbitol was added. Notably, the transcription of almost all genes involved in the Entner-Doudoroff and ethanol production pathways was not significantly affected. In addition, a prophage and a nitrogen-fixation cluster were significantly induced. These results revealed that Z. mobilis cells responded to high glucose concentrations by regulating the transcriptional levels of genes related to membrane channels and transporters, stress response mechanisms, and metabolic pathways. These data provide insight into the intracellular adaptation responses to high glucose concentrations and reveal strategies to engineer efficient ethanol fermentation in Z. mobilis.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 王道增; 樊靖郁


    By means of flow visualization and quantitative measurement, the diffusionpattern and concentration distribution characteristics of high concentration jets verticallydischarged into shallow moving waterbody were experimentally investigated in waterchannel. The interactions between the high concentration jets and environmental flowconditions were analysed, and the formulae of impinging point coordinate and transversespread angle are gained from data analysis. Experimental results indicate that the jets showcomplicated flow patterns and diffusion characteristics in near region, which are differentfrom common submerged jets, and spread downstream in the manner of density currents.

  14. [Study of high temperature water vapor concentration measurement method based on absorption spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-ying; Liu, Jian-guo; He, Jun-feng; He, Ya-bai; Zhang, Guang-le; Xu, Zhen-yu; Gang, Qiang; Wang, Liao; Yao, Lu; Yuan, Song; Ruan, Jun; Dai, Yun-hai; Kan, Rui-feng


    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been developed to realize the real-time and dynamic measurement of the combustion temperature, gas component concentration, velocity and other flow parameters, owing to its high sensitivity, fast time response, non-invasive character and robust nature. In order to obtain accurate water vapor concentration at high temperature, several absorption spectra of water vapor near 1.39 μm from 773 to 1273 K under ordinary pressure were recorded in a high temperature experiment setup using a narrow band diode laser. The absorbance of high temperature absorption spectra was calculated by combined multi-line nonlinear least squares fitting method. Two water vapor absorption lines near 7154.35 and 7157.73 cm(-1) were selected for measurement of water vapor at high temperature. A model method for high temperature water vapor concentration was first proposed. Water vapor concentration from the model method at high temperature is in accordance with theoretical reasoning, concentration measurement standard error is less than 0.2%, and the relative error is less than 6%. The feasibility of this measuring method is verified by experiment.

  15. Kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis growth on high glucose concentrations. (United States)

    Berbert-Molina, M A; Prata, A M R; Pessanha, L G; Silveira, M M


    The kinetic and general growth features of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis were evaluated. Initial glucose concentration (S0) in fermentation media varied from 10 to 152 g/l. The results afforded to characterize four morphologically and physiologically well-defined culture phases, independent of S0 values: Phase I, vegetative growth; Phase II, transition to sporulation; Phase III, sporulation; and Phase IV, spores maturation and cell lysis. Important process parameters were also determined. The maximum specific growth rates (microX,m) were not affected with S0 up to 75 g/l (1.0-1.1 per hour), but higher glucose concentrations resulted in growth inhibition by substrate, revealed by a reduction in microX,m values. These higher S0 values led to longer Phases III and IV and delayed sporulation. Similar biomass concentrations (Xm=15.2-15.9 g/l) were achieved with S0 over 30.8 g/l, with increasing residual substrate, suggesting a limitation in some other nutrients and the use of glucose to form other metabolites. In this case, with S0 from 30.8 to 152 g/l, cell yield (YX/S) decreased from 0.58 to 0.41 g/g. On the other hand, with S0=10 g/l growth was limited by substrate, and YX/S has shown its maximum value (0.83 g/g).

  16. Trace element concentrations and gastrointestinal parasites of Arctic terns breeding in the Canadian High Arctic. (United States)

    Provencher, J F; Braune, B M; Gilchrist, H G; Forbes, M R; Mallory, M L


    Baseline data on trace element concentrations are lacking for many species of Arctic marine birds. We measured essential and non-essential element concentrations in Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) liver tissue and brain tissue (mercury only) from Canada's High Arctic, and recorded the presence/absence of gastrointestinal parasites during four different phases of the breeding season. Arctic terns from northern Canada had similar trace element concentrations to other seabird species feeding at the same trophic level in the same region. Concentrations of bismuth, selenium, lead and mercury in Arctic terns were high compared to published threshold values for birds. Selenium and mercury concentrations were also higher in Arctic terns from northern Canada than bird species sampled in other Arctic areas. Selenium, mercury and arsenic concentrations varied across the time periods examined, suggesting potential regional differences in the exposure of biota to these elements. For unknown reasons, selenium concentrations were significantly higher in birds with gastrointestinal parasites as compared to those without parasites, while bismuth concentrations were higher in Arctic terns not infected with gastrointestinal parasites.

  17. Accurate colorimetric feedback for RGB LED clusters (United States)

    Man, Kwong; Ashdown, Ian


    We present an empirical model of LED emission spectra that is applicable to both InGaN and AlInGaP high-flux LEDs, and which accurately predicts their relative spectral power distributions over a wide range of LED junction temperatures. We further demonstrate with laboratory measurements that changes in LED spectral power distribution with temperature can be accurately predicted with first- or second-order equations. This provides the basis for a real-time colorimetric feedback system for RGB LED clusters that can maintain the chromaticity of white light at constant intensity to within +/-0.003 Δuv over a range of 45 degrees Celsius, and to within 0.01 Δuv when dimmed over an intensity range of 10:1.

  18. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer. (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min


    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Design of the Radiator for the High-power LED Lights%大功率LED灯强化冷却散热器的创新设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟玉华; 孙国辉


    As energy saving,environmental protection,long life and other characteristics,LED get much attention from all walks of life.However,when high power LED is working,not only produce light at but also generate a lot of heat,about 80% of the energy is converted into heat energy,with the improvement of leds and power integration.LED the fever heat flux increases rapidly,its process of work heat releasing increase substantially.While the LED junction temperature (the temperature of the chip) directly affect the service life of the lamp,therefore,high power LED lamp,heat dissipation problems needed to improve urgently.This designs focus on LED lamp cooling growing phenomenon,to design a natural reflux cooling system,make the most of the heat generated in work process of LED comes out through the return system.The experiment proved that the system can achieve good cooling effect.%LED灯由于节能、环保、工作寿命长等特点而倍受社会各界的关注,然而大功率LED灯在工作过程中,除发光外同时产生大量热能,约有80%的能量转化为热能.随着LED的功率以及集成度的提高,LED灯的发热热流密度迅猛增加,其工作过程中散发热量大幅提高,而LED结温(芯片温度)的高低直接影响灯的使用寿命;因此,大功率LED灯的散热问题急需改善.本设计针对LED灯散热问题日益严重的现象而提出,设计出一种自然回流散热系统,使LED灯工作过程中产生的大部分热量通过回流系统散发出去,实验证明该散热系统能取得良好的散热效果.

  20. Low Cost Heart Rate Monitor Using Led-Led Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahrous Ragib


    Full Text Available A high sensitivity, low power and low cost sensor has been developed for photoplethysmography (PPG measurement. The PPG principle was applied to follow the dilatation and contraction of skin blood vessels during the cardiac cycle. A standard light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used as a light emitter and detector, and in order to reduce the space, cost and power, the classical analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs replaced by the pulse-based signal conversion techniques. A general purpose microcontroller has been used for the implementation of measurement protocol. The proposed approach leads to better spectral sensitivity, increased resolution, reduction in cost, dimensions and power consumption. The basic sensing configuration presented is capable of detecting the PPG signal from a finger or toe, and it is very simple to extract the heart rate and heart rate variability from such a signal.

  1. An incidence of very high phosphate concentrations in the waters around Andaman Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, C.V.G.; Murty, P.S.N.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    at stations close to coasts; 2) vertical distribution of phosphates in 200 metre column does not appear to correspond to any regular accepted pattern and 3) all the phosphates having the abnormally high phosphate concentration were found to be highly turbid...

  2. Influence of Fluorescent Glue Packaging Technology on the Color Rendering Index of High Power LED%大功率LED荧光胶封装工艺对其显色性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过大量试验,探索了荧光粉分层封装和荧光粉混合封装的不同荧光胶封装工艺对大功率白光LED显色性能的影响。通过甄选荧光粉、硅胶以及配比,制备出显色指数(CRI)为95的高亮度、低衰减的大功率白光LED。%In this artical,a large number of experiments have been done to explore the influence of different fluorescent glue packaging technology of phosphor layered packaging and phosphor mixed packaging on high-power white LED color rendering.By selecting the phosphor,silicon and mixture ratio,high-power white LED with high brightness and low attenuation is prepared,and the color rendering index(CRI) reaches 95.

  3. Influence of Mechanical Activation on Acid Leaching Dephosphorization of High-phosphorus Iron Ore Concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-qing ZHU; Hao WANG; Jian PAN; Cong-cong YANG


    High pressure roll grinding (HPRG)and ball milling were compared to investigate the influence of me-chanical activation on the acid leaching dephosphorization of a high-phosphorus iron ore concentrate,which was man-ufactured through magnetizing roasting-magnetic separation of high-phosphorus oolitic iron ores.The results indica-ted that when high-phosphorus iron ore concentrates containing 54·92 mass% iron and 0·76 mass% phosphorus were directly processed through acid leaching,iron ore concentrates containing 55·74 mass% iron and 0·33 mass%phosphorus with an iron recovery of 84·64% and dephosphorization of 63·79% were obtained.When high-phosphor-us iron ore concentrates activated by ball milling were processed by acid leaching,iron ore concentrates containing 56·03 mass% iron and 0·21 mass% phosphorus with an iron recovery of 85·65% and dephosphorization of 77·49%were obtained.Meanwhile,when high-phosphorus iron ore concentrates activated by HPRG were processed by acid leaching,iron ore concentrates containing 58·02 mass% iron and 0·10 mass% phosphorus were obtained,with the iron recovery reaching 88·42% and the dephosphorization rate reaching 88·99%.Mechanistic studies demonstrated that ball milling can reduce the particle size,demonstrating a prominent reunion phenomenon.In contrast,HPRG pretreatment contributes to the formation of more cracks within the particles and selective dissociation of iron and P bearing minerals,which can provide the favorable kinetic conditions to accelerate the solid-liquid reaction rate.As such,the crystal structure is destroyed and the surface energy of mineral particles is strengthened by mechanical ac-tivation,further strengthening the dephosphorization.

  4. Prodigious Effects of Concentration Intensification on Nanoparticle Synthesis: A High-Quality, Scalable Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Williamson, Curtis B.


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Realizing the promise of nanoparticle-based technologies demands more efficient, robust synthesis methods (i.e., process intensification) that consistently produce large quantities of high-quality nanoparticles (NPs). We explored NP synthesis via the heat-up method in a regime of previously unexplored high concentrations near the solubility limit of the precursors. We discovered that in this highly concentrated and viscous regime the NP synthesis parameters are less sensitive to experimental variability and thereby provide a robust, scalable, and size-focusing NP synthesis. Specifically, we synthesize high-quality metal sulfide NPs (<7% relative standard deviation for Cu2-xS and CdS), and demonstrate a 10-1000-fold increase in Cu2-xS NP production (>200 g) relative to the current field of large-scale (0.1-5 g yields) and laboratory-scale (<0.1 g) efforts. Compared to conventional synthesis methods (hot injection with dilute precursor concentration) characterized by rapid growth and low yield, our highly concentrated NP system supplies remarkably controlled growth rates and a 10-fold increase in NP volumetric production capacity (86 g/L). The controlled growth, high yield, and robust nature of highly concentrated solutions can facilitate large-scale nanomanufacturing of NPs by relaxing the synthesis requirements to achieve monodisperse products. Mechanistically, our investigation of the thermal and rheological properties and growth rates reveals that this high concentration regime has reduced mass diffusion (a 5-fold increase in solution viscosity), is stable to thermal perturbations (64% increase in heat capacity), and is resistant to Ostwald ripening.

  5. Design and Evaluation of the Highly Concentrated Human IgG Formulation Using Cyclodextrin Polypseudorotaxane Hydrogels. (United States)

    Higashi, Taishi; Tajima, Anna; Ohshita, Naoko; Hirotsu, Tatsunori; Abu Hashim, Irhan Ibrahim; Motoyama, Keiichi; Koyama, Sawako; Iibuchi, Ruriko; Mieda, Shiuhei; Handa, Kenji; Kimoto, Tomoaki; Arima, Hidetoshi


    To achieve the potent therapeutic effects of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), highly concentrated formulations are required. However, the stabilization for highly concentrated human IgG is laborious work. In the present study, to investigate the potentials of polypseudorotaxane (PPRX) hydrogels consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and α- or γ-cyclodextrin (α- or γ-CyD) as pharmaceutical materials for highly concentrated human IgG, we designed the PPRX hydrogels including human IgG and evaluated their pharmaceutical properties. The α- and γ-CyDs formed PPRX hydrogels with PEG (M.W. 20,000) even in the presence of highly concentrated human IgG (>100 mg/mL). According to the results of (1)H-NMR, powder X-ray diffraction, and Raman microscopy, the formation of human IgG/CyD PPRX hydrogels was based on physical cross-linking arising from their columnar structures. The release profiles of human IgG from the hydrogels were in accordance with the non-Fickian diffusion model. Importantly, the stabilities of human IgG included into the hydrogels against thermal and shaking stresses were markedly improved. These findings suggest that PEG/CyD PPRX hydrogels are useful to prepare the formulation for highly concentrated human IgG.

  6. High Concentrating GaAs Cell Operation Using Optical Waveguide Solar Energy System (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Case, J. A.; Timmons, M. L.


    This paper discusses the result of the concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell experiments conducted with the Optical Waveguide (OW) Solar Energy System. The high concentration GaAs cells developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) were combined with the OW system in a "fiber-on-cell" configuration. The sell performance was tested up to the solar concentration of 327. Detailed V-I characteristics, power density and efficiency data were collected. It was shown that the CPV cells combined with the OW solar energy system will be an effective electric power generation device.

  7. Photorespiration and carbon concentrating mechanisms: two adaptations to high O2, low CO2 conditions. (United States)

    Moroney, James V; Jungnick, Nadine; Dimario, Robert J; Longstreth, David J


    This review presents an overview of the two ways that cyanobacteria, algae, and plants have adapted to high O2 and low CO2 concentrations in the environment. First, the process of photorespiration enables photosynthetic organisms to recycle phosphoglycolate formed by the oxygenase reaction catalyzed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). Second, there are a number of carbon concentrating mechanisms that increase the CO2 concentration around Rubisco which increases the carboxylase reaction enhancing CO2 fixation. This review also presents possibilities for the beneficial modification of these processes with the goal of improving future crop yields.

  8. 大功率LED照明装置微热管散热方案分析%Mirco Heat Pipe Cooling Solution for High Power LED Illuminator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 李鹏芳; 曾志新


    设计了一种新型的带有百叶窗的平板式大功率发光二极管((LED)照明装置.该装置采用高导热系数的铝基板作为多颗大功率LED的散热电路板,用0.4 nmm的铝片作为散热翅片,结合沟槽式微热管构成集发光与散热一体化的输入功率为21 W的照明模组,该模组可根据照明亮度要求重构成不同功率的照明装置.对功率为144 W的照明装置进行了理论分析与实验研究.根据理论计算,每个照明模组的发热量约为18 W,每个照明模组的传热量约为47W;模拟结果表明,在环境温度为30℃,自然对流换热系数为10 W/(m2·K)时,LED芯片最高结温Ta=75℃,而实验测得Ta=75.7℃.

  9. Design of A Bicycle Head Lamp Based on Highly Efficient LED%基于大功率LED的自行车前照灯的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪菘; 倪凯凯; 林泽文; 刘木清


    本文以CREE高功率冷白光LED为光源, 设计了高安全性的符合德国K-mark的StVZO 22A No.23法规的自行车前照灯. 其体积微小, 具有清晰的明暗截止线和均匀的光分布, 适合自行车照明的需求, 为骑行者提供了一个安全的行车环境, 也保障了行路人和其他人的人身安全.%In this paper , we propose and demonstrate a novel design of pcW-LED-based bicycle head lamp, which meets StVZO 22A No.23 regulations of K-mark Germany.It has small size, a clear cut-off and homogenous light distribution , making it suitable for bicycle lighting and providing a safe driving environment for cyclists and pedestrians as well .

  10. Tuning carrier lifetime in InGaN/GaN LEDs via strain compensation for high-speed visible light communication (United States)

    Du, Chunhua; Huang, Xin; Jiang, Chunyan; Pu, Xiong; Zhao, Zhenfu; Jing, Liang; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin


    In recent years, visible light communication (VLC) technology has attracted intensive attention due to its huge potential in superior processing ability and fast data transmission. The transmission rate relies on the modulation bandwidth, which is predominantly determined by the minority-carrier lifetime in III-group nitride semiconductors. In this paper, the carrier dynamic process under a stress field was studied for the first time, and the carrier recombination lifetime was calculated within the framework of quantum perturbation theory. Owing to the intrinsic strain due to the lattice mismatch between InGaN and GaN, the wave functions for the holes and electrons are misaligned in an InGaN/GaN device. By applying an external strain that “cancels” the internal strain, the overlap between the wave functions can be maximized so that the lifetime of the carrier is greatly reduced. As a result, the maximum speed of a single chip was increased from 54 MHz up to 117 MHz in a blue LED chip under 0.14% compressive strain. Finally, a bandwidth contour plot depending on the stress and operating wavelength was calculated to guide VLC chip design and stress optimization.

  11. High Voltage Solar Concentrator Experiment with Implications for Future Space Missions - S6a-35 (United States)

    George, I. S. Mehdi P. J.; O'Neill, M.; Matson, R.; Borckschmidt, A.


    This paper describes the design, development, fabrication, and test of a high performance, high voltage solar concentrator array. This assembly is believed to be the first ever terrestrial triple-junction-cell solar array rated at over 1 kW. The concentrator provides over 200 W/square meter power output at a nominal 600 Vdc while operating under terrestrial sunlight. Space-quality materials and fabrication techniques were used for the array, and the 3005-meter elevation installation below the Tropic of Cancer allowed testing as close as possible to space deployment without an actual launch. The array includes two concentrator modules, each with a 3 square meter aperture area. Each concentrator module uses a linear Fresnel lens to focus sunlight onto a photovoltaic receiver that uses 240 series-connected triple-junction solar cells. Operation of the two receivers in series can provide 1200 Vdc which would be adequate for the "direct drive" of some ion engines or microwave transmitters in space. Lens aperture width is 84 cm and the cell active width is 3.2 cm, corresponding to a geometric concentration ratio of 26X. The evaluation includes the concentrator modules, the solar cells, and the materials and techniques used to attach the solar cells to the receiver heat sink. For terrestrial applications, a finned aluminum extrusion was used for the heat sink for the solar cells, maintaining a low cell temperature so that solar cell efficiency remains high.

  12. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Orikawa


    Full Text Available Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS dewatered sludge. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic carbon (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The hydrothermal treatment was investigated under 10-60 min of treatment time, 180-200 °C of temperature, 10-22 %-TS of sewage sludge concentration. The results showed that the DOC in each conditions increased through hydrothermal treatment. The highest DOC obtained was 67 % of total carbon concentration, when the temperature was 180 °C, treatment time was 60 min and sewage sludge concentration was 10 %-TS. Furthermore, the viscosity of treated sewage sludge was decreased by hydrothermal treatment. In batch anaerobic digestion test, methane gas production was confirmed. In addition, this study evaluated the energy balance of this system. Thus, the results of this study indicated that the possibility of application of hydrothermal treatment to high concentrated sewage sludge for anaerobic digestion process. Keywords: anaerobic reaction, hydrothermal treatment, sewage sludge, solubilization

  13. High concentrations of myeloperoxidase in the equine uterus as an indicator of endometritis. (United States)

    Parrilla-Hernandez, Sonia; Ponthier, Jérôme; Franck, Thierry Y; Serteyn, Didier D; Deleuze, Stéfan C


    Intraluminal fluid and excessive abnormal hyperedema are regularly used for the diagnosis of endometritis in the mare, which is routinely confirmed by the presence of neutrophils on endometrial smears. Studies show a relation between neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils during degranulation or after cell lysis. This enzyme has been found in many fluids and tissues, and associated with different inflammatory pathologies in the horse. The aims of this study were to assess the presence and concentration of MPO in the equine uterus, and to investigate its relation with neutrophils, and other clinical signs of endometritis. Mares (n = 51) were evaluated for the presence of intraluminal fluid and excessive endometrial edema before breeding, and a small volume lavage and cytology samples were obtained. From 69 cycles, supernatant of the uterine flushes was analyzed with a specific equine MPO ELISA assay to measure MPO concentration. Cytology samples were used for the diagnosis of endometritis. Myeloperoxidase was present in the uterus of all estrus mares in highly variable concentrations. Myeloperoxidase concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in samples with positive cytologies and in the presence of intraluminal fluid. Occasionally, some samples with negative cytologies showed high MPO concentration, but the opposite was never observed. Cycles presenting hyperedema weren't associated with high concentration of MPO, intraluminal fluid, or positive cytology, making it a poor diagnostic tool of endometritis.

  14. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding


    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits......, modulation schemes, LEDs and LED driving conditions are analyzed. A prototype radial mode PT optimized for ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) is designed. FEM (Final Element Method) and measurements validates the PT design. A prototype PT based AC/DC converter operating from european mains is proposed...

  15. Research of Ultra-high-power LED Light Source Based on Diamond Thermal Structure%基于金刚石散热结构的超高功率LED光源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 吴懿平


    With excellent heat resistance and thermal performance, diamond is the material possessing the highest thermal conductivity in nature. The thermal structures based on diamond can greatly improve the cooling capacity of ultra-high-power LED. Summarize three kinds of diamond thermal structure used in ultra-high-power LED light source: GaN-on-diamond structure integrating light and thermal was realized by combining GaN with diamond directly; structure with diamond film as the powerful dissipation layer added in the traditional LED light source; structure with diamond composite material as LED heat sink. In theory, the heat dissipation effect of the ifrst one is the best among these three structures, whose junction temperature is 40%~45% lower than that of state-of-the-art LED with SiC as substrate.%金刚石是自然界导热率最高的材料,具备极佳的耐热和导热性能。基于金刚石导热的散热结构,大大提高了超高功率LED的散热能力。介绍了三种金刚石散热结构:氮化镓与金刚石直接结合实现GaN-on-diamond光与热集成的结构;在传统的LED光源中增加金刚石薄膜作为高导热层的散热结构;以金刚石复合材料做成的LED热沉结构。理论上,三种结构中第一种结构的散热效果最好,与目前最先进的碳化硅衬底LED相比,其结温降低了40%~45%。

  16. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields. (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye


    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  17. Reduction of Temperature in Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Coating with High Thermal Emissivity and Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Satoshi


    Full Text Available The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with wind. The temperature of sample with coating showed lower temperature than that without coating. In the condition with wind, the coated sample with high thermal emissivity and high thermal conductivity showed the lowest temperature due to the effect of thermal radiation and thermal conduction.

  18. Experimental Study of Sorbitol Production by Zymomonas mobilis in High Sucrose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sérgio dos Santos Ferreira da Silva


    Full Text Available The sorbitol presents several industrial applications and its conventional production is of high cost and low yield. Sorbitol production by Zymomonas mobilis production has attracted attention as both production cost and environmental impact are low. The sorbitol plays an osmo-protective rule so that its production is promoted by high sugar concentrations. This work has evaluated the effect of high sucrose concentration in the sorbitol production. The raise of sucrose concentration from 100 to 300g/ L caused an increase in the sorbitol production from 4,979 to 20,633g/l. Statistic analysis showed that 95,5% in the variation in sorbitol production can be explained.

  19. The ability of Typha domingensis to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn. (United States)

    Mufarrege, M M; Hadad, H R; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A


    The tolerance and removal efficiency of Typha domingensis exposed to high concentrations of Cr, Ni, and Zn in single and combined treatments were studied. Sediment and two plants were disposed in each plastic reactor. The treatments were 100 and 500 mg L(-1) of Cr, Ni, and Zn (single solutions); 100 mg L(-1) Cr + Ni + Zn (multi-metal solutions) and 500 mg L(-1) Cr + Ni + Zn (multi-metal solutions); and a control. Even though the concentrations studied were extremely high, simulating an accidental metal dump, the three metals were efficiently removed from water. The highest removal was registered for Cr. The presence of other metals favored Cr and did not favor Ni and Zn removal from water. After 25 days, senescence and chlorosis of plants were observed in Ni and Comb500 treatments, while Cr and Zn only caused growth inhibition. T. domingensis accumulated high metal concentrations in tissues. The roots showed higher metal concentration than submerged parts of leaves. Cr translocation to aerial parts was enhanced by the presence of Ni and Zn. Our results demonstrate that in the case of an accidental dump of high Cr, Ni, and Zn concentrations, a wetland system dominated by T. domingensis is able to retain metals, and the macrophyte is able to tolerate them the time necessary to remove them from water. Thus, the environment will be preserved since the wetland would act as a cushion.

  20. Apoptosis Induced by High Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Tobacco Suspension Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵友; 朱瑞宇; 戴尧仁


    As an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), nicotinamide has a restraining effect on apoptosis at certain low concentrations. In our present study, apoptosis induced by high concentrations of nicotinamide was observed in tobacco suspension cells. When cells were preincubated with 250 mmol/L nicotinamide for 24 h, the hallmarks of apoptosis were detected, including DNA fragments increasing in size by multiples of 180-200 bp, the condensation and peripheral distribution of nuclear chromatin, and a positive reaction to the TUNEL assay. At the same time, the degradation of PARP and the reduction in the potential of the inner membrane of mitochondria appeared in apoptotic cells induced by high concentrations of nicotinamide. This result indicates that apoptosis induced by high concentrations of nicotinamide is associated with caspase-3-like activity and with the opening of mitochondrial permeability pores. These results partially support the hypothesis that high concentrations of PARP inhibitor could force cells to enter an apoptotic pathway by delay of DNA repair in replicating cells.

  1. Knowledge discovery from high-frequency stream nitrate concentrations: hydrology and biology contributions (United States)

    Aubert, Alice H.; Thrun, Michael C.; Breuer, Lutz; Ultsch, Alfred


    High-frequency, in-situ monitoring provides large environmental datasets. These datasets will likely bring new insights in landscape functioning and process scale understanding. However, tailoring data analysis methods is necessary. Here, we detach our analysis from the usual temporal analysis performed in hydrology to determine if it is possible to infer general rules regarding hydrochemistry from available large datasets. We combined a 2-year in-stream nitrate concentration time series (time resolution of 15 min) with concurrent hydrological, meteorological and soil moisture data. We removed the low-frequency variations through low-pass filtering, which suppressed seasonality. We then analyzed the high-frequency variability component using Pareto Density Estimation, which to our knowledge has not been applied to hydrology. The resulting distribution of nitrate concentrations revealed three normally distributed modes: low, medium and high. Studying the environmental conditions for each mode revealed the main control of nitrate concentration: the saturation state of the riparian zone. We found low nitrate concentrations under conditions of hydrological connectivity and dominant denitrifying biological processes, and we found high nitrate concentrations under hydrological recession conditions and dominant nitrifying biological processes. These results generalize our understanding of hydro-biogeochemical nitrate flux controls and bring useful information to the development of nitrogen process-based models at the landscape scale. PMID:27572284

  2. Experimental studies on resistance characteristics of high concentration red mud in pipeline transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing; QU Yuan-yuan; HU Wei-wei; CHEN Jie; ZHAO Xue-yi; WU Miao


    Red mud will flow in paste form under high pressure during pipeline transport. It belongs to a two-phase flow of materials with high viscosity and a high concentration of non-sedimentation, homogeneous solid-liquids. In pipeline transport, its resistance char-acteristics will be influenced by such factors as grain size, velocity, concentration, density,grain composition and pipe diameter etc.. With the independently developed small-sized tube-type pressure resistance test facility, studied the resistance characteristics of red mud concerning the three influencing factors, paste concentration, velocity and pipe diameter,which attract the most attention in projects. The fine grain size of the red mud is d50=13.02 μm. According to the experimental results, the pressure loss in transport will in-crease along with the increase of velocity and will fall along with the increase of pipe di-ameter. A 1% difference in paste concentration will result in a 50%~100% difference in pipeline resistance loss. These experimental data is hoped to be direct guidance to the design of high concentration and viscous material pipeline transport system.

  3. Knowledge discovery from high-frequency stream nitrate concentrations: hydrology and biology contributions. (United States)

    Aubert, Alice H; Thrun, Michael C; Breuer, Lutz; Ultsch, Alfred


    High-frequency, in-situ monitoring provides large environmental datasets. These datasets will likely bring new insights in landscape functioning and process scale understanding. However, tailoring data analysis methods is necessary. Here, we detach our analysis from the usual temporal analysis performed in hydrology to determine if it is possible to infer general rules regarding hydrochemistry from available large datasets. We combined a 2-year in-stream nitrate concentration time series (time resolution of 15 min) with concurrent hydrological, meteorological and soil moisture data. We removed the low-frequency variations through low-pass filtering, which suppressed seasonality. We then analyzed the high-frequency variability component using Pareto Density Estimation, which to our knowledge has not been applied to hydrology. The resulting distribution of nitrate concentrations revealed three normally distributed modes: low, medium and high. Studying the environmental conditions for each mode revealed the main control of nitrate concentration: the saturation state of the riparian zone. We found low nitrate concentrations under conditions of hydrological connectivity and dominant denitrifying biological processes, and we found high nitrate concentrations under hydrological recession conditions and dominant nitrifying biological processes. These results generalize our understanding of hydro-biogeochemical nitrate flux controls and bring useful information to the development of nitrogen process-based models at the landscape scale.

  4. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Plasma Concentration May Predict Susceptibility to High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (United States)

    Zügel, Stefanie; Schoeb, Michele; Auinger, Katja; Dehnert, Christoph; Maggiorini, Marco


    Introduction. Acute exposure to high altitude induces inflammation. However, the relationship between inflammation and high altitude related illness such as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and acute mountain sickness (AMS) is poorly understood. We tested if soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) plasma concentration, a prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease and marker for low grade activation of leukocytes, will predict susceptibility to HAPE and AMS. Methods. 41 healthy mountaineers were examined at sea level (SL, 446 m) and 24 h after rapid ascent to 4559 m (HA). 24/41 subjects had a history of HAPE and were thus considered HAPE-susceptible (HAPE-s). Out of the latter, 10/24 HAPE-s subjects were randomly chosen to suppress the inflammatory cascade with dexamethasone 8 mg bid 24 h prior to ascent. Results. Acute hypoxic exposure led to an acute inflammatory reaction represented by an increase in suPAR (1.9 ± 0.4 at SL versus 2.3 ± 0.5 at HA, p < 0.01), CRP (0.7 ± 0.5 at SL versus 3.6 ± 4.6 at HA, p < 0.01), and IL-6 (0.8 ± 0.4 at SL versus 3.3 ± 4.9 at HA, p < 0.01) in all subjects except those receiving dexamethasone. The ascent associated decrease in PaO2 correlated with the increase in IL-6 (r = 0.46, p < 0.001), but not suPAR (r = 0.27, p = 0.08); the increase in IL-6 was not correlated with suPAR (r = 0.16, p = 0.24). Baseline suPAR plasma concentration was higher in the HAPE-s group (2.0 ± 0.4 versus 1.8 ± 0.4, p = 0.04); no difference was found for CRP and IL-6 and for subjects developing AMS. Conclusion. High altitude exposure leads to an increase in suPAR plasma concentration, with the missing correlation between suPAR and IL-6 suggesting a cytokine independent, leukocyte mediated mechanism of low grade inflammation. The correlation between IL-6 and PaO2 suggests a direct effect of hypoxia, which is not the case for suPAR. However, suPAR plasma concentration measured before hypoxic exposure may predict

  5. High surface hole concentration p-type GaN using Mg implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Long Tao; Zhang Guo Yi


    Mg ions were implanted on Mg-doped GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The p-type GaN was achieved with high hole concentration (8.28 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 3) conformed by Van derpauw Hall measurement after annealing at 800 degree C for 1 h. this is the first experimental report of Mg implantation on Mg-doped GaN and achieving p-type GaN with high surface hole concentration

  6. High-concentration zeta potential measurements using light-scattering techniques. (United States)

    Kaszuba, Michael; Corbett, Jason; Watson, Fraser Mcneil; Jones, Andrew


    Zeta potential is the key parameter that controls electrostatic interactions in particle dispersions. Laser Doppler electrophoresis is an accepted method for the measurement of particle electrophoretic mobility and hence zeta potential of dispersions of colloidal size materials. Traditionally, samples measured by this technique have to be optically transparent. Therefore, depending upon the size and optical properties of the particles, many samples will be too concentrated and will require dilution. The ability to measure samples at or close to their neat concentration would be desirable as it would minimize any changes in the zeta potential of the sample owing to dilution. However, the ability to measure turbid samples using light-scattering techniques presents a number of challenges. This paper discusses electrophoretic mobility measurements made on turbid samples at high concentration using a novel cell with reduced path length. Results are presented on two different sample types, titanium dioxide and a polyurethane dispersion, as a function of sample concentration. For both of the sample types studied, the electrophoretic mobility results show a gradual decrease as the sample concentration increases and the possible reasons for these observations are discussed. Further, a comparison of the data against theoretical models is presented and discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are made from the zeta potential values obtained at high concentrations.

  7. High Iridium concentration of alkaline rocks of Deccan and implications to K/T boundary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Shukla; N Bhandari; Anirban Das; A D Shukla; J S Ray


    We report here an unusually high concentration of iridium in some alkali basalts and alkaline rocks of Deccan region having an age of about 65Ma, similar to the age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The alkali basalts of Anjar, in the western periphery of Deccan province, have irid-ium concentration as high as 178pg/g whereas the alkaline rocks and basalts associated with the Amba Dongar carbonatite complex have concentrations ranging between 8 and 80 pg/g. Some of these values are more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentration in the tholeiiticbasalts of Deccan, indicating the significance of alkaline magmatism in the iridium inventory at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Despite higher concentration, their contribution to the global inventory of iridium in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clays remains small. The concentration of iridium in uorites from Amba Dongar was found to be < 30 pg/g indicating that iridium is not incorporated during their formation in hydrothermal activity.

  8. Potential risk of mitomycin Cat high concentrations on peripheral nerve structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sui; Jinhong Zhang; Shihao Du; Changhui Su; Jun Que; Xiaojian Cao


    Although the local application of mitomycin C may prevent epidural adhesion after laminectomy, mitomycin C can induce neurotoxicity in optic and acoustic nerves at high concentrations. To determine the safe concentration range for mitomycin C, cotton pads soaked with mitomycin C at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 mg/mL) were immediately applied for 5 minutes to the operation area of rats that had undergone laminectomy at L1. Rat sciatic nerves, instead of dorsal nerves, were used in this study. The results showed that mitomycin C at 0.1-0.5 mg/mL did not damage the structure and function of the sciatic nerve, while at 0.7 mg/mL, mitomycin C signiifcantly reduced the thickness of the sciatic nerve myelin sheath compared with lower concen-trations, though no functional change was found. These experimental ifndings indicate that the local application of mitomycin C at low concentrations is safe to prevent scar adhesion following laminectomy, but that mitomycin C at high concentrations (>0.7 mg/mL) has potential safety risks to peripheral nerve structures.

  9. Vitamin E Concentrations in Adults with HIV/AIDS on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella J. Itinoseki Kaio


    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs; NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037. A positive association (p < 0.001 was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment.

  10. Characterization of high-milk-protein powders upon rehydration under various salt concentrations. (United States)

    Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J


    Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High hydrostatic pressure enables almost 100% refolding of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor from inclusion bodies at high concentration. (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Chun; Guo, Fangxia; Feng, Cui; Li, Xiunan; Shi, Hong; Su, Zhiguo


    Protein refolding from inclusion bodies (IBs) often encounters a problem of low recovery at high protein concentration. In this study, we demonstrated that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) could simultaneously achieve high refolding concentration and high refolding yield for IBs of recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rhCNTF), a potential therapeutic for neurodegenerative diseases. The use of dilution refolding obtained 18% recovery at 3 mg/mL, even in the presence of 4 M urea. In contrast, HHP refolding could efficiently increase the recovery up to almost 100% even at 4 mg/mL. It was found that in the dilution, hydrophobic aggregates were the off-path products and their amount increased with the protein concentration. However, HHP could effectively minimize the formation of hydrophobic aggregates, leading to almost complete conversion of the rhCNTF IBs to the correct configuration. The stable operation range of concentration is 0.5-4.0 mg/mL, in which the refolding yield was almost 100%. Compared with the literatures where HHP failed to increase the refolding yield beyond 90%, the reason could be attributed to the structural difference that rhCNTF has no disulfide bond and is a monomeric protein. After purification by one-step of anionic chromatography, the purity of rhCNTF reached 95% with total process recovery of 54.1%. The purified rhCNTF showed similar structure and in vitro bioactivity to the native species. The whole process featured integration of solubilization/refolding, a high refolding yield of 100%, a high concentration of 4 mg/mL, and a simple chromatography to ensure a high productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ce-Doped La3Si6.5Al1.5N9.5O5.5, a Rare Highly Efficient Blue-Emitting Phosphor at Short Wavelength toward High Color Rendering White LED Application. (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yun; Takeda, Takashi; Ten Kate, Otmar Melvin; Tansho, Masataka; Deguchi, Kenzo; Takahashi, Kohsei; Xie, Rong-Jun; Shimizu, Tadashi; Hirosaki, Naoto


    Phase pure nondoped and Ce doped La3Si6.5Al1.5N9.5O5.5 (Al containing La N-phase) samples have been obtained by solid-state reaction synthesis for the first time. 1% Ce-doped La3Si6.5Al1.5N9.5O5.5 phosphor displays a broad excitation band ranging from UV to 410 nm, with a maximum at 355 nm. UV light excitation results in a narrow Ce(3+) 5d-4f emission band (fwhm = 68 nm) centered at 418 nm. The emission can be tuned from 417 nm at 0.5% Ce to 450 nm at 50% Ce. A high internal quantum efficiency up to 84% is achieved for a 1% Ce doped sample, which has CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.157 and y = 0.069, close to the NTSC blue standard (x = 0.155; y = 0.070). Compared to La3Si8O4N11:Ce phosphor, the quantum efficiency and thermal stability have been enhanced for La3Si6.5Al1.5N9.5O5.5:Ce phosphor without shifting the emission peak wavelength. La3Si6.5Al1.5N9.5O5.5:Ce shows less thermal quenching than La3Si8O4N11:Ce and no shift or change in the shape of emission spectra with increasing the temperature from 4 to 573 K. These results show that La3Si6.5Al1.5N9.5O5.5:Ce is more efficient than any other (oxy-)nitride phosphor with an emission in the short wavelength blue region (400-450 nm). A white LED was fabricated using the La3Si6.5Al1.5N9.5O5.5:5%Ce as a blue phosphor. The high color rendering index (Ra = 93.2, R9 = 91.4, and R12 = 89.5) obtained shows that the phosphor is a very promising conversion phosphor for white LEDs.

  13. High Frequency Measurements of Methane Concentrations and Carbon Isotopes at a Marsh and Landfill (United States)

    Mortazavi, B.; Wilson, B.; Chanton, J.; Eller, K.; Dong, F.; Baer, D. S.; Gupta, M.; Dzwonkowski, B.


    High frequency measurements of methane concentrations and carbon isotopes can help constrain the source strengths of methane emitted to the atmosphere. We report here methane concentrations and 13C values measured at 0.5 Hz with cavity enhanced laser absorption spectrometers (Los Gatos Research) deployed at a saltmarsh in Alabama and a landfill in Florida. Methane concentrations and 13C at the saltmarsh were monitored over a 2.5 day time period at 2 m, 0.5 m above the ground as well as from the outflow of a flow-through (2 L) chamber placed on the Spartina alterniflora dominated marsh. A typical measurement cycle included regular samples from two tanks of known methane concentrations and isotopic values and from ambient air samples. Over the 2.5-day measurement period methane concentrations and isotopic ratios at 2 m averaged 1.85 ppm and -43.57‰ (±0.34, 1 SE), respectively. The concentration and isotopic values from the chamber outflow varied from 1.92 to 5.81 ppm and -38.5 to -59.3‰, respectively. Methane flux from the marsh ranged from undetectable to 3.6 mgC m-2hr-1, with high fluxes measured during low tide. The 13δCH4 of the emitted CH4 from the marsh, determined from a mass balance equation using the chamber inflow and outflow concentration and isotopic values ranged from -62.1 to -93.9‰ and averaged -77‰ (±1.25, 1SE). At the landfill ambient methane concentrations and 13C ratios measured over multiple days varied from 4.25 to 11.91 ppm and from -58.81 to -45.12‰, respectively. At higher methane concentrations the δ13C of CH4 was more depleted consistent with previously observed relationship at this site made by more traditional techniques. Over a 30-minute measurement period CH4 concentrations at the landfill could vary by as much as 15 ppm. The high frequency continuous optical measurements with field-deployed instruments provide us with an unprecedented temporal resolution of CH4 concentrations and isotopic ratios. These measurements will

  14. Lysozyme refolding at high concentration by dilution and size-exclusion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This study of renaturation by dilution and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) addition of urea to improve yield as well as the initial and final protein concentrations showed that although urea decreased the rate of lysozyme refolding, it could suppress protein aggregation to sustain the pathway of correct refolding at high protein concentration; and that there existed an optimum urea concentration in renaturation buffer. Under the above conditions, lysozyme was successfully refolded from initial concentration of up to 40 mg/mL by dilution and 100 mg/mL by SEC, with the yield of the former being more than 40% and that of the latter being 34.8%. Especially, under the condition of 30 min interval time, i.e. τ>2(tR2-tR1), the efficiency was increased by 25% and the renaturation buffer could be recycled for SEC refolding in continuous operation of downstream process.

  15. Estimation of free carrier concentrations in high-quality heavily doped GaN:Si micro-rods by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Mohajerani, M. S.; Khachadorian, S.; Nenstiel, C.; Schimpke, T.; Avramescu, A.; Strassburg, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Waag, A.


    The controlled growth of highly n-doped GaN micro rods is one of the major challenges in the fabrication of recently developed three-dimensional (3D) core-shell light emitting diodes (LEDs). In such structures with a large active area, higher electrical conductivity is needed to achieve higher current density. In this contribution, we introduce high quality heavily-doped GaN:Si micro-rods which are key elements of the newly developed 3D core-shell LEDs. These structures were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using selective area growth (SAG). We employed spatially resolved micro-Raman and micro-photoluminescence (PL) in order to directly determine a free-carrier concentration profile in individual GaN micro-rods. By Raman spectroscopy, we analyze the low-frequency branch of the longitudinal optical (LO)-phonon-plasmon coupled modes and estimate free carrier concentrations from ≍ 2.4 × 1019 cm-3 up to ≍ 1.5 × 1020 cm-3. Furthermore, free carrier concentrations are determined by estimating Fermi energy level from the near band edge emission measured by low-temperature PL. The results from both methods reveal a good consistency.

  16. Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate. (United States)

    Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin


    Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed.

  17. Investigating DOC export dynamics using high-frequency instream concentration measurements (United States)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; Keller, Toralf; Musolff, Andreas; Frei, Sven; Park, Ji-Hyung; Fleckenstein, Jan H.


    Being able to monitor DOC concentrations using in-situ high frequency measurements makes it possible to better understand concentration-discharge behavior under different hydrological conditions. We developed a UV-Vis probe setup for modified/adapted use under field conditions. The quasi mobile probe setup allows a more flexible probe deployment. New or existing monitoring sites can easily be equipped for quasi-continuous monitoring or measurements can be performed at changing locations, without the need for additional infrastructure. We were able to gather high frequency data on DOC dynamics for one year in two streams in the Harz mountains in Germany. It proved that obtaining accurate DOC concentrations from the UV-Vis probes required frequent maintenance and probe calibration. The advantage of the setup over standard monitoring protocols becomes evident when comparing net exports over a year. In addition to mass improved balance calculations the high-frequency measurements can reveal intricate hysteretic relationships between discharge and concentrations that can provide valuable insights into the hydrologic dynamics and mechanisms that govern the delivery of DOC to the receiving waters. Measurements with similar probes from two additional catchments in Southern Germany and South Korea will be used to illustrate different discharge-concentration relationships and what can be learned from them about the hydrologic mechanisms that control the dynamics of DOC export.

  18. Performance of solmacs, a high PV solar concentrator with efficient optics (United States)

    Thibert, T.; Hellin, M.-L.; Loicq, J.; Mazy, E.; Jacques, L.; Verstraeten, D.; Gillis, J.-M.; Languy, F.; Emmerechts, C.; Beeckman, E.; Habraken, S.; Lecat, J.-H.


    A new solar panel with high concentration photovoltaic technology (x700) has been designed, prototyped and tested in the SOLMACS project. The quality of concentrating optics is a key factor for high module efficiency. Therefore new dedicated PMMA Fresnel lenses were studied and produced by injection molding. Lens design, material and production process were optimized to achieve a high optical yield of 86%. Thorough lens performance assessment in optical laboratory was completed with lifetime UV aging tests. Another important aspect is the thermal control of the hot spot created under the solar cell that receives the concentrated flux of 700 Suns. A dedicated heat spreader was developed to achieve passive thermal control with minimum mass and cost. This was supported by thermal models and tests at both cell and module level. 35% triple junction cells were implemented in the module. Micro-assembly technologies were used for the cell packaging and electrical connections. In support to the research, a continuous solar simulator was designed and built to assess the system performance, both at component and module level. The concentrator developments were integrated in a prototype and tested both indoor with the simulator and outdoor on the CSL solar test platform. The overall efficiency of the PV concentrator module is 28.5%.

  19. High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power, CRADA Number: CRD-14-554

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    As part of a Federal Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Award, the project will be led by Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to explore and demonstrate the efficacy of highly reducible, redox-stable oxides to provide efficient thermochemical energy storage for heat release at temperatures of 900 degrees Celcius or more. NREL will support the material development for its application in a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. In the project, NREL will provide its inventive system design, chemical looping for CSP, and use it as a platform to accommodate the chemical processes using a cost effective perovskite materials identified by CSM. NREL will design a 5-10kW particle receiver for perovskite reduction to store solar energy and help the development of a fluidized-bed reoxidation reactor and system integration. NREL will develop the demonstration receiver for on-sun test in the 5-10 kWt range in NREL's high flux solar furnace. NREL will assist in system analysis and provide techno-economic inputs for the overall system configuration.

  20. Design and realization of reflective current barrier for high-brightness LED chips%高亮度LED芯片的反射型电流阻挡层设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    基于光学传输理论矩阵,设计制作SiO2和Ti3O5交替生长的分布式布拉格反射(DBR)结构作为LED芯片的电流阻挡层,并采用电感耦合等离子体(ICP)刻蚀技术在电流阻挡层处形成沟槽结构,以解决困扰LED器件效率提高的电流扩散及金属电极降低出光效率的问题。实验结果表明,采用这种结构的LED芯片能将亮度提高5%以上,而LED芯片的正向电压基本维持不变。这种反射型电流阻挡层结构能够很好地改善大尺寸LED芯片的电流扩散,有效地提高LED芯片的出光效率。%Based on optical transfer matrix theory,a distributed Bragg reflector(DBR) consisting of SiO2 and Ti3O5 is designed as the current barrier layer for high-brightness LED chips,and a trench structure is etched by inductively coupled plasma(ICP) technique at the current barrier.The problems that the current spreading restricts the improvement of the LED efficiency and the metal electrodes reduce light-extraction efficiency are solved by this way.The experiment results indicate that the brightness of the LED chip with this structure can be increased by 5%,while the chip voltage is essentially unchanged,which shows that the new structure can greatly ameliorate the current spreading and increase the extraction efficiency of LED chip.

  1. Inhibition effects of high calcium concentration on anaerobic biological treatment of MSW leachate. (United States)

    Xia, Yi; He, Pin-Jing; Pu, Hong-Xia; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua


    With the increasing use of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and more stringent limits on landfilling of organic waste, more MSWI bottom ash is being landfilled, and the proportion of inorganic wastes in landfills is increasing, causing the increased Ca concentrations in landfill leachate. In this research, the inhibition effect of Ca concentration on the anaerobic treatment of landfill leachate was studied using a biochemical methane potential experiment. Slight inhibition of methane production occurred when the addition of Ca concentration was less than 2000 mg/L. When the addition of Ca concentration was between 6000 and 8000 mg/L, methane production was significantly reduced (to 29.4-34.8 % of that produced by the BLK reactor), and the lag phase was increased from 8.55 to 16.32 d. Moreover, when the dosage of Ca concentration increased from zero to 8000 mg/L, reductions in solution Ca concentration increased from 929 to 2611 mg/L, and the proportion of Ca in the residual sludge increased from 22.58 to 46.87 %. Based on the results, when the dosage of Ca concentration was less than 4000 mg/L, the formation of Ca precipitates on the surface of sludge appeared to prevent mass transfer and was the dominant reason for the reduction in methane production and sludge biomass. At higher Ca concentrations (6000-8000 mg/L), the severe inhibition of methane production appeared to be caused by the toxic effect of highly concentrated Ca on sludge as well as mass transfer blockage.

  2. Enhanced Enzymatic Production of Cephalexin at High Substrate Concentration with in situ Product Removal by Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengchao Li


    Full Text Available Cephalexin (CEX was synthesized with 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA and D(–-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME using immobilized penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli. It was found that substrate concentration and in situ product could remarkably influence the ratio of synthesis to hydrolysis (S/H and the efficiency of CEX synthesis. The optimal ratio of enzyme to substrate was 65 IU/mM 7-ADCA. High substrate concentration improved the 7-ADCA conversion from 61 to 81 % in the process without in situ product removal (ISPR, while in the synthetic process with ISPR, high substrate concentration increased the 7-ADCA conversion from 88 to 98 %. CEX was easily separated from CEX/β-naphthol complex and its purity and overall yield were 99 and 70 %, respectively.

  3. Chlorinated pesticides (2,4-D and DDT) biodegradation at high concentrations using immobilized Pseudomonas fluorescens. (United States)

    Santacruz, Germán; Bandala, Erick R; Torres, Luis G


    Degradation of two chlorinated pesticides (2,4-D and DDT) using a 54-mL glass column packed with tezontle (a low-cost basaltic scoria) was tested. Bacteria were cultured in YPG (yeast, peptone, and glucose) liquid medium at 32 degrees C. The rich medium was pumped during 24 h through the column to inoculate it. Later, the wasted medium was discharged and the pesticide added. Optical densities, TOC, and pesticide concentration were determined. Pesticide removals for 2,4-D (with initial concentration between 100 and 500 mg/L) were about 99%. DDT removal (at initial concentration of up to 150 mg/L) was as high as 55-99%. TOC removals for 2,4-D was in the 36-87% interval, whereas for DDT they were as high as 36-78%.

  4. A method for analyzing on-line video images of crystallization at high-solid concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wan; Cai Y.Ma; Xue Z.Wang


    Recent research has demonstrated that on-line video imaging is a very promising technique for monitoring crystallization processes. The bottleneck in applying the technique for real-time closed-loop control is considered as image analysis that needs to be robust, fast and able to handle varied image qualities due to temporal variations of operating conditions such as mixing and solid concentrations. Image analysis at high-solid concentrations turns out to be extremely challenging because crystals tend to overlap or attach to each other and the boundaries between the crystals are usually ambiguous. This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm that can effectively deal with images taken at high-solid concentrations. The method segments crystals attached to each other along the mostly related concave points on the contours of crystal blocks. The detailed procedure is introduced with application to crystallization of L-glutamic acid in a hot-stage reactor.

  5. Highly concentrated phenolic wastewater treatment by heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysis: mechanism study by FTIR-ATR. (United States)

    Araña, J; Tello-Rendón, E; Doña-Rodríguez, J M; Campo, C V; Herrera-Melidán, J A; González-Díaz; Pérez-Peña, J


    The degradation of high phenol concentrations (1 g/L) in water solutions by TiO2 photocatalysis and the photo-Fenton reaction has been studied. From the obtained data it may be suggested that degradation of phenol by TiO2-UV takes place onto the catalyst surface by means of peroxo-compounds formation. At low phenol concentrations other mechanism, the insertion of OH. radicals, may be favored. On the other hand, highly concentrated phenol aqueous solutions treatment by the photo-Fenton reaction gives rise to the formation of polyphenolic polymers. These seem to reduce the process rate. Degradation intermediates have been identified by HPLC and FTIR. The FTIR study of the catalyst surface has shown infrared bands attributable to different chemisorbed peroxo-compounds, formates, ortho-formates and carboxylates that can inactivate the catalyst.

  6. High School and Employment Experiences of Vocational and Nonvocational Concentrators of the Idaho High School Graduating Class of 1983. (United States)

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; Stenberg, Laurie A.


    Five years after graduation, responses from 519 nonvocational and 212 vocational Idaho graduates and 317 of their employers found no differences in satisfaction with curriculum; 40% nonvocational and 33% vocational jobs not related to high school plans; 89% nonvocational, 80% vocational concentrators satisfied with jobs; and no significant…

  7. Niacin alters the ruminal microbial composition of cattle under high-concentrate condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Luo


    Full Text Available To understand the effects of niacin on the ruminal microbial ecology of cattle under high-concentrate diet condition, Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology was used. Three cattle with rumen cannula were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design trial. Three diets were fed to these cattle during 3 periods for 3 days, respectively: high-forage diet (HF; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 80:20, high-concentrate diet (HC; forage-to-concentrate ratio = 20:80, and HC supplemented with 800 mg/kg niacin (HCN. Ruminal pH was measured before feeding and every 2 h after initiating feeding. Ruminal fluid was sampled at the end of each period for microbial DNA extraction. Overall, our findings revealed that subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA was induced and the α-diversity of ruminal bacterial community decreased in the cattle of HC group. Adding niacin in HC could relieve the symptoms of SARA in the cattle but the ruminal pH value and the Shannon index of ruminal bacterial community of HCN group were still lower than those of HF group. Whatever the diet was, the ruminal bacterial community of cattle was dominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. High-concentrate diet significantly increased the abundance of Prevotella, and decreased the abundance of Paraprevotella, Sporobacter, Ruminococcus and Treponema than HF. Compared with HC, HCN had a trend to decrease the percentage of Prevotella, and to increase the abundance of Succiniclasticum, Acetivibrio and Treponema. Increasing concentrate ratio could decrease ruminal pH value, and change the ruminal microbial composition. Adding niacin in HC could increase the ruminal pH value, alter the ruminal microbial composition.

  8. 509-45-1: A C. annuum Pepper germplasm containing high concentrations of capsinoids (United States)

    This publication reports the public release of pepper (Capsicum annuum) germplasm ‘509-45-1’. Pepper germplasm 509-45-1 is a small-fruited, non-pungent single plant selection from PI 645509. Fruit of ‘509-45-1’ contain high concentrations of capsinoids [capsiate ((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl (E)-8...

  9. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover. (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong


    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  10. Low-Frequency Dielectric Dispersion of Highly Concentrated Spherical Particles in an Electrolyte Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪福生; 顾国庆; 陈康民


    We deal with the problem of calculating the effective dielectric dispersion and electrical conductivity of colloidaldispersions. A comparison of the theoretical calculation of first principles with the experimental data of Schwanshows that our technique proposed here is no longer restricted to dilute solutions and is very effective for studyingthe dielectric properties of colloids with highly concentrated charged spherical particles in an electrolyte solution.

  11. Simplified yet highly accurate enzyme kinetics for cases of low substrate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härdin, H.M.; Zagaris, A.; Krab, K.; Westerhoff, H.V.


    Much of enzyme kinetics builds on simplifications enabled by the quasi-steady-state approximation and is highly useful when the concentration of the enzyme is much lower than that of its substrate. However, in vivo, this condition is often violated. In the present study, we show that, under conditio

  12. Continuum modeling of hydrodynamic particle–particle interactions in microfluidic high-concentration suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Mikkel Wennemoes Hvitfeld; Bruus, Henrik


    A continuum model is established for numerical studies of hydrodynamic particle–particle interactions in microfluidic high-concentration suspensions. A suspension of microparticles placed in a microfluidic channel and influenced by an external force, is described by a continuous particle...

  13. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N.J.


    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  14. Decadal and seasonal trends of nutrient concentration and export from highly managed coastal catchments. (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Wan, Lei; Li, Yuncong; Doering, Peter


    Understanding anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentrations and export from highly managed catchments often necessitates trend detection using long-term monitoring data. This study analyzed the temporal trend (1979-2014) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and export from four adjacent coastal basins in south Florida where land and water resources are highly managed through an intricate canal network. The method of integrated seasonal-trend decomposition using LOESS (LOcally weighted regrESSion) was employed for trend detection. The results indicated that long-term trends in TN and TP concentrations (increasing/decreasing) varied with basins and nutrient species, reflecting the influence of basin specific land and water management practices. These long-term trends were intervened by short-term highs driven by high rainfall and discharges and lows associated with regional droughts. Seasonal variations in TP were more apparent than for TN. Nutrient export exhibited a chemostatic behavior for TN from all the basins, largely due to the biogenic nature of organic N associated with the ubiquity of organic materials in the managed canal network. Varying degrees of chemodynamic export was present for TP, reflecting complex biogeochemical responses to the legacy of long-term fertilization, low soil P holding capacity, and intensive stormwater management. The anthropogenic and hydro-climatic influences on nutrient concentration and export behavior had great implications in nutrient loading abatement strategies for aquatic ecosystem restoration of the downstream receiving waterbody. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Interculturalism in Italian Primary Schools with a High Concentration of Immigrant Students (United States)

    Catarci, Marco


    The present article focuses on quantitative research carried out on a statistically representative sample of Italian primary schools with a high concentration of immigrant students. Research data show that schools with a higher number of immigrant students offer a greater number and a wider variety of intercultural initiatives. The presence of…

  16. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.


    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic enzymes

  17. Transient Dynamics of Fluoride-Based High Concentration Erbium/Cerium Co-Doped Fiber Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. S-H. Yam; Y. Akasaka; Y. Kubota; R. Huang; D. L. Harris; J. Pan


    We designed and evaluated a fluoride-based high concentration erbium/ cerium co-doped fiber amplifier. It is suitable for Metropolitan Area Networks due to faster transient, flatter (unfiltered) gain, smaller footprint and gain excursion than its silica-based counterpart.

  18. Simplified yet highly accurate enzyme kinetics for cases of low substrate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härdin, H.M.; Zagaris, A.; Krab, K.; Westerhoff, H.V.


    Much of enzyme kinetics builds on simplifications enabled by the quasi-steady-state approximation and is highly useful when the concentration of the enzyme is much lower than that of its substrate. However, in vivo, this condition is often violated. In the present study, we show that, under

  19. Coherence and anticoherence resonance in high-concentration erbium-doped fiber laser


    Sergeyev, Sergey; O'Mahoney, Kieran; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T.


    We report an experimental study of low-frequency (~10 kHz) self-pulsing of the output intensity in a high- concentration erbium-doped fiber laser. We suggest that the fast intensity fluctuations caused by multimode and polarization instabilities play the role of an external noise source, leading to low-frequency auto-oscillations through a coherence resonance scenario.

  20. Low powdered activated carbon concentrations to improve MBR sludge filterability at high salinity and low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remy, M.J.J.; Temmink, B.G.; Brink, van den P.; Rulkens, W.H.


    Previous research has demonstrated that powdered activated carbon (PAC), when applied at very low dosages and long SRTs, reduces membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBRs). This effect was related to stronger flocs which are less sensitive to shear. Low temperature and high salt concentration ar

  1. Mapping the Life Satisfaction of Adolescents in Hong Kong Secondary Schools with High Ethnic Concentration (United States)

    Yuen, Yuet Mui Celeste; Lee, Moosung


    The present study aims to map the life satisfaction of adolescents from ethnic minority/immigrant backgrounds in schools with high concentrations of co-ethnic peers by comparing them with their mainstream counterparts in Hong Kong. The life satisfaction of 1,522 students was measured by the validated Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction…

  2. A review of passive thermal management of LED module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Sau, K.; Zeijl, H. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zhang, G.


    Recently, the high-brightness LEDs have begun to be designed for illumination application. The increased electrical currents used to drive LEDs lead to thermal issues. Thermal management for LED module is a key design parameter as high operation temperature directly affects their maximum light outpu

  3. Consolidated bioprocessing of highly concentrated Jerusalem artichoke tubers for simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation. (United States)

    Guo, Lihao; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Fengxian; Dy Ryu, Dewey; Bao, Jie


    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of Jerusalem artichoke tuber (Jat) for ethanol production is one of the most promising options for an alternate biofuel technology development. The technical barriers include the weak saccharolytic enzyme (inulinase) activity of the fermentation strain, and the well mixing of the high viscous fermentation slurry at the highly concentrated Jat loading. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was found to produce relatively large amount of inulinase for hydrolysis of inulin in Jat, and the helical ribbon stirring bioreactor used provided well mixing performance under the high Jat loading. Even a highly concentrated Jat loading up to 35% (w/w) in the helical ribbon bioreactor for CBP was allowed. The results obtained from this study have demonstrated a feasibility of developing a CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for ethanol production at a high yield 128.7 g/L and the theoretical yield 73.5%, respectively. This level of ethanol yield from Jat is relatively higher than others reported so far. The results of this study could provide a practical CBP process technology in the helical ribbon bioreactor for economically sustainable alternate biofuel production using highly concentrated inulin containing biomass feedstock such as Jat, at least 35%. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Concentration-Induced Association in a Protein System Caused by a Highly Directional Patch Attraction. (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Persson, Björn A; Lund, Mikael; Bergenholtz, Johan; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin


    Self-association of the protein lactoferrin is studied in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. Effective static structure factors have been shown to exhibit either a monotonic or a nonmonotonic dependence on protein concentration in the small wavevector limit, depending on salt concentration. The behavior correlates with a nonmonotonic dependence of the second virial coefficient on salt concentration, such that a maximum appears in the structure factor at a low protein concentration when the second virial coefficient is negative and close to a minimum. The results are interpreted in terms of an integral equation theory with explicit dimers, formulated by Wertheim, which provides a consistent framework able to explain the behavior in terms of a monomer-dimer equilibrium that appears because of a highly directional patch attraction. Short attraction ranges preclude trimer formation, which explains why the protein system behaves as if it were subject to a concentration-dependent isotropic protein-protein attraction. Superimposing an isotropic interaction, comprising screened Coulomb repulsion and van der Waals attraction, on the patch attraction allows for a semiquantitative modeling of the complete transition pathway from monomers in the dilute limit to monomer-dimer systems at somewhat higher protein concentrations.

  5. The molecular interaction of a protein in highly concentrated solution investigated by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ota, Chikashi; Noguchi, Shintaro; Tsumoto, Kouhei


    We used Raman spectroscopy to investigate the structure and interactions of lysozyme molecules in solution over a wide range of concentrations (2.5-300 mg ml(-1)). No changes in the amide-I band were observed as the concentration was increased, but the width of the Trp band at 1555 cm(-1) and the ratios of the intensities of the Tyr bands at 856 and 837 cm(-1), the Trp bands at 870 and 877 cm(-1), and the bands at 2940 (CH stretching) and 3420 cm(-1) (OH stretching) changed as the concentration was changed. These results reveal that although the distance between lysozyme molecules changed by more than an order of magnitude over the tested concentration range, the secondary structure of the protein did not change. The changes in the molecular interactions occurred in a stepwise process as the order of magnitude of the distance between molecules changed. These results suggest that Raman bands can be used as markers to investigate the behavior of high-concentration solutions of proteins and that the use of Raman spectroscopy will lead to progress in our understanding not only of the basic science of protein behavior under concentrated (i.e., crowded) conditions but also of practical processes involving proteins, such as in the field of biopharmaceuticals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rapid estimation of concentration of aromatic classes in middistillate fuels by high-performance liquid chromatography (United States)

    Otterson, D. A.; Seng, G. T.


    An high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to estimate four aromatic classes in middistillate fuels is presented. Average refractive indices are used in a correlation to obtain the concentrations of each of the aromatic classes from HPLC data. The aromatic class concentrations can be obtained in about 15 min when the concentration of the aromatic group is known. Seven fuels with a wide range of compositions were used to test the method. Relative errors in the concentration of the two major aromatic classes were not over 10 percent. Absolute errors of the minor classes were all less than 0.3 percent. The data show that errors in group-type analyses using sulfuric acid derived standards are greater for fuels containing high concentrations of polycyclic aromatics. Corrections are based on the change in refractive index of the aromatic fraction which can occur when sulfuric acid and the fuel react. These corrections improved both the precision and the accuracy of the group-type results.

  7. Effects of exposure to high concentrations of waterborne Tl on K and Tl concentrations in Chironomus riparius larvae. (United States)

    Belowitz, Ryan; Leonard, Erin M; O'Donnell, Michael J


    Thallium (Tl) is a non-essential metal which is released into the environment primarily as the result of anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel burning and smelting of ores. The ionic radius of monovalent Tl⁺ is similar to that of K⁺ and Tl⁺ may thus interfere with K⁺-dependent processes. We determined that the acute (48 h) lethal concentration where 50% of the organisms do not survive (LC₅₀) of Tl for 4th instar Chironomus riparius larvae was 723 μmol L⁻¹. Accumulation of Tl by the whole animal was saturable, with a maximum accumulation (Jmax) of 4637 μmol kg⁻¹ wet mass, and K(D) of 670 μmol Tl l⁻¹. Tl accumulation by the gut appeared saturable at the lowest four Tl concentrations, with a Jmax of 2560 μmol kg⁻¹ wet mass and a K(D) of 54.5 μmol Tl l⁻¹. The saturable accumulation at the gut may be indicative of a limited capacity for intracellular detoxification, such as storage in lysosomes or complexation with metal-binding proteins. Tl accumulation by the hemolymph was found to be linear and Tl concentrations in the hemolymph were ~75% of the exposure concentration at Tl exposures >26.9 μmol L⁻¹. There was not a significant decrease in whole animal, gut or hemolymph K during exposure to waterborne Tl at any of the concentrations tested (up to 1500 μmol L⁻¹). The avoidance of hypokalemia by C. riparius larvae may contribute to survival during acute waterborne exposures to Tl. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of prior acute exercise on circulating cytokine concentration responses to a high-fat meal. (United States)

    Brandauer, Josef; Landers-Ramos, Rian Q; Jenkins, Nathan T; Spangenburg, Espen E; Hagberg, James M; Prior, Steven J


    High-fat meal consumption alters the circulating cytokine profile and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases. A prior bout of exercise can ameliorate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal, but the interactive effects of exercise and high-fat meals on cytokines that mediate cardiometabolic risk are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of prior exercise on the responses of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, leptin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) to a high-fat meal. Ten healthy men were studied before and 4 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal either with or without ∼50 min of endurance exercise at 70% of VO2 max on the preceding day. In response to the high-fat meal, lower leptin and higher VEGF, bFGF, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were evident (P exercise (P exercise and the high-fat meal on sFlt-1 (P exercise and 218% with prior exercise (P exercise does not affect all high-fat meal-induced changes in circulating cytokines, but does affect fasting or postprandial concentrations of IL-6, leptin, and sFlt-1. These data may reflect a salutary effect of prior exercise on metabolic responses to a high-fat meal.

  9. Synthesis of all-silica zeolites from highly concentrated gels containing hexamethonium cations

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiaolong


    A pure and highly crystalline all-silica EU-1 zeolite has been obtained from the crystallization of gels containing very low water contents in the presence of hexamethonium cations. Decreasing the water content in the gel down to H 2O/Si < 1 inhibited the formation of ZSM-48, which is usually observed under more diluted standard crystallization conditions. Moreover, addition of NH 4F to the synthesis led to the formation of "half-fluorinated" ITQ-13 in which fluoride anions occupied only the center of D4R cages. In larger cages, the charge of the template was compensated by framework connectivity defects, clearly demonstrating once more the essential role of F - in the formation of D4R units. The formation of such hybrid (F,OH) is particularly interesting from a synthesis point of view, particularly for understanding the respective roles of fluoride and hydroxide anions in the crystallization process. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative analysis of high pressure sodium vapor lamps and mercury vapor lamp with the solid state (LED) in the public lighting systems; Analise comparativa das lampadas de vapor de sodio a alta pressao e de vapor de mercurio com a lampada a estado solido (LED) em sistemas de iluminacao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damato, J.C.; Bueno, J.E.; Astorga, O.A.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (LESIP/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Eficiencia Energetica em Sistemas de Iluminacao Publica; Ricciulli, D.L.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica


    The necessity of energy conservation in Brazilian electric sector, with the intention to diminish the resources of generation investments, has going to use of electric energy conservation programs, being most important PROCEL - a national program of electric conservation energy by ELETROBRAS, and inside this, a national program for public illumination and efficient traffic signaling - named 'Reluz'. This program looks for a more efficient implantation of public lighting systems, that requires the use of lamp technologies that present a greater value in a relation between lumen/watt relation and then beyond providing economy, due to low consumption of electric energy. Besides technologies that are appearing, the inclusion of LED lamps, which offers a great application potential, comes blunting as improvement alternative, being that the next public illumination parks will be able count on these lamps associates to the high-pressure sodium lamps and other types currently used. (author)

  11. Research on Fluid Motion and Fluid Jetting Dispensing in High Performance Manufacturing of LED%高性能LED封装点胶中流体运动与胶液喷射研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭先安; 单修洋; 沈平; 李涵雄


    LED照明具有高亮度、低能耗、体积小、环保等特点,因此被认为是未来替代传统照明方式的最佳光源。而对于高粘度、高频、微量、高一致性的LED荧光粉点胶,目前还存在无法出胶、点胶性能不稳定、胶滴一致性不好等问题。首先阐述了LED照明的应用特点以及当前照明封装产业的技术水平,随后结合将来主流的喷射式点胶技术,利用Flow-3D软件建立了LED喷射点胶过程的计算机仿真模型。随后得到了点胶过程中胶液在喷胶阀内的流动情况,在此基础上又探讨了各因素对胶液喷射的影响规律。其结果可以为后续的研究奠定基础,同时对具体的LED工业生产及封装装备制造也有一定的参考价值。%LED lighting has high brightness, low power consumption, small size, environmental protection and other features, so it is considered to be the best source of future lighting method. For high viscosity, high frequency, high consistency of the LED phosphor dispensing, there are still some problems.Such as can’t jet glue, glue performance is not stable, dots consistency is not good and so on.The paper first describes the characteristics of LED lighting and the lighting package industry technical level, and then combined with the future mainstream jet dispensing technology, establish a computer simulation model of the LED jet dispensing process by using Flow-3D software. Then obtain the flow situation of glue dispensing process in the spray valve, and on the basis of it, discuss the factors to the glue injection. The results can lay a foundation for related research, also has certain reference function to the concrete LED industrial production and packaging equipment manufacturing.

  12. High concentrations of Na+ and Cl- ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress. (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K


    Despite the fact that most plants accumulate both sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions to high concentration in their shoot tissues when grown in saline soils, most research on salt tolerance in annual plants has focused on the toxic effects of Na(+) accumulation. There have also been some recent concerns about the ability of hydroponic systems to predict the responses of plants to salinity in soil. To address these two issues, an experiment was conducted to compare the responses to Na(+) and to Cl(-) separately in comparison with the response to NaCl in a soil-based system using two varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba), that differed in salinity tolerance. The variety Nura is a salt-sensitive variety that accumulates Na(+) and Cl(-) to high concentrations while the line 1487/7 is salt tolerant which accumulates lower concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). Soils were prepared which were treated with Na(+) or Cl(-) by using a combination of different Na(+) salts and Cl(-) salts, respectively, or with NaCl. While this method produced Na(+)-dominant and Cl(-)-dominant soils, it unavoidably led to changes in the availability of other anions and cations, but tissue analysis of the plants did not indicate any nutritional deficiencies or toxicities other than those targeted by the salt treatments. The growth, water use, ionic composition, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. Both high Na(+) and high Cl(-) reduced growth of faba bean but plants were more sensitive to Cl(-) than to Na(+). The reductions in growth and photosynthesis were greater under NaCl stress and the effect was mainly additive. An important difference to previous hydroponic studies was that increasing the concentrations of NaCl in the soil increased the concentration of Cl(-) more than the concentration of Na(+). The data showed that salinity caused by high concentrations of NaCl can reduce growth by the accumulation of high concentrations of both Na(+) and Cl(-) simultaneously, but

  13. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs (United States)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi


    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  14. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand


    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  15. Design and Optimization of Fresnel Lens for High Concentration Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jing


    Full Text Available A practical optimization design is proposed, in which the solar direct light spectrum and multijunction cell response range are taken into account in combination, particularly for the Fresnel concentrators with a high concentration and a small aspect ratio. In addition, the change of refractive index due to temperature variation in outdoor operation conditions is also considered in the design stage. The calculation results show that this novel Fresnel lens achieves an enhancement of energy efficiency of about 10% compared with conventional Fresnel lens for a given solar spectrum, solar cell response, and corrected sunshine hours of different ambient temperature intervals.

  16. Optimal Dearsenification Parameters of Gold Sulfide Concentrate with a High As Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozhong LAN; Rose W. Smith


    The gold sulfide concentrate with a high As content in Liangshan District, Sichuan Province, China, is a potentially important resource. This paper describes experiments of dearsenification of gold concentrate in a weakly reduced atmosphere in a rotary pipe furnace. The results showed that the optimal parameters were a temperature range of 650~700℃, 15%~16% CO2 of gas and a reaction time of 30~40 min. The removal rate of arsenic and sulfur was over 95% and 25%~28%, respectively. With further oxidization and roasting, residue sulfur in the roasted materials was dropped to below 4%, and the cyanide leaching recovery of gold was over 92%.

  17. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang


    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  18. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A


    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  19. Hyperproduction of Alcohol Using Yeast Fermentation in Highly Concentrated Molasses Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾燕松; 周政懋; 乔敏; 周全; 陈国强


    Cane molasses, a major byproduct in the sugar industry, is generally consumed for alcohol production. However, the alcohol production process needs to overcome three major challenges including increasing the productivity of alcohol fermentation, lowering the energy consumption for alcohol conversion and decreasing the environmental pollution caused by the alcoholic yeast fermentation process. To meet these challenges, a screening process was conducted using 13 high osmotic tolerant yeast strains. Among the strains, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 1912 was found to produce high alcohol concentrations during fermentation with high starting molasses concentrations such as 50% (W/V) molasses. In the test, 13.6% (V/V) alcohol was produced in the molasses fermentation broth after 72 h of incubation with an initial Yunnan molasses concentration of 50% in a 5 L fermentor. 15.0% (V/V) alcohol was obtained after 48 h of fermentation in shaking flasks containing 30% (W/V) initial total sugar concentration in diluted molasses. The performance of this strain in the shaking flasks was successfully scaled up to a 5-L fermentor vessel. Strain 1912 seems to be a better alcohol producer than the currently used alcohol production strain 2. 1190.

  20. Aggregation of normal and sickle hemoglobin in high concentration phosphate buffer. (United States)

    Chen, Kejing; Ballas, Samir K; Hantgan, Roy R; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B


    Sickle cell disease is caused by a mutant form of hemoglobin, hemoglobin S, that polymerizes under hypoxic conditions. The extent and mechanism of polymerization are thus the subject of many studies of the pathophysiology of the disease and potential treatment strategies. To facilitate such studies, a model system using high concentration phosphate buffer (1.5 M-1.8 M) has been developed. To properly interpret results from studies using this model it is important to understand the similarities and differences in hemoglobin S polymerization in the model compared to polymerization under physiological conditions. In this article, we show that hemoglobin S and normal adult hemoglobin, hemoglobin A, aggregate in high concentration phosphate buffer even when the concentration of hemoglobin is below the solubility defined for polymerization. This phenomenon was not observed using 0.05 M phosphate buffer or in another model system we studied that uses dextran to enhance polymerization. We have used static light scattering, dynamic light scattering, and differential interference contrast microscopy to confirm aggregation of deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobins below their solubility and have shown that this aggregation is not observable using turbidity measurements, a common technique for assessing polymerization. We have also shown that the aggregation increases with increasing temperature in the range of 15 degrees -37 degrees C and that it increases as the concentration of phosphate increases. These studies contribute to the working knowledge of how to properly apply studies of hemoglobin S polymerization that are conducted using the high phosphate model.

  1. Quality evaluation of moluodan concentrated pill using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics. (United States)

    Tao, Lingyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong


    In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol/L phosphate solution and acetonitrile with a 1 mL/min eluent velocity, under a detection temperature of 30°C and a UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. After the methodology validation, 16 batches of Moluodan Concentrated Pill were analyzed by this high-performance liquid chromatography method and both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results were achieved by similarity analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of these three chemometrics were in good agreement and all indicated that batch 10 and batch 16 showed significant differences with the other 14 batches. This suggested that the developed high-performance liquid chromatography method could be applied in the quality evaluation of Moluodan Concentrated Pill.

  2. High concentrations of H2O2 make aerobic glycolysis energetically more favourable than cellular respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Molavian


    Full Text Available Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over eight decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2 above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP in response to the production of reactive oxygen species H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources. This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  3. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)


    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  4. The Effects of High Concentrations of Vitamin C on Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeon Park


    Full Text Available The effect of high doses of vitamin C for the treatment of cancer has been controversial. Our previous studies, and studies by others, have reported that vitamin C at concentrations of 0.25–1.0 mM induced a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML cell lines and in leukemic cells from peripheral blood specimens obtained from patients with AML. Treatment of cells with high doses of vitamin C resulted in an immediate increase in intracellular total glutathione content and glutathione-S transferase activity that was accompanied by the uptake of cysteine. These results suggest a new role for high concentrations of vitamin C in modulation of intracellular sulfur containing compounds, such as glutathione and cysteine. This review, discussing biochemical pharmacologic studies, including pharmacogenomic and pharmacoproteomic studies, presents the different pharmacological effects of vitamin C currently under investigation.

  5. Influence of a High-Pressure Comminution Technology on Concentrate Yields in Copper Ore Flotation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saramak D.


    Full Text Available The article concerns the issues of flotation process effectiveness in relationship to the operating conditions of a high-pressure comminution process course. Experimental programme covering a flotation laboratory batch tests was a verification technique of a high-pressure crushing operations course. The most favorable values of flotation concentrate weight recoveries were obtained for the pressing force 6 kN and 4% of the feed moisture. It was also determined the model of the concentrate weight recovery as a function of pressing force in the press and feed moisture content. This model was the basis for the optimization of effects of copper ore flotation processes preceded in high-pressure crushing operation in roller presses.

  6. Fabrication of High Contrast Gratings for the Spectrum Splitting Dispersive Element in a Concentrated Photovoltaic System. (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wu, Wei


    High contrast gratings are designed and fabricated and its application is proposed in a parallel spectrum splitting dispersive element that can improve the solar conversion efficiency of a concentrated photovoltaic system. The proposed system will also lower the solar cell cost in the concentrated photovoltaic system by replacing the expensive tandem solar cells with the cost-effective single junction solar cells. The structures and the parameters of high contrast gratings for the dispersive elements were numerically optimized. The large-area fabrication of high contrast gratings was experimentally demonstrated using nanoimprint lithography and dry etching. The quality of grating material and the performance of the fabricated device were both experimentally characterized. By analyzing the measurement results, the possible side effects from the fabrication processes are discussed and several methods that have the potential to improve the fabrication processes are proposed, which can help to increase the optical efficiency of the fabricated devices.

  7. Spectral and Concentration Sensitivity of Multijunction Solar Cells at High Temperature: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Steiner, Myles A.; Perl, Emmett E.; Simon, John


    We model the performance of two-junction solar cells at very high temperatures of ~400 degrees C and beyond for applications such as hybrid PV/solar-thermal power production, and identify areas in which the design and performance characteristics behave significantly differently than at more conventional near-room-temperature operating conditions. We show that high-temperature operation reduces the sensitivity of the cell efficiency to spectral content, but increases the sensitivity to concentration, both of which have implications for energy yield in terrestrial PV applications. For other high-temperature applications such as near-sun space missions, our findings indicate that concentration may be a useful tool to enhance cell efficiency.

  8. Microstructural Changes in High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded or Toasted Milk Protein Concentrate. (United States)

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P


    Milk protein concentrates with more than 80% protein (that is, MPC80) are underutilized as the primary protein source in high-protein nutrition bars as they impart crumbliness and cause hardening during storage. High-protein nutrition bar texture changes are often associated with internal protein aggregations and macronutrient phase separation. These changes were investigated in model high-protein nutrition bars formulated with MPC80 and physically modified MPC80s. High-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80s hardened slower than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. Extruded MPC80 had reduced free sulfhydryl group exposure, whereas measurable increases were seen in the toasted MPC80. High-protein nutrition bar textural performance may be related to the number of exposed free sulfhydryl groups in MPC80. Protein aggregations resulting from ingredient modification and high-protein nutrition bar storage were studied with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disulfide-based protein aggregations and changes in free sulfhydryl concentration were not consistently relatable to high-protein nutrition bar texture change. However, the high-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were less prone to phase separations, as depicted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and underwent less texture change during storage than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80.

  9. Adaptation and acclimatization to formaldehyde in methylotrophs capable of high-concentration formaldehyde detoxification. (United States)

    Chongcharoen, Rotsaman; Smith, Thomas J; Flint, Kenneth P; Dalton, Howard


    Formaldehyde is a highly toxic chemical common in industrial effluents, and it is also an intermediate in bacterial metabolism of one-carbon growth substrates, although its role as a bacterial growth substrate per se has not been extensively reported. This study investigated two highly formaldehyde-resistant formaldehyde utilizers, strains BIP and ROS1; the former strain has been used for industrial remediation of formaldehyde-containing effluents. The two strains were shown by means of 16S rRNA characterization to be closely related members of the genus Methylobacterium. Both strains were able to use formaldehyde, methanol and a range of multicarbon compounds as their principal growth substrate. Growth on formaldehyde was possible up to a concentration of at least 58 mM, and survival at up to 100 mM was possible after stepwise acclimatization by growth at increasing concentrations of formaldehyde. At such high concentrations of formaldehyde, the cultures underwent a period of formaldehyde removal without growth before the formaldehyde concentration fell below 60 mM, and growth could resume. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and MS characterization of formaldehyde-induced proteins in strain BIP revealed that the pathways of formaldehyde metabolism, and adaptations to methylotrophic growth, were very similar to those seen in the well-characterized methanol-utilizing methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Thus, it appears that many of the changes in protein expression that allow strain BIP to grow using high formaldehyde concentrations are associated with expression of the same enzymes used by M. extorquens AM1 to process formaldehyde as a metabolic intermediate during growth on methanol.

  10. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training. (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W


    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  11. Arsenic species in drinking water wells in the USA with high arsenic concentrations. (United States)

    Sorg, Thomas J; Chen, Abraham S C; Wang, Lili


    Arsenic exists in ground water as oxyanions having two oxidation states, As(III) and As(V), and its concentrations vary widely and regionally across the United States (USA). Because of the difference in toxicity and removability of As(III) and As(V), arsenic speciation is important in the selection and design of an arsenic treatment systems. Identifying the arsenic species is also helpful in explaining and understanding the behavior and characteristics of arsenic in the environment. Although laboratory methods exist for speciating arsenic in water samples, the lack of a universal preservation method has led to the predominant use of field separation methods that are somewhat complex and costly. Thus, very few studies have incorporated arsenic speciation. A U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA) arsenic treatment research program provided a unique opportunity to speciate the naturally occurring arsenic in 65 well waters scattered across the USA with many of them being speciated monthly for up to three years. Speciation test data showed that 31 wells had predominantly As(V), 29 had predominantly As(III) and five had a mixture of both. A general pattern was found where As(III) was the dominant species in midwest ground waters where anoxic conditions and elevated iron concentrations prevailed and the well waters in the east, west and farwest had either As(III) or As(V) as the dominant species. The monthly (12-36) speciation tests results at many of these sites also found no major changes in arsenic species over time.

  12. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals. (United States)

    Peterson, Michael G; Peterson, Sarah H; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P


    Long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize POP compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual POP compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict POP concentrations in one tissue from another tissue remains rare. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) forage on mesopelagic fish and squid for months at a time in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, interspersed with two periods of fasting on land, which results in dramatic seasonal fluctuations in body condition. Using northern elephant seals, we examined commonly studied tissues in mammalian toxicology to describe relationships and determine predictive equations among tissues for a suite of POP compounds, including ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes, and ΣPBDEs. We collected paired blubber (inner and outer) and blood serum samples from adult female and male seals in 2012 and 2013 at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California, USA). For females (N = 24), we sampled the same seals before (late in molting fast) and after (early in breeding fast) their approximately seven month foraging trip. For males, we sampled different seals before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) their approximately four month foraging trip. We observed strong relationships among tissues for many, but not all compounds. Serum POP concentrations were strong predictors of inner blubber POP concentrations for both females and males, while serum was a more consistent predictor of outer blubber for males than females. The ability to estimate POP blubber concentrations from serum, or vice versa, has the potential to enhance toxicological assessment and physiological modeling. Furthermore, predictive equations may illuminate commonalities or

  13. Lidar detection of high concentrations of ozone and aerosol transported from northeastern Asia over Saga, Japan (United States)

    Uchino, Osamu; Sakai, Tetsu; Izumi, Toshiharu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Morino, Isamu; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Deushi, Makoto; Yumimoto, Keiya; Maki, Takashi; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Akaho, Taiga; Okumura, Hiroshi; Arai, Kohei; Nakatsuru, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Yokota, Tatsuya


    To validate products of the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), we observed vertical profiles of aerosols, thin cirrus clouds, and tropospheric ozone with a mobile-lidar system that consisted of a two-wavelength (532 and 1064 nm) polarization lidar and a tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL). We used these lidars to make continuous measurements over Saga (33.24° N, 130.29° E) during 20-31 March 2015. High ozone and high aerosol concentrations were observed almost simultaneously in the altitude range 0.5-1.5 km from 03:00 to 20:00 Japan Standard Time (JST) on 22 March 2015. The maximum ozone volume mixing ratio was ˜ 110 ppbv. The maxima of the aerosol extinction coefficient and optical depth at 532 nm were 1.2 km-1 and 2.1, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis and the simulations by the Model of Aerosol Species IN the Global AtmospheRe (MASINGAR) mk-2 and the Meteorological Research Institute Chemistry-Climate Model, version 2 (MRI-CCM2), indicated that mineral dust particles from the Gobi Desert and an air mass with high ozone and aerosol (mainly sulfate) concentrations that originated from the North China Plain could have been transported over the measurement site within about 2 days. These high ozone and aerosol concentrations impacted surface air quality substantially in the afternoon of 22 March 2015. After some modifications of its physical and chemical parameters, MRI-CCM2 approximately reproduced the high ozone volume mixing ratio. MASINGAR mk-2 successfully predicted high aerosol concentrations, but the predicted peak aerosol optical thickness was about one-third of the observed value.

  14. Material and Optical Design Rules for High Performance Luminescent Solar Concentrators (United States)

    Bronstein, Noah Dylan

    This dissertation will highlight a path to achieve high photovoltaic conversion efficiency in luminescent solar concentrators, devices which absorb sunlight with a luminescent dye and then re-emit it into a waveguide where it is ultimately collected by a photovoltaic cell. Luminescent concentrators have been studied for more than three decades as potential low-cost but not high efficiency photovoltaics. Astute application of the blackbody radiation law indicates that photonic design is necessary to achieve high efficiency: a reflective filter must be used to trap luminescence at all angles while allowing higher energy photons to pass through. In addition, recent advances in the synthesis of colloidal nanomaterials have created the possibility for lumophores with broad absorption spectra, narrow-bandwidth emission, high luminescence quantum yield, tunable Stokes shifts and tunable Stokes ratios. Together, these factors allow luminescent solar concentrators to achieve the optical characteristics necessary for high efficiency. We have fabricated and tested the first generation of these devices. Our experiments demonstrate that the application of carefully matched photonic mirrors and luminescent quantum dots can allow luminescent concentration factors to reach record values while maintaining high photon collection efficiency. Finally, the photonic mirror dramatically mitigates the negative impact of scattering in the waveguide, allowing efficient photon collection over distances much longer than the scattering length of the waveguide. After demonstrating the possibility for high performance, we theoretically explore the efficacy of luminescent concentrators with dielectric reflectors as the high-bandgap top-junctions in two-junction devices. Simple thermodynamic calculations indicate that this approach can be nearly as good as a traditional vertically stacked tandem. The major barriers to such a device are the optical design of narrow-bandwidth, angle

  15. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu


    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  16. Study of dopant concentrations on thermal induced mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Rumao; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin


    Dependence of mode instabilities (MI) on ytterbium dopant concentrations in high power fiber amplifiers has been investigated. It is theoretically shown that, by only varying the fiber length to maintain the same total small-signal pump absorption, the MI threshold is independent of dopant concentration. MI thresholds of gain fibers with ytterbium dopant concentration of 5.93X10^25/m3 and 1.02X10^26/m3 have been measured, which exhibit similar thresholds and agree with theoretical results. The result indicates that heavy doping of active fiber can be adopted to suppress nonlinear effects without decreasing MI threshold, which provides a method of maximizing the power output of fiber laser, taking into account the stimulated Brillouin scattering, stimulated Raman Scattering, and MI thresholds simultaneously.

  17. Determination of Ge content in high concentration Ge-doped Czochralski Si single crystals by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhongwei; ZHANG Weilian; NIU Xinhuan


    SiGe single crystals with different Ge concentrations were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy at room temperature (RT) and 10 K. A new peak appears at the wave number of 710 cm-1 and the spectroscopy becomes clearer with an increase in Ge content. The absorption strength and wave sharp of the 710 cm-1 peak are independent of temperature. The relation of the absorption coefficient amax, the band width of half maximum (BWHM) W1/2 of the 710 cm-1 peak, and the Ge concentration is determined with the Ge content obtained by SEM-EDX. The conversion factor is k = 1.211 at 10 K. Therefore, the Ge content in high concentration Ge doped CZ-Si single crystals can be determined by FTIR.

  18. Thermodynamically consistent description of the hydrodynamics of free surfaces covered by insoluble surfactants of high concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Thiele, Uwe; Plapp, Mathis


    In this paper we propose several models that describe the dynamics of liquid films which are covered by a high concentration layer of insoluble surfactant. First, we briefly review the 'classical' hydrodynamic form of the coupled evolution equations for the film height and surfactant concentration that are well established for small concentrations. Then we re-formulate the basic model as a gradient dynamics based on an underlying free energy functional that accounts for wettability and capillarity. Based on this re-formulation in the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we propose extensions of the basic hydrodynamic model that account for (i) nonlinear equations of state, (ii) surfactant-dependent wettability, (iii) surfactant phase transitions, and (iv) substrate-mediated condensation. In passing, we discuss important differences to most of the models found in the literature.

  19. Biodegradation of high concentrations of phenol by baker’s yeast in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor


    Full Text Available Background: Phenol, as a pure substance, is used in many fields because of its disinfectant, germicidal, local anesthetic, and peptizing properties. Aqueous solutions of phenol are produced as waste in industries and discharged into the environment. Therefore, elevated concentrations of phenol may be found in air or water because of industrial discharge or the use of phenolic products. Method: The strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in this project were natural strains previously purchased from Razavy company. They were grown at 30°C on Petri plates containing yeast extract glucose (YGC and then purified by being spread onto new plates, and isolated colonies were obtained. These colonies provided the basis of selection. Prepared strains were applied in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs as first seed. The experiment conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. After the determined runs were performed using Design-Expert software, data were analyzed using mentioned software as well. Results: This study evaluated the capability of baker’s yeast to remove phenol in high concentrations. The tested strains showed excellent tolerance to phenol toxicity at concentrations up to 6100 mg/L. Study of the batch degradation process showed that the phenol removal rate could exceed 99.9% in 24 hours at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The results showed catechol is the first intermediate product of phenol degradation. In survey results of the Design–Expert software, R2 and Adeq precision were 0.97 and 25.65, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ASBR performs robustly under variable influent concentrations of inhibitory compounds. The high removal performance despite the high phenol concentration may be a result of reactor operating strategies. Based on the progressive increase of inlet phenol concentration, allowing for an enhanced biomass acclimation in a short time, results at the microbiological levels

  20. Generation of high-titer viral preparations by concentration using successive rounds of ultracentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Christine V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral vectors provide a method of stably introducing exogenous DNA into cells that are not easily transfectable allowing for the ectopic expression or silencing of genes for therapeutic or experimental purposes. However, some cell types, in particular bone marrow cells, dendritic cells and neurons are difficult to transduce with viral vectors. Successful transduction of such cells requires preparation of highly concentrated viral stocks, which permit a high virus concentration and multiplicity of infection (MOI during transduction. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G envelope protein is common practice for both lentiviral and retroviral vectors. The VSV-G glycoprotein adds physical stability to retroviral particles, allowing concentration of virus by high-speed ultracentrifugation. Here we describe a method report for concentration of virus from large volumes of culture supernatant by means of successive rounds of ultracentrifugation into the same ultracentrifuge tube. Method Stable retrovirus producer cell lines were generated and large volumes of virus-containing supernatant were produced. We then tested the transduction ability of virus following varying rounds of concentration by ultra-centrifugation. In a second series of experiments lentivirus-containing supernatant was produced by transient transfection of 297T/17 cells and again we tested the transduction ability of virus following multiple rounds of ultra-centrifugation. Results We report being able to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus for as many as four rounds of ultracentrifugation while observing an additive increase in viral titer. Even after four rounds of ultracentrifugation we did not reach a plateau in viral titer relative to viral supernatant concentrated to indicate that we had reached the maximum tolerated centrifugation time, implying that it may be possible to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus even further should it be necessary

  1. The effects of high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration of Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Yuan; YAO Meng-hao; LI Yuan; WEN Yu-jin; ZHANG Xiang; CHEN De-hua


    Higher bol worm survival rates were detected after high temperature presented during square period in Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high temperature level on the Bt efifcacy of two different types of Bt cotton cultivars at squaring stage. During the 2011 to 2013 cotton growth seasons, high temperature treatments ranged from 34 to 44°C in climate chambers, and ifeld experiments under high temperature weather with various temperature levels were conducted to investigate the effects of the high temperature level on square Bt protein concentration and nitrogen metabolism. The climate chamber experiments showed that the square insecticidal protein contents reduced after 24 h elevated temperature treatments for both cultivars, whereas signiifcant declines of the square insecticidal protein contents were detected at temperature >38°C, and only slightly numerical reductions were observed when temperature below 38°C. Similar high temperature responses were also observed at the two ifeld experimental sites in 2013. Correspondingly, high temperature below 38°C seems have little effect on the square amino acid concentrations, soluble protein contents, glutam-ic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities as wel as protease and peptidase activities; however, when the temperature was above 38°C, reduced soluble protein contents, enhanced amino acid con-centrations, decreased GPT and GOT activities, bolstered protease and peptidase activities in square were detected. In general, the higher the temperature is (>38°C), the larger the changes for the above compound contents and key enzymes activities of the square protein cycle. The ifndings indicated that the unstable insect resistance of the square was related to high temperature level during square stage.

  2. Gulf of Bothnia receives high concentrations of potentially toxic metals from acid sulphate soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, M.; Aastroem, M. [Kalmar Univ., Kalmar (Sweden)


    An estimated 460000 ha of acid sulphate soil (AS soil) occur within the river catchments bordering the Gulf of Bothnia in Finland and Sweden. This soil type exists because extensive areas of sulphide-bearing Holocene sediments have been drained for agricultural purposes, resulting in oxidation of metal sulphides to sulphuric acid and the concomitant formation of these acidic, environmentally-unfriendly soils. The aim of this study was to compare median values of metal concentrations in rivers discharging into the Gulf of Bothnia and obtain a uniform picture of to what extent these rivers are affected by AS-soil leaching. Dissolved element concentrations for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were determined in 47 rivers (catchment size > 500 km2) discharging into Gulf of Bothnia (a few into Gulf of Finland) along the coastline of Finland and Sweden. Water chemistry data was obtained from the Environmental Information System (HERTTA) database at the Finnish Environment Institute, the publicly available online database at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Environmental Assessment, and from a previous study of the authors. One area in central-western Finland proved to have highly elevated concentrations of Cd, Ni and Zn, and they all occurred with a similar spatial pattern and had the highest concentrations in rivers Teuvanjoki and Maalahdenjoki. This is caused by AS-soil leaching. The metalloid As and the metals Cr, Fe, Pb did not display this pattern and are, therefore, in line with previous studies, not leached abundantly from the AS soils, although they overall occur at somewhat higher concentrations in the Finnish as compared with those in the Swedish rivers. Thorough planning of land-use operations (e.g. land reclamation through ditching, dredging of rivers and estuaries, etc.) in AS-soil landscapes should be necessary, which is currently not the case, to reduce the high

  3. Impact of High Concentration Solutions on Hydraulic Properties of Geosynthetic Clay Liner Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of landfill high concentration solutions erosion on geosynthetic clay liner (GCL materials permeability. The permeation tests on the GCL, submerged using different kinds of solutions with different concentrations, were carried out systematically by taking these chemical solutions as permeant liquids. Based on seasonal variations of ion concentrations in Chenjiachong landfill leachate (Wuhan Province, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, and KCl were selected as chemical attack solutions to carry out experimental investigations under three concentrations (50 mM, 100 mM, 200 mM and soak times (5, 10, and 20 days. The variation law of the GCL hydraulic conductivity under different operating conditions was analyzed. The relationship between GCL hydraulic conductivity, chemical solutions categories, concentrations, and soak times were further discussed. The GCL hydraulic conductivity, when soaked and permeated with high concentration chemical solutions, increases several times or exceeds two orders of magnitude, as compared with the permeation test under normal conditions that used water as the permeant liquid. This reveals that GCL is very susceptible to chemical attack. For four chemical solutions, the chemical attack effect on GCL hydraulic conductivity is CaCl2 > MgCl2 > KCl > NaCl. The impact of soak times on GCL hydraulic conductivity is the cooperative contribution of the liner chemical attack reaction and hydration swelling. A longer soak time results in a more advantageous hydration swelling effect. The chemical attack reaction restrains the hydration swelling of the GCL. Moreover, the GCL hydraulic conductivity exponentially decreases with the increased amplitude of thickness.

  4. Calculation of multicomponent ionic diffusion from zero to high concentration: II. Inclusion of associated ion species (United States)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Weare, John H.


    This paper presents a theoretical model of multicomponent ionic diffusion which is valid to high concentration for systems which show ion association. The development is completely general for species which do not react with the solvent. It is demonstrated that the Onsager phenomenological coefficients for associated ion species can be unambiguously determined only in solutions where the concentration of these species can be independently measured. In all other instances, only combinations of the Onsager coefficients for the bare ions and the ion pairs can be experimentally determined. The results of our formulations are contrasted with those of more simplified models for systems containing Na 2SO 4 and MgSO 4, as well as for multicomponent natural seawater. The differences between our model and simplified models are significant, especially at high concentration. Inconsistencies which may develop with the use of the simplified approaches are demonstrated. Our approach requires considerable data which are not available at temperatures other than 25°C. Therefore, other approaches which are based only on data at infinite dilution are of great interest. We show here that, if chemical potential derivatives are included in the infinite dilution model of Nernst and Hartley which uses only infinite dilution mobilities, the model can be extended to slightly concentrated solutions. This extended Nernst-Hartley model gives good agreement with all of the existing experimental mutual diffusion coefficient data at concentrations below about 0.2 M in the six component system Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO 4-H 2O. This may be the most reliable way to extend infinite dilution data into more concentrated regions. In the systems we have studied, the inclusion of ion-association species for weakly interacting species does not appear to provide significant improvement over our generalized Nernst-Hartley model.

  5. 负偏压法测试大电压LED器件热阻%Measuring thermal resistance for high voltage LED device and module by applying negative bias voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国龙; 雷瑞瑞; 陈焕庭; 陈莹亮; 吕毅军; 高玉琳; 朱丽虹; 陈忠


    热阻是衡量LED器件散热性能的重要热学参数.采用外接负偏压恒压源方法,分别使用T3Ster/Teraled热光参数测试仪和NC2991热阻仪对正向电压超过仪器量程的同一型号功率型LED的热阻进行测试,并对两种测试结果的误差进行比较分析讨论.该方法拓展了热阻仪测量范围,使正向电压大于5V的LED器件/模块的热阻测试成为可能.%Thermal resistance is a key parameter on rating the heat dissipating capability of LEDs, so its measurement becomes particularly essential. A thermal resistance measurement method for high voltage LED device and module is provided here, which can measure LED sample with forward voltage larger than 5V by applying negative bias voltage to the T3Ster/Teraled and the NC2991 thermal resistance testers respectively. The results are further compared and discussed and prove to effectively expand the testing range of thermal resistance tester.

  6. 外部电压源法测试大电压LED器件/模块热阻%Measuring thermal resistance for high voltage LED device and module by applying ex ternal voltage source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国龙; 朱丽虹; 郭自泉; 张纪红; 吕毅军; 高玉琳; 陈忠


    热阻是衡量LED器件/模块散热性能的重要参数。针对大电压LED器件/模块,实验采用 T3Ster/T eraled热光参数测试仪,利用外部电压源供电方法,实现了对超过仪器量程的大电压L ED器件的热阻测试。该方法拓展了热阻测试仪的常规测量范围,使正向电压大于15 V的L ED器件/模块的热阻测试成为可能。%Thermal resistance is a key parameter for evaluating thermal performance of LED device/module . Reliable measurement of thermal resistance becomes extremely important .Aiming at that the high voltage LED device/module has been applied popularly in lighting ,an improved thermal resistance measurement method for LED device/module with forward voltage larger than 15V is achieved by applying external voltage source to the T3Ster/Teraled .The result shows that the external voltage source method can effectively expand the testing range of thermal resistance tester .

  7. Thermal stability of high concentration lysozyme across varying pH: A Fourier Transform Infrared study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyadevi Venkataramani


    Full Text Available Aim: The current work is aimed at understanding the effect of pH on the thermal stability of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL at high concentration (200 mg/mL. Materials and Methods: Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy with modified hardware and software to overcome some of the traditional challenges like water subtraction, sample evaporation, proper purging etc., are used in this study. Results: HEWL was subjected to thermal stress at pH 3.0-7.0 between 25°C and 95°C and monitored by FTIR spectroscopy. Calculated T m values showed that the enzyme exhibited maximum thermal stability at pH 5.0. Second derivative plots constructed in the amide I region suggested that at pH 5.0 the enzyme possessed higher amount of α-helix and lower amount of aggregates, when compared to other pHs. Conclusions: Considering the fact that HEWL has attractive applications in various industries and being processed under different experimental conditions including high temperatures, our work is able to reveal the reason behind the pH dependent thermal stability of HEWL at high concentration, when subjected to heat denaturation. In future, studies should aim at using various excipients that may help to increase the stability and activity of the enzyme at this high concentration.

  8. Carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla grown under high atmospheric CO2 concentrations: A proteomics perspective. (United States)

    Santos, Bruna Marques Dos; Balbuena, Tiago Santana


    Photosynthetic organisms may be drastically affected by the future climate projections of a considerable increase in CO2 concentrations. Growth under a high concentration of CO2 could stimulate carbon assimilation-especially in C3-type plants. We used a proteomics approach to test the hypothesis of an increase in the abundance of the enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in Eucalyptus urophylla plants grown under conditions of high atmospheric CO2. Our strategy allowed the profiling of all Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes and associated protein species. Among the 816 isolated proteins, those involved in carbon fixation were found to be the most abundant ones. An increase in the abundance of six key enzymes out of the eleven core enzymes involved in carbon fixation was detected in plants grown at a high CO2 concentration. Proteome changes were corroborated by the detection of a decrease in the stomatal aperture and in the vascular bundle area in Eucalyptus urophylla plantlets grown in an environment of high atmospheric CO2. Our proteomics approach indicates a positive metabolic response regarding carbon fixation in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. The slight but significant increase in the abundance of the Calvin enzymes suggests that stomatal closure did not prevent an increase in the carbon assimilation rates.

  9. Lower Salinomycin Concentration Increases Apoptotic Detachment in High-Density Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungpil Yoon


    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal sensitization mechanism in cancer. We tested whether Sal reduced proliferation in a high-density population by counting attached cell numbers after Sal treatment. Sal reduced proliferation in high-density cell populations. Longer exposure to Sal further reduced proliferation. Sal concentrations of 0.1 and 5 μM had similar sensitization effects, suggesting that Sal toxicity was minimal with longer exposure to a high-density cell population. The results suggest that Sal can be applied at a relatively low concentration for a longer time to overcome drug-resistant solid tumors. The 0.5 μM Sal treatment resulted in fewer attached cells than that of the 5 μM Sal treatment with a longer exposure. The lower Sal concentration mainly increased the number of easily detachable cells on the surface. In particular, 0.5 μM Sal increased cellular detachment of newly produced daughter cells. The easily-detachable cells were undergoing apoptosis. It seems that the 0.5 μM Sal treatment also increased cellular toxicity. These novel findings may contribute to the development of Sal-based therapy for patients with drug-resistant cancer or a high-density solid tumor.

  10. Anaerobic biotransformation of high concentrations of chloroform by an enrichment culture and two bacterial isolates. (United States)

    Shan, Huifeng; Kurtz, Harry D; Mykytczuk, Nadia; Trevors, Jack T; Freedman, David L


    A fermentative enrichment culture (designated DHM-1) was developed that is capable of cometabolically biotransforming high concentrations of chloroform (CF) to nontoxic end products. Two Pantoea spp. were isolated from DHM-1 that also possess this dechlorination capability. Following acclimation to increasing levels of CF, corn syrup-grown DHM-1 was able to transform over 500 mg/liter CF in the presence of vitamin B(12) (approximately 3% of CF on a molar basis) at a rate as high as 22 mg/liter/day in a mineral salts medium. CO, CO(2), and organic acids were the predominant biodegradation products, suggesting that hydrolytic reactions predominate during CF transformation. DHM-1 was capable of growing on corn syrup in the presence of high concentrations of CF (as may be present near contaminant source zones in groundwater), which makes it a promising culture for bioaugmentation. Strains DHM-1B and DHM-1T transform CF at rates similar to that of the DHM-1 enrichment culture. The ability of these strains to grow in the presence of high concentrations of CF appears to be related to alteration of membrane fluidity or homeoviscous and homeophasic adaptation.

  11. Phosphors and PDP, LED Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Phosphors for PDP has good prospect for the largepotential of PDP industry. LED technology brings new marketto be developed. Developing phosphors for white LED withhigh efficiency and low light attenuation is an urgent work todo. Application of phosphors in color LED is in initial stage.1. Good Prospect of Phosphors for PDPColor PDP is widely used today. Three-prime-colorphosphor excited by VUV is the key material for color PDP.This makes research on three-prime-color phosphor for colorPDP important. Follow...

  12. Effects of High Ammonium Concentration on Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Lettuce Plants with Solution Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A nutrition solution experiment was conducted over two months to investigate the response of vegetable crops to high concentrations of ammonium, using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Angustana Irish) as a test crop. Ammonium concentrations were designed in 5 levels, ranging from 12 mmol N L-1 to 22 mmol N L-1 and local tap water was used as water source. At the first culture stage (0-9 days), lettuce plants maintained normal growth while the lettuce roots were increasingly impaired. During the subsequent three stages the root structure was greatly damaged, and roots became brown or black through continuous supply of high concentration of ammonium. However, there was no obvious reduction of the aboveground biomass of the plants in the high ammonium treatments compared to those supplied with nitrate alone. In contrast to results obtained in another experiment from us with distilled water, the detrimental effect of high ammonium concentration on lettuce growth was greatly alleviated. Based on the results, it was postulated that the small amount of nitrate and the higher amount of bicarbonate existed in the tap water might mitigate the adverse effects of high ammonium N. The higher bicarbonate content in water and soil has usually been regarded as a major constraint factor limiting plant growth in calcareous soil areas. However, the reaction of bicarbonate to ammonium might produce positively interactive effect on reduction of both damages. The lettuce plants grown in ammonium solutions took up less P, K, Fe, Mn and Cu and more Ca than those grown in the nitrate nutrient solution. In conclusion, the results indicated that the N form imposed an obvious influence on absorption of cations and anions. Supplying ammonium-N stimulated transport of Ca, Mg and Mn to shoots of lettuce.

  13. High variability of dissolved iron concentrations in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean

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    F. Quéroué


    Full Text Available Dissolved Fe (dFe concentrations were measured in the upper 1300 m of the water column in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island as part of the second Kerguelen Ocean Plateau compared Study (KEOPS2. Concentrations ranged from 0.06 nmol L−1 in offshore, Southern Ocean waters, to 3.82 nmol L−1 within Hillsborough Bay, on the north-eastern coast of Kerguelen Island. Direct island runoff, glacial melting and resuspended sediments were identified as important inputs of dFe that could potentially fertilize the northern part of the plateau. A significant deep dFe enrichment was observed over the plateau with dFe concentrations increasing up to 1.30 nmol L−1 close to the seafloor, probably due to sediment resuspension and pore water release. Biological uptake was identified as a likely explanation for the decrease in dFe concentrations between two visits (28 days apart at a station above the plateau. Our results allowed studying other processes and sources, such as atmospheric inputs, lateral advection of enriched seawater, remineralization processes and the influence of the Polar Front (PF as a vector for Fe transport. Overall, heterogeneous sources of Fe over and off the Kerguelen Plateau, in addition to strong variability in Fe supply by vertical or horizontal transport, may explain the high variability in dFe concentrations observed during this study.

  14. Israeli 'cancer shift' over heart disease mortality may be led by greater risk in women with high intake of n-6 fatty acids. (United States)

    Shapira, Niva


    My hypothesis is that higher female sensitivity to increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their carcinogenic effect may contribute to the recent Israeli 'cancer shift' over heart disease mortality (23.1 vs. 22.3%, 1999). High n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake was the presumed dietary risk underlying the 'Israeli paradox', the unexpected gap between 'ill' health and 'good' diet. Scientific literature and population health surveillance reports were reviewed. Cancer death rates for Israeli Arabs, who consumed a more traditional Mediterranean diet - more monounsaturated fatty acids, mostly olive oil, and less n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids - are still 1.1-1.7 times (men-women) lower than in Israeli Jews, but are increasing faster (23.6 and 5.1% vs. 5.3 and -3.3%, 1980-2000), concurrently with dietary 'Israelization' - specifically, increased intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Israeli-Jewish women attained an earlier, much larger (29 vs. 7%, 1999) 'cancer : heart disease mortality shift' (ratio >1.0), ranked much worse for cancer (15th/44 European countries) than men (37th) and heart disease (38th and 34th, respectively), and had much higher cancer prevalence (1 : 3) than Israeli-Arab women (1 : 6), though dietary compositions were similar, save for higher n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid : monounsaturated fatty acid ratio. Population studies of Israeli Jews, Arabs, and women support the association of high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake with increased cancer risk and higher female sensitivity. Research findings suggest that gender and sex hormones may influence n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and carcinogenesis. This appears to be the first time gender has been proposed to modulate national cancer epidemiology, suggesting implications for differential nutritional prevention, warranting further research.

  15. Design of a High-Sensitivity LED Lamp of Sound-and-Light-Controlled Type with Micro-Power Consumption%微功耗高灵敏度声光控制型LED照明灯的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金永镐; 金杰


    利用MK6A11P的微功耗特性,设计了具有微功耗、声光控制、高灵敏度的LED照明灯。其具有〈0.1 W的待机功耗、灵敏度高,克服了现有声控灯灵敏度过低的问题。同时解决了声控灵敏度高时产生的常亮现象,可广泛应用于人群流动较为随机的公共场所,如走廊、电梯口、公共卫生间等。经实验证明,这种LED照明灯具有电路简单、工作稳定可靠、点亮时间可调等优点。%On the basis of MK6A11P's characteristic of micro-power consumption, this paper designs an LED lamp with the characteristics of micro-power consumption, sound and light control and high sensitivity. It has a standby power consumption of less than 0. 1 W and high sensitivity, thus overcoming the problem of the existing a- coustic-control lamp of low sensitivity and also dealing with the problem that the lamp is always lighting when the sen- sitivity of acoustic control is high. The LED lamp can be widely used in public areas where the flow of people chan- ges at random such as corridors, elevator entrance and public toilet. Experiments show that the LED lamp has the advantages of simple circuit structure, high operation stability and adjustable lighting time.

  16. Deer exposed to exceptionally high concentrations of lead near the continental mine in Idaho, USA (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Gaston, G.; Brazzle, R.; O'Connell, A.F.; Audet, D.J.


    Habitat surrounding the inactive Continental Mine in northern Idaho, USA, supports bear (Ursus arctos, Ursus americanus), moose (Alces alces), elk (Cervus elaphus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), and abundant mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Tailings on the mining site were capped and remediated in 2003 to reduce environmental exposure of surrounding soil and sediments of Blue Joe Creek, downslope of the mine. Before capping, the mean Pb concentration in deer pellets collected on-site was 920 mg/kg of Pb (dry wt). This exposure, if chronic, would be comparable to an exposure that could be lethal to cattle or horses. Surprisingly, the mean pellet Pb concentration of 950 mg/kg in 2004 was as high as it was before remediation, and it was related to a high rate of soil ingestion. Mean soil content of the pellets collected from the capped site in 2004 was 22% dry weight, estimated from the acid-insoluble ash, a marker of soil ingestion. Clumps of sand and bits of rock were observed inside some of the pellets, and Pb concentrations in the pellets were correlated (p soil content. Although terrestrial risk assessments generally estimate exposure from diets and from incidentally ingested soil, the deer at this site were directly ingesting contaminated soil or mining waste. The mean Pb concentration of this ingested soil was estimated as 6,700 mg/kg and the maximum as 25,000 mg/kg, well above the Pb concentrations measured in the remediated cap. The deer seemed to be ingesting soil or mining waste from one or more small but highly contaminated sources located beyond the remediated cap.

  17. Enrichment and isolation of Flavobacterium strains with tolerance to high concentrations of cesium ion. (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Goya, Eri; Tanaka, Michiko; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi


    Interest in the interaction of microorganisms with cesium ions (Cs(+)) has arisen, especially in terms of their potent ability for radiocesium bioaccumulation and their important roles in biogeochemical cycling. Although high concentrations of Cs(+) display toxic effects on microorganisms, there have been only limited reports for Cs(+)-tolerant microorganisms. Here we report enrichment and isolation of Cs(+)-tolerant microorganisms from soil microbiota. Microbial community analysis revealed that bacteria within the phylum Bacteroidetes, especially Flavobacterium spp., dominated in enrichment cultures in the medium supplemented with 50 or 200 mM Cs(+), while Gammaproteobacteria was dominant in the control enrichment cultures (in the presence of 50 and 200 mM K(+) instead of Cs(+)). The dominant Flavobacterium sp. was successfully isolated from the enrichment culture and was closely related to Flavobacterium chungbukense with 99.5% identity. Growth experiments clearly demonstrated that the isolate has significantly higher tolerance to Cs(+) compared to its close relatives, suggesting the Cs(+)-tolerance is a specific trait of this strain, but not a universal trait in the genus Flavobacterium. Measurement of intracellular K(+) and Cs(+) concentrations of the Cs(+)-tolerant isolate and its close relatives suggested that the ability to maintain low intracellular Cs(+) concentration confers the tolerance against high concentrations of external Cs(+).

  18. High Pb concentration stress on Typha latifolia growth and Pb removal in microcosm wetlands. (United States)

    Han, Jianqiu; Chen, Fengzhen; Zhou, Yumei; Wang, Chaohua


    When constructed wetlands are used to treat high-Pb wastewater, Pb may become a stress to wetland plants, which subsequently reduces treatment performance and the other ecosystem services. To facilitate the design and operation of constructed wetlands for treatment of Pb-rich wastewater, we investigated the irreversible inhibitory level of Pb for Typha latifolia through experiments in microcosm wetlands. Seven horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands were built with rectangular plastic tanks and packed with marble chips and sand. All wetlands were transplanted with nine stems of Typha latifolia each. The wetlands were batch operated in a greenhouse with artificial wastewater (10 L each) for 12 days. Influent to the seven wetlands had different concentrations of Pb: 0 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 25 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 500 mg/L, respectively. The results suggested that leaf chlorophyll relative content, relative growth rate, photosynthetic characteristics, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and content of malondialdehyde were not affected when initial Pb concentration was at 100 mg/L and below. But when initial Pb concentration was above 100 mg/L, all of them were seriously affected. We conclude that high Pb concentrations wastewater could inhibit the growth of Typha latifolia and decrease the removal rate of wetlands.

  19. A modified coaxial electrospinning for preparing fibers from a high concentration polymer solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A new process technology modified from conventional coaxial electrospinning process has been developed to prepare polymer fibers from a high concentration solution. This process involves a pure solvent concentrically surrounding polymer fluid in the spinneret. The concentric spinneret was constructed simply by inserting a metal needle through a high elastic silica gel tube. Two syringe pumps were used to drive the core polymer solution and the sheath solvent. Using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as the polymer model, which normally has an electrospinnable concentration of 10% w/v in ethanol, it was possible to electrospin 35% w/v of PVP in the same solvent, when pure N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc was used as sheath fluid. The resultant fibers have a smooth surface morphology and good structural uniformity. The diameter of the fibers was 2.0±0.25 µm when the DMAc-to-polymer-solution flow rate ratio was set as 0.1. The process technology reported here opens a new window to tune the polymer fibers obtained by the electrospinning, and is useful for improving productivity of the electrospinning process.

  20. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

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    Päivi Ylitervo


    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1 and very high (100–200 g·L−1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.